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San Marino

SAN MARINO

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS SANMARINESE
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino

CAPITAL: San Marino

FLAG: The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above.

ANTHEM: Onore a te, onore, o antica repubblica (Honor to You, O Ancient Republic).

MONETARY UNIT: The Italian lira was replaced by the euro as official currency as of 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. 1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = 0.79697) as of 2005. The country issues its own coins in limited numbers as well. Coins of San Marino may circulate in both the republic and in Italy.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Anniversary of St. Agatha, second patron saint of the republic, and of the liberation of San Marino (1740), 5 February; Anniversary of the Arengo, 25 March; Investiture of the Captains-Regent, 1 April and 1 October; Labor Day, 1 May; Fall of Fascism, 28 July; Assumption and August Bank Holiday, 1416 August; Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino, 3 September; All Saint's Day, 1 November; Commemoration of the Dead, 2 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 2426 December; New Year's Eve, 31 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday and Ascension.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe. With an area of 60 sq km (23 sq mi), it extends 13.1 km (8.1 mi) nesw and 9.1 km (5.7 mi) senw. Comparatively, the area occupied by San Marino is about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC. It is a landlocked state completely surrounded by Italy, with a total boundary length of 39 km (24 mi).

TOPOGRAPHY

The town of San Marino is on the slopes and at the summit of Mt. Titano (755 m/2,477 ft), and much of the republic is coextensive with the mountain, which has major limestone pinnacles. Each of the peaks is crowned by old fortifications; on the north by a castle and the other two by towers. Level areas around the base of Mt. Titano provide land for agricultural use. The San Marino River begins in Italy and flows northward through the western portion of the country, forming part of the nation's western border. The Ausa River in the northwest and the Marano River of the east central region both drain into the Adriatic Sea.

CLIMATE

The climate is that of northeastern Italy: rather mild in winter, but with temperatures frequently below freezing, and warm and pleasant in the summer, reaching a maximum of 26°c (79°f). Winter temperatures rarely fall below 7°c (19°f). Annual rainfall averages between 56 and 80 cm (22 to 32 in).

FLORA AND FAUNA

The republic has generally the same flora and fauna as northeastern Italy. The hare, squirrel, badger, fox, and porcupine are among the more common animals seen. Most of the landscape has been cultivated with orchards, vineyards, and olive groves.

ENVIRONMENT

Urbanization is the primary concern for the environment; however, the country has shown great care for environmental protection and preservation both within its own borders and in the global arena. Environmental protection is controlled by the Ministry of State for Territory, Environment, and Agriculture. San Marino has no endangered species; however, the lesser horseshoe bat and the common otter are listed as near threatened.

POPULATION

The population of San Marino in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 30,000, which placed it at number 189 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 16% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 15% of the population under 15 years of age. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 200510 was expected to be 0.3%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 30,000. The population density was 500 per sq km (1,295 per sq mi). San Marino is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.

The UN estimated that 84% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.89%. The capital city, San Marino, had a population of 5,000 in that year.

MIGRATION

Immigrants come chiefly from Italy; emigration is mainly to Italy, the United States, France, and Belgium. Foreigners who have been resident in San Marino for 30 years can become naturalized citizens.

In 1999, the net migration rate was 4.23 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2005, there was an increase to an estimated 10.84 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2000 the number of migrants living in San Marino was 9,000, approximately one-third of the total population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

The native population is predominantly of Italian origin.

LANGUAGES

Italian is the official language.

RELIGIONS

It has been estimated that over 95% of the population is Roman Catholic; however, while Roman Catholicism is dominant, it is not the state religion. The Catholic Church does receive direct benefits from the State, but so do other charities, including two religionsthe Waldensian Church and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are small groups of Baha'is and Muslims. Certain Catholic holidays are recognized as national holidays.

TRANSPORTATION

Streets and roads within the republic totaled about 220 km (140 mi) in 2002, and there is regular bus service between San Marino and Rimini. Motor vehicle registrations in 1995 included 22,945 passenger cars and 3,546 commercial vehicles. An electric railroad, 32 km (20 mi) long, between Rimini and San Marino was inaugurated in 1932. Damaged as a result of a British air raid on 26 June 1944, it has been out of service since that time. A 1.5-km (0.9-mi) cable-car service from the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore is operated by the government. There is helicopter service between San Marino and Rimini in summer.

HISTORY

San Marino, the oldest republic in the world, is the sole survivor of the independent states that existed in Italy at various times from the downfall of the Western Roman Empire to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. (The Vatican City State, which is also an independent enclave in Italy, was not constituted in its present form until the 20th century.)

According to tradition, the republic was founded in ad 301 by Marinus, a Christian stonecutter who fled from Dalmatia to avoid religious persecution; later canonized, St. Marinus is known in Italian as San Marino. If founded at the time asserted by tradition, San Marino is the oldest existing national state in Europe. There was a monastery in San Marino in existence at least as early as 885.

Because of the poverty of the region and the difficult terrain, San Marino was rarely disturbed by outside powers, and it generally avoided the factional fights of the Middle Ages. For a time, it joined the Ghibellines and was therefore interdicted by Pope Innocent IV in 124749. It was protected by the Montefeltro family, later dukes of Urbino, and in 1441, with Urbino, it defeated Sigismondo Malatesta and extended the size of its territory. It was briefly held by Cesare Borgia in 1503, but in 1549 its sovereignty was confirmed by Pope Paul III. In 1739, however, a military force under a papal legate, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, occupied San Marino and unsuccessfully attempted to get the Sanmarinese to acknowledge his sovereignty over them. In the following year, Pope Clement II terminated the occupation and signed a treaty of friendship with the tiny republic. Napoleon allowed San Marino to retain its liberty; the Sanmarinese are said to have declined his offer to increase their territory on the grounds that smallness and poverty alone had kept them from falling prey to larger states.

In 1849, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the liberator of Italy, took refuge from the Austrians in San Marino; he departed voluntarily shortly before the Austrians were to invade the republic to capture him. San Marino and Italy entered into a treaty of friendship and customs union in 1862. This treaty was renewed in March 1939 and amended in September 1971.

During the period of Mussolini's rule in Italy, San Marino adopted a Fascist type of government. Despite its claim to neutrality in World War II, Allied planes bombed it on 26 June 1944. The raid caused heavy damage, especially to the railway line, and killed a number of persons. San Marino's resources were sorely taxed to provide food and shelter for the over 100,000 refugees who obtained sanctuary during the war.

The elections of 1945 put a coalition of Communists and left-wing Socialists in control of the country. In 1957, some defections from the ruling coalition were followed by a bloodless revolution, aided by Italy, against the government. The leftists surrendered, and some were imprisoned. The rightists, chiefly Christian Democrats, won the election of 1959 and remained in power until 1973, chiefly in coalition with the Social Democrats. In March 1973, after splitting with the Social Democrats, the Christian Democrats formed an unstable coalition with the Socialists. After new elections in May 1978, the Communists, the Socialists, and the Socialist Unity Party, who together commanded a one-seat majority in the legislature, formed a governing coalition; San Marino thus became the only West European country with a Communist-led government. This coalition governed until 1986, when a CommunistChristian Democratic coalition replaced it; this was the first coalition government formed by these two parties in San Marino's history.

As of 2005, the ruling coalition was composed of the Sanmarinese Christian-Democratic Party and the Sanmarinese Socialist Party. In December 2003, Fabio Berardi was named secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, the equivalent of the office of a prime minister.

San Marino's high standard of living makes Sanmarinese citizenship a valuable commodity. With the only ways for foreigners to obtain citizenship being to reside in San Marino for 30 years or marry a male citizen, the government passed a law in August 1999 prohibiting female household servants under 50 because of the potential for elderly men to fall for their young female help who may have suspicious motives.

Also in 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union and adopted the euro as its currency. The Europe-wide single currency was forecast to boost tourism but simultaneously hurt Sanmarinese bank revenues as the banks would no longer be able to charge fees for currency exchange. In June 2000, the OECD accused Sanmarinese banks of making the country a "harmful" tax haven; San Marino promised to reform its banking practices.

Because San Marino has a customs union with Italy, it enjoys all of the benefits that flow from European Union membership. However, San Marino's goal ultimately is to become a full-fledged member of the EU.

GOVERNMENT

Legislative power is exercised by the Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) of 60 members, regularly elected every five years by universal suffrage at age 18. The Council elects from among its members a State Congress (Congresso di Stato) of 10 members (3 secretaries of state and 7 ministers of state), which makes most administrative decisions and carries them out. In 1960, universal male suffrage was established in place of the previous system, whereby only heads of families voted. Women also received the franchise effective in 1960 and were first permitted to run for office in 1974 (they voted in national elections for the first time in 1964). Nearly 100% of eligible voters participate in elections.

Two members of the Council are named every six months to head the executive branch of the government; one represents the town of San Marino and the other the countryside. The terms of these officials, called captains-regent (capitani reggenti ), begin on 1 April and 1 October. The captains-regent, who must be nativeborn citizens, are eligible for reelection after three years. As of September 2005, the captains-regent were Cesare Gasperoni (PDCS) and Fausta Simona Morganti (Party of DemocratsPD). The secretary of state for foreign and political affairs serves the function of a prime minister. Fabio Berardi was chosen to fill this office in December 2003. The next election for captains-regent was scheduled for March 2006 and for secretary of state for foreign and political affairs in June 2006.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The political parties in San Marino have close ties with the corresponding parties in Italy. Parties represented in the Grand and General Council following the 2001 elections were as follows: Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), 25; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), 15; the Party of Democrats (PD), 12; Popular Alliance of Sanmarinese Democrats for the Republic (APDS), 5; Communist Refounding (RCS), 2; and the Sanmarinese National Alliance (ANS), 1. The next election was scheduled to be held by June 2006.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

San Marino consists of nine administrative divisions or castles (castelli ): Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, and Serravalle. Each castle has an auxiliary council, elected for a four-year term. It is headed by an offcial called the captain of the castle, who is elected every two years.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

There is a civil court, a criminal court, and a superior court, but most criminal cases are tried before Italian magistrates because, with the exception of minor civil suits, the judges in Sanmarinese cases are not allowed to be citizens of San Marino. Appeals go, in the first instance, to an Italian judge residing in Italy. The highest appellate court is the Council of Twelve, chosen for six-year terms from members of the Grand and General Council. The rights of the accused, including the rights to a public trial, legal counsel and other procedural safeguards, are guaranteed by law and observed in practice.

ARMED FORCES

The San Marino militia nominally consists of all able-bodied citizens between the ages of 16 and 55, but the armed forces actually maintained are principally for purposes of ceremonial display; these include the noble guard used in various functions.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

San Marino became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992; it belongs to several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, the World Bank, ILO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, and the WHO.

San Marino is also a member of the OSCE and the Council of Europe. In environmental cooperation, the nation is part of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and the UN Conventions on Climate Change and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Farming was formerly the principal occupation, but it has been replaced in importance by light manufacturing. However, the main sources of income are tourism, which accounted for more than 50% in 2001, and remittances from Sanmarinese living abroad. Some government revenue comes from the sale of postage stamps and coins and from Italy's subsidy to San Marino in exchange for which San Marino does not impose customs duties. The GDP growth has been impressive and consistent, averaging 7.68% from 1997 to 2001. Inflation, at 2% in 1997, increased to 3.3% in 2001, averaging 2.8% across the five-year period. Unemployment dropped steadily from 4.9% in 1997 to 2.6% in 2001. In purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, per capita income was at $34,600 in 2001.

The fact that San Marino is an enclave of Italy means that, apart from political links, it shares strong economic ties to the latter. The two countries form a customs union and share the same currency, although San Marino mints its own coins. Migrant workers from surrounding Italian regions boost the country's small labor force. The economic data available for San Marino is scattered and highly estimative.

Thus, in 2002 the GDP was $1.1 billion, and per capita income, in real terms, reached $29,000. The economy seems to be fairly dynamic as in 2004 the GDP growth rate was 2%. Natural resources include building stone and agricultural products (wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, and hides).

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 San Marino's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $940.0 million. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $34,600. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 7.5%. The average inflation rate in 2001 was 3.3%.

LABOR

In the latest years for which data was available, the labor force in 1999 totaled about 18,500. In 2000, it was estimated that the services sector provided employment for 57% of the workforce, with industry accounting for 42% and agriculture 1%. The unemployment rate in 2001 stood at 2.6%.

Labor federations include the Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers, affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, and the General Federation of Labor. About 50% of the workforce is unionized. The minimum working age is 16 without any exceptions. In 2001, the minimum wage was $1,200 per month although most wages are higher than the minimum.

AGRICULTURE

About 17% of the land is arable. Annual crop production includes wheat and grapes, as well as other grains, vegetables, fruits, and fodder.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Livestock raising uses some 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres), or about 23% of the total area. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses are raised.

FISHING

There is no fishing.

FORESTRY

Small quantities of wood are cut for local use.

MINING

San Marino had no commercial mineral resources.

ENERGY AND POWER

Electric power is imported from Italy.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing is limited to light industries such as textiles, bricks and tiles, leather goods, clothing, and metalwork. Cotton textiles are woven at Serravalle; bricks and tiles are made in La Dogana, which also has a dyeing plant; and cement factories and a tannery are located in Acquaviva, as well as a paper-making plant. Synthetic rubber is also produced. The pottery of Borgo Maggiore is well known. Gold and silver souvenirs are made for the tourist trade. Other products are Moscato wine, olive oil, and baked goods. A significant source of revenue is the selling of stamps to foreign collectors.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Sanmarinese students generally pursue their scientific and technical training abroad, since science and technology resources are domestically limited. The Universita Degli Studi, founded in 1987, has a department of technology. The Institute of Cybernetics, founded in 1965, offers courses in computer science.

DOMESTIC TRADE

There are small general stores in the capital and the smaller towns. Billboards and newspapers are the main advertising medium. A weekly market is held at Borgo Maggiore, which also sponsors an annual fair for the sale of cattle and sheep. Most retail trade within the country is focused on goods and services that support the tourism industry.

FOREIGN TRADE

Records of foreign trade are not published, but it is known that imports exceed exports. Principal exports are wine, textiles, furniture, quarried stone, ceramics, and handicrafts. The chief imports are raw materials and a wide variety of consumer goods. San Marino has a customs union with Italy. In 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU), further strengthening its ties to the EU.

Estimates of the US State Department show that in 2001, exports totaled around $2.0 billion, while imports amounted to $2.1 billion. More than 85% of the exports went to Italy, and included mainly manufactured goods, lime, wood, and food. Most of the imports came also from Italy and included consumer manufactures, food, and raw materials (including energy). San Marino also does trade with countries in Western and Eastern Europe, with South America, China, and Taiwan.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Since imports and exports are not subject to customs duties, no record is kept of foreign payments transactions. Receipts from tourism, remittances from Sanmarinese working abroad, and sales of postage stamps to foreign collectors are principal sources of foreign exchange.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

The principal bank, the Cassa di Risparmio, was founded in 1882. Other banks include the Banca Agricola and the Cassa Rurale. There are no securities transactions in San Marino. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the euro.

INSURANCE

Several major Italian insurance companies have agencies in San Marino.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The government derives its revenues mainly from the worldwide sale of postage stamps, direct and indirect taxes, and yearly subsidies

Revenue and Grants 438,922 100.0%
    Tax revenue 219,894 50.1%
    Social contributions 94,358 21.5%
    Grants 4,648 1.1%
    Other revenue 120,021 27.3%
Expenditures 426,864 100.0%
    General public services 61,975 14.5%
    Defense
    Public order and safety 12,569 2.9%
    Economic affairs 61,118 14.3%
    Environmental protection 13,809 3.2%
    Housing and community amenities 10,008 2.3%
    Health 77,424 18.1%
    Recreational, culture, and religion 9,816 2.3%
    Education 40,143 9.4%
    Social protection 140,003 32.8%
() data not available or not significant.

by the Italian government. State budgets have increased sharply in recent years.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2000 San Marino's central government took in revenues of approximately $400 million and had expenditures of $400 million.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 2002, the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were 438,922 and expenditures were 426,864. The value of revenues was us$413,064 and expenditures us$388,722, based on a market exchange rate for 2002 of us$1 = 1.0626 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 14.5%; public order and safety, 2.9%; economic affairs, 14.3%; environmental protection, 3.2%; housing and community amenities, 2.3%; health, 18.1%; recreation, culture, and religion, 2.3%; education, 9.4%; and social protection, 32.8%.

TAXATION

Legislation introducing San Marino's first income tax was passed by the Grand and General Council in October 1984. A general income tax is applied progressively to individuals (1250% in 1992) and a flat rate of 24% to corporations. Also levied are a stamp duty, registration tax, mortgage tax, and succession duty.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

San Marino's trade policy is governed by its customs union with Italy. There is a one-phase duty system on imported goods, which closely follows the rates of the Italian value-added tax (VAT) system. In 1992, there was a 14% tax on imports. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Information on foreign investment is not available.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

In addition to promoting tourism in San Marino, the government has encouraged the establishment of small-scale industries and service-oriented enterprises (4060 employees) by offering tax exemptions for 510 years.

The tourist industry is the main source of revenue for the country (about 50% of total revenues), so economic development strategies are coiled around this sector. More than 3 million tourists visit the small republic every year, and they constitute the primary market for all of San Marino's other industries. Stamps are one of the country's main export goods.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A social insurance system provides pensions for old age and disability. Employers, employees, and the government all contribute to the system. Self-employed contributions vary. There is universal medical coverage and maternity benefits of 100% of earnings for five months. All employees and self-employed persons have work injury insurance. Unemployment is only available to salaried employees and excludes civil servants.

