Skip to main content

Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (JCR)

JEWISH CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION, INC. (jcr)

JEWISH CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION, INC. (jcr ), organization established in 1947 to deal with the collection and redistribution of heirless Jewish cultural property in the American Zone of Germany, centered in Offenbach and later in Wiesbaden. Its headquarters were in New York and its logistical and financial support came from the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization (jrso). Its leadership was comprised of some of the foremost Jewish intellectuals of the day: Salo *Baron was its executive director; Joshua *Starr and later Hannah *Arendt served as executive secretaries. Gershom *Scholem, Shlomo Shunami, Bernard Heller, Mordechai *Narkiss, and E.G. Lowenthal were among those working in conjunction with jcr in Europe. Under the American Restitution Law (no. 59), jcr functioned as a trustee for those Jewish cultural items whose owners or heirs could not be located. By the end of its operations in 1951–52, jcr had redistributed hundreds of thousands of books and thousands of Torah scrolls and other ritual objects to major libraries and museums, including the Library of Congress and Bezalel in Jerusalem, as well as to institutions of higher learning such as the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. A total of 85% of the cultural property was sent to Israel and the United States; 8% was allocated to Western European countries (with half going to Britain) and the remaining 7% was distributed to South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Canada, and West Germany. Although it had no international standing, the organization encouraged the establishment of similar bodies in the British and French Zones of Occupation.

bibliography:

B. Heller, "Operation Salvage," in: The Jewish Horizon, 6 (Feb. 1950), 12–14; M.Kurtz, "Resolving a Dilemma: The Inheritance of Jewish Property," in: Cardozo Law Review, 20, no. 2 (1998–99), 625–55; Scopus, 13, no. 2 (1959), 5f.; R. Waite, "The Return of Jewish Cultural Property: Handling of Books Looted by the Nazis in the American Zone of Occupation," in: Libraries and Culture (July 2002), 213–28.

[Dana Herman (2nd ed.)]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (JCR)." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (JCR)." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jewish-cultural-reconstruction-inc-jcr

"Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (JCR)." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jewish-cultural-reconstruction-inc-jcr

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.