Cymru, the nation; Cymry, the people; Cymraeg, the language
Identification. The Britons, a Celtic tribe, who first settled in the area that is now Wales, had already begun to identify themselves as a distinct culture by the sixth century c.e. The word "Cymry," referring to the country, first appeared in a poem dating from 633. By 700 c.e., the Britons referred to themselves as Cymry, the country as Cymru, and the language as Cymraeg. The words "Wales" and "Welsh" are Saxon in origin and were used by the invading Germanic tribe to denote people who spoke a different language. The Welsh sense of identity has endured despite invasions, absorption into Great Britain, mass immigration, and, more recently, the arrival of non-Welsh residents.
Language has played a significant role in contributing to the sense of unity felt by the Welsh; more than the other Celtic languages, Welsh has maintained a significant number of speakers. During the eighteenth century a literary and cultural rebirth of the language occurred which further helped to solidify national identity and create ethnic pride among the Welsh. Central to Welsh culture is the centuries-old folk tradition of poetry and music which has helped keep the Welsh language alive. Welsh intellectuals in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries wrote extensively on the subject of Welsh culture, promoting the language as the key to preserving national identity. Welsh literature, poetry, and music flourished in the nineteenth century as literacy rates and the availability of printed material increased. Tales that had traditionally been handed down orally were recorded, both in Welsh and English, and a new generation of Welsh writers emerged.
Location and Geography. Wales is a part of the United Kingdom and is located in a wide peninsula in the western portion of the island of Great Britain. The island of Anglesey is also considered a part of Wales and is separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. Wales is surrounded by water on three sides: to the north, the Irish Sea; to the south, the Bristol Channel; and to the west, Saint George's Channel and Cardigan Bay. The English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucestershire border Wales on the east. Wales covers an area of 8,020 square miles (20,760 square kilometers) and extends 137 miles (220 kilometers) from its most distant points and varies between 36 and 96 miles (58 and 154 kilometers) in width. The capital, Cardiff, is located in the southeast on the Severn Estuary and is also the most important seaport and shipbuilding center. Wales is very mountainous and has a rocky, irregular coastline with numerous bays, the largest of which is Cardigan Bay to the west. The Cambrian Mountains, the most significant range, run north-south through central Wales. Other mountain ranges include the Brecon Beacons to the southeast and Snowdon in the northwest, which reaches an elevation of 3,560 feet (1,085 meters) and is the highest mountain in Wales and England. The Dee River, with its headwaters in Bala Lake, the largest natural lake in Wales, flows through northern Wales into England. Numerous smaller rivers cover the south, including the Usk, Wye, Teifi, and Towy.
The temperate climate, mild and moist, has ensured the development of an abundance of plant and animal life. Ferns, mosses, and grasslands as well as numerous wooded areas cover Wales. Oak, mountain ash, and coniferous trees are found in mountainous regions under 1,000 feet (300 meters). The pine marten, a small animal similar to a mink, and the polecat, a member of the weasel family, are found only in Wales and nowhere else in Great Britain.
Demography. The latest surveys place the population of Wales at 2,921,000 with a density of approximately 364 people per square mile (141 per square kilometers). Almost three-quarters of the Welsh population reside in the mining centers of the south. The popularity of Wales as a vacation destination and weekend retreat, especially near the border with England, has created a new, nonpermanent population.
Linguistic Affiliation. There are approximately 500,000 Welsh speakers today and, due to a renewed interest in the language and culture, this number may increase. Most people in Wales, however, are English-speaking, with Welsh as a second language; in the north and west, many people are Welsh and English bilinguals. English is still the main language of everyday use with both Welsh and English appearing on signs. In some areas, Welsh is used exclusively and the number of Welsh publications is increasing.
Welsh, or Cymraeg, is a Celtic language belonging to the Brythonic group consisting of Breton, Welsh, and the extinct Cornish. Western Celtic tribes first settled in the area during the Iron Age, bringing with them their language which survived both Roman and Anglo-Saxon occupation and influence, although some features of Latin were introduced into the language and have survived in modern Welsh. Welsh epic poetry can be traced back to the sixth century c.e. and represents one of the oldest literary traditions in Europe. The poems of Taliesin and Aneirin dating from the late seventh century c.e. reflect a literary and cultural awareness from an early point in Welsh history. Although there were many factors affecting the Welsh language, especially contact with other language groups, the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries marked a dramatic decline in the number of Welsh speakers, as many non-Welsh people, attracted by the industry that had developed around coal mining in the south and east, moved into the area. At the same time, many Welsh people from rural areas left to find work in London or abroad. This large-scale migration of non-Welsh-speaking workers greatly accelerated the disappearance of Welsh-speaking communities. Even though there were still around forty Welsh-language publications in the mid-nineteenth century, the regular use of Welsh by the majority of the population began to drop. Over time two linguistic groups emerged in Wales; the Welsh-speaking region known as the Y Fro Cymraeg to the north and west, where more than 80 percent of the population speaks Welsh, and the Anglo-Welsh area to the south and east where the number of Welsh speakers is below 10 percent and English is the majority language. Up until 1900, however, almost half the population still spoke Welsh.
In 1967 the Welsh Language Act was passed, recognizing the status of Welsh as an official language. In 1988 the Welsh Language Board was established, helping to ensure the rebirth of Welsh. Throughout Wales there was a serious effort in the second half of the twentieth century to maintain and promote the language. Other efforts to support the language included Welsh-language television programs, bilingual Welsh-English schools, as well as exclusively Welsh-language nursery schools, and Welsh language courses for adults.
Symbolism. The symbol of Wales, which also appears on the flag, is a red dragon. Supposedly brought to the colony of Britain by the Romans, the dragon was a popular symbol in the ancient world and was used by the Romans, the Saxons, and the Parthians. It became the national symbol of Wales when Henry VII, who became king in 1485 and had used it as his battle flag during the battle of Bosworth Field, decreed that the red dragon should become the official flag of Wales. The leek and the daffodil are also important Welsh symbols. One legend connects the leek to Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, who defeated the pagan Saxons in a victorious battle that supposedly occurred in a field of leeks. It is more likely that leeks were adopted as a national symbol because of their importance to the Welsh diet, particularly during Lent when meat was not allowed. Another, less famous Welsh symbol consists of three ostrich plumes and the motto "Ich Dien" (translation: "I serve") from the Battle of Crecy, France, in 1346. It was probably borrowed from the motto of the King of Bohemia, who led the cavalry charge against the English.
History and Ethnic Relations
Emergence of the Nation. The earliest evidence of a human presence in Wales dates from the Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, period almost 200,000 years ago. It was not until the Neolithic and Bronze Age period around 3,000 b.c.e., however, that a sedentary civilization began to develop. The first tribes to settle in Wales, who probably came from the western coastal areas of the Mediterranean, were people generally referred to as the Iberians. Later migrations from northern and eastern Europe brought the Brythonic Celts and Nordic tribes to the area. At the time of the Roman invasion in 55 b.c.e., the area was made up of the Iberian and Celtic tribes who referred to themselves as Cymry. The Cymry tribes were eventually subjugated by the Romans in the first century c.e. Anglo-Saxon tribes also settled in Britain during this period, pushing other Celtic tribes into the Welsh mountains where they eventually united with the Cymry already living there. In the first centuries c.e., Wales was divided into tribal kingdoms, the most important of which were Gwynedd, Gwent, Dyved, and Powys. All of the Welsh kingdoms later united against the Anglo-Saxon invaders, marking the beginning of an official division between England and Wales. This boundary became official with the construction of Offa's Dyke around the middle of the eighth century c.e. Offa's Dyke was at first a ditch constructed by Offa, the king of Mercia, in an attempt to give his territories a well-defined border to the west. The Dyke was later enlarged and fortified, becoming one of the largest human-made boundaries in Europe and covering 150 miles from the northeast coast to the southeast coast of Wales. It remains to this day the line that divides English and Welsh cultures.
When William the Conqueror (William I) and his Norman army conquered England in 1066, the three English earldoms of Chester, Shrewsbury, and Hereford were established on the border with Wales. These areas were used as strong points in attacks against the Welsh and as strategic political centers. Nevertheless, the only Welsh kingdom to fall under Norman control during the reign of William I (1066–1087) was Gwent, in the southeast. By 1100 the Norman lords had expanded their control to include the Welsh areas of Cardigan, Pembroke, Brecon, and Glamorgan. This expansion into Welsh territory led to the establishment of the March of Wales, an area previously ruled by the Welsh kings.