The law mandates that women have equal access to employment opportunities, and in practice women face little or no discrimination in employment and in pay. Women actively participate in all careers including high public office. Laws protect women from violence, and instances of spousal abuse are infrequent.

The government is committed to protecting human rights. Prisons meet international standards and are open for inspection by human rights monitors.

HEALTH

Public health institutions include the State Hospital (opened in 1975), a dispensary for the poor, and a laboratory of hygiene and prophylaxis. All citizens receive free, comprehensive medical care. As of 2004, there were an estimated 251 physicians, 506 nurses, 26 midwives, 41 dentists, and 52 pharmacists per 100,000 people.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 10.6 and 7.8 per 1,000 people. In 2005, the estimated average life expectancy was 81.62 years and infant mortality was estimated at 5.73 per 1,000 live births. The estimated maternal mortality was 5 per 100,000 live births.

The immunization rates for children under one year old in San Marino were as follows: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 93%; polio, 100%; measles, 96%; and hepatitis B, 98%.

HOUSING

San Marino has over 7,000 dwellings, virtually all with electricity and piped-in water. Most new construction is financed privately. The housing stock for the nation is generally adequate to supply the population. Government concerns are primarily focused on preventing over-construction of rural areas.

EDUCATION

Primary education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 16; the adult literacy rate is about 98%. The program of instruction is patterned after the Italian curriculum, and San Marinese school certificates are recognized by Italy. Children go through five years of primary education followed by three years of secondary education at the first stage and a further three years of senior secondary school. At the secondary level, students may choose to attend technical or vocational programs instead of general (classical) studies. The academic year runs from October to July.

In 2000, there were about 1,000 students enrolled in primary school and 1,000 enrolled in secondary school. Nearly all students complete their primary education.

The University of San Marino is the primary institution of higher education. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at about 96%.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In the capital city is the Biblioteca di Stato, containing a library of some 110,000 books, documents, and pamphlets. The Palazzo del Valloni also houses the state archives, as well as a collection of rare coins and medals. The State University has a small collection of 23,000 volumes.

The Palazzo del Governo (built in 1894) and most other large buildings in the capital are of comparatively recent date, but many monuments have been rebuilt in an earlier style. In 2001, there were 10 museums in the country. One of them is devoted to the postage stamps of San Marino and other countries. The National Gallery of Modern Art is also in San Marino. The 14th-century church of San Francesco has paintings by several minor masters. The three old fortresses of Guaita, Fratta, and Montale are situated on the three pinnacles of Mt. Titano. There is also a museum in Borgia Maggiore devoted to objects connected with Garibaldi's stay in the republic.

MEDIA

An automatic telephone system, integrated into Italy's system, served 20,600 mainline telephones in 2002. The same year, there were an additional 16,800 mobile cellular phones in use throughout the country. In 1998, there were 3 FM radio stations and one television station receiving mostly foreign broadcasts. San Marino RTV was the state-owned national TV and radio broadcaster. There were 595 radios and 357 television sets per 1,000 population in 1997. In 2002, there were 14,300 Internet users in the country. In 2004, there were 1,763 Internet hosts.

In 2002, there were five major daily newspapers: Il Nuovo Titano (circulation 1,300), Riscossa Socialista, Notiziario, San Marino, and La Scintilia. There are also a number of government bulletins. The law provides for freedom of speech and of the press and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

ORGANIZATIONS

Business and labor organizations include the National Association for Industry of San Marino, National Small Enterprise Association of San Marino, Autonomous Workers Association of San Marino, Labour Confederation of San Marino, and the Democratic Workers Confederation of San Marino.

National youth organizations include the Young Christian Democrats and The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino. There are sports associations representing athletes in a variety of pastimes, such as weightlifting, tennis, football (soccer), and track and field. Many sports clubs are affiliated with the national Olympic Committee and other international organizations.

Volunteer service organizations, such as the Lions Clubs and Kiwanis International, are also present. The Red Cross and UNICEF have national chapters.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

The government has promoted tourism so successfully that in the summer during the 1980s the number of San Marino residents was often exceeded by the number of visitors (20,00030,000 daily). Growth in the tourist industry has increased the demand for San Marino's stamps and coins, gold and silver souvenirs, handicrafts, and pottery.

Principal attractions are the three medieval fortresses at the summit of Mt. Titano and the magnificent view from there of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea. The State Tourism, Sports, and Entertainment Board maintains various recreational facilities.

There were 683 hotel rooms in 2003, with 1,549 beds. The average length of stay was 1.5 nights that year.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the daily cost of travel in San Marino at $227.

FAMOUS SANMARINESE

Giambattista Belluzzi, a 16th-century military engineer in the service of Florence, was born in San Marino. Well-known Italians who were associated with San Marino include Cardinal Giulio Alberoni (16641752), who attempted to subject the republic to papal domination in 173940; Count Alessandro Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo, 174395), a Sicilian adventurer, imposter, and alchemist; Bartolommeo Borghesi (17811860), an antiquarian, epigrapher, and numismatist, who resided in San Marino from 1821 to 1860; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (180782), the great Italian patriot, who obtained refuge from the Austrians in San Marino in 1849.

DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, the Marches, and San Marino. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Passport, 1994.

Duursma, Jorri. Self-Determination, Statehood, and International Relations of Micro-states: the Cases of Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra, and the Vatican City. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Johnson, Virginia Wales. Two Quaint Republics: Andorra and San Marino. Boston: Estes, 1913.

Kochwasser, Friedrich. San Marino: die Älteste und Kleinste Republik der Welt. Herrenalb: Horst Erdmann, 1961.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

Republic of San Marino

Repubblica di San Marino

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

San Marino is an enclave lying wholly within northern Italy. It surrounds the 3-peaked Mount Titano (739 meters/2,425 feet) in the central Apennine Mountains, east of the city of Florence, Italy, and southwest of the city of Rimini, Italy, near the Adriatic Sea. With a total area of only 61.2 square kilometers (23.6 square miles), or about one-third the size of Washington, D.C., San Marino is one of the smallest countries in the world. The republic is also arguably the oldest in the world. It is named for its legendary founder, the 4th-century, Christian stonecutter and Catholic Saint Marinus. The capital is San Marino, a small town on the slopes of Mount Titano with a population of 4,498 (1996 estimate). Other population centers include Borgo Maggiore, Serravalle, and Domagnano.

POPULATION.

The population of San Marino was estimated at 27,336 in July 2001; it was less than 25,000 two years earlier. The growth rate was estimated at 1.49 percent in the same year, with a birth rate of 10.88 births per 1,000 population, exceeding the death rate of 7.65 per 1,000 population, all estimated in 2000. There is a high migration rate of 11.62 per 1,000 population (2000), mostly of people from adjacent Italian towns and villages. The population is somewhat less elderly than other European countries, and the percent of people under 15 years of age, 16 percent, is equal to that of people 65 or older. San Marino has a very high life expectancy at birth81.14 years for the total population, 85.02 years for women and 77.57 years for men. The fertility rate is estimated at 1.3 children per woman, which is comparable to Italy's rate. The workforce in 1999 included about 15,600 persons. The people of San Marino are distinctively Italian in their language, appearance, and culture; they use the Italian currency, and are mostly Roman Catholic, but are very proud of their independent political heritage. In addition to the native Sammarinese, there are also Italian immigrants.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

The economy of San Marino is tiny but, nevertheless, it is stable and quite prosperous, particularly when compared to other Southern European countries. More than half of the country's gross domestic product 's (GDP) total worth of about $860 million has been traditionally produced in the tourism industry. On the average, close to 3.5 million visitors travel to San Marino annually, a huge number compared to the country's population of about 27,000.

Interestingly, one of the most reliable sources of income within tourism, apart from hotels, restaurants, shops, and other facilities, is the sale of collectibles and souvenirs such as historic coins and the world famous Sammarinese picturesque postage stamps, which are produced by the government. San Marino issued its first commemorative stamps in 1894 and, since then, these have become part of a notable and sustainable source of income. All 10 of the post office branches in San Marino sell such stamps and collectable coins, including some legal gold tender coins (lawful money).

Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, building material, furniture, clothing, fabrics, paints, and some quality brands of spirits and wines. San Marino's bank system forms an integral part of the Italian banking system. Other key sectors are electronics and Internet-related activities.

Traditional economic activity in San Marino in the past relied mostly on stone quarrying, agriculture, sheep breeding, and wine and cheese making. Most Sammarinese families historically made their living as farmers and/or stone cutters. Building stone is the most important of the natural resources, as in much of Italy. Today's tiny agriculture sector focuses mostly on grains, grapes, and other fruits, as well as on animal husbandry, mostly cattle and pigs.

The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are reasonably high and comparable to those of surrounding Italy, with a GDP per capita of about $32,000 (2000 estimate). GDP growth for the same year was 8 percent. San Marino is closely associated with the economic structures of the EU through the Italian economy and monetary and customs systems, with which it is closely integrated. San Marino also receives payments from the Italian government in exchange for permitting its monopolies on tobacco and other commodities on its territory.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

San Marino is a republic that has preserved some very ancient traditions that additionally attract tourists to the country. Although it has been greatly influenced by modern political developments in surrounding Italy, it also has been spared some of the turbulent moments in its larger neighbor's contemporary history. It is democratic and neutral, and even more sensitive than ever to the importance of liberty. San Marino is governed according to a constitution adopted on 8 October 1600. A newer electoral law of 1926 and a "Manuscript of Rights" of 1974 also serve some of the functions of a constitution. San Marino claims to be the world's oldest surviving republic, founded by Saint Marinus in 301 A.D. Its foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy, and the social trends in the republic also follow closely with those of its neighbor.

The executive authority comprises the 2 Captains Regent, the traditional co-heads of state, who are both members of the parliament and elected by that body; a Congress of State (cabinet), also elected by the parliament; and a senior Secretary of State for foreign and political affairs, who acts as the traditional head of government. In their tenure, the Captains Regent preside over the deliberations of the executive body, the Congress of State. Every 6 months, the Sammarinese parliament elects new Captains Regenttraditionally from opposing parties to provide checks and balances. Their investiture (inauguration ceremony) takes place on 1 April and 1 October of every year and is accompanied by a centuries-old ceremony. Once their term is over, Sammarinese citizens have 3 days in which to file any complaints about the in-office activities and behavior of out-going Captains Regent. If so warranted, judicial proceedings against the ex-heads of state may be initiated.

The legislative power is vested in a unicameral (having 1 chamber) parliament, a 60-member house named the Grand and General Council that is elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years. The electoral body once comprised the heads of the Sammarinese families exclusively, but it was gradually extended to include all citizens over 18 years of age.

Italian magistrates, for both historical and social reasons of impartiality, have staffed the judicial system. The only native Sammarinese judges are the several Justices of the Peace, who may handle only civil cases in which disputed sums do not exceed 25 million lire (about $15,000). The traditional local Council of the Twelve serves as the highest court of appeals. It is elected by the Grand and General Council for the duration of the legislature.

The political parties in San Marino are traditionally very close to those in Italy, particularly the Christian Democrats, Socialists, and Communists. In the 1990s, however, among a series of disruptive political scandals, the Italian post-war political system was discredited and finally collapsed. A more complex and diversified system of new parties and alliances emerged from its debris. The centrist Christian Democratic Party, part of all ruling coalitions after 1948, dissolved and its members formed 2 new organizations, the Popular Party and the Christian Democratic Center. The new Democratic Party of the Left became the major left-wing party, including the majority of the reformed communists and many socialists. A smaller leftist group, the Communist Refoundation, retained some of the traditional Marxist policies, characteristic of the old communist party. The numerous Sammarinese political groups of the late 1990s accordingly included the conservative Democratic Christian Party (PDCS), the Progressive Democratic Party (PPDS), the Popular Democratic Party (APDS), the left-of-center Socialist Party (PSS), and the Communist Refoundation (RC), plus several other smaller groups, such as the Democratic Movement, the Popular Alliance, and the Socialists for Reform. Due to the small size of San Marino's population and electorate, no party has gained an absolute majority, so the government is usually run by a coalition. The parties sharing power currently are the Democratic Christian Party and the Socialist Party, but for several decades after World War II, San Marino was the only European country outside the Soviet sphere of influence ruled by a communist - socialist coalition. The elections held on 31 May 1998 (the next elections are to be held in May 2003) gave PDCS 40.8 percent of the popular vote, PSS received 23.3 percent, and PPDS had 18.6 percent. The composition of the current parliament and the Captains Regent reflects the stable economic situation in San Marino arising from having one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, a stable budget surplus , and zero national debt .

The role of the government in the economy is significant, although San Marino has developed a mature market economy. In the late 1980s, annual government revenue and expenditure were balanced at about $183 million, and since then the budget has accumulated a surplus. The state executive congress (cabinet), composed of 3 secretaries and 7 ministries, oversees the most vital economic activities, including those of the state-run Philatelic and Numismatic Office (stamps and coins). The government relies not only on tourism, taxes, and customs for revenue, but also on the sale of coins and stamps to collectors from throughout the world. In addition, the Italian government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of its basic treaty with Italy. The main issues facing the current government include economic and administrative problems related to San Marino's status as a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining officially separated from the EU.

Despite the tiny size of San Marino, it is an active player in the international community, with diplomatic ties to more than 70 countries. San Marino is a full member of the United Nations (UN), the International Court of Justice, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the Council of Europe, the International Red Cross Organization, and the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), among others. It also cooperates with the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and has official relations with the European Union. From May to November 1990, San Marino held the rotating presidency of the European Council of Ministers.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Italy supplies virtually all of San Marino's electricity, and the domestic automatic telephone system is completely integrated into the Italian telecommunications system. Main (fixed) phone lines (nearly 20,000) and cellular phones are ubiquitous, yet in 1999 there was only 1 local Internet service provider. The country has its own local television station and 3 local FM radio stations, although Italian broadcasting and cable TV is available everywhere. The republic has only a 1.5-kilometer (1 mile) cable railway, which connects the city of San Marino to the community of Borgo Maggiore. Virtually all of the 220 kilometers (138 miles) of roads in San Marino are paved. The country has no naval ports or airports, relying instead on Italy's extensive and advanced transportation facilities.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

The traditional foundation of San Marino's economy was agriculture and stone quarrying, while tourism and

Communications
Country Telephones a Telephones, Mobile/Cellular a Radio Stations b Radios a TV Stations a Televisions a Internet Service Providers c Internet Users c
San Marino 18,000 (1998) 3,010 (1998) AM 0; FM 3; shortwave 0 16,000 1 9,000 2 N/A
United States 194 M 69.209 M (1998) AM 4,762; FM 5,542; shortwave 18 575 M 1,500 219 M 7,800 148 M
Italy 25 M (1999) 20.5 M (1999) AM 100; FM 4,600; shortwave 9 50.5 M 358 (1995) 30.3 M 93 11.6 M
Monaco 31,027 (1995) N/A AM 1; FM N/A; shortwave 8 34,000 5 (1998) 25,000 2 N/A
aData is for 1997 unless otherwise noted.
bData is for 1998 unless otherwise noted.
cData is for 2000 unless otherwise noted.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online].

light industry have grown in importance. Wheat, barley, maize, olives, wine, and livestock and dairy products dominate agricultural output. Some building stone is still quarried. Manufactures include textiles, cement and building materials, leather goods, synthetic rubber products, and ceramics. Other important sources of income are the sale of postage stamps and collectible coins. In 1998, 60 percent of the labor force worked in the services sector, 38 percent in industry, and 2 percent in agriculture. In terms of industries, most workers were employed in tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, and wine production. No exact figures for sales of any industry are available, as the figures for San Marino are recorded as part of Italy's output.

AGRICULTURE

Arable land comprises some 17 percent of San Marino's rugged territory, and agricultural products include wheat, grapes, corn, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, and hides. Italy supplies much of the republic's food, while main export products are wine and cheeses, renowned in Italy and abroad. Woods also cover a part of the land.

INDUSTRY

The government has a sound policy of promoting local producers. Electronics and Internet related activities have been added to the traditional Sammarinese construction materials manufacture, which includes building-stone quarrying, cement, ceramics, and tiles fabrication. Wood processing and fine furniture manufacturing are also well developed. Minting of coins and medals, printing of stamps and cards, and fine local handicrafts are the largest contributors to the economy in terms of revenue. Construction and the real estate market are another important source of income and occupation. Chemical industries, textiles, and apparel manufacturing also contribute to the country's exports.

SERVICES

The tourist sector is estimated to contribute over 50 percent of San Marino's GDP. In 1997, San Marino's rich history, charming mountain views, fine dining, and shopping attracted 3.4 million tourists. The republic's proximity to major maritime tourist resorts on the Adriatic Sea at Rimini and and to world centers of sophisticated tourism such as the museum cities of Florence and Venice also stimulated tourism. In finance, apart from the major Italian banks and insurance firms, there is only 1 local credit institution, the Istituto di Credito Sammarinese, which performs the functions of a central bank. Among other duties, this institution coordinates the country's banking system and performs treasury and tax collection services. Given the small size of the retail market, small, family-owned stores prevail. The Sammarinese also shop in larger retail establishments in Italy, however.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

International trade is light in volume. About 85 percent of exports and imports are shipped to, or come from, Italy. Energy, automobiles, equipment, and most manufactured goods and food are imported. Besides Italy, primary trade partners include some EU members, eastern European and South America countries, China, and Taiwan.

