Santa Fe: Recreation
Santa Fe: Recreation
Santa Fe's historic downtown plaza, once the terminus of the Santa Fe Trail, has been a center of activity in Santa Fe since the city's founding. The plaza area is full of restaurants, shops, art galleries, and museums. Also here is St. Francis Cathedral, a grand structure built in the French Romanesque style, unusual in this city of Spanish-Pueblo architecture. Santa Fe's first Roman Catholic archbishop, Jean Baptiste Lamy, started the cathedral; both the bishop and the building were the inspiration for Willa Cather's novel, Death Comes to the Archbishop. A wooden icon in the cathedral's north chapel is the oldest representation of the Madonna in the United States.
Other historical buildings include Santuario de Guadalupe, the nation's oldest shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe; built in the late 1700s, its adobe walls are three feet thick. Our Lady of Light Chapel, also known as Loretto Chapel, was built between 1873 and 1878 and is the oldest stone masonry building in the city; it is known for its spiral wooden Miraculous Staircase, apparently made without nails or a support beam. San Miguel Mission, one of the oldest mission churches in the nation, was built in 1610 by the Tlaxcala natives, who were servants of Spanish soldiers and missionaries; on display is a bell that was cast in Spain in 1356 and brought to Santa Fe in the early 19th century. The New Mexico State Capitol building, the only round capitol building in the United States, was built in the shape of a Southwestern Indian zia, which represents the circle of life. The Palace of the Governors has been home to 60 Spanish, Mexican, and American governors, among them Lew Wallace, who wrote the novel Ben Hur there during his 1877-1881 tenure. Built in 1610, it became a history museum in 1909.
Canyon Road, just north of the capitol building, was once a Native American trail and defines one of the oldest districts in the city. Just west of Canyon Road is Barrio de Analco, now called East de Vargas Street, among the oldest continuously inhabited streets in the nation; many historic homes are located here. The Cross of the Martyrs, overlooking the city, is a large white cross built in 1920 to commemorate the Franciscans killed by native Pueblos in 1680. The Commemorative Walkway leading to the monument has been the route for various religious processions, particularly in September during Fiesta, the celebration of the return of the Spanish to Santa Fe in 1692.
Santa Fe is surrounded by twelve Pueblo villages, each of which retains its own distinct culture and holds special events relating to its unique traditions; all are located within an hour's drive of the city.
Arts and Culture
Home of more than 20 music groups, theater companies, and dance groups, Santa Fe supports one of the best and most active arts communities in the country. The famous Santa Fe Opera, which attracts audiences from throughout the world, presents its performances in a partially open-air amphitheater located on a wooded hill north of the city. It is known for its performances of the classics, obscure works by classical composers, and American premiers of modern works. Its eight-week season runs from June to August. The Santa Fe Symphony Orchestra and Chorus performs classical and popular works at the Lensic Performing Arts Center; the center's lavish Lensic Theater, built in 1931 as a film and vaudeville house, received an $8.2 million restoration, which was completed in 2001. The Desert Chorale choral group performs at venues throughout the city and is known for blending Renaissance melodies and avant-garde compositions.
Students at the College of Santa Fe stage their productions in the Greer Garson Theatre. Their season, which runs from October to May, consists of several presentations of four plays. Santa Fe Playhouse, established in the 1920s, performs dramas, avant-garde works, and musical comedy in a historic adobe theater.
The María Benitez Teatro Flamenco performs flamenco music and dance in a summer season at the María Benitez Theatre at the Radisson Hotel. The company is comprised of Benitez, who has been named the best flamenco dancer of her generation by Dance magazine, and flamenco dancers and musicians from throughout the United States and Spain.
Santa Fe is home to several museums specializing in a variety of fields. The Museum of New Mexico, described as the most important modern cultural institution in the state, houses the Palace of Governors, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Fine Arts, and Museum of International Folk Art. The Palace of the Governors, the nation's oldest continually used building, houses exhibits relating to Native American, Spanish, Mexican, and American frontier history. Its governor offices have been restored and preserved. The Museum of Indian Arts and Culture showcases exhibits pertaining to the history and contemporary culture of the Pueblo, Navajo, and Apache peoples, including pottery, basketry, woven fabrics, jewelry, and contemporary crafts. Opened in 1987, its massive collection has been built over the course of nearly 80 years of research and acquisition by the Laboratory of Anthropology. The Museum of Fine Arts, built in 1917, is the oldest art museum in the state; it was built in the style of the mission church at nearby Acoma Pueblo. The museum maintains a collection of more than 20,000 works, with a specialty in regional art from throughout the 20th century to the present. The Museum of International Folk Art, the largest of its kind in the world, has more than 130,000 items of folk art from around the world, including dolls and puppets, masks, textiles, ceramics, furniture, clothing, and Spanish colonial artworks.