The Welsh continued to fight Norman and Anglo-Saxon control in the first part of the twelfth century. By the last half of the twelfth century the three Welsh kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth were firmly established, providing a permanent base for Welsh statehood. The principal settlements of Aberffraw in Gwynedd, Mathrafal in Powys, and Dinefwr in Deheubarth formed the core of Welsh political and cultural life. Although the Welsh kings were allies, each ruled separate territories swearing loyalty to the king of England. The establishment of the kingdoms marked the beginning of a period of stability and growth. Agriculture flourished, as did scholarship and the Welsh literary tradition. A period of unrest and contested succession followed the deaths of the three Welsh kings as different factions fought for control. The stability provided by the first kings was never restored in Powys and Deheubarth. The kingdom of Gwynedd was successfully united once again under the reign of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (d. 1240) following a brief power struggle. Viewing Llywelyn as a threat, King John (1167–1216) led a campaign against him which led to Llywelyn's humiliating defeat in 1211. Llywelyn, however, turned this to his advantage and secured the allegiance of other Welsh leaders who feared total subjugation under King John. Llywelyn became the leader of the Welsh forces and, although conflict with King John continued, he successfully united the Welsh politically and eventually minimized the king of England's involvement in Welsh affairs. Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth's son and heir, attempted to broaden Welsh power before his premature death in 1246. With Dafydd leaving no heirs, succession to the Welsh throne was contested by Dafydd's nephews and in a series of battles between 1255 and 1258 Llwelyn ap Gruffydd (d. 1282), one of the nephews, assumed control of the Welsh throne, crowning himself Prince of Wales. Henry III officially recognized his authority over Wales in 1267 with the Treaty of Montgomery and in turn Llwelyn swore allegiance to the English crown.
Llwelyn succeeded in firmly establishing the Principality of Wales, which consisted of the twelfth century kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth as well as some parts of the March. This period of peace, however, did not last long. Conflict arose between Edward I, who succeeded Henry III, and Llwelyn, culminating in an English invasion of Wales in 1276, followed by war. Llwelyn was forced into a humiliating surrender that included relinquishing control over the eastern part of his territory and an acknowledgment of fealty paid to Edward I annually. In 1282 Llwelyn, aided this time by the Welsh nobility of other regions, rebelled against Edward I only to be killed in combat. The Welsh forces continued to fight but finally capitulated to Edward I in the summer of 1283, marking the beginning of a period of occupation by the English.
Although the Welsh were forced to surrender, the struggle for unity and independence over the previous one hundred years had been crucial in shaping Welsh politics and identity. During the fourteenth century economic and social difficulties prevailed in Wales. Edward I embarked on a program of castle building, both for defensive purposes and to shelter English colonists, which was continued by his heir Edward II. The result of his efforts can still be seen in Wales today, which has more castles per square mile than any other area of Europe.
At the end of the 1300s Henry IV seized the throne from Richard II, provoking a revolt in Wales where support for Richard II was strong. Under the leadership of Owain Glyndwr, Wales united to rebel against the English king. From 1400 to 1407 Wales once again asserted its independence from England. England did not regain control of Wales again until 1416 and the death of Glyndwr, marking the last Welsh uprising. The Welsh submitted to Henry VII (1457–1509), the first king of the house of Tudor, whom they regarded as a countryman. In 1536 Henry VIII declared the Act of Union, incorporating Wales into the English realm. For the first time in its history Wales obtained uniformity in the administration of law and justice, the same political rights as the English, and English common law in the courts. Wales also secured parliamentary representation. Welsh landowners exercised their authority locally, in the name of the king, who granted them their land and property. Wales, although no longer an independent nation, had finally obtained unity, stability, and, most importantly, statehood and recognition as a distinct culture.
National Identity. The different ethnic groups and tribes that settled in ancient Wales gradually merged, politically and culturally, to defend their territory from first, the Romans, and later the Anglo-Saxon and Norman invaders. The sense of national identity was formed over centuries as the people of Wales struggled against being absorbed into neighboring cultures. The heritage of a common Celtic origin was a key factor in shaping Welsh identity and uniting the warring kingdoms. Cut off from other Celtic cultures to the north in Britain and in Ireland, the Welsh tribes united against their non-Celtic enemies. The development and continued use of the Welsh language also played important roles in maintaining and strengthening the national identity. The tradition of handing down poetry and stories orally and the importance of music in daily life were essential to the culture's survival. With the arrival of book publishing and an increase in literacy, the Welsh language and culture were able to continue to flourish, through the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century, despite dramatic industrial and social changes in Great Britain. A revival of Welsh nationalism in the second half of the twentieth century once again brought to the forefront the concept of a unique Welsh identity.
Ethnic Relations. With the Act of Union, Wales gained peaceful relations with the English while maintaining their ethnic identity. Until the late eighteenth century Wales was predominantly rural with most of the population living in or near small farming villages; contact with other ethnic groups was minimal. The Welsh gentry, on the other hand, mixed socially and politically with the English and Scottish gentry, producing a very Anglicized upper class. The industry that grew up around coal mining and steel manufacturing attracted immigrants, principally from Ireland and England, to Wales starting in the late eighteenth century. Poor living and working conditions, combined with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants, caused social unrest and frequently led to conflicts—often violent in nature—among different ethnic groups. The decline of heavy industry in the late nineteenth century, however, caused an outward migration of Welsh and the country ceased to attract immigrants. The end of the twentieth century brought renewed industrialization and with it, once again, immigrants from all over the world, although without notable conflicts. The increased standard of living throughout Great Britain has also made Wales a popular vacation and weekend retreat, principally for people from large urban areas in England. This trend is causing significant tension, especially in Welsh-speaking and rural areas, among residents who feel that their way of life is being threatened.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space
The development of Welsh cities and towns did not begin until industrialization in the late 1700s. Rural areas are characterized by a scattering of isolated farms, typically consisting of the older, traditional whitewashed or stone buildings, usually with slate roofs. Villages evolved from the early settlements of the Celtic tribes who chose particular locations for their agricultural or defensive value. More successful settlements grew and became the political and economic centers, first of the kingdoms, then later the individual regions, in Wales. The Anglo-Norman manorial tradition of buildings clustered on a landowner's property, similar to rural villages in England, was introduced to Wales after the conquest of 1282. The village as a center of rural society, however, became significant only in southern and eastern Wales; other rural areas maintained scattered and more isolated building patterns. Timber-framed houses, originally constructed around a great hall, emerged in the Middle Ages in the north and east, and later throughout Wales. In the late sixteenth century, houses began to vary more in size and refinement, reflecting the growth of a middle class and increasing disparities in wealth. In Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, landowners built brick houses that reflected the vernacular style popular in England at the time as well as their social status. This imitation of English architecture set landowners apart from the rest of Welsh society. After the Norman conquest, urban development began to grow around castles and military camps. The bastide, or castle town, although not large, is still significant to political and administrative life. Industrialization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries caused an explosion of urban growth in the southeast and in Cardiff. Housing shortages were common and several families, often unrelated, shared dwellings. Economic affluence and a population increase created a demand for new construction in the late twentieth century. Slightly over 70 percent of homes in Wales are owner-occupied.
Food and Economy
Food in Daily Life. The importance of agriculture to the Welsh economy as well as the availability of local products has created high food standards and a national diet that is based on fresh, natural food. In coastal areas fishing and seafood are important to both the economy and the local cuisine. The type of food available in Wales is similar to that found in the rest of the United Kingdom and includes a variety of food from other cultures and nations.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Special traditional Welsh dishes include laverbread, a seaweed dish; cawl, a rich broth; bara brith, a traditional cake; and pice ar y maen, Welsh cakes. Traditional dishes are served at special occasions and holidays. Local markets and fairs usually offer regional products and baked goods. Wales is particularly known for its cheeses and meats. Welsh rabbit, also called Welsh rarebit, a dish of melted cheese mixed with ale, beer, milk, and spices served over toast, has been popular since the early eighteenth century.
Basic Economy. Mining, especially of coal, has been the chief economic activity of Wales since the seventeenth century and is still very important to the economy and one of the leading sources of employment. The largest coalfields are in the southeast and today produce about 10 percent of Great Britain's total coal production. Iron, steel, limestone, and slate production are also important industries. Although heavy industry has played a significant role in the Welsh economy and greatly affected Welsh society in the nineteenth century, the country remains largely agricultural with almost 80 percent of the land used for agricultural activities. The raising of livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is more important than crop farming. The principal crops are barley, oats, potatoes, and hay. Fishing, centered on the Bristol Channel, is another important commercial activity. The economy is integrated with the rest of Great Britain and as such Wales is no longer exclusively dependent on its own production. Although agriculture accounts for much of the economy, only a small segment of the total population actually works in this area and agricultural output is largely destined for sale. Many foreign companies that produce consumer goods, particularly Japanese firms, have opened factories and offices in Wales in recent years, providing employment and encouraging economic growth.
Land Tenure and Property. In ancient Wales land was informally controlled by tribes who fiercely protected their territory. With the rise of the Welsh kingdoms, land ownership was controlled by the kings who granted their subjects tenure. Because of the scattered and relatively small population of Wales, however, most people lived on isolated farms or in small villages. After the Act of Union with England, the king granted land to the nobility and later, with the rise of a middle class, the Welsh gentry had the economic power to purchase small tracts of land. Most Welsh people were peasant farmers who either worked the land for landowners or were tenant farmers, renting small patches of land. The advent of the industrial revolution caused a radical change in the economy and farmworkers left the countryside in large numbers to seek work in urban areas and coal mines. Industrial workers rented living quarters or, sometimes, were provided with factory housing.
Today, land ownership is more evenly distributed throughout the population although there are still large privately owned tracts of land. A new awareness of environmental issues has led to the creation of national parks and protected wildlife zones. The Welsh Forestry Commission has acquired land formerly used for pasture and farming and initiated a program of reforestation.