MONEY

The Sammarinese economy is closely integrated with the Italian monetary and banking system. The Banking Act in Italy of 1990 introduced major changes as a part of the EU policy for free capital movement within the member states and a currency union, creating conditions for the reduction of public ownership of banks and liberalizing the regulations on foreign capital. In 1999, Italy and 10 other members of the EU switched from their national currencies to the single currency of the euro, as a part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). The euro has been in use since 1 January 1999, initially for electronic transfers and accounting purposes only, while euro coins and bills will be issued in 2002. At that time the Italian currency will cease to be legal tender. On 1 January 1999, control over Italian monetary policy , including the issues of setting the interest rates and regulating the money supply, was transferred to the European Central Bank (ECB). The need to adjust to the centralized European monetary and banking system requirements without being officially a member of the EU will be a serious challenge for the Sammarinese government

Exchange rates: San Marino
euros per US$1
Jan 2001 1.06594
2000 1.08540
1999 0.93863
1998 1,736.2
1997 1,703.1
1996 1,542.9
Note: Rates prior to 1999 are in Italian lire per US$.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].

in the near future. The benefits from the single European economic space, however, are expected to outweigh the drawbacks.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

With a high measure of GDP per capita, a low inflation rate (in terms of consumer prices) of 2 percent (1997 estimate), and the benefits of the monetary and economic union with Italy, the tiny republic offers its citizens a high standard of living. No data as to San Marino's economic equality index ( Gini index ) are available, but if Italy's index is used, the degree of economic equality in the republic should be characterized as outstanding compared with that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The size of the republic and its economic activity render little space for the accumulation of large private fortunes, but extreme poverty is not an issue in the country either. This is no wonder given the influence of socialist politics in the country's history. In this and other ways, San Marino more closely resembles the above-average economic and social structures of industrialized northern Italy

WORKING CONDITIONS

The small but affluent Sammarinese economy, the close popular scrutiny over the government's deliberations, the long tradition of socialist control, and one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe almost rule out labor unrest in the republic. The new, more environmentally friendly industries that are gradually supplanting traditional stone quarrying are also more conducive to enhancing safety at work. Of a workforce of some 18,500, only 3 percent were unemployed in 1999.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

301 A.D. According to legend, San Marino was founded by the Christian stonecutter Marinus who sought refuge on Mount Titano from religious persecution.

GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
San Marino N/A 20,000 N/A N/A 32,000
United States 28,600 30,200 31,500 33,900 36,200
Italy 19,600 21,500 20,800 21,400 22,100
Monaco 25,000 N/A N/A 27,000 N/A
Note: Data are estimates.
SOURCE: Handbook of the Nations, 17th,18th, 19th and 20theditions for 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 data; CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online] for 2000 data.

4TH TO 13TH CENTURIES. San Marino retains its independence despite the ambitions of the neighboring rulers and as new political entities develop and disappear throughout the land. The economy is based on agriculture and stonecutting.

1291. Roman Pope Nicholas IV officially recognizes San Marino's independence.

1503. Italian general Cesare Borgia briefly occupies the republic until his death several months later.

1739. Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal Alberoni uses military force to occupy San Marino, but civil disobedience against the invader and letters of protest to the Pope are answered by renewed papal recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of independence.

1797. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte offers to expand the territory of San Marino as a gift and as a sign of friendship with the republic, but the Sammarinese authorities refuse.

1849. San Marino offers refuge to Italian revolutionary leader Giuseppe Garibaldi.

1862. San Marino signs a treaty of friendship (revised several times since) with Italy.

1943-45. During World War II, neutral San Marino hosts about 100,000 refugees from the embattled neighboring zones of Italy.

1945. A coalition of Communists and Socialists wins elections and rules for 12 years, creating the base of the welfare state and modern economic development.

1957. The Christian Democratic Party, aided by Communist dissidents, takes control of the government.

1978. A Communist coalition regains power and retains it for 14 years.

1992. San Marino becomes a member of the United Nations, while the Christian Democrats form a coalition government with the Socialists, a regime that continues to govern after the 1993 general elections.

1999. Control over the Italian monetary and banking system, used in San Marino, is transferred to the European Central Bank (ECB).

FUTURE TRENDS

The Sammarinese economy is closely related to Italy's and is highly dependent on the developmental trends of the EU. It is likely that the country will preserve its economyparticularly in the areas of tourism, services, and modern manufacturingmaintain its high living standards, and continue to attract tourists and collectors for the foreseeable future. The number of foreign visitors may even increase as the movement of people, particularly from Central Europe, becomes easier with their gradual integration in the EU and the positive changes concerning the wealth and leisure of their people.

The government's desire to maintain the republic's autonomy and independence may be challenged, however, by the advance of European integration, the increasing competition following the liberalization of commerce and services, and notably by the coming of the single European monetary system. The benefits of the unified European economic space, however, will almost definitely outweigh the problems and possible drawbacks. It is not likely that Sammarinese bank revenues will significantly decline without the exchange fees they charged before San Marino adopted the euro: the monetary union with Italy and the location of the republic as an enclave in Italian territory never generated a large foreign exchange turnover even before the European monetary union took effect.

DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Global Investment Business Center, Inc. staff. San Marino: A Country Study Guide. International Business Publications, February 2001.

Repubblica di San Marino. <http://www.sanita.segreteria.sm>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State Background Notes: San Marino, November 1998. <http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/sanmarino_9811-bgn.html>. Accessed January 2001.

Valentin Hadjiyski

CAPITAL:

San Marino.

MONETARY UNIT:

Italian lira (plural is lire). One Italian lira (L) equals 100 centesimi. There are notes of L1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, and 100,000, and coins of L50, 100, 200, and 500. San Marino also mints its own coins, having the same value as the Italian ones. San Marino has a customs union with Italy, and it switched to the new European unit, the euro, along with Italy and other members of the European Union (EU) in 1999 for all forms of "written money"checks, bank transactions, and credit cards. In January 2002, the euro will be issued as coins and notes, and the lira will be phased out.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics, furnishings, textiles, apparel.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Energy, automobiles, equipment, a wide variety of consumer manufactures, clothing, food.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

$860 million (purchasing power parity, 2000 estimate).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

All San Marino foreign trade data are included with the statistics for Italy and no separate statistics are available.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

Major City:
San Marino

INTRODUCTION

SAN MARINO is located in northeastern Italy and is one of the world's smallest and oldest republics. The picturesque landlocked country is surrounded entirely by Italy. The small nation is largely sustained by tourism. San Marino developed around a 9th century monastery, gradually acquiring the institutions of a small state. Its independence has been challenged by various popes, ruling families, and conquerors. However, its high and isolated position, well-trained army, and strategic insignificance permitted San Marino's population to remain free from the control of the Holy Roman Emperor or the Pope. The Congress of Vienna recognized San Marino as a sovereign state in 1815. In 1862, San Marino entered into a friendship treaty and customs union with Italy. The treaty was renewed in 1939 and amended in 1971.

MAJOR CITY

San Marino

The town of San Marino is on the slopes near the summit of Mt. Titano (2,457 feetnamed for the famous Titans of Roman mythology). According to tradition, San Marino was named for St. Marinus, a 4th-century Dalmatian mason who was working at Rimini. He fled with others to Mt. Titano seeking to avoid Emperor Diocletian's religious persecution of Christians. Over 4,000 people live in the town of San Marino, the capital of the country. Farming was once the main occupation, but it has been replaced by light manufacturing. High stone walls surround the town of San Marino. Tourism and money sent by citizens abroad are the main sources of income. The government gets revenue from selling stamps and coins, which are very popular internationally with collectors. Commercial activity is centered on Borgo Maggiore, 600 feet below the town of San Marino, where there is a weekly market and an annual livestock fair. The two areas are linked by a 1.5-mile winding road and by cable-car service. There is helicopter service to Rimini, Italy during the summer.

Recreation and Entertainment

The traditional national sport of San Marino is archery, and pistol and rifle practice are also popular. San Marino lies about 6 miles from Italy's Adriatic coast, making water sports popular as well. The Sammarinese also enjoy bocce (Italian lawn bowling), soccer, baseball, tennis, and basketball. The country also annually sponsors a Grand Prix Formula One auto racing event, although it must be held across the border in Italy because there is no suitable racetrack site in San Marino.

During the summer, some 20,000-30,000 foreigners visit the country each day. Hotels and restaurants have been built in recent years to accommodate the visitors.

The Palazzo del Valloni in the town of San Marino was rebuilt after falling victim to an accidental bombing by the British in World War II. The palace holds many of the nation's cultural archives, including famous paintings by Guernico and Strozzi, and a collection of rare coins and medals. The neo-Gothic Palazzo del Governo was built in 1894, but most other large buildings are of recent date, although many monuments have been rebuilt in an earlier style. The 14th-century church of St. Francesco in the lower part of the town is itself an architectural treasure and houses more historic paintings. The Basilica del Santo, in which the skull of St. Marinus is kept, is a 19th-century neo-classical structure that stands over the site of San Marino's original 5th-century church. The church of San Pietro next to the basilica houses the twoniched rock that, as legend says, Sts. Marinus and Leo used as beds. The three old fortresses of Guiata (built in the 11th century and rebuilt in the 15th century), Fratta (13th century), and Montale (16th century) are situated on the three pinnacles of Mt. Titano. The vista from the three fortresses overlooks the Italian town of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea.

The Crossbowmen's Corps dates back to before 1295 and has defended San Marino's independence throughout its history. The organization performs costumed demonstrations during the summer at the Cava dei Balestieri (Cross-bowman's Quarry), located by the cable car station. Public gardens near the quarry contain an outdoor sculpture gallery, with works by major contemporary sculptors such as Berti, Bini, Crocetti, and El Greco. The Museo Filatelico et Numismatico in Borgomaggiore shows every stamp and coin the republic has issued since 1877. The museum also houses Garibaldi memorabilia. San Marino provided sanctuary to Garibaldi and his associates from Italy during the 1840s.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

San Marino is Europe's third-smallest country (after Vatican City and Monaco), with an area of only 23 square miles. San Marino is located entirely inside northeastern Italy close to the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The total area is only about 30% as large as Washington, D.C. The topography is lofty, as San Marino lies in the Apennine Mountains. The high cliffs of the Fratta tower not only provide scenic views of Italy but also of the Slovenian coastline across the Adriatic Sea. The climate is Mediterranean, with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers. Temperatures frequently fall below freezing in the winter and reach a maximum of 79° F in the summer.

Population

San Marino has an estimated 27,000 inhabitants. The Sammarinese are mostly of Italian ancestry, and most new immigration to the country is from Italy. The main destinations for those emigrating from the country are Italy, the United States, France, and Belgium.

Roman Catholicism is the official religion and the faith of most residents. San Marino has nine parishes, all belonging to a single diocese. Italian is the official language, and many residents speak in the regional Romagna dialect.

Government

San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Today, legislative authority is vested in a unicameral parliament, the Great and General Council, consisting of 60 members who serve 5-year terms unless a majority votes to dissolve and calls for new elections.

Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State (cabinet), composed of nine members chosen by the Great and General Council and two captains regent.

The captains regent are elected by the council from among its members for 6month terms. Their functions are largely honorary, although they also preside over meetings of the council and the congress and are empowered to propose legislation and to represent San Marino in its foreign relations. The captains regent are assisted by two secretaries of state (foreign affairs and internal affairs) and by several additional secretaries entrusted with specific portfolios.

The Congress of State is composed of de facto executives who head the various administrative departments in the government. These posts are divided among the parties who form the coalition government. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has come to assume many of the prerogatives of a prime minister.

Membership in the Great and General Council is based on proportional representation and is selected from nominee lists submitted by the political parties. Voting is open to all adult citizens of the republic.

Judicial authority is turned over in part to Italian magistrates in both criminal or civil cases. Minor cases are handled by a local conciliatory judge. Appeals go, in the first instance, to an Italian judge residing in Italy; the final court of review is the Council of Twelvejudges chosen for 6-year terms (four every 2 years) from among the members of the Great and General Council.

For taxation purposes, the tiny republic is divided into in districts corresponding to the country's Roman Catholic parishes. For administration, it is divided into nine sections, or "castles. "The head of each castle is an elected committee led by an official known as the captain of the castle. New captains are chosen on annual holidays, April 1 and October 1, when captains regent are installed in office.

The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above, with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center. The coat of arms depicts the three historic tower fortresses of San Marino.

Arts, Science, Education

The educational system is modeled on Italy's. Primary education is compulsory for children ages 6-13, and San Marino has 14 elementary schools. Students pursue higher education at Italian universities. The literacy rate in San Marino for citizens ages 10 and older is 96%.

Commerce and Industry

The Italian government pays an annual budget subsidy to San Marino under terms of the republic's treaty with Italy. In return, San Marino relinquishes the following rights: free transit of imports through Italian ports; cultivation of agricultural products protected by Italian state monopoly; printing of bills and notes; operation of a commercial radio and television station; and establishment of a free trade zone.

San Marino's main industry (50% of the economy) is tourism, which provides for a high standard of living with relatively low taxes. Establishments related to tourism (hotels, restaurants, and shops) account for much of the country's employment.

Other economic activities in San Marino are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Livestock utilizes about 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) and is devoted mostly to cows, oxen, and sheep. Cheesemaking is also important.

The sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors from throughout the world provides a small amount of revenue.

Transportation

There is regular bus service and seasonal helicopter service between San Marino and Rimini, Italy. An electrified railway once connected the two towns, but was never repaired after sustaining damage in World War II.

Communications

The telecommunications system is integrated into Italy's. There are three local FM radio stations and one television station receiving mostly foreign broadcasts. San Marino has two daily newspapers: Il Quatidiano Sammarinese, and San Marino Italia.

Health

Public health institutions include the State Hospital, a dispensary for the poor, and a laboratory of hygiene and prevention. All citizens receive medical care fully subsidized by the government.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Travelers must enter San Marino from Italy. As there are no frontier formalities imposed, any person visiting San Marino must comply with Italian passport/visa regulations as follows:

A passport is required. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. For further information concerning entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 White-haven Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Tel: 202-612-4400 or via the Internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or the Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco.

Those tourists planning to stay other than in hotels for more than one month should register with the local police station within eight days of arrival in Italy. Visitors to Italy may be required to demonstrate to the police upon arrival sufficient financial means to support themselves while in Italy. Credit cards, ATM cards, traveler's checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. can be used to show sufficient means.

Currency is the Italia lira.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

January 1 New Year's Day

January 6 Epiphany

February 5St. Agatha's Day and liberation of San Marino

March 25 Anniversary of the Arengo

April 1 Investiture of Captains-Regent (Spring) *Easter Monday

May 1Labor Day *Ascension

July 28 Fall of Fascism

August 14-16 Assumption and Bank Holiday

September 3 Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino

October 1 Investiture of Captains-Regent (Fall)

November 1 All Saints' Day

November 2 Commemoration of the Dead

December 8 Immaculate Conception

December 24-26 Christmas

December 31 New Year's Eve

*Variable

RECOMMENDED READING

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, The Marches & San Marino. London: A & C Black, 1994.

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San Marino (country, Europe)

San Marino (sän märē´nō), officially Republic of San Marino, republic (2005 est. pop. 28,900), 24 sq mi (62 sq km), in the Apennines near the Adriatic Sea, SW of Rimini, N central Italy. It is the world's smallest republic and claims to be Europe's oldest existing state. The capital is San Marino (1988 est. pop. 4,140); Serravalle is the only other town.

People, Economy, and Government

Virtually all of the republic's inhabitants speak Italian and are Roman Catholic. About half of San Marino citizens live abroad, mainly in Italy, the United States, and France. Of note in San Marino are the Basilica of Santo Marino; towers (14th–16th cent.) built on each of the three peaks of Mt. Titano; the Gothic government house; and several museums of art.

San Marino's industries include banking and the manufacture of apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Tourism, however, is the country's economic mainstay. The sale of postage stamps and duty-free consumer goods are also sources of income. Wheat, grapes, corn, and olives are grown and cattle, pigs, and horses are raised. Wine and cheeses are the most important agricultural products. Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics are exported. The country imports many manufactured goods and much of its food, mostly from Italy. The republic receives an annual subsidy from Italy in return for having renounced certain rights, such as establishing a broadcasting station and growing tobacco. Although San Marino mints its own coins, Italian and Vatican City currencies are in general use.

San Marino is governed under the constitution of 1600 and the electoral law of 1926. Two regents (Capitani Reggenti), who are heads of state, are selected by the legislature from among its members for a period of six months. The secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, who is the head of government, is elected by the legislature for a five-year term, as is the cabinet. Legislative power in San Marino is vested in the popularly elected Grand Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale), which is made up of 60 members elected to five-year terms. Administratively, the country is divided into nine municipalities.

History

According to tradition, Marino, a Christian stonecutter from Dalmatia, took refuge (early 4th cent.) on Mt. Titano (2,300 ft/701 m), the chief geographical feature of present-day San Marino. By the mid-5th cent., a community was formed; because of its relatively inaccessible location and its poverty, it has succeeded, with a few brief interruptions, in maintaining its independence. In 1631 its independence was recognized by the papacy. In 1849, San Marino gave refuge to Garibaldi, the Italian patriot and soldier. Italy and San Marino signed a treaty of friendship and economic cooperation in 1862 (renewed and expanded several times). Volunteers from San Marino served with the Italians in World Wars I and II; Allied aircraft bombed the republic in 1944.