The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum houses the largest collection of the artist's work in the world. The museum features revolving exhibits of O'Keeffe's paintings, watercolors, pastels, charcoals, and sculptures, and also hosts exhibitions of works by some of O'Keeffe's contemporaries. The Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian, housed in a building shaped like a Navajo hogan, features rotating single-subject displays of jewelry, tapestry, pottery, baskets, and paintings crafted by Native Americans throughout the Southwest. The Institute of American Indian Arts Museum focuses on works by students and faculty members; with more than 7,000 works, it is the largest collection of contemporary American Indian art in the world. The Santa Fe Children's Museum was developed to offer hands-on exhibits for the whole family. Santa Fe's newest museum is the Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, which presents a variety of Hispanic media—including santos (painted and sculpted images of saints), textiles, tinwork, silverwork, goldwork, ironwork, straw appliqué, ceramics, furniture, and books—dating from the Middle Ages through the present.
Festivals and Holidays
Many of Santa Fe's events reflect the cultural diversity of the city. During the Chimayo Pilgrimage, on Good Friday, thousands walk on foot to the Santuario de Chimayo, a small church believed to aid in miracles. The Rodeo de Santa Fe, a popular regional competition, is held in June; the four-night rodeo features entrants from several states competing in such events as bareback bronco riding, calf roping, steer wrestling, and barrel racing. The annual Traditional Spanish Market is held in July; it is the oldest and largest market in the country for Spanish Colonial artists. More than 300 Hispanic artisans offer traditional artforms including santos, textiles, tinwork, furniture, straw appliqué, and metalwork. The market also presents live music, art demonstrations, and regional foods. The Indian Market, held in August, is the country's largest and most prestigious Native American art show. More than 1,000 artisans offer basketry, blankets, jewelry, pottery, woodcarvings, rugs, sandpaintings, and sculptures. Tribal dancing and craft demonstrations are also presented. La Fiesta de Santa Fe in September, which dates to 1712, is the oldest community celebration in the country. Highlights include Spanish dancing, mariachi music, food and craft booths, and parades and ceremonies including a pet parade, a historical/hysterical parade, and a fiesta mass of thanksgiving held at St. Francis Cathedral, followed by a candle-lit procession from the cathedral to the Cross of the Martyrs. The Santa Fe Wine and Chile Fiesta, a five-day event, is also held in September. The Winter Spanish Market, in December, is a smaller version of July's market; some 150 artisans offer their wares.
Drawing on the traditions of three cultures—Native American, Spanish, and Anglo—Christmas celebrations in Santa Fe take on a special flair. As part of the festivities, farolitos— luminaries made of paper bags, sand, and candles—set the town aglow on Christmas Eve. Indian pueblos schedule winter dances, bonfires, and processions in late December and January.
Sports for the Spectator
Polo teams sponsored by local merchants compete in Sunday games from June through Labor Day at the Santa Fe Polo Club.
Sports for the Participant
Outdoor activities can be pursued throughout most of the year in Santa Fe. Outdoor enthusiasts can mountain-bike through the area's high-desert terrain, hike in the area's 1,000 miles of national forest trails, golf at one of Santa Fe's three golf courses, or play tennis at one of 48 tennis courts. Within the Santa Fe National Forest are wilderness areas—Pecos, Dome, and San Pedro parks—that are ideal for hiking, camping, fishing, and hunting. Resorts at Ojo Caliente and Jemez Springs furnish bath houses for the enjoyment of the natural hot springs for which northern New Mexico is famous. Skiing is a flourishing sport in Santa Fe. Seven ski areas within a two-hour drive provide facilities for every level of skiing expertise. Ski Santa Fe, a 30-minute drive through the Sangre De Cristo Mountains from Santa Fe, is an especially popular spot. Cross-country skiing areas are also nearby.