Major Industries. Heavy industry, such as mining and other activities associated with the port of Cardiff, once the busiest industrial port in the world, declined in the last part of the twentieth century. The Welsh Office and Welsh Development Agency have worked to attract multinational companies to Wales in an effort to restructure the nation's economy. Unemployment, higher on average in the rest of the United Kingdom, is still a concern. Industrial growth in the late twentieth century was concentrated mostly in the area of science and technology. The Royal Mint was relocated to Llantrisant, Wales in 1968, helping create a banking and financial services industry. Manufacturing is still the largest Welsh industry, with financial services in second place, followed by education, health and social services, and wholesale and retail trade. Mining accounts for only 1 percent of the gross domestic product.
Trade. Integrated with the economy of the United Kingdom, Wales has important trade relations with other regions in Britain and with Europe. Agricultural products, electronic equipment, synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, and automotive parts are the principal exports. The most important heavy industry is the refining of imported metal ore to produce tin and aluminum sheets.
Government. The Principality of Wales is governed from Whitehall in London, the name of the administrative and political seat of the British government. Increasing pressure from Welsh leaders for more autonomy brought devolution of administration in May 1999, meaning that more political power has been given to the Welsh Office in Cardiff. The position of secretary of state for Wales, a part of the British prime minister's cabinet, was created in 1964. In a 1979 referendum a proposal for the creation of a nonlegislating Welsh Assembly was rejected but in 1997 another referendum passed by a slim margin, leading to the 1998 creation of the National Assembly for Wales. The assembly has sixty members and is responsible for setting policy and creating legislation in areas regarding education, health, agriculture, transportation, and social services. A general reorganization of government throughout the United Kingdom in 1974 included a simplification of Welsh administration with smaller districts regrouped to form larger constituencies for economic and political reasons. Wales was reorganized into eight new counties, from thirteen originally, and within the counties thirty-seven new districts were created.
Leadership and Political Officials. Wales has always had strong left wing and radical political parties and leaders. There is also a strong political awareness throughout Wales and voter turnout at elections is higher on average than in the United Kingdom as a whole. In most of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the Liberal Party dominated Welsh politics with the industrial regions supporting the Socialists. In 1925 the Welsh Nationalist Party, known as Plaid Cymru, was founded with the intention of gaining independence for Wales as a region within the European Economic Community. Between World Wars I and II severe economic depression caused almost 430,000 Welsh to immigrate and a new political activism was born with an emphasis on social and economic reform. After World War II the Labor Party gained a majority of support. During the late 1960s Plaid Cymru and the Conservative Party won seats in parliamentary elections, weakening the Labor Party's traditional dominance of Welsh politics. In the 1970s and 1980s Conservatives gained even more control, a trend that was reversed in the 1990s with the return of Labor dominance and the increased support for Plaid Cymru and Welsh nationalism. The Welsh separatist, nationalist movement also includes more extremist groups who seek the creation of a politically independent nation on the basis of cultural and linguistic differences. The Welsh Language Society is one of the more visible of these groups and has stated its willingness to use civil disobedience to further its goals.
Military Activity. Wales does not have an independent military and its defense falls under the authority of the military of the United Kingdom as a whole. There are, however, three army regiments, the Welsh Guards, the Royal Regiment of Wales, and the Royal Welch Fusiliers, that have historical associations with the country.
Social Welfare and Change Programs
Health and social services fall under the administration and responsibility of the secretary of state for Wales. The Welsh Office, which works with the county and district authorities, plans and executes matters relating to housing, health, education, and welfare. Terrible working and living conditions in the nineteenth century brought significant changes and new policies regarding social welfare that continued to be improved upon throughout the twentieth century. Issues regarding health care, housing, education, and working conditions, combined with a high level of political activism, have created an awareness of and demand for social change programs in Wales.
Gender Roles and Statuses
The Relative Status of Women and Men. Historically, women had few rights, although many worked outside the home, and were expected to fulfill the role of wife, mother, and, in the case of unmarried women, caregiver to an extended family. In agricultural areas women worked alongside male family members. When the Welsh economy began to become more industrialized, many women found work in factories that hired an exclusively female workforce for jobs not requiring physical strength. Women and children worked in mines, putting in fourteen-hour days under extremely harsh conditions. Legislation was passed in the mid-nineteenth century limiting the working hours for women and children but it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that Welsh women began to demand more civil rights. The Women's Institute, which now has chapters throughout the United Kingdom, was founded in Wales, although all of its activities are conducted in English. In the 1960s another organization, similar to the Women's Institute but exclusively Welsh in its goals, was founded. Known as the Merched y Wawr, or Women of the Dawn, it is dedicated to promoting the rights of Welshwomen, the Welsh language and culture, and organizing charitable projects.
Child Rearing and Education. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries children were exploited for labor, sent into mines to work in shafts that were too small for adults. Child and infant mortality rates were high; almost half of all children did not live past the age of five, and only half of those who lived past the age of ten could hope to live to their early twenties. Social reformers and religious organizations, particularly the Methodist Church, advocated for improved public education standards in the mid-nineteenth century. Conditions began to gradually improve for children when working hours were restricted and compulsory education enacted. The Education Act of 1870 passed to enforce basic standards, but also sought to banish Welsh completely from the education system.
Today, primary and nursery schools in areas with a Welsh-speaking majority provide instruction completely in Welsh and schools in areas where English is the first language offer bilingual instruction. The Welsh Language Nursery Schools Movement, Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin Cymraeg, founded in 1971, has been very successful in creating a network of nursery schools, or Ysgolion Meithrin, particularly in regions where English is used more frequently. Nursery, primary, and secondary schools are under the administration of the education authority of the Welsh Office. Low-cost, quality public education is available throughout Wales for students of all ages.
Higher Education. Most institutions of higher learning are publicly supported, but admission is competitive. The Welsh literary tradition, a high literacy rate, and political and religious factors have all contributed to shaping a culture where higher education is considered important. The principal institute of higher learning is the University of Wales, a public university financed by the Universities Funding Council in London, with six locations in Wales: Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff, Lampeter, Swansea, and the Welsh National School of Medicine in Cardiff. The Welsh Office is responsible for the other universities and colleges, including the Polytechnic of Wales, near Pontypridd, and the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth. The Welsh Office, working with the Local Education Authorities and the Welsh Joint Education Committee, oversees all aspects of public education. Adult continuing education courses, particularly those in Welsh language and culture, are strongly promoted through regional programs.
Religious Beliefs. Religion has played a significant role in the shaping Welsh culture. Protestantism, namely Anglicanism, began to gather more support after Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church. On the eve of the English Civil War in 1642, Puritanism, practiced by Oliver Cromwell and his supporters, was widespread in the border counties of Wales and in Pembrokeshire. Welsh royalists, who supported the king and Anglicanism, were stripped of their property, incurring much resentment among non-Puritan Welsh. In 1650 the Act for the Propagation of the Gospel in Wales was passed, taking over both political and religious life. During the period known as the Interregnum when Cromwell was in power, several non-Anglican, or Dissenting, Protestant congregations were formed which were to have significant influences on modern Welsh life. The most religiously and socially radical of these were the Quakers, who had a strong following in Montgomeryshire and Merioneth, and eventually spread their influence to areas including the Anglican border counties and the Welsh-speaking areas in the north and west. The Quakers, intensely disliked by both other Dissenting churches and the Anglican Church, were severely repressed with the result that large numbers were forced to emigrate to the American colonies. Other churches, such as the Baptist and Congregationalist, which were Calvinist in theology, grew and found many followers in rural communities and small towns. In the latter part of the eighteenth century many Welsh converted to Methodism after a revival movement in 1735. Methodism was supported within the established Anglican Church and was originally organized through local societies governed by a central association. The influence of the original Dissenting churches, combined with the spiritual revival of Methodism, gradually led Welsh society away from Anglicanism. Conflicts in leadership and chronic poverty made church growth difficult, but the popularity of Methodism eventually helped establish it permanently as the most widespread denomination. The Methodist and other Dissenting churches were also responsible for an increase in literacy through church-sponsored schools that promoted education as a way of spreading religious doctrine.
Today, followers of Methodism still constitute the largest religious group. The Anglican Church, or the Church of England, is the second largest sect, followed by the Roman Catholic Church. There are also much smaller numbers of Jews and Muslims. The Dissenting Protestant sects, and religion in general, played very important roles in modern Welsh society but the number of people who regularly participated in religious activities dropped significantly after World War II.
Rituals and Holy Places. The Cathedral of Saint David, in Pembrokeshire, is the most significant national holy place. David, the patron saint of Wales, was a religious crusader who arrived in Wales in the sixth century to spread Christianity and convert the Welsh tribes. He died in 589 on 1 March, now celebrated as Saint David's Day, a national holiday. His remains are buried in the cathedral.
Medicine and Health Care
Health care and medicine are government-funded and supported by the National Health Service of the United Kingdom. There is a very high standard of health care in Wales with approximately six medical practitioners per ten thousand people. The Welsh National School of Medicine in Cardiff offers quality medical training and education.