Following a period of Communist rule (1947–57), a coalition of Christian Democrats and Social Democrats came to power. In 1973, the Social Democrats left the coalition and were replaced by the Socialists and the tiny Movement for Statutory Liberties. In 1960 women were given the right to vote, and in 1973 they were granted the right to hold public office. A left-wing coalition led by the Communists ruled from 1978 to 1986, at which time the Communists joined with the Christian Democrats to form a new government. The coalition was reelected in 1988. The Communist party changed its name in 1990 to the Democratic Progressive party and continued in coalition with the Christian Democrats. In 1992, the Christian Democrats formed a new coalition with the Socialists; they remained in power following the 1993 and 1998. Governmental instability after the 2001 elections led to broad-based national unity government in 2003. In 2006 the Socialists and Democrats, a merger of the Socialists, former Communists, and others, won a plurality and formed a coalition government. Coalitions led by the Christian Democrats won the 2008 and 2012 elections. San Marino became a member of the United Nations in 1992.

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San Marino

San Marino

Official name: The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

Area: 61 square kilometers (24 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Monte Titano (755 meters/2,477 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 13 kilometers (8 miles) northeast to southwest; 9 kilometers (6 miles) southeast to northwest

Land boundaries: 39 kilometers (24 miles) total boundary length, all with Italy

Coastline: None

Territorial sea limits: None

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

San Marino is a tiny, landlocked country located entirely within Italy, about 24 kilometers (15 miles) southwest of the city of Rimini, in the Apennine Mountains between Italy's Marche and Romagna regions. It is Europe's third-smallest independent state (only Vatican City and Monaco are smaller) and the world's second-smallest republic (after Nauru). With an area of 61 square kilometers (24 square miles), San Marino is about one-third the size of Washington, D.C.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

San Marino has the mild, temperate climate typical of northeastern Italy. Summer highs rarely rise above 26°C (79°F), and winter lows rarely fall below 7°C (44°F). Annual rainfall averages between 56 centimeters (22 inches) and 80 centimeters (32 inches).

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Mount Titano dominates the landscape of San Marino; most of the irregularly shaped country is situated on its slopes and crest. There is enough level land at the base of the mountain for agriculture, however.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

San Marino is landlocked.

6 INLAND LAKES

There are no sizable lakes in San Marino.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

San Marino lies largely within the basin of Italy's Marecchia River, into which the San Marino River drains, flowing northward and forming part of the republic's border with Italy. The Marano and Ausa Rivers drain into the Adriatic Sea.

8 DESERTS

There are no deserts in San Marino.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Mt. Titano is bordered by hills to the southwest, and there is also some level land at its base that has been cultivated.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

The limestone peaks of Mt. Titano occupy the central part of the republic. There are three major peaks, each of which houses ruins of ancient fortifications. The summit of Mt. Titano (755 meters/2,477 feet) commands a panoramic view of the Adriatic Sea, which is only 19 kilometers (12 miles) away.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

There are no well-known caves in San Marino. The famous Frasassi Caves, which are among the largest and most scenic in Europe, are located within 100 kilometers (62 miles) of the country, however, in the Apennines between Ancona and Assisi.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

San Marino's mountains rise steeply from its lower elevations, with no plateaus among them.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

San Marino's most famous man-made features are the three medieval fortresses that sit atop the three peaks of Mt. Titano, on steep cliffs overlooking both the Italian town of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea.

14 FURTHER READING

Books and Periodicals

Carrick, Noel. San Marino. New York: Chelsea House, 1988

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, The Marches, and San Marino. London: Black, 1994.

"Now, After 1,600 Years, Time to Join the World (San Marino to Become Member of the United Nations)." New York Times: February 26, 1992.

Web Sites

Lonely Planet: Destination San Marino. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/san_marino/printable.htm (accessed April 24, 2003).

U.S. Department of State: Background note: San Marino. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5387.htm (accessed April 24, 2003).

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San Marino

San Marino

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Republic of San Marino
Region: Europe
Population: 26,937
Language(s): Italian
Literacy Rate: 96%

The smallest republic in the world, San Marino was founded in 350 A.D. According to the 1997 Information Please Almanac, St. Marinus and a group of Christians first settled it. The San Marino constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government; the Parliament has 60 members and has legislative and administrative powers.

Compulsory education in San Marino begins at the age of 6 and continues until the age of 14. It consists of five years of primary education and three years of lower secondary education, which can be taken through a state or non-state school or through home schooling (European Education 1999).

San Marinese preschools accept all children between the ages of three and six. Attendance is free. Primary school attendance is compulsory for children ages 6 to 11. Students are given yearly, state-required final exams to determine whether or not they may continue onto the next level (European Education 1999).

Lower secondary education is compulsory for children between the ages of 11 and 14. After completing lower secondary education, students may leave school or continue for another three years in upper secondary education after which they can go onto higher education. Higher education is offered at San Marino's one major university, L'Universita di San Marino. It offers four different types of degrees (European Education 1999). San Marino also offers several types of nonformal education such as classical, scientific, artistic, technical, and vocational schools and adult education programs.

The Ministry of Education has the responsibility of supervising all educational institutions. The Ministry also plans and promotes educational research. The schools are funded by the state, and money is distributed to schools depending on their needs.

Teachers in San Marino attend teacher training schools, and they must take general culture and psychology classes. Specialization classes can be taken after graduation (Eurydice 1997).

Education is very important in San Marino. In the future, their educational programs will continue to change based on changes in society.


Bibliography

The 1997 Information Please Almanac. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.

European Education Profile. The British Council, 2000. Available from http://www.britishcouncil.sm.education/.

The Eurydice Database San Marino, 2001. Available from http://www.psy.it/ordpsic/psy_e_u.html.


Deanna Edens

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San Marino

San Marino

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Republic of San Marino
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 26,937
Language(s): Italian
Literacy rate: 96%

The Republic of San Marino, the world's smallest republic and Europe's oldest state, is situated entirely within Italy's borders. There are five daily newspapers within the country's total area of 61.2 square kilometers. However, due to its location and small size (the entire country is only about one-third the size of Washington, D.C.), it relies on the Italian press for its news coverage. Most regional and Italian national newspapers, particularly Il Resto del Carlino, include San Marino coverage. Daily newspaper circulation is approximately 72 per 1,000 people.

The country has one state-owned television station and one state-owned radio station, but San Marino also receives Italian television broadcasts. The country has two Internet service providers as of 2001. The literacy rate in San Marino is extremely high96 percentand citizens enjoy a free press. The country's per capita income was $32,000 in 2000.

Nearly all of San Marino's citizens speak Italian, the official language, and the majority of the country is Roman Catholic. San Marino's political system is a democracy, with five major political parties.

Bibliography

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Fact-book 2002. Available from http://www.cia.gov.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth ed. 2001.

World Desk Reference, 2002.

Carol Marshall

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San Marino

San Marino World's smallest republic and perhaps Europe's oldest state, in the Apennines, near the Adriatic Sea, ne Italy. According to legend, it was founded in the early 4th century ad. Its mountainous terrain enabled it to retain a separate status, becoming an independent commune in the 13th century. The economy is largely agricultural. Manufacturing is also important, but tourism is vital to the state's income. While San Marino has its own currency and stamps, Italian and Vatican City equivalents are widely used. It possesses its own legislative assembly, the Great and General Council, which elects Captains Regent as heads of state. There are two towns: Serraville (2000 pop. 8400), and the capital San Marino (2000 pop. 4400). Area: 61sq km (24sq mi). Pop. (2000) 27,100.

http://www.traveldocs.com/sm

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San Marino

San Marino

Culture Name

Sammarinese

Alternative Name

La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (The Most Serene Republic of San Marino)

Orientation

Identification. San Marino takes its name from its founder, Marinus, who according to legend founded the republic in 301 c.e. San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Although Italian-speaking and heavily influenced by the surrounding Italian culture, the Sammarinese have maintained their individuality through the centuries, have a strong sense of identity, and are proud of their unique culture.

Location and Geography. San Marino, one of the smallest republics in the world, is located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, south of the city of Rimini on the northern part of the Adriatic coast. Approximately 24 square miles (61 square kilometers) in size, San Marino is completely landlocked. Situated in the central part of the Apennine mountains, San Marino is dominated by the three-peaked Mount Titano, which is 2,437 feet (743 meters) high. There are several streams and small rivers, including the Ausa, Marano, and the San Marino. The terrain is rugged but the climate is Mediterranean with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers. The capital is located in the main town, also called San Marino. Other important towns include Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, and Domagnano.

Demography. A 1997 survey put the population of San Marino at 24,714 of which 14 percent are were fourteen years old and younger, 68 percent were between fifteen and sixty-four years old, and 18 percent were sixty-five years old and over. The population is divided ethnically between Sammarinese and Italians. San Marino is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with an average of more than 860 people per square mile (332 per square kilometers). The republic is approximately 5.5 miles (9 kilometers) across and 8 miles (13 kilometers) long. It is estimated that sixteen thousand Sammarinese live in other countries.

Linguistic Affiliation. The official number of languages spoken in San Marino is two: a Sammarinese dialect and standard Italian. Approximately 83 percent of the population speak Sammarinese, which is considered a variation of the Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect found in the surrounding Italian region. Standard Italian is the language of everyday use, although typical Sammarinese phrases and expressions are used regularly.

Symbolism. The Sammarinese flag consists of two equal bands of white (above) and light blue (below) with the national coat of arms placed in the center. The coat of arms features a shield with three towers on three peaks flanked by a wreath, with a crown above and a scroll below bearing the word Libertas (Liberty). The towers represent the three fortified towers on Mount Titano which have been strategic in the defense of the republic throughout its history. The national holiday is 3 September, the Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. San Marino was founded in 301 c.e. by a Christian stonemason, Marinus, who fled the island of Arbe off the Dalmation coast to escape the anti-Christian persecution of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. Taking refuge on Mount Titano, Marinus founded a small community of Christians. The area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although records date back only to the Middle Ages. In memory of Marinus, the area was named the Land of San Marino, then the Community of San Marino, and finally the Republic of San Marino. The state of San Marino maintained its independence despite frequent invasions by the rulers of Rimini, and in 1291 Pope Nicholas IV recognized San Marino's independence.

The territory of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463 when the republic formed an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a reward, Pope Pius II gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. In the same year the town of Faetano voluntarily joined the young state. The nation has remained the same size ever since.

San Marino has been occupied by invaders only twice, both for short periods of time. In 1503 Cesare Borgia, known as Duca Valentino, occupied the country until his the death of his father Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI, the same year. The political unrest following the Pope's death forced Cesare Borgia to withdraw his forces from San Marino. In 1739 Cardinal Alberoni, in an attempt to gain more political power, used military force to occupy San Marino but civil disobedience and clandestine communications with the current Pope, Clement XII, helped to ensure recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of its independence. Since 1862 San Marino has had an official treaty of friendship, revised several times, with Italy.

National Identity. The Sammarinese are proud of their history and have a strong sense of unity due to San Marino's small size and unique place in the world.

Ethnic Relations. There is a large resident Italian population in the republic, and contact with the surrounding Italian regions have helped ensure close cultural and ethnic ties between the Sammarinese and the Italians. Although there is a free flow of people in and out of San Marino, it is extremely difficult to acquire citizenship. A person can become a citizen only by being born in the republic, and only if both parents are citizens; or by marrying a Sammarinese. Citizenship through naturalization is rare. As a consequence, San Marino has a population that is still almost exclusively native Sammarinese.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

San Marino is a mountainous nation consisting of small hill towns. Stone, brick, and tile are some of the principal building materials and like many Italian towns, the center of town is piazza which also serves a social function as a gathering place. The capital, the City of San Marino, is a fortified town as are many of the other towns of San Marino. Much of the original medieval fortifications remain, including three fortified towers located on the peaks of Mount Titano. These towers, called La Guaita, La Cesta, and Il Montale, are still linked by ramparts and walls constructed from the local sandstone. The oldest part of the capital dates from the early twelfth century. In the older sections of San Marino there are still many buildings dating from the Renaissance period in the early 1400s.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Food and meals are an important part of life in San Marino. The cuisine is Mediterranean, emphasizing fresh and locally grown produce, pasta, and meat. Although it is similar to that of the Italian Romagna region which borders San Marino, the cuisine of San Marino features its own typical dishes. Traditional recipes include faggioli con le cotiche, a dark bean soup flavored with bacon and traditionally prepared at Christmas; pasta e cece, a soup of chickpeas and noodles flavored with garlic and rosemary; and nidi di rondine (literally, "swallow's nest"), a dish of pasta with smoked ham, cheese, beef, and a tomato sauce, which is then covered with a white sauce and baked in the oven. Roast rabbit with fennel is also a popular Sammarinese dish. Other popular local dishes include bustrengo, a cake made with raisins; cacciatello, a mixture of milk and eggs; and zuppa di ciliege, cherries stewed in red wine and sugar and served on local bread. San Marino also produces high quality wines, the most famous of which are the Sangiovese, a strong red wine; and the Biancale, a dry white wine. There are many small family-owned restaurants, often providing outdoor seating in the summer, which play an important role in the lives of the Sammarinese, as meals are a daily part of family life and socializing.

Basic Economy. Tourism is one of the most important parts of San Marino's economy and many businesses cater to the tourist trade. The sale of collectible postage stamps and coins also constitutes a major part of the republic's revenue. Until the latter part of the twentieth century, farming, mining, and stone working formed the core of San Marino's economy. White sandstone was once abundant but most of the quarries are now closed. Sandstone is now extracted in limited quantities for decorative and artistic purposes rather than for construction. In addition to wine, the production and export of alcoholic spirits and liqueurs is a significant industry, along with other agricultural products such as wheat, grapes, corn, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, and hides. Although San Marino still has a strong agricultural sector, it is dependent on imports from Italy in order to meet all of its needs.

San Marino's standard of living is high with an average per capita yearly income of about $32,000 (U.S.). San Marino's GDP is around $500 million (U.S.) annually with the rate of inflation at 2.2 percent. Unofficial estimates put the GDP growth rate at 8 percent.

Land Tenure and Property. Approximately 65 percent of San Marino is covered by farmland and pine forests with the rest consisting of parks, public spaces and buildings. Both private and public ownership of property exists in the republic.

Commercial Activities. The tourist sector generates more than 50 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of San Marino, with an average of 3.2 million tourists visiting the republic San Marino every year. Small businesses such as souvenir shops and restaurants depend heavily on tourism. Other important commercial activities include the sale of historic coins and postage stamps. In 1894 San Marino issued the first commemorative stamps which have been an important source of income for the republic ever since.

Major Industries. Important industries include banking and the manufacturing of clothing, electronics, paint, synthetic rubber, telecommunications equipment, and ceramics. Important export products include building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics. San Marino's main trading partner is Italy, accounting for 85 percent of exports. Agricultural products and consumer goods are imported from Italy, eastern Europe, South America, China and Taiwan.

Trade. Italy is San Marino's major trading partner. Trade statistics are included with those for Italy.

Division of Labor. According to a 1998 study, the workforce of San Marino was divided as follows: 4,254 (25 percent) worked in the broad public sector; 5,637 (34 percent) worked in industry; 3,140 (16.5 percent) worked in the commercial sector; 1,492 (9.1 percent) worked in construction; 505 (2.7 percent) worked in banking and insurance; 355 (2.1 percent) worked in transportation and communications; 248 (1.6 percent) were involved in agriculture; 1,779 (9.3 percent) worked in a variety of businesses and services. The unemployment rate is around 2 percent. Recent figures place the unemployment rate at about 2.2 percent for women and at 1.8 percent for men.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. San Marino's small population and high standard of living have helped ensure a relatively balanced distribution of wealth. The government maintains a policy of full employment for all its citizens and works with the private sector to ensure that all Sammarinese who wish to work are employed. San Marino's small size, power-sharing government, high standard of living, and educated population have made it a country with very little social stratification.

Political Life

Government. Created in the early Middle Ages, the original governing body was the Arengo, made up of the heads of each family. Today the Arengo is the electoral body, while the main governing body is the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two captains regent were nominated by the council and this system has continued to this day. The council is composed of sixty members who are elected every five years under a proportional representation system. The duties of the Council consist of approving the budget and nominating the captains regent and heads of the executive.

Every six months, the council elects two captains regent to be heads of state for a six-month term. The regents are chosen from opposing parties in order to provide a balance of power. The investiture of the captains regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year. Once a regent's term is completed, citizens have three days to file any complaints about the regent's activities. If warranted, judicial proceedings against the ex-head of state may be initiated.

Executive power is held by the State Congress, which is composed of three secretaries and seven ministries. The Council of Twelve is elected by the Great and General Council for the duration of the legislature and serves as a jurisdictional body as well as a court of appeals. Two government officials represent the state in financial and patrimonial matters.

The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives for both historical and social reasons. The only Sammarinese judges are the justices of the peace, who handle only civil cases where sums do not exceed 25 million lire (around $16,000 [U.S.]).

Leadership and Political Officials. San Marino is a democratic republic with several political parties. The three main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino, the Socialist Party of San Marino, and the Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino; there are several other smaller parties. Because of San Marino's small size and population, it is difficult for any one party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is ruled by a coalition. The current parties in power are the Democratic Christian Party and the Socialist Party.

Social Problems and Control. San Marino faces economic and administrative problems related to its status as a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining separated from the European Union. Another important issue facing the government is improving relations among the parliament, the cabinet, and the captains regent.

Military Activity. San Marino is officially neutral and does not have an army or any alliances with other nations. The last battle in which San Marino actively participated was in 1463. The republic has been invaded and occupied several times since then but has always maintained its position of neutrality. There is a symbolic military force of eighty men who participate in San Marino's ceremonial events and occasionally assist the police. In a time of crisis, however, the government can call all adult males to arms as happened during World War II when San Marino was directly involved in the war as the target of heavy bombing and as a haven for thousands of refugees.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

The Institute for Health and Social Security, a public organization that is independently managed, provides health care, social services, and social security. San Marino provides cradle-to-grave health care for all its citizens as well as retirement pensions.

