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California

California

State of California

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Probably from the mythical island California in a 16th-century romance by Garci Ordónez de Montalvo.

NICKNAME: The Golden State.

CAPITAL: Sacramento.

ENTERED UNION: 9 September 1850 (31st).

SONG: "I Love You, California."

MOTTO: Eureka (I have found it).

FLAG: The flag consists of a white field with a red star at upper left and a red stripe and the words "California Republic" across the bottom; in the center, a brown grizzly bear walks on a patch of green grass.

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the foreground is the goddess Minerva; a grizzly bear stands in front of her shield. The scene also shows the Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay, a miner, a sheaf of wheat, and a cluster of grapes, all representing California's resources. The state motto and 31 stars are displayed at the top. The words "The Great Seal of the State of California" surround the whole.

BIRD: California valley quail.

FISH: South Fork golden trout.

FLOWER: Golden poppy.

TREE: California redwood.

GEM: Benitoite.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln's Birthday, 12 February; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Cesar Chavez Day, 31 March; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 4 AM PST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated on the Pacific coast of the southwestern United States, California is the nation's third-largest state (after Alaska and Texas).

The total area of California is 158,706 sq mi (411,048 sq km), of which land takes up 156,299 sq mi (404,814 sq km) and inland water, 2,407 sq mi (6,234 sq km). California extends about 350 mi (560 km) e-w; its maximum n-s extension is 780 mi (1,260 km).

California is bordered on the n by Oregon; on the e by Nevada; on the se by Arizona (separated by the Colorado River); on the s by the Mexican state of Baja California Norte; and on the w by the Pacific Ocean.

The eight Santa Barbara islands lie from 20 to 60 mi (32-97 km) off California's southwestern coast; the small islands and islets of the Farallon group are about 30 mi (48 km) w of San Francisco Bay. The total boundary length of the state is 2,050 mi (3,299 km), including a general coastline of 840 mi (1,352 km); the tidal shoreline totals 3,427 mi (5,515 km). California's geographic center is in Madera County, 38 mi (61 km) e of the city of Madera.

TOPOGRAPHY

California is the only state in the United States with an extensive seacoast, high mountains, and deserts. The extreme diversity of the state's landforms is best illustrated by the fact that Mt. Whitney (14,494 ft/4,419 m), the highest point in the contiguous US, is situated no more than 80 mi (129 km) from the lowest point in the entire country, Death Valley (282 ft/86 m, below sea level). The mean elevation of the state is about 2,900 ft (885 m).

California's principal geographic regions are the Sierra Nevada in the east, the Coast Ranges in the west, the Central Valley between them, and the Mojave and Colorado deserts in the southeast. The mountain-walled Central Valley, more than 400 mi (640 km) long and about 50 mi (80 km) wide, is probably the state's most unusual topographic feature. It is drained in the north by the Sacramento River, about 320 mi (515 km) long, and in the south by the San Joaquin River, about 350 mi (560 km). The main channels of the two rivers meet at and empty into the northern arm of San Francisco Bay, flowing through the only significant break in the Coast Ranges, a mountain system that extends more than 1,200 mi (1,900 km) alongside the Pacific. Lesser ranges, including the Siskiyou Mountains in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south, link the two major ranges and constitute the Central Valley's upper and lower limits.

California has 41 mountains exceeding 10,000 ft (3,050 m). After Mt. Whitney, the highest peaks in the state are Mt. Williamson, in the Sierra Nevada, at 14,375 ft (4,382 m) and Mt. Shasta (14,162 ft/4,317 m), an extinct volcano in the Cascades, the northern extension of the Sierra Nevada. Lassen Peak (10,457 ft/3,187 m), also in the Cascades, is a dormant volcano.

Beautiful Yosemite Valley, a narrow gorge in the middle of the High Sierra, is the activity center of Yosemite National Park. The Coast Ranges, with numerous forested spurs and ridges enclosing dozens of longitudinal valleys, vary in height from about 2,000 to 7,000 ft (600-2,100 m).

Melted snow from the Sierra Nevada feeds the state's principal rivers, the Sacramento and San Joaquin. The Coast Ranges are drained by the Klamath, Eel, Russian, Salinas, and other rivers. In the south, most rivers are dry creek beds except during the spring flood season; they either dry up from evaporation in the hot summer sun or disappear beneath the surface, like Death Valley's Amargosa River. The Salton Sea, in the Imperial Valley of the southeast, is the state's largest lake, occupying 374 sq mi (969 sq km). This saline sink was created accidentally in the early 1900s when Colorado River water, via an irrigation canal, flooded a natural depression 235 ft (72 m) below sea level in the Imperial Valley. Lake Tahoe, in the Sierra Nevada at the angle of the California-Nevada border, covers 192 sq mi (497 sq km).

The California coast is indented by two magnificent natural harbors, San Francisco Bay and San Diego Bay, and two smaller bays, Monterey and Humboldt. Two groups of islands lie off the California shore: the Santa Barbara Islands, situated west of Los Angeles and San Diego; and the rocky Farallon Islands, off San Francisco.

The Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were formed more than 100 million years ago by the uplifting of the earth's crust. The Central Valley and the Great Basin, including the Mojave Desert and Death Valley, were created by sinkage of the earth's crust; inland seas once filled these depressions but evaporated over eons of time. Subsequent volcanic activity, erosion of land, and movement of glaciers until the last Ice Age subsided some 10,000 years ago and gradually shaped the present topography of California. The San Andreas Fault, extending from north of San Francisco Bay for more than 600 mi (970 km) southeast to the Mojave Desert, is a major active earthquake zone and was responsible for the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906. Damage from that earthquake amounted to $24 million, with an additional $350-500 in fire losses (total losses would amount to about $6 billion in current dollars). More recently, the 1994 earthquake in Northridge caused damage estimated at $13-20 billion, making it the costliest earthquake in US history.

Because water is scarce in the southern part of the state and because an adequate water supply is essential both for agriculture and for industry, more than 1,000 dams and reservoirs have been built in California. By 1993, there were 1,336 reservoirs in the state. Popular reservoirs for recreation are located along the tributaries of the Sacramento and San Joaquín rivers. Clair Lake Eagle, also known as Trinity Lake, is located on the Trinity River. The reservoir has a surface area of 16,400 acres (6,640 hectares). Lake Shasta, located on the Sacramento River, has a surface area of 15,800 acres (6,397 hectares). Lake Berryessa, located on Putah Creek, has a surface area of 19,250 acres (7,794 hectares). Lake New Melones, located on the Stanislaus River, has a surface area of 12,500 acres (5,061 hectares). The San Luis Reservoir, fed by the California Aqueduct, has a surface area of 12,500 acres (5,061 hectares). Don Pedro Lake, located on the Toulumme River, has a surface area of 13,000 acres (5,263 hectares).

CLIMATE

Like its topography, California's climate is varied and tends toward extremes. Generally there are two seasonsalong, dry summer, with low humidity and cool evenings, and a mild, rainy winterexcept in the high mountains, where four seasons prevail and snow lasts from November to April. The one climatic constant for the state is summer drought.

California has four main climatic regions. Mild summers and winters prevail in central coastal areas, where temperatures are more equable than virtually anywhere else in the United States; in the area between San Francisco and Monterey, for example, the difference between average summer and winter temperatures is seldom more than 10°f (6°c). During the summer there are heavy fogs in San Francisco and all along the coast. Mountainous regions are characterized by milder summers and colder winters, with markedly low temperatures at high elevations. The Central Valley has hot summers and cool winters, while the Imperial Valley is marked by very hot, dry summers, with temperatures frequently exceeding 100°f (38°c).

Average annual temperatures for the state range from 47°f (8°c) in the Sierra Nevada to 73°f (23°c) in the Imperial Valley. The highest temperature ever recorded in the United States was 134° (57°c), registered in Death Valley on 10 July 1913. Death Valley has the hottest average summer temperature in the Western Hemisphere, at 98°f (37°c). The state's lowest temperature was 45°f (43°c), recorded on 20 January 1937 at Boca, near the Nevada border.

Among the major population centers, Los Angeles has an average annual temperature of 65°f (18°c), with an average January minimum of 48°f (9°c) and an average July maximum of 73°f (27°c). San Francisco has an annual average of 57°f (13°c), with a January average minimum of 46°f (7°c) and a July average maximum of 66°f (18°c). The annual average in San Diego is 64°f (18°c), the January average minimum 48°f (8°c), and the July average maximum 76°f (24°c). Sacramento's annual average temperature is 61°f (16°c), with January minimums averaging 38°f (3°c) and July maximums of 93°f (34°c).

Annual precipitation varies from only 2 in (5 cm) in the Imperial Valley to 68 in (173 cm) at Blue Canyon, near Lake Tahoe. San Francisco has an average annual precipitation of 20.4 in (51 cm), Sacramento 17.4 in (44 cm), Los Angeles 14 in (35 cm), and San Diego 9.9 in (25 cm). The largest one-month snowfall ever recorded in the United States390 in (991 cm)fell in Alpine County in January 1911. Snow averages between 300 and 400 in (760 to 1,020 cm) annually in the high elevations of the Sierra Nevada, but is rare in the coastal lowlands.

Sacramento has the greatest percentage (78%) of possible annual sunshine among the state's largest cities; San Diego has 68% and San Francisco 66%. San Francisco is the windiest, with an average annual wind speed of 11 mph (18 km/hr). Topical rainstorms occur often in California during the winter. Part of California are also prone to wildfires. In 2003, wildfires burned in southern California from late October through early November causing 22 deaths. Damage included to 743,000 acres of burned brush and timber and over 3,700 destroyed homes, with a total cost of damage at over $2.5 billion.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Of the 48 conterminous states, California embraces the greatest diversity of climate and terrain. The state's six life zones are the lower Sonoran (desert); upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands); transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic zones, comprising California's highest elevations.

Plant life in the arid climate of the lower Sonoran zone features a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak grow in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the unique chaparral belt, charac-terized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, phacelia, viola, and the golden poppy (Eschscholtzia californica)the state floweralso flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.

The transition zone includes most of the state's forests, with such magnificent specimens as the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas fir are also common. Forest floors are carpeted with swordfern, alumroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.

The high elevations of the Canadian zone are abundant with Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine. Brushy areas are covered with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Just below timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, grow the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines. At approximately 10,500 ft (3,200 m) begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora includes a number of wild flowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.

Common plants introduced into California include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. Among the numerous species found in California that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano Grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island Liveforever.

Mammals found in the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. The Texas night owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk are common birds, and the sidewinder, desert tortoise, and horned toad represent the area's reptilian life. The upper Sonoran zone is home to such mammals as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds distinctive to this zone are the California thrasher, bush tit, and California condor.

Animal life is abundant amid the forests of the transition zone. Colombian black-tailed deer, black bear, gray fox, cougar, bobcat, and Roosevelt elk are found. Garter snakes and rattlesnakes are common, as are such amphibians as the water-puppy and redwood salamander. The kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird represent the bird life of this region.

Mammals of the Canadian zone include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, Sierra chickaree, and several species of chipmunk. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra hermit thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend solitaire. Birds become scarcer as one ascends to the Hudsonian zone, and the wolverine is now regarded as rare. Only one bird is native to the high Arctic regionthe Sierra rosy finchbut others often visit, including the hummingbird and Clark nutcracker. Principal mammals of this region are also visitors from other zones; the Sierra coney and white-tailed jackrabbit make their homes here. The bighorn sheep also lives in this mountainous terrain; the bighorn sheep has been listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Among fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, red-shafted flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.

Aquatic life in California is abundant, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Many trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and Tahoe; migratory species of salmon are also common. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including several migratory species.

The Resources Agency of California's Department of Fish and Game is especially active in listing and providing protection for rare, threatened, and endangered fauna. Joint efforts by state and federal wildlife agencies have established an ambitious, if somewhat controversial, recovery program to revitalize the dwindling population of the majestic condor, the largest bird native to the United States.

In April 2006, a total of 303 species occurring within the state were on the threatened and endangered species list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These included 124 animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) and 179 plant species. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kit fox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, San Clemente loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies listed as endangered and two as threatened on the federal list are California species. Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Efforts to preserve natural wilderness areas in California go back at least to 1890, when the US Congress created three national parks in the Sierra Nevada: Sequoia, Grant (now part of Kings Canyon), and Yosemite. Three years later, some 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares) of the Sierra Nevada were set aside in national forests. In 1892, naturalist John Muir and other wilderness lovers founded the Sierra Club which, with other private groups of conservationists, has been influential in saving the Muir Woods and other stands of redwoods from the lumbermen's axes. Over the next century, numerous other natural areas were designated national parklands. Among the most recent were Death Valley National Park (1994), Joshua Tree National Park (1994), and "Rosie the Riveter" World War II Home Front National Historical Park (2000).

California is home to four Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance. Bolinas Lagoon, located at Point Reyes peninsula northwest of San Francisco, was designated in 1998, primarily for its role as a wintering habitat for migratory birds. This area is owned and managed jointly by the County of Marin and the Golden Gate National Recreational Area under the Bolinas Lagoon Resource Management Plan, which was developed in 1981 and updated in 1996. Damage and erosion to the area caused by various sport and recreation activities is a primary concern for conservation of this area, as is the threat of oil and sewage spills. Tomales Bay, adjacent to the Point Reyes National Seashore, was designated in 2002. This area supports rare eelgrass beds, a well devel-oped coastal sand dune system, and over 21,000 migratory birds per year. The site is managed by both private and public ownership through the efforts of the Point Reyes National Seashore, the Golden Gate Recreation Area, and the Marin Agricultural Land Trust. The Grassland Ecological Area in the Central Valley of the San Joaquin River basin was designated in February 2005. This is the largest single freshwater wetland in the state, but the site has been threatened through plans for urban development. Some conservation issues of this site are handled under the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992. The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, located near the border of Mexico, was also designated in February 2005. This site is managed through the joint efforts of the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the California State Department of Parks and Recreation.

California's primary resource problem is water: the southern two-thirds of the state account for about 75% of annual water consumption but only 30% of the supply. Water has been diverted from the Sierra Nevada snow runoff and from the Colorado River to the cities and dry areas largely by means of aqueducts, some 700 mi (1,100 km) of which have been constructed in federal and state undertakings. In 1960, California embarked on one of the largest public works programs ever undertaken in the United States when voters approved a bond issue to construct the California Water Project, designed to deliver 1.4 trillion gallons of water annually to central and southern California for residential, industrial, and agricultural use. Other purposes of the project were to provide flood control, generate electric power, and create recreation areas.

Maintaining adequate water resources continued to be a problem in the 1990s. As the result of a US Supreme Court decision, southern California lost close to 20% of its water supply in December 1985, when a portion of the water it had been permitted to draw from the Colorado River was diverted to Arizona. In 1982, California voters turned down a proposal to build a canal that would have delivered water that flows into San Francisco Bay to southern California; no other plans to cope with the impending shortage were approved at that time. In December 1994 the state and federal governments joined together to form the Bay Delta Accord, intended to restore the environmentally threatened San Francisco Bay area through a combination of better conservation efforts and public and private investment. In November 1996 voters approved a bond issue valued at nearly $1 billion to implement the Accord.

Air pollution has been a serious problem since July 1943, when heavy smog enveloped Los Angeles for the first time; smog conditions in October 1954 forced the closing of the city's airport and harbor. Smog is caused by an atmospheric inversion of cold air that traps unburned hydrocarbons at ground level; perhaps two-thirds of the smog particles are created by automobile exhaust emissions. In 1960, the state legislature passed the first automobile antismog law in the nation, requiring that all cars be equipped with antismog exhaust devices within three years. (Federal laws controlling exhaust emissions on new cars came into effect in the 1970s.) The city's smog problem has since been reduced to manageable proportions, but pollution problems from atmospheric inversions still persist there and in other California cities. Nonetheless there is reason for optimismin 1996, for example, Southern California had the best air quality ever measured in the post-World War II era. A key factor was introduction of a reformulated gasoline touted as the cleanest-burning in the world, which reduced polluting emissions by 15% when put into use in 1996. The state inspection-and-maintenance program is also being reformed and updated, focusing on the small number of cars linked to as much as 50% of vehicular pollution in the state.

In early 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved a California ozone-reduction plan that ordered car manufacturers to design and produce cars that will be 50% to 84% cleaner than the ones sold in 1990. In 1998 new regulations were introduced to give tax credits to Californians who drove very low emission vehicles. In 2001 regulators proposed offering credits for use of a shared fleet of vehicles. California's plan that 10% of the 2003 cars offered for sale would be zero emission vehicles (ZEV) was not realized. In 2003, 57.9 million lb of toxic chemicals were released by the state.

State land-reclamation programs have been important in providing new agricultural land and controlling flood damage. One of the earliest such programs, begun shortly before 1900, reclaimed 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) by means of a network of dams, dikes, and canals in the swampy delta lying within the fork of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In 1887, a state law created irrigation districts in the southeastern region; the Imperial Valley was thus transformed from a waterless, sandy basin into some of the most productive agricultural land in the United States.

Flood control was one of the main purposes of the $2.6 billion Feather River Project in the Central Valley, completed during the 1970s. Ironically, in the western portion of the Central Valley, farmland is now threatened by irrigation water tainted by concentrated salts and other soil minerals, for which current drainage systems are inadequate. One drainage system, the San Luis Drain, originally intended to carry the water to San Francisco Bay, was stopped short of completion and goes only as far as the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge, where, according to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the tainted water has caused birth defects in birds.

In the 1980s, the state legislature enacted stringent controls on toxic waste. California has also been a leader in recycling waste products, for example, using acid waste from metal-processing plants as a soil additive in citrus orchards. In 2003, the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database listed 903 hazardous waste sites in California, 93 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. National Priority List sites included 18 military sites, 4 sites in the San Fernando Valley, 4 sites in the San Gabriel Valley, 2 sites owned by Intel Corp., 1 site owned by Hewlett-Packard, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). California ranks third in the nation for the most National Priority List sites, following New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In 2005, the EPA spent over $25 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. Also in 2005, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $85 million for a safe drinking water revolving loan fund and $82 million for a water pollution control revolving loan fund.

The California Department of Water Resources is responsible for maintaining adequate groundwater levels, enforcing water-quality standards, and controlling floodwaters. The state Department of Conservation has overall responsibility for conservation and protection of the state's soil, mineral, petroleum, geothermal, and marine resources. The California Coastal Commission, created in 1972, is designated by federal law to review projects that effect California's coastline, including offshore oil leasing, which has become a source of concern in recent years.

POPULATION

California ranked first in population among the 50 states in 2005 with an estimated total of 36,132,147, an increase of 6.7% since 2000. California replaced New York as the decennial census leader in 1970, with a total of 19,971,069 residents, and has lengthened its lead ever since. Between 1990 and 2000, California's population grew from 29,760,021 to 33,871,648, an increase of 13.8%. The population is projected to reach 40.1 million by 2015 and 44.3 million by 2025.

In 2004 the median age was 34.2. Persons under 18 years old accounted for 26.7% of the population while only 10.7% was age 65 or older (lower than the national average of 12.4% at 65 or older).

When Europeans first arrived in California, at least 300,000 American Indians lived in the area. By 1845, the Indian population had been reduced to about 150,000. Although Spanish missions and settlements were well established in California by the late 18th century, the white population numbered only about 7,000 until the late 1840s. The Gold Rush brought at least 85,000 adventurers to the San Francisco Bay area by 1850, however, and the state's population increased rapidly thereafter. California's population grew to 379,994 by 1860 and had passed the 1 million mark within 30 years. Starting in 1890, the number of state residents just about doubled every two decades until the 1970s, when the population increased by 18.5%, down from the 27.1% increase of the 1960s. However, the total growth rate during the 1980s was 25.7%, reflecting a population increase of over 6 million.

CaliforniaCounties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations
COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2005 EST.) COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2005 EST.)
Alameda Oakland 735 1,448,905 Placer Auburn 1,416 317,028
Alpine Markleeville 739 1,159 Plumas Quincy 2,573 21,477
Amador Jackson 589 38,471 Riverside Riverside 7,214 1,946,419
Butte Oroville 1,646 214,185 Sacramento Sacramento 971 1,363,482
Calaveras San Andreas 1,021 46,871 San Benito Hollister 1,388 55,936
Colusa Colusa 1,153 21,095 San Bernardino San Bernardino 20,064 1,963,535
Contra Costa Martinez 730 1,017,787 San Diego San Diego 4,212 2,933,462
Del Norte Crescent City 1,007 28,705 San Francisco San Francisco* 46 739,426
El Dorado Placerville 1,715 176,841 San Joaquin Stockton 1,415 664,116
Fresno Fresno 5,978 877,584 San Luis Obispo San Luis Obispo 3,308 255,478
Glenn Willows 1,319 27,759 San Mateo Redwood City 447 699,610
Humboldt Eureka 3,579 128,376 Santa Barbara Santa Barbara 2,748 400,762
Imperial El Centro 4,173 155,823 Santa Clara San Jose 1,293 1,699,052
Inyo Independence 10,223 18,156 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz 446 249,666
Kern Bakersfield 8,130 756,825 Shasta Redding 3,786 179,904
Kings Hanford 1,392 143,420 Sierra Downieville 959 3,434
Lake Lakeport 1,262 65,147 Siskiyou Yreka 6,281 45,259
Lassen Susanville 4,553 34,751 Solano Fairfield 834 411,593
Los Angeles Los Angeles 4,070 9,935,475 Sonoma Santa Rosa 1,604 466,477
Madera Madera 2,145 142,788 Stanislaus Modesto 1,506 505,505
Marin San Rafael 523 246,960 Sutter Yuba City 602 88,876
Mariposa Mariposa 1,456 18,069 Tehama Red Bluff 2,953 61,197
Mendocino Ukiah 3,512 88,161 Trinity Weaverville 3,190 13,622
Merced Merced 1,944 241,706 Tulare Visalia 4,808 410,874
Modoc Alturas 4,064 9,524 Tuolumne Sonora 2,234 59,380
Mono Bridgeport 3,019 12,509 Ventura Ventura 1,862 796,106
Monterey Salinas 3,303 412,104 Yolo Woodland 1,014 184,932
Napa Napa 744 132,764 Yuba Marysville 640 67,153
Nevada Nevada City 960 98,394 TOTALS 156,296 36,132,147
Orange Santa Ana 798 2,988,072

More than 90% of California's residents live in metropolitan areas. The population density in 2004 was 230.2 persons per sq mi, up from 190.8 per sq mi in 1990. Between 1997 and 2002 the largest population growth occurred mainly in the Central Valley and foothill counties, and in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties in Southern California. The five counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego accounted for 55% of California's total population in 2002, and 52% of the total increase in population since 1997. The city of Los Angeles, ranking as the second-largest city in the nation, had an estimated 2004 population of 3,845,541; San Diego (seventh in the nation), 1,263,756; San Jose (10th), 904,522; San Francisco (14th), 744,230; Long Beach, 476,564; Fresno, 457,719; Sacramento, 454,330; Oakland, 397,976; Santa Ana, 342,715; and Anaheim, 333,776.

Los Angeles, which expanded irregularly and lacks a central business district, nearly quadrupled its population from 319,000 in 1910 to 1,240,000 in 1930, and then doubled it to 2,479,000 by 1960. A major component of the city's population growth was the upsurge in the number of blacks after World War II, especially between 1960 and 1970, when the number of blacks increased from 335,000 to 504,000, many of them crowded into the deteriorating Watts section.

In 1999, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana urban complex, with a total estimated population of 12,925,330, was the second most populous metropolitan area in the United States (after that of New York). Other estimates for that year include the San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont area, 4,153,870; metropolitan San Diego, 2,931,714; and metropolitan Sacramento, 2,016,702.

ETHNIC GROUPS

In 2000, California's foreign-born population numbered 8,864,255, or 26% of the state's total population, the largest percentage among the 50 states. Nearly one-third of all foreign-born persons in the United States live in California. Latin Americans account for about half of foreign-born Californians, while Asians account for another third. As of 2002, nearly four-fifths of foreign-born Californians lived in the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles (5.1 million) and San Francisco (1.9 million).

The westward movement of American settlers in the third quarter of the 19th century, followed by German, Irish, North Italian, and Italian Swiss immigrants, overshadowed but did not obliterate California's Spanish heritage. In 2000, 10,966,556 (32.4%) of the state's residents was of Hispanic or Latino origin, up from 7,688,000 (25.8%) in 1990, and more than the total for any other state. In 2004, 34.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin. The census of 2000 recorded that the majority8,455,926, up from 5,322,170 in 1990were Mexican-Americans; there were also 140,570 Puerto Ricans and 72,286 Cubans. After World War II, the Hispanic communities of Los Angeles, San Diego, and other southern California cities developed strong political organizations. Increasing numbers of Mexican-Americans have won local, state, and federal elective office, though their potential remains unrealized.

In 2000 California had the largest Asian population of any state: 3,697,513 (up from 2,846,000 in 1990), or 10.9% of the state's total population (the second-highest percentage in the nation). In 2004, the Asian population was 12.1% of the total population. In 2000 there were 116,961 Pacific Islanders (including more native Hawaiians than in any state except Hawaii). In 2004, 0.4% of the population was Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. Chinese workers were first brought to California between 1849 and 1882, when the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress. In 2000 the Chinese constituted the largest group among California's Asian population, numbering 980,642, or 2.9% of the population. The nation's oldest and largest Chinatown is in San Francisco. Although Chinese-Americans, as they prospered, moved to suburban areas, the seats of the powerful nationwide and worldwide merchant and clan associations are in that city. Los Angeles also has a Chinese district.

The Japanese, spread throughout the western seaboard states, were engaged mainly in agriculture, along with fishing and small business, until their removal and internment during World War II. After the war, some continued in market gardening and other family agriculture, but most, deprived of their landholdings, entered urban occupations, including the professions; many dispersed to other regions of the country. In 2000 there were 288,854 Japanese in California, down from 353,251 in 1990.

After the Chinese, the most populous Asian group in California in 2000 was the Filipino community, with 918,678, or 2.7% of the total state population. In 2000 California also had 345,882 Koreans, 447,032 Vietnamese (up from 242,946 in 1990), 314,819 Asian Indians (up from 112,560), 55,456 Laotians, 20,571 native Hawaiians (down from 43,418 in 1990), 37,498 Samoans, and 20,918 Guamanians.

American Indians and Alaska Natives numbered around 333,346 in 2000 (up from 242,000 in 1990), the greatest number of any state in the country. The figure for American Indians includes Indians native to California and many others coaxed to resettle there under a policy that sought to terminate tribal status. Along with the remaining indigenous tribes in California, there is also a large urban Indian population, especially in Los Angeles, which has more Indians than any other US city. Many of the urban Indians were unprepared for the new kind of life and unable to earn an adequate living; militant Indians have made dramatic, but on the whole unsuccessful, protests aimed at bettering their condition. In 2004, American Indians and Alaska Natives accounted for 1.2% of the population.

Black Americans constitute a smaller proportion of California's population than that of the nation as a whole: less than 7% in 2000. Nevertheless, California still had the fifth-largest black population, numbering 2,263,882. In 2004, 6.8% of the population was black. Considerable migration of blacks took place during World War II, when defense industries on the West Coast offered new opportunities.

LANGUAGES

The speakers of Russian, Spanish, and English who first came to what is now California found an amazing diversity of American Indian cultures, ranging from the Wiyot in the north to the Yokuts in the Central Valley and the Diegueño in the south, and of Indian languages, representing four great language families: Athapaskan, Penutian, Kokan-Siouan, and Aztec. Yet, except for place names such as Shasta, Napa, and Yuba, they have not lent any of their words to California speech.

As in much of the West, California English is a composite of the eastern dialects and subdialects brought by the continuing westward migration from the eastern states, first for gold and timber, then for farming, for diversified manufacture, for Hollywood, and for retirement. The interior valley is Midland-oriented, with such retained terms as piece (a between-meals lunch), quarter till, barn lot (barnyard), dog irons (andirons), and snake feder and snake doctor (dragonfly), but generally, in both northern and southern California, Northern dominates the mixture of North Midland and South Midland speech in the same communities. Northern sick to the stomach, for example, dominates Midland sick at and sick in, with a 46% frequency; Northern angleworm has 53% frequency, as compared with 21% for Midland fishworm ; and Northern string beans has 80% frequency, as compared with 17% North Midland green beans and South Midland and Southern snap beans. Northern comforter was used by 94% of the informants interviewed in a state survey; Midland comfort by only 21%. Dominant is Northern /krik/ as the pronunciation of creek, but Midland bucket has a greater frequency than Northern pail, and the Midland /greezy/ for greasy is scattered throughout the state. Similarly, the distinction between the /wh/ in wheel and the /w/ of weal is lost in the use of simple /w/ in both words, and cot and caught sound alike, as do caller and collar.

There are some regional differences. San Francisco, for instance has sody or soda water for a soft drink; there the large sandwich is a grinder, while in Sacramento it is either a poor Joe or a submarine. Notable is the appearance of chesterfield (meaning sofa or davenport), found in the Bay region and from San Jose to Sacramento; this sense is common in Canada but now found nowhere else in the United States. Boonville, a village about 100 mi (160 km) north of San Francisco, is notorious for "Boontling," a local dialect contrived in the mid-19th century by Scotch-Irish settlers who wanted privacy and freedom from obscenities in their conversation. Now declining in use, Boontling has about 1,000 vocabulary replacements of usual English words, together with some unusual pronunciations and euphemisms.

As the nation's major motion picture, radio, and television entertainment center, Los Angeles has influenced English throughout the nationeven the worldby making English speakers of many dialects audible and visible and by making known new terms and new meanings. It has thus been instrumental in reducing dialectal extremes and in developing increased language awareness.

California's large foreign-language populations have posed major educational problems. In 1974, a landmark San Francisco case, Lau v. Nichols, brought a decision from the US Supreme Court that children who do not know English should not thereby be handicapped in school, but should receive instruction in their native tongue while learning English. California's Chacon-Moscone law required native-language instruction, but the law expired in 1987. In 1997, a federal judge ruled against an injunction that had blocked English immersion classes in Orange County. The ruling ended the bilingual education program in the school district and opened the possibility for a statewide vote in June 1998 to decide if non-English-speaking students will be permitted to learn English upon entering public schools. On 2 June 1998 California voters enacted Proposition 227, which called for students to be taught English by being submerged in English-language classrooms.

In 2000, 19,014,873 Californians, or 60.5% of the population five years old or over, reported speaking only English at home, down from 68.5% in 1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 31,416,629 100.0
  Speak only English 19,014,873 60.5
  Speak a language other than, English 12,401,756 39.5
Speak a language other than English 12,401,756 39.5
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 8,105,505 25.8
  Chinese 815,386 2.6
  Tagalog 626,399 2.0
  Vietnamese 407,119 1.3
  Korean 298,076 0.9
  Armenian 155,237 0.5
  Japanese 154,633 0.5
  Persian 154,321 0.5
  German 141,671 0.5
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 135,067 0.4
  Russian 118,382 0.4

RELIGIONS

The first Roman Catholics in California were Spanish friars, who established 21 Franciscan missions from San Diego to Sonoma between 1769 and 1823. After an independent Mexican government began to secularize the missions in 1833, the American Indian population at the missions declined from about 25,000 to only about 7,000 in 1840. With the American acquisition of California in 1848, the Catholic Church was reorganized to include the archdiocese of San Francisco. The Church also maintains an archdiocese in Los Angeles.

Protestant ministers accompanied migrant miners during the gold rush, founding 32 churches in San Francisco by 1855. These early Protestants included Baptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Episcopalians; a group of Mormons had arrived by ship via Cape Horn in 1846. The Midwesterners who began arriving in large numbers in the 1880s were mostly Protestants, who settled in southern California. By 1900, the number of known Christians in the state totaled 674,000, out of a population of nearly 1,500,000.

Small Jewish communities were established throughout California by 1861, and in 1880, the Jewish population was estimated at 18,580.

The mainstream religions did not satisfy everybody's needs, however, and in the early 20th century, many dissident sects sprang up, including such organizations as Firebrands for Jesus, the Psychosomatic Institute, the Mystical Order of Melchizedek, the Infinite Science Church, and Nothing Impossible, among many others.

Perhaps the best-known founder of a new religion was Canadian-born Aimee Semple McPherson, who preached her Foursquare Gospel during the 1920s at the Angelus Temple in Los Angeles, won a large radio audience and thousands of converts, and established 240 branches of her church throughout the state before her death in 1944. She was typical of the many charismatic preachers of new doctrines who gaveand still giveCalifornia its exotic religious flavor. The Foursquare Church national office is still located in Los Angeles. Since World War II, religions such as Zen Buddhism and Scientology have won enthusiastic followings, along with various cults devoted to self-discovery and self-actualization.

Nevertheless, the majority of religious adherents in California continue to follow traditional faiths. In 2004, there were 10,496,697 Roman Catholics in 1,070 parishes. The next largest religion is Judaism, with about 994,000 adherents in 425 congregations in 2000. In 2006, the Latter-day Saints reported a statewide membership of 761,763 adherents in 1,386 congregations; new Mormon temples were built in Redlands in 2003 and in Newport Beach in 2005. The largest Protestant churches in the state, as of 2000, include Southern Baptist, 471,119; Assembly of God, 310,522; Presbyterian Church USA, 229,918, and the United Methodist Church, 228,844. In 2000, there were 489 Buddhist, 131, Hindu, and 163 Muslim congregations in the state. About 53.9% of the population did not specify a religious affiliation.

The Church of Scientology in Los Angeles, established in 1954 by the religion's founder L. Ron Hubbard, is the religion's largest facility, which also serves as a training center for leaders. The Church of Scientology reportedly sponsors about 3,200 churches worldwide in 154 countries. There were 11 congregations in the state of California in 2006.

The Crystal Cathedral, opened in 1980 in Garden Grove, California, is the home base for the international Crystal Cathedral Ministries and the internationally televised Hour of Power. Dr. Robert H. Schuller, a minister of the Reformed Church in America, presides over a congregation of over 10,000 members.

The national office of the American Druze Society is in Eagle Rock. A national headquarters for Jews for Jesus is located in San Francisco, and the national headquarters of Soka Gakkai International is in Santa Monica. The international headquarters of the Rosicrucian Fellowship is in Oceanside.

TRANSPORTATION

California hasand for decades has hadmore motor vehicles than any other state, and ranked second only to Texas in interstate highway mileage in 2004. An intricate 8,300-mi (13,400-km) network of urban interstate highways, expressways, and freeways is one of the engineering wonders of the modern world, but the traffic congestion in the state's major cities during rush hours may well be the worst in the country.

In pioneer days, the chief modes of transportation were sailing ships and horse-drawn wagons; passage by sea from New York took three months, and the overland route from Missouri was a six-week journey. The gold rush spurred development of more rapid transport. The state's first railroad, completed in 1856, was a 25-mi (40-km) line from Sacramento northeast to Folsom, in the mining country. The Central Pacific-Union Pacific transcontinental railroad, finished 13 years later, would give California a direct rail line to the eastern US. In 1876, the Southern Pacific (the successor to the Central Pacific) completed a line from Sacramento to Los Angeles and another line to Texas the following year. Other railroads took much longer to build; the coastal railroad from San Francisco to Los Angeles was not completed until 1901, and another line to Eureka was not finished until 1914. The railroads dominated transportation in the state until motor vehicles came into widespread use in the 1920s.

As of 2003, California had 7,283 rail mi (11,725 km) of track, with over 76% of all railroad right-of-ways in the state operated by Class I railroads, the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway and the Union Pacific. As of 2006, Amtrak passenger trains connected the state's major population centers through three east-west routes via its California Zephyr (Chicago to Oakland), Southwest Chief (Chicago to Los Angeles) and Sunset Limited (Los Angeles to Orlando/Jacksonville, Florida) trains, and by four north-south routes that linked: Sacramento with San Jose, Oakland and Auburn (Capitol Corridor); Sacramento/Oakland with Bakersfield (San Joaquins); and Los Angeles to Seattle (Coast Starlight); and ran along the coast from Paso Robles to Los Angeles and San Diego (Pacific Surfliner).

Urban transit began in San Francisco in 1861 with horse-drawn streetcars. Cable-car service was introduced in 1873. A few cable cars are still in use, mainly for the tourist trade. The 71-mi (114-km) Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) was completed in the 1970s, despite many mechanical problems and costly delays. BART connects San Francisco with Oakland by high-speed, computerized subway trains via a 3.6-mi (5.8-km) tunnel under San Francisco Bay and runs north-south along the San Francisco peninsula.

Public transit in the Los Angeles metropolitan area was provided by electric trolleys beginning in 1887. By the early 1930s, the Los Angeles Railway carried 70% of the city's transit passengers, and in 1945, its trolleys transported 109 million passengers. Competition from buses, which provided greater mobility, but aggravated the city's smog and congestion problems, forced the trolleys to end service in 1961. During the late 1980s, plans were developed for a commuter rail transportation system in the Southern California region. In 1992, the first three lines of the Metrolink system began operation. By 1995, six Metrolink lines were serving the counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura.

California's extensive highway system had its beginning in the mid-19th century, when stagecoaches began hauling freight to the mining camps from San Francisco, Sacramento, and San Jose. In the early 1850s, two stagecoach lines, Adams and Wells Fargo, expanded their routes and began to carry passengers. By 1860, some 250 stagecoach companies were operating in the state. The decline of stagecoach service corresponded with the rise of the railroads. In 1910, at a time when only 36,000 motor vehicles were registered in the state, the California Highway Commission was established. Among its first acts was the issuance of $18 million in bonds for road construction, and the state's first paved highway was constructed in 1912. The number of automobiles surged to 604,000 by 1920. In 1929, about 1 of every 11 cars in the United States belonged to a Californian. Ironically in view of the state's subsequent traffic problems, the initial effect of the automobile was to disperse the population to outlying areas, thus reducing traffic congestion in the cities.

The Pasadena Freeway, the first modern expressway in California, opened in 1941. During the 1960s and 1970s, the state built a complex toll-free highway network linking most cities of more than 5,000 population, tying in with the federal highway system, and costing more than $10 billion. Local, state, and federal authorities combined spent over $9.3 billion on California highways in 1997, nearly $2 billion of that amount for maintenance. Also in 1997, federal aid to California from the Federal Highway Administration fund totaled about $2 billion.

By providing easy access to beach and mountain recreation areas, the new freeways, in combination with the favorable climate and low price of gasoline, further encouraged the use of the automobile and led to massive traffic tie-ups, contributed to the decline of public transit, and worsened the coastal cities' air-pollution problems. Los Angeles County claims more automobiles, more miles of streets, and more intersections than any other city in the United States. The greatest inducement to automobile travel in and out of San Francisco was the completion in 1936 of the 8-mi (13-km) San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. The following year saw the opening of the magnificent Golden Gate Bridge, which at 4,200 ft (1,280 m) was the world's longest suspension bridge until New York's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opened to traffic in 1964.

In 2004, California had 169,791 mi (273,363 km) of public roads. In that same year, the state registered approximately 31.501 million motor vehicles, including 19.057 million automobiles, 11.799 million trucks of all types, and some 36,000 buses. California also leads the nation in private and commercial motorcycle registrations, at around 611,000. There were 22,761,088 licensed California drivers in 2004.

The large natural harbors of San Francisco and San Diego monopolized the state's maritime trade until 1912, when Los Angeles began developing port facilities at San Pedro by building a break-water that eventually totaled 8 mi (13 km) in length. In 1924, Los Angeles surpassed San Francisco in shipping tonnage handled and became one of the busiest ports on the Pacific coast. In 2004, the port at Long Beach handled 80.066 million tons of cargo, making it the fifth-busiest port in the United States. The port at Los Angeles handled 51.931 million tons in that same year and was the nation's 14th busiest port. Other main ports and their 2004 cargo quantities include: Richmond, 24.743 million tons; Oakland, 15.541 million tons; and San Diego, with 3.170 million tons. In 2004, California had 286 mi (460 km) of navigable inland waterways. In 2003 waterborne shipments totaled 193.378 million tons.

In 2005, California had a total of 933 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 535 airports, 385 heliports, two STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 11 seaplane bases. California had seven airports that ranked among the top 50 busiest airports in the United States in 2004. The state's most active air terminal that year was Los Angeles International Airport, with a total of 28,925,341 enplanements, making it the nation's third busiest airport, behind Atlanta Hartsfield and Chicago O'Hare International. San Francisco International was the state's second busiest airport with 15,605,822 enplanements, which made it the 13th busiest in the United States. San Diego International, Metropolitan Oakland International, Norman Y. Mineta-San Jose International, Sacramento International, and John Wayne Airport-Orange County were the state's third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh busiest air terminals, and the nation's 29th, 31st, 37th, 41st, and 42nd busiest air terminals, respectively that year.

HISTORY

The region now known as California has been populated for at least 10,000 years, and possibly far longer. Estimates of the prehistoric American Indian population have varied widely, but it is clear that California was one of the most densely populated areas north of Mexico. On the eve of European discovery, at least 300,000 Indians lived there. This large population was divided into no fewer than 105 separate tribes or nations speaking at least 100 different languages and dialects, about 70% of which were as mutually unintelligible as English and Chinese. No area of comparable size in North America, and perhaps the world, contained a greater variety of native languages and cultures than did aboriginal California.

In general, the California tribes depended for their subsistence on hunting, fishing, and gathering the abundant natural food resources. Only in a few instances, notably along the Colorado River, did the Indians engage in agriculture. Reflecting the mild climate of the area, their housing and dress were often minimal. The basic unit of political organization was the village community, consisting of several small villages, or the family unit. For the most part, these Indians were sedentary people: they occupied village sites for generations, and only rarely warred with their neighbors.

European contact with California began early in the Age of Discovery, and was a product of the two great overseas enterprises of 16th-century Europe: the search for a western passage to the East and the drive to control the riches of the New World. In 1533, Hernán Cortés, Spanish conqueror of the Aztecs, sent a naval expedition northward along the western coast of Mexico in search of new wealth. The expedition led to the discovery of Baja California (now part of Mexico), mistakenly described by the pilot of the voyage, Fortún Jiménez, as an island. Two years later, Cortés established a settlement on the peninsula at present-day La Paz, but because Baja California seemed barren of any wealth, the project was soon abandoned. The only remaining interest in California was the search for the western mouth of the transcontinental canala mythical waterway the Spanish called the Strait of Anian. In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo led a voyage of exploration up the western coast in a futile search for the strait. On 28 September, Cabrillo landed at the bay now known as San Diego, thus becoming the first European discoverer of Alta (or Upper) California.

European interest in the Californias waned in the succeeding decades, and California remained for generations beyond the periphery of European activity in the New World. Subsequent contact was limited to occasional landfalls by Manila galleons, such as those of Pedro de Unamuno (1587) and Sebastián Cermeno (1595), and the tentative explorations of Sebastián Vizcaino in 160203.

Spanish interest in California revived during the late 18th century, largely because Spain's imperial rivals were becoming increasingly aggressive. For strategic and defensive reasons, Spain decided to establish permanent settlements in the north. In 1769, José de Gálvez, visitor-general in New Spain, selected the president of the Franciscan missions in Baja California, Father Junípero Serra, to lead a group of missionaries on an expedition to Alta California. Accompanying Serra was a Spanish military force under Gaspar de Portolá. The Portolá-Serra expedition marks the beginning of permanent European settlement in California. Over the next half-century, the 21 missions established by the Franciscans along the Pacific coast from San Diego to San Francisco formed the core of Hispanic California. Among the prominent missions were San Diego de Alcalá (founded in 1769), San Francisco de Asis (1776), Santa Barbara (1786), and San José (1797). During most of the Spanish period, Mission San Carlos Borromeo (1770), at Carmel, was the ecclesiastical headquarters of the province, serving as the residence of the president-general of the Alta California missions.

These missions were more than just religious institutions. The principal concern of the missionaries was to convert the Indians to Christianitya successful enterprise, if the nearly 88,000 baptisms performed during the mission period are any measure. The Franciscans also sought to bring about a rapid and thorough cultural transformation. The Indians were taught to perform a wide variety of new tasks: making bricks, tiles, pottery, shoes, saddles, wine, candles, and soap; herding horses, cattle, sheep, and goats; and planting, irrigating, and harvesting. In addition to transforming the way of life of the California Indians, the missions also reduced their number by at least 35,000. About 60% of this decline was due to the introduction of new diseases, especially diseases that were nonepidemic and sexually tranmitted.

Spain also established several military and civilian settlements in California. The four military outposts, or presidios, at San Diego (1769), Monterey (1770), San Francisco (1776), and Santa Barbara (1783) served to discourage foreign influence in the region and to contain Indian resistance. The presidio at Monterey also served as the political capital, headquarters for the provincial governors appointed in Mexico City. The first civilian settlement, or pueblo, was established at San José de Guadalupe in 1777, with 14 families from the Monterey and San Francisco presidios. The pueblo set-tlers, granted supplies and land by the government, were expected to provide the nearby presidios with their surplus agricultural products. The second pueblo was founded at Los Angeles (1781), and a third, Branciforte, was established near present-day Santa Cruz in 1797.

During the 40 years following the establishment of the Los Angeles pueblo, Spain did little to strengthen its outposts in Alta California. The province remained sparsely populated and isolated from other centers of Hispanic civilization. During these years, the Spanish-speaking population of 600 grew nearly fivefold, but this expansion was almost entirely due to natural increase rather than immigration.

Spanish control of California ended with the successful conclusion of the Mexican Revolution in 1821. For the next quarter-century, California was a province of the independent nation of Mexico. Although California gained a measure of self-rule with the establishment of a provincial legislature, the real authority still remained with the governor appointed in Mexico City. The most important issues in Mexican California were the secularization of the missions, the replacement of the Franciscans with parish or "secular" clergy, and the redistribution of the vast lands and herds the missions controlled. Following the secularization proclamation of Governor José Figueroa in 1834, the Mexican government authorized more than 600 rancho grants in California to Mexican citizens. The legal limit of an individual grant was 11 square leagues (about 76 sq mi/197 sq km), but many large landholding families managed to obtain multiple grants.

The rancho economy, like that of the missions, was based on the cultivation of grain and the raising of huge herds of cattle. The rancheros traded hides and tallow for manufactured goods from foreign traders along the coast. As at the missions, herding, slaughtering, hide tanning, tallow rendering, and all the manual tasks were performed by Indian laborers. By 1845, on the eve of American acquisition, the non-Indian population of the region stood at about 7,000.

During the Mexican period, California attracted a considerable minority of immigrants from the United States. Americans first came to California in the late 18th century in pursuit of the sea otter, a marine mammal whose luxurious pelts were gathered in California waters and shipped to China for sale. Later, the hide and tallow trade attracted Yankee entrepreneurs, many of whom became resident agents for American commercial firms. Beginning in 1826, with the arrival overland of Jedediah Strong Smith's party of beaver trappers, the interior of California also began to attract a growing number of Americans. The first organized group to cross the continent for the purpose of settlement in California was the Bidwell-Bartleson party of 1841. Subsequent groups of overland pioneers included the ill-fated Donner party of 1846, whose members, stranded by a snowstorm near the Sierra Nevada summit, resorted to cannibalism, which allowed 47 of the 87 travelers to survive.

Official American efforts to acquire California began during the presidency of Andrew Jackson in the 1830s, but it was not until the administration of James K. Polk that such efforts were successful. Following the American declaration of war against Mexico on 13 May 1846, US naval forces, under command of Commodores John D. Sloat and Robert F. Stockton, launched an assault along the Pacific coast, while a troop of soldiers under Stephen W. Kearny crossed overland. On 13 January 1847, the Mexican forces in California surrendered. More than a year later, after protracted fighting in central Mexico, a treaty of peace was signed at Guadalupe-Hidalgo on 2 February 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, Mexico ceded California and other territories to the United States in exchange for $15 million and the assumption by the United States of some $3 million in claims by Mexican citizens.

Just nine days before the treaty was signed, James Wilson Marshall discovered gold along the American River in California. The news of the gold discovery, on 24 January 1848, soon spread around the globe, and a massive rush of people poured into the region. By the end of 1848, about 6,000 miners had obtained $10 million worth of gold. During 1849, production was two or three times as large, but the proceeds were spread among more than 40,000 miners. In 1852, the peak year of production, about $80 million in gold was mined in the state, and during the century following its discovery, the total output of California gold amounted to nearly $2 billion.

California's census population quadrupled during the 1850s, reaching nearly 380,000 by 1860, and continued to grow at a rate twice that of the nation as a whole in the 1860s and 1870s. The new population of California was remarkably diverse. The 1850 census found that nearly a quarter of all Californians were foreign-born, while only a tenth of the national population had been born abroad. In succeeding decades, the percentage of foreign-born Californians increased, rising to just under 40% during the 1860s.

One of the most serious problems facing California in the early years of the gold rush was the absence of adequate government. Miners organized more than 500 "mining districts" to regulate their affairs; in San Francisco and other cities, "vigilance committees" were formed to combat widespread robbery and arson. The US Congress, deadlocked over the slavery controversy, failed to provide any form of legal government for California from the end of the Mexican War until its admission as a state in the fall of 1850. Taking matters into their own hands, 48 delegates gathered at a constitutional convention in Monterey in September 1849 to draft a fundamental law for the state. The completed constitution contained several unique features, but most of its provisions were based on the constitutions of Iowa and New York. To the surprise of many, the convention decided by unanimous vote to exclude slavery from the state. After considerable debate, the delegates also established the present boundaries of California. Adopted on 10 October, the constitution was ratified by the voters on 13 November 1849; at the same time, Californians elected their first state officials. California soon petitioned Congress for admission as a state, having bypassed the preliminary territorial stage, and was admitted after southern objections to the creation of another free state were overcome by adoption of the stringent new Fugitive Slave Law. On 9 September 1850, President Millard Fillmore signed the admission bill, and California became the 31st state to enter the union.