During the nineteenth century, Welsh intellectuals began to promote the national culture and traditions, initiating a revival of Welsh folk culture. Over the last century these celebrations have evolved into major events and Wales now has several internationally important music and literary festivals. The Hay Festival of Literature, from 24 May to 4 June, in the town of Hay-on-Wye, annually attracts thousands, as does the Brecon Jazz Festival from 11 to 13 August. The most important Welsh secular celebration, however, is the Eisteddfod cultural gathering celebrating music, poetry, and storytelling.
The Eisteddfod has its origins in the twelfth century when it was essentially a meeting held by the Welsh bards for the exchange of information. Taking place irregularly and in different locations, the Eisteddfod was attended by poets, musicians and troubadours, all of whom had important roles in medieval Welsh culture. By the eighteenth century the tradition had become less cultural and more social, often degenerating into drunken tavern meetings, but in 1789 the Gwyneddigion Society revived the Eisteddfod as a competitive festival. It was Edward Williams, also known as Iolo Morgannwg, however, who reawakened Welsh interest in the Eisteddfod in the nineteenth century. Williams actively promoted the Eisteddfod among the Welsh community living in London, often giving dramatic speeches about the significance of Welsh culture and the importance of continuing ancient Celtic traditions. The nineteenth century revival of the Eisteddfod and the rise of Welsh nationalism, combined with a romantic image of ancient Welsh history, led to the creation of Welsh ceremonies and rituals that may not have any historical basis.
The Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod, held from 4 to 9 July, and the Royal National Eisteddfod at Llanelli, which features poetry and Welsh folk arts, held from 5 to 12 August, are the two most important secular celebrations. Other smaller, folk and cultural festivals are held throughout the year.
The Arts and Humanities
Support for the Arts. The traditional importance of music and poetry has encouraged a general appreciation of and support for all of the arts. There is strong public support throughout Wales for the arts, which are considered important to the national culture. Financial support is derived from both the private and public sectors. The Welsh Arts Council provides government assistance for literature, art, music, and theater. The council also organizes tours of foreign performance groups in Wales and provides grants to writers for both English- and Welsh-language publications.
Literature. Literature and poetry occupy an important position in Wales for historical and linguistic reasons. Welsh culture was based on an oral tradition of legends, myths, and folktales passed down from generation to generation. The most famous early bardic poets, Taliesin and Aneirin, wrote epic poems about Welsh events and legends around the seventh century. Increasing literacy in the eighteenth century and the concern of Welsh intellectuals for the preservation of the language and culture gave birth to modern written Welsh literature. As industrialization and Anglicization began to threaten traditional Welsh culture, efforts were made to promote the language, preserve Welsh poetry, and encourage Welsh writers. Dylan Thomas, however, the best known twentieth century Welsh poet, wrote in English. Literary festivals and competitions help keep this tradition alive, as does the continued promotion of Welsh, the Celtic language with the largest number of speakers today. Nevertheless, the influence of other cultures combined with the ease of communication through mass media, from both inside the United Kingdom and from other parts of the world, continually undermine efforts to preserve a purely Welsh form of literature.
Performance Arts. Singing is the most important of the performance arts in Wales and has its roots in ancient traditions. Music was both entertainment and a means for telling stories. The Welsh National Opera, supported by the Welsh Arts Council, is one of the leading opera companies in Britain. Wales is famous for its all-male choirs, which have evolved from the religious choral tradition. Traditional instruments, such as the harp, are still widely played and since 1906 the Welsh Folk Song Society has preserved, collected, and published traditional songs. The Welsh Theater Company is critically acclaimed and Wales has produced many internationally famous actors.
The State of Physical and Social Sciences
Until the last part of the twentieth century, limited professional and economic opportunities caused many Welsh scientists, scholars, and researchers to leave Wales. A changing economy and the investment of multinationals specializing in high technology are encouraging more people to remain in Wales and find work in the private sector. Research in the social and physical sciences is also supported by Welsh universities and colleges.
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Davies, William Watkin. Wales, 1925.
Durkaez, Victor E. The Decline of the Celtic Languages: A Study of Linguistic and Cultural Conflict in Scotland, Wales and Ireland from the Reformation to the Twentieth Century, 1983.
English, John. Slum Clearance: The Social and Administrative Context in England and Wales, 1976.
Fevre, Ralph, and Andrew Thompson. Nation, Identity and Social Theory: Perspectives from Wales, 1999.
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Rees, David Ben. Wales: The Cultural Heritage, 1981.
Williams, David. A History of Modern Wales, 1950.
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Williams, Glyn. Social and Cultural Change in Contemporary Wales, 1978.
——. The Land Remembers: A View of Wales, 1977.
U.K. Government. "Culture: Wales." Electronic document. Available from http://uk-pages.net/culture
—M. Cameron Arnold
See Also: United Kingdom
WALESstability and progress
liberalism and the nation
people, language, and gender
In 1845 Frederick Engels commented that the Welsh "retain pertinaciously" their separate nationality. This sense of nationality was often retained against the condescension of the English. The position of Wales in the United Kingdom differed from that of Scotland or Ireland because Wales had been "incorporated" in the English realm in the sixteenth century rather than joined by parliamentary union as Scotland had been in 1707 or as Ireland would be in 1800. Consequently, Wales had few institutional expressions of its identity, and the nineteenth century would see the creation of many of its modern national institutions. Initially, however, this lack of distinctively Welsh institutions created a cultural space for religion, especially Protestant Nonconformity, to thrive and become a powerful marker of national identity. During the nineteenth century the national movement would be primarily concerned with achieving parity with the other nations of Britain, a brief attempt in the 1880s and 1890s to achieve self-government within the United Kingdom notwithstanding. With the expansion of the franchise during the century, most Welsh people developed a sense of citizenship rooted in a dual identity based on their linguistic and religious particularity on the one hand and loyalty to the British state on the other.
At the end of the eighteenth century Wales was a thinly peopled country on the verge of momentous new changes. The majority of the people worked the land on poor upland farms dominated by a tiny aristocratic elite, while towns were small-scale and functioned as hubs of regional markets and cultural life. The impact of industrialization in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was profound. This first phase consisted of mining and the manufacture of metals like copper and iron in some of the biggest industrial concerns in the world. These developments were mainly financed by English capitalists. In the south of the country, small villages like Merthyr Tydfil were transformed into thriving, if socially unstable, urban centers, whereas ports like Swansea experienced more measured growth. The country was affected by the political ferment of the late eighteenth century, with Welshmen like Richard Price and David Williams becoming philosophers of the American and French Revolutions.
In a country with a sparse population, demographic change was striking. Population growth comfortably exceeded 10 percent in every decade during the first half of the nineteenth century, rising to nearly 18 percent in the decade from 1811 to 1821. Much of this growth was experienced in the countryside, where agriculture was unable to absorb the excess and migration to the towns acted as a safety valve. Even so, major agrarian disturbances
|Population of Wales, 1801–1911|
|SOURCE: Data from Census of England and Wales, 1801–1911.|
erupted in southwest Wales in the form of the Rebecca riots (1839–1844). Whereas some historians see this episode as an expression of anger by the small farmers, others interpret it as community revolt with much wider social appeal. At the same time, the Chartist movement took root in other parts of the country. By mid-1839 about one-fifth of the population of south Wales were Chartists. Thousands of armed rebels marched on Newport on 4 November 1839 in what was intended to be the first step in a British rising. At least twenty-two were shot by the waiting soldiers and the rising failed. The movement revived in 1842 and 1848 but never regained the same momentum as in its early days.
The transition from the agrarian and industrial revolt of the 1830s and 1840s to the period of mid-Victorian stability and political quiescence is one of the most striking developments of nineteenth-century Wales. It was a result of the stabilizing effect of the growth of railways, an increasing attachment to political reformism following the failure of Chartism, and the growing influence of the Nonconformist chapels. Public debate in these decades was shaped by religious allegiances. In 1851 a little more than half the population attended a place of worship, over three-quarters of whom did so in a Nonconformist chapel. Religious revivalism—like the trans-Atlantic revival of 1859—swelled the ranks of the denominations in both rural and industrial areas. Together with a popular culture rooted in the ideals of respectability and sobriety, the country was provided with the components for a new sense of national identity. Central to this was an episode known as "the Treachery of the Blue Books." In 1847 government education commissioners published a report that denigrated the morals of the Welsh people as a whole, and more particularly those of women. This inaugurated a campaign to restore the reputation of the Welsh people, conducted from the pulpit, in public meetings and especially in the newspaper and periodical press in both Welsh and English languages. As well as the respectable public face of Wales, however, social tensions occasionally produced conflict, such as with the frequent anti-Irish riots in the towns and the widespread conflicts over poaching in rural areas.
This period of cultural change is epitomized by the re-establishment, from 1858, of the annual National Eisteddfod, a popular cultural festival based on literary and musical competition, which was held in a different part of the country each year. Although drawing heavily on "traditional" culture, it ensured mass appeal because of a combination of the rise in literacy and the expansion of the press in both languages. Such cultural innovations were underpinned by economic change. The coal industry grew rapidly in south Wales in mid-century, as did slate quarrying in the northeast. Whereas in 1851 less than 20 percent of the population lived in settlements of more than five thousand inhabitants, just under 50 percent did so by 1891, and the trend was inexorably in this direction. Between 1850 and 1870 some 2,300 kilometers of railway were built to connect these towns. The creation of a dense railway network linked the different parts of the country in ways previously unthought of and went some way toward unifying the country.