Gender Roles and Statuses

The Relative Status of Women and Men. In San Marino today, women have most of the social and political rights that men have. Women received the right to vote in 1960 and the right to hold office in 1973. The first female captains regent were elected shortly thereafter. Nevertheless, slightly more men than women receive some form of higher education, and the unemployment rate is higher for women as well. These differences are in part due to the changing role of women in San Marino and the transition the republic has undergone in the late twentieth century, as its economy has moved away from agriculture and deemphasized industrialization.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Domestic Unit. In a small and unified country like San Marino, family plays an important role. Extended family and kin are an important part of the social structure of the republic. With the transition from an agricultural to a more industrialized economy following World War II, the nuclear family has replaced the extended family as the basic domestic unit. There are approximately eight marriages per one thousand and the divorce rate is relatively low. If they are no longer able to care for themselves, older family members usually live with their younger relatives. Children often continue to live at home with their parents well into adulthood, until higher education is completed or they start their own families.

Socialization

Infant Care. Public day care and nursery schools are available for children under the age of five.

Child Rearing and Education. The school system in San Marino is very similar to that in Italy and is obligatory until the age of sixteen. Children attend state-run primary and secondary schools, choosing a particular type of school when they reach the high school level.

Higher Education. There are no universities or colleges in San Marino and those students who decide to pursue higher education usually attend university in Italy where San Marino's high school diplomas are recognized.

Etiquette

Standards of etiquette are similar to those in Italy. Due to the important tourist industry, the Sammarinese are accustomed to welcoming people from all over the world.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The predominant religion, Roman Catholicism, is still regarded as the principal religion. Historically, the Sammarinese have been against the Vatican's political control over their republic but have embraced the pope's spiritual authority on religious matters. The importance of Catholicism in San Marino has led to the involvement of the church in many state occasions; many of San Marino's official ceremonies are held in the Basilica, the republic's main church, or in other churches. There are a total of nine Catholic parishes all of which comprise the diocese of San Marino.

Religious Practitioners. There is no official state religion but practitioners of Roman Catholicism predominate. There are no figures available for the number of non-Catholic practitioners.

Rituals and Holy Places. The Basilica dates from the fourteenth century and contains the remains of Saint Marino.

Medicine and Health Care

San Marino is able to provide low-cost health care for its citizens through clinics and a small hospital. Although the level of care is high, for certain types of health care the Sammarinese must turn to hospitals outside of the republic. The average life expectancy is placed at seventy-seven for men and eighty-five for women. The Sammarinese birthrate is around 11 births per 1,000 people, while the infant mortality is rate 3 out of every 1,000 births.

Secular Celebrations

There are five official national festivals in San Marino all of which celebrate important events in the republic's history: 5 February, the anniversary of the republic's liberation from the occupying forces of Cardinal Alberoni in 1740; 25 March marks the day in 1906 when the Arengo implemented the democratic form of government that exists today; 1 April and 1 October, the two days when the captains regent take office; and 3 September, the feast day of the patron saint and founder of the republic, Saint Marino.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. The Sammarinese proudly support and maintain several small museums as well as take an active interest in cultural activities including film, music, and literature.

Graphic Arts. San Marino's long history and extended periods of peace have endowed it with a substantial artistic legacy including paintings by several important Italian artists from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. There are also numerous sculptures placed throughout public spaces. Traditional crafts, such as stone carving and ceramics, have been able to survive in part from the tourist industry.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

San Marino's small population and its lack of a university means that it is not able to support academic research at the postsecondary level. Many Sammarinese, however, go on to pursue successful careers in academia and research outside the republic.

Bibliography

Cardinali, Marino. San Marino e la sua Storia, (San Marino and its history), 1982.

Carrick, Noel. San Marino, 1988.

Edwards, Adrian. San Marino, 1996.

Grimes, Barbara. Ethnologue, 13th ed., 1996.

Ricci, Corrado. La Repubblica di San Marino (The Republic of San Marino), 1906.

Rogatnick, Joseph H. "Little States in a World of Powers: A Study of Conduct of Foreign Affairs by Andorra, Lichtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1976.

Web Sites

Il Portale della Repubblica di San Marino (The Gateway to the Republic of San Marino). Electronic document. Available from http://www.omniway.sm

San Marino. Electronic document. Available from http://www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/san_marino

U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: San Marino. Electronic document. Available from http://www.stategov/www/background_notes/sanmarino_9811_bgn.html

M. Cameron Arnold

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San Marino (city, United States)

San Marino (săn mərē´nō), residential city (1990 pop. 12,959), Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1913. Of interest is the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens.

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San Marino

San Marino

SAMMARINESE 29

The people of San Marino are called Sammarinese. The population is almost all of Italian descent.

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San Marino

San MarinoMano, piano •Arno, boliviano, Bolzano, Carnot, chicano, guano, Kano, llano, Locarno, Lugano, Marciano, Marrano, meccano, oregano, Pisano, poblano, Romano, siciliano, soprano, SukarnoRenault, steno, tenno •techno • Fresno • Pernod •ripieno, volcano •albino, bambino, beano, Borodino, Borsalino, cappuccino, casino, chino, Comino, concertino, Filipino, fino, Gino, keno, Ladino, Latino, Leno, maraschino, merino, Monte Cassino, Navarino, neutrino, Pacino, palomino, pecorino, Reno, San Marino, Sansovino, Torino, Trevino, Valentino, vino, Zenominnow, winnow •Llandudno • Gobineau • domino •Martineau •lino, rhino, wino •tonneau • Grodno •Livorno, porno •Mezzogiorno •cui bono?, kimono, Mono, no-no, phono •Bruno, Gounod, Juneau, Juno, Uno •Huguenot • pompano •Brno, inferno, journo, Salerno, Sterno

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

SAN MARINO , tiny independent republic near *Rimini surrounded by Italian territory. Jewish loan-banks appeared there as early as 1369, one of them being managed by a woman. In 1442 some of the bankers were accused of conspiracy against the state, and the duke of Urbino intervened with the "regents" of the republic to prevent the Jews being further molested. The activities of Jewish moneylenders continued until the 17th century. Although in modern times any Jewish connection with San Marino was sporadic, the tiny republic obediently enacted racial laws in 1938, in imitation of Italy, against the dozen Jewish families who had drifted there in recent years; they were repealed on the fall of Mussolini in the summer of 1943. The consul general of Israel in Rome serves in the same capacity also in San Marino.

bibliography:

Milano, Bibliotheca, index; Bernardi, in: rej, 48 (1904), 241–64; 49 (1904), 80–97; 50 (1905), 129–35; Lonardo, in: Atti e memorie della Regia deputazione di storia patria per le Marche, 2 (1905), 93–115.

[Ariel Toaff]

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San Marino

San Marino

PROFILE
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the October 2007 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Republic of San Marino

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 61.2 sq. km.; about one-third the size of Washington, DC.

Cities: Capital—San Marino (pop. 4,482). Other cities—Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano.

Terrain: Rugged mountains.

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective— Sammarinese.

Population: (September 2006) 30,002.

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian.

Religions: Roman Catholic.

Languages: Italian.

Education: Literacy—96%.

Health: Infant mortality rate: (2006)—5.63/1,000 live birth rates. Life expectancy (2006)—78.6 for men and 85.5 for women.

Work force: (May 2007) 21,844.

Government

Type: Independent republic.

Constitution: October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.

Government branches: Executive—Captain Regent Mirko Tomassoni and Captain Regent Alberto Selva (co-chiefs of state); Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council; Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo Stofli (head of government). Legislative—unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial—Council of Twelve.

Political subdivisions: 9 municipalities.

Political parties: Christian Democratic Party, Party of Socialists and Democrats, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, United Left, New Socialist Party, We Sammarinesi, Sammarinesi for Freedom.

Suffrage: Universal, 18 years of age.

Economy

GDP: (2006 estimate) Euros 1.180 billion (approx. $1.7 billion).

Per capita income: (2005) Euros 28,570 (approx. $41,400).

GDP growth: (2006 est.) 6.7%.

Natural resources: Building stone.

Agriculture: Products—wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides.

Industry: Types—tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine.

Trade: Exports (2005)—2.035 billion Euros (approx. $2.9 billion). 90% to Italy. Imports (2005)—2.076 billion Euros (approx. $3.0 billion) manufactured goods, food. Partners—Italy, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South America, China, Taiwan.

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The population of San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Crop farming, sheep farming, and the working of stone from the quarries formed the early backbone of San Marino's economy. It has no mineral resources, and today most of the land is cultivated or covered by woods.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 when a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian fled to the island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman Emperor Diocletian. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano and founded a small community of people following their Christian beliefs. It is certain that the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano only dates back to the Middle Ages. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed “Land of San Marino” and was finally changed to its present-day name, “Republic of San Marino.”

The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads of state.

The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against Sigis-mondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II Piccolomini gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.

San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries twice in its history, both for only short periods of time. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, occupied the republic until his death several months later. In 1739, Cardinal Alberoni used military force to occupy the country. Civil disobedience was used to protest his occupation, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by the Pope's recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of San Marino's independence.

GOVERNMENT

The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council, and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council, which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget, as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.

Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the previous Regents' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the former head(s) of state can be initiated.

The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are (1) Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, and Economic Planning; (2) Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense; (3) Secretary of State for Finance, Budget, and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; (4) Secretary of State for Education, Culture, University and Social Affairs; (5) Secretary of State for Territory, Environment and Agriculture; (6) Secretary of State for Health and Social Security; (7) Secretary of State for Industry, Trade and Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services; (8) Secretary of State for Communication, Transport, Tourism, and Sport; (9) Secretary of State for Justice, Information, and Peace; and (10) Secretary of State for Labor and Cooperation.

The Great and General Council elects the Council of Twelve for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.

The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every five years and are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on being submitted to the Great and General Council.

The judiciary is composed of the commissioner of the law, the judging magistrate, the appellate judge, the juvenile court, and the judge of last appeal. The commissioner tries civil and penal cases with penalties not exceeding a three-year sentence. The judging magistrates, who are appointed by parliament for a three-year term and can be indefinitely reappointed, preside over all other cases.

Reform legislation, enacted in 2004, no longer requires that the country's lower court judges be noncitizens; however, most lower court judges remained Italian citizens. A local conciliation judge handles cases of minor importance. Under the same reform, the final court of review is the judge of the last appeal. In civil matters, this judge confirms or overrules either the lower court judgment or an appellate decision; in criminal matters, he judges on the legitimacy of detention measures and on the enforcement of a judgment.

On April 28, 2005 a new act established the country's constitutional court with the following functions: 1) to verify that laws, acts, and traditions that are given the force of law conform to constitutional precepts; 2) to verify the admissibility of a referendum; 3) to decide on conflicts between constitutional institutions; 4) to control the activity of the Captains Regent. The court is composed of three standing judges and three alternate judges. They are selected by the Great and General Council with a two-thirds majority to a four-year term. After the first selection one-third of the members of the court are reselected every two years.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Captain Regent (Co-Head of State): Alessandro MANCINI

Captain Regent (Co-Head of State): Alessandro ROSS

Sec. of Budget & Finance: Stefano MACINA

Sec. of Health & Social Security: Fabio BERARDI

Sec. of Industry, Trade, & Research: Tito MASI

Sec. of Interior & Civil Protection: Valeria CIAVATTA

Sec. of Justice, Information, & Peace: Ivan FOSCHI

Sec. of Labor: Antonello BACCIOCCHI

Sec. of Public Education, Culture, & Social Affairs: Francesca MICHELOTTI

Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning: Fiorenzo STOLFI

Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture: Marino RICCARDI

Sec. of Tourism, Telecommunications, Transportation, Economic Cooperation, & Sports: Paride ANDREOLI

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Daniele BODINI

San Marino has honorary Consulates General in Washington, DC and New York and honorary Consulates in Detroit and Honolulu. The honorary Consulate General in Washington, DC is located at 1899 L Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036.

The Republic of San Marino's Web Site provides information on politics, trade, and events in San Marino.

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS), and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD), in addition to several other smaller parties. Due to the small size and low population of San Marino, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. Following the June 2006 election results, the PSD formed a center-left coalition government with the Popular Alliance and the United Left parties.

Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy. In recent years banking has also become an important economic activity. Harmonization of statutes and policies with the EU is a major domestic and foreign policy priority of the republic. Another priority issue is the signing of a cooperation agreement with Italy, San Marino's most important economic partner.

ECONOMY

San Marino's per capita income in 2005 stood at 28,570 Euros (approx. $41,400) with more than 50% coming from the tourism industry, which draws about 2 million people annually. Traditional economic activities in San Marino were food crops, sheep farming, and stone quarrying. Today farming activities focus on grain, vines, and orchards, as well as animal husbandry (cattle and swine). Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the banking industry and from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, furniture, clothing, paints, fabrics, and spirits/wines. The percapita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are comparable to those of Italy. In addition, San Marino maintains the lowest unemployment rate in Europe and no national debt.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

San Marino is an active player in the international community. Currently, the Republic has diplomatic relations with over 70 countries. Italy is the only country represented by an ambassador resident in San Marino. The Papal Nuncio, based in Rome, is the dean of San Marino's diplomatic corps.

San Marino is a full member of the United Nations (UN), International Court of Justice (ICJ), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, International Red Cross Organization, the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIIT), and Interpol, among others. It also cooperates with UNICEF and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and has official relations with the European Union (EU). From May-November 1990 and from November 2006-May 2007, San Marino held the semi-annual presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, headquartered in Strasbourg, France.

U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

The United States and San Marino enjoy friendly diplomatic relations. San Marino consistently supports U.S. foreign policy positions, as well as U.S. candidates to international organizations. The two countries are on excellent terms. In September 2006 President George W. Bush appointed Ambassador to Italy Ronald P. Spogli to serve concurrently as Ambassador to San Marino. Ambassador Spogli is the first U.S. Ambassador to San Marino in the country' history. In July 2007, Ambassador Paolo Rondelli became San Marino's first ambassador to the U.S. For consular purposes, the republic is within the jurisdiction of the Florence consular district. Consulate officials regularly visit San Marino to carry out diplomatic demarches, represent U.S. interests, and administer consular services.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

FLORENCE (CG) Lungarno A. Ves-pucci, 38, APO/FPO PSC 59 Box 100 (f) APO/AE 09624, +39-055-266-951, Fax 39-055-284088, Workweek: 8:30-5:30 Mon to Fri, Website: http://florence.usconsulate.gov.

CA:Brian C. Winans
MGT:Michael J. Ma
CG:Nora Dempsey
PO:Nora Dempsey
CON:Michael J. Ma
ISSO:Michael J. Ma

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet—Italy

October 11, 2007

Country Description: Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy. The Holy See is a sovereign entity that serves as the ecclesiastical, governmental and administrative capital of the Roman Catholic Church, physically located within the State of the Vatican City inside Rome, with a unique, non-traditional economy. San Marino is a developed, constitutional democratic republic, also independent of Italy, with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry Requirements: A valid passport is required. Italian authorities may deny entry to travelers who attempt to enter without a valid passport. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. However, for all other purposes, such as work, study, etc., a visa is required and must be obtained from the Italian Embassy or Consulates before entering Italy. For further information concerning visas and entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 Whitehaven St NW, Washington, DC 20008, via telephone at (202) 612-4400 or via the Internet: http://www.ambwashingtondc.esteri.it/ambasciata_washington, or Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, accessible through the above Internet site

Americans staying or traveling within Italy for less than three (3) months are considered non-residents. This includes persons on vacation, those taking professional trips, students registered at an authorized school, or persons performing research or independent study.

As of May 28, 2007, under Italian law (http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/070681.htm), all non-residents are required to complete a dichiarazione di presenza (declaration of presence). Tourists arriving from a non-Schengen-country (e.g. the United States) should obtain a stamp in their passport at the airport on the day of arrival. This stamp is considered the equivalent of the declaration of presence. Tourists arriving from a Schengen-country (e.g. France) must request the declaration of presence form from a local police office (commissariato di zona), police headquarters (questura) or their place of stay (e.g hotel, hostel, campgrounds) and submit the form to the police or to their place of stay within eight business days of arrival. It is important that applicants keep a copy of the receipt issued by the Italian authorities. Failure to complete a declaration of presence is punishable by expulsion from Italy. Additional information may be obtained (in Italian only) via Internet from the following websites: www.portaleimmigrazione.it and http://www.poliziadistato.it/pds/imigrazione/soggiorno.htm. Americans staying in Italy for more than three (3) months are considered residents and must obtain a 14,000 national post offices (Poste Italiane). The kit must then be returned to one of 5,332 designated Post Office acceptance locations. It is important that applicants keep a copy of the receipt issued by the Post Office. Additional information may be obtained from an Italian immigration website via Internet at: http://www.portaleimmigrazione.it. Within 20 days of receiving the permit to stay in Italy, Americans must go to the local Vital Statistics Bureau (Anagrafe of the Comune) to apply for residency. It generally takes one to two months to receive the certificate of residence (Certificato di Residenza).

Safety and Security: There have been occasional episodes of politically motivated violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues. At various times, Italian authorities have found bombs outside public buildings, have received bomb threats and were subjects of letter bombs. Firebombs or Molotov cocktails have been thrown at buildings or offices in the middle of the night. These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements. Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances.

Demonstrations may have an anti-American character. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence. U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take common sense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when they occur.

Italy remains largely free of terrorist incidents. However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Italy's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State Burea of Consular Affair's Internet site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution Travel Alert, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1- 202-501-4444.