Shopping and Dining
Santa Fe has been described as a shopper's "Shangri-La." With hundreds of stores in the downtown area alone, the city offers boutiques and specialty shops, 200 art galleries, and several large shopping centers. Locally designed and crafted items such as clothing, jewelry, pottery, and furniture are featured.
Prime shopping areas include the historic Canyon Road area, home to a large, eclectic mix of small shops and galleries; and the plaza area, which features the greatest concentration of Native American crafts, as well as the Santa Fe Arcade, a three-story shopping center that opened in 2004. The Guadelupe district, a recently redeveloped area close to the rail-yard, features numerous specialty stores and cafes. Located in this area is the Sanbusco Market Center, a remodeled warehouse occupied by unique shops and restaurants. Other Santa Fe shopping highlights include the local treats at the Santa Fe Farmer's Market, and the variety of wares at the Tesuque Flea Market.
A specialty of Santa Fe is northern New Mexico cuisine, which is a mixture of Pueblo Indian, Spanish Colonial, and Anglo frontier cooking. It differs from "Tex-Mex" food in that northern New Mexican cooks use heavy meats for such dishes as carne adovada, or marinated pork. Green chiles, pinto beans, and blue corn tortillas are also used in local dishes. Sopaipillas, deep-fried puff pastries drizzled with honey, are especially popular. Among other dining options are Western-style steak and barbeque, vegetarian cuisine, and Italian, Chinese, Sushi, Thai, Indian, Korean, Mediterranean, French, and Native American restaurants.
Visitor Information: Santa Fe Convention and Visitors Bureau, 201 West Marcy, PO Box 909, Santa Fe, NM 87504; telephone (505)955-6200; toll-free (800)777-CITY
Santa Fe: Economy
Santa Fe: Economy
Major Industries and Commercial Activity
Santa Fe's economy has been based largely on tourism and state government. As capitol of New Mexico, the government is the largest employer in the area. Santa Fe receives an average of 1.6 million visitors annually; in 2004, readers of Condé Nast Traveler magazine ranked Santa Fe second only to San Francisco as the best travel destination in the country. Tourism boosts the city's retail industry, which brings in more than $1 billion annually.
Because of the city's proximity to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), 45 miles away, scientific research has also become a factor. Operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy, LANL is one of the largest research laboratories in the nation. It is an important center for work on defense-related projects, conducting research on technology associated with nuclear weapons and deterrence, as well as energy production and health, safety, and environmental concerns, among other areas. Over one third of LANL's employees live in Santa Fe, and several new research-related firms and high-technology spinoff companies have located in Santa Fe.
Health care and light manufacturing are other significant economic sectors. Santa Fe has emerged as a regional medical center; St. Vincent Regional Medical Center is one of the city's largest employers and serves seven counties. Products manufactured by local companies include electronic instruments and textiles.
Items and goods produced: art, pumice products, weavings, Native American arts and crafts, textiles, electronic instruments, aluminum ware
Incentive Programs—New and Existing Companies
The Santa Fe Business Incubator, considered one of the best of its kind in the nation, assists new businesses with all aspects of start-up. The Small Business Development Center provides one-on-one business advising, encourages and instructs entrepreneurs, and is a strong advocate for local business growth and development.
SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) provides business counseling and support. Santa Fe Economic Development, Inc. supports entrepreneurs and works with businesses interested in relocating to the area.
New Mexico offers a variety of incentives to all new and expanding businesses. Its Build to Suit program facilitates building construction, and ePort New Mexico is a "one-stop" information source offering permitting and licensing. The state's financial incentives include: no inventory taxes; tax credits for high-wage jobs, technology jobs, and childcare; a tax deduction for research and development services; a job training incentive program (the cornerstone of the state's incentives: New Mexico can pay half the salary for new hires for up to half a year); exemptions for qualified businesses from property taxes on land, buildings, and equipment, and from personal property tax on equipment; and laboratory partnerships with small businesses. Further incentives are available for manufacturers, customer support centers, aerospace and aircraft industries, producers of agriculture or energy, and filmmakers. In addition, the state enacted a major personal income tax reduction in 2003, and New Mexico's property taxes are second lowest in the nation.
To attract businesses that rely on high-speed technology, Santa Fe is constructing a "Santa Fe Light Trail" system of digital microwave and fiber facilities; it will be a hybrid network available to the business community as well as educational facilities and local and state government agencies. A new civic center for the city is scheduled for completion in 2007.