A striking feature of politics after the Reform Act of 1867 was the overwhelming dominance of the Liberal Party, which won a clear majority of Welsh parliamentary seats in every election until 1922. As a result, some historians see this one-party domination as the creation of a national movement, while others portray the Liberal hegemony in terms of the rise of middle-class leadership. The party provided a voice for those outside the establishment,
including industrialists, professionals, farmers, and other members of the middle class. In an attempt to mobilize the people against an Anglicized aristocracy and the established church, the Liberal MP Henry Richard asserted that "the Nonconformists of Wales are the people of Wales." In the 1880s and 1890s the party was a vehicle for ambitious young men like Tom Ellis and David Lloyd George, who combined a radical social agenda with nationalism. Their aim was parity with the other nations of the United Kingdom, rather than separatism, and parliament passed distinctive legislation for Wales for the first time in the 1880s on matters such as temperance and education. In 1893 a federal University of Wales was established, and it rapidly became an influential cultural institution.
Some major issues remained unresolved. Although not as serious as the Irish land question, rural grievances remained intractable. Between 1886 and 1891 a tithe war broke out throughout rural Wales, partly as a consequence of the international agricultural depression. In 1887 only 10.2 percent of the land was owned by the men and women who farmed it, and landlordism remained a powerful force. But between 1910 and 1914 all the major landowners began to sell land, and it was bought overwhelmingly by their tenants; thus on the eve of war, power relations in rural society were changing dramatically. This was a harbinger of a more fundamental social revolution in the countryside after 1918. The cornerstone of Welsh Liberal demands, disestablishment of the Church of England in Wales, remained unresolved until 1919.
A concern with establishing national institutions permeated popular culture, as witnessed by the creation of the Football Association of Wales (1876) and the Welsh Rugby Union (1881), both of which facilitated competition on the international stage; the competition of nonstate nationalities in international sporting competitions is a peculiar feature of British life that originated at this time. Rugby, in particular, came to be regarded as a popular embodiment of Welsh identity. Other sports, like boxing, also flourished, with boxers such as Jim Driscoll and Freddie Welsh winning international acclaim.
Population growth quickened once again from the 1880s and in-migration was mainly responsible for an increase of more than 18 percent during the first decade of the twentieth century. Regional disparities became acute from this decade, with 46 percent of the country's population residing in the single county of Glamorgan by 1911. The export-oriented coal industry drew in large numbers of migrants from rural Wales and from England and transformed the industrial valleys of south Wales into frontier towns, while at the same time fueling the dramatic growth of ports like Cardiff and Barry.
These far-reaching changes produced two long-term social trends: first, regarding language, and second, regarding the balance between the sexes in industrial society. By 1901 only a little over half the
population spoke the Welsh language, a proportion that dropped below half during the following decade for the first time in history. By 1891 nearly 17 percent of the population was English-born. Industrial society was skewed numerically in favor of males, and the quintessential symbols of this culture were masculine: the coalminer, slate quarryman, rugby player, and male chorister. By contrast, the only significant female symbol in this period was the Welsh "mam" (mother), a figure associated with home and hearth. Such gendered conceptions of class and national identity were influential for much of the following century.
Liberalism still dominated the political landscape, with not a single Conservative MP being elected from Wales in the landslide election of 1906. The first socialist MP, Keir Hardie, was elected at Merthyr Tydfil in 1900. Mass trade unions gained increasing importance; the South Wales Miners' Federation, which became the most important institution in Welsh life during the first half of the twentieth century, was founded in 1898. The years after 1909, usually termed the Great Unrest, mark something of a watershed in industrial society. Industrial disputes were numerous during these years and serious riots erupted, including anti-Semitic and anti-Chinese disturbances. Syndicalist ideas found a receptive audience in some quarters. The consensual politics of the older trade union leaders were brusquely swept aside. At the same time, the women's suffrage movement became more militant, contributing to an atmosphere of general social malaise. These events stand in stark contrast to the extravagant royal pageantry associated with the Investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle in north Wales in 1911.
By the eve of World War I, Wales had been transformed by economic, demographic, cultural, and political developments. It was overwhelmingly an industrial and urban country and had one of the densest railway networks in the world. It remained one of Engels's submerged "unhistoric nations," but a national revival had taken place, and new national cultural institutions had been created.
Davies, John. A History of Wales. London, 1993.
Jenkins, Geraint H., ed. The Welsh Language and Social Domains in the Nineteenth Century, 1801–1911. Cardiff, 2000.
Jenkins, Philip. A History of Modern Wales, 1536–1990. London, 1992.
John, Angela V., ed. Our Mothers' Land: Chapters in Welsh Women's History, 1800–1939. Cardiff, 1991.
Jones, David J. V. Rebecca's Children: A Study of Rural Society, Crime and Protest. Oxford, U.K., and New York, 1989.
Jones, Gareth Elwyn, and Dai Smith, eds. The Peoples of Wales. Llandysul, Wales, 1999.
Jones, Ieuan Gwynedd. Mid-Victorian Wales: The Observers and the Observed. Cardiff, 1992.
Morgan, Kenneth O. Wales in British Politics, 1868–1922. 3rd ed. Cardiff, 1980.
O'Leary, Paul. Immigration and Integration: The Irish in Wales, 1798–1922. Cardiff, 2000.
Williams, Gwyn A. When Was Wales? A History of the Welsh. Harmondsworth, U.K., 1985.
Wales shares with other Celtic countries an ancient mythology and traditional lore, although much of this was suppressed with the spread of Christianity from the fifth century on, and a succession of conquests by Romans, Normans, and English. Many of the enchanted stories of the King Arthur cycle are also found in Welsh tradition.
In the seventeenth century, Puritanism took a firm hold, and the spread of Methodism in the eighteenth century further worked to eradicate traditions of magic, although the religious revivals of the late nineteenth century had a wild, almost Pagan flavor about them and were accompanied by the appearance of various forms of paranormal phenomena.
One of the great sources of Welsh legends is the Mabinogion, dating from medieval times, containing stories for oral recitation by bards in the halls of the ancient princes of Wales. Typical motifs in these tales are supernatural birth, visits to the Other World, and magic shape-changing. Rhiannon, the wife of Pwyll, possessed marvelous birds that came from the Unseen World, and their singing held warriors spellbound for 80 years. In another story, Lvevelys helps his brother Lludd to eradicate three plagues that have devastated Britain—the Coranians, a strange race whose knowledge is infinite and who hear everything uttered, even the softest whisper; a horrifying shriek that penetrates every house on a May evening, caused by the battle between two dragons; and a great giant who carries off all the food from the king's palace.
A well-known story is that of the birth of Taliesin, chief of the bards of the west. The hero, Gwion Bach, goes to the Land under Waves at the bottom of Lake Bala in North Wales. There he finds the giant Tegid the Bald and his wife Ceridwen, goddess of poetry and knowledge. Ceridwen owns an immense cauldron in which she brews a mixture of science and inspiration, with the aid of her books of magic. This great brew has to simmer for a year and a day, and she sets the blind man Morda to keep the fire going and Gwion to stir the brew. It is to yield three magical drops.
Toward the end of the year, as Ceridwen is picking herbs and making incantations, three drops of the brew spurt out of the cauldron and fall upon Gwion Bach's finger. With the sudden heat on his finger, he puts it into his mouth to cool, whereupon the three drops instantly give him knowledge and meaning of all things, and he becomes aware that he must guard against Ceridwen's cunning, so he flees to his own land. Meanwhile the cauldron bursts and the rest of the brew is a black poison that overflows into the waters, poisoning the horses of Gwyddno Garanhir.
Ceridwen seizes a billet of wood and strikes blind Morda on the head, but he declares that he is innocent and that it is the fault of Gwion Bach. She runs in pursuit of Gwion, but he sees her coming and changes himself into a hare. She changes herself into a greyhound and follows him. He runs toward a river and becomes a fish, but she, in the form of an otter, chases him under the water, so he must turn himself into a bird. She becomes a hawk and gives him no rest in the sky. Just as she is going to swoop on him, he sees a heap of winnowed wheat on the floor of a barn, so he drops among the wheat and turns himself into one of the grains. She turns herself into a black hen, scratches at the wheat and swallows him.
She carries him for nine months and is delivered of him, but cannot kill him because of his beauty, so she wraps him in a leather bag and casts him into the sea to the mercy of God. He is carried into the weir of Gwyddno Garanhir and found by Prince Elphin, who has come to catch fish in his net. Elphin renames him Taliesin, which can mean "beautiful brow" or "great value."
Wales is also considered a center for the cult of the Druids (brought by the Celts ), who came into Wales as early as 200 B.C.E. They were said to practice human sacrifice, although it has also been claimed that the victims were criminals. They also employed methods of divination.
The Druids are thought to have come from ancient Gaul, where they were suppressed in the Roman Conquest as a rival source of power and prestige. The historian Pliny the Elder re-corded their association with the mistletoe plant in their sacred rites.