The early years of statehood were marked by racial discrimination and considerable ethnic conflict. Indian and white hostilities were intense; the Indian population declined from an estimated 150,000 in 1845 to less than 30,000 by 1870. In 1850, the state legislature enacted a foreign miners' license tax, aimed at eliminating competition from Mexican and other Latin American miners. The Chinese, who replaced the Mexicans as the state's largest foreign minority, soon became the target of a new round of discrimination. By 1852, 25,000 Chinese were in California, representing about a tenth of the state's population. The legislature enacted new taxes aimed at Chinese miners, and passed an immigration tax (soon declared unconstitutional) on Chinese immigrants.

Controversy also centered on the status of the Mexican ranchos, those vast estates created by the Mexican government that totaled more than 13 million acres (5 million hectares) by 1850. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo had promised that property belonging to Mexicans in the ceded territories would be "inviolably protected." Nevertheless, in the early years of statehood, thousands of squatters took up residence on the rancho lands. Ultimately, about three-fourths of the original Mexican grants were confirmed by federal commissions and courts; however, the average length of time required for confirmation was 17 years. During the lengthy legal process, many of the grantees either sold parts of their grants to speculators or assigned portions to their attorneys for legal fees. By the time title was confirmed, the original grantees were often bankrupt and benefited little from the decision.

Despite the population boom during the gold rush, California remained isolated from the rest of the country until completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. Under terms of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862, the Central Pacific was authorized by Congress to receive long-term federal loans and grants of land, about 12,500 acres per mi (3,100 hectares per km) of track, to build the western link of the road. The directors of the California corporationLeland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins, who became known as the Big Fourexercised enormous power in the affairs of the state. Following completion of the Central Pacific, the Big Four constructed additional lines within California, as well as a second transcontinental line, the Southern Pacific, providing service from southern California to New Orleans.

To a degree unmatched anywhere in the nation, the Big Four established a monopoly of transportation in California and the Far West. Eventually the Southern Pacific, as the entire system came to be known after 1884, received from the federal government a total of 11,588,000 acres (4,690,000 hectares), making it the largest private landowner in the state. Opponents of the railroad charged that it had established not only a transportation monopoly but also a corrupt political machine and a "land monopoly" in California. Farmers in the San Joaquin Valley became involved in a protracted land dispute with the Southern Pacific, a controversy that culminated in a bloody episode in 1880, known as the Battle of Mussel Slough, in which seven men were killed. This incident, later dramatized by novelist Frank Norris in The Octopus (1901), threw into sharp relief the hostility between many Californians and the state's largest corporation.

In the late 19th century, California's economy became more diversified. The early dependence on gold and silver mining was overcome through the development of large-scale irrigation projects and the expansion of commercial agriculture. Southern California soon was producing more than 65% of the nation's orange crop, and more than 90% of its lemons. The population of southern California boomed in the 1880s, fueled by the success of the new citrus industry, an influx of invalids seeking a warmer climate, and a railroad rate war between the Southern Pacific and the newly completed Santa Fe. For a time, the tariff from Kansas City to Los Angeles fell to a dollar a ticket. Real estate sales in Los Angeles County alone exceeded $200 million in 1887.

During the early 20th century, California's population growth became increasingly urban. Between 1900 and 1920, the population of the San Francisco Bay area doubled, while residents of metropolitan Los Angeles increased fivefold. On 18 April 1906, San Francisco's progress was interrupted by the most devastating earthquake ever to strike California. The quake and the fires that raged for the following three days killed at least 452 people, razed the city's business section, and destroyed some 28,000 buildings. The survivors immediately set to work to rebuild the city, and completed about 20,000 new buildings within three years.

By 1920, the populations of the two urban areas were roughly equal, about 1 million each. As their population grew, the need for additional water supplies became critical, and both cities became involved in bitter "water fights" with other state interests. Around 1900, San Francisco proposed the damming of the Tuolumne River at the Hetch Hetchy Valley to form a reservoir for the city's water system. Conservationist John Muir and the Sierra Club objected strongly to the proposal, arguing that the Hetch Hetchy was as important a natural landmark as neighboring Yosemite Valley. The conservationists lost the battle, and the valley was flooded. (The dam there is named for Michael O'Shaughnessy, San Francisco's city engineer from 1912 to 1932 and the builder of many of California's water systems.) When Los Angeles began its search for new water supplies, it soon became embroiled in a long controversy over access to the waters of the Owens River. The city constructed a 250-mi (400-km) aqueduct that eventually siphoned off nearly the entire flow of the river, thus jeopardizing the agricultural development of Owens Valley. Residents of the valley dramatized their objection to the project by dynamiting sections of the completed aqueduct.

Important movements for political reform began simultaneously in San Francisco and Los Angeles in the early 20th century. Corruption in the administration of San Francisco Mayor Eugene Schmitz led to a wide-ranging public investigation and to a series of trials of political and business leaders. Meanwhile, in Los Angeles, a coalition of reformers persuaded the city to adopt a new charter with progressive features such as initiative, referendum, and recall. Progressive Republican Hiram Johnson won the governorship in 1910, and reformers gained control of both houses of the state legislature in 1911. Subsequent reform legislation established effective regulation of the railroads and other public utilities, greater governmental efficiency, female suffrage, closer regulation of public morality, and workers' compensation.

During the first half of the 20th century, California's population growth far outpaced that of the nation as a whole. The state's climate, natural beauty, and romantic reputation continued to attract many, but new economic opportunities were probably most important. In the early 1920s, major discoveries of oil were made in the Los Angeles Basin, and for several years during the decade, California ranked first among the states in production of crude oil. The population of Los Angeles County more than doubled during the decade, rising to 2,208,492 by 1930. Spurred by the availability and low price of petroleum products and by an ever expanding system of public roadways, Los Angeles also became the most thoroughly motorized and automobile-conscious city in the world. By 1925, Los Angeles had one automobile for every three persons, more than twice the national average.

Even during the 1930s, when California shared in the nationwide economic depression, hundreds of thousands of refugees streamed into the state from the dust bowl of the southern Great Plains. The film industry, which offered at least the illusion of prosperity to millions of Americans, continued to prosper during the depression. By 1940 there were more movie theaters in the United States than banks, and the films they showed were almost all California products.

Politics in the Golden State in the 1930s spawned splinter movements like the Townsend Plan and the "Ham'n' Eggs" Plan, both of which advocated cash payments for the elderly. In 1934, Socialist author Upton Sinclair won the Democratic gubernatorial nomination with a plan called End Poverty in California (EPIC), but he lost the general election to the Republican incumbent, Frank Merriam.

During World War II, the enormous expansion of military installations, shipyards, and aircraft plants attracted millions of new residents to California. The war years also saw an increase in the size and importance of ethnic minorities. By 1942, only Mexico City had a larger urban Mexican population than Los Angeles. During the war, more than 93,000 Japanese-Americans in Californiamost of whom were US citizens and American bornwere interned in "relocation centers" throughout the Far West.

California continued to grow rapidly during the postwar period, as agricultural, aerospace, and service industries provided new economic opportunities. Politics in the state were influenced by international tensions, and the California legislature expanded the activities of its Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities. The University of California became embroiled in a loyalty-oath controversy, culminating in the dismissal in 1950 of 32 professors who refused to sign an anticommunist pledge. Blacklisting became common in the film industry. The early 1950s saw the rise to the US vice presidency of Richard Nixon, whose early campaigns capitalized on fears of communist subversion.

In 1958 Congress decided that some Native American tribes could no longer be considered as such; the move denied these groups38 of them in Californiafederal benefits. More than 40 years later, one group, the Miwok, sought to regain official status. Calling themselves the Federated Indians of the Graton Rancheria, the 360 remaining members aimed to restore their culture and heritage. Promising a no-gambling policy, the federation was recognized in 1999 by the US House of Representatives, which said it was righting a wrong. If the bill were approved by the Senate, the tribe would receive health, education, and economic benefits. They could also reclaim tribal lands in northern California, as long as there were no adverse claims to the property.

At the beginning of 1963, California (according to census estimates) became the nation's most populous state; its population continued to increase at a rate of 1,000 net migrants a day through the middle of the decade. By 1970, however, California's growth rate had slowed considerably. During the 1960s, the state was beset by a number of serious problems that apparently discouraged would-be immigrants. Economic opportunity gave way to recessions and high unemployment. Such rapid-growth industries as aerospace experienced a rapid decline in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Pollution of air and water called into question the quality of the California environment. The traditional romantic image of California was overshadowed by reports of mass murders, bizarre religious cults, extremist social and political movements, and racial and campus unrest. Nevertheless, the state's population has continued to grow. According to government figures, California had a population of 31.6 million in 1995, making it the most populous state in the nation. By 2000, its population was estimated at 33.8 million, and officials believed the state would retain its status of most populated through the year 2025.

The political importance of California's preeminence in population can be measured in the size of its congressional delegation and electoral votes. Defeated in his quest for the presidency in 1960, former vice president Nixon in 1968 became the first native Californian to win election to the nation's highest office. Both Ronald Reagan, governor of the state from 1967 to 1975, and Edmund G. Brown Jr., elected governor in 1974 and reelected in 1978, were active candidates for the US presidency in 1980. Reagan was the Republican presidential winner that year and in 1984.

Assisted by the Reagan administration's military buildup, which invested billions of dollars into California manufacturers of bombers, missiles, and spacecraft as well as into its military bases, the California economy rebounded in the early and mid-1980s, bringing increases in total output, personal income, and employment which surpassed the national average. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, however, a recession and cuts in military spending, combined with existing burdens of expensive commercial and residential real estate, strict environmental regulations, and the effects of a savings and loan scandal, produced a dramatic economic decline. In 1992, the state's unemployment rate climbed to 10.1%. Jobs in the California aerospace and manufacturing sector dropped by 24%. For the first time in the state's history, substantial numbers of Californians migratedover a million left between 1991 and 1994. Although such factors as air pollution, traffic congestion, and earthquakes were cited as reasons for this exodus, research has shown that most left in search of better job opportunities.

California's economic woes were matched by civil disorders. In 1991, an onlooker released a seven-minute videotape showing a group of police officers beating Rodney King, a black motorist, with nightsticks. The driver had pulled over after giving chase. In a jury trial which took place in a mostly white suburb northwest of Los Angeles, four police officers who had been charged with unnecessary brutality were acquitted. The verdict set off riots in South Central Los Angeles, killing 60 people and causing an estimated $1 billion in property damage.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, California was also hit by two severe earthquakes. The first, which struck the San Francisco area in 1989, measured 7.1 on the Richter scale. The quake caused the collapse of buildings, bridges, and roadways, including the upper level of Interstate Highway 880 in Oakland and a 30-ft section of the Bay Bridge. As many as 270 people were killed and 100,000 houses were damaged. The quake caused $5-7 billion worth of property damage. In 1994, an earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale occurred 20 mi northwest of downtown Los Angeles. Three major overpasses ruptured and 680,000 people were left without electricity. The quake produced $13-20 million in property damage.

In 1994, anger over illegal immigration led to passage of Proposition 187, which would bar illegal aliens from welfare, educa-tion, and nonemergency health services. The measure was approved by a 59 to 41% margin. Passage of the measure prompted immediate challenges in the courts by the opposition. The following year, Governor Pete Wilson signed an executive order limiting the application of affirmative action in hiring and contracting by the state. He also approved the elimination of affirmative action in university admissions, a policy implemented by the Board of Regents and effective as of January 1997. After most of Proposition 187 was ruled unconstitutional in a US district court, in 1999 Governor Gray Davis agreed to end the legal battle over the controversial measure. The only part that survived was a provision strengthening the penalties for manufacture and use of false documents to conceal illegal immigrant status. While the governor said he was reluctant to go against the will of the majority of voters, civil rights groups had successfully challenged most of the language in the proposition. Further, by the time Davis agreed to stop defending the measure, federal laws had accomplished much of the intent of Proposition 187. All states were by then required to deny welfare benefits and all health benefits (except emergency care) to anyone who could not verify their presence in the United States was legal.

In November 1996, the California Civil Rights Initiative (Proposition 209) passed with 55% of the vote, banning the use of racial and sex-based preferences in state-run affirmative action programs. Three weeks later, a federal judge blocked the enforcement of the initiative, claiming that it might be unconstitutional. In April 1997, however, a federal appeals court upheld the constitutionality of Proposition 209.

In mid-2000, Governor Gray Davis signed the state's $99.4-billion budget, which included a $1.35 billion education reform program. The state's goals for its school system included recruiting 300,000 new teachers by 2010, retaining and rewarding good teachers, placing computers and Internet connections in classrooms, and raising student achievement by awarding state-funded college scholarships to top students. The package was considered one of the most comprehensive education reform plans in the nation.

Some observers believed California's biggest struggle in the 21st century would be over water. In 2000, California and six other states were on the verge of a historic agreement that would give Southern California a 15-year deadline to cut its use of the Colorado River. Municipalities began discussing ways to turn waste water into drinking water. In June Governor Gray Davis, Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt, and Senator Dianne Feinstein announced the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, calling it an "unprecedented effort" between state and federal governments, local agencies, the public, and private businesses to build a framework for managing water. Highlights of the plan included multimillion dollar investments in ecosystem restoration projects, projects to increase water-storage capacity, loan and grant programs for agricultural and urban water use efficiency, water-recycling capitol improvement projects, and improving water supply reliability through integration of storage, conveyance, water-use efficiency, water quality, and water transfer programs.

Beginning in 2000, California experienced an energy crisis that saw electricity prices spike to their highest levels in 2001. Prices went from $12 per megawatt hour in 1998 to $200 in December 2000 and $250 in January 2001, and at times a megawatt hour cost $1000. A series of rolling blackouts in various areas occurred during 2001. California subsequently signed $40 billion in long-term power contracts, which were seen as assuring the state's power supply at reasonable rates, but after the crisis, when electricity rates fell, they proved to be very costly. Governor Davis pledged to fight the energy companies accused of profiting from the crisis, including the Enron Corporation, and in March 2003, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued a ruling that companies would have to pay $3.3 billion in refunds for gaming the state's energy markets. California claimed it was owed $9 billion in refunds.

Gray Davis was reelected governor in 2002, but by 2003, his popularity ratings had dropped dramatically, due in part to the state's $38 billion budget deficit and the 200001 energy crisis, and a gubernatorial recall election was approved for 7 October 2003. One hundred thirty-five candidates were certified as candidates in the election, including Hollywood movie star and political novice Arnold Schwarzenegger. Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante, although indicating Davis should stay in office, was running in the election in order to give voters the choice of voting for a strong Democratic candidate. In the first gubernatorial recall in California history, and only the second in US history, Davis was recalled with 55.4% of the vote in favor of the recall. Although dogged by charges of sexual harassment, Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to replace him.

Once he came to office, Schwarzenegger repealed an unpopular increase in vehicle license fees, and took steps to easing the state's budget woes. He proposed floating $15 in bonds, urged passage of a constitutional amendment to limit state spending, and promised an overhaul of workers' compensation. In a March 2004 election, Proposition 57, authorizing the $15 billion bond sale, and Proposition 58, mandating balanced budgets, overwhelmingly passed with 63.3% and 71% in favor, respectively. In April 2004, Schwarzenegger signed a workers' compensation reform bill into law. In September 2005, Schwarzenegger announced he would run for reelection.

STATE GOVERNMENT

The first state constitution, adopted in 1849, outlawed slavery and was unique in granting property rights to married women in their own name. A new constitution, drafted in 1878 and ratified the following year, sought to curb legislative abuseseven going so far as to make lobbying a felonyand provided for a more equitable system of taxation, stricter regulation of the railroads, and an eight-hour workday. Of the 152 delegates to the 1878 constitutional convention, only two were natives of California, and 35 were foreign born; no Spanish-speaking persons or Indians were included. This second constitution, as amended, is the basic document of state government today.

In April 1994 the California Constitutional Revision Commission was appointed to make recommendations to the governor and legislature for constitutional revisions affecting budget process, governmental structure, local government duties, and other areas. The Commission made its final report in 1996, on schedule. As of January 2005, the California constitution had been amended 513 times.

The California legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and an 80-member assembly. Senators are elected to four-year terms, half of them every two years, and assembly members are elected to two-year terms. As a result of a 1972 constitutional amendment, the legislature meets in a continuous two-year session, thus eliminating the need to reintroduce or reprint bills proposed in the first year of the biennium. Each session begins with an organizational meeting in December of even-numbered years; then, following a brief recess, the legislature reconvenes on the first Monday in January (of the odd-numbered year) and continues in session until 30 November of the next even-numbered year. Members of the Senate and assembly must be over 18 years old, and must have been US citizens and residents of the state for at least three years and residents of the districts they represent for at least one year prior to election. Legislative salaries in 2004 were $99,000 annually, unchanged from 1999.

Bills, which may be introduced by either house, are referred to committees, and must be read before each house three times. Legislation must be approved by an absolute majority vote of each house, except for appropriations bills, certain urgent measures, and proposed constitutional amendments, which require a two-thirds vote for passage. Gubernatorial vetoes may be overridden by two-thirds vote of the elected members in both houses. In the 1973/74 session, the legislature overrode a veto for the first time since 1946, but overrides have since become more common.

Constitutional amendments and proposed legislation may also be placed on the ballot through the initiative procedure. For a con-stitutional amendment, petitions must be signed by at least 8% of the number of voters who took part in the last gubernatorial election; for statutory measures, 5%. In each case, a simple majority vote at the next general election is required for passage.

California Prosidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE CALIFORNIA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES' RIGHTS PROGRESSIVE SOCIALIST PROHIBITION
*Won US presidential election.
1948 25 *Truman (D) 1,913,134 1,895,269 1,228 190,381 3,459 16,926
CONSTITUTION SOC, LABOR
1952 32 *Eisenhower (R) 2,197,548 2,897,310 3,504 24,692 273 16,117
1956 32 *Eisenhower (R) 2,420,135 3,027,668 6,087 300 11,119
1960 32 Nixon (R) 3,224,099 3,259,722 1,051 21,706
1964 40 *Johnson (D) 4,171,877 2,879,108 489
AMERICAN IND. PEACE AND FREEDOM
1968 40 *Nixon (R) 3,244,318 3,467,664 487,270 27,707
AMERICAN PEOPLE'S LIBERTARIAN
1972 45 *Nixon (R) 3,475,847 4,602,096 232,554 55,167 980
COMMUNIST
1976 45 Ford (R) 3,742,284 3,882,244 51,096 12,766 41,731 56,388
CITIZENS PEACE AND FREEDOM
1980 45 *Reagan (R) 3,039,532 4,444,044 9,687 60,059 17,797
1984 47 *Reagan (R) 3,922,519 5,467,009 39,265 NEW ALLIANCE 26,297 49,951
1988 47 *Bush (R) 4,702,233 5,054,917 27,818 31,181 70,105
IND. (Perot)
1992 54 *Clinton (D) 5,121,325 3,630,574 12,711 2,296,006 18,597 48,139
GREEN (Nader)
1996 54 *Clinton (D) 5,119,835 3,828,380 697,847 237,016 73,600
REFORM
2000 54 Core (D) 5,861,293 4,567,429 44,987 418,707 45,520
AMERICAN IND. (Peroutka) PEACE AND FREEDOM (Peltier) GREEN (Cobb)
2004 55 Ken (D) 6,745,485 5,509,826 26,645 27,607 40,771 50,165

Officials elected statewide include the governor and lieutenant governor (who run separately), secretary of state, attorney general, controller, treasurer, and superintendent of public instruction. Each serves a four-year term, without limitation. As chief executive officer of the state, the governor is responsible for the state's policies and programs, appoints department heads and members of state boards and commissions, serves as commander in chief of the California National Guard, may declare states of emergency, and may grant executive clemency to convicted criminals. In general, if the governor fails to sign or veto a bill within 12 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays), it becomes law. A candidate for governor must be at least 18 years old, a five-year citizen of the United States, and a five-year resident of California. The governor is limited to a maximum of two consecutive terms. The governor's annual salary as of December 2004 was $175,000.

The lieutenant governor acts as president of the Senate and may assume the duties of the governor in case of the latter's death, resignation, impeachment, inability to discharge the duties of the office, or absence from the state. To vote in California, one must be a US citizen, at least 18 years old, and a resident of the state. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.

POLITICAL PARTIES

As the state with the largest number of US representatives (53 in 2005) and electoral votes (55 in 2004), California plays a key role in national and presidential politics. In 2004 there were 16,557,000 registered voters; an estimated 44% were Democratic, 35% Republican, and 21% unaffiliated or members of other parties.

In 1851, the year after California entered the Union, the state Democratic Party was organized. But the party soon split into a pro-South faction, led by US Senator William Gwin, and a pro-North wing, headed by David Broderick. A political leader in San Francisco, Broderick became a US senator in 1857 but was killed in a duel by a Gwin stalwart two years later. This violent factionalism helped switch Democratic votes to the new Republican Party in the election of 1860, giving California's four electoral votes to Abraham Lincoln. This defeat, followed by the Civil War, demolished Senator Gwin's Democratic faction, and he fled to exile in Mexico.

The Republican party itself split into liberal and conservative wings in the early 1900s. Progressive Republicans formed the Lincoln-Roosevelt League to espouse political reforms, and succeeded in nominating and electing Hiram Johnson as governor on the Republican ticket in 1910. The following year, the legislature approved 23 constitutional amendments, including the initiative, referendum, recall, and other reform measures. Johnson won reelection on a Progressive Party line in 1915. After Johnson's election to the US Senate in 1916, Republicans (both liberal and conservative) controlled the state House uninterruptedly for 22 years, from 1917 to 1939. Democratic fortunes sank so low that in 1924 the party's presidential candidate, John W. Davis, got only 8% of the state's votes, leading humorist Will Rogers to quip, "I don't belong to any organized political partyI am a California Democrat." An important factor in the Progressive Republicans' success was the cross-filing system, in effect from 1913 to 1959, which blurred party lines by permitting candidates to appear on the primary ballots of several parties. This favored such Republican moderates as Earl Warren, who won an unprecedented three terms as governorin 1946, he won both Republican and Democratic party primariesbefore being elevated to US chief justice in 1953.

Political third parties have had remarkable success in California since the secretive anti-foreign, anti-Catholic Native American Party (called the Know-Nothings because party members were instructed to say they "knew nothing" when asked what they stood for) elected one of their leaders, J. Neely Johnson, as governor in 1855. The Workingmen's Party of California, as much anti-Chinese as it was antimonopolist and prolabor, managed to elect about one-third of the delegates to the 1878 constitutional convention. The most impressive third-party triumph came in 1912, when the Progressive Party's presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt, and vice presidential nominee, Governor Hiram Johnson, defeated both the Republican and Democratic candidates among state voters. The Socialist Party also attracted support in the early 20th century. In 1910, more than 12% of the vote went to the Socialist candidate for governor, J. Stitt Wilson. Two years later, Socialist congressional nominees in the state won 18% of the vote, and a Socialist assemblyman was elected from Los Angeles. In 1914, two Socialist assemblymen and one state senator were elected. During the depression year of 1934, the Socialist Party leader and author Upton Sinclair won the Democratic nomination for governor on his End Poverty In California program and received nearly a million votes, while losing to Republican Frank Merriam. Nonparty political movements have also won followings: several southern California congressmen were members of the ultraconservative John Birch Society during the 1960s, and in 1980 the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan won the Democratic Party nomination for a US House seat. Even when they lost decisively, third parties have won enough votes to affect the outcome of elections. In 1968, for example, George Wallace's American Independent Party received 487,270 votes, while Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon topped Democrat Hubert Humphrey by only 223,346. In 1992, Ross Perot picked up 20.6% of the vote. In 2000, Green Party candidate Ralph Nader won 4% of the vote, or 405,722 votes.

Even with a historic advantage in voter registration, however, the Democrats managed to carry California in presidential elections only three times between 1948 and 1992, and to elect only two governorsEdmund G. "Pat" Brown (in 1958 and 1962) and his son, Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. (in 1974 and 1978)during the same period. Three times Californians gave their electoral votes to a California Republican, Richard Nixon, though they turned down his bid for governor in 1962. They elected one former film actor, Republican George Murphy, as US senator in 1964, and another, Republican Ronald Reagan, as governor in 1966 and 1970 and as president in 1980 and 1984. Democratic nominee Bill Clinton garnered 51% of the popular vote in 1996, while Republican Bob Dole received 38% and Independent Ross Perot picked up just under 7%. In the 2000 presidential election, Democrat Al Gore carried the state, with 54% of the vote to George W. Bush's 42%; in 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 54.6% of the California vote to incumbent president George W. Bush's 44.3%. (Bush won on the national level.) In 1998, Democrat Gray Davis, formerly lieutenant governor, was elected to be the state's 37th governor by 58% of voters. He won reelection in 2002, but was recalled in October 2003, the second governor to be recalled in US history. An electricity crisis in 2001 and a massive state budget deficit in 2003 contributed to his recall. He was succeeded by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Both US senators in 2005 were women: Democrat Barbara Boxer, who won reelection to a third term in 2004; and Dianne Feinstein, elected in 1992 to replace Senator Pete Wilson (who was elected governor in 1990) and reelected in 1994 to serve her first full (six-year) term. She was reelected once again in 2000, with 56% of the vote. California's delegation of US representatives to the 109th Congress (200506) consisted of 33 Democrats and 20 Republicans. Democrat Nancy Pelosi was elected House Minority Leader in 2003. After 2004 elections, the Democrats kept control of the state Senate (25-15) and House (48-32).

Minority groups of all types are represented in California politics. In mid-2003, there were 31 women, 24 Latino members, and 6 black members in the state legislature. Two of the most prominent black elected officials include Los Angeles Mayor Thomas Bradley, who served from 197390, and San Francisco Mayor Willie L. Brown Jr., who began his first term in 1996 and won reelection in 1999. Organized groups of avowed homosexuals began to play an important political role in San Francisco during the 1970s.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, California had 58 counties, 475 municipal governments, 2,830 special districts, and 985 public school districts. County government is administered by an elected board of supervisors, which also exercises jurisdiction over unincorporated towns within the county. Government operations are administered by several elected officials, the number varying according to the population of the county. Most counties have a district attorney, assessor, treasurer-tax collector, superintendent of schools, sheriff, and coroner. Larger counties may also have an elected planning director, public defender, public works director, purchasing agent, and social welfare services director.

Municipalities are governed under the mayor-council, council-manager, or commission system. Most large cities are run by councils of from 5 to 15 members, elected to four-year terms, the councils being responsible for taxes, public improvements, and the budget. An elected mayor supervises city departments and appoints most city officials. Other elected officials usually include the city attorney, treasurer, and assessor. Los Angeles and San Francisco have the mayor-council form of government, but in San Francisco, the city and county governments are consolidated under an elected board of supervisors, and the mayor appoints a manager who has substantial authority. San Diego and San Jose each have an elected mayor and city manager chosen by an elected city council.

The state's direct primary law had a salutary effect on local politics by helping end the power of political machines in the large cities. In 1910, Los Angeles voters adopted the nonpartisan primary and overthrew the corrupt rule of Mayor A. C. Harper in favor of reformer George Alexander. At the same time, voters were revolting against bossism and corruption in San Francisco, Sacramento, Oakland, and other cities.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 1,384,276 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in California operates under executive order; a Homeland Security Director is appointed to oversee the state's homeland security activities, which include enhanced highway patrol operations and the California Anti-Terrorism Information Center.

In accordance with the Political Reform Act of 1974, the Fair Political Practices Commission investigates political campaign irregularities, regulates lobbyists, and enforces full disclosure of political contributions and public officials' assets and income.

Educational services are provided by the Department of Education, which administers the public school system. The department, which is headed by the superintendent of public instruction, also regulates special schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children. The University of California system is governed by a board of regents headed by the governor.

Transportation services are under the direction of the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), which oversees mass transit lines, highways, and airports. Intrastate rate regulation of pipelines, railroads, buses, trucks, airlines, and waterborne transportation is the responsibility of the Public Utilities Commission, which also regulates gas, electric, telephone, water, sewer, and steam-heat utilities. The Department of Motor Vehicles licenses drivers, road vehicles, automotive dealers, and boats.

Health and welfare services are provided by many state departments, most of which are part of the Health and Human Services Agency. The Department of Health Services provides health care for several millions of persons through the state's Medi-Cal program. The department's public health services include controlling infectious disease, conducting cancer research, safeguarding water quality, and protecting the public from unsafe food and drugs. The department also has licensing responsibility for hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes. Care for the mentally ill is provided through the Department of Mental Health by means of state hospitals and community outpatient clinics. Disabled people receive counseling, vocational training, and other aid through the Department of Rehabilitation. Needy families receive income maintenance aid and food stamps from the Department of Social Services. Senior citizens can get help from the Department of Aging, which allocates federal funds for the elderly. The Commission on the Status of Women reports to the legislature on women's educational and employment needs, and on statutes or practices that infringe on their rights. The Youth Authority, charged with the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders, operates training schools and conservation camps. The Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs coordinates prevention and treatment activities.

Public protection services are provided by the Army and Air National Guard, and by the Youth and Adult Correctional Agency, which maintains institutions and programs to control and treat convicted felons and narcotics addicts. The California Highway Patrol has its own separate department within the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency. This agency also includes the Department of Housing and Community Development. The State and Consumer Services Agency has jurisdiction over the Department of Consumer Affairs, the California State Teachers' Retirement System (CalSTRS), and several other state departments. A state innovation was the establishment in 1974 of the Seismic Safety Commission to plan public safety programs in connection with California's continuing earthquake problem.

Programs for the preservation and development of natural resources are centralized in the Resources Agency. State parks and recreation areas are administered by the Department of Parks. California's vital water needs are the responsibility of the Department of Water Resources. In 1975, as a result of a national oil shortage, the state established the Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission to develop contingency plans for dealing with fuel shortages, to forecast the state's energy needs, and to coordinate programs for energy conservation (it now exists as the California Energy Commission). The Department of Conservation provides employment opportunities for young people in conservation work.

The Department of Industrial Relations has divisions dealing with fair employment practices, occupational safety and health standards, and workers' compensation. The Employment Development Department provides unemployment and disability benefits and operates job-training and work-incentive programs. The California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) guards the natural environment.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

California has a complex judicial system and a very large correctional system.

The state's highest court is the Supreme Court, which may review appellate court decisions and superior court cases involving the death penalty. The high court has a chief justice and six associate justices, all of whom serve 12-year terms. Justices are appointed by the governor, confirmed or disapproved by the Commission on Judicial Appointments (headed by the chief justice), and then submitted to the voters for ratification. The chief justice also chairs the Judicial Council, which seeks to expedite judicial business and to equalize judges' caseloads.

Courts of appeal, organized in six appellate districts, review decisions of superior courts and, in certain cases, of municipal and justice courts. There were 93 district appeals court judgeships in 1999. All district court judges are appointed by the governor, reviewed by the Commission on Judicial Appointments, and subject to popular election for 12-year terms.

Superior courts in each of the 58 county seats have original jurisdiction in felony, juvenile, probate, and domestic relations cases, as well as in civil cases involving more than $15,000. They also handle some tax and misdemeanor cases and appeals from lower courts. Municipal courts, located in judicial districts with populations of more than 40,000, hear misdemeanors (except those involving juveniles) and civil cases involving $15,000 or less. In districts with less than 40,000 population, justice courts have jurisdiction similar to that of municipal courts. All trial court judges are elected to six-year terms.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 166,556 prisoners were held in California's state and federal prisons, an increase (from 164,487) of 1.3% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 11,188 inmates were female, up 5% (from 10,656) from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), California had an incarceration rate of 456 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, California in 2004 had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 551.8 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 198,070 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 1,227,194 reported incidents or 3,419 reported incidents per 100,000 people. California has a death penalty, which can be carried out by lethal injection or electrocution, depending upon the prisoner's request. From 1976 through 5 May 2006 the state has executed 13 persons; there were 2 executions in 2005 and 1 in 2006 (as of 5 May). As of 1 January 2006, there were 649 death row inmates, the most of any state in the nation.

In 2003, California spent $1,158,362,732 on homeland security, an average of $34 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

California leads the 50 states in defense contracts received, numbers of National Guardsmen and military veterans, veterans' benefit payments, and funding for police forces.

In 2004, the US Department of Defense had 173,318 active-duty military personnel, 19,026 Reserve and National Guard personnel, and 49,870 civilian personnel in California. Army military personnel totaled 9,063; the Navy (including Marines), 130,887; and the Air Force, 30,918.

Army bases are located at Oakland and San Francisco, and naval facilities in the San Diego area. There are weapons stations at Concord and Seal Beach, and supply depots at Oakland and San Pedro. The Marine Corps training base, Camp Pendleton, is at Oceanside. The Air Force operates four main basesBeale Air Force Base (AFB) at Marysville, home for the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, the T-38 jet trainer, the KC-135 tanker, and the GLOBAL HAWK, the Air Force's high-altitude reconnaissance platform; Edwards AFB at Rosamond, in California's Mojave Desert, which has two unique natural resources that help make it the premier flight test facility in the world; Rogers and Rosamond dry lakebeds; Travis AFB at Fairfield, which handles more cargo and passengers than any other military air terminal in the United States and is the West Coast terminal for aeromedical evacuation aircraft returning sick or injured patients from the Pacific area; and Vandenberg AFB at Lompoc, headquarters for the 30th Space Wing, which manages Department of Defense space and missile testing, places satellites into polar orbit from the West Coast, and is also home to the Western Launch and Test Range (WLTR). There are also numerous smaller installations. In 2004, California companies were awarded $27.8 billion in defense contracts, the highest in the nation, and amounting to over 13% of the US total. Defense Department expenditures in California that year included another $15.0 billion for payroll (including retired military pay), second only to Virginia.

There were 2,310,968 veterans of US military service in California as of 2003, of whom 333,489 served in World War II; 253,834 in the Korean conflict; 707,737 during the Vietnam era; and 334,111 during 19902000 (in the Gulf War). US Veterans Administration spending in Californian exceeded $5.6 billion in 2004.

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps. As of 31 October 2004, the California Highway Patrol employed 7,065 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

A majority of Californians today are migrants from other states. The first great wave of migration, beginning in 1848, brought at least 85,000 prospectors by 1850. Perhaps 20,000 of them were foreign born, mostly from Europe, Canada, Mexico, and South America, as well as a few from the Hawaiian Islands and China. Many thousands of Chinese were brought in during the latter half of the 19th century to work on farms and railroads. When Chinese immigration was banned by the US Congress in 1882, Japanese migration provided farm labor. These ambitious workers soon opened shops in the cities and bought land for small farms. By 1940, about 94,000 Japanese lived in California. During the Depression of the 1930s, approximately 350,000 migrants came to California, most of them looking for work. Many thousands of people came there during World War II to take jobs in the burgeoning war industries; after the war, some 300,000 discharged servicemen settled in the state. All told, between 1940 and 1990 California registered a net gain from migration of 12,426,000, representing well over half of its population growth during that period.

In the 1990s, California registered net losses in domestic migration, peaking with a loss of 444,186 in 199394. Altogether, net losses in domestic migration between 1990 and 1998 totaled 2,082,000 people. During the same period, net gains in international migration totaled 2,019,000. As of 1996, nearly 22% of all foreign immigrants in the United States were living in California, a higher proportion than in any other state. Although the 1970s brought an influx of refugees from Indochina, and, somewhat later, from Central America, the bulk of postwar foreign immigration has come from neighboring Mexico. At first, Mexicansas many as 750,000 a yearwere imported legally to supply seasonal labor for California growers. Later, hundreds of thousands, perhaps even millions, of illegal Mexican immigrants crossed the border in search of jobs and then, unless they were caught and forcibly repatriated, stayed on. Counting these state residents for census purposes is extremely difficult, since many of them are unwilling to declare themselves for fear of being identified and deported. As of 1990, California's foreign-born population was reported at 8,055,000, or 25% of the state's total. As of 1994, the number of undocumented immigrants was estimated at between 1,321 and 1,784the most any state and close to 40% of the total number thought to be residing in the United States. As of 1998, California was the intended residence of 170,126 foreign immigrants (more than any other state and 26% of the United States total that year), of these, 62,113 were from Mexico.

Intrastate migration has followed two general patterns: rural to urban until the mid-20th century, and urban to suburban, thereafter. In particular, the percentage of blacks increased in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego between 1960 and 1970 as they settled or remained in the cities while whites moved out, into the surrounding suburbs. In the 1970s and 1980s, the percentage of blacks in Los Angeles and San Francisco decreased slightly; in San Diego, the percentage of blacks increased from 8.9% to 9.4%. By 1997, blacks represented 8.3% of the Los Angeles metropolitan population, 8.8% of the San Francisco metropolitan population, but only 6.4% of the San Diego metropolitan population, a 3% decrease from the 1980s. California's net gain from migration during 197080 amounted to about 1,573,000. In the 1980s, migration accounted for 54% of the net population increase, with about 2,940,000 new residents. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased by 9.7%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 1,415,879 and net internal migration was 664,460, for a net gain of 751,419 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

The Colorado River Board of California represents the state's interests in negotiations with the federal government and other states over utilization of Colorado River water and power resources. California also is a member of the Colorado River Crime Enforcement Compact, California-Nevada Compact for Jurisdiction on Interstate Waters, the Klamath River Compact Commission (with Oregon), and the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (with Nevada). Regional agreements signed by the state include the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Western Interstate Corrections Compact, and Western Interstate Energy Compact. The Arizona-California boundary accord dates from 1963. California also is a member of the Commission of the Californias, along with the State of Baja California Norte and the territory of Baja California Sur, both in Mexico. During 2005, federal grants to California amounted to $43.965 billion, the most received by any state. In 2006, California received an estimated $42.467 billion in federal grants, and an estimated $43.293 billion in 2007.

ECONOMY

California leads the 50 states in economic output and total personal income. In the 1960s, when it became the nation's most populous state, California also surpassed Iowa in agricultural production and New York in value added by manufacturing.

The gold rush of the mid-19th century made mining (which employed more people than any other industry in the state until 1870) the principal economic activity and gave impetus to agriculture and manufacturing. Many unsuccessful miners took up farming or went to work for the big cattle ranches and wheat growers. In the 1870s, California became the most important cattle-raising state and the second-leading wheat producer. Agriculture soon expanded into truck farming and citrus production, while new manufacturing industries began to produce ships, metal products, lumber, leather, cloth, refined sugar, flour, and other processed foods. Manufacturing outstripped both mining and agriculture to produce goods valued at $258 million by 1900, and 10 times that by 1925. Thanks to a rapidly growing workforce, industrial output continued to expand during and after both world wars, while massive irrigation projects enabled farmers to make full use of the state's rich soil and favorable climate.

By the late 1970s, one of every four California workers was employed in high-technology industry. California has long ranked first among the states in defense procurement, and in 1997, defense contracts awarded to southern California firms surpassed the combined totals of New York and Texas.

From its beginnings in the late 18th century, California's wine industry has grown to encompass more than 700 wineries, which is over 50% of all the wineries in the United States. In addition, the state accounts for approximately 95% of all US wine output, followed by New York and Ohio. California's Central Valley accounts for 75% to 80% of the state's wine output.

A highly diversified economy made California less vulnerable to the national recession of the early 1980s than most other states. During the first half of the 1980s, the state generally outperformed the national economy. In 1984, California enjoyed an estimated increase of 12.1% in personal income and a 6.1% increase in non-agricultural employment, and reduced the unemployment rate from 9.7% to an estimated 7.8%. The boom was short-lived, however. Cuts in the military budget in the late 1980s, a decline in Japanese investment, and the national recession in the early 1990s had a devastating impact on the state, particularly on southern California. Unemployment in 1992 rose to 9.1%, up from 5.1% in 1989. The aerospace and construction industries suffered disproportionately. Employment in aerospace declined 22.3% between May of 1990 and September of 1992; construction lost 20% of its jobs in the same period.

Stock market growth in the high-technology sector led California's growth during the late 1990s. The gross state product (GSP) in 1997 was approximately $1 trillion. Annual growth rates in 1998 and 1999 averaged 7.75% in 1998 and 1999, and soared to 9.6% in 2000. The national recession of 2002, however, brought the growth rate down to 2.2%. While employment in southern California continued to expand, the San Francisco Bay area, severely impacted by the decline in the high-tech manufacturing and soft-ware sectors, the bursting of the dot.com bubble in the stock market, and the collapse of the venture capital market, experienced its worst recession in 50 years. In 2002, recovery remained elusive, and in 2003, the state faced a projected $38 billion budget deficit that was the main issue in an unprecedented campaign to the recall the governor.

Total GSP in 2004 was $1.55 trillion, of which the real estate sector was the largest component, accounting for $240.370 billion, or 13.1% of GSP. This was followed by manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) at $175.852 billion (11.3% of GSP), and by professional and technical services at $121.686 billion (7.8% of GSP). In 2004, the state had more than 3.3 million small businesses. Of the 1,077,390 firms that had employees that same year, an estimated 1,068,602 (or 99.2%) were small firms. In 2004, a total of 117,016 new businesses were formed in California, up 3.1% from 2003. However, business terminations that year totaled 143,115, up 1.9% from 2003. Business bankruptcies fell 16.7% in 2004 from the year before to 3,748. The personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate in 2005 totaled 391 filings per 100,000 people, ranking the state 41st.

INCOME

In 2005 California had a gross state product (GSP) of $1,622 billion, which accounted for 13.1% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state first in GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 California had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $35,219. This ranked 12th in the United States and was 107% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.3%. California had a total personal income (TPI) of $1,262,306,032,000, which ranked first in the United States and reflected an increase of 6.6% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.6%. Earnings of persons employed in California increased from $939,640,136,000 in 2003 to $1,008,113,229,000 in 2004, an increase of 7.3%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $49,894, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period, an estimated 13.2% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

California has the largest workforce in the nation and the greatest number of employed workers. During the 1970s, California's workforce also grew at a higher annual rate than that of any other state.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in California numbered 17,735,300, with approximately 870,400 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.9%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 14,951,100. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in California was 11%, in February 1983. The historical low was 4.7% in February 2001. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 6.1% of the labor force was employed in construction; 10% in manufacturing; 18.9% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 6.2% in financial activities; 14.6% in professional and business services; 10.7% in education and health services; 10.1% in leisure and hospitality services; and 16.2% in government.

The labor movement in California was discredited by acts of violence during its early years. On 1 October 1910, a bomb explosion at a Los Angeles Times plant killed 21 workers, resulting in the conviction and imprisonment of two labor organizers a year later. Another bomb explosion, this one killing 10 persons in San Francisco on 22 July 1916, led to the conviction of two radical union leaders, Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings. The death penalty for Mooney was later commuted to life imprisonment (the same sentence Billings had received), and after evidence had been developed attesting to his innocence, he was pardoned in 1939. These violent incidents led to the state's Criminal Syndicalism Law of 1919, which forbade "labor violence" and curtailed militant labor activity for more than a decade.

Unionism revived during the depression of the 1930s. In 1934, the killing of two union picketers by San Francisco police during a strike by the International Longshoremen's Association led to a three-day general strike that paralyzed the city, and the union eventually won the demand for its own hiring halls. In Los Angeles, unions in such industries as automobiles, aircraft, rubber, and oil refining obtained bargaining rights, higher wages, and fringe benefits during and after World War II. In 1958, the California Labor Federation was organized, and labor unions have since increased both their membership and their benefits.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 2,424,000 of California's 14,687,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 16.5% of those so employed, unchanged from 2004, and above the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 2,610,000 workers (17.8%) in California were covered by a union or employee association contract, which included those workers who reported no union affiliation. California does not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, California had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $6.75 per hour. However, the city of San Francisco has its own mandated minimum wage rate of $8.50 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 44.8% of the employed civilian labor force.

Of all working groups, migrant farm workers have been the most difficult to organize because their work is seasonal and because they are largely members of minority groups, mostly Mexicans, with few skills and limited job opportunities. During the 1960s, a Mexican American "stoop" laborer named Cesar Chavez established the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, and now the United Farm Workers of America), which, after a long struggle, won bargaining rights from grape, lettuce, and berry growers in the San Joaquin Valley. Chavez's group was helped by a secondary boycott against these California farm products at some grocery stores throughout the United States. When his union was threatened by the rival Teamsters Union in the early 1970s, Chavez got help from the AFL-CIO and from Governor Jerry Brown, who in 1975 pushed through the state legislature a law mandating free elections so agricultural workers could determine which union they wanted to represent them. The United Farm Workers and Teamsters formally settled their jurisdictional dispute in 1977.

AGRICULTURE

California has led the United States in agriculture for nearly 50 years with a diverse economy of over 250 crop and livestock commodities. With only 4% of the nation's farms and 3% of the nation's farm acreage, the state accounts for over 13% of US gross cash farm receipts. Famous for its specialty crops, California produces virtually all (99% or more) of the following crops grown commercially in the United States: almonds, artichokes, avocados, clovers, dates, figs, kiwifruit, olives, persimmons, pistachios, prunes, raisins, and English walnuts. California's total cash farm receipts for 2005 amounted to $31.9 billion.

Agriculture has always thrived in California. The Spanish missions and Mexican ranchos were farming centers until the mid-19th century, when large ranches and farms began to produce cattle, grain, and cotton for the national market. Wheat was a major commodity by the 1870s, when the citrus industry was established and single-family farms in the fertile Central Valley and smaller valleys started to grow large quantities of fruits and vegetables. European settlers planted vineyards on the slopes of the Sonoma and Napa valleys, beginning California's wine industry, which today produces over 90% of US domestic wines. Around 1900, intensive irrigation transformed the dry, sandy Imperial Valley in southeastern California into a garden of abundance for specialty crops. Since World War II, corporate farming, or agribusiness, has largely replaced small single-family farms. Today, the state grows approximately 55% of all fruits and vegetables marketed in the United States.

In 2004, California devoted nearly one-third (27.7 million acres/11.2 million hectares) of its 100 million acres (40.4 million hectares) to agricultural production with 77,000 farms comprising 26.7 million acres (10.8 million hectares. Some 25% of all farmland represents crop growth, and currently 10% of all cropland uses irrigation.

Irrigation is essential for farming in California. Agriculture consumes 28% of the state's annual water supply. A major irrigation system was implemented, including the Colorado River Project, which irrigated 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) in the Imperial Valley in 1913; the Central Valley Project, completed by 1960, which harnessed the runoff of the Sacramento River; and the Feather River Project, also in the Central Valley, which was finished during the 1970s. Largest of all is the California Water Project, begun in 1960 and completed in 1973. During 1983, this project delivered 1.3 million acre-feet of water.

On 16 June 1980, the US Supreme Court ended 13 years of litigation by ruling that federally subsidized irrigation water in the Imperial Valley could not be limited to family farms of fewer than 160 acres (56 hectares) but must be made available to all farms regardless of size; the ruling represented a major victory for agribusiness interests.

The leading crops in 2004 (by value) included greenhouse and nursery products, grapes, and almonds. These three commodities accounted for 26% of the state's crop receipts that year. Other important crops include cotton, lettuce, hay, tomatoes, flowers and foliage, strawberries, oranges, rice, broccoli, walnuts, carrots, celery, and cantaloupe.

California was the top agricultural exporter in the United States with nearly $9.2 billion in 2004. Leading agricultural exports in 2004 included vegetables ($2.4 billion), fruits ($2.0 billion), and tree nuts ($1.7 billion). Japan accounts for more than 25% of all California agricultural exports, and the entire Pacific Rim accounts for more than half its total exports. Export markets hold the greatest potential for expanding sales of California agriculture products.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2005, farm marketings from livestock and dairy products amounted to almost $8.3 billion, or 7% of the US total, second only to Texas.

In 2005 there were an estimated 5.4 million cattle and calves in California valued at $6.1 billion. There were 140,000 hogs and pigs on California farms and ranches in 2004, valued at $18.2 million. In 2003 California produced 49.7 million lb (22.6 million kg) of sheep and lambs for a gross income of $69.8 million.

In 2003, California was the leading milk producer among the 50 states, with 35.4 billion lb (16.1 billion kg) of milk produced. Milk cows, raised mainly in the southern interior, totaled 1.69 million head in the same year.

California ranked fourth among the 50 states in egg production in 2003, with an output of 5.38 billion eggs. In 2003, California produced 418.7 million lb (190.3 million kg) of turkey, which was valued at $150.7 million.

FISHING

The Pacific whaling industry, with its chief port at San Francisco, was important to the California economy in the 19th century, and commercial fishing is still central to the food-processing industry. In 2004, California ranked fifth in the nation in commercial fishing volume, with a catch of 378.6 million lb (172 million kg), valued at $139 million. Los Angeles ranked 17th among fishing ports (in terms of volume), with landings totaling 92.4 million lb (42 million kg).

In 2004, California accounted for 97% of US landings of chub mackerel. Salmon landings totaled 7 million lb (3.2 million kg), the fourth-largest volume in the nation, with a value of $17.7 million. The state was also second in volume of dungeness crab landings with 24.8 million lb (11.3 million kg). California was the leading state in squid catch at 87.3 million lb (40.6 million kg). In 2003, there were 364 processing and wholesale plants in the state. In 2002, the California fishing fleet numbered 2,198 boats and vessels.

Deep-sea fishing is a popular sport. World records for giant sea bass, California halibut, white catfish, and sturgeon have been set in California. There were 2,024,709 anglers licensed in the state in 2004, when recreational fishers caught an estimated 13.2 million (6 million kg) of fish.