Crime: Italy has a moderate rate of violent crime, some of which is directed towards tourists, principally for motives of theft. Some travelers have been victims of rape and beatings. There have also been incidents of drinks laced with drugs being used by criminals to rob, and in some cases, assault tourists. Many of these incidents have occurred in the vicinity of Rome's Termini train station and at major tourist centers such as Campo de Fiori and Piazza Navona, as well as in Florence and Naples. Criminals using this tactic “befriend” a traveler at a train station, bus stop, restaurant, café or bar in tourist areas, then eventually offer a drink laced with a sleeping drug. When the tourist falls asleep, criminals steal the traveler's valuables. There have also been instances where the victim was assaulted, either physically or sexually.

Americans are urged to exercise caution at train stations and airports, and when frequenting nightclubs, bars and outdoor cafes, particularly at night, because criminals may make initial contact with potential victims in such settings. Individuals under the effect of alcohol may become victims of crime, including robbery, physical and sexual assault, due to their impaired ability to judge situations and make decisions. This is particularly a problem for younger Americans visiting Italy, where the age limit on the sale of alcoholic beverages is lower than in most U.S. states. If you are a victim of such a crime, please file a police report and contact the U.S. Embassy or nearest Consulate. There are also in-country organizations, which provide counseling, medical, and legal assistance to certain crime victims.

Petty crimes such as pick pocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching are serious problems, especially in large cities. Pickpockets sometimes dress like businessmen so tourists should not be lulled into a false sense of security by believing that well-dressed individuals are not potential pickpockets or thieves. Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations: Rome's Termini; Milan's Centrale; Florence's Santa Maria Novella; and Naples' Centrale and Piazza Garibaldi. Travelers should also be alert to theft in Milan's Malpensa Airport, particularly at car rental agencies. Clients of Internet cafes in major cities have been targeted. Tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones.

Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs. Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists' attention so that another can pickpocket them. In one particular routine, one thief throws trash, waste or ketchup at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim's belongings. Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife, then remove the contents. Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars is a major problem.

Carjackings and thefts have also been reported from occupied vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights. Vehicles parked near beaches during the summer have been broken into and items stolen. Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows.

In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief signals a flat tire to the driver of another car and encourages the driver to pull over. Often, the tire has been punctured by an accomplice, while in other instances, there may, in fact, be nothing wrong with the vehicle. When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver's belongings. Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts. There have been occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas.

On trains, a commonly reported trick involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink. Also, thieves have been known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists. The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words “police” or “international police.” If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer's identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents. Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police.

The U.S. Secret Service in Rome has been advised of, and is assisting Italian Law Enforcement authorities in investigating, an increase in the appearance of ATM skimming devices. These devices are attached to legitimate bank ATMs, usually located in tourist areas, and capture the account information stored electronically on the card's magnetic strip. The devices consist of a card reader installed over the legitimate reader and a pin-hole video camera mounted above the keypad that records the customer's PIN. ATMs with skimming devices installed may also allow normal transactions to occur. The victim's information is sold, traded on-line or encoded on another card such as a hotel key card to access the compromised account. Here are some helpful hints to protect yourself and to identify skimming devices:

  • Use ATMs located in well-lit public areas, or secured inside the bank/business
  • Cover the keypad with one hand as you enter your PIN
  • Look for gaps, tampered appearance, or other irregularities between the metal faceplate of the ATM and the card reader
  • Avoid card readers that are not flush with the face of the ATM
  • Monitor your account statements for unauthorized transactions

Organized criminal groups operate throughout Italy, but are more prevalent in the south. They have occasionally resorted to violence to intimidate or to settle disputes. Though the activities of such groups are not generally targeted at tourists, visitors should be aware that innocent bystanders could be injured.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/ or fines. More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.

According to Italian Law (Law 80 of May 14, 2005), anyone caught buying counterfeit goods (for example, DVDs, CDs, watches, purses, bags, belts, sunglasses, etc.) is subject to a fine of no less than EUR 1,000. Police in major Italian cities enforce this law to varying degrees. Travelers are advised to purchase products only from stores and other licensed retailers to avoid unknowingly buying counterfeit and illegal merchandise.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Lost or stolen credit cards present risk of identity theft and should be cancelled immediately. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas. Public hospitals, though generally free of charge for emergency services, sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic. It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board).

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization's web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Italy is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Streets in historic city centers are often narrow, winding and congested. Motor scooters are very popular and drivers often see themselves as exempt from conventions that apply to automobiles. Travelers who rent scooters should be particularly cautious. Pedestrians and drivers should be constantly alert to the possibility of scooters' sudden presence. Throughout Italy, pedestrian deaths are increasing, with a total of 1,188 deaths in 2002, the last year for which statistics are currently available. There were also more than 17,000 pedestrian injuries in 2002. Most of these deaths and injuries involve pedestrians or cyclists who are involved in collisions with scooters or other vehicles. U.S. citizens should remain vigilant and alert while walking or cycling near traffic. Pedestrians should be careful, as sidewalks, especially in major cities, can be extremely congested and uneven, and drivers of bicycles, motorcycles and other vehicles routinely ignore traffic signals and traffic flows, routinely park and even drive on sidewalks. For safety, pedestrians should look carefully in both directions before crossing streets, even when using a marked crosswalk with a green “avanti” (“walk”) light illuminated.

Traffic lights are limited, often disobeyed, and a different convention of right-of-way is observed. Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of “Autostrada,” or superhighways. Commercial and individual vehicles travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds. Accidents occur in which contributing factors include excessive speed, alcohol/drug use and/or sleepiness of long-distance drivers. Italy has one of the highest rates of car accident deaths in the European Union.

In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving. Roads are generally narrow and often have no guardrails. Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of fog and poor visibility, responsible for multiple-car accidents each year. Most Italian automobiles are equipped with special fog lights. Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads. Use of safety belts and child restraining devices is mandatory and headlights should be on at all times outside of urban areas.

For specific information concerning Italian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at http://www.enit.it, tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5, 00185 Rome, tel: 39-06-4477. For information on obtaining international drivers licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Visit the website of the country's national tourist office online at www.italiantourism.com and national authority responsible for road safety at www.infrastrutture-trasporti.it.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Italy's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines). Most are announced in advance and are of short duration. Information on strikes may be found at www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it. Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended.

In Naples and the region of Campania, a perennial problem exists due to periodic garbage collection strikes and inadequate dump facilities. Residents often resort to burning the garbage which can give off toxic substances that can aggravate respiratory problems. Summer temperatures aggravate this problem.

Disaster Preparedness: Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy. Principal Italian cities, with the exception of Naples, do not lie near these faults, but smaller tourist towns, like Assisi, do and have suffered earthquakes. General information about disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov. Detailed information on Italy's earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events. Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000. Mt. Vesuvius, located near Naples, is currently capped and not active. Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded. Two of Italy's smaller islands, Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolian Island chain north of Sicily, also have active volcanoes with lava flows. Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations. They may differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living or traveling in Italy are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistra-tion.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A, tel: 39-06-46741 and fax: 39-06-4674-2217; Internet address: http://italy.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulates are located in:

Florence: Lungarno Amerigo Ves-pucci 38, tel: 39-055-266-951, consular fax: 399-055-215-550;

Milan: Via Principe Amedeo 2/10, tel: 39-02-290-351, and fax: 39-02-290-35-273;

Naples: Piazza della Repubblica, tel: 39-081-583-8111, and consular fax: 39-081-583-8275.

There are U.S. Consular Agents located in:

Genoa: Via Dante 2, tel: 39-010-584-492, and fax: 39-010-553-3033;

Palermo: Via Vaccarini 1, tel: 39-091-305-857, and fax: 39-091-625-6026;

Venice: Viale Galileo Galilei, 30, tel: 39-041-541-5944, and fax: 39-041-541-6654.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

Compiled from the October 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of San Marino


PROFILE

Geography

Area:

60 sq. km.; about one-third the size of Washington, DC.

Cities:

Capital—San Marino (pop. 4,482). Other cities—Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano.

Terrain:

Rugged mountains.

Climate:

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers.

People

Nationality:

Noun and adjective—Sammarinese.

Population (12-31-2002):

28,753

Ethnic groups:

Sammarinese, Italian.

Religion:

Roman Catholic.

Language:

Italian.

Education:

Literacy—96%.

Health:

Infant mortality rate-3.3/1,000 live birth rates (2004). Life expectancy-78.6 for men and 84.9 for women (2004).

Work force:

approx 18,000.

Government

Type:

Republic.

Constitution:

October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.

Branches:

Executive—Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state), Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council, Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs (head of government). Legislative—unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial—Council of Twelve.

Administrative divisions:

9 municipalities.

Political parties:

Christian Democratic Party, Democratic Progressive Party, San Marino Socialist Party, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, Communist Refoundation.

Suffrage:

Universal over 18.

Economy

GDP (2002):

Euros 935 million.

Per capita income (2002 est):

Euros 24,054.

GDP growth (2004 est):

2%.

Natural resources:

Building stone.

Agriculture:

Products—wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides.

Industry:

Types—tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine.

Trade:

Exports—Euros 1,705 million (2001). 85% to Italy. Imports—Euros 1,744 million (2001) manufactured goods, food. Partners—Italy, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South America, China, Taiwan.


PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The population of San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Crop farming, sheep farming, and the working of stone from the quarries formed the early backbone of San Marino's economy. It has no mineral resources, and today most of the land is cultivated or covered by woods.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 when a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian fled to the island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman Emperor Diocletian. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano and founded a small community of people following their Christian beliefs. It is certain that the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano only dates back to the Middle Ages. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed "Land of San Marino" and was finally changed to its present-day name, "Republic of San Marino."

The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads of state.

The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II Piccolomini gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.

San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries twice in its history, both for only short periods of time. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, occupied the republic until his death several months later. In 1739, Cardinal Alberoni used military force to occupy the country. Civil disobedience was used to protest his occupation, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by the Pope's recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of San Marino's independence.


GOVERNMENT

The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council, and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council, which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget, as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.

Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the previous Regents' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the former head(s) of state can be initiated.

The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are (1) Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs; (2) Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense; (3) Secretary of State for Finance, Budget and Programming, Information and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; (4) Secretary of State for Education, Culture, University and Justice; (5) Secretary of State for Territory, Environment and Agriculture; (6) Secretary of State for Health and Social Security; (7) Secretary of State for Trade and Relations with the Town Council; (8) Secretary of State for Communication, Transport, Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services, Tourism, and Sport; (9) Secretary of State for Industry and Crafts; and (10) Secretary of State for Labor and Cooperation.

The Great and General Council elects the Council of Twelve for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.

The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every five years and are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on being submitted to the Great and General Council.

The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives, both for historical and social reasons. The only native judges are the Justices of the Peace, who only handle civil cases where sums involved do not exceed 25 million lire. The Council of Twelve serves as an appeals court in the third instance.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 11/9/2005

Captain Regent (Co-Head of State): Antonello BACCIOCCHI
Captain Regent (Co-Head of State): Claudio MUCCIOLI
Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning: Fabio BERARDI
Sec. of Finance, Budget, & Transportation: Pier Marino MULARONI
Sec. of Health & Social Security: Massimo Roberto ROSSINI
Sec. of Industry, Craftsmanship, Trade, Telecommunications, & Economic Cooperation: Claudio FELICI
Sec. of Interior, Civil Protection, & Relations with Local Governments: Loris FRANCINI
Sec. of Justice, Relations with Local Governments, & Information: Alberto CECCHETTI
Sec. of Labor, Tourism, Postal Service, & Sports: Paride ANDREOLI
Sec. of Public Education, University, & Cultural Institutions: Rosa ZAFFERANI
Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture: Gian Carlo VENTURINI
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Daniele BODINI

San Marino has honorary Consulates General in Washington, DC and New York and honorary Consulates in Detroit and Honolulu. The honorary Consulate General in Washington, DC is located at 1899 L Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036.

The Republic of San Marino's Web Site provides information on politics, trade, and events in San Marino.


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The three main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS), the Socialist Party of San Marino (PSS), and the Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino (PPDS), in addition to several other smaller parties. Due to the small size and low population of San Marino, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. Following a period of political instability after the June 2001 elections, in December 2003 the three largest parties formed a coalition government with a view to reforming the electoral law and subsequently calling for early elections.

Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy. In recent years banking has also become an important economic activity.

Harmonization of statutes and policies with the EU is a major domestic and foreign policy priority of the republic. Another priority issue will be to increase the transparency and efficiency in parliament and in relations among parliament, cabinet, and the Captains Regent.


ECONOMY

San Marino's per capita GNP in 2002 stood at 24,054 Euros with more than 50% coming from the tourism industry, which draws about 3 million people annually. One of the greatest sources of income from tourism comes

from the sale of historic coins and stamps. In 1894, San Marino issued its first commemorative stamps, which produced government revenue for the republic. All 10 of the Post Offices of San Marino sell these stamps and collectable coins, including "Legal Tender Gold Coins."

Traditional economic activities in San Marino were food crops, sheep farming, and stone quarrying. Today farming activities focus on grain, vines, and orchards, as well as animal husbandry (cattle and swine). Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the banking industry and from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, furniture, clothing, paints, fabrics, and spirits/wines. The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are comparable to those of Italy. In addition, San Marino maintains the lowest unemployment rate in Europe and no national debt.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

San Marino is an active player in the international community. Currently, the Republic has diplomatic relations with over 70 countries. Italy is the only country represented by an ambassador resident in San Marino. The Papal Nuncio, based in Rome, is the dean of San Marino's diplomatic corps.

San Marino is a full member of the United Nations, International Court of Justice, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, International Red Cross Organization, and the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIIT), among others. It also cooperates with UNICEF and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and has official relations with the European Union. From May 10 until November 6, 1990, San Marino held the semi-annual presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, headquartered in Strasbourg, France.


U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

The United States and San Marino enjoy friendly diplomatic relations. San Marino consistently supports U.S. foreign policy positions, as well as U.S. candidates to international organizations. The two countries are on excellent terms. The United States Consul General in Florence also serves as the U.S. diplomatic representative to San Marino. For consular purposes, the republic is within the jurisdiction of the Florence consular district. Consulate officials regularly visit San Marino to carry out diplomatic demarches, represent U.S. interests, and administer consular services.

Principal U.S. Consulate Officials

FLORENCE (CG) Address: Lungarno A. Vespucci, 38; APO/FPO: PSC 59 Box 100 (f) APO AE 09624; Phone: +39-055-266-951; Fax: 39-055-284088; Workweek: 8:30 - 5:30 Mon to Fri; Website: http://florence.usconsulate.gov.

CG:Nora Dempsey
PO:Nora Dempsey
CON:Michael J. Ma
MGT:Michael J. Ma
ISSO:Michael J. Ma
Last Updated: 11/21/2005

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet–Italy

November 30, 2005

Country Description:

Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy. The Holy See is a sovereign entity that serves as the ecclesiastical, governmental and administrative capital of the Roman Catholic Church, physically located within the State of the Vatican City inside Rome, with a unique, non-traditional economy. San Marino is a developed, constitutional democratic republic, also independent of Italy, with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry Requirements:

A valid passport is required. Italian authorities may deny entry to travelers who attempt to enter without a valid passport. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. However, for all other purposes, such as work, study, etc., a visa is required and must be obtained from the Italian Embassy or Consulates before entering Italy. For further information concerning visas and entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 Whitehaven St NW, Washington, DC 20008, via telephone at (202) 612-4400 or via the internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, accessible through the above Internet site.

Under Italian law, tourists are required to register with a local police station and obtain a "permesso di soggiorno" (permit of stay) within eight working days of their arrival, regardless of the intended length of stay. Visitors may be required to show police that they have sufficient means of financial support. Credit cards, ATM cards, travelers' checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. may be evidence of sufficient means. Additional information may be obtained from the Italian Government Tourist Board via Internet at http://www.italiantourism.com or telephone at: 212-245-5618.

Safety/Security:

There have been occasional episodes of politically motivated violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues. At various times, Italian authorities have found bombs outside public buildings, have received bomb threats and were subjects of letter bombs. Firebombs or Molotov cocktails have been thrown at buildings or offices in the middle of the night. These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements. Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances.

Demonstrations may have an anti-American character. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence. U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take common sense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when they occur.

Italy remains largely free of terrorist incidents. However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Italy's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime:

Italy has a moderate rate of violent crime, some of which is directed towards tourists, principally for motives of theft. Some travelers have been victims of rape and beatings. There have also been incidents of drinks laced with drugs being used by criminals to rob, and in some cases, assault tourists. Many of these incidents have occurred in the vicinity of Rome's Termini train station and at major tourist centers such as Campo de Fiori and Piazza Navona, as well as in Florence and Naples. Criminals using this tactic "befriend" a traveler at a train station, bus stop, restaurant, café or bar in tourist areas, then eventually offer a drink laced with a sleeping drug. When the tourist falls asleep, criminals steal the traveler's valuables. There have also been instances where the victim was assaulted, either physically or sexually.

Americans are urged to exercise caution at train stations and airports, and when frequenting nightclubs, bars and outdoor cafes, particularly at night, because criminals may make initial contact with potential victims in such settings. Individuals under the effect of alcohol may become victims of crime, including robbery, physical and sexual assault, due to their impaired ability to judge situations and make decisions. This is particularly a problem for younger Americans visiting Italy, where the age limit on the sale of alcoholic beverages is lower than in most U.S. states. If you are a victim of such a crime, please file a police report and contact the U.S. Embassy or nearest Consulate. There are also in-country organizations, which provide counseling, medical, and legal assistance to certain crime victims.