He also mentioned a mysterious object used by the Druids, which he named the "serpent's egg." It was roughly the size and shape of a small apple, and it was said that a mass of hissing serpents threw this egg into the air. If it could be caught in a white cloak before touching the ground, it would convey powers of magic to the possessor, such as the ability to float against a river current, and success in legal undertakings.
Witchcraft and Demonology
Sir Dafydd Llwyd, who lived in Cardiganshire in the reign of Charles II, had studied black magic at Oxford. He practiced as a physician and was famous for his wonderful cures, but his skill was owed to a familiar spirit or demon that he kept locked up in a book of spells. One day, the story is told, he accidently left this grimoire behind and sent his pageboy home to fetch it, commanding him to on no account open it. Like most lads the boy could not resist being inquisitive; he lifted the cover and turned over the leaves, with their weird inscriptions.
Suddenly there came forth a huge demon who frowned and in a hoarse grumbling voice asked to be set to work. In spite of his terror, the boy had the wit to say, "Fetch me some stones out of the River Wye." In a few moments, stones and pebbles began hurtling through the air, when Sir Dafydd, aware that something was wrong, came hurrying back and conjured the spirit back into the book before any serious harm could be done.
As early as the twelfth century, Christian priests in Wales were warned about letting the Eucharistic Host get into the hands of magicians and witches, who might secretly slip it out of their mouths and hide it in a handkerchief or glove. In 1582 the wife of Edward Jones was called upon to prove to the satisfaction of the archdeacon of Lewes "that she did eat the Communion bread and put yt not in hir glove."
As late as the opening years of the eighteenth century, two old dames were said to have attended the morning service at Llanddewi Brefi Church to partake of Holy Communion, but instead of eating it like the other communicants, they kept it in their mouths and went out. Then they walked round the church nine times, and at the ninth circuit the Devil came out of the church wall in the form of a frog, to whom they gave the Host from their mouths, and by doing this, sold themselves to Satan and became witches.
There are many stories about Dr. John Harries (1785-1839), a celebrated Welsh physician and seer of Cërt-y-Cadno, Carmarthenshire, who was said to possess a great book of magic, which was kept locked to prevent any ignorant person from letting loose its powerful influences. Harries boasted of his knowledge of future and distant events, imparted to him by familiar spirits.
Belief in witchcraft persisted into the twentieth century in Wales, but it concerned "white witches" who cast useful spells and horoscopes, or averted evil events. In 1933 there was a wise man in Llangwrig, Montgomeryshire, who was famous throughout Wales for breaking the spells of witches. He kept his book of divination and an almanac in a rosewood casket.
In November 1936 a correspondent in John O'London's Weekly stated that "even now belief in witchcraft in the upper parts of the Wye Valley is not quite extinct." In the following month, another correspondent stated: "When we lived in a small village in Montgomeryshire some years ago we found a widespread belief in witchcraft among the farmers of the district." If the cattle became sick, farmers visited the wise man to find out who had bewitched their beasts. If two farmers had a serious quarrel, one of them went to the wise man to obtain a charm to injure his neighbor.
Phenomena at Religious Revivals
Welsh preaching is celebrated for its fervor, and the traditional hwyl or peroration of a sermon is said to have magic effects. During the nineteenth century, there were reports of mysterious luminous phenomena associated with revivalism, and such accounts were given again in 1904 and 1905 during the inspired revival campaigns of Mary Jones of Egryn. Jones was a happily married peasant woman with a family, when in December 1904 she received beatific visions instructing her to undertake the work of religious revival that had earlier been the mission of the preacher Evan Roberts in Glamorgan.
The first night of Jones' mission was marked by the appearance of a mysterious star and various lights. She herself reported seeing "a circle of small stars, encompassing a cross of diamond stars, and on this cross at times the draped figure of the Saviour." The strange luminous phenomena were witnessed by other individuals. A skeptical businessman was driving her home one evening from a meeting, and prayed that he might be accorded a sign if she was indeed a divinely ordained preacher. Immediately there appeared above the road, in front of the car, a misty star. As the man gazed a luminous cross was formed inside it, sparkling with diamonds, and upon this was a draped figure with bowed head.
On another occasion, Jones herself reported seeing the Devil, who first appeared in the figure of a man, but when she started singing revival hymns, suddenly stopped, turned on her and became transformed into an enormous black dog. She prayed for strength, and the dog rushed growling into a hillock.
The star and the light were seen by many people from the first day of Jones' mission. The star seemed to rest above particular houses where converts later came to the meetings. It also followed her on her journeys. On her trip to Criccieth, for example, the lights were witnessed by the people with her. At Bryncrug, a few miles inland from Towyn, the gallery of the chapel was flooded during the service by the mysterious light. After the service, the light, in the form of a ball of fire casting its rays down to earth, was seen by a party of young quarrymen. Overtaking the light, which had stopped, they knelt down in the middle of the road and held a prayer meeting, bathed in the unearthly light.
Some of these lights and their movements are reminiscent of many modern accounts of UFO s.
The Gardnerian Revival
In the last generation, growing out of the initial work of Gerald B. Gardner (the witch of the Isle of Man), a new neopagan witchcraft or Wicca movement spread from England through the British Isles, the lands of the commonwealth, and the United States. As the movement grew and broke into numerous segments, there arose a number who attached themselves to Welsh witchcraft traditions. Among the early covens in the northeastern United States in the 1970s were the New York Coven of Welsh Traditional Witchcraft and the New England Coven of Welsh Traditional Witchcraft, which supplemented their Gardnerian rituals with material from folkloric, archeological, and anthropological texts on Wales. Several significant groups—the most notable possibly the Church and School of Wicca (Box 1502, New Bern, NC 28560) and the Cymry Wicca (Box 4196, Athens, GA 30605)—claim to draw on Welsh traditions. In addition, many modern witches, drawing on the Mabinogion, have chosen such names as Ceridwen and Taliesin as their religious names.
Adler, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1987.
Charlton, I. W. The Revival in Wales. London, 1905. (Pamphlet)
Graves, Robert. The White Goddess. London: Faber & Faber, 1948.
Guest, Lady Charlotte, trans. The Mabinogion: From the Llyfr Coch o Hergest. 3 vols. London, 1948.
Jones, Edmund. A Relation of Ghosts and Apparitions Which Commonly Appear in the Principality of Wales. Bristol, England: 1767.
Jones, T. Gwynn. Welsh Folklore and Folk Customs. London: Methuen, 1930.
Morgan, J. V. The Welsh Religious Revival, 1904-05. London: Chapman & Hall, 1909.
Wales in 1914, despite the predominantly industrial nature of the economy, remained overwhelmingly devoted to Liberal Nonconformity. The outbreak of serious industrial conflict in the Edwardian years, however, coupled with a growing sense of national distinctiveness—as expressed for example by the formulation in 1914 of the first Welsh Home Rule Bill—indicated some of the ways in which Wales was to change during the remainder of the first half of the twentieth century as ideas of imperial patriotism, class solidarity, and Welsh national identity clashed and shifted. World War I, in which 280,000 Welshmen fought and 40,000 died, reinforced Wales's British identity while at the same time underpinned its sense of national difference, a tension exemplified by the political career of David Lloyd George (1863–1945), the Liberal nationalist who in 1916 became Britain's first Welsh prime minister.
Following the Armistice, political life in some respects returned to pre-war issues, as the late-Victorian demand for the disestablishment of the Church of Wales was finally passed by Parliament in 1920. By this time, however, the landed society that the Anglican Church was deemed to represent and the Liberal Nonconformity that had mobilized against it had both entered a period of sustained decline. Furthermore, the collapse in the early 1920s of the war-generated boom in coal, and iron and steel, exposed the fragility of the industrial base that had created the dynamic "American Wales" of the late-Victorian and Edwardian decades. It was in this changed climate of working-class militancy that Labour displaced Liberal dominance, winning half the constituencies of Wales in 1922, and rising to a position by 1966 where it held thirty-two of Wales's total of thirty-six parliamentary seats.
At the same time, other forces were beginning to coalesce around the preservation of the Welsh language and nationalist politics. Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth) was formed in 1922, and Plaid Cymru (the Party of Wales) in 1925. The industrial conflicts and socialist political activity of the 1920s, led by the South Wales Miners' Federation, reached their greatest levels of intensity during and after the General Strike and miners' lock-out of 1926, and were followed by years of severe economic depression. High unemployment, which by 1932 had reached 42.8 percent of insured males, led to the migration of 390,000 people from Wales between 1925 and 1939. Labour remained the single most important political party in Wales throughout this period, although many were also drawn to other organizations and movements. Thus in 1936, the Welsh Left, both Labour and Communist, organized the largest contingent sent from Britain to join the International Brigades in defense of the Spanish Republic, while at the same time the nationalists arranged an arson attack on a Royal Air Force base at Penyberth, Llẙn, to draw attention not only to the precarious position of the Welsh language but also to the weakness of traditional rural Welsh society in relation to a militarized British state.