FORESTRY

California has more forests than any other state except Alaska. Forested lands in 2003 covered 40,233,000 acres (16,282,000 hectares), 40% of the total land area.

Forests are concentrated in the northwestern part of the state and in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Commercial forestland in private hands was estimated at 17,781,000 acres (7,196,000 hectares) in 2003; an additional 18,515,000 acres (7,493,000 hectares) was US Forest Service lands, and 2,208,000 acres (893,600 hectares) was regulated by the Bureau of Land Management. In 2004, lumber production totaled 2.9 billion board feet (fifth in the United States), mostly such softwoods as fir, pine, cedar, and redwood.

About half of the state's forests are protected as national forests and state parks or recreational areas. Although stands of coast redwood trees have been preserved in national and state parks since the late 19th century, only about 46% of the original 2 million acres (800,000 hectares) of redwoods between Monterey Bay and southern Oregon remain.

Reforestation of public lands is supervised by the National Forest Service and the California Department of Forestry. In 192425, more than 1.5 million redwood and Douglas fir seedlings were planted in the northwestern corner of the state. During the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps replanted trees along many mountain trails, and the California Conservation Corps performed reforestation work in the 1970s.

As of 2005, there were 21 national forests in California. The total area within their boundaries in California amounted to 24,430,000 acres (9,886,821 hectares), of which 85% was National Forest System land.

MINING

According to data compiled by the US Geological Survey, California was the leading state in the nation in the production, by value, of nonfuel minerals during 2004, accounting for more than 8% of the US total. The value of the nonfuel mineral commodities produced in the state during the year was valued at $3.76 billion, an increase of almost 10% from 2003. Industrial minerals accounted for nearly 99% of nonfuel mineral production, by value, with the rest supplied (in descending value) by gold, silver, and iron ore.

In 2004, California remained the only state to produce boron minerals (1.21 million metric tons, valued at $626 million) and led the nation in the production of construction sand and gravel (166 million metric tons, valued at $1.280 billion), accounting for over 13% of all US production (by volume) and nearly 19.5% by value. Construction sand and gravel also constituted California's leading nonfuel mineral, accounting for about 34% of the state's nonfuel mineral production by value. Cement (portland and masonry) was the second-leading nonfuel mineral, followed by boron minerals, crushed stone, diatomite, and soda ash. Together these six commodities accounted for almost 94% of the state's total industrial mineral output by value. Portland cement production by California in 2004 totaled 11.9 million metric tons, with an estimated value of $1 billion.

Although gold prices rose in 2004, gold production (by recoverable content of ores) in California fell in 2004 to 3,260 kg ($43 million) from 4,270 kg ($50.1 million) in 2003 and 9,180 kg ($91.9 million) in 2002. In that same year, there were only four major operating gold mines in the state. However, all production came not from mining but from heap leaching. From 1999 through 2004, gold production in the state had fallen nearly 85%. Silver output (by recoverable content of ores) in 2004 totaled 801 kg ($172,000), down from 957 kg ($151,000) in 2003 and 3,400 kg ($506,000) in 2002. All silver production in the state was the byproduct of gold production. Silver accounted for less than 1% of all metal output in California.

In 2004, California had about 1,156 mines actively producing nonfuel minerals, which employed about 11,000 people. At the beginning of 2002, the Division of Mines and Geology was renamed the California Geological Survey (CGS). The CGS grants mining permits. Among the programs it oversees are Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping, Seismic Hazards Mapping, Timber Harvest Enforcement, and Watershed Restoration. Siting and permitting of mining operations throughout California often generate local controversies. The leading issues involve intense land-use competition and wide-ranging environmental concerns, along with the typical noise, dust, and truck-traffic issues in populated areas.

ENERGY AND POWER

California had 87 electrical power service providers, of which 35 were publicly owned and 23 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, six were investor owned, one was federally operated, and 22 were owners of independent generators that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were 13,999,457 retail customers. Of that total, 10,788,096 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 14,659 customers, while publicly owned providers had 3,128,465 customers. There were 48 federal customers and 25 were independent generator or "facility" customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 57.850 million kW, with total production that same year, at 192.788 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 42.4% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 91.432 billion kWh (47.4%), came from natural gas-fired plants, with hydroelectric plants in second place, at 36.370 billion kWh (18.9%), and nuclear fueled-plants in third at 35.593 billion kWh (18.5%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 12.3% of all power generated, with coal and petroleum fired plants at 1.2% each.

California utilities own and operate coal-fired power plants across the southwest. This electricity shows up as "imports" in federal accounting. California utilities buy electricity from out-of-state suppliers if it is less expensive than in-state operation.

As of 2006, California had two operating nuclear power facilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Co's Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant near San Luis Obispo; and the San Onofre facility, near San Clemente, which is operated by the Southern California Edison Co. The two facilities had a combined total of four reactors.

In 2003, retail sales of electric power in the state totaled 238.710 billion kWh, of which roughly 45.3% went to commercial businesses, 33.8% to home consumers, and 20.6% to industries.

Crude oil was discovered in Humboldt and Ventura counties as early as the 1860s with the first year of commercial production occurring in 1876. It was not until the 1920s, however, that large oil strikes were made at Huntington Beach, near Los Angeles, and at Santa Fe Springs and Signal Hill, near Long Beach. These fields added vast pools of crude oil to the state's reserves, which were further augmented in the 1930s by the discovery of large offshore oil deposits in the Long Beach area.

The state's attempts to retain rights to tideland oil reserves as far as 30 mi (48 km) offshore were denied by the US Supreme Court in 1965. State claims were thus restricted to Monterey Bay and other submerged deposits within a 3-mi (5-km) offshore limit. In 1994, however, California banned any further oil drilling in state offshore waters because of environmental concerns, high operating costs, and resource limitations.

As of 2004, California had proven crude oil reserves of 3,376 million barrels, or 16% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 656,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked fourth (third excluding federal offshore) in both proven reserves and production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 California had 47,065 producing oil wells and accounted for 12% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's 21 refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 2,004,788 barrels per day.

In 2004, California had 1,272 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 319.919 billion cu ft (9.08 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 2,634 billion cu ft (7.8 billion cu m).

INDUSTRY

California is the nation's leading industrial state, ranking first in almost every general manufacturing category: number of establishments, number of employees, total payroll, value added by manufacture, value of shipments, and new capital spending. Specifically, California ranks among the leaders in machinery, fabricated metals, agricultural products, food processing, computers, aerospace technology, and many other industries.

With its shipyards, foundries, flour mills, and workshops, San Francisco was the state's first manufacturing center. The number of manufacturing establishments in California nearly doubled between 1899 and 1914, and the value of manufactures increased almost tenfold from 1990 to 1925. New factories for transportation equipment, primary metal products, chemicals and food products sprang up in the state during and after World War II. Second to New York State in industrial output for many years, California finally surpassed that state in most manufacturing categories in the 1972 Census of Manufacturers.

California's industrial workforce is mainly located in the two major manufacturing centers: almost three-fourths work in either the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Orange County area or the San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose area. Although the state workforce has a wide diversity of talents and products, the majority produces food, electronic and other electrical equipment, transportation equipment, apparel, and fabricated and industrial machinery.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, California's manufacturing sector covered some 21 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $388.332 billion. Of that total, computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for the largest portion, at $78.161 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $49.392 billion; transportation equipment manufacturing at $38.038 billion; petroleum and coal products manufacturing at $31.399 billion; and chemical product manufacturing at $31.270 billion.

In 2004, a total of 1,440,882 people in California were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 895,157 were production workers. In terms of total employment, the computer and electronic product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 252,241, with 94,978 actual production workers. It was followed by food manufacturing with 155,807 employees (113,717 actual production workers); fabricated metal product manufacturing at 146,249 employees (105,686 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing with 130,966 employees (72,185 actual production workers); and miscellaneous manufacturing at 107,492 employees (62,521 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that California's manufacturing sector paid $65.248 billion in wages. Of that amount, the computer and electronic product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $15.889 billion. It was followed by transportation equipment manufacturing at $7.688 billion; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $5.798 billion; food manufacturing at $5.275 billion; and miscellaneous manufacturing at $4.593 billion.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, California's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $655.9 billion from 58,770 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 34,865 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 20,719 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 3,186 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $389.8 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $211.7 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $54.3 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, California was listed as having 108,941 retail establishments with sales of $359.1 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: clothing and clothing accessories stores (17,067); food and beverage stores (16,145); miscellaneous store retailers (13,219); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (11,225); and health and personal care stores (8,453). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $95.9 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $60.2 billion; general merchandise stores at $46.6 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $26.7 billion. A total of 1,525,113 people were employed by the retail sector in California that year.

Foreign trade is important to the California economy. In 2005, goods exported from California were valued at $116.8 billion. The state's major markets are Japan, Canada, South Korea, Mexico, the European Community, and the industrializing countries of East Asia.

Leading exports include data-processing equipment, electrical tubes and transistors, scientific equipment, measuring instruments, optical equipment, and aircraft parts and spacecraft. The state's leading agricultural export is cotton.

California's customs districts are the ports of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego. San Francisco and San Jose have been designated as federal foreign-trade zones, where imported goods may be stored duty-free for reshipment abroad, or customs duties avoided until the goods are actually marketed in the United States.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Numerous California state and local government agencies protect, promote, and serve the interests of consumers.

The California Department of Consumer Affairs comprises 40 entities (nine bureaus, one program, 24 boards, 3 committees, 1 commission, 1 office, and 1 task force) that license more than 100 business and 200 professions (including automotive repair facilities, doctors and dentists, cosmetologists and contractors). These state entities establish minimum qualifications and levels of competency for licensure; license, register, or certify practitioners; investigate complaints; and discipline violators.

The California Department of Consumer Affairs also administers the Consumer Affairs Act (consumer information, education, complaints, and advocacy), the Arbitration Certification Program (auto warranty dispute resolution), and the Dispute Resolution Programs Act (funding of local dispute resolution programs). It helps carry out the Small Claims Act by publishing materials for those who administer and use the Small Claims Court, and by training small claims advisors and attorneys who serve as judges.

Other state agencies that serve consumers include the Department of Fair Employment and Housing (unlawful employment and housing discrimination), the Department of Real Estate (licensing of real estate brokers and sales agents), the Department of Corporations (licensing of personal finance companies, and a new service dedicated to combat investment fraud on the Internet), and the Department of Insurance (licensing and conduct of insurance companies).

Consumers are also assisted by a variety of state and local law enforcement agencies that enforce the state's laws on false and deceptive advertising, unfair and deceptive trade practices, unfair competition, and other laws. These agencies include the California attorney general, the district attorneys of most counties, the city attorneys of San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego counties, and county consumer affairs departments.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's attorney general can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; is responsible for the administration of consumer protection and education programs and the handling of consumer complaints; and has broad subpoena powers. However, the Attorney General's office cannot represent the state before state regulatory agencies. In antitrust actions, the attorney general can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and initiate criminal proceedings.

The Office of the Attorney General, the California Department of Consumer Affairs, and the Consumer Affairs Bureau of Automotive Repair are located in Sacramento. County government consumer and environmental protection offices are located in Fairfield, Fresno, Los Angeles, Martinez, Modesto, Napa, Redwood City, Salinas, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, San Rafael, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Ventura, and West Santana. City government offices are located in Bakersfield, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Santa Monica.

BANKING

In 1848, California's first financial institution, the Miners' Bank, was founded in San Francisco. Especially since 1904, when A. P. Giannini founded the Bank of Italy, now known as the Bank of America, California banks have pioneered in branch banking for families and small businesses. Today, California is among the leading states in branch banking, savings and loan associations, and credit union operations.

As of June 2005, California had 300 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 212 state-chartered and 353 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana market area had 160 financial institutions in 2004 with $271.957 billion in deposits, followed by the San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont area with 85 institutions and $170.866 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 10.5% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $107.169 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 89.5%, or $917.960 billion in assets held.

In 2004, the median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) for California's insured institutions stood at 4.37%, up from 4.36% in 2003.

Until 30 June 1997, the State Banking Department administered laws and regulations governing state-chartered banks, foreign banks, trust companies, issuers of payment instruments, issuers of travelers' checks, and transmitters of money abroad. On 1 July 1997, a new department began supervising all of California's depository institutions. The Department of Financial Institutions now supervises over 700 commercial banks, credit unions, industrial loan companies, savings and loans, and other licensees formerly supervised by the State Banking Department. Federally chartered financial institutions are regulated by the office of the comptroller of the Currency (banks), the office of Thrift Supervision, or the National Credit Union Administration.

INSURANCE

Insurance companies provide a major source of California's investment capital by means of premium payments collected from policyholders. Life insurance companies also invest heavily in real estate; in 2001, life insurance firms owned $5,101.7 billion in real estate, and held an estimated $41.8 billion in mortgage debt on California properties.

In 2004, there were 11 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of $1.56 trillion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $2.2 trillion. The average coverage amount is $145,000 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $5 billion.

In 2003, there were 28 life and health and 136 property and casualty companies domiciled in California. Direct premiums for property and casualty insurance amounted to $56.8 billion in 2004; the highest amount of the 50 states. That year, there were 261,693 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $48.6 billion. Also in 2004, there were $722.3 million in direct premiums in earthquake insurance written, representing about 45% of the US total. About $44.9 billion of coverage was offered through FAIR plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas. In California, FAIR plans include coverage for those areas prone to brush fires.

In 2004, 49% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 6% held individual policies, and 25% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 19% of residents were uninsured. California ranks fourth in the nation for the number of uninsured residents. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 14% for single coverage and 25% for family coverage. The state offers an 18-month expansion for small-firm employees program in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 21.2 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $15,000 per individual and $30,000 for all persons injured, as well as property damage liability of $5,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $821.11.

SECURITIES

California's Pacific Exchange (PCX) was founded as the San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange in 1882. A 1957 merger with the Los Angeles Oil Exchange created the Pacific Coast Stock Exchange, which became known as the Pacific Exchange in 1999. The Pacific exchange was the first in the world to operate an electronic trading system and the first in the United States to demutualize in 1999 by establishing PCX Equities, Inc. The two trading floors of the Pacific Exchange, in Los Angeles and San Francisco, closed in 2001 and 2002 respectively. In 2003, the organization established PCX Plus, an electronic options trading. In 2005, PCX Holdings (the parent company of the Pacific Exchange and PCX Equities) was acquired by Archipelago Holdings which established the Archipelago Exchange (ArcaEx), the first all-electronic stock market in the United States. In 2006, Archipelago Holdings was acquired by the NYSE Group, which established operations of NYSE Arca.

In 2005, there were 12,210 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 35,010 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 1,730 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 856 NASDAQ companies, 203 NYSE listings, and 75 AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had 52 Fortune 500 companies; Chevron (in San Ramon) ranked first in the state and fourth in the nation with revenues of over $189 billion, followed by Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto), McKesson (San Francisco), and Wells Fargo (San Francisco), which were all listed

CaliforniaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 229,289,356 6,397.23
  General revenue 154,484,882 4,310.16
    Intergovernmental revenue 49,555,933 1,382.62
    Taxes 85,721,483 2,391.65
      General sales 26,506,911 739.55
      Selective sales 7,477,277 208.62
      License taxes 5,744,089 160.26
      Individual income tax 36,398,983 1,015.54
      Corporate income tax 6,925,916 193.23
      Other taxes 2,668,307 74.45
    Current charges 11,386,550 317.69
    Miscellaneous general revenue 7,820,916 218.21
  Utility revenue 4,367,289 121.85
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 70,437,185 1,965.21
Total expenditure 203,814,714 5,686.48
  Intergovernmental expenditure 80,132,150 2,235.71
  Direct expenditure 123,682,564 3,450.77
    Current operation 82,253,414 2,294.89
    Capital outlay 7,542,690 210.44
    Insurance benefits and repayments 27,194,376 758.73
    Assistance and subsidies 2,128,418 59.38
    Interest on debt 4,563,666 127.33
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 20,841,748 581.49
Total expenditure 203,814,714 5,686.48
  General expenditure 171,078,543 4,773.13
    Intergovernmental expenditure 80,132,150 2,235.71
    Direct expenditure 90,946,393 2,537.43
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 59,777,134 1,667.80
    Public welfare 46,898,712 1,308.48
    Hospitals 5,168,694 144.21
    Health 9,525,062 265.75
    Highways 7,857,947 219.24
    Police protection 1,273,619 35.53
    Correction 5,875,717 163.93
    Natural resources 3,626,925 101.19
    Parks and recreation 811,686 22.65
    Government administration 8,298,729 231.54
    Interest on general debt 4,141,666 115.55
    Other and unallocable 17,822,652 497.26
  Utility expenditure 5,541,795 154.62
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 27,194,376 758.73
Debt at end of fiscal year 102,812,905 2,868.50
Cash and security holdings 435,841,104 12,160.07

on NYSE, and Intel (Santa Clara), listed on NASDAQ. Hewlett-Packard ranked at 11th in the nation of Fortune 500 companies and McKesson ranked at 16th.

PUBLIC FINANCE

California has the largest state budget in the nation. The Governor's Budget is prepared by the Department of Finance (DOF) and presented by the governor to the legislature for approval. The state's fiscal year (FY) begins 1 July and ends 30 June. The Governor's Budget is the result of a process that begins more than one year before the budget becomes law. When presented to the legislature by 10 January of each year, the Governor's Budget incorporates revenue and expenditure estimates based upon the most current information available through late December. The DOF proposes adjustments to the Governor's Budget through "Finance Letters" in March. These adjustments are to update proposals made in January or to submit any new proposal of significant importance that has arisen since the fall process. By 14 May, the DOF submits revised expenditure and revenue estimates for both the current and budget years to the legislature. This revision, known as the May Revision, incorporates changes in enrollment, caseload, and population estimates. The constitution requires that the governor submit a balanced budget and it is a statutory requirement that the governor sign a balanced budget. The legislature is supposed to adopt a budget by June 15, but California law requires a two-thirds supermajority to pass the budget. California's budget process can be viewed as a casualty of California's initiative process, impeding elected officials' by reducing flexibility within the budget. Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $97.3 billion for resources and $90.3 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to California were $54.5 billion. For fiscal year 2007, federal funds are provided or increased for many projects, including: transportation system improvements; watershed and dam safety and improvements; to the CALFED Bay-Delta Program to address issues of water quality and supply; design and construction at Calexico, California of the Calexico West Border Station; and a US coastal tsunami detection and warning system.

TAXATION

In 2005, California collected $98,435 million in tax revenues or $2,724 per capita, which placed it ninth among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 2.2% of the total; sales taxes, 30.4%; selective sales taxes, 7.8%; individual income taxes, 43.7%; corporate income taxes, 8.8%; and other taxes, 7.0%.

As of 1 January 2006, California had six individual income tax brackets ranging from 1.0 to 9.3%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 8.84%.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $34,499,304,000, or $963 per capita. California property tax collections are slightly below average for the 50 states. Local governments collected $32,419,978,000 of the total, and the state government, $2,079,326,000.

California taxes retail sales at a rate of 6.25%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 2.65%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 8.90%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 87 cents per pack, which ranks 23rd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. California taxes gasoline at 18 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, California citizens received only 79 cents in federal spending, down from 93 cents in 1992.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The California Trade and Commerce Agency was created by Governor Pete Wilson as a cabinet-level agency that consolidated the former Department of Commerce, the World Trade Commission, and the state's overseas offices. In 2001, under Governor Gray Davis, it became the Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency (TTCA). The TTCA is the state's lead agency for promoting economic development, job creation, and business retention. The agency oversees all state economic development efforts, international commerce, and tourism. Some of the array of agencies coordinated by the TTCA include the California Infrastructure and Economic Development Bank (I-Bank), which helps local governments and businesses secure capital for infrastructural and nonprofit projects; the California Export Finance Office (CEFO), which provides loan guarantees to financial institutions lending to small and medium-sized California exporters; the Small Business Loan Guarantee Program (SBLGP); and the California Financing Coordination Committee (CFCC), which consists of state and federal agencies that work together to coordinate and streamline infrastructure financing in local communities.

In fulfilling its mission to improve California's business climate, the agency works closely with domestic and international businesses, economic development corporations, chambers of commerce, regional visitor and convention bureaus, and the various permit-issuing state and municipal government agencies.

The International Trade and Investment Division is headquarters for California's international offices and the Offices of Foreign Investment, Export Finance, and Export Development. The Agency also houses the Tourism Division, and the Economic Development Division, which includes the Offices of Business Development, Small Business, Strategic Technology, Permit Assistance, Major Corporate Projects, and the California Film Commission.

California offers a broad array of state economic development incentives, including a business assistance program that offers guidance through the regulatory and permitting processes. California has a statewide network of small business development centers, and has an enterprise zone program with 39 zones offering various tax credits, deductions, and exemptions. The zones focus on rural and economically distressed areas. There are ten foreign trade zones in the state, and an Office of Foreign Investment with incentives to attract foreign companies.

Among the development projects being pursued is the State Theatrical Arts Resources (STAR) program, begun in 2001 as a continuation of the successful Film California First program of 2000. The STAR program seeks to support California's $33 billion filmmaking industry, and in 2003, the government announced the completion of eight distinctive filming locations. In 2003, the Governor introduced a Build California program aimed at expe-diting the construction of schools, housing, roads, and other infrastructural projects as a means of reviving the state economy. In 2002, the TTCA gave its support to a national campaign called Back on Track America which aimed at helping small businesses through the country's economic downturn. In 2003, the government announced that outstanding loans under the SBLGP, created in 1999, had surpassed $200 million. Through the Goldstrike partnership, the Office of Strategic Technology supports the growth of high technology in California. The conversion of former military bases to new manufacturing and commercial sites is also a priority of the state government. Among the development projects announced in 2003 was $10 million in low-cost state financing, arranged through the I-Bank, for Sacramento County to be used for the economic development of the former McClennan and Mather air force bases.

Although California's high cost of living may be a disincentive to doing business in the state, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, upon coming to office in 2003, embarked upon a billboard advertising campaign through the California Commission for Jobs and Economic Growth featuring the slogan: "Arnold Says: California Wants Your Business." The ad was placed on billboards in major metropolitan areas of competing states, including in New York's Time Square, to stave off efforts by states to lure away California companies by underlining the positive aspects of conducting business in the state. The governor's message was also readapted for a trade mission to Japan to promote the business climate on an international level.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 5 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 15.2 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 31.2 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 87.3% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 81% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2002 was 6.7 deaths per 1,000 population. That year, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 195.9; cancer, 154.2; cerebrovascular diseases, 50.2; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 36.1; and diabetes, 19.4. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 4.1 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was about 13 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 54.6% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, only about 14.8% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, California had 370 community hospitals with about 74,300 beds. There were about 3.4 million patient admissions that year and 48 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 51,500 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,763. Also in 2003, there were about 1,342 certified nursing facilities in the state with 129,658 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 83%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 70.5% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. California had 261 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 626 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 26,692 dentists in the state.

In 2005, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center in Los Angeles ranked 5 on the Honor Roll of Best Hospitals 2005 by U.S. News & World Report. In the same report, it ranked 8 in the nation for best cancer care. The University of California, San Francisco Medical Center ranked 10 on the Honor Roll. Stanford Hospital and Clinics ranked 16 on the Honor Roll and 11 for best care in heart disease and heart surgery. The Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, Mattel Children's Hospital at UCLA, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, and University of California San Francisco Medical Center all ranked within the top 20 for best pediatric care.

Medi-Cal is a statewide program that pays for the medical care of persons who otherwise could not afford it. California has also been a leader in developing new forms of health care, including the health maintenance organization (HMO), which provides preventive care, diagnosis, and treatment for which the patient pays a fixed annual premium.

About 28% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs in 2003; with this percentage, the state was tied with the District of Columbia and Tennessee at the second-highest percentage of Medicaid recipients in the country (after Maine). Approximately 19% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $38.5 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 1.1 million people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $260. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 1,990,919 persons (785,385 households); the average monthly benefit was about $96.80 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was over $2.3 billion.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. California's TANF program is called CALWORKS (California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids). In 2004, the state program had 1,103,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $3.4 billion in 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 4,411,970 California residents. This number included 2,838,010 retired workers, 407,540 widows and widowers, 531,490 disabled workers, 281,740 spouses, and 352,190 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 12.3% of the total state population and 83.9% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $957; widows and widowers, $926; disabled workers, $910; and spouses, $459. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $450 per month; children of deceased workers, $638; and children of disabled workers, $276. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 1,183,002 Californians, averaging $559 a month.

HOUSING

The earliest homes in southern California were Spanish colonial structures renowned for their simplicity and harmony with the landscape. These houses were one-story high and rectangular in plan, with outside verandas supported by wooden posts; their thick adobe walls were covered with whitewashed mud plaster. In the north, the early homes were usually two stories high, with thick adobe walls on the ground floor, balconies at the front and back, and tile roofing. Some adobe houses dating from the 1830s still stand in coastal cities and towns, particularly Monterey.

During the 1850s, jerry-built houses of wood, brick, and stone sprang up in the mining towns, and it was not until the 1870s that more substantial homes, in the Spanish mission style, were built in large numbers in the cities. About 1900, the California bungalow, with overhanging eaves and low windows, began to sweep the state and then the nation. The fusion of Spanish adobe structures and traditional American wooden construction appeared in the 1930s, and "California-style" houses gained great popularity throughout the West. Adapted from the functional international style of Frank Lloyd Wright and other innovative architects, modern domestic designs, emphasizing split-level surfaces and open interiors, won enthusiastic acceptance in California. Wright's finest California homes include the Freeman house in Los Angeles and the Millard house in Pasadena. One of Wright's disciples, Viennese-born Richard Neutra, was especially influential in adapting modern design principles to California's economy and climate.

Between 1960 and 1990, some 6.3 million houses and apartments were built in the state, comprising more than 56% of California housing stock. Housing construction boomed at record rates during the 1970s but slowed down at the beginning of the 1980s because rising building costs and high mortgage interest rates made it difficult for people of moderate means to enter the housing market. The total number of housing units in the state increased by 53% during 194050; 52% in 195060; 28% in 196070; 33% in 197080; and 20% in 198090.

Of the state's estimated 12,804,702 housing units in 2004, 11,972,158 were occupied; about 58.6% were owner occupied. That year, California ranked as having the most housing units among the 50 states and the District of Columbia; the state also ranked as having the third-lowest percentage of owner-occupied units. It was estimated that about 253,281 units were without telephone service, 54,412 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 91,851 lacked complete kitchen facilities. While most homes used gas or electricity as a heating fuel, about 261,527 households relied on wood and about 9,112 employed solar heating. About 57.5% of all units were single-family, detached homes; about 11% of dwellings were in buildings with 20 or more units. The average household had 2.93 members.

California ranked first in the nation for highest home values in 2004, when the median value of a one-family home was $391,102. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was about $1,733 while the cost for renters was at a median of about $914. In 2004, the state authorized construction of 207,400 privately owned housing units.

California housing policies have claimed national attention on several occasions. In 1964, state voters approved Proposition 14, a measure repealing the Fair Housing Act and forbidding any future restrictions on the individual's right to sell, lease, or rent to anyone of his own choosing. The measure was later declared unconstitutional by state and federal courts. In March 1980, a Los Angeles city ordinance banned rental discrimination on the basis of age. A municipal court judge had previously ruled it was illegal for a landlord to refuse to rent an apartment to a couple simply because they had children. Ordinances banning age discrimination had previously been enacted in the cities of San Francisco, Berkeley, and Davis and in Santa Monica and Santa Clara counties.

In September 2005, the state was awarded grants of over $1.3 million from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $43 million in community development block grants.

EDUCATION

The history of public education in California goes back at least to the 1790s, when the governor of the Spanish colony assigned retired soldiers to open one-room schools at the Franciscan mission settlements of San Jose, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, San Diego, and Monterey. Most of these schools, and others opened during the next three decades, were short-lived, however. During the 1830s, a few more schools were established for Spanish children, including girls, who were taught needlework. Easterners and Midwesterners who came to California in the 1840s laid the foundation for the state's present school system. The first American school was opened in an old stable at the Santa Clara mission in 1846, and the following year a schoolroom was established in the Monterey customhouse. San Francisco's first school was founded in April 1848 by a Yale graduate, Thomas Douglass, but six weeks later, caught up in Gold Rush fever, he dropped his books and headed for the mines. Two years after this inauspicious beginning, the San Francisco city council passed an ordinance providing for the first free public school system in California. Although the first public high school was opened in San Francisco in 1856, the California legislature did not provide for state financial support of secondary schools until 1903.

The state's first colleges, Santa Clara College (now the Santa Clara University), founded by Jesuits, and California Wesleyan (now the University of the Pacific), located in Stockton, both opened in 1851. A year later, the Young Ladies' Seminary (now Mills College) was founded at Benicia. The nucleus of what later became the University of California was established at Oakland in 1853 and moved to nearby Berkeley in 1873. Subsequent landmarks in education were the founding of the University of Southern California (USC) at Los Angeles in 1880 and of Stanford University in 1885, the opening of the first state junior colleges in 1917, and the establishment in 1927 of the Department of Education, which supervised the vast expansion of the California school system in the years following.

In 2004, 81.3% of Californians age 25 and older were high school graduates. Some 31.7% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher. The total enrollment for fall 2002 in California's public schools stood at 6,356,000. Of these, 4,529,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 1,828,000 attended high school. Approximately 32.9% of the students were white, 8.2% were black, 46.7% were Hispanic, 11.3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.8% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 6,399,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 7,268,000 by fall 2014, an increase of 14.3% during the period 2002 to 2014. There were 623,105 students enrolled in 3,377 private schools in fall 2003. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $60 billion or $7,748 per student. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005 eighth graders in California scored 269 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 2,474,024 students enrolled in institutions of higher education; minority students comprised 51.2% of total postsecondary enrollment. As of 2005, California had 401 degree-granting institutions. The University of California has its main campus at Berkeley and branches at Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles (UCLA), Merced, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz. The Hastings College of Law is also part of the UC system. The California state college and university system is not be confused with the University of California. California's state universities include those at Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose; locations of state colleges include Bakersfield, San Bernardino, and Stanislaus. Privately endowed institutions with the largest student enrollments are the University of Southern California (USC) and Stanford University. Other independent institutions are Occidental College in Los Angeles, Mills College at Oakland, Whittier College, the Claremont consortium of colleges (including Harvey Mudd College, Pomona College, and Claremont McKenna College), and the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena. California has several Roman Catholic colleges and universities, including Loyola Marymount University of Los Angeles.

The California Student Aid Commission administers financial aid. All recipients must have been California residents for at least 12 months.

ARTS

The arts have always thrived in California, at first in the Franciscan chapels with their religious paintings and church music, later in the art galleries, gas-lit theaters, and opera houses of San Francisco and Los Angeles, and now in seaside artists' colonies, regional theaters, numerous concert halls, and, not least, the motion picture studios of Hollywood.

In the mid-19th century, many artists came from the East to paint Western landscapes, and some stayed on in California. The San Francisco Institute of Arts was founded in 1874; the E. B. Crocker Art Gallery was established in Sacramento in 1884; and the Monterey-Carmel artists' colony sprang up in the early years of the 20th century. Other art colonies developed later in Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Laguna Beach, San Diego, and La Jolla. Notable art museums and galleries include the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (founded in 1910), Huntington Library, Art Gallery and Botanical Gardens at San Marino (1919), Norton Simon Museum of Art at Pasadena (1924), and the San Diego Museum of Art (1922). The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art opened in 1935 as the San Francisco Museum of Art; the word "Modern" was added to the museum's title in 1975. In 2006, the museum featured an exhibition titled "1906 Earthquake: A Disaster in Pictures," which showcased approximately 100 photographs commemorating the centennial of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906.

The theater arrived in California as early as 1846 in the form of stage shows at a Monterey amusement hall. The first theater building was opened in 1849 in Sacramento by the Eagle Theater Company. Driven out of Sacramento by floods, the company soon found refuge in San Francisco; by 1853, that city had seven theaters. During the late 19th century, many famous performers, including dancer Isadora Duncan and actress Maude Adams, began their stage careers in California. Today, California theater groups with national reputations include the Berkeley Repertory Theater, Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles, Old Globe Theater of San Diego, and the American Conservatory Theater of San Francisco. The American Conservatory Theater (ACT) of San Francisco was founded in 1965 and opened its first season at the Geary Theater in 1967. ACT celebrated 40 years of performing during its 2006/07 season

The motion picture industry did not begin in Hollywoodthe first commercial films were made in New York City and New Jersey in the 1890sbut within a few decades this Los Angeles suburb had become synonymous with the new art form. California became a haven for independent producers escaping an East Coast monopoly on patents related to filmmaking. (If patent infringements were discovered, the producer could avoid a lawsuit by crossing the border into Mexico.) In 1908, an independent producer, William Selig, completed in Los Angeles a film he had begun in Chicago, The Count of Monte Cristo, which is now recognized as the first commercial film produced in California. He and other moviemakers opened studios in Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Glendale, and, finally, Hollywood, where the sunshine was abundant, land was cheap, and the workforce plentiful. These independent producers developed the full-length motion picture and the star system, utilizing the talents of popular actors like Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and Charlie Chaplin again and again. In 1915, D. W. Griffith produced the classic "silent," The Birth of a Nation, which was both a popular and an artistic success. Motion picture theaters sprang up all over the country, and an avalanche of motion pictures was produced in Hollywood by such increasingly powerful studios as Warner Brothers, Fox, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Hollywood became the motion picture capital of the world. By 1923, film production accounted for one-fifth of the state's annual manufacturing value; in 1930, the film industry was one of the 10 largest in the United States.

Hollywood flourished by using the latest technical innovations and by adapting itself to the times. Sound motion pictures achieved a breakthrough in 1927 with The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson; color films appeared within a few years; and Walt Disney originated the feature-length animated cartoon with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Whereas most industries suffered drastically from the depression of the 1930s, Hollywood prospered by providing, for the most part, escapist entertainment on a lavish scale. The 1930s saw the baroque spectacles of Busby Berkeley, the inspired lunacy of the Marx Brothers, and the romantic historical drama Gone with the Wind (1939). During World War II, Hollywood offered its vast audience patriotic themes and pro-Allied propaganda.

In the postwar period, the motion picture industry fell on hard times because of competition from television, but it recovered fairly quickly by selling its old films to television and producing new ones specifically for home viewing. In the 1960s, Hollywood replaced New York City as the main center for the production of television programs. Fewer motion pictures were made, and those that were produced were longer and more expensive, including such top box-office attractions as The Sound of Music (1965), Star Wars (1977), E.T.The Extra-Terrestrial (1982), Jurassic Park (1993), Independence Day (1996), Titanic (1997), Armageddon (1998), The Matrix Reloaded (2003), and Stephen Spielberg's version of War of the Worlds (2005). No longer are stars held under exclusive contracts, and the power of the major studios has waned as the role of independent filmmakers like Francis Ford Coppola, Steven Spielberg, and George Lucas has assumed increased importance.

Among the many composers who came to Hollywood to write film music were Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Kurt Weill, George Antheil, Ferde Grofe, Erich Korngold, and John Williams; such musical luminaries as Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg were longtime residents of the state. Symphonic music is well established. In addition to the renowned Los Angeles Philharmonic, whose permanent conductors have included Zubin Mehta and Carlo Maria Giulini, there are the San Francisco Symphony and other professional symphonic orchestras in Oakland and San Jose. Many semiprofessional or amateur orchestras have been organized in other communities. Resident opera companies include the San Francisco Opera (1923) and the San Diego Opera. Annual musical events include the Sacramento and Monterey jazz festivals and summer concerts at the Hollywood Bowl. As of 2006, the Monterey Jazz Festival, celebrating its 49th anniversary, was noted as the longest running jazz festival in the world.

California has also played a major role in the evolution of popular music since the 1960s. The "surf sound" of the Beach Boys dominated California pop music in the mid-1960s. By 1967, the "acid rock" of bands like the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane (later Jefferson Starship), and the Doors had started to gain national recognition, and that year the heralded "summer of love" in San Francisco attracted young people from throughout the country. It was at the Monterey International Pop Festival, also in 1967, that Jimi Hendrix began his rise to stardom. During the 1970s, California was strongly identified with a group of resident singer-songwriters, including Neil Young, Joni Mitchell, Randy Newman, Jackson Browne, and Warren Zevon, who brought a new sophistication to rock lyrics. Los Angeles is a main center of the popular music industry, with numerous recording studios and branch offices of the leading record companies. Los Angeles-based Motown Industries, the largest black-owned company in the United States, is a major force in popular music.

California has nurtured generations of writers, many of whom moved there from other states. In 1864, Mark Twain, a Missourian, came to California as a newspaperman. Four years later, New York-born Bret Harte published his earliest short stories, many set in mining camps, in San Francisco's Overland Monthly. The writer perhaps most strongly associated with California is Nobel Prize-winner John Steinbeck, a Salinas native. Hollywood's film industry has long been a magnet for writers, and San Francisco in the 1950s was the gathering place for a group, later known as the Beats (or "Beat Generation"), that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. The City Lights Bookshop, owned by poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, was the site of readings by Beat poets during this period.

In 2005, the California Arts Council and other arts organizations received 303 grants totaling $8,459,000 from the National Endowment for the Arts, and California organizations received 87 grants totaling $10,903,937 from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The California Arts Council also used state financial resources to promote arts organizations. The California Council for the Humanities has offices in San Diego, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. California is also a member state of the regional Western States Arts Federation. A California law, effective 1 January 1977, was the first in the nation to provide living artists with royalties on the profitable resale of their work.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

For the fiscal year ending in June 2001, California had 179 public library systems, with 1,063 libraries, of which 897 were branches. The state's public library system that same year held 67,219,000 volumes of books and serial publications and had a circulation of 172,337,000. The system also had 2,734,000 audio and 2,095,000 video items, 110,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and 61 bookmobiles. California has three of the largest public library systems in the nation, along with some of the country's finest private collections. In 1998, the Los Angeles Public Library System had 5,811,492 volumes; the San Francisco Public Library, 2,137,618; and the San Diego Public Library, 2,670,375. Public library operating income came to $890,188,000 in fiscal year 2001, including $3,832,000 in federal grants and $77,456,000 in state grants. While California's public libraries had the second largest income of all states, spending per capita was mediocre.

Outstanding among academic libraries is the University of California's library at Berkeley, with its Bancroft collection of Western Americana. Stanford's Hoover Institution has a notable collection of research materials on the Russian Revolution, World War I, and worldwide relief efforts thereafter. Numerous rare books, manuscripts, and documents are held in the Huntington Library in San Marino.

California has nearly 576 museums and over 50 public gardens. Outstanding museums include the California Museum of Science and Industry, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and Natural History Museum, all in Los Angeles; the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, and Asian Art Museum of San Francisco; the San Diego Museum of Man; the California State Indian Museum in Sacramento; the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena; and the J. Paul Getty Museum at Malibu. Among historic sites are Sutter's Mill, northeast of Sacramento, where gold was discovered in 1848, and a restoration of the Mission of San Diego de Alcala, where in 1769 the first of California's Franciscan missions was established. San Diego has an excellent zoo, and San Francisco's Strybing Arboretum and Botanical Gardens has beautiful displays of Asian, Mediterranean, and California flora.

COMMUNICATIONS

Mail service in California, begun in 1851 by means of mule-drawn wagons, was soon taken over by stagecoach companies. The need for speedier delivery led to the founding in April 1860 of the Pony Express, which operated between San Francisco and Missouri. On the western end, relays of couriers picked up mail in San Francisco, carried it by boat to Sacramento, and then conveyed it on horseback to St. Joseph, Missouri, a hazardous journey of nearly 2,000 mi (3,200 km) within 10 days. The Pony Express functioned for only 16 months, however, before competition from the first transcontinental telegraph line (between San Francisco and New York) put it out of business; telegraph service between San Francisco and Los Angeles had begun a year earlier.

California was third among US households in 2004 in having telephones, with fully 96.0% of the state's occupied housing units. In addition, by June of that same year, there were 21,575,797 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 66.3% of California households had a computer and 59.6% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 6,045,283 high-speed lines in California, 5,378,549 residential and 666,734 for business.

The state's first radio broadcasting station, KQW in San Jose, began broadcasting speech and music on an experimental basis in 1912. California stations pioneered in program development with the earliest audience-participation show (1922) and the first "soap opera," One Man's Family (1932). When motion picture stars began doubling as radio performers in the 1930s, Hollywood emerged as a center of radio network broadcasting. Similarly, Hollywood's abundant acting talent, experienced film crews, and superior production facilities enabled it to become the principal production center for television programs from the 1950s onward.

In 2005 there were 241 FM and 81 AM major radio stations and 67 major television stations. California ranks second in the United States (after Texas) in the number of commercial television stations and of radio stations.

In 1999, Los Angeles alone had 3,392,820 cable television households (65% of television-owning households); second only to the New York City area. The Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto area had 64% cable penetration of 1,19,820 television households. The San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose area had cable in 72% of its TV-owning homes, and San Diego, in 83%.

A total of 1,511,571 Internet domain names had been registered in California as of 2000, the most of any state.

PRESS

In 2005 there were 68 morning dailies and 23 evening dailies; 61 newspapers had Sunday editions.

The following table shows California's leading newspapers, with their 2005 circulations:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
Fresno Fresno Bee (m,S) 160,143 191,205
Long Beach-Huntington Beach Press-Telegram (m,S) 96,967 109,296
Los Angeles Times (m,S) 902,164 1,292,274
Investor's Business Daily (m) 191,846
Daily News (m,S) 178,404 200,458
La Opinion (Spanish, m,S) 124,990 68,965
Oakland Oakland Tribune (m,S) 51,994 65,705
Orange County-Santa Ana Orange County Register (m,S) 303,418 371,046
Riverside Press-Enterprise (m,S) 182,790 186,790
Sacramento Sacramento Bee (m,S) 293,705 346,742
San Diego San Diego Union-Tribune (m,S) 366,740 433,973
San Francisco San Francisco Chronicle (a,S) 505,022 540,314
Examiner (e,S) 95,800 552,400
San Jose San Jose Mercury-News (m,S) 263,067 298,067

Investor's Business Daily has nationwide circulation. In 2004, the Los Angeles Times was the fourth-largest daily newspaper in the country, based on circulation. It ranked second in the nation for Sunday circulation the same year. The San Francisco Chronicle had the 11th-largest daily circulation and the 16th-largest Sunday circulation in 2004. San Francisco has long been the heart of the influential Hearst newspaper chain.

In 2005, there were 305 weekly publications in California. Of these there are 123 paid weeklies, 111 free weeklies, and 71 combined weeklies. The total circulation of paid weeklies (863,732) and free weeklies (2,590,133) is 3,453,865. Among the Top Fifty Shopper Publications in the United States, California's statewide Pennysaver ranked first, with a circulation of 5,000,000. The Beverley Hills Courier ranked 11th by circulation among the combined weeklies in the United States.

In August 1846, the state's first newspaper, the Californian, printed (on cigarette paperthe only paper available) the news of the US declaration of war on Mexico. The Californian moved to San Francisco in 1847 to compete with a new weekly, the California Star. When gold was discovered, both papers failed to mention the fact and both soon went out of business as their readers headed for the hills. On the whole, however, the influx of gold seekers was good for the newspaper business. In 1848, the Californian and the Star were resurrected and merged into the Alta Californian, which two years later became the state's first daily newspaper; among subsequent contributors were Mark Twain and Bret Harte. Four years later there were 57 newspapers and periodicals in the state.

The oldest continuously published newspapers in California are the Sacramento Bee (founded in 1857), San Francisco's Examiner (1865) and Chronicle (1868), and the Los Angeles Times (1881). Times owner and editor Harrison Gray Otis quickly made his newspaper preeminent in Los Angeles, a tradition continued by his son-in-law, Henry Chandler, and by the Otis-Chandler family today. Of all California's dailies, the Times is the only one with a depth of international and national coverage to rival the major East Coast papers. In 1887, young William Randolph Hearst took over his father's San Francisco Daily Examiner and introduced human interest items and sensational news stories to attract readers. The Examiner became the nucleus of the Hearst national newspaper chain, which later included the News-Call Bulletin and Herald Examiner in Los Angeles. The Bulletin, like many other newspapers in the state, ceased publication in the decades following World War II because of rising costs and increased competition for readers and advertisers.

California has more book publishersabout 225than any state except New York. Among the many magazines published in the state are Architectural Digest, Bon Appetit, Motor Trend, PC World, Runner's World, and Sierra.

ORGANIZATIONS

Californians belong to thousands of nonprofit societies and organizations, many of which have their national headquarters in the state. In 2006, there were over 25,450 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 19,002 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

National service organizations operating out of California include the National Assistance League and the Braille Institute of America, both in Los Angeles, and Knights of the Round Table International, Pasadena. Gamblers Anonymous has its international service office in Los Angeles. Some national social and civic organizations are based in the state, such as the Red Hat Society and Clowns Without Borders-USA.

Environmental and scientific organizations include the Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth, and Save-the-Redwoods League, all with headquarters in San Francisco; Animal Protection Institute of America, Sacramento; Geothermal Resources Council, Davis; and Seismological Society of America, Berkeley.

Among entertainment-oriented organizations centered in the state are the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, both in Beverly Hills; Directors Guild of America and Writers Guild of America (West), both in Los Angeles; Screen Actors Guild and American Society of Cinematographers, both in Hollywood; the American Society of Music Arrangers and Composers, in Encino; the GRAMMY Foundation in Santa Monica; and the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Burbank. There are also several fan clubs for actors, singers, and other entertainment artists. Other commercial and professional groups are the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, San Carlos; Manufacturers' Agents National Association, Irvine; National Association of Civil Service Employees, San Diego; American Society of Zoologists, Thousand Oaks. and Pacific Area Travel Association, San Francisco.

The many national sports groups with California headquarters include the Association of Professional Ball Players of America (baseball), Garden Grove; US Hang Gliding Association, Los Angeles; National Hot Rod Association, North Hollywood; Professional Karate Association, Beverly Hills; United States Youth Soccer Association, Castro Valley; Soaring Society of America, Santa Monica; International Softball Congress, Anaheim Hills; American Surfing Association, Huntington Beach; and US Swimming Association, Fresno.

There are numerous state, regional, and local organizations dedicated to arts and culture. These include the California Arts Council, California Council for the Humanities, the Pacific Arts Association, and the California Hispanic Cultural Society. The Guitar Foundation of America is based in Claremont. The Jack London Research Center, the George Sand Association, and the Eugene O'Neill Society are headquartered in the state. Religious groups with central bases in the state include the American Druze Society, Jews for Jesus, and the Church of Scientology. There are also a number of regional conservation, environmental, and agricultural organizations. California also hosts the National Investigations Committee on UFOs, Van Nuys.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

California is one of the leading travel destination in the United States. In 2004, tourism was the state's third-largest employer, with direct travel spending in the state reaching $82.5 billion that year. In 2003, California led the nation in travel and tourism with a payroll of $19.7 billion. In support of the industry, the state adopted the California Tourism Marketing Act in 1995. This marketing referendum of California businesses established the California Travel and Tourism Commission (CTTC) and a statewide marketing fund derived from mandatory assessments. The success of the California Tourism Program, a joint venture between the CTTC and the California Division of Tourism, is a model for other states.

In 2003, 85% of tourists were Californians themselves. The state also hosted 4 million international visitors that year, with 693,000 from the United Kingdom; 590,000 from Japan; 303,000 from South Korea; 260,000 from Australia and New Zealand; and 238,000 from Germany. Nearly 440,000 travelers traveled by air from Mexico, and another 3 million came by car; some 890,000 were from Canada. There are 11 official California Welcome Centers within the state; 5 international travel trade offices operate, in Brazil, Australia, Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

While the state's mild, sunny climate and varied scenery of seacoast, mountains, and desert lure many visitors, the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan areas offer the most popular tourist attractions. San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf, Chinatown, and Ghirardelli Square are popular for shopping and dining; tourists also frequent the city's unique cable cars, splendid museums, Opera House, and Golden Gate Bridge. The Golden Gate National Recreation Area, comprising 68 sq mi (176 sq km) on both sides of the entrance to San Francisco Bay, includes Fort Point in the Presidio park, Alcatraz Island (formerly a federal prison) in the bay, the National Maritime Museum with seven historic ships, and the Muir Woods, located 17 mi (27 km) north of the city. South of the city, the rugged coastal scenery of the Monterey peninsula attracts many visitors; to the northeast, the wineries of the Sonoma and Napa valleys offer their wares for sampling and sale.

Spending by travelers averages $1.4 billion per county, but Los Angeles County hosts the greatest number of tourist and receives approximately $17.9 billion in direct tourist spending. The Los Angeles area has the state's principal tourist attractions: the Disneyland amusement center at Anaheim, and Hollywood, which features visits to motion picture and television studios and sightseeing tours of film stars' homes in Beverly Hills. One of Hollywood's most popular spots is Mann's (formerly Grauman's) Chinese Theater, where the impressions of famous movie stars' hands and feet (and sometimes paws or hooves) are embedded in concrete. The New Year's Day Tournament of Roses at Pasadena is an annual tradition. Southwest of Hollywood, the Santa Monica Mountain National Recreation Area was created by Congress in 1978 as the country's largest urban park, covering 150,000 acres (61,000 hectares). The Queen Mary ocean liner, docked at Long Beach, is now a marine-oceanographic exposition center and hotel-convention complex. The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is in Simi Valley.