Santa Fe is linked with major western and midwestern markets via rail freight service provided by the Santa Fe Southern Railroad, which maintains a main line through nearby Lamy. Several rail sidings are conveniently located in the city's industrial areas. Several interstate motor freight carriers connect Santa Fe with markets on both the East and West Coasts; major parcel express lines also serve the city. Air cargo service is available at Santa Fe Municipal Airport.
Labor Force and Employment Outlook
Santa Fe's economy is lead by government and tourism, and as of 2005, two out of three jobs in the city are in either the government or service sector. Corporations of substantial size are absent from the economy, and recruitment efforts encourage entrepreneurship and small business development. Unemployment is relatively low. Wages, especially in the service industry, have remained low (nearly 20 percent less than the national average) while the cost of living index is high (up to 20 percent higher than the national average). A "living wage" ordinance, passed in 2003, attempts to raise minimum wages to remedy this problem.
The following is a summary of data regarding the Santa Fe metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.
Size of non-agricultural labor force: 60,600
Number of workers employed in . . .
construction and mining: 4,500
trade, transportation and utilities: 10,200
financial activities: 2,900
professional and business services: 5,100
educational and health services: 8,300
leisure and hospitality: 8,900
other services: 3,000
Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $14.64
Unemployment rate: 4.2% (January 2005)
|Largest employers||Number of employees|
|State of New Mexico||9,443|
|Santa Fe School District||1,850|
|City of Santa Fe||1,719|
|St. Vincent Hospital||1,450|
|Santa Fe Community College||717|
|Santa Fe Opera||650|
|College of Santa Fe||564|
Cost of Living
The following is a summary of data regarding key cost of living factors for the Santa Fe area.
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $315,950
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 109.0 (U.S. average = 100.0)
State income tax rate: Ranges from 1.7% to 6.8%
State sales tax rate: 5.0%
Local income tax rate: None
Local sales tax rate: 1.0625% (city); 1.25% (county)
Property tax rate: 0.017494 multiplied by one-third of full market value (2004)
Economic Information: Santa Fe County Chamber of Commerce, PO Box 1928, Santa Fe, NM 87504; telephone (505)988-3279; email [email protected] New Mexico Department of Labor, Economic Research and Analysis, 401 Broadway NE, Albuquerque NM 87102. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131; telephone (505)277-2216; fax (505)277-7066
Santa Fe: History
Santa Fe: History
Native American and Spanish Influences
During prehistoric times a village built by the Tano tribe stood on the site now occupied by Santa Fe. Evidence from the Tano culture, uncovered in the few ruins left by Spanish settlers, indicates that civilization existed on the site as far back as 1050 to 1150 A.D. The settlement was abandoned around 200 years before the arrival of the Spanish. The spot was called Kuapoga—"place of the shell beads near the water"—by the Pueblos. Santa Fe was founded in either 1607 or 1609 (there is some confusion about the year) by Don Pedre de Peralta, the third governor of the Province of New Mexico, who built the Palace of Governors and the Plaza and planned a walled city. The palace was occupied by a succession of sixty Spanish governors for more than 200 years, and Santa Fe has been a seat of government since its founding.
Throughout Spanish rule of the territory Santa Fe was a center for exploration and mission work. Franciscan friars built eleven churches and by 1617 had converted more than 14,000 Native Americans to their form of Christianity. Conflict arose, however, when the Native Americans continued to practice their own religion. In 1680 a number of the Spanish settlers were killed in a conflict with natives; the survivors fled to El Paso del Norte, abandoning the town. The Native Americans established their own community in Santa Fe; occupying the palace and appointing a governor, they held the town for twelve years until the arrival of De Vargas, Spanish governor of the province. He made peace and returned the following year with a statue of the Christian New Testament's Virgin Mary. Making his entry on the site of present day Rosario Chapel, he vowed to pay yearly homage to "Our Lady of Victory." Since that time, in fulfillment of this vow the De Vargas Procession has been held in Santa Fe.
Mexico and United States Claim Santa Fe
When Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, Santa Fe came under the control of Mexico. Trade was then opened between Santa Fe and the United States over a route that came to be known as the Santa Fe Trail. In 1846 the United States claimed Santa Fe; the city has been under U.S. jurisdiction ever since, except for two weeks during the Civil War when the Confederates seized control after the battle of Valverde. The Santa Fe Trail eventually fell into disuse when rail travel advanced to the region. Santa Fe flourished, however, benefiting from the new trade connections that were made possible by the railroad.