World War II transformed political, economic, and cultural life in Wales as elsewhere. Full employment had returned by 1941, and the rise of Welsh Labour politicians schooled in the interwar miners' union, such as James Griffiths (1890–1975) and Aneurin Bevan (1897–1960), provided the government of Clement Attlee (1883–1967) with the architects of some of its key stretegic reforms, such as the National Insurance Act, the National Health Service, and the nationalization of the coal industry. Griffiths also helped to establish the Council of Wales in 1948 and became the first secretary of state for Wales in 1964.
Wales in the postwar decades began to acquire other modern attributes of nationhood. Cardiff was formally declared to be its capital city in 1955, while the Liverpool City Council's decision to construct a reservoir by flooding the inhabited Welsh valley of Tryweryn in Merionnydd caused nationwide resentment that crossed party lines and led to calls to strengthen Wales's national voice in the British Parliament. The formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society) in 1962, following a radio lecture by the nationalist dramatist Saunders Lewis (1893–1985) that called for the adoption of "revolutionary methods" to protect the language from further decline, led to an extended period of civil disobedience. Plaid Cymru won its first parliamentary seat in 1966, the first Welsh Language Act was passed in 1967, and militant nationalism attempted to disrupt the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon in 1969. The proportions of Welsh-speakers continued to decline from 37 percent in 1921 to 18 percent in 1991, although the decline slowed from the 1980s as numbers of younger speakers began to show modest increases. In 2001, 71 percent of Wales's population of 2.9 million had no knowledge of Welsh, although in Gwynedd only 24 percent had no knowledge of the language. The establishment of Sianel Pedwar Cymru (the Welsh Fourth Channel) in 1982 was symptomatic of the new confidence that Wales could become a bilingual country, and the annual Royal National Eisteddfod, conducted in Welsh, remains Wales's largest cultural festival.
Two further issues dominated the final quarter of the twentieth century: the decline of the coal industry and devolution. While the numbers of coal miners fell from 124,000 in 1945 to 33,000 in 1975, the dangers of the industry were again cruelly demonstrated in October 1966 when a tip of coal waste engulfed the primary school in the mining village of Aberfan, killing 144, 116 of them children. The failure of the miners' strike of 1984–1985 to prevent the re-privatization of the industry led practically to the total collapse of mining in Wales, leaving an economy dominated increasingly by service industries, tourism, and manufacturing. Employment in the steel industry also fell dramatically in the same period, from 72,000 in 1980 to around 16,000 in 1995. To counteract the social consequences of the decline of heavy industry, the Welsh Development Agency, formed in 1976, actively sought inward investment into electronics, motor component manufacture and assembly, and chemicals. Manufacturing, though it continued to decline, remained the largest employer of men (30 percent of males and 12 percent of females), while 37 percent of women were employed in the service sector. The public sector, especially social services, health, and education, remained a major source of employment.
The politics of Wales were transformed in September 1997 when a referendum on the creation of a devolved Welsh Assembly narrowly carried the motion by 50.3 percent in favor to 49.7 percent against. This reversed the outcome of the previous referendum of 1979, which had shown that a majority of Welsh voters rejected devolved government. The first elections were held in May 1999, and the Welsh Assembly held its opening session later that month in Cardiff. The relationship between a devolved Wales and the rest of Britain remained in flux, as demands were made to strengthen the powers of the Assembly, especially with regard to tax raising. But constitutional change also strengthened Welsh links with the European Union, as a recipient of EU funding and in relation to such forums as those concerned with lesser-used languages. Wales in a "Europe of the Regions" emerged for some, within and outside the nationalist movement, as an alternative vision for a Wales whose political, economic, and cultural connections extended beyond the island of Britain. But while the new political and economic circumstances brought prosperity in particular to parts of the urban southeast and the M4 corridor, the rural and older industrial areas remained among the poorest in Western Europe, the gross domestic product of west Wales and the southern valleys being less than 75 percent of the European average. In 2001, 27.9 percent of the adult population was economically inactive compared to the national U.K. average of 21.5 percent, and in December 2004 it was found that 10 percent of the poorest parts of the United Kingdom were in Wales. The more secular, postindustrial "cool Cymru" of the early twenty-first century had yet to resolve many of the difficulties it had inherited from its twentieth-century history.
Jenkins, Philip. A History of Modern Wales, 1536–1990. New York, 1992.
Morgan, Kenneth O. Wales in British Politics, 1868–1922. Rev. ed. Cardiff, 1970.
——. Rebirth of a Nation: A History of Modern Wales. Oxford, U.K., 1998.
Smith, Dai. Aneurin Bevan and the World of South Wales. Cardiff, 1993.
Williams, John. Was Wales Industrialised? Essays in Modern Welsh History. Cardiff, 1995.
Williams, L. J. Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: 1974–1996. Cardiff, 1998.
Aled Gruffydd Jones
Archaeological and documented evidence show that the early Welsh economy was based on mixed farming. When journeying through Wales in 1188, Giraldus Cambrensis (also known as Gerald de Barri or Gerald of Wales) noted that most of the population lived on its flocks and on milk, cheese, butter, and oats. Numerous references to foods in literary works establish that this was generally how the Welsh subsisted until well into the nineteenth century.
Ingredients of the Traditional Diet
The Report of the Royal Commission on Land in Wales (London, 1896) shows that small farmers and tenants survived on home-cured meat from domestic animals, home-grown vegetables, dairy products, and cereal-based dishes. Farmers and cottagers would fatten and slaughter at least one pig a year to provide a constant supply of salted bacon. On larger farms, a bullock or barren cow was also butchered and the meat shared between neighboring farms. Keeping cattle provided sufficient milk to produce butter and cheese; vegetables were grown in the kitchen garden and fields, mostly leeks, carrots, cabbages, herbs, and, from the eighteenth century onward, potatoes. Wild fruits, plants, berries, wild animals and birds were utilized in season, and communities living close to coastal regions varied their diet by fishing and collecting shellfish such as cockles, mussels, periwinkles, and limpets. Inhabitants along the coastal regions of the Gower peninsula, Pembrokeshire, and Anglesey gathered the edible seaweed laver (porphyra umbilicalis ). Prepared as a commercial product by Glamorgan families, it was sold along with cockles and mussels in the market towns of south Wales, famously Pen-clawdd. It was usually tossed in oatmeal and fried in bacon fat; today laverbread is a recognized Welsh delicacy, sometimes known as Welsh caviar.
The topography determined that oats and barley were the most commonly grown cereal crops, with wheat confined to the fertile lowlands. Oatmeal in its various forms was one of the basic elements in the diet of the Welsh. Llymru (flummery) and sucan (sowans), consisting of oatmeal steeped in cold water and buttermilk, boiled until thickened and served cool with milk or treacle, as well as bwdram (thin flummery), uwd (porridge), and griwel blawd ceirch (oatmeal gruel) were among the everyday fare served in most rural districts until the early twentieth century. The bread most regularly eaten throughout Wales until the late nineteenth century was oatbread, formed into wafer-thin circular loaves and baked on a bakestone or griddle over an open fire. It was used in the counties of north Wales as a basic ingredient in cereal pottages such as picws mali (shot) or siot (shot); a popular light meal consisting of crushed oatbread soaked in buttermilk. Brŵes (brose ) was a common dish in the agricultural areas of the north and regularly prepared as a breakfast dish for the menservants. It was made from crushed oatbread steeped in meat stock and sprinkled with crushed oatbread before serving.
Welsh rural society was largely self-supporting with the exception of sugar, salt, tea, rice, and currants, which had to be purchased. Sundays and special occasions usually merited a roast dinner for which a joint of fresh meat would be purchased from the local butcher; this was followed by homemade rice pudding. Very little fresh fruit was purchased, and eggs were eaten only on very rare occasions. The limited range of supplies also demanded great resourcefulness to provide an assorted menu. The ability to prepare an assortment of stews from one basic ingredient, namely oatmeal, required considerable dexterity. Similar skill was required for broths such as cawl and lobsgows using home-cured meat.
The open fire with its many appliances was central to cooking throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and, in many rural homes, well into the twentieth century. Such limited cooking facilities also governed what could be prepared. Stews, joints of meat, and puddings were boiled in a cooking pot or cauldron. Pot ovens were used for roasting meat and baking cakes and fruit tarts, and the bakestone was widely used to bake oatcakes, drop scones, soda bread, pancakes, and griddle-cakes (such as Welsh Cakes). Additionally, spits, Dutch ovens, and bottle-jacks, clockwork implements in the shape of a bottle that were hung in front of the fire, were used for roasting meat.
The preparation and consumption of traditional foods were closely integrated with patterns of life in rural Wales. Before labor-saving agricultural machinery, farmers were dependent on the cooperation of their neighbors to fulfill seasonal work. Corn (grain) or hay harvesting, corn threshing, and sheep shearing were essentially communal efforts requiring communal meals and celebrations. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Boten Ben Fedi (harvest pie), consisting of mashed potatoes, minced beef, bacon, and onion was served for the corn harvest supper. Threshing and shearing days were also marked with plentiful meals of cold lamb or beef, potatoes, and peas followed by rice pudding for dessert. Tatws popty —beef, onions, and potatoes—was a favorite in parts of Gwynedd, and afternoon tea consisted simply of home-baked bread, butter, cheese, and jam; while rich yeasted fruitcake and gooseberry pie were considered as shearing specialties in most regions.