Petty crimes such as pick pocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching are serious problems, especially in large cities. Pickpockets sometimes dress like businessmen so tourists should not be lulled into a false sense of security by believing that well-dressed individuals are not potential pickpockets or thieves. Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations: Rome's Termini; Milan's Centrale; Florence's Santa Maria Novella; and Naples' Centrale and Piazza Garibaldi. Travelers should also be alert to theft in Milan's Malpensa Airport, particularly at car rental agencies. Clients of Internet cafes in major cities have been targeted. Tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones.

Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs. Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists' attention so that another can pickpocket them. In one particular routine, one thief throws trash, waste or ketchup at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim's belongings. Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife, then remove the contents. Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars is a major problem.

Carjacking and thefts have also been reported from occupied vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights. Vehicles parked near beaches during the summer have been broken into and items stolen. Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows.

In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief signals a flat tire to the driver of another car and encourages the driver to pull over. Often, the tire has been punctured by an accomplice, while in other instances, there may, in fact, be nothing wrong with the vehicle. When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver's belongings. Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts. There have been occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas.

On trains, a commonly reported trick involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink. Also, thieves have been known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists. The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words "police" or "international police." If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer's identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents. Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police.

The U.S. Secret Service in Rome has been advised of, and is assisting Italian Law Enforcement authorities in investigating, an increase in the appearance of ATM skimming devices. These devices are attached to legitimate bank ATMs, usually located in tourist areas, and capture the account information stored electronically on the card's magnetic strip. The devices consist of a card reader installed over the legitimate reader and a pin-hole video camera mounted above the keypad that records the customer's PIN. ATMs with skimming devices installed may also allow normal transactions to occur. The victim's information is sold, traded on-line or encoded on another card such as a hotel key card to access the compromised account. Here are some helpful hints to protect yourself and to identify skimming devices:

  • Use ATMs located in well-lit public areas, or secured inside the bank/business
  • Cover the keypad with one hand as you enter your PIN
  • Look for gaps, tampered appearance, or other irregularities between the metal faceplate of the ATM and the card reader
  • Avoid card readers that are not flush with the face of the ATM
  • Monitor your account statements for unauthorized transactions

Organized criminal groups operate throughout Italy, but are more prevalent in the south. They have occasionally resorted to violence to intimidate or to settle disputes. Though the activities of such groups are not generally targeted at tourists, visitors should be aware that innocent bystanders could be injured.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Lost or stolen credit cards present risk of identity theft and should be cancelled immediately. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas. Public hospitals, though generally free of charge for emergency services, sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic. It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board).

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

Streets in historic city centers are often narrow, winding and congested. Motor scooters are very popular and drivers often see themselves as exempt from conventions that apply to automobiles. Travelers who rent scooters should be particularly cautious. Pedestrians and drivers should be constantly alert to the possibility of scooters' sudden presence. Traffic lights are limited, often disobeyed, and a different convention of right-of-way is observed. Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of "Autostrada," or superhighways. Commercial and individual vehicles travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds. Accidents occur in which contributing factors include excessive speed, alcohol/drug use and/or sleepiness of long-distance drivers. Italy has one of the highest rates of car accident deaths in the European Union.

In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving. Roads are generally narrow and often have no guardrails. Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of fog and poor visibility, responsible for multiple-car accidents each year. Most Italian automobiles are equipped with special fog lights. Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads. Use of safety belts and child restraining devices is mandatory and headlights should be on at all times outside of urban areas.

For specific information concerning Italian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at: http://www.enit.it, Tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5, 00185 Rome, Tel: 39-06-4477. For information on obtaining international drivers licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Italy as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Special Circumstances:

Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines). Most are announced in advance and are of short duration. Information on strikes may be found at http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it. Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended.

Disaster Preparedness:

Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy. Principal Italian cities, with the exception of Naples, do not lie near these faults, but smaller tourist towns, like Assisi, do and have suffered earthquakes. General information about disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov. Detailed information on Italy's earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events. Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000. Mt. Vesuvius, located near Naples, is currently capped and not active. Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded. Two of Italy's smaller islands, Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolian Island chain north of Sicily, also have active volcanoes with lava flows. Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations. They may differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations:

Americans living or traveling in Italy are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A, Tel: 39-06-46741 and Fax: 39-06-4674-2217; Internet address: http://italy.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulates are located in:

Florence: Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci 38, Tel: 39-055-266-951, consular Fax: 399-055-215-550;

Milan: Via Principe Amedeo 2/10, Tel: 39-02-290-351, and Fax: 39-02-290-35-273;

Naples: Piazza della Repubblica, Tel: 39-081-583-8111, and consular Fax: 39-081-583-8275.

There are U.S. Consular Agents located in:

Genoa: Via Dante 2, Tel: 39-010-584-492, and Fax: 39-010-553-3033;

Palermo: Via Vaccarini 1, Tel: 39-091-305-857, and Fax: 39-091-625-6026;

Trieste: Via Roma 15, Tel: 39-040-660-177, and Fax: 39-040-631-240.

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San Marino

San Marino

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environment

6 Population

7 Migration

8 Ethnic Groups

9 Languages

10 Religions

11 Transportation

12 History

13 Government

14 Political Parties

15 Judicial System

16 Armed Forces

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Foreign Trade

27 Energy and Power

28 Social Development

29 Health

30 Housing

31 Education

32 Media

33 Tourism and Recreation

34 Famous Sanmarinese

35 Bibliography

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino

CAPITAL: San Marino

FLAG: The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above.

ANTHEM: Onore a te, onore, o antica repubblica (Honor to You, O Ancient Republic).

MONETARY UNIT: The Italian lira was replaced by the euro as official currency as of 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. €1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = €0.79697) as of 2005. The country issues its own coins in limited numbers as well. Coins of San Marino may circulate in both the republic and in Italy.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Anniversary of St. Agatha, second patron saint of the republic, and of the liberation of San Marino (1740), 5 February; Anniversary of the Arengo, 25 March; Investiture of the Captains-Regent, 1 April and 1 October; Labor Day, 1 May; Fall of Fascism, 28 July; Assumption and August Bank Holiday, 14–16 August; Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino, 3 September; All Saint’s Day, 1 November; Commemoration of the Dead, 2 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 24–26 December; New Year’s Eve, 31 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday and Ascension.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, with an area of 61.20 square kilometers (24 square miles), which is about one-third the size of Washington, D.C. It is a landlocked state completely surrounded by Italy, with a total boundary length of 39 kilometers (24 miles). The capital city, also called San Marino, is located slightly northwest of the center of the country.

2 Topography

The town of San Marino is on the slopes and at the summit of Mount Titano, the three-peaked mountain that marks the highest point of the country at 755 meters (2,477 feet). Level areas around the base of Mount Titano provide land for agricultural use. The lowest point in the country lies along the Torrente Ausa, which has an elevation of 55 meters (180 feet).

GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Geographic Features

Area: 61.2 sq km (24 sq mi)

Size ranking: 190 of 194

Highest elevation: 755 meters (2,477 feet) at Monte Titano

Lowest elevation: 55 meters (180 feet) at Torrente Ausa

Land Use*

Arable land: 17%

Permanent crops: 0%

Other: 83%

Weather**

Average annual precipitation: 83.6 centimeters (32.6 inches)

Average temperature in January: 5°c (41°f)

Average temperature in July: 19.3°c (66.7°f)

* Arable Land: Land used for temporary crops, like meadows for mowing or pasture, gardens, and greenhouses.

Permanent crops: Land cultivated with crops that occupy its use for long periods, such as cocoa, coffee, rubber, fruit and nut orchards, and vineyards.

Other: Any land not specified, including built-on areas, roads, and barren land.

** The measurements for precipitation and average temperatures were taken at weather stations closest to the country’s largest city.

Precipitation and average temperature can vary significantly within a country, due to factors such as latitude, altitude, coastal proximity, and wind patterns.

3 Climate

The climate is similar to that of northeastern Italy: rather mild in winter, but with temperatures frequently below freezing, and warm and pleasant in the summer, reaching a maximum of 26°c (79°f). Annual rainfall averages 83.6 centimeters (32.6 inches).

4 Plants and Animals

The republic has generally the same plants and animals as northeastern Italy. The hare, squirrel, badger, fox, and porcupine are among the more common animals seen. Most of the landscape has been cultivated with orchards, vineyards, and olive groves.

5 Environment

Urbanization is the primary environmental concern; however, the country has shown great care for environmental protection and preservation both within its own borders and in the global arena. Although San Marino has no endangered species, the lesser horseshoe bat and the common otter are listed as vulnerable.

6 Population

The resident population was estimated at 30,000 in 2005. Population density that year was 459 persons per square kilometer (1,189 per square mile). In 2005, about 5,000 people lived in the capital, also called San Marino.

7 Migration

Immigrants come chiefly from Italy and emigrants move mainly to Italy, the United States, France, and Belgium. In 2000, the number of migrants living in San Marino was 9,000, approximately one-third of the total population. In 2005, the estimated net migration rate was 10.8 migrants per 1,000 population.

8 Ethnic Groups

The Sanmarinese are mostly of Italian origin.

9 Languages

Italian is the official language.

10 Religions

Roman Catholicism is the dominant faith. While the country itself provides no statistics on the size of religious groups, estimates indicate that 95% of the population are Roman Catholic, with the remaining 5% comprised of members of the Waldensian Church, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baha’is, and Muslims.

11 Transportation

Streets and roads within the republic totaled about 220 kilometers (140 miles) in 2002, and there is regular bus service between San Marino and the Italian city of Rimini. Motor vehicle registrations included 22,945 passenger cars and 3,546 commercial vehicles. There is helicopter service between San Marino and Rimini in summer.

12 History

San Marino is the oldest republic in the world. It is the sole survivor of the independent states that existed in Italy at various times, from the downfall of the western Roman Empire to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

According to tradition, the republic was founded in the fourth century ad by Marinus, a Christian stonecutter who fled from Dalmatia (across the Adriatic Sea from Italy in present-day Croatia) to avoid religious persecution. Later canonized, Saint Marinus is known in Italian as San Marino. There was a monastery in San Marino in existence at least as early as 885.

Because of the poverty of the region and the mountainous terrain, San Marino was rarely disturbed by outside powers. It was briefly held by Cesare Borgia (an Italina military and church leader) in 1503, but in 1549 its sovereignty (independence) was confirmed by Pope Paul III. In 1739, a military force under Cardinal Giulio Alberoni occupied San Marino. In the following year, Pope Clement II terminated the occupation

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Name: Fabio Berardi

Position: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

Took Office: December 2003

Birthplace: Borgo Maggiore, San Marino

Birthdate: 26 May 1959

Note: In July 2006, Berardi was replaced as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs by Fiorenzio Stolfi.

and signed a treaty of friendship with the tiny republic. Napoleon allowed San Marino to retain its liberty.

In 1849, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the liberator of Italy, took refuge from the Austrians in San Marino. San Marino and Italy entered into a treaty of friendship in 1862, which is still in effect. From 1922 to 1943, during the period of Benito Mussolini’s rule in Italy, San Marino adopted a Fascist type of government. Despite its neutrality in World War II (1939–45), San Marino was bombed by Allied planes on 26 June 1944. The raid caused heavy damage, especially to the railway line, and killed a number of people.

Since 1945, government control has shifted between parties of the right and left, often in coalitions. In 1986, a Communist-Christian Democratic coalition came to power. As of 2003, the ruling coalition was composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Socialist Party.

In 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union and adopted the euro as its currency. In June 2000, Sanmarinese banks were accused of making the country a tax haven. San Marino promised to reform its banking practices.

Because San Marino has a customs union with Italy, it enjoys all of the benefits that flow from European Union (EU) membership. However, San Marino’s goal ultimately is to become a full member of the EU.

13 Government

Legislative power is exercised by the Grand and General Council of 60 members, regularly elected every five years by a vote of all citizens aged 18 or older. The Council elects from among its members a State Congress of ten members, which makes and carries out most administrative decisions. Two members of the council are named every six months to head the executive branch of the government; one represents the town of San Marino and the other the countryside. The terms of these officials, called captains-regent (capitani reggenti), begin on 1 April and 1 October. The captains-regent, who must be native-born citizens, may become eligible for reelection after three years. The office of secretary of state for foreign affairs operates like the office of prime minister. San Marino consists of nine administrative divisions, or castles (castelli).

14 Political Parties

The political parties in San Marino have close ties with the corresponding parties in Italy. Following the June 2006 elections, party representation in the legislature was as follows: San Marino Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), 21; the Party of Socialists and Democrats, 20; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats (APDS), 7; United Left, 5; and the New Socialist Party, 3.

15 Judicial System

There is a civil court, a criminal court, and a superior court. Most criminal cases are tried before Italian magistrates because, with the exception of minor civil suits, the judges in cases in San Marino are not allowed to be citizens of San Marino. The highest appellate court is the Council of Twelve.

16 Armed Forces

The San Marino militia officially consists of all able-bodied citizens between the ages of 16 and 55, but the armed forces are principally for purposes of ceremonial display.

17 Economy

Farming was formerly the principal occupation, but it has been replaced in importance by light manufacturing. The main sources of income, however, are tourism and payments by citizens of San Marino living abroad. Some government revenue comes from the sale of postage stamps and coins and from a subsidy by Italy. The gross domestic product growth has been impressive and consistent, averaging 7.7% from 1997–2001. After a dip to 2.3% in 2002, growth had recovered, to 7.5%, by 2005.

18 Income

In 2005, San Marino’s gross domestic product (GDP) was $940 million, or $34,600 per person. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 7.5%. The average inflation rate in 2002 was 3.3%.

19 Industry

Manufacturing is limited to light industries such as textiles, bricks and tiles, leather goods, clothing, and metalwork. Cotton textiles are woven at Serravalle; bricks and tiles are made in La Dogana, which also has a dyeing plant; and cement factories and a tannery are located in Acquaviva, as well as a paper-making plant. Synthetic rubber also is produced. The pottery of Borgo Maggiore is well known. Gold and silver souvenirs are made for the tourist trade. Other products are Moscato wine, olive oil, and baked goods.

20 Labor

The labor force in 2003 totaled about 19,970. The service sector provided employment for 57% of the workforce, with industry accounting for 42% and agriculture 1%. The unemployment rate in 2001 stood at 2.6%.

The minimum working age is 16, without any exceptions. In 2001, the minimum wage was $1,200 per month, although most wages are higher than the minimum.

21 Agriculture

About 17% of the land is arable. Annual crop production includes wheat and grapes, as well as other grains, vegetables, fruits, and livestock feed.

22 Domesticated Animals

Livestock raising uses some 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) of land, or about 23% of the total area. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses are raised.

23 Fishing

There was no significant commercial fishing in San Marino.

24 Forestry

Small quantities of wood are cut for local use.

25 Mining

San Marino had no commercial mineral resources.

26 Foreign Trade

Principal exports are wine, textiles, furniture, quarried stone, ceramics, and handicrafts. The chief imports are raw materials and a wide variety of consumer goods. San Marino has a customs union with Italy.

27 Energy and Power

Electric power is imported from Italy.

28 Social Development

The government maintains a comprehensive social insurance program, including disability, family supplement payments, and old-age pensions. There is universal medical coverage and maternity benefits of 100% of earnings for five months. In 2000, parliament approved a measure that gives women the same rights as men to transmit citizenship to a spouse or child.

29 Health

Public health institutions include the state hospital, a dispensary for the poor, and a laboratory of hygiene. All citizens receive free, comprehensive medical care.

In 2005, estimated average life expectancy was 81.6 years (78 years for men and 86 years

for women) and the infant mortality rate was estimated at 5.7 per 1,000 live births.

In 1986, San Marino had 7,926 dwellings, nearly all with electricity and piped-in water. Most new construction is financed privately.

31 Education

Primary education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 16. Children go through five years of primary education followed by three years of secondary education at the first stage and a further three years of senior secondary school. Sanmarinese students are able to pursue higher education at Italian universities. There are also vocational training schools and a technical institute. As of 2005, the adult literacy rate has been estimated at 96%.

32 Media

In 1998, there were three FM radio stations and one television station receiving mostly foreign broadcasts. In 1997, there were about 595 radios per 1,000 population. In 2005, there were about 892 television sets for every 1,000 people. An automatic telephone system, integrated into Italy’s system, served 20,600 telephones in 2002. The same year, there were an additional 16,800

Selected Social Indicators

The statistics below are the most recent estimates available as of 2006. For comparison purposes, data for the United States and averages for low-income countries and high-income countries are also given. About 15% of the world’s 6.5 billion people live in high-income countries, while 37% live in low-income countries.

IndicatorSan Marino Low-income countriesHigh-income countriesUnited States
sources: World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006; Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006; World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Per capita gross national income (GNI)*$34,600 $2,258$31,009$39,820
Population growth rate1.3% 2%0.8%1.2%
People per square kilometer of land459 803032
Life expectancy in years: male78 587675
female86 608280
Number of physicians per 1,000 peoplen.a. 0.43.72.3
Number of pupils per teacher (primary school)n.a. 431615
Literacy rate (15 years and older)96% 65%>95%99%
Television sets per 1,000 people892 84735938
Internet users per 1,000 people556 28538630
Energy consumed per capita (kg of oil equivalent)n.a. 5015,4107,843
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)n.a. 0.8512.9719.92
* The GNI is the total of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a year. The per capita GNI is calculated by dividing a country’s GNI by its population and adjusting for relative purchasing power.
n.a.: data not available >: greater than <: less than

mobile cellular phones in use throughout the country. Internet access was widely available as of 2004; about half of all citizens (556 of every 1,000) had access to the Internet.