City Becomes Art Colony, Capital of State
Around the turn of the century, artists, attracted by the climate and the beauty of the area, moved to Santa Fe, and the city soon became popular as an art colony. When New Mexico attained statehood in 1912, Santa Fe, as the capital, entered a period of prosperity; government workers arrived to live in the city and federal and state buildings were constructed around the Plaza. By 1920 the population had grown from 5,000 to more than 7,000 people, and by the 1940s it was over 20,000 people.
In 1957 the city established zoning codes designed to maintain a uniform architectural style. Two types of architecture are permitted: Pueblo, characterized by rounded parapets and rough-hewn woodwork, and Territorial, featuring brick coping and milled, often decorative woodworking.
Santa Fe's populace reflects the city's Native American, Spanish, and Anglo heritage, and the cultural traditions of these groups have been retained. However, after an influx of new residents in the 1980s, the 1990 census reported that for the first time since the city's founding, Hispanic residents were a minority. During the 1990s the city experienced some tensions between locals—many of them poor—and newcomers, who are driving up the cost of housing and otherwise altering the landscape. Economic frustrations continue into the early 2000s, as wages linger at almost 20 percent below the national average, while the cost of living has remained well above the national average. The city has taken steps to remedy the issue; a "living wage" city ordinance was passed in 2003 to raise minimum wages.
Historical Information: Fra Angelico Chavez Memorial History Library and Photographic Archive, 110 Washington Ave., Santa Fe, NM 87504; telephone (508)476-5090. Special Collections, Santa Fe Community College Library, telephone (505)428-1352
Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest established capital city in the United States. Founded in 1608 by Governor Pedro de Peralta on the site of a Native American ruin, the Villa Real de Santa Fe (the Royal City of the Holy Faith) served as the governmental, military, and cultural headquarters of the northern province of New Spain. In 1680 Native Americans living in pueblos in northern New Mexico revolted against the Spanish and drove them out of Santa Fe and New Mexico in the most successful uprising against European settlers in North American history. The Spanish, led by Don Diego de Vargas, reconquered Santa Fe in 1692 and reestablished it as the capital of New Mexico for Spain. In the eighteenth century Santa Fe remained on the periphery of the Spanish Empire, but Hispanics and Native Americans found ways to live peacefully in the capital. In 1776 Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Father Francisco Domínguez set off from Santa Fe to blaze an overland trail to Monterey, California. They abandoned their exploration in the badlands of Utah and returned to Santa Fe. In 1821 Mexico won its independence from Spain, and Santa Fe became the capital of the Mexican state of New Mexico.
According to the Spanish censuses in the eighteenth century, Santa Fe grew from a population of 1,285 in 1760 to 4,500 in 1799. As the capital of the colony, Santa Fe attracted settlers from Mexico as well as Native Americans from the nearby pueblos, from the Navajos and the Plains tribes, and from tribes in Mexico. Many mixed-heritage people also lived in Santa Fe.
From its founding in 1608 through the nineteenth century, Santa Fe served as the terminus of several important transcontinental trails. First, El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (the Royal Road to the Interior Lands) connected the colony with the rest of the world. The 1,500-mile (1,900-km) trail from Mexico City to Santa Fe delivered immigrants, priests, governmental officials, and goods to the city. Even though Santa Fe was the major city on the northern frontier of New Spain, authorities forbade trade with the other European settlements to the east. In the contest for colonial territories, Spanish officials used Santa Fe and New Mexico as a buffer between New Spain and the French, British, and then the United States territories. After Mexican Independence in 1821, Mexican authorities allowed trade with the east, and William Becknell, a bankrupt farmer from Missouri, opened up the Santa Fe Trail. In addition to bringing immigrants and trade goods to the city, the Santa Fe Trail also was the route of conquest taken by the United States Army during the Mexican American War in 1846. Santa Fe then became the capital of the United States territory of New Mexico in 1850.
Noble, David Grant, ed. Santa Fe: History of an Ancient City. Santa Fe N. Mex.: School of American Research Press, 1989.
Simmons, Marc. New Mexico: An Interpretive History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.
