Skip to main content
Select Source:

Jewish Colonization Association

JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION

Philanthropic organization (also known as the ICA and the PICA, or Palestine Jewish Colonization Association) founded in 1891.

Baron Maurice de Hirsch founded the ICA to assist Jews in Europe and Asia to flee persecution and go to countries in the Western Hemisphere. He initially endowed it with $10 million as a joint stock company, and the amount was eventually increased fourfold. The ICA assisted Jews by establishing agricultural settlements; most of these were in Argentina but there were also some in Brazil. It also helped Jewish farmers in Canada and the United States and provided assistance to Jews who were still living in Russia and the newly created states of Eastern Europe after World War I. In Palestine, the ICA took over the support and consolidation of colonies Baron Edmond de Rothschild had created.

Since Israeli statehood, the ICA has helped support settlements as well as research and training in agriculture. It also works with the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society and the Joint Distribution Committee in providing relief aid.

see also joint distribution committee.

Bibliography


Winsberg, Morton D. Colonia Baron Hirsch: A Jewish Agricultural Colony in Argentina. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964.

bryan daves

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Jewish Colonization Association." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Jewish Colonization Association." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jewish-colonization-association

"Jewish Colonization Association." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jewish-colonization-association

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ica

Ica (ē´kä), city (1993 pop. 108,724), capital of Ica region, SW Peru, on the Pan-American Highway. It is a commercial center for the cotton, wool, and wine produced in the region. There are several summer resorts nearby. Ica is also the archaeological name of the Chincha empire of ancient Peru, which had one of its major centers in the adjacent valley. The empire fell to the Inca in the 15th cent. The Spanish settled the city in 1563. In Ica is the shrine of Our Lord of Luren, the site of colorful pilgrimages. The city has been devastated by earthquakes several times, most recently in 2007. It has a museum and a university.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ica." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ica." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica-0

"Ica." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Içá

Içá, river, Brazil: see Putumayo.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Içá." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Içá." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica

"Içá." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

ICA

ICA ignition control additive (for motor vehicles)
• Industrial Caterers' Association
• Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales
• Institute of Contemporary Arts
• Med. internal carotid artery
• International Cartographic Association
• International Chefs' Association
• International Coffee Agreement
• International Colour Authority
• International Commercial Arbitration
• International Commission on Acoustics
• International Commodity Agreement
International Cooperation Administration
• International Cooperative Alliance
• International Council on Archives
• International Court of Arbitration
• International Cyclist Association
• invalid care allowance

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ICA." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ICA." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ica

"ICA." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ica

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ica

Ica

Ica, central coastal Peruvian department and city. Located approximately 170 miles southeast of the capital of Lima, the department has a surface area of 8,205 square miles and a population of 695,489 (2005 census). The city of Ica has over 200,000 residents (2005). The Ica River, flowing into the Pacific from January to April, when rainfall is sufficient on the upper western slopes of the Andes, provides water for irrigation of fertile coastal fields. The valley is extremely dry, with less than one-half inch of rainfall yearly. In the winter (May through August) there are dense mists (garúa). Cacti will grow on slopes above 2,300 feet, but it is only by irrigation that the coastal desert bears crops.

Under the Incas, numerous agricultural crops were cultivated in the region, and various marine resources were exploited. With European contact following the 1530s, the native population fell sharply, by over 90 percent, the consequence of disease, the breakdown of hydraulic systems, exploitation, and the introduction of Old World crops and animals that changed the ecological balance. Wheat and vegetables were grown and transported to the Lima market. Grapes were quickly introduced, as the soil and climate seemed perfect for viticulture. By the 1590s wine and subsequently brandy (Pisco) supplied growing urban markets in Lima and highland mining centers. In the sixteenth century, African slaves were imported to replace the declining number of indigenous iqueños and mitayos (transplanted Andeans), and by the mid-nineteenth century Chinese workers or coolies came to play an important role in the local labor market. During the twentieth century, cotton replaced grapes as the primary agricultural commodity, although Pisco is still a prized commodity in Lima. Ica continues to be a major supplier of fresh vegetables to the capital.

See alsoAlcoholic Beverages; Pisco.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alberto Rossel Castro, Historia regional de Ica (1964).

Eugene A. Hammel, Power in Ica: The Structural History of a Peruvian Community (1969).

Robert G. Keith, Conquest and Agrarian Change: The Emergence of the Hacienda System on the Peruvian Coast (1976).

Additional Bibliography

Angeles Caballero, César A. Peruanidad del pisco. 4th ed. Lima: Banco Latino, 1995.

Menzel, Dorothy. Pottery Style and Society in Ancient Peru: Art as a Mirror of History in the Ica Valley, 1350–1570. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Schreiber, Katharina Jeanne, and Josue Lancho Rojas. Irrigation and Society in the Peruvian Desert: The Puquios of Nasca. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003.

                                       Noble David Cook

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ica." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ica." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica

"Ica." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ica

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.