In the industrial towns and villages during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, wives would often help to support their families in periods of hardship by preparing and selling home-cooked dishes, considered delicacies by members of the local community. Coal-miners' wives or widows prepared dishes of minced seasoned liver and pork fat called faggots, which were served with peas and sold from the women's homes or from market stalls. Pickled herrings were a comparable savory dish sold by women in the slate-quarrying communities of north Wales and consumed with homemade oatcakes by quarrymen and farm servants.
Although the tradition of living off the land survived until a later period, in the rural areas change came with improved roads, modern shopping facilities, refrigerators, and freezers. By the early twenty-first century, the majority of the above-mentioned dishes are mostly eaten on special occasions as traditional food.
See also Cake and Pancake; Cattle; Cereal Grains and Pseudo-Cereals; Dairy Products; Herding; Hearth Cookery; Meat, Salted; Stew.
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Mared Wyn Sutherland
Wales, principality of
Edward I outlined an elaborate scheme of government for the principality of Wales in the statute of Wales (1284). It was based on existing arrangements and hence had two sectors, of three counties in north Wales (Anglesey, Caernarfonshire, and Merioneth) based on Caernarfon, and of two counties in west Wales (Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire) based on Carmarthen. Each sector had a justiciar with political and judicial competence, and a chamberlain with financial competence; each county had shire officials and great sessions; more local administrative arrangements were based on the commote with Welsh and English elements. The two sectors were frequently referred to, inaccurately, as the principality of north Wales and the principality of west (or south) Wales. Ultimately responsible to the king's court, council, and officials at Westminster, or (when there was one) to the prince's council, in practice the principality of Wales was a separate and independent jurisdiction. It was a development of Llywelyn's principality, rather than a clear break with it, and it was larger than Llywelyn's in some respects, in others smaller than his: Flintshire, though a royal shire, was attached for administrative convenience to Cheshire and lay outside the principality of Wales; the English princes were overlords of several marcher lordships in the north-east which had been part of Llywelyn's principality.
The council of Edward IV's eldest son began to undertake responsibility for order not only in the principality but also (by 1476) in the marcher lordships and border English shires and so had a Wales-wide authority (as the Council in the March) that was the germ of the arrangements made by the Act of Union (1536). These arrangements consolidated Wales administratively and constitutionally by extending the machinery of government of the principality of Wales to Wales as a whole, including Flintshire and the March. Thus, the ‘country and dominion of Wales’ became conterminous with the principality of Wales, and was so regarded from the 16th cent. onwards. This principality retained peculiar features of law and justice, with separate courts albeit dispensing English common law, until, first, the Council of Wales and the March was abolished as a prerogative court in 1689 and, second, the great sessions were abolished in 1830 and the judicial system assimilated to that of England. The revenues from rights of jurisdiction and lands continued to accrue to the crown and could be granted to individual princes of Wales by special Act of Parliament—though not all princes were granted them. In 1760 they were surrendered by George III along with the crown's hereditary revenues in return for a ‘civil list’; thereafter, no principality lands or financial rights could be bestowed on a prince (in contrast to the duchy of Cornwall).
Yet the concept of the principality of Wales within the United Kingdom survived, largely because of the distinctive culture, language, and sense of identity of the Welsh. Although in modern times prior to the 20th cent. princes of Wales visited their principality rarely, both prince and principality were a focus of Welsh sentiment. The investiture of Prince Edward (later Edward VIII; 1911) took place in an atmosphere of national euphoria, during a picturesque ceremony held at Caernarfon castle in deference to spurious tradition; that of Prince Charles (1969), though more controversial, was enthusiastically welcomed by most Welsh people.
Ralph Alan Griffiths
Edwards, J. G. , The Principality of Wales, 1267–1967 (Caernarfon, 1969);
Griffiths, R. A. , The Principality of Wales in the Later Middle Ages, i: South Wales, 1277–1536 (Cardiff, 1972);
Jones, F. , The Princes and Principality of Wales (Cardiff, 1969).
Land and climateIn the n lies Wales' highest peak, Snowdon, at 1085m (3560ft). Anglesey lies off the nw coast. The Black Mountains lie in the se. The border regions and coastal plains are lowlands. The principal rivers are the Severn and Dee. On average, Cardiff experiences twice as much annual rainfall as London. Winter sees the heaviest rains.
HistoryThe Celtic-speaking Welsh stoutly resisted Roman invasion in the first centuries ad. In the 5th century, Saint David introduced Christianity. In the 10th century, political power was centralized. In the 11th century, the English conquered the border counties and established the Welsh Marches. In 1284, the Welsh were forced to relinquish their independence, and in 1301 Prince Edward (later Edward II) became Prince of Wales. In the early 15th century, Owain Glyn Dw̧r led spirited resistance to English rule. The accession of the Welsh Tudor dynasty to the English throne paved the way for the Act of Union (1536) of England and Wales. Wales supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil Wars. In the late 19th century, Wales became the world's leading producer of coal. Rapid industrialization brought large social problems, such as unemployment and poverty. From the 18th century, Wales had been a centre of Nonconformism, and Calvinism injected new life into Welsh nationalism. In 1914, the Church of England disestablished in Wales. The Welsh nationalist party (Plaid Cymru) was founded in 1926. The post-war Labour government, consisting of many Welsh members, nationalized industry and began to deal with regional inequality. In 1966, Plaid Cymru gained its first seat in the House of Commons. A 1979 referendum voted against devolution. The teaching of Welsh in schools and a separate Welsh-language television channel (since 1982) served to strengthen the distinctive Welsh culture. A 1997 referendum approved, by the narrowest of margins, the establishment of a separate Welsh Assembly in Cardiff.
EconomyNorth Wales is predominantly agricultural, with the world's greatest density of sheep. Dairy farming is also important. Tourism is important in the coastal region of Gwynedd. The s valleys and coastal plain are Wales' industrial heartland. The late 20th-century decline of its traditional heavy industries of coal and steel has been only partly offset by investment in light industries, such as electronics. Unemployment remains high (1996, 8.3% of the workforce). Area: 20,761sq km (8016sq mi). Pop. (1994) 2,913,000.
WALES , country of the United Kingdom. No Jewish communities are recorded there during the Middle Ages. However, individual Jews are mentioned in places where English influence was prevalent, such as Caerleon and Chepstow. The charters of newly created boroughs in northern Wales in 1284 included the "liberty" to exclude Jews. In the 18th century Jews began to resettle in Wales. They are found in *Swansea from 1731, a community being organized in 1768. The *Cardiff community followed in 1840. In the second half of the 19th century other communities were established, especially after the beginning of the Russian-Jewish influx to Britain in the 1880s. The newly arrived immigrants set up small businesses and pawnbroking establishments in the mining towns of Tonypandy, Tredegar, Aberdare, Llanelly, Merthyr Tydfil, Pontypridd, Porthcawl, and elsewhere. An attempt to introduce Polish Jews into the coal mines failed owing to local opposition, which had some antisemitic undertones. The disorders in South Wales during the miners' strike in 1911 took on an anti-Jewish tinge. On August 18–19 several Jewish-owned shops and houses were looted and wrecked in Tredegar, and the disorders swiftly spread to other mining towns in the area, driving hundreds of Jews to seek refuge elsewhere. Winston *Churchill, then home secretary, was responsible for sending troops to put down the disorders. These anti-Jewish riots, virtually the only example of violent antisemitism in modern British history, have been the subject of much dispute among historians. They also contrast starkly with the long-established Welsh Protestant tradition of philo-semitism and pro-Zionism, which produced such figures as David *Lloyd George, who promulgated the Balfour Declaration. With the change in economic circumstances in South Wales after World War i, many of the small communities in the mining centers ceased to exist. While the parent community of Welsh Jewry, Swansea, decayed, Cardiff became a considerable Jewish center. Llanelly, Bangor, and the resort town of Llandudno (in northern Wales) had small communities. The total number of Jews in Wales in 1967 was estimated at 4,300 (3,500 in Cardiff).
In later years the Jewish population of Wales declined considerably. The 2001 British census found 941 declared Jews in Cardiff, 170 in Swansea, 39 in Newport, and smaller numbers in other towns, about 1,300 in all. Cardiff (the capital of Wales) has an Orthodox and a Reform synagogue and a number of representative institutions. There are also Orthodox synagogues in Llandudno, Newport, and Swansea.
Roth, England, 82, 92; idem, Rise of Provincial Jewry (1950), 102–4; Lehmann, Nova Bibl, index; O.K. Rabinowicz, Winston Churchill on Jewish Problems (1956), 167–72. add. bibliography: U. Henriques (ed.), The Jews of South Wales: Historical Studies (1993); W.D. Rubinstein, "The Anti-Jewish Riots in South Wales: A Re-examination," in: Welsh History Review, 18 (1996–97); G. Alderman, "The Anti-Jewish Riots of August 1911 in South Wales: A Response," ibid., 20 (2000); G. Davies (ed.), The Chosen People: Wales and the Jews (2002).
[Zvi Zinger (Yaron)]