The rest of the state offers numerous tourist attractions, including some of the largest and most beautiful national parks in the United States. In the north are Redwood National Park and Lassen Volcanic National Park. In east-central California, situated in the Sierra Nevada, are Yosemite National Park, towering Mt. Whitney in Sequoia National Park, and Lake Tahoe on the Nevada border. About 80 mi (129 km) east of Mt. Whitney is Death Valley. Among the popular tourist destinations in southern California are the zoo and Museum of Man in San Diego's Balboa Park and the Mission San Juan Capistrano, to which, according to tradition, the swallows return each spring. The San Simeon mansion and estate of the late William Randolph Hearst are now state historical monuments.

SPORTS

There are considerably more professional sports teams in California than in any other state. California has everything from baseball to hockey to soccer to women's basketball. The Major League Baseball teams are the Los Angeles Dodgers, the San Francisco Giants, the San Diego Padres, the Oakland Athletics, and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. The Oakland Raiders, the San Francisco 49ers, and the San Diego Chargers play in the National Football League. In basketball the Los Angeles Lakers, the Los Angeles Clippers, the Golden State Warriors, and the Sacramento Kings play in the National Basketball Association. The Los Angeles Sparks and Sacramento Monarchs are in the Women's National Basketball Association. The Los Angeles Kings, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks, and the San Jose Sharks are members of the National Hockey League. The Major League Soccer teams are the Los Angeles Galaxy and San Jose Earthquakes.

Since moving from Brooklyn, New York, in 1959, the Dodgers have won the National League Pennant 10 times, going on to win the World Series in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1981, and 1988. The Athletics won the American League Pennant six times, going on to win the World Series in 1972, 1973, 1974, and 1980. The Giants, who moved from New York City in 1959, won the National League Pennant in 1962, 1989, and 2002, losing all three World Series. The Padres won the National League Pennant in 1984 and lost the World Series. They returned to the World Series after claiming the National League Pennant in 1999, but lost again. The Anaheim Angels (formerly the California Angels and currently the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim) won the 2002 World Series.

The Lakers won the National Basketball Association (NBA) Championship in 1972, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1988, and from 2000 through 2002. The Warriors won the Championship in 1975. The Los Angeles Rams, who moved to St. Louis in 1996, played in NFL title games in 1949, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978, and 1978. They won in 1951, and lost the Super Bowl in 1980. The Raiders won the Super Bowl three times: twice from Oakland, in 1977 and 1981, and once from Los Angeles, in 1984. The Raiders returned to Oakland in 1996. They were defeated by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the 2003 Super Bowl. The 49ers were the 1980s' most successful NFL team, winning the Super Bowl in 1982, 1985, 1989, 1990, and 1995. The Kings became the first California hockey team to make it to the Stanley Cup Finals in 1993, but they lost to the Montreal Canadians.

Another popular professional sport is horse racing at such well-known tracks as Santa Anita and Hollywood Park. Because of the equitable climate, there is racing virtually all year round. The California Speedway, in Fontana, hosts two NASCAR Cup Series races each year, and the Infineon Raceway hosts one NASCAR Nextel Cup event.

California's universities have fielded powerhouse teams in collegiate sports. The University of Southern California's (USC) baseball team won five consecutive national championships between 1970 and 1974. Its football team was number one in the nation in 1928, 1931, 1932, 1962, 1967, 1972, and 2004, and was a conational champion in 1974, 1978, and 2003. USC has won the Rose Bowl over 20 times, most recently in 2004. The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) basketball team won 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) titles, while the Bruins football team won Rose Bowls in 1966, 1976, 1983, 1984, and 1986. Additionally, Stanford has won six Rose Bowl titles and University of California at Berkeley, three. Stanford also won the NCAA men's basketball championship in 1942, and the women's championships in 1990 and 1992. University of California at Berkeley won the men's title in 1959. All four schools compete in the PAC-10 Conference.

Among the famous athletes born in California are Joe DiMaggio, Venus and Serena Williams, Mark McGwire, Tiger Woods, and Jeff Gordon.

FAMOUS CALIFORNIANS

Richard Milhous Nixon (191394) is the only native-born Californian ever elected to the presidency. Following naval service in World War II, he was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1946, then to the US Senate in 1950. He served as vice president during the Dwight Eisenhower administration (195361) but failed, by a narrow margin, to be elected president as the Republican candidate in 1960. Returning to his home state, Nixon ran for the California governorship in 1962 but was defeated. The next year he moved his home and political base to New York, from which he launched his successful campaign for the presidency in 1968. As the nation's 37th president, Nixon withdrew US forces from Vietnam while intensifying the US bombing of Indochina, established diplomatic relations with China, and followed a policy of détente with the Soviet Union. In 1972, he scored a resounding reelection victory, but within a year his administration was beset by the Watergate scandal. On 9 August 1974, after the House Judiciary Committee had voted articles of impeachment, Nixon became the first president ever to resign the office.

The nation's 31st president, Herbert Hoover (b.Iowa, 18741964), moved to California as a young man. There he studied engineering at Stanford University and graduated with its first class (1895) before beginning the public career that culminated in his election to the presidency on the Republican ticket in 1928. Former film actor Ronald Reagan (b.Illinois, 19112004) served two terms as state governor (196775) before becoming president in 1981. He was elected to a second presidential term in 1984.

In 1953, Earl Warren (18911974) became the first Californian to serve as US chief justice (195369). Warren, a native of Los Angeles, was elected three times to the California governorship and served in that office (194353) longer than any other person. Following his appointment to the US Supreme Court by President Eisenhower, Warren was instrumental in securing the unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) that racial segregation was unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. Other cases decided by the Warren court dealt with defendants' rights, legislative reapportionment, and First Amendment freedoms.

Before the appointment of Earl Warren, California had been represented on the Supreme Court continuously from 1863 to 1926. Stephen J. Field (b.Connecticut, 181699) came to California during the gold rush, practiced law, and served as chief justice of the state supreme court from 1859 to 1863. Following his appointment to the highest court by President Abraham Lincoln, Field served what was at that time the longest term in the court's history (186397). Joseph McKenna (b.Pennsylvania, 18431926) was appointed to the Supreme Court to replace Field upon his re-tirement. McKenna, who moved with his family to California in 1855, became US attorney general in 1897, and was then elevated by President William McKinley to associate justice (18981925).

Californians have also held important positions in the executive branch of the federal government. Longtime California resident Victor H. Metcalf (b.New York, 18531936) served as Theodore Roosevelt's secretary of commerce and labor. Franklin K. Lane (b.Canada, 18641921) was Woodrow Wilson's secretary of the interior, and Ray Lyman Wilbur (b.Iowa, 18751949) occupied the same post in the Herbert Hoover administration. Californians were especially numerous in the cabinet of Richard Nixon. Los Angeles executive James D. Hodgson (b.Minnesota, 1915) was secretary of labor; former state lieutenant governor Robert H. Finch (b.Arizona, 192595) and San Francisco native Caspar W. Weinberger (19172006) both served terms as secretary of health, education, and welfare; and Claude S. Brinegar (b.1926) was secretary of transportation. Weinberger and Brinegar stayed on at their respective posts in the Gerald Ford administration; Weinberger later served as secretary of defense under Ronald Reagan. An important figure in several national administrations, San Francisco-born John A. McCone (190291) was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (195860) and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (196165).

John Charles Frémont (b.Georgia, 181390) led several expeditions to the West, briefly served as civil governor of California before statehood, became one of California's first two US senators (serving only until 1851), and ran unsuccessfully as the Republican Party's first presidential candidate, in 1856. Other prominent US senators from the state have included Hiram Johnson (18661945), who also served as governor from 1911 to 1917; William F. Knowland (190874); and, more recently, former college president and semanticist Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (b.Canada, 190692) and former state controller Alan Cranston (19142001). Governors of the state since World War II include Reagan, Edmund G. "Pat" Brown (190596), fourth-generation Californian Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. (b.1938), and George Deukmejian (b.New York, 1928). Other prominent state officeholders are Rose Elizabeth Bird (b.Arizona, 193699), the first woman to be appointed chief justice of the state supreme court, and Wilson Riles (b.Louisiana, 1917), superintendent of public instruction, and the first black Californian elected to a state constitutional office. Prominent among mayors are Thomas Bradley (b.Texas, 191798) of Los Angeles, Pete Wilson (b.Illinois, 1933) of San Diego, Dianne Feinstein (b.1933) of San Francisco, and Janet Gray Hayes (b.Indiana, 1926) of San Jose.

Californians have won Nobel Prizes in five separate categories. Linus Pauling (b.Oregon, 190194), professor at the California Institute of Technology (192764) and at Stanford (196974), won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. Other winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry are University of California (Berkeley) professors William Francis Giauque (b.Canada, 18951982), in 1949; Edwin M. McMillan (190791) and Glenn T. Seaborg (b.Michigan, 191299), who shared the prize in 1951; and Stanford Professor Henry Taube (b.Canada, 19152005), in 1983. Members of the Berkeley faculty who have won the Nobel Prize for physics include Ernest Orlando Lawrence (b.South Dakota, 190158), in 1939; Emilio Segré (b.Italy, 190589) and Owen Chamberlain (19202006), who shared the prize in 1959; and Luis W. Alvarez (191188), in 1968. Stanford professor William Shockley (b.England, 191089) shared the physics prize with two others in 1956; William A. Fowler (b.Pennsylvania, 191195), professor at the California Institute of Technology, won the prize in 1983. The only native-born Californian to win the Nobel Prize for literature was novelist John Steinbeck (190268), in 1962. Gerald Debreu (b.France, 19212004), professor at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 1983 prize for economics.

Other prominent California scientists are world-famed horticulturist Luther Burbank (b.Massachusetts, 18491926) and nuclear physicist Edward Teller (b.Hungary, 19082003). Naturalist John Muir (b.Scotland, 18381914) fought for the establishment of Yosemite National Park. Influential California educators include college presidents David Starr Jordan (b.New York, 18511931) of Stanford, and Robert Gordon Sproul (18911975) and Clark Kerr (b.Pennsylvania, 19112003) of the University of California.

Major figures in the California labor movement were anti-Chinese agitator Denis Kearney (b.Ireland, 18471907); radical organizer Thomas Mooney (b.Illinois, 18821942); and Harry Bridges (b.Australia, 190190), leader of the San Francisco general strike of 1934. The best-known contemporary labor leader in California is Cesar Chavez (b.Arizona, 192793).

The variety of California's economic opportunities is reflected in the diversity of its business leadership. Prominent in the development of California railroads were the men known as the Big Four: Charles Crocker (b.New York, 182288), Mark Hopkins (b.New York, 181378), Collis P. Huntington (b.Connecticut, 18211900), and Leland Stanford (b.New York, 182493). California's longstanding dominance in the aerospace industry is a product of the efforts of such native Californians as John Northrop (18951981) and self-taught aviator Allen Lockheed (18891969), along with Glenn L. Martin (b.Iowa, 18861955); the San Diego firm headed by Claude T. Ryan (b.Kansas, 18981982), built the monoplane, Spirit of St. Louis, flown by Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic in 1927. Among the state's banking and financial leaders was San Jose native Amadeo Peter Giannini (18701949), founder of the Bank of America. Important figures in the development of California agriculture include Edwin T. Earl (18561919), developer of the first ventilator-refrigerator railroad car, and Mark J. Fontana (b.Italy, 18491922), whose California Packing Corp., under the brand name of Del Monte, became the largest seller of canned fruit in the United States. Leaders of the state's world-famous wine and grape-growing industry include immigrants Ágostan Haraszthy de Mokcsa (b.Hungary, 1812?69), Charles Krug (b.Prussia, 183094), and Paul Masson (b.France, 18591940), as well as two Modesto natives, brothers Ernest (b.1910) and Julio (191193) Gallo. It was at the mill of John Sutter (b.Baden, 180380) that gold was discovered in 1848.

Leading figures among the state's newspaper editors and publishers were William Randolph Hearst (18631951), whose publishing empire began with the San Francisco Examiner, and Harrison Gray Otis (b.Ohio, 18371917), longtime owner and publisher of the Los Angeles Times. Pioneers of the state's electronics industry include David Packard (b.Colorado, 191296) and William R. Hewlett (b.Michigan, 19132001); Stephen Wozniak (b.1950) and Steven Jobs (b.1955) were cofounders of Apple Computer. Other prominent business leaders include clothier Levi Strauss (b.Germany, 18301902), paper producer Anthony Zellerbach (b.Germany, 18321911), cosmetics manufacturer Max Factor (b.Poland, 18771938), and construction and manufacturing magnate Henry J. Kaiser (b.New York, 18821967).

California has been home to a great many creative artists. Native California writers include John Steinbeck, adventure writer Jack London (18761916), novelist and dramatist William Saroyan (190881), and novelist-essayist Joan Didion (b.1934). One California-born writer whose life and works were divorced from his place of birth was Robert Frost (18741963), a native of San Francisco. Many other writers who were residents but not natives of the state have made important contributions to literature. Included in this category are Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens, b.Missouri, 18351910); local colorist Bret Harte (b.New York, 18361902); author-journalist Ambrose Bierce (b.Ohio, 18421914); novelists Frank Norris (b.Illinois, 18701902), Mary Austin (b.Illinois, 18681934), and Aldous Huxley (b.England, 18941963); novelist-playwright Christopher Isherwood (b.England, 190486); and poets Robinson Jeffers (b.Pennsylvania, 18871962) and Lawrence Ferlinghetti (b.New York, 1920). California has been the home of several masters of detective fiction, including Raymond Chandler (b.Illinois, 18881959), Dashiell Hammett (b.Connecticut, 18941961), Erle Stanley Gardner (b.Massachusetts, 18891970), creator of Perry Mason, and Ross Macdonald (191583). Producer-playwright David Belasco (18531931) was born in San Francisco.

Important composers who have lived and worked in California include natives Henry Cowell (18971965) and John Cage (191292), and immigrants Arnold Schoenberg (b.Austria, 18741951), Ernest Bloch (b.Switzerland, 18801959), and Igor Stravinsky (b.Russia, 18821971). Immigrant painters include landscape artists Albert Bierstadt (b.Germany, 18301902) and William Keith (b.Scotland, 18391911), as well as abstract painter Hans Hofmann (b.Germany, 18801966). Contemporary artists working in California include Berkeley-born Elmer Bischoff (b.191691), Wayne Thiebaud (b.Arizona, 1920), and Richard Diebenkorn (b.Oregon, 192293). San Francisco native Ansel Adams (190284) is the best known of a long line of California photographers that includes Edward Curtis (b.Wisconsin, 18681952), famed for his portraits of American Indians, and Dorothea Lange (b.New Jersey, 18951965), chronicler of the 1930s migration to California.

Many of the world's finest performing artists have also been Californians: Violinist Ruggiero Ricci (b.1918) was born in San Francisco, while fellow virtuosos Yehudi Menuhin (b.New York, 191699) and Isaac Stern (b.Russia, 19202001) were both reared in the state. Another master violinist, Jascha Heifetz (b.Russia, 190184), made his home in Beverly Hills. California jazz musicians include Dave Brubeck (b.1920) and Los Angeles-reared Stan Kenton (b.Kansas, 191279).

Among the many popular musicians who live and record in the state are California natives David Crosby (b.1941), Randy Newman (b.1943), and Beach Boys Brian (b.1942) and Carl (194698) Wilson.

The list of talented and beloved film actors associated with Hollywood is enormous. Native Californians on the screen include child actress Shirley Temple (Mrs. Charles A. Black, b.1928) and such greats as Gregory Peck (19162003) and Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jean Baker, 192662). Other longtime residents of the state include Douglas Fairbanks (b.Colorado, 18831939), Mary Pickford (Gladys Marie Smith, b.Canada, 18941979), Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby (b.Washington, 190477), Cary Grant (Archibald Leach, b.England, 190486), John Wayne (Marion Michael Morrison, b.Iowa, 190779), Bette Davis (b.Massachusetts, 190889), and Clark Gable (b.Ohio, 190160). Other actors born in California include Clint Eastwood (b.1930), Robert Duvall (b.1931), Robert Redford (b.1937), Kevin Costner (b.1955), and Dustin Lee Hoffman (b.1937).

Hollywood has also been the center for such pioneer film producers and directors as D. W. Griffith (David Lewelyn Wark Griffith, b.Kentucky, 18751948), Cecil B. DeMille (b.Massachusetts, 18811959), Samuel Goldwyn (b.Poland, 18821974), Frank Capra (b.Italy, 18971991), and master animator Walt Disney (b.Illinois, 190166).

California-born athletes have excelled in every professional sport. A representative sampling includes Baseball Hall of Famers Joe Cronin (19061984), Vernon "Lefty" Gomez (190889), and Joe DiMaggio (191499), along with tennis greats John Donald "Don" Budge (19152000), Richard A. "Pancho" Gonzales (192895), Maureen "Little Mo" Connelly (193469), and Billie Jean (Moffitt) King (b.1943); Gene Littler (b.1930) in golf, Frank Gifford (b.1930) and Orenthal James "O. J." Simpson (b.1947) in football, Mark Spitz (b.1950) in swimming, and Bill Walton (b.1952) in basketball. Robert B. "Bob" Mathias (b.1930) won the gold medal in the decathlon at the 1948 and 1952 Olympic Games.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cochrane, Michelle. When AIDS Began: San Francisco and the Making of an Epidemic. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Dawson, Robert, and Gray Brechin. Farewell, Promised Land: Waking from the California Dream. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Fradkin, Philip L. The Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906: How San Francisco Nearly Destroyed Itself. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Hohm, Charles F. (ed.). California's Social Problems. New York: Longman, in collaboration with the California Sociological Association, 1997.

Klett, Mark. Yosemite in Time: Ice Ages, Tree Clocks, Ghost Rivers. San Antonio, Tex.: Trinity University Press, 2005.

McCarthy, Kevin F., and Georges Vernez. Immigration in a Changing Economy: California's Experience. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, 1997.

Orsi, Richard J. Sunset Limited: The Southern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West, 18501930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Parzybok, Tye W. Weather Extremes in the West. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press, 2005.

Preston, Thomas. Pacific Coast: Washington, Oregon, California. 2nd ed. Vol. 1 in The Double Eagle Guide to 1,000 Great Western Recreation Destinations. Billings, Mont.: Discovery Publications, 2003.

Righter, Robert W. The Battle over Hetch Hetchy: America's Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Starr, Kevin. California: A History. New York: Modern Library, 2005.

. The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Storer, Tracy Irwin. Sierra Nevada Natural History. Rev. ed. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.

Thomson, David. The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. California, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

Williams, James C. Energy and the Making of Modern California. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 1997.

Winchester, Simon. A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

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California

CALIFORNIA

CALIFORNIA, whose name derives from a fifteenth-century Spanish romance, lies along the Pacific Coast of the United States. Formidable natural barriers, including the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains to the east and the north and the Sonoran Desert to the south and southeast, isolate it from the rest of the continent. Streams plunging down from the mountains form the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Great Central Valley, while coastal ranges divide the littoral into isolated plains, valleys, and marine terraces. The state contains a wide variety of ecologies, from alpine meadows to deserts, often within a few miles of each other. San Francisco Bay, near the center of the state, is the finest natural harbor in the eastern Pacific.

The first known people came to California thousands of years ago, filtering down from the north in small bands. In the varied geography, especially the many valleys tucked into the creases of the coastal mountains, these early immigrants evolved a mosaic of cultures, like the Chumash of the southern coast, with their oceangoing canoes and sophisticated trading network, and the Pomo, north of San Francisco Bay, who made the beads widely used as money throughout the larger community.

Spanish California

Spain claimed California as part of Columbus's discovery, but the extraordinary hardships of the first few voyages along the coast discouraged further exploration until Vitus Bering sailed into the northern Pacific in 1741 to chart the region for the czar of Russia. Alarmed, the viceroy in Mexico City authorized a systematic attempt to establish control of California. In 1769, a band of Franciscan monks under Fray Junipero Serra and a hundred-odd soldiers commanded by Gaspar de Portola traveled up the peninsula of Baja California to San Diego with two hundred cattle. From there de Portola explored north, found San Francisco Bay, and established the presidio at Monterey. Spanish California became a reality.

Spanish policy was to Christianize and civilize the Native peoples they found. To do this, Serra and his followers built a string of missions, like great semifeudal farms, all along what came to be called El Camino Real and forced the Indians into their confines. Ultimately, twenty-one missions stretched from San Diego to Sonoma. The missions failed in their purpose. Enslaved and stripped of their cultures, the Native people died by the thousands of disease, mistreatment, and despair. From an estimated 600,000 before the Spanish came, by 1846 their population dropped to around 300,000.

The soldiers who came north to guard the province had no place in the missions, and the friars thought them a bad influence anyway. Soldiers built the first town, San Jose, in 1777, and four years later, twenty-two families of mixed African, Indian, and Spanish blood founded the city of Los Angeles. The settlers, who called themselves Californios, planted orange trees and grapevines, and their cattle multiplied.

In 1821, Mexico declared its independence from Spain, dooming the mission system. By 1836, all the missions were secularized. The land was to be divided up among the Natives attached to the missions but instead fell into the hands of soldiers and adventurers. The new Mexican government also began granting large tracts of land for ranches. In 1830, California had fifty ranches, but by 1840 it had more than one thousand. Power gravitated inevitably to the land holders. Mexico City installed governors in Monterey, but the Californio dons rebelled against anybody who tried to control them.

When the Swiss settler Johann Sutter arrived in 1839, the government in Monterey, believing the land was worthless desert and hoping that Sutter would form a barrier between their holdings and greedy interlopers, gave him a huge grant of land in the Sacramento Valley. But in 1842, when a band of nineteen American immigrants came over the Sierras, Sutter welcomed them to his settlement and gave them land, tools, and encouragement. John Charles Frémont, a U.S. Army mapmaker, on his first trip to California also relied on Sutter's help. Frémont's book about his expedition fired intense interest in the United States, and within the next two years, hundreds of settlers crossed the Sierras into California. Many

more came by ship around Cape Horn. By 1846, Americans outnumbered the Californios in the north.

The U.S. government itself had long coveted California. In 1829, President Andrew Jackson tried to buy it. When Mexico indignantly declined, American interest turned toward taking it by force. The argument with Mexico over Texas gave the United States the chance. In May 1846, U.S. forces invaded Mexico. On 7 July 1846, Commodore John Drake Sloat of the U.S. Navy seized Monterey, and Frémont raised the American flag at Sonoma and Sacramento. The Spanish period was over; California had become part of the United States.

The Americans Take Over

Signed on 20 May 1848, the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo officially transferred the northern third of Mexico to the United States for $15 million. Because of the gold rush, California now had a population sufficient to become a state, but the U.S. Congress was unwilling even to consider admitting it to the Union for fear of upsetting the balance between slave and free states. In this limbo a series of military governors squabbled over jurisdictions. Mexican institutions like the alcalde, or chief city administrator, remained the basic civil authorities.

Yet the American settlers demanded a functioning government. The gold rush, which began in 1848 and accelerated through 1849, made the need for a formal structure all the more pressing. When the U.S. Congress adjourned for a second time without dealing with the status of California, the military governor called for a general convention to write a constitution. On 1 September 1849, a diverse group of men, including Californios like Mariano Guadeloupe Vallejo, longtime settlers like Sutter, and newcomers like William Gwin, met in Monterey. The convention decided almost unanimously to ban slavery in California, not for moral reasons but for practical reasons: free labor could not compete with slaves. After some argument, the convention drew a line along the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada as the state's boundary. Most important, the convention provided for the election of a governor and a state legislature in the same statewide polling that ratified the constitution itself on 13 November 1849. On 22 April 1850, the first California legislature elected two U.S. senators, gave them a copy of the constitution, and sent them to Washington, D.C., to demand recognition of California as a state.

Presented with this fait accompli, Congress tilted much in favor of California, but the issue of slavery still lay unresolved. Finally, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky cobbled together the Compromise of 1850, a law that gave everybody something, and California entered the Union on 9 September 1850.

The state now needed a capital. Monterey, San Francisco, and San Jose all competed for the honor. General Vallejo offered to build a new capital on San Francisco Bay and donated a generous piece of his property for it, but the governor impetuously moved the state offices there long before the site was ready. In 1854, citizens from Sacramento lured the legislature north and showed the politicians such a good time that Sacramento became the capital of California.

After the Gold Rush

Before the discovery of gold, hardly fifteen thousand non-Indians inhabited California. By 1850, 100,000 newcomers had flooded in, most from the eastern United States, and the 1860 census counted 360,000 Californians. These people brought with them their prejudices and their politics, which often amounted to gang warfare. In San Francisco, Sam Brannan, who had become the world's first millionaire by selling shovels and shirts to the miners, organized a vigilante committee to deal with rowdy street thugs. This committee reappeared in 1851, and in 1856 it seized power in the city and held it for months, trying and hanging men at will and purging the city of the committee's enemies.

A Democratic politician, David Broderick, a brash Irish immigrant with a genius for political organization, dominated the early years of California politics and represented the state in the U.S. Senate. In Washington, his flamboyant antislavery speeches alienated the national Democratic leadership, and he was on the verge of being run out of the party when he was killed in a duel in 1856. At Broderick's death, his followers bolted the Democrats and joined the young Republican Party, sweeping Abraham Lincoln to victory in 1860 and electing Leland Stanford to the governorship. Republicans dominated state politics for decades.

San Francisco was California's first great city, growing during the gold rush from a tiny collection of shacks and a few hundred people to a thriving metropolis of fifty thousand people. The enormous wealth that poured through the city during those years raised mansions and splendid hotels and supported a bonanza culture. Writers like Bret Harte and Mark Twain got their starts in this expansive atmosphere; theater, which captivated the miners, lured international stars like Lola Montez and impresarios like David Belasco. By 1855, the gold rush was fading. Californians turned to the exploitation of other resources, farming, ranching, whaling, and manufacturing. In 1859, the discovery of the Comstock Lode in the eastern Sierra Nevada opened up another boom.

The state's most pressing need was better communication with the rest of the country, but, deeply divided over slavery, Congress could not agree on a route for a transcontinental railroad. With the outbreak of the Civil War, the slavery obstacle was removed. In 1862, Congress passed a railroad bill, and in 1863 the Central Pacific began building east from Sacramento.

The Era of the Southern Pacific

In 1869, the Central Pacific Railroad, building eastward, met the Union Pacific, building westward, at Promontory Point, Utah. The cross-country trek that had once required six grueling months now took three days. The opening of the railroad and the end of the Civil War accelerated the pace of economic and social change in California. A steady flood of newcomers swept away the old system of ranches based on Spanish grants. A land commission was set up to verify existing deeds, but confusion and corruption kept many titles unconfirmed for decades. Squatters overwhelmed Mexican-era land owners like Sutter and Vallejo. The terrible drought of the 1860s finished off the old-timers in the south, where cattle died by the thousands.

The panic of 1873 brought on a depression with steep unemployment and a yawning gap between the haves and the have-nots. A laborer might earn $2 a week, while Leland Stanford, a senator and railroad boss, spent a million dollars in a single year to build his San Francisco mansion. Yet as the railroad was vital to the growing country, labor was vital to the railroad. In 1877, railroad workers gave the country a taste of what they could do in the first national strike, which loosed a wave of violence on the country. In San Francisco the uprising took the form of anti-Chinese riots, finally put down by a recurrence of the vigilante committee of the 1850s, which raised a private army, armed it with pick handles, and battled rioters in the streets.

But labor had shown its strength. In San Francisco its chief spokesman was Denis Kearney, a fiery Irishman who in 1877 formed the Workingmen's Party, which demanded an eight-hour day, Chinese exclusion from California, restraints on the Southern Pacific Railroad, and bank reform. The sudden vigorous growth of the Workingmen's Party gave Kearney and his followers great clout in the 1878 convention, called to revise the state's out-grown 1849 constitution.

The new constitution was not a success, especially because it failed to restrain the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific controlled the legislature and many newspapers. Where it chose to build, new towns sprang up, and towns it by passed died off. The whole economy of California passed along the iron rails, and the Southern Pacific took a cut of everything. The railroad was bringing steadily more people into the state. The last Mexican-era ranchos were sold off, and whole towns were built on them, including Pasadena, which arose on the old Rancho San Pascual in 1877. This was a peak year for immigration, because the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad had finally built into Los Angeles, giving the Southern Pacific some competition. The resulting fare war reduced the ticket price to California to as low as $1, and 200,000 people moved into the state.

Immigration from Asia was a perennial political issue. Brought to California in droves to build the railroad, the Chinese were the target of savage racism from the white majority and endless efforts to exclude them. Later, the Japanese drew the same attacks. Meanwhile, the original people of California suffered near extinction. White newcomers drove them from their lands, enslaved them, and hunted them like animals. The federal government proposed a plan to swap the Indians' ancestral lands for extensive reservations and support. The tribes agreed, but Congress never accepted the treaty. The government took the lands but supplied neither reservations nor help. Perhaps 300,000 Native Americans lived in California in 1850, but by 1900, only 15,000 remained.

Progressivism

The entrenched interests of the railroad sparked widespread if fragmented opposition. Writers like Henry George, in Progress and Poverty (1880), and Frank Norris, in The Octopus (1901), laid bare the fundamental injustices of the economy. Labor organizers took the struggle more directly to the bosses. Activists, facing the brute power of an establishment that routinely used force against them, sometimes resorted to violence. In 1910, a bomb destroyed the Los Angeles Times Building, and twenty people died. The paper had opposed union organizing. In 1905, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) began to organize part-time and migrant workers in California, especially farm workers. This struggle climaxed in the Wheatland riot of 2 August 1913, in which several workers, the local sheriff, and the district attorney were killed. The National Guard stopped the riot, and the IWW was driven out of the Sacramento Valley. In 1919, the legislature passed the Criminal Syndicalism Law. Syndicalism was an IWW watchword, and the law basically attacked ideas. Protesting this law, the writer and politician Upton Sinclair contrived to be arrested for reading the U.S. Constitution out loud in public.

Nonetheless, the government of corruption and bossism was under serious assault. The great San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906 only postponed the graft prosecution of the mayor and the city's behind-the-scenes boss. Grassroots progressives in Los Angeles helped build momentum for a statewide movement that swept the Progressive Republican Hiram Johnson to the governorship in 1910. In 1911, Johnson and other progressives passed a legislative agenda that destroyed the political power of the Southern Pacific and reformed the government, giving the voters the referendum, recall, and proposition and providing for direct primary election of senators with an allowance for cross-filing, by which a candidate could run in any or all party primaries. Cross-filing substantially weakened both parties but generally favored the better organized Republicans, who remained in control of the state government.

The Rise of the South

In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal and the completion of the harbor at San Pedro made Los Angeles the most important port on the Pacific Coast. The southland was booming. Besides its wealth of orange groves and other agriculture, southern California now enjoyed a boffo movie industry, and vast quantities of oil, the new gold, lay just underfoot. The movie business took hold in southern California because the climate let filmmakers shoot pictures all year round. In 1914, seventy-three different local companies were making movies, while World War I destroyed the film business in Europe. The war stimulated California's whole economy, demanding, among other goods, cotton for uniforms, processed food, and minerals for the tools of war. Oil strikes in Huntington Beach and Signal Hill in the early 1920s brought in another bonanza.

All these industries and the people who rushed in to work in them required water. Sprawling Los Angeles, with an unquenchable thirst for water, appropriated the Owens River in the eastern Sierra in 1913. In 1936, when the Hoover Dam was finished, the city began sucking water from the Colorado River and in the 1960s from the Feather River of northern California. San Francisco, also growing, got its water by drowning the Hetch Hetchy Valley despite the efforts of John Muir, the eccentric, charismatic naturalist who founded the Sierra Club.

The boom of the Roaring Twenties collapsed in the Great Depression of the 1930s. Thousands of poor people, many from the Dust Bowl of Oklahoma and Arkansas, drifted into California, drawn by the gentle climate and the chimera of work. John Steinbeck's Pulitzer Prize–winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) described the Okies' desperation and showed a California simmering with discontent. At the same time, utopian dreams sprouted everywhere. People seemed ready to try anything to improve their lives, and they had a passion for novelty. Spiritual and dietary fads abounded, and the yawning gap between the wealth of some and the hopeless poverty of so many spawned a steady flow of social schemes. Among others, Sinclair and the physician Francis E. Townsend proposed elaborate social welfare plans, which pre-figured social security.

More significant was the return of a vigorous labor movement, particularly in San Francisco's maritime industry. The organizing of Andrew Furuseth and then Harry Bridges, who built the International Longshoreman's Association, led to the great strike of 1934, which stopped work on waterfronts from San Diego to Seattle, Washington, for ninety days. Even in open-shop Los Angeles, workers were joining unions, and their numbers made them powerful. As part of his New Deal for bringing back prosperity, President Franklin Roosevelt supported collective bargaining under the aegis of federal agencies like the National Labor Relations Board, and instead of radical outsiders, labor leaders became partners in the national enterprise.

World War II

In 1891, Japanese immigration to California began to soar, and the racist exclusionary policies already directed against the Chinese turned on this new target. In 1924, the federal Immigration Act excluded Japanese immigration. The ongoing deterioration of Japanese-American relations ultimately led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and U.S. entry into World War II. In 1942, thousands of Japanese American Californians, most of them U.S. citizens, were forced into concentration camps.

The war itself brought California out of the depression. Defense industries surged, including shipbuilding, chemicals, and the new aircraft industry. California had been a center of airplane building since the early start of the industry. Lockheed and Douglas Aircraft plants had been building warplanes for other nations as well as for the United States since the beginning of the war in Europe, and with U.S. entry into the conflict, production surged. Douglas Aircraft alone built twenty thousand planes during the war.

The state's population continued its relentless growth. Thousands came to California to work in the defense industries, and thousands more passed through the great naval base in San Diego, the army depot at Fort Ord, and the marine facility at Camp Pendleton. In April 1945, the United Nations was founded in San Francisco. World War II brought California from the back porch of America into the center of the postwar order.

Modern California

In 1940 the population of California was 6,907,387; in 1950 it was 10,586,223; and in 2000 it was 33,871,648. In part this growth was due to a nationwide shift from the Northeast to the so-called Sunbelt, but also, especially after 1964, when the new federal Immigration Law passed, immigrants from Asia and South America flooded into California.

This extraordinary growth brought formidable problems and unique opportunities. The economy diversified and multiplied until by 2000 California's economy was ranked as the fifth largest in the world. Growth also meant that pollution problems reached a crisis stage, and the diversity of the population—by 2000 no one ethnic group was in the majority—strained the capacity of the political system to develop consensus. Yet the era began with one of the most popular governors in California history, Earl Warren, so well-liked that he secured both the Republican and the Democratic nominations for governor in 1946 and received 92 percent of the votes cast. He gained an unprecedented third term in 1950. In 1952, President Dwight Eisenhower appointed him chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and Warren's opinions and judgments helped liberalize politics and made the African American struggle for social justice a mainstream issue.

California emerged from World War II with a huge production capacity and a growing labor force. The aircraft industry that had contributed so much to the war effort now turned to the production of jet planes, missiles, satellites, and spacecraft. Industrial and housing construction boomed, and agriculture continued as the ground of the state's wealth, producing more than one hundred cash crops. In 1955, Disneyland, the first great theme park, opened, reaffirming California's corner on the fantasy industry.

The opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1939 had signaled the state's increasing dependence on automobiles, fueled by an abundant supply of gas and oil and by Californians' love of flexibility and freedom. Highway projects spun ribbons of concrete around the major urban areas and out into the countryside. Los Angeles grew more rapidly than any other area, increasing its population by 49.8 percent between 1940 and 1950. Above it, the air thickened into a brown soup of exhaust fumes.

Population growth changed politics as well. In 1958, after decades of Republican control, the Democrat Edmund Brown Sr. took advantage of his opponents' divisions and, in a vigorous door-to-door campaign, won the governorship. California's political spectrum included extremes at either end. On the right, the John Birch Society incorporated all the paranoia of the postwar anticommunist crusade, and on the left, the free speech movement at the University of California demonstrated many young people's anarchistic defiance of authority. Throughout the rest of the century, political consensus and civility itself were often out of reach.

In 1962, Governor Brown campaigned for reelection against Richard M. Nixon, who, two years before had lost the U.S. presidency to John F. Kennedy. Brown won, sending Nixon into what seemed a political grave. But California's needs and priorities were changing, and steadily growing diversity meant sizable blocs developed behind a variety of conflicting philosophies. No politician could accommodate them all, and many, like Nixon, chose to exploit those divisions.

On 11 August 1965, the discontent of the poor African American community of Watts in Los Angeles exploded in one of the worst riots in U.S. history. Thirty-four people were killed, hundreds were wounded, and $200 million in property was destroyed. Watts inaugurated years of racial violence. An indirect casualty was Governor Brown, who lost the 1966 gubernatorial race to the former actor Ronald Reagan. Reagan came into office announcing his intentions to restore order, to trim the budget, to lower taxes, and to reduce welfare. In actuality, he more than doubled the budget, raised taxes, and greatly increased the number of people on the dole. Nonetheless, Reagan's personal charm and optimism made him irresistible to voters suffering a steady bombardment of evil news.

In 1965, the dissatisfaction of rebellious youth found a cause in the escalating war in Vietnam. Demonstrations featuring the burning of draft cards and the American flag spread from campuses to the streets. By 1968, it seemed the country was collapsing into civil war, and the country was obviously losing in Vietnam. Also in 1968, U.S. voters elected Nixon to the presidency, but his flagrant abuse of power led to his forced resignation in 1974.

Bruised and self-doubting, California and the rest of the nation limped into a post–Vietnam War economic and political gloom. In 1974, Edmund G. Brown Jr. was elected governor of California. Brown, whose frugal lifestyle charmed those tired of Reagan's grandiosity, talked of an era of limits, supported solar and wind power, and appointed a woman as chief justice of the state supreme court. At first, like Reagan, Brown enjoyed a steadily rising population and government revenues in the black. Then, in 1975, Proposition 13 and an accelerating recession derailed the state economy. Proposition 13, which rolled back and restricted property taxes, was a rebellion by middle-class home-owning Californians against apparently limitless state spending. The proposition was one of the tools Hiram Johnson had added to the California constitution in 1911. Although long underused, it has become a favorite tool of special interest groups, who have placed hundreds of propositions on state ballots calling for everything from exclusion of homosexuals from the teaching profession to demands that the government purchase redwood forests and legalize marijuana. Many propositions have been overturned in the courts, yet the proposition is uniquely effective in bringing popular will to bear on policy. Beginning in the 1970s, propositions helped make environmentalism a central issue in state politics.

George Deukmejian, a Republican, became governor in 1982. A former state attorney general, Deukmejian appointed more than one thousand judges and a majority of the members of the state supreme court. Continuing economic problems dogged the state. Revenues shrank, and unemployment rose. The Republican Pete Wilson, elected governor in 1990, faced this sluggish economy and an ongoing budget crisis. One year the state ran for sixty-one days without a budget, and state workers received vouchers instead of paychecks.

In 1992, Los Angeles erupted in another race riot. The sensational media circus of the O. J. Simpson murder trial in 1995 exacerbated racial tensions further, and Wilson's efforts to restrict immigration, especially the illegal immigration through California's porous border with Mexico, aroused the wrath of liberals and Latinos.

Fortunately, the state's economy was climbing out of the prolonged stagnation of the 1980s. Once again California was reinventing itself. Shortly after World War II, Stanford University had leased some of its endowment lands to high-technology companies, and by the 1990s, the Silicon Valley, so-called for the substance used in computer chips, was leading the explosively expanding computer and Internet industry. The irrational exuberance of this industry developed into a speculative bubble, whose bursting in 2000 precipitated the end of the long boom of the 1990s.

The 2000 census confirmed California's extraordinary diversity. Out of a total population of 33,871,648, no single ethnic group held a majority. Whites, at 46.7 percent of the total, still outnumbered any other group, but Latinos now boasted a healthy 32.4 percent, Asians amounted to 10.9 percent, and African Americans totaled 6.7 percent. Significantly, 4.7 percent of the state's residents described themselves as multiracial. But perhaps the happiest statistic was the jump in the number of Native California Indians, who had been nearly wiped out at the beginning of the twentieth century, to more than 100,000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beck, Warren A., and David A. Williams. California: A History of the Golden State. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972.

Pomeroy, Earl S. The Pacific Slope: A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973.

Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History. Rev. 5th ed. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

Soule, Frank, et al. Annals of San Francisco. New York and San Francisco: D. Appleton, 1855.

Starr, Kevin. Americans and the California Dream, 1850–1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

———. Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940– 1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

CeceliaHolland

See alsoAlcaldes ; Asian Americans ; Bear Flag Revolt ; Chinese Americans ; Frémont Explorations ; Gold Rush, California ; Golden Gate Bridge ; Hollywood ; Japanese American Incarceration ; Japanese Americans ; Los Angeles ; Mexican-American War ; Mission Indians of California ; Proposition 13 ; Railroads ; Sacramento ; San Diego ; San Francisco ; San José ; Silicon Valley ; Watts Riots .

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California

CALIFORNIA


California is so large and so diverse that it is difficult to characterize. Native American, Spanish, and Mexican influences marked its earlier centuries. White settlers who came to exploit its various resources (from sea otter to beavers and gold) led it into statehood. Now an agricultural and manufacturing giant, the state has experienced many economic booms but has also weathered its share of harsh times.

European economic interest in California began in the sixteenth century, when Spanish explorers in their search for a western passage to the East discovered Baja California (now a part of Mexico). Believing there was a transcontinental canal, Juan Rodriquez de Cabrillo first landed in Upper (or Alta) California in 1542, at the bay now known as San Diego. Until the late eighteenth century, however, Europeans were little interested in the region. Spurred on by its economic rivals in 1769, Spain sent Father Junipero Serra (17131784) and military leader Gaspar de Portol to establish the first permanent European settlement in California. Franciscan friars established some 21 missions along the coast to convert the Native American population and also built four military outposts called presidios. San Jose de Guadalupe was the first civilian settlement in California.

Having done little to strengthen its California outposts, Spain lost control of the territory after the Mexican Revolution of 1821. The Mexicans gradually began redistributing the vast lands and herds owned by the missions to Mexican private citizens, who established huge ranchos (ranches) that produced grain and large herds of cattle. The rancheros (ranch owners) traded hides and tallow for manufactured products from foreign traders along the coast. They assigned most of the manual labor on the ranchos to Indian workers.

U.S. citizens first came to California in pursuit of the sea otter, whose pelts were shipped to China at profitable rates. Others came to exploit the hide and tallow trade, and inland explorers profited from the hunting of beavers. U.S. interest in California began to grow and during the administration of President James K. Polk (18451849) war was waged on Mexico. By the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, California was ceded to the United States.

By far the largest effect on the economy of the new territory was the Gold Rush of 1849, which began with the discovery of gold along the American River. Thousands of prospectors poured into California, and by 1852, $80 million in gold was being mined in the state. The state's population quadrupled during the 1850s and grew at two times the national rate in the 1860s and 1870s. California became the thirty-first state in 1851.

Racial discrimination and racial divisions marked the first years of statehood, as white citizens attempted to put down the state's growing ethnic populations. New tax laws were passed to discourage Latin American and Chinese miners, and efforts were made to displace the original Mexican owners of large ranchos.

The completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869 brought California into extensive contact with the rest of the country. The directors of the Central Pacific railroadLeland Stanford (18241893), Collis P. Huntington (18211900), Charles Crocker (18221888), and Mark Hopkins (18141878)wielded tremendous political and economic influence in the state, creating a transportation and land monopoly. Considerable opposition to this monopoly was expressed by novelist Frank Norris in his 1901 novel The Octopus.

In the late nineteenth century irrigation projects made it possible for agriculture to replace gold and silver mining as the mainstay of the economy. Orange and lemon groves began to supply most of the nation with citrus fruit. In the 1870s the state became the top cattle-raising state and the second-highest producer of wheat. California's population burgeoned in the 1880s because of the success of the citrus industry, the increasing popularity of the state as a destination for invalids, and a railroad rate war which made transportation cheap. The urban population grew rapidly during the early twentieth century. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 brought a halt to that city's amazing success story, but only for a few years.

Los Angeles and San Francisco, the two major urban areas, were each at about one million people in 1920. The two cities increasingly vied with one another for water rights, vital to a growing population. Over the objections of conservationists, San Francisco created a reservoir by damming the Tuolumne River at the Hetch Hetchy Valley. Los Angeles angered farmers along the Owens Valley by diverting nearly all the water in the Owens River through an aqueduct. Manufacturing in the urban areas soon began to outstrip mining and agriculture as the major employer in the state.

California continued to boom throughout the 1920s as people were drawn to the state's favorable climate, natural beauty, and economic opportunities. Oil was discovered in the Los Angeles Basin, placing the state for a time in first place in crude oil production. By 1930 the size of Los Angeles had more than doubled, growing to over 2.2 million. The city also became known for its expanding network of highways and its large number of motor cars, a distinction that would plague Los Angeles in the traffic-clogged years to come.

Like other states California suffered during the Great Depression (19291939), but also gained in some areas. People from all over the United States, especially from the dust bowl of the southern Great Plains, fled to California in search of a better life. The California film industry grew as well, giving people in the United States movies that helped them escape from their worries during the 1930s. By 1940 the United States boasted more movie theaters than banks.

1930s politics in the state were marked by several socialist-oriented ideas, such as the Townsend Plan and the "Ham 'n' Eggs" Plan, which promised cash payments for the elderly. A candidate for governor in 1934, author Upton Sinclair (18781968, also a well-known socialist) promised to "end poverty in California," but he lost to the Republican incumbent. Only World War II (19391945) brought the state to real economic health by expanding the number of military installations, aircraft factories, and shipyards in the state. Along with this expansion came the increasing importance of ethnic minorities in California, particularly Mexican and Japanese Americans.

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s California continued to grow rapidly, reaching the top population ranking among all states in 1963. The 1970s saw a slowdown in growth after a number of industries, particularly aerospace, experienced a downturn. The military buildup during Californian Ronald Reagan's presidency (19811989), however, helped the economy bounce back in the 1980s. It declined again in the late 1980s and early 1990s as defense spending decreased, real estate became expensive, and environmental regulations discouraged business. By 1992 the state's unemployment rate had reached 10.1 percent, with jobs in aerospace and manufacturing dropping by 24 percent. Another San Francisco earthquake in 1989 caused extreme economic stress in that city, with $5 to $7 billion in property damage. Still another earthquake northwest of Los Angeles in 1994 caused $13 to $20 million in property damage.

California felt the economic stress of illegal immigration more than most states and also struggled more with its treatment of ethnic minorities. Proposition 187, passed in 1994, banned illegal immigrants from welfare, education, and non-emergency health care. In 1995 Governor Pete Wilson issued an executive order banning the use of affirmative action in state hiring and contracting and in university admissions.

By the 1990s California had the largest work force in the nation and the greatest number of employed workers. In 1995, 49 percent of the total of employees in the guided missile and space vehicle industry were located in California. In 1995 nearly 18 percent of all workers were members of labor unions. The organizing of migrant farm workers has been the most difficult task. During the 1960s labor activist Cesar Chavez (19271993) mobilized migrants to secure bargaining rights in the grape, lettuce, and berry fields of the San Joaquin Valley. An organized nationwide boycott of these products helped this effort. After surviving a challenge from the Teamsters Union, the United Farm Workers gained the right to free elections among farm workers.

California led the nation in economic output and total income in the late 1990s, with per capita income at over $25,000 in 1996. It had quite a diversified economy, including manufacturing, technology, retail trade, banking, finance, and personal services. Not to be forgotten is the growth of the California wine industry, which became both a prestigious consumer commodity and a source of tourist dollars in the Napa and Sonoma valleys and in other grape-growing areas of the state. Tourism was a major contributor to the state's economy in many other areas of California, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, and the many national and state parks, as well as on the spectacular coastline.

See also: Gold Rush of 1849, Mexican Cession, James Polk


FURTHER READING

Bean, Walton, and James J. Rawls. California: An Interpretive History, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Caughey, John W. California: A Remarkable State's Life-History, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.

Kahrl, William L. Water and Power: The Conflict over Los Angeles's Water Supply in the Owens Valley. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982.

Roske, Ralph J. Everyman's Eden: A History of California. New York: Macmillan, 1968.