Santa Fe: Education and Research
Santa Fe: Education and Research
Elementary and Secondary Schools
The Santa Fe Public Schools system is the third largest district in the state of New Mexico. It is administered by a five-member, nonpartisan board of education that establishes educational policies and appoints a superintendent.
The following is a summary of data regarding Santa Fe's public schools.
Total enrollment: approximately 13,000
Number of facilities
elementary schools: 20
junior high school: 4
senior high schools: 3
other: 3 charter schools
Student/teacher ratio: 15.9:1 (2002-2003)
Teacher salaries (2002-2003)
Funding per pupil: $5,924 (2001-2002)
Additionally, Santa Fe has a large network of private schools, consisting of 32 schools ranging from pre-Kindergarten through 12th grade, one of which—the Santa Fe Indian School—is a federally funded boarding school for Native Americans, run by the All Indian Pueblo Council.
Public Schools Information: Santa Fe Public Schools, 610 Alta Vista Street, Santa Fe, NM 87505; telephone (505)467-2000; fax (505)995-3302
Colleges and Universities
Santa Fe has several institutes of higher learning, all of which have an enrollment of less than 2,000. The College of Santa Fe is a private college offering associate and baccalaureate degrees; it is particularly known for its programs in the performing, visual, moving image, and creative writing arts, and also has strong programs in the humanities, education, business, conservation science, and social science. St. John's College, which has a campus in Annapolis, Maryland as well as in Santa Fe, offers baccalaureate and advanced degrees. St. John's is distinctive for its "great books" curriculum; learning is based upon the study of books and no textbooks are used. The Institute of American Indian Arts, a fine arts college, offers associate and baccalaureate degrees in creative writing, studio arts, visual communications, and museum studies. Southwestern College, devoted to the study of mental health, offers master's degrees in counseling, counseling with a concentration in grief and loss, and art therapy. Southwest Acupuncture College offers a Master of Science in Oriental Medicine. Santa Fe Community College serves area residents with two-year college preparatory and technical and vocational curricula.
Libraries and Research Centers
The Santa Fe Public Library operates two branches in addition to its main facility downtown. Holdings include nearly 300,000 volumes, as well as periodical subscriptions, records, films, maps, and special collections on the Southwest and New Mexico. The New Mexico State Library, with more than 300,000 volumes and 700 periodical subscriptions, is a federal and state documents depository. Research libraries located in Santa Fe house special collections pertaining to such diverse topics as Southwestern culture, comparative religion, and Sherlock Holmes; other libraries are affiliated with local colleges and government agencies. The Santa Fe Institute conducts research activities in the physical, biological, computational, and social sciences, in areas such as cognitive neuroscience, computation in physical and biological systems, economic and social interactions, evolutionary dynamics, network dynamics, and robustness. The National Center for Genome Resources examines the influence of genetic variability on infectious disease progression.
Public Library Information: Santa Fe Public Library, 145 Washington Avenue, Santa Fe, NM 87501; telephone (505)955-6780; fax (505)955-6676
SANTA FE , the first and one of the most important provinces in *Argentina, opened for the agricultural settlement of immigrants; capital city of the province.
Jewish population above five years of age, according to the 1960 census, was 14,152 out of a total of 1,865,537. In 2005 it was estimated by the Va'ad ha-Kehilot (see *Argentina) at 2,400 families. Jewish agricultural settlement started in Santa Fe province around the towns of Vieja Monigotes and Moisésville in 1888 and 1889, respectively. Land owned in Santa Fe by the Jewish Colonization Association (ica) included more than 147,000 hectares, mainly concentrated in Moisésville and the Montefiore colony near Ceres. Today the remaining Jewish settlers in Santa Fe deal more in cattle than in agriculture.
The disintegration of agricultural settlements brought about the creation of Jewish communities in many towns and villages in the province. A survey conducted in 1943 by ica found 21,833 Jews in the province, of whom only 2,956 lived on the agricultural settlements; 17,422 lived in 11 cities and towns; and another 1,455 lived in 112 villages and hamlets. In the following years, because of increased migration from rural to urban areas, there was a sharp decline in the number of areas with Jewish population, as well as in the number of Jews in the rural areas generally. In 1964, 12 cities and towns had organized Jewish communities affiliated with the Va'ad ha-Kehillot, the principal ones being *Rosario (in 2005 with some 1,600 families), Rafaela, Moisésville, Ceres, Palacios, San Cristóbal, and the capital city, Santa Fe.