Watkins, T.H. California: An Illustrated History. New York: Outlet, 1983.

we this day worked our machine. oh christmas, where are the joys and festivities? not in california surely.

joseph wood, miner, christmas day, 1849

if it were an independent nation with the same gross product, california would rank with the greatest powers of the earth in wealth.

ralph j. roske, everyman's eden: a history of california, 1968

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California

CALIFORNIA


Anaheim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Fresno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Los Angeles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Monterey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Oakland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Riverside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Sacramento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

San Diego . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

San Francisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

San Jose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Santa Ana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

The State in Brief

Nickname: Golden State

Motto: Eureka (I have found it)

Flower: Golden poppy

Bird: California valley quail

Area: 163,695 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 3rd)

Elevation: Ranges from 282 feet below sea level to 14,494 feet above sea level

Climate: Extremely varied, with zones ranging from sub-tropical to subarctic, but in the main two seasonswet from October to April, dry from May to September

Admitted to Union: September 9, 1850

Capital: Sacramento

Head Official: Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 23,668,000

1990: 30,380,000

2000: 33,871,653

2004 estimate: 35,893,799

Percent change, 19902000: 13.8%

U.S. rank in 2004: 1st

Percent of residents born in state: 50.2% (2000)

Density: 217.2 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 1,384,872

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 20,170,059

Black or African American: 2,263,882

American Indian and Alaska Native: 333,346

Asian: 3,697,513

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 116,961

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 10,966,556

Other: 5,682,241

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 2,486,981

Population 5 to 19 years old: 7,747,590

Percent of population 65 years and over: 10.6%

Median age: 33.3 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 541,046

Total number of deaths (2003): 219,487 (infant deaths, 2,560)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 55,750

Economy

Major industries: Agriculture, manufacturing (transportation equipment, electronics, machinery), biotechnology, aerospace, tourism

Unemployment rate: 5.8% (January 2005)

Per capita income: $33,403 (2003; U.S. rank: 11th)

Median household income: $48,979 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 12.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: ranges from 1.0% to 9.3%

Sales tax rate: 7.25% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)

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California

California State in w USA, on the Pacific coast; the largest state by population and the third largest in area. The capital is Sacramento. Other major cities include Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego and Oakland. In the w, coast ranges run n to s, paralleled by the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the e; between them lies the fertile Central Valley, drained by the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In the se is a broad desert area. The Spanish explored the coast in 1542, but the first European settlement was in 1769, when Spaniards founded a Franciscan mission at San Diego. The area became part of Mexico and huge cattle ranches were established. Settlers came from the USA and, during the Mexican War, US forces occupied California (1846); it was ceded to the USA at the war's end. After gold was discovered (1848), the Gold Rush swelled the population from 15,000 to 250,000 in just four years. In 1850, California joined the Union. In the 20th century, the discovery of oil and development of service industries attracted further settlers. California is the leading producer of many crops in the United States, including a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. Poultry, fishing and dairy produce are also important. Forests cover c.40% of the land and support an important timber industry. Mineral deposits include oil, natural gas, and a variety of ores valuable in manufacturing (the largest economic sector). Industries: aircraft, aerospace equipment, electronic components, missiles, wine. Tourism is also a vital industry. Area: 403,971sq km (155,973sq mi). Pop. (2000) 33,871,648.

Statehood :

September 9, 1850

Nickname :

The Golden State

State bird :

California valley quail

State flower :

Golden poppy

State tree :

California redwood

State motto :

Eureka!

http://www.ca.gov

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California

CaliforniaCampania, Catania, pannier •apnoea •Oceania, Tanya, Titania •biennia, denier, quadrennia, quinquennia, septennia, triennia •Albania, balletomania, bibliomania, crania, dipsomania, egomania, erotomania, kleptomania, Lithuania, Lusitania, mania, Mauritania, megalomania, miscellanea, monomania, nymphomania, Pennsylvania, Pomerania, pyromania, Rainier, Romania, Ruritania, Tasmania, Transylvania, Urania •Armenia, bergenia, gardenia, neurasthenia, proscenia, schizophrenia, senior, SloveniaAbyssinia, Bithynia, curvilinear, Gdynia, gloxinia, interlinear, Lavinia, linear, rectilinear, Sardinia, triclinia, Virginia, zinnia •insignia • Sonia • insomnia • Bosnia •California, cornea •Amazonia, ammonia, Antonia, Babylonia, begonia, bonier, Catalonia, catatonia, Cephalonia, Estonia, Ionia, Laconia, Livonia, Macedonia, mahonia, Patagonia, pneumonia, Rondônia, sinfonia, Snowdonia, valonia, zirconia •junior, petunia •hernia, journeyer

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California

CALIFORNIA

CALIFORNIA , a state located on the Pacific Coast of the United States with a temperate climate, abundant natural resources, and numerous ports; it achieved statehood in 1850. The Jewish population in the late 1960s was more than 650,000. By the mid-1990s it was estimated at 922,000, and by 2002 it reached 999,000 out of a total population of 31,211,000, with large Jewish communities in *Los Angeles, the *San Francisco bay area (including *Oakland), *San Diego, *Sacramento, and Orange County (75,000). Among the less sizable communities are Ventura County (9,000), San Bernardino (3,000), Santa Barbara (4,500) and Santa Cruz (4,000). Smaller communities are found throughout the state. The Gold Rush of 1849, publicized world-wide, first attracted Jews to California. They traveled from England, France, Poland, Posen, Russia, the German states and many parts of the United States, to join with people from all corners of the globe seeking success in the former Mexican Territory. Some were American Sephardim, several generations in this country, while many others were immigrants who settled elsewhere in the United States before the great gold strike. Jewish and civic communities developed overnight, with Jews as California's founders

serving in leadership positions in the new multi-ethnic state. Without a Protestant hegemony and with little antisemitism, Jews and Jewish institutions flourished. Many Jews, having first lived in the eastern United States, were familiar with English and American customs. Selling dry goods and clothing to miners and other new arrivals, most Jewish men became merchants, wholesalers, or clerks in San Francisco, Sacramento, or the numerous river and mining towns. Jewish women, usually the wives or sisters of merchants, also owned shops and worked as milliners and teachers. Frequently, merchants operated branches of their city stores in the foothill gold-mining camps or in the river supply towns under the management of relatives or friends whom they brought from Europe. Jews in Nevada City, Grass Valley, Mokelumne Hill, Jackson, Placerville, Marysville, and Sonora gathered to observe holidays and established cemeteries. Placerville and Jackson also built synagogues. By 1861 there were Jewish communities all over the state. Men and women established benevolent, religious, fraternal, and social associations. Maẓẓot were brought in from the larger cities in the spring, and in the fall stores closed for the High Holidays. Ephemeral Jewish communities are said to have existed in Coloma, Fiddletown, and Jesu Maria. Folsom, Los Angeles, Merced, Oakland, Oroville, Petaluma, San Bernardino, San Diego, *San Jose, San Luis Obispo, Sacramento, Santa Cruz, Shasta, Stockton, Visalia, and Woodland have long-lived Jewish communities.

By end of the 1870s, owing to the end of the gold rush, many Jews moved to the larger cities of the state, especially San Francisco. The estimated Jewish population of California then was 18,580, with the majority living in San Francisco. Indeed, Jews represented 7 to 8 percent of the city's population. From the 1850s to the present day San Francisco has supported a continuous Jewish presence. Organized Jewish religious life in California dates to the High Holidays of 1849, when services were conducted in San Francisco and Sacramento. The following year when men and women gathered in San Francisco plans were made to establish a congregation. However, when they could not agree on the selection of a proper shoḥet (ritual slaughterer), San Francisco's Jews founded two congregations in 1851. Sherith Israel's members were English, Polish, Posners, and Sephardim, while the French, Germans, and American-born Sephardim organized Congregation Emanu-El. Together with their benevolent associations the two congregations purchased adjoining land for cemeteries. The first lodge of B'nai B'rith in California and the West, Ophir Lodge No. 21, San Francisco, was chartered on August 13, 1855. Its members in 1870 founded the first region-wide organization, the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum, to ensure that Jewish boys and girls were raised by their co-religionists and not by church orphanages. Early San Francisco also supported several religious schools for children, and a day school started by Rabbi Julius *Eckman, the state's first rabbi, who arrived in 1854. Eckman, beginning in 1857, also published The Weekly Gleaner. Jewish newspapers kept readers throughout the Pacific states informed about community life. In the 1870s Californians could subscribe to four Jewish newspapers.

In the 19th century, when San Francisco was the commercial capital of the U.S. Far West, merchants, Jewish and gentile, and the communities they served, from Alaska to New Mexico and Hawaii to Montana, depended upon the Jewish manufacturers and distributors of San Francisco. Many northern California Jewish families achieved prominence in various mercantile and agricultural enterprises. Most noted were Levi *Strauss for denim pants, M.J. Brandenstein for coffee, David Lubin for agriculture, Adolph *Sutro for mining engineering and the *Zellerbach family for paper. Families including the Fleishhacker, Steinhart, Stern, Hellman, Dinkelspiel, Gerstle, Lilienthal, Sloss and Sutro became noted for their philanthropy. San Francisco's Jewish women, many the daughters and grand-daughters of the city's founders, were active in social, cultural, and philanthropic organizations. The Emanu-El Sisterhood for Personal Service, started in 1894, assisted East European immigrants and later established a settlement house for Jewish working girls. Hadassah formed a chapter in the state in 1917 to support its medical causes in Palestine, later Israel. California was also home to anti-Zionists who were active members in the *American Council for Judaism, an organization committed to combating Jewish nationalism. Its large membership in California, especially San Francisco, may be attributed to an adherence to classical Reform and the view that California for them was the "Promised Land." After the establishment of the State of Israel, the community fully supported it.

In Los Angeles a Hebrew Benevolent Society was organized in 1854, followed by Congregation B'nai B'rith in 1862, now Wilshire Boulevard Temple. In the 20th century there was a great influx of Jews to Los Angeles, and the Jewish population of the southern part of the state soon overtook that in the northern part. Jews were attracted to Los Angeles because of its favorable climate and employment possibilities. The warm climate was a factor in the establishment by Jews of hospitals and health centers, the most notable of which is the *City of Hope Medical Center in Duarte. The advent of motion pictures also brought many Jews to southern California who soon emerged as the leaders of the industry: the *Warner brothers, Louis B. *Mayer, Samuel *Goldwyn, Irving *Thalberg, William *Fox, Jesse *Lasky, David O. *Selznick, and others. There has also been a great deal of participation by Jews in radio, television, and recording.

From statehood Jews participated in California's public life, Solomon *Heydenfeldt on the State Supreme Court (1851–57); Adolph Sutro, mayor of San Francisco (1895–97); Julius *Kahn in Congress (1899–1903, 1905–24) and his wife, Florence Prag Kahn (1924–1937), elected after Julius's death, became the nation's first Jewish congresswoman. Many other California Jews have been elected to national, statewide, and local offices. In the early 21st century the state was represented by two Jewish senators Barbara *Boxer and Dianne *Feinstein and several Jewish House members.

The Jewish population of the state increased dramatically after World War ii because of increased employment. Jews, like other families, began to move to suburbs and new community organizations, schools, and synagogues complemented urban life. In 2005 there were well over 100 synagogues in Los Angeles and the immediate vicinity and almost 40 in the greater San Francisco-Oakland Bay area. In the smaller cities of the state there were congregations from Chico and Eureka in the north to Chula Vista and El Centro on the Mexican border. Fourteen communities maintained Jewish Federations: Bakersfield, East Bay, Fresno, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Sacramento, Salinas, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Monica, Stockton, and Ventura. Ten Jewish periodicals were published within the state from Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego. There were Hillel Foundations at almost every major college and university campus in the state. The state is a rich Jewish religious and cultural center with Jewish museums, such as the Judah Magnes Museum in Berkeley and the *Skirball Center in Los Angeles, chapters of most Jewish organizations and significant theological seminaries. Some national and international organizations such as the *Simon Wiesenthal Center and Mazon have their headquarters in California. In recent years Jews from all over the world have immigrated to California, and its Jewish composition continues to be diverse. With institutions and congregations that reflect all aspects of Jewish life, California Jews have thrived in an urban multi-ethnic society.

add. bibliography:

A.F. Kahn. Jewish Voices of the California Gold Rush: A Documentary History, 1849–1880 (2002); idem (ed.), Jewish Life in the American West: Perspectives of Immigration, Settlement and Community (2002); A.F. Kahn and Marc Dollinger, California Jews (2003); R.E. Levinson. The Jews in the California Gold Rush (1994); M. Rischin and J. Livingston (eds.), Jews of the American West (1991).

[Robert E. Levinson /

Ava F. Kahn (2nd ed.)]

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California

California (kăl´Ĭfôr´nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).

Facts and Figures

Area, 158,693 sq mi (411,015 sq km). Pop. (2010) 37,253,956, a 10% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Sacramento. Largest city, Los Angeles. Statehood, Sept. 9, 1850 (31st state). Highest pt., Mt. Whitney, 14,491 ft (4,417 m); lowest pt., Death Valley, 282 ft (86 m) below sea level. Nickname, Golden State. Motto,Eureka [I Have Found It]. State bird, California valley quail. State flower, golden poppy. State tree, California redwood. Abbr., Calif.; CA

Geography

Ranking third among the U.S. states in area, California has a diverse topography and climate. A series of low mountains known as the Coast Ranges extends along the 1,200-mi (1,930-km) coast. The region from Point Arena, N of San Francisco, to the southern part of the state is subject to tremors and sometimes to severe earthquakes caused by tectonic stress along the San Andreas fault. The Coast Ranges receive heavy rainfall in the north, where the giant cathedrallike redwood forests prevail, but the climate of these mountains is considerably drier in S California, and S of the Golden Gate no major rivers reach the ocean. Behind the coastal ranges in central California lies the great Central Valley, a long alluvial valley drained by the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In the southeast lie vast wastelands, notably the Mojave Desert, site of Joshua Tree National Park.

Rising as an almost impenetrable granite barrier E of the Central Valley is the Sierra Nevada range, which includes Mt. Whitney, Kings Canyon National Park, Sequoia National Park, and Yosemite National Park. The Cascade Range, the northern continuation of the Sierra Nevada, includes Lassen Volcanic National Park. Lying E of the S Sierra Nevada is Death Valley National Park. The drier portions of the state especially are subject periodically to large, wind-driven fires; in certain hilly areas sometimes devastating mudslides occur, particularly in the rainy season after large fires.

Sacramento is the state capital. The largest cities are Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Long Beach, Oakland, and Sacramento.

Economy

California has an enormously productive economy, which for a nation would be one of the ten largest in the world. Although agriculture is gradually yielding to industry as the core of the state's economy, California leads the nation in the production of fruits and vegetables, including carrots, lettuce, onions, broccoli, tomatoes, strawberries, and almonds. The state's most valuable crops are grapes, cotton, flowers, and oranges; dairy products, however, contribute the single largest share of farm income, and California is again the national leader in this sector. The state also produces the major share of U.S. domestic wine. California's farms are highly productive as a result of good soil, a long growing season, and the use of modern agricultural methods. Irrigation is critical, especially in the San Joaquin Valley and Imperial Valley. The gathering and packing of crops is done largely by seasonal migrant labor, primarily Mexicans. Fishing is another important industry.

Much of the state's industrial production depends on the processing of farm produce and upon such local resources as petroleum, natural gas, lumber, cement, and sand and gravel. Since World War II, however, manufacturing, notably of electronic equipment, computers, machinery, transportation equipment, and metal products, has increased enormously. Defense industries, a base of the economy especially in S California, have declined following the end of the cold war, a serious blow to the state. But many high-tech companies and small low-tech, often low-wage, companies remain in S California, in what is said to be the largest manufacturing belt in the United States. Farther north, "Silicon Valley," between Palo Alto and San Jose, so called because it is the nation's leading producer of semiconductors, is also a focus of software development.

California continues to be a major U.S. center for motion-picture, television film, and related entertainment industries, especially in Hollywood and Burbank. Tourism also is an important source of income. Disneyland, Sea World, and other theme parks draw millions of visitors each year, as do San Francisco with its numerous attractions and several entertainment-dominated Los Angeles–area communities. California also abounds in natural beauty, seen especially in its many national parks and forests—home to such attractions as Yosemite Falls and giant sequoia trees—and along miles of Pacific beaches.

One of the state's most acute problems is its appetite for water. The once fertile Owens valley is now arid, its waters tapped by Los Angeles 175 mi (282 km) away. In the lush Imperial Valley, irrigation is controlled by the All-American Canal, which draws from the Colorado River. In the Central Valley the water problem is one of poor distribution, an imbalance lessened by the vast Central Valley project. Cutbacks in federally funded water projects in the 1970s and 80s led many California cities to begin buying water from areas with a surplus, but political problems associated with water sharing continue. California's failure to develop a long-term plan to end surplus withdrawals from the Colorado led the federal government to stop the release of surplus water to the state in 2003.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

The state's first constitution was adopted in 1849. The present constitution, dating from 1879, is noted for its provisions for public initiative and referendum—which have led at times to difficulties in governance—and for recall of public officials. The state's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. California's bicameral legislature has a senate with 40 members and an assembly with 80 members. The state elects 2 senators and 53 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 55 electoral votes. In the 1980s and 1990s, California elected Republican governors—George Deukemejian (1982, 1986) and Pete Wilson (1990, 1994)— before the Democrat Gray Davis was elected in 1998 (and reelected in 2002). In 2003, Davis was recalled and Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to succeed him; Schwarzenegger was reelected in 2006. Jerry Brown, a Democrat who had been been governor in the 1970s and 80s, was elected to the post again in 2010 and 2014. In 1992, California became the first state to simultaneously elect two women to the U.S. Senate—Democrats Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein.

Among the state's more prominent institutions of higher learning are the Univ. of California, with nine campuses; the California State University System, with 23 campuses; Occidental College and the Univ. of Southern California, at Los Angeles; Stanford Univ., at Stanford; the California Institute of Technology, at Pasadena; Mills College, at Oakland; and the Claremont Colleges, at Claremont. After a period from the 1960s through the 1970s when the state's well-financed public institutions were the envy of the nation, California's colleges have been forced to retrench by tax-cutting initiatives.

History

European Exploration and Colonization

The first voyage (1542) to Alta California (Upper California), as the region north of Baja California (Lower California) came to be known, was commanded by the Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who explored San Diego Bay and the area farther north along the coast. In 1579 an English expedition headed by Sir Francis Drake landed near Point Reyes, N of San Francisco, and claimed the region for Queen Elizabeth I. In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno, another Spaniard, explored the coast and Monterey Bay.

Colonization was slow, but finally in 1769 Gaspar de Portolá, governor of the Californias, led an expedition up the Pacific coast and established a colony on San Diego Bay. The following year he explored the area around Monterey Bay and later returned to establish a presidio there. Soon afterward Monterey became the capital of Alta California. Accompanying Portolá's expedition was Father Junipero Serra, a Franciscan missionary who founded a mission at San Diego. Franciscans later founded several missions that extended as far N as Sonoma, N of San Francisco. The missionaries sought to Christianize the Native Americans but also forced them to work as manual laborers, helping to build the missions into vital agricultural communities (see Mission Indians). Cattle raising was of primary importance, and hides and tallow were exported. The missions have been preserved and are now open to visitors.

In 1776, Juan Bautista de Anza founded San Francisco, where he established a military outpost. The early colonists, called the Californios, lived a pastoral life and for the most part were not interfered with by the central government of New Spain (as the Spanish empire in the Americas was called) or later (1820s) by that of Mexico. The Californios did, however, become involved in local politics, as when Juan Bautista Alvarado led a revolt (1836) and made himself governor of Alta California, a position he later persuaded the Mexicans to let him keep. Under Mexican rule the missions were secularized (1833–34) and the Native Americans released from their servitude. The degradation of Native American peoples, which continued under Mexican rule and after U.S. settlers came to the area, was described by Helen Hunt Jackson in her novel Ramona (1884). Many mission lands were subsequently given to Californios, who established the great ranchos, vast cattle-raising estates. Colonization of California remained largely Mexican until the 1840s.

Russian and U.S. Settlement

Russian fur traders had penetrated south to the California coast and established Fort Ross, north of San Francisco, in 1812. Jedediah Strong Smith and other trappers made the first U.S. overland trip to the area in 1826, but U.S. settlement did not become significant until the 1840s. In 1839, Swiss-born John Augustus Sutter arrived and established his "kingdom" of New Helvetia on a vast tract in the Sacramento valley. He did much for the overland American immigrants, who began to arrive in large numbers in 1841. Some newcomers met with tragedy, including the Donner Party, which was stranded in the Sierra Nevada after a heavy snowstorm.

Political events in the territory moved swiftly in the next few years. After having briefly asserted the independence of California in 1836, the Californios drove out the last Mexican governor in 1845. Under the influence of the American explorer John C. Frémont, U.S. settlers set up (1846) a republic at Sonoma under their unique Bear Flag. The news of war between the United States and Mexico (1846–48) reached California soon afterward. On July 7, 1846, Commodore John D. Sloat captured Monterey, the capital, and claimed California for the United States. The Californios in the north worked with U.S. soldiers, but those in the south resisted U.S. martial law. In 1847, however, U.S. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny defeated the southern Californios. By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico formally ceded the territory to the United States.

The Gold Rush

In 1848, the year that California became a part of the United States, another major event in the state's history occurred: While establishing a sawmill for John Sutter near Coloma, James W. Marshall discovered gold and touched off the California gold rush. The forty-niners, as the gold-rush miners were called, came in droves, spurred by the promise of fabulous riches from the Mother Lode. San Francisco rapidly became a boom city, and its bawdy, lawless coastal area, which became known as the Barbary Coast, gave rise to the vigilantes, extralegal community groups formed to suppress civil disorder. American writers such as Bret Harte and Mark Twain have recorded the local color as well as the violence and human tragedies of the roaring mining camps.

Statehood and Immigration

With the gold rush came a huge increase in population and a pressing need for civil government. In 1849, Californians sought statehood and, after heated debate in the U.S. Congress arising out of the slavery issue, California entered the Union as a free, nonslavery state by the Compromise of 1850. San Jose became the capital. Monterey, Vallejo, and Benicia each served as the capital before it was moved to Sacramento in 1854. In 1853, Congress authorized the survey of a railroad route to link California with the eastern seaboard, but the transcontinental railroad was not completed until 1869. In the meantime communication and transportation depended upon ships, the stagecoach, the pony express, and the telegraph.

Chinese laborers were imported in great numbers to work on railroad construction. The Burlingame Treaty of 1868 (see Burlingame, Anson) provided, among other things, for unrestricted Chinese immigration. That was at first enthusiastically endorsed by Californians; but after a slump in the state's shaky economy, the white settlers viewed the influx of the lower-paid Chinese laborers as an economic threat. Ensuing bitterness and friction led to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (see Chinese exclusion).

A railroad-rate war (1884) and a boom in real estate (1885) fostered a new wave of overland immigration. Cattle raising on the ranchos gave way to increased grain production. Vineyards were planted by 1861, and the first trainload of oranges was shipped from Los Angeles in 1886.

Industrialization and Increased Settlement

By the turn of the century the discovery of oil, industrialization resulting from the increase of hydroelectric power, and expanding agricultural development attracted more settlers. Los Angeles grew rapidly in this period and, in population, soon surpassed San Francisco, which suffered greatly after the great earthquake and fire of 1906. Improvements in urban transportation stimulated the growth of both Los Angeles and San Francisco; the advent of the cable car and the electric railway made possible the development of previously inaccessible areas.

As industrious Japanese farmers acquired valuable land and a virtual monopoly of California's truck-farming operations, the issue of Asian immigration again arose. The bitter struggle for the exclusion of Asians plagued international relations, and in 1913 the California Alien Land Act was passed despite President Woodrow Wilson's attempts to block it. The act provided that persons ineligible for U.S. citizenship could not own agricultural land in California.

Successive waves of settlers arrived in California, attracted by a new real-estate boom in the 1920s and by the promise of work in the 1930s. The influx during the 1930s of displaced farm workers, depicted by John Steinbeck in his novel The Grapes of Wrath, caused profound dislocation in the state's economy. During World War II the Japanese in California were removed from their homes and placed in relocation centers. Industry in California expanded rapidly during the war; the production of ships and aircraft attracted many workers who later settled in the state.

Growing Pains and Natural Disasters

Prosperity and rapid population growth continued after the war. Many African Americans who came during World War II to work in the war industries settled in California. By the 1960s they constituted a sizable minority in the state, and racial tensions reached a climax. In 1964, California voters approved an initiative measure, Proposition 14, allowing racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing in the state, a measure later declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1965 riots broke out in Watts, a predominantly black section of Los Angeles, touching off a wave of riots across the United States. Also in the 1960s migrant farm workers in California formed a union and struck many growers to obtain better pay and working conditions. Unrest also occurred in the state's universities, especially the Univ. of California at Berkeley, where student demonstrations and protests in 1964 provoked disorders.

Republicans generally played a more dominant role than Democrats in California politics during the 20th cent., but by the early 21st cent. the state had become more Democratic. From the end of World War II through the mid-1990s, five of the seven governors were Republicans, starting with Earl Warren (1943–53). Ronald Reagan, a former movie actor and a leading conservative Republican, was elected governor in 1966 and reelected in 1970; he later served two terms as U.S president. The two Democrats were liberals Edmund G. (Pat) Brown (1959–67) and his son Jerry Brown (1975–83). In the late 1970s, Californians staged a "tax revolt" that attracted national attention, passing legislation to cut property taxes.

During the 1970s and 80s California continued to grow rapidly, with a major shift of population to the state's interior. The metropolitan areas of Riverside–San Bernardino, Modesto, Stockton, Bakersfield, and Sacramento were among the fastest growing in the nation during the 1980s. Much of the state's population growth was a result of largely illegal immigration from Mexico; there was also a heavy infux of immigrants from China, the Philippines, and SE Asia.

Population growth and immigration contributed to growing economic pressures, as did cuts in federal defense spending; meanwhile, social tensions also increased. In Apr., 1992, four white Los Angeles police officers were acquitted of brutality charges after they had been videotaped beating a black motorist; the verdict touched off riots in South-Central Los Angeles and other neighborhoods, resulting in 58 deaths, thousands of arrests, and approximately $1 billion in property damage.

In addition to periodic heavy flooding and brushfires, earthquakes have caused widespread damage in California. In Oct., 1989, a major earthquake killed about 60 people and injured thousands in Santa Cruz and the San Francisco Bay area. In Jan., 1994, an earthquake hit the Northridge area of N Los Angeles, killing some 60 people and causing at least $13 billion in damage.

In a backlash against illegal immigration, California voters in 1994 approved Proposition 187, an initiative barring the state from providing most services—including welfare, education, and nonemergency medical care—to illegal immigrants. Federal courts found much of Proposition 187 unconstitutional; the appeal of their rulings was dropped in 1999, at a time when the state's economy had rebounded and a Democratic administration was in Sacramento.

In late 2000, California began experiencing an electricity crisis as insufficient generating capacity and increasing short-term wholesale prices for power squeezed the state's two largest public utilities, who, under the "deregulation" plan they had agreed to in the early 1990s, were not allowed to pass along their increased costs. As the state worked to come up with both short-term and long-time solutions to the situation, consumers experienced sporadic blackouts and faced large rate hikes under the terms of a bailout plan. The crisis was severe enough that it was expected to slow the state's economic growth. Evidence subsequently emerged of both price gouging and market manipulation by a number of energy companies.

The economic downturn in the early 2000s resulted in enormous budget shortfalls for California's state government, and made Governor Gray Davis increasingly unpopular. A recall petition financed mainly by a Republican congressman who withdrew from the subsequent election led to a vote (Oct., 2003) that removed Davis from office. The actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, a Republican, was elected to succeed him. The year the state experienced devastating wildfires in the greater San Diego area; the area was again hit with particularly dangerous wildfires in 2007. The housing bubble that burst in 2007 and the significant recession that followed it had especially severe consequences in California, both for the state's economy (which experienced unemployment levels not seen since the early 1940s) and government (which faced enormous budget shortfalls for several years). In 2014 three consecutive years of below normal rainfall combined with hotter temperatures resulted in California's worst drought on record (and by some measures the worst in more than a millenium), with exceptional drought conditions across more than half the state.

Bibliography

See L. Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish Speaking Californians, 1846–1890 (1967); R. Kirsch, West of the West: Witnesses to the California Experience,1542–1906 (1968); R. J. Roske, Everyman's Eden: A History of California (1968); C. A. Hutchinson, Frontier Settlement in Mexican California (1969); W. Bean, California: An Interpretive History (2d. ed. 1973); M. W. Donley, Atlas of California (1979); D. W. Lantis, California: Land of Contrast (3d ed. 1981); C. Miller and R. S. Hyslop, California: The Geography of Diversity (1983); T. H. Watkins, California: An Illustrated History (1983); J. D. Hart, A Companion to California (1984); T. Muller, The Fourth Wave: California's Newest Immigrants (1985); A. F. Rolle, California: A History (4th ed. 1987); P. Schrag, Paradise Lost (1998).

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California

California

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Web Site: http://www.academyart.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 3-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 8,270. Faculty: 675 (135 full-time, 540 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 80% from top half of their high school class. Full-time: 4,111 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 2,575 students, 53% women, 47% men. Students come from 53 states and territories, 39% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 8% Hispanic, 4% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 10% international, 39% 25 or older, 10% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 58% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview, portfolio. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100. Comprehensive fee: $26,480 includes full-time tuition ($14,400), mandatory fees ($80), and college room and board ($12,000). College room only: $8400.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 25 open to all. Most popular organizations: Circle of Nations, Advertising Club, Western Art Directors Club, Pinoy and Pinay Artists Club, Taiwanese Student Association. Major annual events: Spring Show, Lily Bunka Academy Exchange, Fine Art Faculty and Alumni Art Auction. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, ID check at all buildings. 725 college housing spaces available; 666 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Academy of Art University Library with 37,342 books, 565 serials, 120,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $718,000. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Lining the street between the Powell and Sutter buildings are several of San Francisco's finest art galleries. The area provides an ideal environment for studying and developing as an artist.

■ ALLAN HANCOCK COLLEGE Q-6

800 South College Dr.
Santa Maria, CA 93454-6399
Tel: (805)922-6966; (866)342-5242
Fax: (805)922-3477
Web Site: http://www.hancockcollege.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1920. Setting: 120-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $78,392. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1690 per student. Total enrollment: 10,387. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. Full-time: 2,996 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 7,391 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 12 other countries, 1% Native American, 33% Hispanic, 4% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, drama, fire technology programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4956 full-time, $177 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $792 full-time, $27 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: MECHA, AHC Student Club, Club Med (medical), Hancock Christian Fellowship, Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. Major annual events: Chili Cook-Off, Blood Drive, Spring Fest. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Learning Resources Center with 47,370 books, 51,225 microform titles, 397 serials, 2,463 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $252,771. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Santa Maria is located in the Central Coast region on United States Highway 101, 175 miles north of Los Angeles and 262 miles south of San Francisco. Average temperature ranges from 45 degrees minimum to 68.2 degrees maximum. Greyhound Bus and United Airlines serve the area. Santa Maria has a hospital, churches, a library, and a number of manufacturing firms. A municipal swimming pool, golf courses, parks and playgrounds provide facilities for sports. Hunting and fishing opportunities are good.

■ ALLIANT INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY W-12

10455 Pomerado Rd.
San Diego, CA 92131-1799
Tel: (858)271-4300; (866)825-5426
Admissions: (858)635-4772
Fax: (858)635-4739
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alliant.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Part of Alliant International University. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1952. Setting: 60-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $1.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $9550. Total enrollment: 3,487. Faculty: 288 (131 full-time, 157 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. Full-time: 226 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 28 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 17 states and territories, 52 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 19% Hispanic, 8% black, 7% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 28% international, 15% 25 or older, 41% live on campus, 30% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; psychology; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $22,170 includes full-time tuition ($14,000), mandatory fees ($370), and college room and board ($7800). Part-time tuition: $515 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: Residence Hall Association, Latino Students Association, Finance Club, Student Government, Sigma Iota Epsilon. Major annual events: International Friendship Festival, Winter Ball, Snow Day in Big Bear. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 250 college housing spaces available; 138 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Walter Library with 212,394 books, 344,518 microform titles, 674 serials, 4,688 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DRAMATIC ARTS/HOLLYWOOD S-10

1336 North La Brea Ave.
Hollywood, CA 90028
Tel: (323)464-2777
Free: 800-222-2867
Fax: (323)464-1250
Web Site: http://www.aada.org/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 4-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 308. Full-time: 308 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 21 states and territories, 3 other countries, 40% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 6% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 10% international, 15% 25 or older, 0% transferred in. Core. Calendar: continuous.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview, audition. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $16,000 full-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Major annual events: graduation, student performances, seminars by guest lecturers. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, 8-hour patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. Bryn Morgan Library with 7,700 books, 24 serials, and 320 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $48,825.

■ AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY S-10

12655 West Jefferson Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Tel: (310)302-2000
Free: 800-333-2652
Fax: (310)302-2001
Web Site: http://www.aiuniv.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1982. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,405. 720 applied, 38% were admitted. 0% from top 10% of their high school class, 0% from top quarter, 50% from top half. Students come from 50 states and territories, 21 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 3% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 47% 25 or older, 10% live on campus. Retention: 63% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: five 10-week terms. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Major annual events: Yacht Party, International Dinner, Graduation Ball. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. 175 college housing spaces available; 169 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Library plus 1 other with 20,000 books, 50 microform titles, and 228 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $175,000. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ AMERICAN RIVER COLLEGE I-6

4700 College Oak Dr.
Sacramento, CA 95841-4286
Tel: (916)484-8011
Admissions: (916)484-8171
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arc.losrios.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Rios Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1955. Setting: 153-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 30,000. 2,471 applied, 100% were admitted. 0.2% from out-of-state, 19% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, respiratory therapy programs. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended; nursing exam required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Nonresident tuition: $4248 full-time, $177 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $639 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 78,400 books and 75 serials.

Community Environment:

See California State University - Sacramento.

■ ANTELOPE VALLEY COLLEGE R-10

3041 West Ave. K
Lancaster, CA 93536-5426
Tel: (661)722-6300
Fax: (661)943-5573
Web Site: http://www.avc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 160-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $299,569. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $69,540. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3146 per student. Total enrollment: 12,073. 1,947 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 7 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 44% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Women's Workshop, Transfer Colleges Day. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Antelope Valley College Library with 43,000 books and 175 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $946,564.

Community Environment:

Population 400,000 in Qutelope Valley. Lancaster is located in the center of the Antelope Valley in a semidesert region. Lancaster has over 350 days of sunshine a year and the climate is the reason that the United States Air Force and almost every manufacturer of aircraft build and maintain establishments in this area. There has been a great increase in population and excellent employment opportunities have developed in proportion to the growth.

■ ANTIOCH UNIVERSITY LOS ANGELES W-1

400 Corporate Pointe
Culver City, CA 90230
Tel: (310)578-1080
Free: 800-7ANTIOCH
Fax: (310)827-4742
Web Site: http://www.antiochla.edu/

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Part of Antioch University. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1972. Setting: 1-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2100 per student. Total enrollment: 650. Faculty: 172 (21 full-time, 151 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 65 applied, 88% were admitted. Full-time: 81 students, 75% women, 25% men. Part-time: 107 students, 75% women, 25% men. 0% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 17% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 97% 25 or older, 100% transferred in. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Tuition: $13,500 full-time, $2700 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $20,000. 12 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ANTIOCH UNIVERSITY SANTA BARBARA S-7

801 Garden St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93101-1581
Tel: (805)962-8179
Fax: (805)962-4786
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.antiochsb.edu/

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Part of Antioch University. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1977. Setting: small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 305. Faculty: 66 (14 full-time, 52 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. Full-time: 39 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 56 students, 82% women, 18% men. 0% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 3% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 74% 25 or older, 100% transferred in. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Tuition: $13,140 full-time, $440 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $16 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 14 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ARGOSY UNIVERSITY/ORANGE COUNTY T-10

3501 West Sunflower Ave., Ste. 110
Santa Ana, CA 92704
Tel: (714)338-6200
Free: 800-716-9598
Web Site: http://www.argosyu.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles and San Diego. Total enrollment: 646. Faculty: 81 (11 full-time, 70 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. Full-time: 66 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 15 students, 60% women, 40% men. 62% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, distance learning, part-time degree program, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Entrance: moderately difficult.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. Carrie Lixey with 1,200 books, 50 serials, and an OPAC. 12 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ARGOSY UNIVERSITY/SAN DIEGO W-12

7650 Mission Valley Rd.
San Diego, CA 92108;
(866)505-0333
Web Site: http://www.argosyu.edu/sandiego/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees.

■ ARGOSY UNIVERSITY/SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA J-4

999A Canal Blvd.
Point Richmond, CA 94804-3547
Tel: (510)215-0277; (866)215-2777
Admissions: (510)837-3709
Fax: (510)215-0299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.argosyu.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, upper-level, coed. Administratively affiliated with Education Management Corporation. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1998. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Oakland and San Francisco. Total enrollment: 71. Faculty: 11 (1 full-time, 10 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 24 applied, 92% were admitted. Full-time: 22 students, 86% women, 14% men. Part-time: 26 students, 85% women, 15% men. Students come from 2 other countries, 0% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 29% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 90% 25 or older, 31% transferred in. Retention: 93% of full-time entering class returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: psychology. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $400 full-time, $400 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $10 per credit part-time, $50 per year part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ ARGOSY UNIVERSITY/SANTA MONICA Q-3

2950 31st St.
Santa Monica, CA 90405; (866)505-0332
Web Site: http://www.argosyu.edu/santamonica/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate degrees.

■ ART CENTER COLLEGE OF DESIGN S-10

1700 Lida St.
Pasadena, CA 91103-1999
Tel: (626)396-2200
Admissions: (626)396-2373
Fax: (626)795-0578
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.artcenter.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1930. Setting: 175-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $21.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $27,800 per student. Total enrollment: 1,642. Faculty: 407 (66 full-time, 341 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 1,079 applied, 74% were admitted. Full-time: 1,304 students, 40% women, 60% men. Part-time: 208 students, 41% women, 59% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 28 other countries, 33% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 2% black, 37% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 16% international, 47% 25 or older, 2% transferred in. Retention: 94% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, portfolio. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Tuition: $27,800 full-time. Mandatory fees: $200 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: Contraste, Chroma, Women's Alliance, Korean Student Alliance, Industrial Design Society Student Chapter. Major annual event: School-Wide Party. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. James LeMont Fogg Library with 93,038 books, 450 serials, and 10,000 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $984,867. 225 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California Institute of Technology.

■ THE ART INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA-INLAND EMPIRE S-11

630 East Brier Dr.
San Bernardino, CA 92408
Tel: (909)915-2100
Free: 800-353-0812
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.artinstitutes.edu/inlandempire/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. 0% from top 10% of their high school class, 4% from top quarter, 10% from top half. 2% from out-of-state. Retention: 0% of full-time freshmen returned the following year.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $150. Tuition: $18,911 full-time, $392 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1200 full-time.

■ THE ART INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA-LOS ANGELES Q-3

2900 31st St.
Santa Monica, CA 90405-3035
Tel: (310)752-4700; 888-646-4610
Fax: (310)752-4708
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aicala.artinstitutes.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Part of Education Management Corporation. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Total enrollment: 2,102. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 889 applied, 77% were admitted. 0% from top 10% of their high school class, 0% from top quarter, 0% from top half. Full-time: 2,102 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 22 other countries, 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 20% Hispanic, 6% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 15% 25 or older, 15% live on campus. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; personal and culinary services. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Required for some: recommendations, artwork. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $19,824 full-time. College room only: $7920.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. 300 college housing spaces available; 275 were occupied in 2003-04. The Library with 20,000 books, 300 serials, 500 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE ART INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA-ORANGE COUNTY T-10

3601 West Sunflower Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92704-9888
Tel: (714)830-0200; 888-549-3055
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aicaoc.artinstitutes.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Part of Education Management Corporation. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 2000. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Orange County, Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 1,757. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 1,756 applied, 68% were admitted. Full-time: 1,485 students, 39% women, 61% men. Part-time: 272 students, 36% women, 64% men. Students come from 17 states and territories, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 2% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 28% 25 or older, 9% live on campus. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Recommended: recommendations, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Required for some: recommendations, portfolio. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $403 per quarter hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $15 per quarter hour part-time. College room only: $9800. Tuition guaranteed not to increase for student's term of enrollment.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 9 open to all. Most popular organizations: Pastry Club, GDSA (Game Developers Student Association), Women in Animation, Classic Game Club, AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Arts). Major annual events: Up All Night, Welcome Week, Stress Relief Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. 155 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. 312 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE ART INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA-SAN DIEGO W-12

10025 Mesa Rim Rd.
San Diego, CA 92121
Tel: (858)546-0602
Admissions: (858)598-1399
Web Site: http://www.aica.artinstitutes.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Part of Education Management Corporation. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1981. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,912. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. Students come from 23 states and territories, 36% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 5% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 30% 25 or older, 12% live on campus. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; business/marketing. Core. Services for LD students, double major, summer session for credit, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $19,344 full-time, $403 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $784 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. College room only: $9480.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 2 open to all. Most popular organizations: Advertising Club-AAF, Communicating Art Club, 3-D Club, ASB, AIGA. Major annual events: Bestival, Spring Social, Fall Open House. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 230 college housing spaces available; 200 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. The Art Institute of California Library plus 1 other with 7,197 books, 108 serials, 500 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE ART INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA-SAN FRANCISCO K-4

1170 Market St.
San Francisco, CA 94102-4908
Tel: (415)865-0198; 888-493-3261
Fax: (415)863-6344
Web Site: http://www.aicasf.artinstitutes.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Part of Education Management Corporation. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1939. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,347. Core. Services for LD students, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 5 open to all. Most popular organizations: Animation club, Game Art and Design Club, Fashion Salon, Society of Web Architects and Programmers, Student Federation. Major annual event: Annual Fashion Show. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. Learning Resource Center plus 1 other with a Web page.

■ AVIATION & ELECTRONIC SCHOOLS OF AMERICA H-7

210 South Railroad St.
PO Box 1810
Colfax, CA 95713-1810
Tel: (530)346-6792
Free: 800-345-2742
Fax: (530)346-8466
Web Site: http://www.aesa.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1988. Calendar: continuous.

■ AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY U-7

901 East Alosta Ave., PO Box 7000
Azusa, CA 91702-7000
Tel: (626)969-3434
Free: 800-TALK-APU
Admissions: (626)812-3016
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.apu.edu/

Description:

Independent nondenominational, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1899. Setting: 60-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $26.8 million. Total enrollment: 8,162. Faculty: 356 (344 full-time, 12 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 2,824 applied, 73% were admitted. 29% from top 10% of their high school class, 60% from top quarter, 86% from top half. Full-time: 3,770 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 671 students, 70% women, 30% men. Students come from 44 states and territories, 52 other countries, 21% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 3% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 16% 25 or older, 69% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.8 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 6/1, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $28,526 includes full-time tuition ($21,500), mandatory fees ($660), and college room and board ($6366). College room only: $3510. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and student level. Part-time tuition: $900 per unit. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 32 open to all. Most popular organizations: community service groups, choir, outreach ministries groups, Habitat for Humanity, Multi-Ethnic Student Alliance (MESA). Major annual events: Mega Weekend (Homecoming/dinner rally), Mexicali Outreach, Night of Champions. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,807 college housing spaces available; 2,322 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Marshburn Memorial Library plus 2 others with 185,708 books, 691,829 microform titles, 14,031 serials, 17,706 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Azusa is in a suburban area 26 miles east of Los Angeles with a temperate climate. Bus, air, and rail services are nearby. The city has a public library, churches of major denominations, hospitals, and clinics within a 10-mile radius. Mountains and beaches are within easy driving distance and Azusa is close to the cultural and recreational advantages of Los Angeles County.

■ BAKERSFIELD COLLEGE P-8

1801 Panorama Dr.
Bakersfield, CA 93305-1299
Tel: (661)395-4011
Admissions: (661)395-4301
Fax: (661)395-4230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bakersfieldcollege.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1913. Setting: 175-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 15,001. 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for registered nursing, radiological technology programs. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Preference given to district residents for nursing, radiological technology programs.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Student services: health clinic, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library with 93,500 books, 298 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 650 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University Bakersfield.

■ BARSTOW COLLEGE Q-12

2700 Barstow Rd.
Barstow, CA 92311-6699
Tel: (760)252-2411
Fax: (760)252-1875
Web Site: http://www.barstow.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1959. Setting: 50-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 3,000. Students come from 43 states and territories, 8 other countries, 60% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: assessment test approved by the Chancellor's office required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: evening security personnel. College housing not available. Thomas Kimball Library with 38,000 books, 110 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 85 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a desert community with a dry, warm climate. The Santa Fe and Union Pacific Railroads meet here. Greyhound and Orange Belt bus service is also available. The city has a county library, hospital, many churches, including numerous Protestant Churches, an Episcopal Church, a Roman Catholic Church, a Jewish Synagogue. There is a Community Players Association, which presents locally produced programs. Lectures and concerts are presented throughout the year. Part-time employment is available. Barstow has 4 parks and swimming pools for recreation. There are 82 civic, fraternal, and veterans organizations.

■ BERKELEY CITY COLLEGE J-4

2050 Center St.
Berkeley, CA 94704-5102
Tel: (510)981-2800
Admissions: (510)466-7363
Fax: (510)841-7333
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.peralta.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $23,297. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $485 per student. Total enrollment: 4,500. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 25:1. 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 23% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 65% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at members of the Downtown Oakland Business Education Consortium; University of California, Berkeley. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Nonresident tuition: $172 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Vista Community College Library with a Web page. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BETHANY UNIVERSITY B-10

800 Bethany Dr.
Scotts Valley, CA 95066-2820
Tel: (831)438-3800
Free: 800-843-9410
Fax: (831)438-4517
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bethany.edu/

Description:

Independent Assemblies of God, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1919. Setting: 40-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Endowment: $1.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $60,000. Total enrollment: 549. Faculty: 72 (27 full-time, 45 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 245 applied, 56% were admitted. 7% from top 10% of their high school class, 36% from top quarter, 69% from top half. Full-time: 391 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 78 students, 73% women, 27% men. Students come from 21 states and territories, 14% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 5% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 48% 25 or older, 80% live on campus, 23% transferred in. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, Christian commitment, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous until 7/31. Preference given to members of Assemblies of God and other evangelical churches.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. One-time mandatory fee: $135. Comprehensive fee: $22,765 includes full-time tuition ($15,500), mandatory fees ($765), and college room and board ($6500). College room only: $3300. Part-time tuition: $650 per unit. Part-time mandatory fees: $245 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 25 open to all. Major annual events: homecoming, New Student Orientation, Open Dorms. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, controlled dormitory access. 375 college housing spaces available; 350 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through junior year. Wilson Library with 59,453 books and 858 serials. 17 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BETHESDA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY T-10

730 North Euclid St.
Anaheim, CA 92801
Tel: (714)517-1945
Fax: (714)517-1948
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bcu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Full Gospel World Mission. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1978. Setting: suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2268 per student. Total enrollment: 206. Full-time: 129 students, 47% women, 53% men. Part-time: 35 students, 80% women, 20% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 3 other countries, 0.01% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 0% black, 30% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 70% international, 70% 25 or older, 0% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 36% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview, 2 photographs. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/11. Notification: continuous until 8/25.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $6300 full-time. Mandatory fees: $120 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Council, Ping Pong Team. Major annual events: Homecoming Day, Orientation for new students, Athletic Meeting. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols, late night transport-escort service, 24-hour security monitor. Library plus 1 other with 27,763 books, 99 serials, and 3,042 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $74,000. 30 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BIOLA UNIVERSITY Y-6

13800 Biola Ave.
La Mirada, CA 90639-0001
Tel: (562)903-6000
Free: 800-652-4652
Admissions: (562)903-4752
Fax: (562)903-4709
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.biola.edu/

Description:

Independent interdenominational, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1908. Setting: 95-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $37.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $29,372 per student. Total enrollment: 5,455. Faculty: 395 (191 full-time, 204 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 2,077 applied, 82% were admitted. 36% from top 10% of their high school class, 69% from top quarter, 91% from top half. Full-time: 3,138 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 108 students, 47% women, 53% men. Students come from 47 states and territories, 40 other countries, 25% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 2% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 19% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: physical sciences; business/marketing; psychology. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 3/1, 12/1 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $30,998 includes full-time tuition ($23,782), mandatory fees ($100), and college room and board ($7116). College room only: $3756. Part-time tuition: $942 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 33 open to all. Most popular organizations: Korean Student Association, Brothers and Sisters in Christ, Accounting Society, Maharlika (Filipino Club), SOUL (Seeking Out Unity and Love). Major annual events: BAB Week (Betty Asks Bob), Celebrate the Son, Missions Conference. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, access gates to roads through the middle of campus. 2,285 college housing spaces available; 2,140 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. The Biola University Library with 279,560 books, 570,437 microform titles, 13,123 serials, 15,350 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.6 million. 165 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 50,000. La Mirada is a suburban area less than one hour from the Los Angeles International Airport. The Santa Fe Railroad and buses serve the area as does the Santa Ana Freeway. There are libraries, churches, and a hospital. Part-time employment is available. The beaches are 20 miles away and the mountains are an hour and half drive with Knott's Berry Farm and Disneyland a few minutes from campus.

■ BROOKS COLLEGE (LONG BEACH) T-10

4825 East Pacific Coast Hwy.
Long Beach, CA 90804-3291
Tel: (562)498-2441
Free: 800-421-3775
Fax: (562)597-7412
Web Site: http://www.brookscollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1971. Setting: 7-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 826. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 80% from top half. Full-time: 757 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 69 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 17 other countries, 39% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 6% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 3% 25 or older, 60% live on campus. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, interview. Recommended: portfolio. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling, free tutoring. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 15,000 books and 80 serials. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University Long Beach.

■ BROOKS COLLEGE (SUNNYVALE) J-6

1120 Kifer Rd.
Sunnyvale, CA 9408
Tel: (408)719-9209
Fax: (408)719-0722
Web Site: http://www.brookssv.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ BROOKS INSTITUTE OF PHOTOGRAPHY S-7

801 Alston Rd.
Santa Barbara, CA 93108-2399
Tel: (805)966-3888; 888-304-3456
Fax: (805)564-1475
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.brooks.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1945. Setting: 25-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 1,507. Full-time: 1,425 students, 48% women, 52% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 22 other countries, 0.1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 0.3% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 36% 25 or older, 4% transferred in. Retention: 97% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at University of Pittsburgh (Semester at Sea). Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 15 semester hours of college credit. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Major annual events: Annual Barbecue, All Student Show. Campus security: campus closed after 11:30 p.m. College housing not available. Brooks Institute of Photography Library with 6,500 books and 128 serials. 15 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BROWN MACKIE COLLEGE-ORANGE COUNTY T-10

3601 West Sunflower Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92704; (866)505-0334
Web Site: http://www.brownmackie.edu/locations.asp?locid=15

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ BRYMAN COLLEGE (CITY OF INDUSTRY) T-10

12801 Crossroads Parkway South
City of Industry, CA 91746
Tel: (562)908-2500
Fax: (562)908-7656
Web Site: http://bryman-college.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1969.

■ BRYMAN COLLEGE (ONTARIO) Q-8

1460 South Milliken Ave.
Ontario, CA 91761
Tel: (909)984-5027
Fax: (909)988-9339
Web Site: http://bryman-college.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ BUTTE COLLEGE G-6

3536 Butte Campus Dr. Oroville, CA 95965-8399
Tel: (530)895-2511
Admissions: (530)895-2366
Fax: (530)895-2345
Web Site: http://www.butte.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 900-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 14,251. 1,102 applied, 100% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 60% from top half. Students come from 19 states and territories, 25 other countries, 2% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 2% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 53% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health, criminal justice, fire science programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols. College housing not available. 50,000 books, 300 serials, and an OPAC. 65 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Butte College is located in the geographical center of Butte County, population 121,400, at the edge of the Sierra Foothills. The county's amenities include a clean environment, moderate climate, ready access to necessities and luxuries and proximity to recreational areas, including the huge Lake Oroville.

■ CABRILLO COLLEGE C-11

6500 Soquel Dr.
Aptos, CA 95003-3194
Tel: (831)479-6100
Admissions: (831)479-6201
Fax: (831)479-6425
Web Site: http://www.cabrillo.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1959. Setting: 120-acre small town campus with easy access to San Jose. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2511 per student. Total enrollment: 13,905. Students come from 21 states and territories, 63 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 23% Hispanic, 2% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for international applicants. Option: early admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. College housing not available. 60,000 books, 300 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Aptos is a suburban area nine miles from Santa Cruz, with a temperate climate. There is a municipal library, churches of major denominations within a ten mile area, and 2 hospitals in the county. Excellent water sports area for swimming, surfing and deep sea fishing. Fine shopping facilities are available. The University of California at Santa Cruz is nearby.

■ CALIFORNIA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY T-11

8432 Magnolia Ave.
Riverside, CA 92504-3206
Tel: (909)689-5771; 877-228-8866
Admissions: (951)343-5037
Fax: (909)351-1808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calbaptist.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1950. Setting: 82-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5042 per student. Total enrollment: 3,105. Faculty: 226 (96 full-time, 130 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 1,072 applied, 71% were admitted. 12% from top 10% of their high school class, 42% from top quarter, 44% from top half. Full-time: 1,976 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 439 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 15 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 17% Hispanic, 9% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 27% 25 or older, 57% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 86% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; psychology; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: 2-4-4-2. ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents, 11/19 for early action. Notification: continuous until 9/6, continuous until 9/6 for nonresidents, 12/20 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $23,780 includes full-time tuition ($16,250), mandatory fees ($1220), and college room and board ($6310). College room only: $2640. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $625 per semester hour. Part-time tuition varies according to class time and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Blue Crew, Christian student organizations, Community Life Committees. Major annual events: Campus Day, Octoberfest, Yule Christmas Celebration. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,035 college housing spaces available; 872 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Annie Gabriel Library with 100,230 books, 50,949 microform titles, 349 serials, 4,992 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $664,968. 154 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California Riverside.

■ CALIFORNIA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE M-9

4881 East University Ave.
Fresno, CA 93703-3533
Tel: (559)251-4215
Web Site: http://www.calchristiancollege.org/

Description:

Independent religious, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Setting: 5-acre urban campus with easy access to Fresno. Endowment: $60,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1700 per student. Total enrollment: 52. 5 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 45 students, 29% women, 71% men. Part-time: 7 students, 43% women, 57% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 2 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 15% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 62% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 17% transferred in. Retention: 22% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, statement of faith, moral/ethical statement, standardized Bible content tests. Recommended: interview, SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Major annual events: Hospitality Days, CCC Banquet, Missions Conference. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. 60 college housing spaces available; 11 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Cortese Library with 13,154 books, 7 serials, and 430 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8700. 6 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CALIFORNIA COAST UNIVERSITY T-10

700 North Main St.
Santa Ana, CA 92701
Tel: (714)547-9625; 888-CCU-UNIV
Web Site: http://www.calcoast.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees (distance learning only). Founded 1973.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $85 per unit part-time.

■ CALIFORNIA COLLEGE OF THE ARTS K-4

1111 Eighth St.
San Francisco, CA 94107
Tel: (415)703-9500
Free: 800-447-1ART
Admissions: (415)703-9523
Fax: (415)703-9539
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cca.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1907. Setting: 4-acre urban campus. Endowment: $18.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9486 per student. Total enrollment: 1,616. Faculty: 370 (42 full-time, 328 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 785 applied, 78% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 36% from top quarter, 86% from top half. Full-time: 1,227 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 85 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 26 other countries, 35% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 2% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 7% international, 69% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 19% transferred in. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, internships. Off campus study at Mills College, Holy Names College, AICAD Mobility Program, University of San Francisco. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, portfolio. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 2/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $34,530 includes full-time tuition ($25,810), mandatory fees ($290), and college room and board ($8430). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $1075 per unit. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 11 open to all. Most popular organizations: American Institute of Architecture Student Chapter, American Institute of Graphic Arts Student Chapter, Women's Caucus for the Arts, International Student Club, Artists that are Queer. Major annual events: Winter and Spring Fairs, Founders' Day, All-College Honors. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 231 college housing spaces available; 193 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. Meyer Library plus 1 other with 39,000 books, 50 microform titles, 340 serials, 520 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $457,514. 180 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Laney College.

■ CALIFORNIA CULINARY ACADEMY K-4

625 Polk St.
San Francisco, CA 94102-3368
Tel: (415)771-3500
Free: 800-BAY-CHEF
Admissions: 800-229-2433
Fax: (415)771-2194
Web Site: http://www.baychef.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1977. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment:822. Full-time: 822 students, 45% women, 55% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 12 other countries, 30% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 7% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 7% international, 62% 25 or older, 39% live on campus. Core. Calendar: continuous. Services for LD students, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: dining club. Most popular organization: Student Council. Major annual event: Career Fair. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 246 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. Academy Library plus 1 other with 3,000 books and 70 serials. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CALIFORNIA DESIGN COLLEGE S-10

3440 Wilshire Blvd., Tenth Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90010
Tel: (213)251-3636; 877-468-6232
Fax: (213)385-3545
Web Site: http://www.cdc.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Part of Education Management Corporation. Administratively affiliated with Education Management Corporation, The Art Institutes. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1992. Setting: urban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $22,191 per student. Total enrollment: 353. 214 applied, 99% were admitted. Full-time: 338 students, 86% women, 14% men. Part-time: 15 students, 100% women. Students come from 21 states and territories, 6 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 34% Hispanic, 13% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 24% 25 or older, 0.3% transferred in. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, distance learning, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Required for some: portfolio. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. CDC Library with 3,200 books, 124 serials, 2,068 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $102,991. 106 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF THE ARTS S-9

24700 McBean Parkway
Valencia, CA 91355-2340
Tel: (661)255-1050
Free: 800-545-2787
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calarts.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 60-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $81.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $18,633 per student. Total enrollment: 1,327. Faculty: 287 (147 full-time, 140 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 2,975 applied, 31% were admitted. Full-time: 812 students, 44% women, 56% men. Part-time: 9 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 34 other countries, 53% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 7% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 8% international, 18% 25 or older, 40% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, portfolio or audition. Required for some: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadline: 1/5. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $65. Comprehensive fee: $35,422 includes full-time tuition ($27,260), mandatory fees ($465), and college room and board ($7697). College room only: $4095. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run radio station. Major annual events: President's Picnic, Halloween Party, Graduation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 350 college housing spaces available; 334 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. California Institute of the Arts Library plus 1 other with 98,415 books, 5,712 microform titles, 324 serials, 25,487 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.3 million. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Valencia is located on the Golden State Freeway (Interstate 5) 35 miles north of Los Angeles, and historically has been devoted to agriculture and cattle ranching. The area, encompassing the towns of Newhall, Saugus, Valencia and Castaic, is surrounded by the Tehachapi Mountains to the North, the San Gabriel to the east and the Santa Susana to the west. In the last 10 years light industry and numerous housing developments have contributed to the city's growth.

■ CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF INTEGRAL STUDIES K-4

1453 Mission St.
San Francisco, CA 94103
Tel: (415)575-6100
Admissions: (415)575-6156
Fax: (415)575-1264
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ciis.edu/

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1968. Total enrollment: 1,005. Faculty: 61. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. Core. Calendar: semesters. External degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $65. Tuition: $610 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group. Most popular organization: Student Alliance. The Laurance S. Rockefeller with 4,000 books.

Community Environment:

See San Francisco State University.

■ CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY S-10

1200 East California Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91125-0001
Tel: (626)395-6811
Admissions: (626)395-6341
Fax: (626)683-3026
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.caltech.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1891. Setting: 124-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $1.2 billion. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $179 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $69,879 per student. Total enrollment: 2,172. 3,071 applied, 17% were admitted. 94% from top 10% of their high school class, 100% from top quarter. 56 National Merit Scholars, 76 valedictorians. Full-time: 891 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 28 other countries, 59% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 1% black, 31% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 8% international, 1% 25 or older, 90% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 95% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: 3 ten-week terms. ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Occidental College, Scripps College, Art Center College of Design. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force(c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT, SAT Subject Test in Math Level II C and either physics, chemistry, or biology. Entrance: most difficult. Application deadlines: 1/1, 11/1 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 12/30 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $36,123 includes full-time tuition ($27,309) and college room and board ($8814).

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 85 open to all. Most popular organizations: ASCIT, Entrepreneur's Club, instrumental music groups, Glee Club, Theater Arts. Major annual events: Ditch Day, International Day, Pre-Frosh Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 876 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Millikan Library plus 10 others with 3.2 million books, 3,500 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.9 million. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 135,000, Pasadena is located at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains, the center of a large metropolitan area with ideal climate throughout the year. The famous Huntington Library, located in nearby San Marino, is open to the public and makes available its rich resources for scholarly research work in numerous fields. Pasadena has many cultural activities in the fields of art, music, and literature. The finest talent in America can be seen and heard in Pasadena and Los Angeles. Exhibits of famous artists and art instruction are provided by the community. The annual New Year's Day Tournament of Roses is held in the winter, and nearby is the Rose Bowl that seats 104,000 people.

■ CALIFORNIA LUTHERAN UNIVERSITY P-1

60 West Olsen Rd.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360-2787
Tel: (805)492-2411; 877-258-3678
Admissions: (805)493-3135
Fax: (805)493-3114
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.clunet.edu/

Description:

Independent Lutheran, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1959. Setting: 290-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $44.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6415 per student. Total enrollment: 3,212. Faculty: 260 (130 full-time, 130 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,977 applied, 69% were admitted. 23% from top 10% of their high school class, 80% from top quarter, 88% from top half. Full-time: 1,884 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 211 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 25 other countries, 24% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 17% Hispanic, 3% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 5% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 84% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; communications/journalism; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Wagner College, American University (Washington Semester). Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.8 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Notification: 12/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $31,690 includes full-time tuition ($23,170), mandatory fees ($200), and college room and board ($8320). College room only: $4330. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $750 per unit. Part-time mandatory fees: $200 per year.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, music and drama clubs, service organizations, campus ministry organizations, multicultural organizations. Major annual events: Club Lu, The Need (student run coffeehouse), Midnight Madness. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, escort service; shuttle service. 1,130 college housing spaces available; 1,121 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through junior year. Option: coed housing available. Pearson Library with 132,744 books, 22,200 microform titles, 1,497 serials, 1,852 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $809,833. 267 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in the Conejo Valley, Thousand Oaks has a mild pleasant climate with temperatures ranging from a mean low of 57 degrees in winter to a mean high of 77 degrees in summer. Average rainfall is 14 inches, the rainy season being between October and April. Buses, trains and airlines serve the area. Principal industries are electronics, aerospace, research, insurance and manufacturing. There are numerous shopping areas in Thousand Oaks. Recreational facilities include the community center, theatres, championship golf courses, Lake Sherwood, and the marinas in Oxnard and Ventura. Pacific Ocean Beaches are thirty minutes from The Campus.

■ CALIFORNIA MARITIME ACADEMY J-4

200 Maritime Academy Dr.
Vallejo, CA 94590
Tel: (707)654-1000
Free: 800-561-1945
Admissions: (707)654-1331
Fax: (707)648-4204
Web Site: http://www.csum.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 64-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment:702. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 1,032 applied, 56% were admitted. Students come from 18 states and territories, 16 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 16% 25 or older, 65% live on campus. Retention: 89% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, health form, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Notification: continuous. Preference given to California residents who meet the admissions resident index.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,690 full-time. Mandatory fees: $5884 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program and student level. College room and board: $7270. College room only: $3390. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: Sailing Club, Dive Club, drill team. Major annual events: Changeover Dance, Homecoming, open house. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols. On-campus residence required through junior year. Option: coed housing available. Main library plus 1 other with 28,377 books, 20,677 microform titles, 273 serials, 241 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Vallejo has a population of 103,000 and is located on the north shore of the Carquinez Strait, adjacent to San Pablo Bay.

■ CALIFORNIA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY FOR ADVANCED STUDIES S-9

8550 Balboa Blvd., Ste. 210
Northridge, CA 91325-3576
Tel: (818)830-2411
Free: 800-782-2422
Fax: (818)830-2418
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cnuas.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1993. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment:500. Faculty: 98 (all part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. Students come from 25 other countries, 0% from out-of-state. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript. Required for some: interview. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $75. Tuition: $4860 full-time, $270 per unit part-time.

■ CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY, SAN LUIS OBISPO Q-5

1 Grand Ave.
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407
Tel: (805)756-1111
Admissions: (805)756-2311
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calpoly.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1901. Setting: 6,000-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $11,355 per student. Total enrollment: 18,475. Faculty: 1,246 (726 full-time, 520 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 23,691 applied, 45% were admitted. 37% from top 10% of their high school class, 76% from top quarter, 96% from top half. Full-time: 16,591 students, 44% women, 56% men. Part-time: 897 students, 41% women, 59% men. Students come from 48 states and territories, 41 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 1% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 6% 25 or older, 22% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 91% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering; business/marketing; agriculture. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early decision. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 11/30, 10/31 for early decision. Notification: continuous, 12/15 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $226 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $4245 full-time, $2853 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. College room and board: $8145. College room only: $4583. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 360 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 10% of eligible men and 11% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Ski Club, American Marketing Association, Rose Float Club, MECHA, Society of Women Engineers. Major annual events: Homecoming, Fall and Spring Commencement, open house. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Kennedy Library with 763,651 books, 2.1 million microform titles, 5,529 serials, 5,204 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.6 million. 1,880 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

San Luis Obispo, located midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles, is 12 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The average high winter temperature is in the 60s, and the summer high average is in the 70s. Buses, trains and airlines serve the area. There are 3 hospitals and a student health center. Student housing is available in campus dormitories and college approved housing in the city. Part time work is available in the community. Recreation includes surfing, fishing, clamming, golfing, hunting, boating and swimming. The Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was founded in 1772, named for the Bishop of Toulouse, an Italian saint of the 13th century.

■ CALIFORNIA SCHOOL OF CULINARY ARTS S-10

521 East Green St.
Pasadena, CA 91101
Web Site: http://calchef.com

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY, POMONA S-11

3801 West Temple Ave.
Pomona, CA 91768-2557
Tel: (909)869-7659
Admissions: (909)869-3427
Fax: (909)869-4529
Web Site: http://www.csupomona.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1938. Setting: 1,400-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $25.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5237 per student. Total enrollment: 19,885. Faculty: 1,281 (659 full-time, 622 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 17,252 applied, 24% were admitted. Full-time: 14,982 students, 43% women, 57% men. Part-time: 2,992 students, 40% women, 60% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 116 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 27% Hispanic, 4% black, 31% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 18% 25 or older, 9% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; engineering; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System, Desert Studies Consortium, Southern California Ocean Studies Consortium. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: 11/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $226 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3015 full-time. College room and board: $7908.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 220 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Rose Float Club, Ridge Runners Ski Club, Barkada (Asian club), American Marketing Association, Cal Poly Society of Accountants. Major annual events: Rose Float, Founder's Day, Bronco Days. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, video camera surveillance. 1,800 college housing spaces available; 1,769 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. University Library with 758,700 books, 1.8 million microform titles, 5,153 serials, 11,288 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.2 million. 1,864 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Cal Poly Pomona is located just 35 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles in the heart of Southern California. Near business and industry, the university's location is ideal for internships and/or employment. Cal Poly Pomona is also suitable for recreation; the beach, the desert, ski slopes, museums, Disneyland, and much more are just a short drive away.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, BAKERSFIELD P-8

9001 Stockdale Hwy.
Bakersfield, CA 93311-1022
Tel: (661)664-2011
Admissions: (661)654-3036
Fax: (661)664-3188
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csubak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: 575-acre urban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5200 per student. Total enrollment: 7,549. Faculty: 515 (332 full-time, 183 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. Full-time: 4,881 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 1,079 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 16 states and territories, 48 other countries, 1% Native American, 35% Hispanic, 7% black, 7% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 34% 25 or older, 4% live on campus, 14% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; social sciences; business/marketing. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at National Student Exchange. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 9/23. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6780 full-time, $226 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2959 full-time, $579 per term part-time. College room and board: $5946.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 74 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 2% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: MECHA, LUPE, STAAR, Psi Chi, Art Club. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Earth Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. Walter W. Stiern Library with 354,016 books, 2,260 serials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.4 million. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Bakersfield is the county seat of Kern County which is noted for its rich agriculture, petroleum, and light industries. The city is located 112 miles north of Los Angeles and 295 miles south of San Francisco. Airline, bus, transcontinental railroad, and Amtrak services are available in the area. Bakersfield is considered the trading center of the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Central California beaches are located approximately 100 miles west of the campus. Shirley Meadow ski area is 51 miles northeast of Bakersfield, 20 minutes from Lake Isebella. The county is home to world-famous Edwards Air Force Base. Part-time employment is available.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CHANNEL ISLANDS T-4

One University Dr.
Camarillo, CA 93012
Tel: (805)437-8979
Admissions: (805)437-8500
Fax: (805)437-8951
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csuci.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 2002. Endowment: $7.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7969 per student. Total enrollment: 2,575. Faculty: 227 (84 full-time, 143 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 4,853 applied, 43% were admitted. Full-time: 1,805 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 555 students, 64% women, 36% men. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 24% Hispanic, 2% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Retention: 80% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; business/marketing; psychology.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school

GPA, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Required for some: SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2980 full-time. College room and board: $8800.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: local fraternities, local sororities. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center, advising center, career center, math & writing center.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, CHICO F-5

400 West First St.
Chico, CA 95929-0722
Tel: (530)898-6116
Free: 800-542-4426
Admissions: (530)898-4428
Fax: (530)898-6456
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csuchico.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1887. Setting: 119-acre small town campus. Endowment: $28.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5429 per student. Total enrollment: 15,919. Faculty: 913 (499 full-time, 414 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 12,853 applied, 85% were admitted. 35% from top 10% of their high school class, 76% from top quarter, 100% from top half. Full-time: 13,079 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 1,447 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 45 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 2% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 15% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, GPA of 10th and 11th grade college prep courses only, SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: 3/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,690 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3370 full-time, $425 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $7993. College room only: $5550. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 226 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 7% of eligible men and 6% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Golden Key International Honor Society, Newman Catholic Campus Ministry, The Edge. Major annual events: Community Challenge, Multicultural Night, Scour and Devour. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, crime prevention workshops, RAD self-defense program, Chico Safe Rides, blue light emergency phones. 1,765 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Meriam Library with 957,181 books, 1.2 million microform titles, 24,244 serials, 27,156 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.6 million. 840 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Chico is located close to the northern end of the Sacramento Valley and is one of the oldest communities in the state. Today Chico has a population of 46,750 (87,000 in the Greater Chico area) and Butte county has a population of 201,000. It is considered the business center for a large agricultural area, which produces an abundance of rice, grains, nuts, and fruits. Winters are mild and summers are hot, averaging 95-105 degrees. Regional airlines connect Chico with adjacent cities, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Greyhound Bus service is available. Chico is the home of Bidwell Park, one of the largest and most beautiful municipal parks in the nation. Lower Bidwell Park starts near the campus and extends 10 miles east along the Big Chico creek. The park offers swimming, hiking, a municipal golf course, horseback riding, a children's park, picnic areas, and softball fields among its recreational facilities. Biking is a favorite (and practical) means of transportation. Local Public Bus transportation is free to university students and personnel. Skiing facilities are only two hours away. Bidwell Mansion, located on campus, is now a historical site maintained by the Department of Parks and Recreation. Part-time employment is available but scarce.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, DOMINGUEZ HILLS Z-3

1000 East Victoria St.
Carson, CA 90747-0001
Tel: (310)243-3300
Admissions: (310)243-3600
Web Site: http://www.csudh.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1960. Setting: 350-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 12,357. Faculty: 678 (252 full-time, 426 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 2,323 applied, 45% were admitted. Full-time: 5,322 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 3,621 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 42 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 36% Hispanic, 27% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 56% 25 or older, 14% transferred in. Retention: 73% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; business/marketing; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other institutions of the California State University System, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3618 full-time. College room only: $5850.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: student patrols, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. Leo F. Cain Educational Resource Center with 440,181 books, 687,888 microform titles, an OPAC, and a Web page. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a metropolitan area in Los Angeles County with a Mediterranean climate. Trains, buses and airlines serve the area. Carson is surrounded by freeways, which makes the larger nearby cities easy to reach. The city has churches, hospitals, a YMCA building and library. The State Department of Employment, which is located in Torrance, has established a program designed to aid students in finding employment.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, EAST BAY K-5

25800 Carlos Bee Blvd.
Hayward, CA 94542-3000
Tel: (510)885-3000
Admissions: (510)885-7002
Fax: (510)885-3816
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csueastbay.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1957. Setting: 343-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7868 per student. Total enrollment: 12,535. Faculty: 741 (324 full-time, 417 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 7,110 applied, 10% were admitted. Full-time: 7,262 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 1,867 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 86 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 12% black, 29% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 37% 25 or older, 4% live on campus, 17% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; social sciences; business/marketing. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Regional Association of East Bay Colleges and Universities, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.00 high school GPA, CSU eligibility index. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/31. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time. Mandatory fees: $2916 full-time. College room only: $6759.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 90 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities. Most popular organizations: Vietnamese Student Association, Accounting Association, Filipino-American Students Association, Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano, Hayward Orientation Team. Major annual events: Al Fresco, Pioneer Days, Club Days. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. California State University, East Bay Library plus 1 other with 908,577 books, 803,844 microform titles, 2,210 serials, 28,416 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.5 million. 700 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 110,000 in a metropolitan area of 5 1/2 million. Hayward is a suburban area near Oakland, Berkeley, San Francisco and San Jose. The climate is mild. All modes of transportation serve the area. The university's proximity to all major Bay Area cities provides access to museums, art galleries, plays, concerts, and libraries as well as to the recreational opportunities of the bay. The climate makes outdoor recreation a year-round activity. Its nearness to ocean and mountain areas offer recreational diversity.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO M-9

5241 North Maple Ave.
Fresno, CA 93740-8027
Tel: (559)278-4240
Admissions: (559)278-2261
Fax: (559)278-4715
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csufresno.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1911. Setting: 1,410-acre urban campus. Endowment: $86.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,450 per student. Total enrollment: 20,371. Faculty: 1,267 (754 full-time, 513 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 13,252 applied, 65% were admitted. Full-time: 14,786 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 2,642 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 69 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 30% Hispanic, 5% black, 14% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 18% 25 or older, 5% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.00 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 4/1. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,207 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3037 full-time, $990 per term part-time. College room and board: $7344.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 250 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: Vintage Day, Welcome Week, Commencement. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,035 college housing spaces available. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Henry Madden Library with 1.2 million microform titles, 2,617 serials, 77,125 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.3 million. 853 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Fresno (population 510,00) is located in the heart of the San Joaquin Valley, at the center of the state. The climate is mild all year. All modes of transportation serve the area. Fresno is in an agricultural area producing figs, grapes and cotton. Roma Winery and several other wineries are located here; other industries include processing and packing of fruit, the manufacture of cottonseed oil, livestock and poultry feed, agricultural equipment and aircraft parts. There are facilities in the area for swimming, fishing, sailing, water skiing, horseback riding, hiking, rock climbing and all the winter sports. Three national parks and two national forests are nearby.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON R-6

PO Box 34080
Fullerton, CA 92834-9480
Tel: (714)278-2011
Admissions: (714)278-2350
Web Site: http://www.fullerton.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1957. Setting: 225-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 35,040. Faculty: 1,935 (719 full-time, 1,216 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 29,692 applied, 69% were admitted. 18% from top 10% of their high school class, 50% from top quarter, 86% from top half. Full-time: 21,187 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 8,275 students, 58% women, 42% men. Students come from 36 states and territories, 64 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 28% Hispanic, 4% black, 22% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 22% 25 or older, 2% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 82% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; communications/journalism; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at other institutions of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2990 full-time, $967 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room only: $4504.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 225 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 9% of eligible men and 8% of eligible women are members. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 836 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. California State University, Fullerton Pollak Library with 1.2 million books, 1.1 million microform titles, 10,827 serials, 15,220 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,993 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Fullerton is in a metropolitan area with a temperate climate. Airlines, buses and trains serve the area. Freeways make all neighboring cities easily accessible. Fullerton is an area of many cultural interests, in art, music and theatre. The city is near Disneyland and the California Angel Stadium; 35 miles from Hollywood and Los Angeles. Recreational facilities include the beaches and the mountains which are both within easy driving distance. Part-time work is available. The major service clubs are represented in the city.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH T-10

1250 Bellflower Blvd.
Long Beach, CA 90840
Tel: (562)985-4111
Admissions: (562)985-4641
Web Site: http://www.csulb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 320-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $27.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $9.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5673 per student. Total university enrollment: 1,344. Total unit enrollment: 34,547. Faculty: 2,074 (966 full-time, 1,108 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 38,579 applied, 55% were admitted. 84% from top quarter of their high school class, 100% from top half. Full-time: 22,525 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 5,989 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 45 states and territories, 89 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 25% Hispanic, 6% black, 22% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 21% 25 or older, 7% live on campus, 16% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other institutions of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, minimum GPA of 2.4 for nonresidents. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: continuous. Preference given to local residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time. Mandatory fees: $2864 full-time. College room and board: $6648.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 300 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 7% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: Kaleidoscope Spring Festival, Odyssey Theme Year. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 1,962 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. University Library with 1.5 million books, 1.5 million microform titles, 18,749 serials, 28,060 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.3 million. 2,000 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Long Beach is approximately 20 miles south of Los Angeles and has a Mediterranean climate. The eight mile beach area provides the finest and safest public bathing on the Pacific Coast, having the largest protected harbor in North America. All modes of transportation serve the area. There are 25 city parks which provide facilities for golf, tennis, baseball, swimming, shuffleboard, and lawn bowling, as well as a sports arena and a municipal auditorium.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES S-10

5151 State University Dr.
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8530
Tel: (323)343-3000
Admissions: (323)343-3940
Fax: (323)343-2670
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calstatela.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 173-acre urban campus. Endowment: $13.6 million. Total enrollment: 20,014. Faculty: 1,141 (581 full-time, 560 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 17,150 applied, 62% were admitted. Full-time: 10,872 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 4,083 students, 59% women, 41% men. 4% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 46% Hispanic, 8% black, 21% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 34% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; security and protective services; education. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,171 full-time, $226 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3035 full-time, $658.75 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course level. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course level. College room and board: $7353.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 130 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 2% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Society of Hispanic, Engineering and Science Students, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer, Sigma Delta PI, Asian Unified, Society of Automotive Engineers. Major annual events: Haunted Union, Mardi Gras, Spring Student Fest. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 996 college housing spaces available; 850 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. John F. Kennedy Memorial Library with1.7 million books, 1.1 million microform titles, 2,724 serials, 1,163 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California -Los Angeles.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, MONTEREY BAY M-5

100 Campus Center
Seaside, CA 93955-8001
Tel: (831)582-3000
Admissions: (831)582-3544
Fax: (831)582-3540
Web Site: http://csumb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1994. Setting: 1,500-acre campus with easy access to San Jose. Endowment: $520,445. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $11 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,191 per student. Total enrollment: 3,020. 3,023 applied, 83% were admitted. Full-time: 2,673 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 80 students, 53% women, 48% men. Students come from 34 states and territories, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 27% Hispanic, 4% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 29% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 52% transferred in. Retention: 76% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, external degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,848 full-time, $339 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2947 full-time, $945.50 per term part-time. College room and board: $6900. College room only: $4400.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organization: MECHA. Major annual events: Graduation, On-Campus Admission Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGE S-p

18111 Nordhoff St.
Northridge, CA 91330
Tel: (818)677-1200
Admissions: (818)677-3700
Fax: (818)677-3766
Web Site: http://www.csun.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1958. Setting: 353-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $2.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $66,989. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4989 per student. Total enrollment: 33,243. Faculty: 1,822 (803 full-time, 1,019 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 18,178 applied, 75% were admitted. Full-time: 20,638 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 6,216 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 7 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 28% Hispanic, 9% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 13% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early action. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 11/30, 8/30 for early action. Notification: continuous, 9/30 for early action. Preference given to state residents for business administration, engineering, computer science, economics programs.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3036 full-time, $1464 per term part-time. College room and board: $7616. College room only: $4766. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities; 6% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. Oviatt Library with 1.2 million books, 3 million microform titles, 2,754 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $7.1 million.

Community Environment:

Located north of Los Angeles and part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Climate is mild; all modes of transportation available in the Los Angeles area. The community facilities include churches, library, hospitals and all the service organizations are represented. Part-time employment available in this center for electronic and space research and development; about three-quarters of the students work. Northridge enjoys the cultural and recreational advantages of Los Angeles and is 20 miles from the Pacific Ocean and near the mountain areas for winter sports.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SACRAMENTO I-6

6000 J St.
Sacramento, CA 95819-6048
Tel: (916)278-6011
Admissions: (916)278-7362
Web Site: http://www.csus.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 300-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 27,932. Faculty: 1,530 (812 full-time, 718 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 15,980 applied, 47% were admitted. Full-time: 17,864 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 5,164 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 36 states and territories, 122 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 7% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 25% 25 or older, 5% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 8/1, 11/30 for early action. Notification: 11/1, 11/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Nonresident tuition: $13,242 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3624 full-time, $276 per term part-time. College room and board: $7458.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 250 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 7% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Ski Club, American Marketing Association, Society for Advancement of Management, Accounting Society, Human Resources Management Association. Major annual events: River City Days, Student Orientation Program. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,100 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. California State University, Sacramento Library with 1.3 million books, 2.4 million microform titles, 3,761 serials, 50,722 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 700 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Sacramento, the capital of California, is the gateway to historic Gold Rush country and the High Sierra vacation regions. All modes of transportation serve the area; San Francisco is a two-hour drive on the freeway. The cultural center of Northern California, Sacramento has the historic Crocker Art Gallery, symphony orchestra, summer theater series, state library, a state museum, a state railroad museum and the Sacramento History Center. Numerous part time jobs on campus and in the city are available through the Student Placement Office and the California Department of Employment. There are many post-college vocational opportunities with defense industries, two air bases, state and local government and other growing industrial and high-tech firms. Off campus housing is available to students. There are many points of interest and a great number of recreational facilities in the Sacramento area; parks, zoo, golf courses, boating

and fishing on the American and Sacramento Rivers. Squaw Valley, 100 miles away, was the home of the 1960 Olympics for winter sports. There are good health facilities and a wide range of fraternal and civic organizations.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SAN BERNARDINO S-11

5500 University Parkway
San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397
Tel: (909)537-5000
Admissions: (909)537-5188
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csusb.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1965. Setting: 430-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 16,431. Faculty: 447 (363 full-time, 84 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 9,629 applied, 25% were admitted. 18% from top 10% of their high school class, 35% from top quarter, 90% from top half. Full-time: 10,375 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 2,089 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 43 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 34% Hispanic, 12% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 21% 25 or older, 11% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; social sciences. Core. Services for LD students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8136 full-time, $226 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3398 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5886. College room only: $4376. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 80 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 6% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: Earth Day, Annual University Picnic, International Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, residence staff on call 24-hours. 1,500 college housing spaces available; 1,431 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Pfau Library with 731,259 books, 643,292 microform titles, 2,028 serials, 15,252 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 104,000. San Bernardino is located 58 miles east of Los Angeles at the foot of the San Bernardino Mountains. Climate is ideal with 312 days of sunshine a year. Citrus groves surround the city. Greyhound and Trailways bus lines and Santa Fe Railroad serve the area. The nearest airport is Ontario International. San Bernardino has art galleries, Swing Auditorium, theaters, many churches, and a library. Pacific Ocean beaches provide water sports. Resort areas of Lake Arrowhead and Big Bear Lake in the mountains have facilities for water sports and winter sports. Cajon Pass offers a scenic drive through the mountains into the Mojave Desert; City Creek Highway connects with the Rim of the World Drive at Running Springs.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SAN MARCOS V-3

333 South Twin Oaks Valley Rd.
San Marcos, CA 92096-0001
Tel: (760)750-4000
Admissions: (760)750-4848
Fax: (760)750-4030
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csusm.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1990. Setting: 304-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Endowment: $5.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5150 per student. Total enrollment: 6,956. Faculty: 402. 6,586 applied, 44% were admitted. Full-time: 4,658 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 1,669 students, 58% women, 42% men. 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 21% Hispanic, 3% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 30% 25 or older, 7% live on campus, 17% transferred in. Retention: 73% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at San Diego State University, Palomar College, Mira Costa College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8136 full-time, $339 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $3062 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room only: $7470. Room charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: Accounting Club, Liberal Studies Club, MECHA, Sigma IOTA Epsilon. Major annual events: Pow-Wow, Welcome Week, Awards Dinner. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-our patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Kellogg Library with 233,445 books, 941,482 microform titles, 2,043 serials, 8,528 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.7 million. 1,300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, STANISLAUS K-7

801 West Monte Vista Ave.
Turlock, CA 95382
Tel: (209)667-3122
Admissions: (209)667-3152
Fax: (209)667-3333
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csustan.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1957. Setting: 220-acre small town campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $397,203. Total enrollment: 8,137. Faculty: 495 (285 full-time, 210 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 4,292 applied, 65% were admitted. Full-time: 4,500 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 1,983 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 58 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 28% Hispanic, 4% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 31% 25 or older, 9% live on campus. Retention: 82% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; business/marketing; social sciences. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the California State University System. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early decision. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Required for some: interview, ELM/EPT; TOEFL, SAT or ACT, ELM/EPT, TOEFL. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 7/1, 10/1 for early action. Notification: 1/1, 10/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,170 full-time, $339 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3030 full-time, $855.50 per term part-time. College room and board: $8253. College room only: $5612. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 57 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Most popular organization: MECHA. Major annual events: Warrior Day, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center, Remedial services, academic/career counseling, placement service, day care. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 548 college housing spaces available; 533 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. University Library with 365,870 books, 1.3 million microform titles, 1,693 serials, 5,435 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3 million. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 5,200. This is a growing and prosperous residential community in a rural area of central California. Dairying is of major importance; turkeys, melons, grapes and peaches are the chief products. The area is served by bus and railroad. One general hospital, one clinic, many churches, three libraries and most all of the major fraternal and civic organizations are represented in Turlock. Part-time employment opportunities are average. Special events are the Stanislaus County Fair and the Annual Chamber of Commerce Roundup Week in the fall. A summer concert series is held at the university.

■ CAÑ ADA COLLEGE K-4

4200 Farm Hill Blvd.
Redwood City, CA 94061-1099
Tel: (650)306-3100
Admissions: (650)306-3125
Fax: (650)306-3457
Web Site: http://www.canadacollege.net/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of San Mateo County Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1968. Setting: 131-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Total enrollment: 6,421. 1,020 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 32 other countries, 0.4% Native American, 42% Hispanic, 4% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 65% 25 or older. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for radiological technology programs. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: Latin-American Club, student government, Environmental Club, athletics, Interior Design Club. Major annual event: Spring Fair. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 12-hour patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. 53,417 books, 414 serials, and an OPAC. 55 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CERRITOS COLLEGE R-5

11110 Alondra Blvd.
Norwalk, CA 90650-6298
Tel: (562)860-2451
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cerritos.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1956. Setting: 140-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 24,000. Students come from 32 other countries, 46% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Placement: CEPT, Nelson Denny Reading Test recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: local fraternities, local sororities. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. College housing not available. Wilford Michael Library with 74,502 books and 396 serials. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus.

Community Environment:

Norwalk is an urban area 17 miles from Los Angeles. The climate is subtropical. There is bus and rail service to Los Angeles, where other major transportation facilities are located. The city has many community facilities, industrial firms and retail outlets. Part-time work is available.

■ CERRO COSO COMMUNITY COLLEGE P-11

3000 College Heights Blvd.
Ridgecrest, CA 93555-9571
Tel: (760)384-6100
Admissions: (760)384-6291
Fax: (760)375-4776
Web Site: http://www.cerrocoso.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Kern Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: 320-acre small town campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $25,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3000 per student. Total enrollment: 5,020. 375 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 1,218 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 3,802 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 6% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 55% 25 or older, 4% transferred in. Retention: 51% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: ACT ASSET required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $5010 full-time, $162 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $780 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organizations: Special Services Club, Art Club, LVN Club, Athletic Club, Drama Club. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. Walter Stiern Memorial Library with 25,000 books, 800 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $400,000. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CHABOT COLLEGE K-5

25555 Hesperian Blvd.
Hayward, CA 94545-5001
Tel: (510)723-6600
Admissions: (510)723-6700
Web Site: http://www.chabotcollege.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 245-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 15,075. 1,248 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 78 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 13% black, 30% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 47% 25 or older. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Mills College; California State University, Hayward. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army(c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for dental hygiene, nursing, emergency medical technician programs. Option: electronic application. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 21 open to all. Most popular organizations: Chinese Club, International Club, MECHA, ASCC, SCTA (Student California Teachers Association). Major annual events: Homecoming, Health Fair, International Night. Student services: legal services, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Chabot Library with 100,000 books and 160 serials. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University - Hayward.

■ CHAFFEY COLLEGE S-11

5885 Haven Ave.
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91737-3002
Tel: (909)987-1737
Admissions: (909)941-2631
Fax: (909)941-2783
Web Site: http://www.chaffey.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1883. Setting: 200-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 17,930. 2% from out-of-state, 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: The Associated Students of Chaffey College, Multicultural Club, Style Club. Major annual events: Club Rush, Toy and Food Drive, ICC sponsored events. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Chaffey College Library with 72,000 books and 232 serials. 150 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Rancho Cucamonga is a suburban community 44 miles east of Los Angeles. With the west end of San Bernadino County the area has a population of 475,000. It has dry climate conditions, with temperatures ranging from 25 to 112 degrees during the year. Farming, namely citrus and grapes, is the main economy. Rail, bus, and air (Ontario International Airport) serve the area. There are four hospitals nearby.

■ CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY S-7

One University Dr.
Orange, CA 92866
Tel: (714)997-6815; 888-CUAPPLY
Admissions: (714)997-6711
Fax: (714)997-6713
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.chapman.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1861. Setting: 45-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $175 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $19,969 per student. Total enrollment: 5,732. Faculty: 581 (264 full-time, 317 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 3,862 applied, 53% were admitted. 9 National Merit Scholars, 10 class presidents, 8 valedictorians. Full-time: 3,661 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 203 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 48 states and territories, 37 other countries, 20% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 2% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 6% 25 or older, 38% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; business/marketing; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.75 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.5 high school GPA, interview, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 1/31, 11/30 for early action. Notification: continuous, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $41,248 includes full-time tuition ($29,900), mandatory fees ($848), and college room and board ($10,500). Part-time tuition: $920 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: Associated Students, Disciples on Campus, Gamma Beta Phi honor society. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Sizzle, Orientation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, full safety education program. 1,450 college housing spaces available; 1,411 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Leatherby Libraries plus 1 other with 182,169 books, 430,100 microform titles, 1,802 serials, 18,099 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.9 million. 453 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Orange is located 32 miles southeast of Los Angeles and 94 miles north of San Diego. Its climate is mild with a very low rainfall. It is accessible by car, bus or train and plane. Orange County Airport is a short distance away, and Los Angeles International Airport is a 45-minute drive away. As the name implies, Orange lies in a vast citrus belt; avocados are also grown here. All the necessary facilities of a city are available as well as many recreational facilities for swimming, golf, surfing, skiing, fishing, hunting, and boating. Beaches and mountain resorts are nearby.

■ CHARLES R. DREW UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND SCIENCE S-10

1731 East 120th St.
Los Angeles, CA 90059
Tel: (323)563-4800
Admissions: (323)563-5849
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cdrewu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1966. Total enrollment:250. Faculty: 35. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 364 applied, 55% were admitted. 0.4% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 49% black, 16% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, independent study, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, interview. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Required for some: preadmission assessment exams. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 4/30. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $10,000 full-time, $250 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $100 per year part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available.

■ CITRUS COLLEGE P-6

1000 West Foothill Blvd.
Glendora, CA 91741-1899
Tel: (626)963-0323
Web Site: http://www.citruscollege.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1915. Setting: 104-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 12,393. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 29:1. 25% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4954 full-time, $150 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $754 full-time, $26 per unit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 40 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government, AGS Honor Society, International Student Association, Cosmetology Club. Major annual events: Fall Fest, Spring Fest, Club Rush. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Hayden Library with 45,091 books, 133 serials, 4,752 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Azusa Pacific University

■ CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO K-4

50 Phelan Ave.
San Francisco, CA 94112-1821
Tel: (415)239-3000
Admissions: (415)239-3291
Fax: (415)239-3936
Web Site: http://www.ccsf.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1935. Setting: 56-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 106,480. Students come from 51 states and territories, 1% Native American, 16% Hispanic, 9% black, 38% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 62% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at members of The San Francisco Consortium. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Louise and Claude Rosenberg, Jr. Library with 93,518 books, 774 serials, and a Web page.

Community Environment:

See San Francisco State University

■ CLAREMONT MCKENNA COLLEGE V-10

500 East 9th St.
Claremont, CA 91711
Tel: (909)621-8000
Admissions: (909)621-8088
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Part of The Claremont Colleges Consortium. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 50-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $316 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.4 million. Total enrollment: 1,139. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 9:1. 3,734 applied, 21% were admitted. 83% from top 10% of their high school class, 97% from top quarter, 100% from top half. 11 National Merit Scholars, 12 class presidents, 7 valedictorians, 36 student government officers. Full-time: 1,139 students, 46% women, 54% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 21 other countries, 53% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 4% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 0.1% 25 or older, 96% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 97% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, internships. Off campus study at 5 members of The Claremont Colleges, Haverford College, Colby College, Spelman College, Morehouse College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/2, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 1/2 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $42,920 includes full-time tuition ($30,800), mandatory fees ($1850), and college room and board ($10,270). College room only: $5160. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $5100 per course.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 280 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, Debate/Forensics Club, newspaper, Volunteer Student Admission Committee, Civitas (community service club). Major annual events: Athenaeum Lectures, Winter Madrigal, Monte Carlo Night. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 972 students; 1,008 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Honnold Library plus 3 others with 2 million books, 1.4 million microform titles, 6,028 serials, 606 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.3 million. 120 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CLEVELAND CHIROPRACTIC COLLEGE-LOS ANGELES CAMPUS S-10

590 North Vermont Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90004-2196
Tel: (323)660-6166
Free: 800-446-CCLA
Admissions: (323)906-2031
Fax: (323)660-5387
Web Site: http://www.clevelandchiropractic.edu/

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Administratively affiliated with Cleveland Chiropractic College-Kansas City. Awards associate, bachelor's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1911. Total enrollment: 435. Faculty: 39 (22 full-time, 17 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. Full-time: 92 students, 33% women, 67% men. Part-time: 31 students, 29% women, 71% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 8 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 7% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 47% 25 or older, 92% transferred in. Retention: 53% of full-time entering class returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: trimesters. ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $5242 full-time, $219 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $200 full-time, $200 per year part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. Carl Cleveland Jr. with 23,618 books, 1,671 microform titles, 152 serials, 11,341 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page.

■ COASTLINE COMMUNITY COLLEGE T-6

11460 Warner Ave.
Fountain Valley, CA 92708-2597
Tel: (714)546-7600
Admissions: (714)241-6160
Fax: (714)241-6288
Web Site: http://coastline.cccd.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Coast Community College District System. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1976. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $90,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $330 per student. Total enrollment: 8,559. Full-time: 493 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 8,066 students, 60% women, 40% men. 1% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 6% black, 29% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 75% 25 or older, 48% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available.

■ COGSWELL POLYTECHNICAL COLLEGE J-6

1175 Bordeaux Dr.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1299
Tel: (408)541-0100
Free: 800-264-7955
Fax: (408)747-0764
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cogswell.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Part of Foundation for Educational Achievement, San Diego. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1887. Setting: 2-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Endowment: $9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3348 per student. Total enrollment: 282. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 8:1. 61 applied, 98% were admitted. Full-time: 133 students, 15% women, 85% men. Part-time: 149 students, 10% women, 90% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 5 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 2% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 50% 25 or older, 9% live on campus, 24% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA. Required for some: recommendations, interview, portfolio. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Tuition: $13,680 full-time, $570 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room only: $3000. Room charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organization: ASB. Major annual events: Founders' Day, dance, movie nights. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 30 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Cogswell College Library with 11,257 books, 43 microform titles, 102 serials, 359 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $77,625. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE COLBURN SCHOOL CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC S-10

200 South Grand Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Tel: (213)621-2200
Fax: (213)621-2110
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.colburnschool.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1980. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 17. 39 applied, 31% were admitted. Students come from 4 states and territories, 4 other countries, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 0% black, 24% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 47% international, 100% live on campus. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Application deadline: 1/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100. Tuition: $0 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1200 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: trained security personnel during open building hours. College housing not available.

■ COLEMAN COLLEGE (LA MESA) V-12

7380 Parkway Dr.
La Mesa, CA 91942-1532
Tel: (619)465-3990
Fax: (619)465-0162
Web Site: http://www.coleman.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1963. Setting: 3-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1700 per student. Total enrollment: 468. Full-time: 444 students, 23% women, 77% men. Students come from 19 states and territories, 5% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 10% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 68% 25 or older. Core. Services for LD students, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100. Tuition: $20,580 full-time, $245 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time. Tuition guaranteed not to increase for student's term of enrollment.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Coleman College LaMesa Library with 66,800 books and 69 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6000. 420 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed.

■ COLEMAN COLLEGE (SAN MARCOS) V-3

1284 West San Marcos Blvd.
San Marcos, CA 92069
Tel: (760)747-3990
Fax: (760)752-9808
Web Site: http://www.coleman.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: suburban campus. Total enrollment: 203. Full-time: 203 students, 27% women, 73% men. 16% Hispanic, 8% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander.

■ COLLEGE OF ALAMEDA H-5

555 Atlantic Ave.
Alameda, CA 94501-2109
Tel: (510)522-7221
Admissions: (510)466-7365
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.peralta.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Peralta Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: 62-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $37,247. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $953 per student. Total enrollment: 5,500. Students come from 18 states and territories, 9 other countries, 44% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at other units of the Peralta Community College District System.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: women's center. College housing not available. Learning Resources Center with 40,000 books and 200 serials. 20 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

See Laney College.

■ COLLEGE OF THE CANYONS S-9

26455 Rockwell Canyon Rd.
Santa Clarita, CA 91355-1803
Tel: (661)259-7800; 888-206-7827
Admissions: (661)362-3280
Fax: (661)362-5300
Web Site: http://www.canyons.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1969. Setting: 158-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $282,253. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2060 per student. Total enrollment: 16,504. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 27:1. Full-time: 12,679 students, 40% women, 60% men. Part-time: 3,825 students, 49% women, 51% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 23% Hispanic, 4% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 35% 25 or older, 3% transferred in. Retention: 51% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/22. Notification: continuous until 8/22.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $5168 full-time, $171 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $818 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: HITE, Phi Theta Kappa, Alpha Gamma Sigma, MECHA, Biology Club. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. College of the Canyons Library with 40,646 books, 84,510 microform titles, 233 serials, 29,955 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $831,649. 650 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The Valencia-Newhall-Saugus-Canyon Country communities comprise the city of Santa Clarita located 32 miles northwest of Los Angeles near the San Fernando Valley. The average mean temperature is 65 degrees. Community facilities include hospitals, churches, a library, newspapers and banks. Recreational facilities include theaters, parks, a riding stable and golf courses. Desert area and many secluded canyons are nearby. The Castaic Reservoir water recreation area opened in 1970.

■ COLLEGE OF THE DESERT T-13

43-500 Monterey Ave.
Palm Desert, CA 92260-9305
Tel: (760)346-8041
Admissions: (760)773-7516
Web Site: http://desert.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1959. Setting: 160-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 9,946. Students come from 23 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 52% Hispanic, 3% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for international applicants or nursing program. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: student association, International Club, African-Americans for College Education. Major annual events: Homecoming, Mayor's Forum, Rotary Awards. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. College of the Desert Library with 58,000 books and 260 serials. 43 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Palm Desert is a resort area with a population of 12,000, where the climate is temperate. Buses and planes serve the area; Highway 111 goes through town. There are churches of major denominations, civic and service groups, and hospitals are nearby. Indio and Palm Springs have such recreational activities as boating, fishing, water skiing, and hiking. There are nearby mountains for winter sports. The area is a major center for golf and tennis tournaments.