The first Jews to reach the city of Santa Fe were immigrants who arrived from Eastern Europe and Morocco in 1888–89. The first communal organization was the Sociedad Israelita Latina del Cementerio, established by Moroccan Jews in 1895. The Ashkenazi Sociedad Unión Israelita de Socorros was founded in 1906. In 1909 there were 547 Jews in the city, most of whom were small businessmen and laborers. By 1943 the Jewish community had increased to an estimated 4,000, of whom 3,600 were Ashkenazim and the rest Sephardim from Morocco, Turkey, and Syria. At that time the Ashkenazim maintained their own ḥevra kaddisha which constituted the central communal institution, and over whose control a conflict ensued between the Zionist Sociedad Unión Israelita Sionista and the "progressive" (pro-Communist) Sociedad Cultural I.L. Peretz. Both groups, however, were subsidized by the ḥevra kaddisha, conducted separate cultural activities, and maintained their own schools. In later years, the ḥevra kaddisha became the Comunidad Israelita, with a membership of 742 families in 1969 that declined to 600 in 2005. In June 2005 the Comunidad Israelita, within the framework of the commemoration of its centenary, inaugurated a Jewish museum – Museo Judío de Santa Fe "Hinenu." The community life of the Sephardim continued to center on the common cemetery. Despite the fact that the Sephardim had formed separate synagogues according to countries of origin, in the 1950s, they established a common congregation, Sociedad Hebrea Sefaradí de Socorros Mutuos.
In addition to several welfare and women's organizations, three important financial bodies were established in Santa Fe: two credit cooperatives and a commercial cooperative founded by peddlers. In 1970 the Jewish institutions in Santa Fe comprised two Ashkenazi synagogues – one of them Conservative, one Sephardi synagogue, a shoḥet, a mikveh, the Club Israelita Macabi, and three Jewish credit institutions. The Ḥ.N. Bialik Jewish kindergarten and day school had in the 1970s an enrollment of 144 pupils. In the early 21st century there was also a Zionist youth movement, Macabi Ẓa'ir, connected with He-Ḥalutz la-Merḥav. The city's branch of *daia is the umbrella organization for all groups except the pro-Communists.
[Daniel Benito Rubinstein Novick]
SANTA FE, capital city of New Mexico, population 62,203 (U.S. Census, 2000). Ancestors of Pueblo Indians inhabited the northern central region of New Mexico, where Santa Fe is located, as early as the eleventh century. Juan de Onate led Spanish colonists to settle the region in 1598, and in 1609 Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe. The city has a rich political, military, and cultural heritage as the seat of government, the site of armed struggle and political conflict, and the source of artistic production.
Pueblo Indians built the Palace of Governors, which is considered the oldest public building in the United States. The harsh treatment of the Native Americans led to the Great Pueblo Revolt of 1680, resulting in the siege of Santa Fe, and the expulsion of the colonial settlers from the region. Diego de Vargas recaptured the capital in 1692.
The region experienced an economic boom in the 1820s, with the opening of the Santa Fe Trail. The Army of the West entered the capital in 1846, and it was declared a U.S. territory. The territorial period is marked by economic growth with the advent of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad in 1880. New Mexico state-hood was granted in 1912, with Santa Fe as the capital city.
Writers Harvey and Erna Ferguson were among the first locals to extol New Mexico's "exotic" natural and cultural environment. Other early writers and artists who resettled in the area included Alice Corbin, Mabel Dodge Luhan, John Sloan, Witter Brynner, and Mary Austin, who founded the Santa Fe writer's colony. The Georgia O'Keefe Museum in Santa Fe holds a collection of her paintings inspired by the region's landscape. Santa Fe's unique combination of indigenous, colonial, and territorial cultures attracts one to two million visitors each year.
Kessell, John. Spain in the Southwest: A Narrative History of Colonial New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.
Wilson, Chris. The Myth of Santa Fe: Creating a Modern Regional Tradition. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.
See also vol. 9:Glimpse of New Mexico .
Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest capital city in the United States. Situated in the north-central part of New Mexico, it was founded by the Spaniards in 1609–1610 as an outpost for their exploration and missionary activities in the Southwest. The original name given by the colonists was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe, which means the Royal City of the Holy Faith. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, Santa Fe had been home to the Pueblo Indians, who were subjugated and converted to Christianity by the Spanish conquistadors. In a 1680 rebellion the Pueblo Indians reclaimed the city and occupied it again for the next twelve years, restoring native culture to the region. In 1692 the Spanish recaptured New Mexico and reestablished colonial rule. When Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, New Mexico became a province of the new country. Santa Fe flourished as a center for trade between the United States and Mexico. It prompted the establishment of a commercial route, the Santa Fe Trail, which ran from western Missouri, across the Plains, and along the Arkansas River to the Rocky Mountains, where the road turned south into Santa Fe. The wagon road was heavily used until 1880 when the railroad was completed, but the trains went through Albuquerque, not Santa Fe. By that time New Mexico had become a U.S. territory (1850). Santa Fe has remained New Mexico's capital city, although Albuquerque has far surpassed it as a commercial center.
See also: New Mexico, Pueblo Indians, Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe (city, United States)
Santa Fe (săn´tə fā), city (1990 pop. 55,859), alt. c.7,000 ft (2,130 m), state capital and seat of Santa Fe co., N N.Mex., at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mts. It is an administrative, tourist, resort, and cultural center and a shipping point for farm products and Native American wares. There is printing and publishing, food processing, and the manufacture of furniture, machinery, clothing and textiles, and building materials.
Founded c.1609 by the Spanish on the site of prehistoric Native American ruins, it became a center of Spanish trade with local ethnic groups. A seat of government since its founding, it is the oldest capital city in the United States. In the Pueblo revolt of 1680, the Spanish colonists were driven out; in 1692 they returned under Diego de Vargas. Shortly after Mexico gained independence from Spain (1821), extensive commerce with the United States developed by way of the Santa Fe Trail. In 1846, the region became a U.S. territory. The railroad reached Lamy (the station for Santa Fe, 16 mi/26 km distant) in 1879.
The seat of an archbishopric since 1875, the city, with its many churches, is a Roman Catholic center. Points of interest are the Palace of the Governors (c.1610), which houses a state museum; the Laboratory of Anthropology, with a museum of Spanish colonial art; museums of international folk art, Navajo ceremonial art, and contemporary Native American art; an exhibition hall for contemporary art; and a museum devoted to the artist Georgia O'Keeffe. There are artists' and writers' colonies and many art galleries, the Santa Fe Opera in the summer, the restored Lensic Theater, St. John's College, the College of Santa Fe, a Native American school, and a state school for the deaf. The city is the headquarters for the Santa Fe National Forest and regional headquarters for the National Park Service.
Santa Fe: Population Profile
Santa Fe: Population Profile
Metropolitan Area Residents
Percent change, 1990–2000: 26.1%
U.S. rank in 1980: Not reported
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 205th (MSA)
2003 estimate: 66,476
Percent change, 1990–2000: 8.0%
U.S. rank in 1980: 431st
U.S. rank in 1990: 428th (State rank: 3rd)
U.S. rank in 2000: 508th (State rank: 3rd)
Density: 1,666.1 people per square mile (2000)
Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)
Black or African American: 409
American Indian and Alaska Native: 1,373
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 49
Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 29,744
Percent of residents born in state: 44.8% (2000)
Age characteristics (2000)
Population under 5 years old: 3,348
Population 5 to 9 years old: 3,374
Population 10 to 14 years old: 3,565
Population 15 to 19 years old: 3,925
Population 20 to 24 years old: 3,910
Population 25 to 34 years old: 8,497
Population 35 to 44 years old: 9,512
Population 45 to 54 years old: 10,741
Population 55 to 59 years old: 3,821
Population 60 to 64 years old: 2,862
Population 65 to 74 years old: 4,542
Population 75 to 84 years old: 2,959
Population 85 years and older: 1,147
Median age: 39.8 years
Total number: 1,662
Total number: 792
Money income (1999)
Per capita income: $25,454
Median household income: $40,392
Total households: 27,493
Number of households with income of . . .
less than $10,000: 2,606
$10,000 to $14,999: 1,615
$15,000 to $24,999: 3,672
$25,000 to $34,999: 3,793
$35,000 to $49,999: 4,615
$50,000 to $74,999: 5,123
$75,000 to $99,999: 2,839
$100,000 to $149,999: 1,787
$150,000 to $199,999: 708
$200,000 or more: 735
Percent of families below poverty level: 9.5% (22.2% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 4,929