■ COLLEGE OF MARIN F-3

835 College Ave.
Kentfield, CA 94904
Tel: (415)457-8811
Admissions: (415)485-9417
Fax: (415)883-2632
Web Site: http://www.marin.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1926. Setting: 410-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 6,516. 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. 85,000 books and 500 serials. 25 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Kentfield is suburban community in a beautiful countryside across the Golden Gate from San Francisco. Located on a peninsula with the Pacific Ocean on one side and San Francisco Bay on the other. A mild climate averaging 70 degrees; average rainfall 36 inches per year. The Golden Gate bus line serves the area. Entertainment and recreational facilities are close by and shopping facilities are good. Good opportunities for part-time employment.

■ COLLEGE OF THE REDWOODS D-1

7351 Tompkins Hill Rd.
Eureka, CA 95501-9300
Tel: (707)476-4100
Admissions: (707)476-4177
Web Site: http://www.redwoods.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1964. Setting: 322-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3058 per student. Total enrollment: 7,708. 717 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 52 states and territories, 51% 25 or older, 2% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at Oregon Institute of Technology, Rogue Community College, Southern Oregon University.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program or international students. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Students College of the Redwoods, Spanish Club, Computer Information Systems Club, Math/Science Club, International Student Club. Major annual events: Wood Fair, Music and Arts Fair, Multicultural Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 160 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. College of the Redwoods Library with 50,266 books, 969 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $335,024. 550 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Eureka is located on the north coast of Humboldt Bay, 283 miles north of San Francisco; the climate is cool and humid. Buses and railroads serve the area, airlines to connecting flights in San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Portland are available. Community facilities include two hospitals, a medical center, churches, libraries, and a good downtown shopping area. The city provides a park, a community recreation building and a 18 hole golf course. Fishing and hunting are excellent; mountain area very near. In Summer, salmon fishing is good in Humboldt and Trinidad Bay north of the city; in early fall, steelhead and salmon are caught in the Eel Mud, and Trinity Rivers nearby. Eureka sponsors an annual Rhododendron Festival and two fairs each year.

■ COLLEGE OF SAN MATEO K-4

1700 West Hillsdale Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94402-3784
Tel: (650)574-6161
Admissions: (650)574-6594
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegeofsanmateo.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1922. Setting: 150-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 10,872. Students come from 35 other countries, 51% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. College of San Mateo Library with 85,085 books, 300 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

San Mateo, located on picturesque El Camino Real, is an attractive residential suburb, 19 miles south of San Francisco. Climate is moderate and the city claims to have an average of 258 days of sunshine each year. San Mateo has access to all major forms of transportation and has a municipal transit system. There are many churches, hospitals, and libraries. An outstanding retail shopping center is found on the Peninsula. Recreational facilities include golf courses, yacht harbor, public beach, public parks and the Bay Meadows Race Track.

■ COLLEGE OF THE SEQUOIAS N-8

915 South Mooney Blvd.
Visalia, CA 93277-2234
Tel: (559)730-3700
Admissions: (559)737-4844
Web Site: http://www.cos.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 215-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $1.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1805 per student. Total enrollment: 11,169. 2,171 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 4,427 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 6,742 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 23 states and territories, 1% Native American, 44% Hispanic, 4% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.2% international, 46% 25 or older, 45% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, engineering, chemistry, math, English programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/15. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 35 open to all. Most popular organizations: MECHA, Ag Club, Alpha Gamma Sigma, Paralegal Association, Sports Medicine Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, Multicultural Fair, Tech Prep Expo. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, 18 hour patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. College of the Sequoias Library with 73,557 books, 430 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $513,224. 190 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Visalia is 42 miles southeast of Fresno. It is the Tulare County seat and is situated in the fertile San Joaquin Valley. It ranks highest in the world in agricultural production of citrus fruits, dairy products, olives, cotton, and walnuts. A number of manufacturers and industrial plants are located here. Bus, rail, and air lines serve the area. The community has churches, hospitals, a symphony orchestra, ballet, theatres, 20 city parks, and 5 golf courses. Tulare County Park provides recreational facilities for picnicking and water sports. Nearby is the High Sierra mountain wonderland in the Sierra National Forest.

■ COLLEGE OF THE SISKIYOUS B-4

800 College Ave.
Weed, CA 96094-2899
Tel: (530)938-5555
Admissions: (530)938-5374
Fax: (530)938-5227
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.siskiyous.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1957. Setting: 260-acre rural campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2631 per student. Total enrollment: 2,998. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 389 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 18 states and territories, 6 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 3% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 39% 25 or older, 10% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Nonresident tuition: $174 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $26 per unit part-time, $12 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 71 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Student Body, Latino Student Union, Phi Theta Kappa, Black Student Union, American Indian Alliance. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Transfer Schools and Career Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, controlled dormitory access. 135 college housing spaces available; 120 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only housing available. College of the Siskiyous Library with 34,708 books, 19,646 microform titles, 148 serials, 9,433 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $379,177. 260 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Centrally located in Siskiyou County, just off Interstate 5, the historic lumber town of Weed lies nestled at the base of
majestic 14,162-foot Mt. Shasta. At the midpoint between two major population centers - Medford, Oregon, to the north and Redding to the south Weed is easily accessible by airline, train and bus services. The climate features four distinct seasons with an average snowfall of 24 inches. Outdoor enthusiasts will delight in the spectacular alpine environment of this rural northern California region, which provides for a wide variety of recreational activities including downhill and cross-country skiing, snowboarding, hunting, fishing, hiking, rock climbing, wind surfing, and more.

■ COLUMBIA COLLEGE J-8

11600 Columbia College Dr.
Sonora, CA 95370
Tel: (209)588-5100
Admissions: (209)588-5107
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gocolumbia.org/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Yosemite Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1968. Setting: 200-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 2,691. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 242 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 940 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 1,751 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 7 states and territories, 5% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 68% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to EOPS, disabled.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4286 full-time, $177 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $662 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $24 per term part-time. College room and board: $6115.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 7 open to all. Most popular organizations: International Club, Jazz Club, Ecology Action Club, Christian Club. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 200 college housing spaces available; 41 were occupied in 2003-04. Columbia College Library with 34,892 books, 67,497 microform titles, 320 serials, 4,852 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 85 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ COLUMBIA COLLEGE HOLLYWOOD S-9

18618 Oxnard St.
Tarzana, CA 91356
Tel: (818)345-8414
Fax: (818)345-9053
Web Site: http://www.columbiacollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1952. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Total enrollment:177. 83 applied, 39% were admitted. 8% from top 10% of their high school class, 23% from top quarter, 44% from top half. 2 class presidents, 20 student government officers. Students come from 30 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 15% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 18% international, 28% 25 or older. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview. Recommended: SAT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $18,350 includes full-time tuition ($11,400), mandatory fees ($1100), and college room and board ($5850). Part-time tuition: $325 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Major annual event: Alumni Weekend. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Joseph E. Blath Memorial Library with 5,500 books, 23 serials, 220 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 12 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The college is located close to freeways, public transportation, housing, and major recreational areas in Southern California.

■ COMPTON COMMUNITY COLLEGE Y-3

1111 East Artesia Blvd.
Compton, CA 90221-5393
Tel: (310)900-1600
Fax: (310)900-1692
Web Site: http://www.compton.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 83-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 7,900. 1,650 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 4 states and territories, 25 other countries, 69% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Compton Community College Library with 45,000 books and 400 serials. 30 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Located between the cities of Los Angeles and Long Beach in the center of a large residential area. The population of the general area surrounding the city is now about 200,000, and is increasing each year. The city offers a mild climate and many days of sun. Mountains and the beaches are both nearby which provide a wealth of recreational activities. Work for room and board in private homes may be secured, part-time employment is also available.

■ CONCORDE CAREER INSTITUTE S-10

12412 Victory Blvd.
North Hollywood, CA 91606
Tel: (818)766-8151
Fax: (818)766-1587
Web Site: http://www.concordecareercolleges.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1955.

■ CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY T-7

1530 Concordia West
Irvine, CA 92612-3299
Tel: (949)854-8002
Free: 800-229-1200
Fax: (949)854-6894
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cui.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. Part of The Ten-campus Concordia University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees (associate's degree for international students only). Founded 1972. Setting: 70-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $8.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4419 per student. Total enrollment: 2,092. Faculty: 208 (77 full-time, 131 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 998 applied, 68% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 53% from top quarter, 93% from top half. Full-time: 1,370 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 75 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 10 other countries, 18% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 4% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 10% 25 or older, 73% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at San Diego and Temecula Degree Completion Satellite Campuses.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.8 high school GPA, interview. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $28,190 includes full-time tuition ($21,130) and college room and board ($7060). College room only: $4380. Part-time tuition: $600 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 14 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Spiritual Life Board, Student Activities Committee, intramurals, Outreach. Major annual events: homecoming, Closing Banquet, Midnight Madness. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, lighted walkways. 1,024 college housing spaces available; 945 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Concordia University Library with 85,432 books, 53,175 microform titles, 9,768 serials, 3,693 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $349,066. 42 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CONTRA COSTA COLLEGE J-4

2600 Mission Bell Dr.
San Pablo, CA 94806-3195
Tel: (510)235-7800
Web Site: http://www.contracosta.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Contra Costa Community College District and California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1948. Setting: 83-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 8,834. 5,794 applied. Full-time: 3,973 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 4,861 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 16 other countries, 1% Native American, 28% Hispanic, 28% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 54% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at University of California, Berkeley; members of the Regional Association of East Bay Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Contra Costa College Library with 57,017 books, 333 serials, 1,860 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. 180 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

San Pablo is located on San Francisco Bay north of Richmond and Oakland on Highway 40. Buses and railroads serve the area. The city has 70 major industries; skilled and unskilled labor opportunities are available. San Pablo community facilities include churches, library and hospitals. Recreational facilities are provided by the beaches nearby and the mountain resort area for winter sports, which are approximately a three hour drive.

■ COPPER MOUNTAIN COLLEGE S-13

6162 Rotary Way
Joshua Tree, CA 92252
Tel: (760)366-3791
Admissions: (760)366-5290
Web Site: http://www.cmccd.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Total enrollment: 1,800. 1,800 applied, 100% were admitted. 1% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 7% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Calendar: semesters.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ COSUMNES RIVER COLLEGE (SACRAMENTO) I-6

8401 Center Parkway
Sacramento, CA 95823-5799
Tel: (916)691-7451
Admissions: (916)688-7410
Fax: (916)691-7375
Web Site: http://www.crc.losrios.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Rios Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: 180-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 19,284. Students come from 15 states and territories, 30 other countries, 52% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for international applicants. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Most popular organizations: Latino/Hispanic Scholars Club, Animal Health Technology Club, Christian Club, Club Mesa, Writers' Workshop. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Cosumnes River College Library with 55,447 books and 375 serials. 190 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University - Sacramento.

■ CRAFTON HILLS COLLEGE Q-11

11711 Sand Canyon Rd.
Yucaipa, CA 92399-1799
Tel: (909)794-2161
Admissions: (909)389-3355
Fax: (909)389-9141
Web Site: http://www.craftonhills.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 526-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $500 per student. Total enrollment: 5,300. Students come from 19 states and territories, 12 other countries, 47% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: ACT, SAT, SCAT, CGP, ACT ASSET, Nelson Denny Reading Test, or ACCUPLACER required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Social organizations: 9 open to all. Major annual events: College Night, Career and College Fair, Native American Pow Wow. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Crafton Hills College Library with 65,731 books and 425 serials. 52 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University - San Bernardino

■ CUESTA COLLEGE Q-5

PO Box 8106
San Luis Obispo, CA 93403-8106
Tel: (805)546-3100
Admissions: (805)546-3130
Web Site: http://www.cuesta.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1964. Setting: 129-acre rural campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $44,374. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1550 per student. Total enrollment: 10,771. Students come from 19 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 1% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 33% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: essay. Placement: Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Students of Cuesta College, Alpha Gamma Sigma, Student Nurses Association, Latina Leadership Network, MECHA. Major annual events: Student Life Orientation Days, Jazz Festival, Welcome Open House. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Cuesta College Library with 64,814 books, 584 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $975,000. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

■ CUYAMACA COLLEGE V-12

900 Rancho San Diego Parkway
El Cajon, CA 92019-4304
Tel: (619)660-4000
Admissions: (619)660-4302
Web Site: http://www.cuyamaca.net/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Grossmont-Cuyamaca Community College District. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1978. Setting: 165-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Total enrollment: 7,690. Students come from 8 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 20% Hispanic, 8% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 37% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Placement: ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Library plus 1 other with 32,129 books, 712 microform titles, 130 serials, 2,588 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 396 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CYPRESS COLLEGE Z-6

9200 Valley View
Cypress, CA 90630-5897
Tel: (714)484-7000
Admissions: (714)484-7435
Fax: (714)761-3934
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cypress.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 108-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 15,347. Students come from 41 states and territories, 22 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 45% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/25.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 63 open to all. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, California Student Nurses Association, Court Reporting Club, MECHA. Major annual events: Senior Day, Scare Fair, club information days. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Cypress College Library plus 1 other with 76,696 books, 4,203 microform titles, 255 serials, 1,113 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $483,959. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Cypress is a rapidly growing suburban city, 20 miles east of Los Angeles. The climate is dry and mild. Buses, trains, freeway system and the Los Angeles International Airport 20 miles away all serve the area. The city has three private hospitals, twelve churches, a library, and an amphitheater. There are city parks, a golf course, swimming pool and a gymnasium for those interested in sports. Anaheim Stadium is seven miles away, Disneyland five and one-half miles, Knotts Berry Farm and Movieland Wax Museum two and one-half miles. Beaches and mountain areas provide additional recreational facilities and are within easy driving distance. Many universities and colleges are nearby.

■ DE ANZA COLLEGE K-6

21250 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014-5793
Tel: (408)864-5678
Admissions: (408)864-8292
Fax: (408)864-8329
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deanza.fhda.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 112-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Total enrollment: 23,344. Full-time: 8,860 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 14,484 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 48 states and territories, 79 other countries, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 6% black, 33% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 52% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: Common Application, early admission. Placement: SAT, CPT, DTLS, DTMS required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $22. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3636 full-time, $101 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $818 full-time, $17 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 45 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Nurses Association, Phi Theta Kappa, Automotive Club, Vietnamese Club, Filipino Club. Major annual events: Graduation, Orientation, Club Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. A. Robert DeHart Learning Center with 80,000 books and 927 serials. 800 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The district, population 174,000, is within an hour's drive from San Francisco. Buses and trains serve the area and the San Jose International Airport is nearby for air transportation. There are parks, playgrounds and nearby beaches for recreational activities as well as the cultural advantages of the San Francisco Bay Area.

■ DESIGN INSTITUTE OF SAN DIEGO W-12

8555 Commerce Ave.
San Diego, CA 92121-2685
Tel: (858)566-1200
Free: 800-619-4337
Fax: (858)566-2711
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.disd.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1977. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 450. Students come from 10 states and territories, 15 other countries, 70% 25 or older. Retention: 87% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Part-time degree program, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: Peterson's Universal Application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Most popular organizations: American Society of Interior Designers, International Interior Designers Association, Illuminating Electrical Society. Major annual events: West Week at Pacific Design Center, Showcase House. College housing not available. 5,000 books, 90 serials, and an OPAC. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (ELK GROVE) I-6

Sacramento Center
2218 Kausen Dr.
Elk Grove, CA 95758
Tel: (916)478-2847; (866)573-3879
Fax: (916)478-2849
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $11,790 full-time, $440 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $60 full-time, $30 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (FREMONT) K-5

6600 Dumbarton Circle
Fremont, CA 94555
Tel: (510)574-1100; 888-393-3879
Fax: (510)742-0868
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Part of DeVry University. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1998. Setting: 17-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 1,580. Faculty: 78 (46 full-time, 32 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. Full-time: 942 students, 28% women, 72% men. Part-time: 506 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 25 states and territories, 9 other countries, 1% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 8% black, 32% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 34% 25 or older. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; engineering technologies; computer and information sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $13,060 full-time, $475 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $270 full-time, $160 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 6 open to all. Most popular organizations: Latino-American Student Organization, Telecommunications Club, Chess Club. Major annual events: Thanksgiving dinner, summer barbecue, book fair. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, lighted pathways/sidewalks. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with 40,000 books, 3,060 serials, 2,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (IRVINE) T-7

3333 Michelson Dr., Ste. 420
Irvine, CA 92612-1682
Tel: (949)752-5631
Fax: (949)752-5637
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $12,450 full-time, $460 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $60 full-time, $30 per year part-time.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (LONG BEACH) T-10

3880 Kilroy Airport Way
Long Beach, CA 90806
Tel: (562)427-0861
Free: 800-597-0444
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Part of DeVry University. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1984. Setting: 23-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 1,201. Faculty: 151 (27 full-time, 124 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. Full-time: 614 students, 30% women, 70% men. Part-time: 409 students, 40% women, 60% men. Students come from 23 states and territories, 11 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 39% Hispanic, 16% black, 22% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 44% 25 or older. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: computer and information sciences; business/marketing; engineering technologies. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $12,450 full-time, $460 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $270 full-time, $160 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 13 open to all. Most popular organizations: Teamnet, Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, National Society of Black Engineers, Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, United Islands. Major annual events: Welcome Back, New Horizons Retreat, Winter Formal. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, motion detectors, closed hours. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with 15,500 books, 85 serials, 2,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 458 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (POMONA) S-11

901 Corporate Center Dr.
Pomona, CA 91768-2642
Tel: (909)622-8866; (866)338-7934
Fax: (909)623-5666
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Part of DeVry University. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1983. Setting: 15-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 1,899. Faculty: 80 (38 full-time, 42 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 25:1. Full-time: 956 students, 27% women, 73% men. Part-time: 765 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 25 states and territories, 19 other countries, 1% Native American, 44% Hispanic, 8% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 42% 25 or older. Retention: 53% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: computer and information sciences; business/marketing; engineering technologies. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $12,450 full-time, $460 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $270 full-time, $160 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 14 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Beta Lambda, Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, National Society of Black Engineers, International Telecommunications Management Association, United Islands Student Association. Major annual events: The Welcome Barbecue, Winter Formal, Part-Time Jobs Fair. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with 17,000 books, 77 serials, 1,234 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 513 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (SAN DIEGO) W-12

2655 Camino Del Rio North, Ste. 201
San Diego, CA 92108-1633
Tel: (619)683-2446
Fax: (619)683-2448
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $12,450 full-time, $460 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $60 full-time, $30 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (SAN FRANCISCO) K-4

455 Market St., Ste. 1650
San Francisco, CA 94105-2472
Tel: (415)243-8787
Fax: (415)243-8686
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $13,060 full-time, $475 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $60 full-time, $30 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

■ DEVRY UNIVERSITY (WEST HILLS) S-8

22801 West Roscoe Blvd.
West Hills, CA 91304
Tel: (818)932-3001; 888-610-0800
Fax: (818)932-3091
Web Site: http://www.devry.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Part of DeVry University. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1999. Setting: 20-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 769. Faculty: 61 (17 full-time, 44 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. Full-time: 329 students, 26% women, 74% men. Part-time: 342 students, 26% women, 74% men. Students come from 10 states and territories, 13 other countries, 3% Native American, 30% Hispanic, 5% black, 20% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 42% 25 or older. Retention: 53% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: computer and information sciences; business/marketing; engineering technologies. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. One-time mandatory fee: $40. Tuition: $12,450 full-time, $460 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $270 full-time, $160 per year part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Student Body, Computer Information Systems/Telecommunication Association, Women's Caucus, United Island Student Association, Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers. Major annual events: Welcome BBQ, Winter Formal, Cosmic Bowling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service, lighted pathways/sidewalks. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with 16,177 books, 130 serials, 597 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 390 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DIABLO VALLEY COLLEGE G-6

321 Golf Club Rd.
Pleasant Hill, CA 94523-1544
Tel: (925)685-1230
Fax: (925)685-1551
Web Site: http://www.dvc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Contra Costa Community College District, part of California Community Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 100-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 20,688. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. Students come from 16 states and territories, 0.2% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 6% black, 18% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 38% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $5190 full-time, $173 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $799 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $19 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Student services: women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols. College housing not available. 88,286 books and 298 serials. 450 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 31,000. Pleasant Hill is a suburban residential community that has an average winter temperature of 46.4 degrees and summer temperature of 71.8 degrees. It is located 22 miles from San Francisco. All transportation facilities are available nearby. Churches representing 14 denominations, a hospital and excellent shopping facilities comprise the town. Employment opportunities are available. Pleasant Hill enjoys the cultural atmosphere of the San Francisco Bay Area. A nearby beach area provides recreational facilities; the mountain area for winter sports is accessible for a weekend trip.

■ DOMINICAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY J-4

2301 Vine St.
Berkeley, CA 94708
Tel: (510)849-2030
Admissions: (510)883-2073
Web Site: http://www.dspt.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, upper-level, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $37,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9000 per student. Total enrollment: 123. Full-time: 11 students, 18% women, 82% men. Part-time: 4 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 5 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 33% Hispanic, 0% black, 27% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 73% 25 or older, 17% live on campus, 20% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time entering class returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Independent study, double major, part-time degree program, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of California, Berkeley, Graduate Theological Union, Mills College, Holy Names College. Study abroad program.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Tuition: $10,560 full-time, $440 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time, $50 per year part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 1 open to all; 2% of men are members. Most popular organization: DSPT Associated Students. Major annual events: Christmas Party, Tri-School Liturgies, End of the Year Party. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. 12 college housing spaces available; 3 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. Flora Lamson Hewlett Library plus 1 other with 409,592 books, 279,143 microform titles, 1,466 serials, 21,735 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $125,614. 5 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Berkeley.

■ DOMINICAN UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA J-4

50 Acacia Ave.
San Rafael, CA 94901-2298
Tel: (415)457-4440; 888-323-6763
Admissions: (415)485-3204
Fax: (415)485-3214
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dominican.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Roman Catholic Church. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 80-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $10.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6676 per student. Total enrollment: 1,631. Faculty: 287 (71 full-time, 216 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 2,564 applied, 53% were admitted. 25% from top 10% of their high school class, 47% from top quarter, 79% from top half. Full-time: 1,058 students, 77% women, 23% men. Part-time: 119 students, 78% women, 22% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 22 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 8% black, 20% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 30% 25 or older, 42% live on campus, 24% transferred in. Retention: 74% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; social sciences; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of California, Berkeley, Aquinas College, St. Thomas Aquinas College, Barry University. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT Subject Tests. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $39,370 includes full-time tuition ($27,770), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($11,300). College room only: $6580. Part-time tuition: $1160 per unit. Part-time mandatory fees: $150 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 19 open to all. Most popular organizations: Students Promoting Dominican Islands, Perceptions, Science Club, Filipino Club, Scripture Union. Major annual events: Shield Day, Boat Dance, Ecumenical Thanksgiving Dinner. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, Teaching and Learning Center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 600 college housing spaces available; 544 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Archbishop Alemany Library plus 1 other with 95,000 books, 3,200 microform titles, 508 serials, 1,507 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $868,394. 45 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in the hills of Marin County 25 minutes from San Francisco across the Golden Gate Bridge, Dominican is close enough to permit easy access to the city's diverse cultural attractions - the opera, symphony, theaters and playhouses. The campus adjoins San Rafael (pop. 52,000), with a climate rated as one of the six most ideal in the world, in addition to a wide variety of libraries, museums and churches. The nearby cities of Mill Valley, Bolinas, and Sausalito harbor a large community of writers, painters and other artists, and a diverse collection of shops, restaurants and galleries. Five state parks and beaches lie within easy reach, including Muir Woods, the Golden Gate National Recreational Area, and the Point Reyes National Seashore.

■ DON BOSCO TECHNICAL INSTITUTE V-5

1151 San Gabriel Blvd.
Rosemead, CA 91770-4299
Tel: (626)940-2000
Fax: (626)940-2001
Web Site: http://www.boscotech.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed, affiliated with Roman Catholic Church. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1955. Setting: 30-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 1,208. 2% from top 10% of their high school class, 13% from top quarter, 36% from top half. 0% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, independent study, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: Common Application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 2/15.

Collegiate Environment:

Marching band. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. 16,400 books and 70 serials. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ EAST LOS ANGELES COLLEGE W-5

1301 Avenida Cesar Chavez
Monterey Park, CA 91754-6099
Tel: (323)265-8650
Admissions: (323)265-8810
Fax: (323)265-8763
Web Site: http://www.elac.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1945. Setting: 84-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $120,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4050 per student. Total enrollment: 24,015. 5,348 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 5,773 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 18,242 students, 60% women, 40% men. 0.2% Native American, 70% Hispanic, 3% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 51% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, early admission. Recommended: high school transcript, English and mathematics placement test. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/12. Notification: continuous until 9/12.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Most popular organizations: Asian Club, Spanish Club, Chicanos for Creative Medicine. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Black Week, Asian Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. ELAC Helen Miller Bailey Library plus 2 others with 102,000 books, 3,370 microform titles, 228 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $806,000. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ EL CAMINO COLLEGE T-10

16007 Crenshaw Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90506-0001
Tel: (310)532-3670; (866)ELCAMINO
Admissions: (310)660-3418
Fax: (310)660-3818
Web Site: http://www.elcamino.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 115-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 27,039. 0.4% Native American, 29% Hispanic, 18% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 42% 25 or older. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. College housing not available. 116,051 books and 864 serials. 151 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Torrance, situated in southwest Los Angeles County, is a suburb of Los Angeles and does enjoy the advantages of the city's cultural and recreational facilities. All forms of commercial transportation are convenient. Outstanding shopping centers are in the city as well as all the other usual community facilities. Climate is normally sunny and mild. Beaches and mountains are within easy driving distance for recreation.

■ EMMANUEL BIBLE COLLEGE S-10

1605 East Elizabeth St.
Pasadena, CA 91104
Tel: (626)791-2575
Fax: (626)398-2424
Web Site: http://www.emmanuelbiblecollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, affiliated with Church of the Nazarene. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Endowment: $51,000. Total enrollment: 20. 10 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 6 students, 17% women, 83% men. Part-time: 14 students, 21% women, 79% men. Students come from 2 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 35% Hispanic, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 100% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Retention: 90% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Independent study, distance learning, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview, Christian commitment. Recommended: recommendations. Required for some: recommendations. Application deadline: 9/15. Notification: continuous until 8/31.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Student Council, drama. Major annual events: Evangelism activities, drama performances, banquets. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. Immanuel Bible College Library plus 1 other with 15,000 books and 20 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $800. 3 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ EMPIRE COLLEGE I-4

3035 Cleveland Ave.
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
Tel: (707)546-4000
Fax: (707)546-4058
Web Site: http://www.empcol.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7350 per student. Total enrollment: 834. 0% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 16% Hispanic, 3% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 75% 25 or older. Retention: 90% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: continuous. Double major.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Required for some: essay. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 450 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ EVEREST COLLEGE S-11

9616 Archibald Ave., Ste. 100
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730
Tel: (909)484-4311
Web Site: http://www.everest-college.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 2000. Calendar: 6 or 12 week terms.

■ EVERGREEN VALLEY COLLEGE L-5

3095 Yerba Buena Rd.
San Jose, CA 95135-1598
Tel: (408)274-7900
Admissions: (408)270-6423
Fax: (408)223-9351
Web Site: http://www.evc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 175-acre urban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $624 per student. Total enrollment: 11,751. 2,186 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 23 states and territories, 11 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 29% Hispanic, 5% black, 40% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 52% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at other community colleges in the area. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4872 full-time, $177 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $664 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Most popular organizations: Affirm, Edlace, Phi Theta Kappa, Vietnamese Student Association. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, St. Andrews Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, special programs for ethnic populations. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service, patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. Evergreen Valley College Library with 42,782 books and 368 serials. 415 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FASHION CAREERS COLLEGE W-12

1923 Morena Blvd.
San Diego, CA 92110
Tel: (619)275-4700; 888-FCCC999
Fax: (619)275-0635
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fashioncollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1979. Setting: urban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2551 per student. Total enrollment: 101. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 32:1. 27 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 101 students, 88% women, 12% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 3 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 31% Hispanic, 7% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 9% 25 or older, 0% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Double major, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $15,900 full-time, $400 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $325 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual events: Golden Hanger Fashion Award Gala, holiday party, community charity events. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Fashion Careers of California Library with 800 books, 14 serials, and 175 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $9420. 36 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FEATHER RIVER COLLEGE F-7

570 Golden Eagle Ave.
Quincy, CA 95971-9124
Tel: (530)283-0202
Free: 800-442-9799
Fax: (530)283-3757
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.frc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1968. Setting: 150-acre rural campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2521 per student. Total enrollment: 1,714. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. Full-time: 732 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 982 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 6 other countries, 23% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 7% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 31% 25 or older, 24% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: electronic application. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $5250 full-time, $175 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $806 full-time, $27 per unit part-time, $13 per term part-time. College room only: $3865. Room charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Mountain Ultimate Disc (MUD), Varsity Club, Feather River Outings Group, SIFE, Chess Club. Major annual events: Thanksgiving Luncheon, MUD Classic, Earth Day/Day on the Green. Campus security: student patrols. 150 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Feather River Library with 20,782 books, 197 microform titles, 4,122 serials, 1,762 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $177,859. 146 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FIDM/THE FASHION INSTITUTE OF DESIGN & MERCHANDISING, LOS ANGELES CAMPUS S-10

919 South Grand Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90015-1421
Tel: (213)624-1200
Free: 800-624-1200
Fax: (213)624-4799
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fidm.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising. Awards transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees (also includes Orange County Campus). Founded 1969. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 3,522. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 26:1. Full-time: 2,778 students, 91% women, 9% men. Part-time: 744 students, 88% women, 12% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 30 other countries, 29% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 20% Hispanic, 5% black, 16% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 7% international, 18% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project, Wonderlic Aptitude Test. Required for some: 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $225. Tuition: $17,415 full-time, $387 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: ASID (student chapter), International Club, DECA, Association of Manufacturing Students, Honor Society. Major annual events: Debut Fashion Show, International Food Fair, Career Connection. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, learning services design studios. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Resource and Research Center with 19,099 books, 369 serials, 3,607 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 322 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FIDM/THE FASHION INSTITUTE OF DESIGN & MERCHANDISING, ORANGE COUNTY CAMPUS T-7

17590 Gillette Ave.
Irvine, CA 92614-5610
Tel: (949)851-6200
Fax: (949)851-6808
Web Site: http://www.fidm.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate degrees. Founded 1981. Total enrollment: 320. 10% from out-of-state.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, entrance requirement project. Required for some: interview. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents. Notification: continuous, continuous for nonresidents.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: ASID Student Chapter, DECA, Association of Manufacturing Students. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available.

■ FIDM/THE FASHION INSTITUTE OF DESIGN & MERCHANDISING, SAN DIEGO CAMPUS W-12

1010 Second Ave., Ste. 200
San Diego, CA 92101-4903
Tel: (619)235-2049
Free: 800-243-3436
Fax: (619)232-4322
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fidm.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Part of Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1985. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 272. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. Full-time: 235 students, 96% women, 4% men. Part-time: 37 students, 89% women, 11% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 1 other country, 19% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 23% Hispanic, 4% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 10% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA. Required for some: 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $225. Tuition: $17,415 full-time, $387 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organizations: ASID (student chapter), DECA, Honor Society, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Debut Fashion Show, International Food Fair, Career Connection. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, learning support, design studios. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Resource and Research Center with 2,642 books, 100 serials, 915 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 32 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FIDM/THE FASHION INSTITUTE OF DESIGN & MERCHANDISING, SAN FRANCISCO CAMPUS K-4

55 Stockton St.
San Francisco, CA 94108-5829
Tel: (415)675-5200
Free: 800-711-7175
Admissions: (415)433-6691
Fax: (415)296-7299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fidm.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Part of Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 936. Full-time: 747 students, 92% women, 8% men. Part-time: 189 students, 93% women, 7% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 20 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 17% Hispanic, 5% black, 18% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 25% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising, Los Angeles Campus. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: 3 recommendations, interview, major-determined project. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $225. Tuition: $17,415 full-time, $387 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organizations: ASID (student chapter), DECA, Visual Design Form, Honor Society. Major annual events: Career Connection, Industry Lunch Connections. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, learning center and design studio. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Resource and Research Center with 5,073 books, 173 serials, 616 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 81 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FOLSOM LAKE COLLEGE I-6

100 Scholar Way
Folsom, CA 95630
Tel: (916)608-6500
Web Site: http://www.flc.losrios.edu/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Rios Community College District. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 12,000. 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 2% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 47% 25 or older.

■ FOOTHILL COLLEGE F-15

12345 El Monte Rd.
Los Altos Hills, CA 94022-4599
Tel: (650)949-7777
Admissions: (650)949-7326
Web Site: http://www.foothill.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Foothill-DeAnza Community College District. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1958. Setting: 122-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Jose. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4026 per student. Total enrollment: 17,488. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 28:1. 5,284 applied, 100% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 35% from top quarter, 50% from top half. Students come from 51 states and territories, 101 other countries, 2% from out-of-state,0.4% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 3% black, 24% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 57% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at DeAnza College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for dental hygiene, allied health programs. Option: electronic application. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Nonresident tuition: $4500 full-time, $100 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $780 full-time, $17 per unit part-time, $28.50 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, student government. Major annual events: Career Day, Club Day, Transfer Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Hubert H. Semans Library with 70,000 books, 450 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a suburban area with temperate climate averaging 50 to 80 degrees. Los Altos Hills is strictly residential but all recreational and commercial facilities and services may be found in the neighboring cities of Palo Alto, Los Altos, Mountain View and Sunnyvale.

■ FOUNDATION COLLEGE W-12

5353 Mission Center Rd., Ste. 100
San Diego, CA 92108-1306
Tel: (619)683-3273; 888-707-3273
Fax: (619)683-3224
Web Site: http://www.foundationcollege.org/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 106. 221 applied, 49% were admitted. Full-time: 106 students, 22% women, 78% men. 3% Native American, 20% Hispanic, 18% black, 18% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Calendar: continuous.

Entrance Requirements:

Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $17,940 full-time, $260 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1200 full-time, $120 per course part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ FRESNO CITY COLLEGE M-9

1101 East University Ave.
Fresno, CA 93741-0002
Tel: (559)442-4600
Admissions: (559)442-8217
Web Site: http://www.fresnocitycollege.com/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1910. Setting: 103-acre urban campus. Endowment: $853,060. Total enrollment: 22,812. 2,996 applied, 100% were admitted. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 32% Hispanic, 8% black, 14% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 7% 25 or older. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Off campus study at Reedley College; California State University, Fresno. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACCUPLACER required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: MECHA, HMONG Club, Rotaract, Students in Free Enterprise, Latter Day Saints Student Association. Major annual events: Showcase, Club Awareness Day, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Fresno City College Library with 67,500 books, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.5 million. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University - Fresno.

■ FRESNO PACIFIC UNIVERSITY M-9

1717 South Chestnut Ave.
Fresno, CA 93702-4709
Tel: (559)453-2000
Admissions: (559)453-2030
Fax: (559)453-2007
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fresno.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Mennonite Brethren Church. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1944. Setting: 42-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $4.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6208 per student. Total enrollment: 2,371. Faculty: 198 (81 full-time, 117 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 608 applied, 68% were admitted. Full-time: 1,319 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 173 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 36 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 26% Hispanic, 4% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 31% 25 or older, 53% live on campus, 18% transferred in. Retention: 76% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; theology and religious vocations. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at California State University, Fresno; Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary; San Joaquin College of Law. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.10 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 7/31.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $26,780 includes full-time tuition ($20,550), mandatory fees ($240), and college room and board ($5990). Part-time tuition: $735 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: International Club, Kid's Klub, Amigos Unidos, Slavic Club, Women's Soccer Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, M.C.C. Sale. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, 24-hour monitored closed-circuit security cameras. 595 college housing spaces available; 514 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Hiebert Library with 181,020 books, 315,000 microform titles, 14,400 serials, 10,530 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $694,934. 72 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University Fresno.

■ FULLERTON COLLEGE R-6

321 East Chapman Ave.
Fullerton, CA 92832-2095
Tel: (714)992-7000
Admissions: (714)992-7582
Web Site: http://www.fullcoll.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1913. Setting: 79-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 19,862. Students come from 21 other countries, 40% 25 or older. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. College housing not available. William T. Boyce Library with 113,236 books and 600 serials. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University - Fullerton

■ GAVILAN COLLEGE L-6

5055 Santa Teresa Blvd.
Gilroy, CA 95020-9599
Tel: (408)847-1400
Admissions: (408)848-4735
Fax: (408)848-4801
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gavilan.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1919. Setting: 150-acre rural campus with easy access to San Jose. Total enrollment: 6,064. Students come from 6 states and territories, 11 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 41% Hispanic, 2% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 58% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: international baccalaureate accepted. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4800 full-time. Mandatory fees: $676 full-time, $26.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Most popular organization: Student Government. Major annual events: Cinco de Maio, Black History Month, Career Transfer Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 55,440 books and 205 serials. 31 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Gilroy has a population of 35,000 and is located 77 miles south of San Francisco; served by buses and railroads. There are churches, a hospital, a library, and radio station. Gilroy has theatres, parks, civic organizations, and a public swimming pool for recreational activities; nearby are beaches and five state parks.

■ GLENDALE COMMUNITY COLLEGE S-10

1500 North Verdugo Rd.
Glendale, CA 91208-2894
Tel: (818)240-1000
Admissions: (818)551-5115
Fax: (818)549-9436
Web Site: http://www.glendale.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 119-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $5.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $226,457. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2158 per student. Total enrollment: 14,265. 5,313 applied, 52% were admitted. Full-time: 4,730 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 9,535 students, 58% women, 42% men. Students come from 56 states and territories, 121 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 3% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 26% international, 42% 25 or older, 6% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: CPT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4280 full-time, $150 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $680 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $170 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, Armenian Student Association, Korean Christian Fellowship, Theatre Guild, International Student Association. Major annual events: ASGCC Honors and Awards Banquet, Transfer Day, graduation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Glendale Community College Library with 91,371 books, 41,808 microform titles, 312 serials, 1,893 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.7 million. 534 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ GOLDEN GATE UNIVERSITY K-4

536 Mission St.
San Francisco, CA 94105-2968
Tel: (415)442-7000
Free: 800-448-4968
Admissions: (415)442-7800
Fax: (415)442-7807
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ggu.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1901. Setting: urban campus. Endowment: $16.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4423 per student. Total enrollment: 3,891. Faculty: 489 (30 full-time, 459 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. Students come from 50 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 9% black, 17% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 8% international, 76% 25 or older. Retention: 80% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; computer and information sciences; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at The San Francisco Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: essay, minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Required for some: minimum 3.2 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Tuition: $11,520 full-time, $1440 per course part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Most popular organizations: American Marketing Association, Korean Student Association, Japanese Student Association, Thai Student Association, Computing Society. Major annual events: International Cultural Celebration Day, welcome party, farewell party. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Golden Gate University Library plus 1 other with 79,204 books, 442,800 microform titles, 3,335 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.3 million. 52 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See San Francisco State University.

■ GOLDEN WEST COLLEGE T-10

PO Box 2748, 15744 Golden West St.
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-2748
Tel: (714)892-7711
Web Site: http://www.gwc.cccd.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Coast Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 122-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $880,684. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $119,377. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1831 per student. Total enrollment: 13,091. Students come from 28 other countries, 44% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters (summer session). Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: essay. Placement: ACT COMPASS recommended; ACT COMPASS required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $5034 full-time, $152 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $778 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Major annual events: College Transfer Day, Gold Rush Days. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Golden West College Library plus 1 other with 95,000 books, 410 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $750,639. 680 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Huntington Beach is located in the northern coastal region of Orange County, which is 35 miles southeast of Los Angeles. The climate is moderate with a mean yearly temperature of 70 degrees. All major transportation facilities available. Eight miles of the finest, safest beach in California is located here. The city has three public golf courses and parks for recreational activities. This is one of the fastest growing cities in the west.

■ GROSSMONT COLLEGE V-12

8800 Grossmont College Dr.
El Cajon, CA 92020-1799
Tel: (619)644-7000
Admissions: (619)644-7188
Fax: (619)644-7922
Web Site: http://www.grossmont.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 135-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Total enrollment: 16,829. Students come from 52 other countries, 38% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Placement: Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/12. Notification: continuous until 8/12.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 23 open to all. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Lewis F. Smith Learning Resource Center with 105,000 books, 759 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

El Cajon is situated east of San Diego in a suburban community with a Mediterranean climate. Gillespie Airport and buses serve the area. The County Branch Library is located here; there are churches of all denominations. Employment is available through the California Department of Employment which is located on the Grossmont college campus. There are recreational facilities at both the beaches and in the nearby mountain area. Annual festivities include the "Mother Goose Parade."

■ HARTNELL COLLEGE M-5

156 Homestead Ave.
Salinas, CA 93901-1697
Tel: (831)755-6700
Admissions: (831)755-6711
Web Site: http://www.hartnell.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1920. Setting: 50-acre small town campus with easy access to San Jose. Total enrollment: 10,074. Students come from 16 states and territories, 14 other countries. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Chicano Students Club, Alpha Gamma Sigma. Major annual events: College Night, Western Stage, Spring Conference Day. Student services: women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Hartnell College Library plus 1 other with 70,000 books and 480 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $646,064. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 78,000. Salinas is the county seat of Monterey County, 106 miles south of San Francisco on Highway 101. Southern Pacific Railroad, Greyhound bus and United Airlines serve the area. The Santa Lucia Mountains are to the west of Salinas and the Gabilan foothills to the east. Agriculture is the chief factor of economy in Salinas with new industries designed to take advantage of the abundant harvest. The climate is comfortable, the average temperature being 57 degrees. Salinas has a great number of churches, YMCA, theatres, community concert association, Monterey County symphony, a variety of civic, fraternal and veteran's organizations. John Steinbeck was born here. Part-time employment opportunities for students available in nearby recreational areas, agriculture, industrial and commercial firms. The recreational facilities include nine municipal recreation centers, a municipal golf course, private country clubs, the Monterey Peninsula playland area, the famous white sandy beaches of Carmel, a 20-minute drive away, flying clubs, a ski club, and many hobby clubs. This is the location of the oldest and largest four-day California Rodeo.

■ HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE V-10

301 East 12th St.
Claremont, CA 91711-5994
Tel: (909)621-8000
Admissions: (909)621-8011
Fax: (909)621-8360
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hmc.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Part of The Claremont Colleges Consortium. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1955. Setting: 33-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $179.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $21,095 per student. Total enrollment: 743. Faculty: 93 (79 full-time, 14 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 8:1. 1,899 applied, 36% were admitted. 91% from top 10% of their high school class, 100% from top quarter. 38 National Merit Scholars, 27 valedictorians. Students come from 47 states and territories, 14 other countries, 57% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 2% black, 18% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 1% 25 or older, 97% live on campus. Retention: 95% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering; physical sciences; computer and information sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, double major, internships. Off campus study at other members of The Claremont Colleges, Swarthmore College, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, SAT Subject Test in Math 2C and second exam of choice (Math 1C is not accepted). Recommended: interview. Entrance: most difficult. Application deadlines: 1/15, 11/15 for early decision. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $42,352 includes full-time tuition ($31,738), mandatory fees ($202), and college room and board ($10,412). College room only: $5282. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 80 open to all. Most popular organizations: Delta 'H' Outdoor Club, Etc. Players Drama Club, club sports, Jazz Orchestra, Society of Women Engineers. Major annual events: 5-Class Competition, Mudd Occasional Ball, Presentations and Projects Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 712 college housing spaces available; 695 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Honnold Library plus 1 other with 3.2 million books, 1.5 million microform titles, 16,308 serials, 10,040 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $645,035. 360 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-CONCORD J-5

5130 Commercial Circle
Concord, CA 94520
Tel: (925)288-5800
Fax: (925)288-5896
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: 5-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 639. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. Full-time: 524 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 115 students, 65% women, 35% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 5% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-FRESNO M-9

255 West Bullard Ave.
Fresno, CA 93704-1706
Tel: (559)438-4222
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: 3-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 729. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. Full-time: 547 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 182 students, 61% women, 39% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 2% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-HAYWARD K-5

25500 Industrial Blvd.
Hayward, CA 94545
Tel: (510)783-2100
Fax: (510)783-3287
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 864. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 26:1. Full-time: 637 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 227 students, 72% women, 28% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 6% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center (LRC) with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-RANCHO CORDOVA I-6

2910 Prospect Park Dr.
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670-6005
Tel: (916)638-1616
Fax: (916)853-8282
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: 1-acre suburban campus with easy access to Sacramento. Total enrollment:471. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. Full-time: 349 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 122 students, 70% women, 30% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 12% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-ROSEVILLE H-6

Seven Sierra Gate Plaza
Roseville, CA 95678
Tel: (916)789-8600
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: 5-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 528. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. Full-time: 376 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 152 students, 61% women, 39% men. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, evening security guard. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-SALINAS M-5

1450 North Main St.
Salinas, CA 93906
Tel: (831)443-1700
Fax: (831)443-1050
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: small town campus with easy access to San Jose. Total enrollment: 414. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 24:1. Full-time: 329 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 85 students, 71% women, 29% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 3% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, evening security personnel. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-SAN FRANCISCO K-4

350 Mission St.
San Francisco, CA 94105-2206
Tel: (415)808-3000
Fax: (415)808-3003
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 389. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. Full-time: 273 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 116 students, 51% women, 49% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 5% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-SAN JOSE J-6

341 Great Mall Parkway
Milpitas, CA 95035
Tel: (408)934-4900
Fax: (408)934-7777
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Setting: 5-acre small town campus with easy access to San Jose. Total enrollment:639. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. Full-time: 502 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 137 students, 66% women, 34% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 39% Hispanic, 11% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HEALD COLLEGE-STOCKTON J-6

1605 East March Ln.
Stockton, CA 95210
Tel: (209)473-5200
Fax: (209)477-2739
Web Site: http://www.heald.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1863. Total enrollment: 530. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. Full-time: 398 students, 74% women, 26% men. Part-time: 132 students, 73% women, 27% men. 0% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 17% Hispanic, 4% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with an OPAC.

■ HIGH-TECH INSTITUTE I-6

1111 Howe Ave., No. 250
Sacramento, CA 95825
Tel: (916)929-9700
Free: 800-987-0110
Fax: (916)929-9703
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.high-techinstitute.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1992.

■ HOLY NAMES UNIVERSITY K-4

3500 Mountain Blvd.
Oakland, CA 94619-1699
Tel: (510)436-1000
Free: 800-430-1321
Admissions: (510)436-1351
Fax: (510)436-1325
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hnu.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1868. Setting: 60-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $7.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4336 per student. Total enrollment: 1,093. Faculty: 140 (34 full-time, 106 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 278 applied, 64% were admitted. 21% from top 10% of their high school class, 41% from top quarter, 74% from top half. Full-time: 465 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 221 students, 85% women, 15% men. Students come from 17 states and territories, 14 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 26% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 51% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 20% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; business/marketing; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: 1 recommendation. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $22,470 full-time. Mandatory fees: $240 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Drama Club, Latinos Unidos, Black Student Union, Biology Club, Hiking Club. Major annual events: CORE Festival, Founders' Day, Convocation. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, electronically operated main gate. 326 college housing spaces available; 190 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Cushing Library with 111,243 books, 50,931 microform titles, 8,003 serials, 4,378 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $289,097. 86 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The College is located in the Oakland hills, overlooking San Francisco Bay and San Francisco itself. The campus is within 15-45 minutes of all the rich cultural, recreational, and sports activities of San Francisco, Berkeley and Oakland. Easy day trips can be made to the wine country, beaches, ski areas and National Parks.

■ HOPE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY R-6

2500 East Nutwood Ave.
Fullerton, CA 92831-3138
Tel: (714)879-3901
Free: 800-762-1294
Fax: (714)526-0231
Web Site: http://www.hiu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Christian Churches and Churches of Christ. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 16-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $3.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5045 per student. Total enrollment: 1,136. Faculty: 211 (27 full-time, 184 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. Full-time: 646 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 211 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 25 other countries, 26% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 8% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 50% 25 or older, 75% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: family and consumer sciences; theology and religious vocations; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at California State University, Fullerton. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, rank in upper 50% of high school class, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous until 7/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $24,000 includes full-time tuition ($17,700), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($6000). College room only: $3300. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $655 per unit. Part-time tuition varies according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Major annual events: Spring Banquet, Sadie Hawkins Day, Happy House. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols. 400 college housing spaces available; 357 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Darling Library with 100,000 books, 500 serials, 600 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $217,865. 44 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California State University -Fullerton.

■ HUMBOLDT STATE UNIVERSITY C-1

1 Harpst St.
Arcata, CA 95521-8299
Tel: (707)826-3011
Admissions: (707)826-6220
Fax: (707)826-6194
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.humboldt.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of California State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1913. Setting: 161-acre rural campus. Endowment: $10.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5531 per student. Total enrollment: 7,550. 6,319 applied, 58% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 36% from top quarter, 75% from top half. Full-time: 5,899 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 630 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 24 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 8% Hispanic, 3% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 26% 25 or older, 20% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the National Student Exchange, California State University System. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/30. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 140 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: student radio station, Student Environmental Action Coalition, youth educational services, Ballet Folklorico, International Student Union. Major annual events: homecoming, Arts and Music Festival, Film Festival. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,350 college housing spaces available; 1,300 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. 585,386 books, 602,973 microform titles, 2,629 serials, 4,947 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.9 million. 778 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Arcata, population 19,300, is located on the north shore of Humboldt Bay in northwestern California with an unrestricted panorama of mountains, bay, dairy and farm lands, sand dunes, and the Pacific Ocean. It is eight miles north of Eureka, and 275 miles north of San Francisco. Industry includes lumbering, manufacturing of wood products, tourism and dairy products. Humboldt Bay region climate is moist, but stimulating, with no extremes of heat or cold. Summer and fall are considered particularly delightful seasons. Buses and airlines serve the area. The city has a library, churches and the usual service clubs. Recreational opportunities include river rafting, kayaking, backpacking, hunting, trout fishing in mountain streams, salmon fishing in Humboldt and Trinidad Bays, and deep sea fishing. There is an Azalea Reserve, three miles north.

■ HUMPHREYS COLLEGE J-6

6650 Inglewood Ave.
Stockton, CA 95207-3896
Tel: (209)478-0800
Fax: (209)478-8721
Web Site: http://www.humphreys.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1896. Setting: 10-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 721. Students come from 3 states and territories, 4 other countries, 70% 25 or older, 6% live on campus. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: interview. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Most popular organizations: Business Club, Paralegal Club, Student Council, Collegiate Secretaries International. Major annual events: Hot Dog Day (quarterly BBQ), Annual Christmas Dinner, Students Versus Staff Softball. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. Option: coed housing available. Humphreys College Library plus 1 other with 20,500 books and 115 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $66,952. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of the Pacific.

■ IMPERIAL VALLEY COLLEGE V-15

380 East Aten Rd.
PO Box 158
Imperial, CA 92251-0158
Tel: (760)352-8320
Web Site: http://www.imperial.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1922. Setting: 160-acre rural campus. Endowment: $832,061. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2672 per student. Total enrollment: 7,413. Students come from 12 states and territories, 3% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 86% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Support Services Club, Pre-School Mothers, Care Club, Christian Club, Nursing Club. Major annual events: College and University Day, Career Fair, Life's a Beach. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: student patrols. College housing not available. Spencer Library with 55,875 books, 13,324 microform titles, 425 serials, 3,383 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $743,156. 235 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Imperial is in the southern desert area of California known as the Imperial Valley. It has a very dry climate. The Chocolate Mountains are separated from Imperial by a ribbon of sand dunes. Buses and airlines serve the area. The surrounding Imperial Valley is a large and abundant agricultural area. There are six small cities in surrounding area that provide additional employment opportunities. The annual midwinter fair and the Christmas Parade are here at Imperial.

■ INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY S-10

3200 Wilshire Blvd., No. 400
Los Angeles, CA 90010-1308
Tel: (213)381-3333
Fax: (213)383-9369
Web Site: http://www.ictcollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1981. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 286. 121 applied, 30% were admitted. Full-time: 286 students, 27% women, 73% men. Students come from 4 other countries, 0% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 23% Hispanic, 11% black, 36% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 15% international, 94% 25 or older, 2% transferred in. Advanced placement, independent study, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Required: high school transcript, interview, CPAt. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Main library plus 1 other with 2,000 books. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ INTERIOR DESIGNERS INSTITUTE T-10

1061 Camelback Rd.
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Tel: (949)675-4451
Fax: (949)759-0667
Web Site: http://www.idi.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees.

■ INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY L-5

1650 Warburton Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Tel: (408)556-9010
Admissions: (408)556-9027
Fax: (408)556-9016
Web Site: http://www.itu.edu/

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Total enrollment: 160. Full-time: 28 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 12 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 5% black, 73% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 15% international, 66% 25 or older, 28% transferred in. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. ITU - Library plus 1 other with 1,200 books, 57 serials, and 25 audiovisual materials. 20 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ IRVINE VALLEY COLLEGE T-7

5500 Irvine Center Dr.
Irvine, CA 92618
Tel: (949)451-5100
Admissions: (949)451-5416
Fax: (949)559-3443
Web Site: http://www.ivc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Saddleback Community College District. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1979. Setting: 20-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 10,511. 55% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Irvine Valley College Library with 24,000 books and 250 serials. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (ANAHEIM) T-10

525 North Muller St.
Anaheim, CA 92801-9938
Tel: (714)535-3700
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1982. Setting: 5-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (LATHROP) G-9

16916 South Harlan Rd.
Lathrop, CA 95330
Tel: (209)858-0077
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (OXNARD) S-8

2051 Solar Dr., Ste. 150
Oxnard, CA 93036
Tel: (805)988-0143
Fax: (805)988-1813
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1993. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (RANCHO CORDOVA) I-6

10863 Gold Center Dr.
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670-6034
Tel: (916)851-3900
Free: 800-488-8466
Fax: (916)366-9225
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1954. Setting: 5-acre urban campus. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (SAN BERNARDINO) S-11

630 East Brier Dr., Ste. 150
San Bernardino, CA 92408-2800
Tel: (909)889-3800
Admissions: (909)806-4600
Fax: (909)888-6970
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1987. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (SAN DIEGO) W-12

9680 Granite Ridge Dr., Ste. 100
San Diego, CA 92123
Tel: (858)571-8500
Fax: (858)571-1277
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1981. Setting: suburban campus. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (SYLMAR) S-9

12669 Encinitas Ave.
Sylmar, CA 91342-3664
Tel: (818)364-5151
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1982. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (TORRANCE) T-10

20050 South Vermont Ave.
Torrance, CA 90502
Tel: (310)380-1555
Fax: (310)380-1557
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1987. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (WEST COVINA) Q-6

1530 West Cameron Ave.
West Covina, CA 91790-2711
Tel: (626)960-8681
Fax: (626)960-8681
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1982. Setting: 4-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ JOHN F. KENNEDY UNIVERSITY G-6

100 Ellinwood Way
Pleasant Hill, CA 94523-4817
Tel: (925)969-3300
Free: 800-696-JFKU
Admissions: (925)969-3330
Fax: (925)254-6964
Web Site: http://www.jfku.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1964. Setting: 5-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $1.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3887 per student. Total enrollment: 1,653. 0% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 9% black, 7% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 86% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters for law school. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of California, Berkeley, California State University, Hayward, Contra Costa College, Laney College.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Robert M. Fisher Library plus 1 other with 96,366 books, 7,845 microform titles, 823 serials, 2,147 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Orinda, population 15,000, is located just east of the Oakland-Berkeley Hills. Oakland, 10 miles away, and San Francisco, 20 miles, are easily accessed. Climate is mild the year round, with the average temperature 65-70 degrees.

■ THE KING'S COLLEGE AND SEMINARY S-9

14800 Sherman Way
Van Nuys, CA 91405-8040
Tel: (818)779-8040
Fax: (818)779-8241
Web Site: http://www.kingscollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $7200 full-time, $160 per quarter hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $285 full-time, $35.

■ LA SIERRA UNIVERSITY T-11

45 Riverwalk Parkway
Riverside, CA 92515
Tel: (951)785-2000
Free: 800-874-5587
Admissions: (909)785-2176
Fax: (951)785-2901
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lasierra.edu/

Description:

Independent Seventh-day Adventist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1922. Setting: 630-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $11.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. Total enrollment: 1,941. Faculty: 164 (88 full-time, 76 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,389 applied, 38% were admitted. 14% from top 10% of their high school class, 38% from top quarter, 72% from top half. Full-time: 1,454 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 184 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 34 states and territories, 51 other countries, 13% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 28% Hispanic, 9% black, 22% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 10% international, 14% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 61% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; biological/life sciences; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Loma Linda University. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to Seventh-day Adventists.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $26,507 includes full-time tuition ($19,908), mandatory fees ($726), and college room and board ($5873). Part-time tuition: $553 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 23 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Association of LSU, Korean Student Association, Students In Free Enterprise (SIFE), Ole Club, Black Student Association. Major annual events: Christmas Candlelight Concert, Festival of Nations, La Sierra Live Weekends. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 850 college housing spaces available; 771 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. University Library plus 1 other with 251,632 books, 353,000 microform titles, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $968,236. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California Riverside.

■ LAGUNA COLLEGE OF ART & DESIGN U-7

2222 Laguna Canyon Rd.
Laguna Beach, CA 92651-1136
Tel: (949)376-6000
Free: 800-255-0762
Fax: (949)376-6009
Web Site: http://www.lagunacollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1962. Setting: 9-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $411,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6512 per student. Total enrollment: 310. 245 applied, 88% were admitted. 15 National Merit Scholars, 5 class presidents, 12 valedictorians, 31 student government officers. Full-time: 310 students, 47% women, 53% men. Students come from 32 states and territories, 42% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 2% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 22% 25 or older. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Art College Exchange, Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, interview, portfolio, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.5 high school GPA. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadline: 2/2. Notification: 5/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Major annual event: Student Juried Art Exhibition. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Ruth Salyer Library plus 1 other with 16,000 books, 30 microform titles, 100 serials, 8 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $85,000. 85 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LAKE TAHOE COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-8

One College Dr.
South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150-4524
Tel: (530)541-4660
Fax: (530)541-7852
Web Site: http://www.ltcc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 164-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4350 per student. Total enrollment: 3,700. 71% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 8 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Student Council, Alpha Gamma Sigma, Foreign Language Club, Art Club, Performing Arts League. Major annual events: AIDS Awareness Day, Club Day, Multicultural Day. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Lake Tahoe Community College Library with 38,950 books, 382 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $307,421. 135 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LANEY COLLEGE K-4

900 Fallon St.
Oakland, CA 94607-4893
Tel: (510)834-5740
Admissions: (510)466-7365
Web Site: http://www.peralta.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Peralta Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1953. Setting: urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $68,724. Total enrollment: 13,463. Full-time: 2,424 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 11,039 students, 58% women, 42% men. 57% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: La Raza Club, African Student Union, Vision Christian Society, Asian/Pacific Islander Club, Vietnamese Student Club. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Black History Month, Multicultural Day. College housing not available. Laney Library with 78,054 books and 209 serials. 30 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Oakland is the fourth largest city in the state. Located on the mainland side of San Francisco Bay; adjoined on the north by Berkeley; on the south by Alameda and San Leandro. Climate is mild and the average temperature is 65.9 degrees. All modes of transportation are available; the Oakland Airport is a 12-minute drive. Oakland has all the advantages of a large metropolitan area, being a part of the San Francisco Bay Area. Numerous churches, museums, libraries, hospitals, service groups, and organizations are in the city. Oakland has many tourist attractions and recreational facilities. Lake Merritt, a 160-acre body of salt water, is the only tidal lake in the heart of any American city. There are parks, golf courses, swimming pools within a short distance.

■ LAS POSITAS COLLEGE K-5

3033 Collier Canyon Rd.
Livermore, CA 94551-7650
Tel: (925)373-5800
Admissions: (925)373-4942
Fax: (925)443-0742
Web Site: http://www.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1988. Setting: 150-acre suburban campus with easy access to Oakland and San Francisco. Total enrollment: 8,044. 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 23 open to all. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available.

■ LASSEN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT E-7

Hwy. 139
PO Box 3000
Susanville, CA 96130
Tel: (530)257-6181
Fax: (530)257-8964
Web Site: http://www.lassencollege.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 100-acre rural campus. Students come from 12 states and territories, 3 other countries, 58% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at members of the Northeastern California Higher Education Council.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organization: Lassen Student Union. Major annual events: Career Day, Vocational Olympics, Skunk Days. Student services: legal services, health clinic. Option: coed housing available. Lassen College Library with 15,000 books and 100 serials. 30 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LIFE PACIFIC COLLEGE V-9

1100 Covina Blvd.
San Dimas, CA 91773-3298
Tel: (909)599-5433; 877-886-5433
Fax: (909)599-6690
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lifepacific.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1923. Setting: 9-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $2.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4654 per student. Total enrollment: 528. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 102 applied, 87% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 21% from top quarter, 38% from top half. Full-time: 403 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 125 students, 35% women, 65% men. Students come from 36 states and territories, 2 other countries, 48% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 6% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 17% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 12% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: theology and religious vocations. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, Christian testimony, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $15,100 includes full-time tuition ($9750), mandatory fees ($350), and college room and board ($5000). Part-time tuition: $325 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organizations: tutoring, chorale. Major annual events: Spring/Fall Retreats, Honors Banquet, Junior/Senior Banquet. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, part-time security personnel. 320 college housing spaces available; 248 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Life Pacific College Alumni Library with 40,022 books, 513 microform titles, 1,954 serials, 1,563 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $203,806. 46 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

San Dimas is a suburban community approximately 45 minutes from Los Angeles, located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains.

■ LINCOLN UNIVERSITY K-4

401 15th St.
Oakland, CA 94612
Tel: (510)628-8010
Fax: (510)628-8026
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lincolnuca.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1919. Setting: 2-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 147. Full-time: 30 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 21 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 10 other countries, 52% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, advanced placement, summer session for credit, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/31.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $75. Tuition: $7320 full-time, $305 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $400 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Lincoln Library with 17,532 books and 642 serials. 20 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOMA LINDA UNIVERSITY Q-10

Loma Linda, CA 92350
Tel: (909)558-1000
Fax: (909)558-4577
Web Site: http://www.llu.edu/

Description:

Independent Seventh-day Adventist, upper-level, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees (associate degree and nursing students may enter at the sophomore level). Founded 1905. Setting: small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $176 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $31.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $27,243 per student. Total enrollment: 3,906. Faculty: 150 (106 full-time, 44 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 8:1. Full-time: 798 students, 76% women, 24% men. Part-time: 321 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 28 other countries, 13% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 21% Hispanic, 6% black, 21% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 52% 25 or older, 25% live on campus, 22% transferred in. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences. ESL program, independent study, distance learning, internships. Off campus study.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Tuition: $23,280 full-time, $485 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1290 full-time, $430 per term part-time. College room only: $2370.

Collegiate Environment:

Most popular organizations: Students for International Mission Services, Students Computing Organization. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Del E. Webb Memorial Library with 322,657 books, 1,394 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1 million.

Community Environment:

Loma Linda is located 56 miles east of Los Angeles, between Redlands, San Bernardino, and Riverside. The climate is pleasant and mild. Loma Linda is a medical center that has three hospitals, including the 515-bed University Medical Center and the 500-bed Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital. Pacific ocean beaches, ski slopes, and lakes for boating and water skiing are all within a one-hour drive. Part-time and full-time work is available.

■ LONG BEACH CITY COLLEGE T-10

4901 East Carson St.
Long Beach, CA 90808-1780
Tel: (562)938-4353
Admissions: (562)938-4130
Web Site: http://www.lbcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 40-acre urban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $266,890. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2154 per student. Total enrollment: 26,296. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 24:1. Full-time: 9,580 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 16,716 students, 56% women, 44% men. 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 37% Hispanic, 14% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 54% 25 or older, 3% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3840 full-time, $160 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $692 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $34 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 70 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: American Criminal Justice Association, AGS Scholarship Organization, American Association of Future Firefighters, Vietnamese Club, Network Christian Fellowship. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Sing, Mini-Grand Prix. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Long Beach City College Library plus 1 other with 151,367 books, 176,896 microform titles, 471 serials, 3,150 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.3 million. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOS ANGELES CITY COLLEGE S-10

855 North Vermont Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90029-3590
Tel: (323)953-4000
Fax: (323)953-4294
Web Site: http://www.lacc.cc.ca.us/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 42-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 25,000. Students come from 52 states and territories, 43% Hispanic, 12% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 62% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for international applicants or optics, radiological technology programs. Option: Peterson's Universal Application. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/5. Notification: continuous until 9/5.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 150,000 books and 150 serials. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Los Angeles

■ LOS ANGELES COUNTY COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED HEALTH S-10

1237 North Mission Rd.
Los Angeles, CA 90033
Tel: (323)226-4911
Fax: (323)226-6427
Web Site: http://www.ladhs.org/lacusc/lacnah/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees. Founded 1895. Total enrollment: 281. Calendar: semesters.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ LOS ANGELES HARBOR COLLEGE T-9

1111 Figueroa Place
Wilmington, CA 90744-2397
Tel: (310)233-4000
Admissions: (310)233-4091
Fax: (310)233-4223
Web Site: http://www.lahc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 80-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 9,469. 1,970 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 2,311 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 7,158 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 14 states and territories, 43% Hispanic, 15% black, 17% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 49% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at California State University, Dominguez Hills. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: essay, high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/3.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run radio station. Social organizations: 7 open to all. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, Abilities Unlimited, Students in Free Enterprise, Association of Future Firefighters. Major annual events: graduation, Christmas Show, homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. Harbor College Library with 82,790 books, 302 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The Harbor College service area encompasses a multicultural population of 369,907 persons who live in the communities of San Pedro, Wilmington, Carson, Gardena, Lomita, Harbor City, and on the Palos Verdes Peninsula and parts of South Los Angeles. A business, industrial, shipping and civic center of the Port of Los Angeles, Wilmington is located in the heart of the Southern California oil refining district. Points of interest are Marineland, the Queen Mary, Ports O' Call Village, and a Korean Liberty Bell, all within easy driving distance.

■ LOS ANGELES MISSION COLLEGE S-9

13356 Eldridge Ave.
Sylmar, CA 91342-3245
Tel: (818)364-7600
Admissions: (818)364-7766
Web Site: http://www.lamission.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 22-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $890 per student. Total enrollment: 7,617. Students come from 8 other countries, 55% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Notification: continuous until 9/25.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols. College housing not available. Los Angeles Mission College with 40,000 books, 450 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $70,000. 103 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOS ANGELES PIERCE COLLEGE S-8

6201 Winnetka Ave.
Woodland Hills, CA 91371-0001
Tel: (818)710-4123
Admissions: (818)719-6448
Fax: (818)710-9844
Web Site: http://www.lapc.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 425-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 16,255. 26,070 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 2 states and territories, 48 other countries, 48% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, honors programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/20.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 28 open to all. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, Club Latino United for Education, United African-American Student Association, Hillel Club, Filipino Club. Major annual events: Club Day, Job Fair, University Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Pierce College Library plus 1 other with 106,122 books and 395 serials. 60 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Woodland Hills is a suburban area of Los Angeles with a subtropical climate, and known as a beautiful residential area. Buses serve the area. The community has a library, hospital, churches, and civic and service organizations. Nearby are shopping centers, theatres, and a public park with a swimming pool. The Pacific Ocean is within easy driving distance. Part-time employment is available.

■ LOS ANGELES SOUTHWEST COLLEGE S-10

1600 West Imperial Hwy.
Los Angeles, CA 90047-4810
Tel: (323)241-5225
Admissions: (323)241-5279
Web Site: http://www.lasc.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 69-acre urban campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $321,616. Total enrollment: 6,000. Students come from 20 states and territories, 4 other countries, 63% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Recommended: essay, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/9. Notification: continuous until 9/9.

Collegiate Environment:

Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 8 open to all. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Main library plus 1 other with 60,000 books, 600 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $329,727. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Los Angeles.

■ LOS ANGELES TRADE-TECHNICAL COLLEGE S-10

400 West Washington Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA
90015-4108
Tel: (213)744-9500
Admissions: (213)763-5301
Fax: (213)748-7334
Web Site: http://www.lattc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 25-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 13,194. Full-time: 4,160 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 9,034 students, 49% women, 51% men. Students come from 25 states and territories, 20 other countries, 0.3% Native American, 47% Hispanic, 35% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 47% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/7.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 98,000 books and 367 serials. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Los Angeles.

■ LOS ANGELES VALLEY COLLEGE S-9

5800 Fulton Ave.
Van Nuys, CA 91401-4096
Tel: (818)947-2600
Admissions: (818)947-2353
Fax: (818)947-2610
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lavc.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Los Angeles Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 105-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $120,000. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $583,057. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3177 per student. Total enrollment: 18,761. Full-time: 5,021 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 13,740 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 43 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 43% 25 or older, 27% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Major annual events: graduation, Dean's Reception. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Los Angeles Valley Library with 124,000 books, 7,300 microform titles, 400 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $777,729. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOS MEDANOS COLLEGE F-6

2700 East Leland Rd.
Pittsburg, CA 94565-5197
Tel: (925)439-2181
Fax: (925)439-8797
Web Site: http://www.losmedanos.net/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 120-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $70,348. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1873 per student. Total enrollment: 7,152. Students come from 3 states and territories, 15 other countries,0.2% from out-of-state, 56% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/29. Notification: continuous until 8/29.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, Christian Fellowship Club, Student Nurses Association, La Raza Club. Student services: women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center with 15,439 books and 205 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $926,689. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOYOLA MARYMOUNT UNIVERSITY S-10

One LMU Dr.
Los Angeles, CA 90045-2659
Tel: (310)338-2700
Free: 800-LMU-INFO
Admissions: (310)338-2750
Fax: (310)338-2797
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lmu.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1911. Setting: 128-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $252.6 million. Total enrollment: 8,855. 7,075 applied, 60% were admitted. 50% from top 10% of their high school class, 66% from top quarter, 99% from top half. Full-time: 5,375 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 346 students, 45% women, 55% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 32 other countries, 23% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 7% black, 13% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 5% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 1% transferred in. Retention: 88% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadline: 1/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $38,212 includes full-time tuition ($27,710) and college room and board ($10,502). Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 120 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 56% of eligible men and 48% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: service clubs, Student Government and Activity Board, community service opportunities, student media opportunities, clubs and organizations. Major annual events: special games for handicapped children, Cinco de Mayo, ASLMU Formal Dance. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,897 college housing spaces available; 2,670 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Charles von der Ahe Library plus 1 other with 495,920 books, 1.6 million microform titles, 10,057 serials, 40,234 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $9.8 million. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Los Angeles.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (ANAHEIM) T-10

1360 South Anaheim Blvd.
Anaheim, CA 92805
Tel: (714)758-1500
Free: 800-206-0095
Fax: (714)758-1220
Web Site: http://www.mariccollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1989.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (NORTH HOLLYWOOD) S-10

6180 Laurel Canyon Blvd., Ste. 101
North Hollywood, CA 91606
Tel: (818)763-2563
Free: 800-404-9729
Fax: (818)763-1623
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mariccollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1982.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (PANORAMA CITY) S-9

14355 Roscoe Blvd.
Panorama City, CA 91402
Tel: (818)672-8907
Free: 800-206-0095
Fax: (818)672-8919
Web Site: http://www.mariccollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1996.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (SACRAMENTO) I-6

4330 Watt Ave., Ste. 400
Sacramento, CA 95821
Tel: (916)649-8168
Free: 800-955-8168
Fax: (916)649-8344
Web Site: http://www.californiacollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 360. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: CPAt. Entrance: minimally difficult.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (SALIDA) H-10

5172 Kiernan Ct.
Salida, CA 95368
Tel: (209)571-8777
Admissions: (209)543-7000
Fax: (209)571-9836
Web Site: http://www.mariccollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 289. 16 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 289 students, 94% women, 6% men. 0% Native American, 38% Hispanic, 13% black, 13% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Entrance: moderately difficult.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ MARIC COLLEGE (SAN DIEGO) W-12

3666 Kearny Villa Rd., Ste. 100
San Diego, CA 92123-1995
Tel: (858)279-4000
Free: 800-400-8232
Admissions: (858)654-3624
Fax: (858)279-4885
Web Site: http://www.mariccollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees (also includes Vista campus). Founded 1976. Setting: 4-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 298. Full-time: 298 students, 90% women, 10% men. 4% Native American, 40% Hispanic, 9% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 60% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MARYMOUNT COLLEGE, PALOS VERDES, CALIFORNIA S-3

30800 Palos Verdes Dr. East
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275-6299
Tel: (310)377-5501
Fax: (310)377-6223
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.marymountpv.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: 26-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 790. 1,051 applied, 75% were admitted. 6 class presidents, 42 student government officers. Full-time: 683 students, 47% women, 53% men. Part-time: 107 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 40 other countries, 20% 25 or older, 48% live on campus. Retention: 53% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Socratic Circle, Hawaii Club, Ski Club, African-American Student Union, MOVE (Marymount Opportunities for Volunteer Experiences). Major annual events: Spring Formal, Art Attack, Fun Flicks. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. Option: coed housing available. College Library plus 1 other with 42,104 books, 150,000 microform titles, 328 serials, 400 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 60 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE MASTER'S COLLEGE AND SEMINARY S-9

21726 Placerita Canyon Rd.
Santa Clarita, CA 91321-1200
Tel: (661)259-3540
Free: 800-568-6248
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.masters.edu/

Description:

Independent nondenominational, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and first professional certificates. Founded 1927. Setting: 110-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $5.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6741 per student. Total enrollment: 1,537. Faculty: 159 (76 full-time, 83 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 654 applied, 29% were admitted. 33% from top 10% of their high school class, 53% from top quarter, 78% from top half. 9 valedictorians. Full-time: 957 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 182 students, 40% women, 60% men. Students come from 42 states and territories, 19 other countries, 33% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 3% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 16% 25 or older, 75% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; history. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.50 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 11/1 for early action. Notification: 3/15, 12/22 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $25,850 includes full-time tuition ($19,230) and college room and board ($6620). College room only: $3660. Full-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $805 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: college chorale, Summer Missions, intramurals, church ministries, Drama Club. Major annual events: Missions Conference, College View Weekend, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing designed to accommodate 805 students; 868 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Powell Library plus 1 other with 215,649 books, 30,689 microform titles, 10,652 serials, 7,271 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. 57 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MENDOCINO COLLEGE G-3

1000 Hensley Creek Rd.
Ukiah, CA 95482-0300
Tel: (707)468-3000
Admissions: (707)468-3103
Fax: (707)468-3430
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mendocino.cc.ca.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: 127-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 5,400. 459 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 16 states and territories, 4% Native American, 12% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 65% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended; CPT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 14 open to all. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, security patrols 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. College housing not available. Lowery Library with 27,441 books and 275 serials. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MENLO COLLEGE E-15

1000 El Camino Real
Atherton, CA 94027-4301
Tel: (650)688-3753
Free: 800-556-3656
Admissions: (650)543-3910
Fax: (650)617-2395
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.menlo.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 45-acre small town campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $7.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3196. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3421 per student. Total enrollment: 769. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 753 applied, 69% were admitted. 6% from top 10% of their high school class, 26% from top quarter, 67% from top half. Full-time: 669 students, 39% women, 61% men. Part-time: 100 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 34 other countries, 18% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 9% black, 12% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 10% international, 17% 25 or older, 66% live on campus, 14% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; communications/journalism; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, continuous for nonresidents, 1/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $34,050 includes full-time tuition ($24,300), mandatory fees ($150), and college room and board ($9600). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $1000 per unit. Part-time mandatory fees: $75. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: International Club, Residence Hall Association, French Club, media network, Hawaiian Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, Luau, Spring Festival. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 423 college housing spaces available; 360 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Bowman Library with 64,700 books, 295 microform titles, 175 serials, 785 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $427,864. 130 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a residential community 30 miles south of San Francisco and 20 miles north of San Jose. The climate is moderate. The Southern Pacific Railroad, and Pacific Greyhound Bus serve the area with San Francisco International Airport 16 miles north. Activities are planned for all ages at the recreation center and many parks and playgrounds.

■ MERCED COLLEGE L-8

3600 M St.
Merced, CA 95348-2898
Tel: (209)384-6000
Admissions: (209)384-6188
Fax: (209)384-6339
Web Site: http://www.mccd.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1962. Setting: 168-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $65,602. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2065 per student. Total enrollment: 8,200. 421 applied. Students come from 30 states and territories, 51% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at several local community colleges. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs or international students. Options: Common Application, early admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Lesher Library with 35,000 books and 400 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $666,963. 400 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Merced is a rural, suburban area with a dry temperate climate. All forms of transportation serve the area. The community has a library, churches, theatres, a symphony, two general hospitals and all national service clubs. Merced is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and near Yosemite National Park, which provides recreational facilities for camping, hiking, fishing, and skiing, the major winter sport. Job opportunities are good during the summer.

■ MERRITT COLLEGE K-4

12500 Campus Dr.
Oakland, CA 94619-3196
Tel: (510)531-4911
Admissions: (510)466-7365
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.merritt.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Peralta Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1953. Setting: 130-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $34,939. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1076 per student. Total enrollment: 7,984. 40% from top half of their high school class. Full-time: 1,195 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 6,789 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 12 other countries, 1% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 47% black, 19% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 55% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at Holy Names College; Mills College; University of California, Berkeley.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/28. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: women's center. College housing not available. Merritt College Library with 80,000 books and 200 serials. 20 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Laney College.

■ MILLS COLLEGE K-4

5000 MacArthur Blvd.
Oakland, CA 94613-1000
Tel: (510)430-2255
Free: 800-87-MILLS
Admissions: (510)430-2135
Fax: (510)430-3314
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mills.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1852. Setting: 135-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $177.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,862 per student. Total enrollment: 1,372. Faculty: 184 (90 full-time, 94 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 783 applied, 77% were admitted. 37% from top 10% of their high school class, 61% from top quarter, 92% from top half. Full-time: 849 students, 100% women. Part-time: 32 students, 100% women. Students come from 35 states and territories, 6 other countries, 21% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 8% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 25% 25 or older, 54% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; English; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of California, Berkeley, California State University, Hayward, Sonoma State University, 9 other California colleges, American University, Agnes Scott College, Barnard College, Fisk University, Hollins College, Howard University, Manhattanville College, Mount Holyoke College, Simmons College, Spelman College, Swarthmore College, Wellesley College, Wheaton College. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, 3 recommendations, essay or graded paper, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 2/1, 11/15 for early action. Notification: 3/30, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $39,870 includes full-time tuition ($27,750), mandatory fees ($2240), and college room and board ($9880). College room only: $5150. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $4630 per course. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: class organizations, MECHA, ASA (Asian Sisterhood Alliance), Mills Environmental Organization, BWC (Black Women's Collective). Major annual events: Commencement, Colloquium, Health Fair. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 409 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. F. W. Olin Library plus 1 other with 254,351 books, 28,324 microform titles, 13,211 serials, 7,640 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. 267 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Laney College.

■ MIRACOSTA COLLEGE U-11

One Barnard Dr.
Oceanside, CA 92056-3899
Tel: (760)757-2121; 888-201-8480
Admissions: (760)795-6627
Fax: (760)795-6609
Web Site: http://www.miracosta.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1934. Setting: 131-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Endowment: $894,495. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $189,200. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2451 per student. Total enrollment: 10,252. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. Students come from 37 states and territories, 44 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 33% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4800 full-time, $160 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $804 full-time, $26 per unit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 37 open to all. Most popular organizations: African-American Student Alliance, Spanish Club, Cultural Exchange Program, Phi Theta Kappa, Friends of EOPS. Major annual events: Career Day Fair, Christmas Angel Exchange, Cinco de Mayo. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, trained security personnel during class hours. College housing not available. MiraCosta College Library with 113,810 books, 128,890 microform titles, 272 serials, 5,340 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $942,502. 753 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MISSION COLLEGE L-5

3000 Mission College Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1897
Tel: (408)988-2200
Admissions: (408)855-5195
Web Site: http://www.missioncollege.org/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1977. Setting: 167-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Total enrollment: 10,500. Full-time: 4,000 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 6,500 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 18 other countries,0.3% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 8% black, 52% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 60% 25 or older,0.5% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Placement: SAT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 43,456 books and 323 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $900,000. 120 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MODESTO JUNIOR COLLEGE K-7

435 College Ave.
Modesto, CA 95350-5800
Tel: (209)575-6498
Admissions: (209)575-6470
Web Site: http://www.mjc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Yosemite Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1921. Setting: 229-acre urban campus. Endowment: $817,811. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $134,554. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2373 per student. Total enrollment: 18,240. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 40:1. 11,385 applied, 100% were admitted. 53% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: electronic application. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3840 full-time, $160 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $664 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $40 per year part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 24 open to all. Most popular organizations: Young Farmers, Red Nations, Psychology Club, Alpha Gamma Sigma, MECHA. Major annual events: Transfer Day/College Night, Job Fair, Club Fair. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Modesto Junior College Library with 69,865 books, 5,600 microform titles, 4,161 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. 95 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Modesto is located in the heart of the San Joaquin Valley and is the access point for the Sonora Pass vacationland in the Stanislaus National Forest, Mother Lode Country and the Big Oak Flat route to Yosemite. Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County. Churches of all denominations, a library, hospitals, plus the usual businesses make up the City of Modesto. There are 20 parks, playgrounds, golf courses, tennis courts, swimming pools for recreational facilities plus areas where there is boating, fishing, hunting and skiing. Part-time employment is available.

■ MONTEREY PENINSULA COLLEGE M-5

980 Fremont St.
Monterey, CA 93940-4799
Tel: (831)646-4000
Admissions: (831)646-4007
Fax: (831)655-2627
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mpc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 87-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 14,074. Students come from 29 states and territories, 47 other countries. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nonresident aliens. Option: early admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Monterey Peninsula College Library with 52,000 books, 137,300 microform titles, 281 serials, 2,623 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 120 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Monterey Peninsula's population is approximately 150,000 including the cities of Carmel, Carmel Valley, Marina, Monterey, Pacific Grove, Pebble Beach, and Seaside. Monterey is a good two hour drive south of San Francisco on Highway 1. Airlines and buses serve the area. The climate is pleasing; average summer temperature is 60 and winter average is 51 degrees. This is the home of the Bach Festival, Golf Tournaments, Sports Car Races, the Monterey Jazz and Blues Festivals, and the County Fair. Artists, photographers, and writers enjoy Monterey for its beautiful scenery and good weather. Little theatre groups, music groups, art council and symphony guilds make up the cultural atmosphere of the city. Monterey Peninsula is a popular playground with several golf courses, facilities for fishing, boating, hunting and tennis. There are twelve championship golf courses in the area.

■ MOORPARK COLLEGE T-4

7075 Campus Rd.
Moorpark, CA 93021-1695
Tel: (805)378-1400
Admissions: (805)378-1406
Web Site: http://www.moorpark.cc.ca.us/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Ventura County Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 121-acre small town campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 15,266. 2,000 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 45 states and territories, 50 other countries, 1% Native American, 15% Hispanic, 2% black, 11% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 42% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, exotic animal training programs. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Major annual event: Multicultural Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. 50,000 books and 100 serials. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See California Lutheran University.

■ MOUNT ST. MARY'S COLLEGE S-10

12001 Chalon Rd.
Los Angeles, CA 90049-1599
Tel: (310)954-4000
Free: 800-999-9893
Admissions: (310)954-4252
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msmc.la.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 71-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $49.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3097 per student. Total enrollment: 2,480. Faculty: 299 (74 full-time, 225 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 1,035 applied, 85% were admitted. Full-time: 1,470 students, 97% women, 3% men. Part-time: 510 students, 87% women, 13% men. Students come from 17 states and territories, 7% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 44% Hispanic, 10% black, 21% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 28% 25 or older, 59% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; social sciences; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Southern California, University of California, Los Angeles, Sisters of Saint Joseph College Consortium. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview, SAT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 2/15, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 1/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $32,897 includes full-time tuition ($23,380), mandatory fees ($770), and college room and board ($8747). Part-time tuition: $900 per unit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 29 open to all; national sororities, local sororities; 6% of women are members. Most popular organizations: Latinas Unidas, student government, Pi Theta Mu, Kappa Delta Chi, Student Ambassadors. Major annual event: Mary's Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, controlled dormitory access. 728 college housing spaces available; 682 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Charles Williard Coe Memorial Library with 140,000 books, 4,760 microform titles, 750 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1 million. 85 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MT. SAN ANTONIO COLLEGE W-8

1100 North Grand Ave.
Walnut, CA 91789-1399
Tel: (909)594-5611
Free: 800-672-2463
Web Site: http://www.mtsac.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 421-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Total enrollment: 27,195. Full-time: 8,567 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 18,628 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 0.5% Native American, 44% Hispanic, 6% black, 24% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4248 full-time, $177 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $672 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $24 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run radio station. Most popular organizations: Alpha Gamma Sigma, Muslim Student Association, student government, Asian Student Association, Kasama-Filipino Student Organization. Major annual events: Cinco de Mayo, Asian Awareness Week, Join-a-Club. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Learning Resources Center with 64,291 books, 20,857 microform titles, 753 serials, 6,494 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MT. SAN JACINTO COLLEGE S-12

1499 North State St.
San Jacinto, CA 92583-2399
Tel: (909)487-6752
Fax: (909)654-6738
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msjc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1963. Setting: 180-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Diego. Endowment: $2 million. Total enrollment: 12,592. Students come from 11 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 60% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study at Citrus College. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: early admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Placement: Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: part-time trained security personnel. College housing not available. Milo P. Johnson Library plus 1 other with 28,000 books and 330 serials. 35 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MT. SIERRA COLLEGE P-6

101 East Huntington Dr.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Tel: (626)873-2144; 888-828-8800.
Admissions: (626)873-2100
Fax: (626)359-5528
Web Site: http://www.mtsierra.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1990. Setting: 5-acre suburban campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9000 per student. Total enrollment: 1,100. 380 applied, 73% were admitted. 2 class presidents, 15 student government officers. Full-time: 1,085 students, 30% women, 70% men. Part-time: 15 students, 33% women, 67% men. Students come from 7 states and territories, 5% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 26% Hispanic, 5% black, 26% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 60% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Notification: 10/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Mt. Sierra College Learning Resource Center with 6,000 books, 5,000 serials, and 100 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $50,000. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MTI COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY I-6

5221 Madison Ave.
Sacramento, CA 95841
Tel: (916)339-1500
Fax: (916)339-0305
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mticollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1965. Total enrollment: 600. Calendar: continuous.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: MTI Assessment.

■ MUSICIANS INSTITUTE S-10

1655 North McCadden Place
Hollywood, CA 90028
Tel: (323)462-1384
Free: 800-255-PLAY
Fax: (323)462-6978
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mi.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1976. Total enrollment: 650.

Entrance Requirements:

Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100. Tuition: $16,800 full-time, $280 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $400 full-time, $100 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ NAPA VALLEY COLLEGE I-4

2277 Napa-Vallejo Hwy.
Napa, CA 94558-6236
Tel: (707)253-3000
Fax: (707)253-3064
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.napavalley.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1942. Setting: 188-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 6,908. 2,000 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 1,909 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 4,999 students, 62% women, 38% men. 1% Native American, 20% Hispanic, 8% black, 18% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $3624 full-time, $151 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $648 full-time, $26 per unit part-time, $12 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Hispano-Americano Club, African-American Club, Environmental Action Coalition, International Student Club, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Black History Month, Cinco de Mayo, Native American Pow Wow. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Napa Valley College Library plus 1 other with 42,000 books, 250 serials, and an OPAC. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 63,000. The town of Napa, in the southern wine district, is the center of a fruit and nut raising region as well as the southeastern entrance to the Redwood Empire. Located in the Napa Valley area, there are numerous wineries, most of which are open to the public for tours. The climate is delightful. Buses and trains serve the area. Napa has churches of all denominations, hospitals, clinics, and libraries. Recreation includes parks, picnic grounds, swimming pools, and golf courses.

■ THE NATIONAL HISPANIC UNIVERSITY L-5

14271 Story Rd.
San Jose, CA 95127-3823
Tel: (408)254-6900
Web Site: http://www.nhu.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1981. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Endowment: $1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $88,901. Total enrollment: 469. 179 applied, 82% were admitted. 3% from top 10% of their high school class, 15% from top quarter, 82% from top half. Full-time: 176 students, 32% women, 68% men. Part-time: 117 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 6 other countries, 0.4% Native American, 84% Hispanic, 1% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 40% 25 or older. Retention: 86% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at California State University, Hayward, San Jose City College, Lincoln University, San Jose State University. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, interview. Recommended: SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/15. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organizations: Teatro De Los Pobres, Student Government Association. Major annual events: Christmas Party, Las Posadas, Summer Family Festival. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available. University Library with 10,000 books and 40 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $85,845. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NATIONAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND OCEANEERING T-9

272 South Fries Ave.
Wilmington, CA 90744-6399
Tel: (310)834-2501
Free: 800-432-DIVE
Fax: (310)834-7132
Web Site: http://www.coo.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Setting: 5-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $16,000 per student. Total enrollment: 272. 598 applied, 59% were admitted. Students come from 52 states and territories, 5 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: continuous. Advanced placement, double major, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at San Pedro/Wilmington Skills Center.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview, physical examination. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual events: Graduation, cook-outs, Thanksgiving Dinner. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. 3 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed.

■ NATIONAL UNIVERSITY W-12

11255 North Torrey Pines Rd.
La Jolla, CA 92037-1011
Tel: (619)563-7100
Free: 800-NAT-UNIV
Admissions: (858)628-8648
Fax: (619)563-7299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1971. Setting: urban campus. Endowment: $243.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $889,600. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2948 per student. Total enrollment: 26,035. Faculty: 2,701 (199 full-time, 2,502 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. Full-time: 1,631 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 4,890 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 64 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 12% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 82% 25 or older, 6% transferred in. Retention: 100% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; interdisciplinary studies; psychology. Core. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: essay. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Tuition: $8352 full-time, $1044 per course part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Central Library with 226,049 books, 253,052 microform titles, 2,794 serials, 5,539 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.1 million. 2,253 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NEW COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA K-4

50 Fell St.
San Francisco, CA 94102-5206
Tel: (415)437-3460; 888-437-3460
Fax: (415)626-5171
Web Site: http://www.newcollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1971. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,133. Full-time: 611 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 7 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 5 other countries,0.5% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 50% 25 or older, 19% transferred in. Retention: 87% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript. Recommended: interview. Required for some: 2 recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $12,642 full-time, $550 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $200 full-time, $100 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: legal services, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: trained security personnel. College housing not available. New College Library plus 2 others with 24,000 books and 50 serials. 10 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NEWSCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN W-12

1249 F St.
San Diego, CA 92101-6634
Tel: (619)235-4100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.newschoolarch.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1980. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $20,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,620 per student. Total enrollment: 198. 2 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 4 students, 100% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 15% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 25% Hispanic, 0% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 65% 25 or older, 10% live on campus, 25% transferred in. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early decision, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, interview. Recommended: recommendations. Required for some: portfolio. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 8/30 for nonresidents, 7/1 for early decision. Notification: continuous, continuous for nonresidents.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all; 10% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organization: American Institute of Architects Student Chapter. Major annual events: National American Institute of Architects Convention, Sweatshirt Design Competition, Catalog Design Competition. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, controlled dormitory access. Option: coed housing available. Newschool of Arts Foundation Library with 7,500 books, 50 serials, and 250 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $40,000. 14 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NORTHROP RICE AVIATION INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY R-4

1155 West Arbor Vitae St., Ste. 115
Inglewood, CA 90301-2904
Tel: (310)568-8541
Fax: (310)568-8542
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nrait.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1942.

■ NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY K-5

117 Fourier Ave.
Fremont, CA 94539-7482
Tel: (510)657-5913
Admissions: (510)657-0256
Fax: (510)657-8975
Web Site: http://www.npu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1984. Setting: 2-acre urban campus with easy access to San Francisco and San Jose. Total enrollment:351. 7 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 62 students, 35% women, 65% men. Part-time: 55 students, 38% women, 62% men. Students come from 7 states and territories, 10 other countries, 7% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 0% black, 33% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 61% international, 63% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 89% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: trimesters. ESL program, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: interview. Required for some: essay. Application deadline: 9/20. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $75. Tuition: $6600 full-time, $275 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $140 full-time, $70 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organizations: NPU Student Association, Table Tennis Club, IEEE Student Chapter, Softball Club. Major annual events: Halloween party, dance party, picnic. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. 35 college housing spaces available; 8 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. NPU Library plus 1 other with 12,000 books, 100 microform titles, 200 serials, 200 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $750,000. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NORTHWESTERN TECHNICAL COLLEGE I-6

1825 Bell St., No. 100
Sacramento, CA 95825
Tel: (916)649-2400; (866)649-2400
Fax: (916)649-8649
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ntcollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1995.

■ NOTRE DAME DE NAMUR UNIVERSITY I-4

1500 Ralston Ave.
Belmont, CA 94002-1908
Tel: (650)508-3500
Free: 800-263-0545
Admissions: (650)508-3600
Fax: (650)508-3660
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ndnu.edu

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1851. Setting: 80-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Endowment: $10.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $11,545 per student. Total enrollment: 1,588. Faculty: 143 (50 full-time, 93 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 642 applied, 96% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 66% from top half. Full-time: 631 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 259 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 17 other countries, 28% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 22% Hispanic, 5% black, 15% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 41% 25 or older, 36% live on campus, 62% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; public administration and social services; liberal arts/general studies; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Trinity College (DC), Emmanuel College (MA). Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, recommendations, audition is required for music programs, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $34,230 includes full-time tuition ($23,650), mandatory fees ($200), and college room and board ($10,380). College room only: $7000. Part-time tuition: $545 per unit. Part-time mandatory fees: $30 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 29 open to all. Most popular organizations: Associated Students of Notre Dame de Namur University, BizCom, Social Action Club, Alianza Latina, Hawaiian Club. Major annual events: International Reception, Hawaiian Luau, Spring Formal. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 520 college housing spaces available; 440 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. College of Notre Dame Library with 24,169 microform titles, 726 serials, 8,314 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $568,320. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 27,000, Belmont is located 25 miles south of San Francisco, and has the advantages of a suburban location. The climate is ideal. The average high is 69.5 degrees, the low 47 degrees and the average rainfall is 19.8 inches. It is on the main line of Southern Pacific Railroad and San Francisco International Airport is 12 miles away. Students attending Notre Dame are close enough to San Francisco to enjoy all the cultural and recreational benefits such as major drama, music, and opera productions, films, rock group performances, and professional and collegiate sports. The beaches of the Pacific Ocean are 12 miles away. Two hours to the north is the wine country, and a few hours' drive east are the historic gold country, Lake Tahoe, and the Sierra Nevada Range with famous facilities for skiing and other winter sports.

■ OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE S-10

1600 Campus Rd.
Los Angeles, CA 90041-3314
Tel: (323)259-2500
Free: 800-825-5262
Admissions: (323)259-2700
Fax: (323)341-4875
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.oxy.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1887. Setting: 120-acre urban campus. Endowment: $279.8 million. Total enrollment: 1,839. Faculty: 215 (148 full-time, 67 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 5,114 applied, 41% were admitted. 60% from top 10% of their high school class, 86% from top quarter, 100% from top half. 27 class presidents, 23 valedictorians, 92 student government officers. Full-time: 1,794 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 25 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 47 states and territories, 25 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 6% black, 13% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 1% 25 or older, 70% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 92% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; visual and performing arts; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, internships. Off campus study at California Institute of Technology, Art Center College of Design, Morehouse College, Spelman College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army(c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/10, 11/15 for early decision. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $42,686 includes full-time tuition ($32,800), mandatory fees ($844), and college room and board ($9042). College room only: $4972. Part-time tuition: $1387 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 104 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 6% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Asian-Pacific Islander Alliance, community service, Inter-Faith Student Council, Black Student Alliance, MECHA/ALAS. Major annual events: spring concert, Da Getaway, homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, lighted pathways and sidewalks; whistle alert program. College housing designed to accommodate 1,300 students; 1,350 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Mary Norton Clapp Library plus 2 others with 497,161 books, 413,190 microform titles, 903 serials, 17,408 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of California - Los Angeles

■ OHLONE COLLEGE K-5

43600 Mission Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94539-5884
Tel: (510)659-6000
Admissions: (510)659-6108
Web Site: http://www.ohlone.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of California Community College System. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 530-acre suburban campus with easy access to San Francisco. Total enrollment: 11,500. Students come from 54 states and territories, 49% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at Contra Costa Community College District, Chabot College, members of the California State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, respiratory therapy, physical therapy assistant, interpreter preparation programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT ASSET required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Ohlone College Library with 65,000 books and 410 serials. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The Fremont area is one of the faster growing areas of California. Mild climate is enjoyed in this city located on the San Francisco Bay. Fremont is within easy driving distance of San Francisco, Berkeley, Oakland and Palo Alto, and enjoys the cultural advantages of those cities. Beaches are nearby for swimming, boating and fishing. There are numerous golf courses and parks for recreational facilities. Shopping facilities are good.

■ ORANGE COAST COLLEGE T-10

2701 Fairview Rd., PO Box 5005
Costa Mesa, CA 92628-5005
Tel: (714)432-0202
Admissions: (714)432-5788
Fax: (714)432-5072
Web Site: http://www.orangecoastcollege.com/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Coast Community College District System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 200-acre suburban campus with easy access to Los Angeles. Endowment: $5.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $104,225. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1752 per student. Total enrollment: 24,350. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. Full-time: 10,671 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 13,679 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 76 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 18% Hispanic, 2% black, 24% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 34% 25 or older, 8% transferred in. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters plus summer session. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Golden West College, Coastline Community College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Nonresident tuition: $152 per unit part-time. Mandatory fees: $26 per unit part-time, $28 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 55 open to all. Most popular organizations: Vietnamese Student Association, International Club, Adventurist Souls, Muslim Student Association. Major annual events: Club Rush, Senior Day, Coast Days. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Norman E. Watson Library with 84,447 books, 8,276 microform titles, 420 serials, 2,510 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $702,946. 1,515 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Costa Mesa, three miles inland from the Pacific Ocean and Highway 101-A, is at the edge of Newport Beach. The city has a moderate climate - mild winters, and cool summer breezes from the ocean. Orange County's economy is derived from defense manufacture, electronics, light industry, housing, business, agriculture, and tourism. The campus is located within 15 minutes of the Orange County Performing Arts Center; Irvine