In 2005, there were several major daily newspapers: Il Nuovo Titano (circulation 1,300), Riscossa Socialista, Notiziario, La Tribuna San Marino, San Marino Oggi, and La Scintilia. There are also a number of government bulletins.

33 Tourism and Recreation

The government has promoted tourism so successfully that during summer months, the number of San Marino residents is often exceeded by the number of visitors. Growth in the tourist industry has increased the demand for San Marino’s stamps and coins, gold and silver souvenirs, handicrafts, and pottery. Tourism contributes about 50% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).

Principal attractions are the three medieval fortresses at the summit of Mount Titano (Monte Titano), the magnificent view of the Italian city of Rimini, and the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea.

In 2000, there were 3,071,000 foreign visitors. There were 631 hotel rooms, with 1,625 beds and a 39% occupancy rate that year.

34 Famous Sanmarinese

Giambattista Belluzzi, a 16th-century military engineer in the service of Florence, was born in San Marino. Well-known Italians who were associated with San Marino include Cardinal Giulio Alberoni (1664–1752), who attempted to subject the republic to papal domination in 1739–40; Count Alessandro Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo (1743–1795), a Sicilian adventurer, imposter, and alchemist; Bartolommeo Borghesi (1781–1860), an antiquarian, epigrapher, and numismatist, who resided in San Marino from 1821 to 1860; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807–1882), the great Italian patriot, who obtained refuge from the Austrians in San Marino in 1849.

35 Bibliography

BOOKS

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, the Marches, and San Marino. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1994.

Carrick, Noel. San Marino. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

Eccardt, Thomas. Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City. New York: Hippocrene Books, 2004.

WEB SITES

Country Pages. www.state.gov/p/eur/ci/sm/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

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San Marino

San Marino

Compiled from the October 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of San Marino

PROFILE

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

GOVERNMENT

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

ECONOMY

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 61.2 sq. km.; about one-third the size of Washington, DC.

Cities: Capital—San Marino (pop. 4,482). Other cities—Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano.

Terrain: Rugged mountains.

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective— Sammarinese.

Population: (September 2006) 30,002.

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

Language: Italian.

Education: Literacy—96%.

Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)—5.63/1,000 live birth rates. Life expectancy (2006)—78.6 for men and 85.5 for women.

Work force: approx 18,000.

Government

Type: Independent republic.

Constitution: October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.

Government branches: Executive—Captain Regent Roberto Giorgetti and Captain Regent Antonio Carattoni (co-chiefs of state); Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council; Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo Stofli (head of government). Legislative—unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial— Council of Twelve.

Political subdivisions: 9 municipalities.

Political parties: Christian Democratic Party, Party of Socialists and Democrats, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, United Left, New Socialist Party, We Sammarinesi, Sammarinesi for Freedom.

Suffrage: Universal, 18 years of age.

Economy

GDP: (2003) Euros 995 million.

Per capita income: (2003 est.) Euros 26,654.

GDP growth: (2004 est.) 4%.

Natural resources: Building stone.

Agriculture: Products—wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides.

Industry: Types—tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine.

Trade: Exports—Euros 1,763 million (2003). 85% to Italy. Imports—Euros 1,847 million (2003) manufactured goods, food. Partners—Italy, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South America, China, Taiwan.

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The population of San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Crop farming, sheep farming, and the working of stone from the quarries formed the early backbone of San Marino’s economy. It has no mineral resources, and today most of the land is cultivated or covered by woods.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 when a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian fled to the island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman Emperor Diocletian. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano and founded a small community of people following their Christian beliefs. It is certain that the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano only dates back to the Middle Ages. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed “Land of San Marino” and was finally changed to its present-day name, “Republic of San Marino.”

The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti)

were established to be the joint heads of state. The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II Piccolomini gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.

San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries twice in its history, both for only short periods of time. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, occupied the republic until his death several months later. In 1739, Cardinal Alberoni used military force to occupy the country. Civil disobedience was used to protest his occupation, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by the Pope’s recognition of San Marino’s rights and restoration of San Marino’s independence.

GOVERNMENT

The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council, and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council, which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget, as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.

Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the previous Regents’ activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the former head(s) of state can be initiated.

The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are (1) Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, and Economic Planning; (2) Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense; (3) Secretary of State for Finance, Budget, and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; (4) Secretary of State for Education, Culture, University and Social Affairs; (5) Secretary of State for Territory, Environment and Agriculture; (6) Secretary of State for Health and Social Security; (7) Secretary of State for Industry, Trade and Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services; (8) Secretary of State for Communication, Transport, Tourism, and Sport; (9) Secretary of State for Justice, Information, and Peace; and (10) Secretary of State for Labor and Cooperation.

The Great and General Council elects the Council of Twelve for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.

The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every five years and are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on being submitted to the Great and General Council. The judiciary is composed of the commissioner of the law, the judging magistrate, the appellate judge, the juvenile court, and the judge of last appeal. The commissioner tries civil and penal cases with penalties not exceeding a three-year sentence. The judging magistrates, who are appointed by parliament for a three-year term and can be indefinitely reappointed, preside over all other cases.

Reform legislation, enacted in 2004, no longer requires that the country’s lower court judges be noncitizens; however, most lower court judges remained Italian citizens. A local conciliation judge handles cases of minor importance. Under the same reform, the final court of review is the judge of the last appeal. In civil matters, this judge confirms or overrules either the lower court judgment or an appellate decision; in criminal matters, he judges on the legitimacy of detention measures and on the enforcement of a judgment.

On April 28, 2005 a new act established the country’s constitutional court with the following functions: 1) to verify that laws, acts, and traditions that are given the force of law conform to constitutional precepts; 2) to verify the admissibility of a referendum; 3) to decide on conflicts between constitutional institutions; 4) to control the activity of the Captains Regent. The court is composed of three standing judges and three alternate judges. They are selected by the Great and General Council with a two-thirds majority to a four-year term. After the first selection one-third of the members of the court are reselected every two years.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 12/18/2006

Captain Regent (Co-Head of State): Antonio CARATTONI

Captain Regent (Co-Head of State):Roberto GIORGETTI

Sec. of Budget & Finance: Stefano MACINA

Sec. of Health & Social Security: Fabio BERARDI

Sec. of Industry, Trade, & Research: Tito MASI

Sec. of Interior & Civil Protection: Valeria CIAVATTA

Sec. of Justice, Information, & Peace: Ivan FOSCHI

Sec. of Labor: Antonello BACCIOCCHI

Sec. of Public Education, Culture, & Social Affairs: Francesca MICHELOTTI

Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning: Fiorenzo STOLFI

Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture: Marino RICCARDI

Sec. of Tourism, Telecommunications, Transportation, Economic Cooperation, & Sports: Paride ANDREOLI

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Daniele BODINI

San Marino has honorary Consulates General in Washington, DC and New York and honorary Consulates in Detroit and Honolulu. The honorary Consulate General in Washington, DC is located at 1899 L Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036. The Republic of San Marino’s Web Site provides information on politics, trade, and events in San Marino.

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS), and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD), in addition to several other smaller parties.

Due to the small size and low population of San Marino, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. Following the June 2006 election results, the PSD formed a center-left coalition government with the Popular Alliance and the United Left parties.

Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy. In recent years banking has also become an important economic activity.

Harmonization of statutes and policies with the EU is a major domestic and foreign policy priority of the republic. Another priority issue is the signing of a cooperation agreement with Italy, San Marino’s most important economic partner.

ECONOMY

San Marino’s per capita GNP in 2003 stood at 26,654 Euros with more than 50% coming from the tourism industry, which draws about 3 million people annually. Traditional economic activities in San Marino were food crops, sheep farming, and stone quarrying. Today farming activities focus on grain, vines, and orchards, as well as animal husbandry (cattle and swine). Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the banking industry and from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, furniture, clothing, paints, fabrics, and spirits/wines. The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are comparable to those of Italy. In addition, San Marino maintains the lowest unemployment rate in Europe and no national debt.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

San Marino is an active player in the international community. Currently, the Republic has diplomatic relations with over 70 countries. Italy is the only country represented by an ambassador resident in San Marino. The Papal Nuncio, based in Rome, is the dean of San Marino’s diplomatic corps.

San Marino is a full member of the United Nations (UN), International Court of Justice (ICJ), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, International Red Cross Organization, the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIIT), and Interpol, among others. It also cooperates with UNICEF and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and has official relations with the European Union (EU). From May 10 until November 6, 1990, San Marino held the semiannual presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, headquartered in Strasbourg, France, and it is preparing to do the same for the period November 2006-May 2007.

U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

The United States and San Marino enjoy friendly diplomatic relations. San Marino consistently supports U.S. foreign policy positions, as well as U.S. candidates to international organizations. The two countries are on excellent terms. The United States Consul General in Florence also serves as the U.S. diplomatic representative to San Marino. However, in September 2006 President George W. Bush appointed Ambassador to Italy Ronald P. Spogli as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to San Marino. When the accreditation process is completed, Ambassador Spogli will be the first U.S. Ambassador to San Marino in the country’s history. For consular purposes, the republic is within the jurisdiction of the Florence consular district. Consulate officials regularly visit San Marino to carry out diplomatic demarches, represent U.S. interests, and administer consular services.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

FLORENCE (CG) Address: Lungarno A. Vespucci, 38; APO/FPO: PSC 59 Box 100 (f) APO AE 09624; Phone: +39-055-266-951; Fax: 39-055-284088; Workweek: 8:30–5:30 Mon to Fri; Website: http://florence.usconsulate.gov.

CG:Nora Dempsey
PO:Nora Dempsey
CON:Michael J. Ma
MGT:Michael J. Ma
CA:Brian C. Winans
ISSO:Michael J. Ma

Last Updated: 5/3/2006

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet : January 22, 2007

Country Description: Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy. The Holy See is a sovereign entity that serves as the ecclesiastical, governmental and administrative capital of the Roman Catholic Church, physically located within the State of the Vatican City inside Rome, with a unique, non-traditional economy. San Marino is a developed, constitutional democratic republic, also independent of Italy, with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available.

Entry Requirements: A valid passport is required. Italian authorities may deny entry to travelers who attempt to enter without a valid passport. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. However, for all other purposes, such as work, study, etc., a visa is required and must be obtained from the Italian Embassy or Consulates before entering Italy. For further information concerning visas and entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 Whitehaven St NW, Washington, DC 20008, via telephone at (202) 612-4400 or via the internet: http://www.ambwashingtondc.esteri.it/ambasciata_washington, or Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, accessible through the above Internet site.

Under Italian law, tourists who plan to stay more than eight business days are required to obtain a permesso di soggiorno (permit of stay) within eight business days of their arrival. As of December 11, 2006, tourists may request an application “kit” for the permesso di soggiorno from one of 14,000 national post offices (Poste Italiane). The kit must then be returned to one of 5,332 designated Post Office acceptance locations. Tourists will have to complete a form, provide a complete photocopy of their passport, present sufficient proof of their means of financial support, submit photographs, a photocopy of their insurance policy, photocopy proof of their return to the United States, and pay a fee. It is important that applicants keep a copy of the receipt issued by the Post Office. Failure to obtain the permit of stay within eight days is punishable by fine. Additional information may be obtained from an Italian immigration website via Internet at http://www.portaleimmigrazione.it/.

Safety and Security: There have been occasional episodes of politically motivated violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues. At various times, Italian authorities have found bombs outside public buildings, have received bomb threats and were subjects of letter bombs. Firebombs or Molotov cocktails have been thrown at buildings or offices in the middle of the night. These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements. Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances. Demonstrations may have an anti-American character. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence. U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take common sense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when they occur.

Italy remains largely free of terrorist incidents. However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Italy’s open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: Italy has a moderate rate of violent crime, some of which is directed towards tourists, principally for motives of theft. Some travelers have been victims of rape and beating. There have also been incidents of drinks laced with drugs being used by criminals to rob, and in some cases, assault tourists. Many of these incidents have occurred in the vicinity of Rome’s Termini train station and at major tourist centers such as Campo de Fiori and Piazza Navona, as well as in Florence and Naples. Criminals using this tactic “befriend” a traveler at a train station, bus stop, restaurant, café or bar in tourist areas, then eventually offer a drink laced with a sleeping drug. When the tourist falls asleep, criminals steal the traveler’s valuables. There have also been instances where the victim was assaulted, either physically or sexually.

Americans are urged to exercise caution at train stations and airports, and when frequenting nightclubs, bars and outdoor cafes, particularly at night, because criminals may make initial contact with potential victims in such settings. Individuals under the effect of alcohol may become victims of crime, including robbery, physical and sexual assault, due to their impaired ability to judge situations and make decisions. This is particularly a problem for younger Americans visiting Italy, where the age limit on the sale of alcoholic beverages is lower than in most U.S. states. If you are a victim of such a crime, please file a police report and contact the U.S. Embassy or nearest Consulate. There are also in-country organizations, which provide counseling, medical, and legal assistance to certain crime victims.

Petty crimes such as pick pocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching are serious problems, especially in large cities. Pickpockets sometimes dress like businessmen so tourists should not be lulled into a false sense of security by believing that well-dressed individuals are not potential pickpockets or thieves. Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations: Rome’s Termini; Milan’s Centrale; Florence’s Santa Maria Novella; and Naples’ Centrale and Piazza Garibaldi. Travelers should also be alert to theft in Milan’s Malpensa Airport, particularly at car rental agencies. Clients of Internet cafes in major cities have been targeted. Tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones.

Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs. Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists’ attention so that another can pickpocket them. In one particular routine, one thief throws trash, waste or ketchup at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim’s belongings. Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife, and then remove the contents. Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars is a major problem.

Carjacking and theft has also been reported from occupied vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights. Vehicles parked near beaches during the summer have been broken into and items stolen. Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows.

In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief signals a flat tire to the driver of another car and encourages the driver to pull over. Often, the tire has been punctured by an accomplice, while in other instances, there may, in fact, be nothing wrong with the vehicle. When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver’s belongings. Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts. There have been occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas.

On trains, a commonly reported trick involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink. Also, thieves have been known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists. The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words “police” or “international police.” If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer’s identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents. Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police.

The U.S. Secret Service in Rome has been advised of, and is assisting Italian Law Enforcement authorities in investigating, an increase in the appearance of ATM skimming devices. These devices are attached to legitimate bank ATMs, usually located in tourist areas, and capture the account information stored electronically on the card’s magnetic strip. The devices consist of a card reader installed over the legitimate reader and a pin-hole video camera mounted above the keypad that records the customer’s PIN. ATMs with skimming devices installed may also allow normal transactions to occur. The victim’s information is sold, traded on-line or encoded on another card such as a hotel key card to access the compromised account. Here are some helpful hints to protect yourself and to identify skimming devices:

  • Use ATMs located in well-lit public areas, or secured inside the bank/business
  • Cover the keypad with one hand as you enter your PIN
  • Look for gaps, tampered appearance, or other irregularities between the metal faceplate of the ATM and the card reader
  • Avoid card readers that are not flush with the face of the ATM
  • Monitor your account statements for unauthorized transactions

Organized criminal groups operate throughout Italy, but are more prevalent in the south. They have occasionally resorted to violence to intimidate or to settle disputes. Though the activities of such groups are not generally targeted at tourists, visitors should be aware that innocent bystanders could be injured.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Lost or stolen credit cards present risk of identity theft and should be cancelled immediately. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas. Public hospitals, though generally free of charge for emergency services, sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic. It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board).

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Italy is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Streets in historic city centers are often narrow, winding and congested. Motor scooters are very popular and drivers often see themselves as exempt from conventions that apply to automobiles. Travelers who rent scooters should be particularly cautious. Pedestrians and drivers should be constantly alert to the possibility of scooters’sudden presence. Traffic lights are limited, often disobeyed, and a different convention of right-ofway is observed. Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of “Autostrada,” or superhighways. Commercial and individual vehicles travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds. Accidents occur in which contributing factors include excessive speed, alcohol/drug use and/or sleepiness of long-distance drivers. Italy has one of the highest rates of car accident deaths in the European Union.

In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving. Roads are generally narrow and often have no guardrails. Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of fog and poor visibility, responsible for multiple-car accidents each year. Most Italian automobiles are equipped with special fog lights. Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads. Use of safety belts and child restraining devices is mandatory and headlights should be on at all times outside of urban areas.

For specific information concerning Italian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at: http://www.enit.it, tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5, 00185 Rome, tel: 39-06-4477. For information on obtaining international drivers licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office at http://www.italiantourism.com and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Italy’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s website at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines). Most are announced in advance and are of short duration. Information on strikes may be found at http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it. Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended.

Disaster Preparedness: Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy. Principal Italian cities, with the exception of Naples, do not lie near these faults, but smaller tourist towns, like Assisi, do and have suffered earthquakes. General information about disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov. Detailed information on Italy’s earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events. Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000. Mt. Vesuvius, located near Naples, is currently capped and not active. Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded. Two of Italy’s smaller islands, Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolian Island chain north of Sicily, also have active volcanoes with lava flows. Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations. They may differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children’s Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living or traveling in Italy are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A, tel: 39-06-46741 and fax: 39-06-4674-2217; Internet address: http://italy.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulates are located in:

Florence: Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci 38, tel: 39-055-266-951, consular fax: 399-055-215-550;

Milan: Via Principe Amedeo 2/10, tel: 39-02-290-351, and fax: 39-02-290-35-273;

Naples: Piazza della Repubblica, tel: 39-081-583-8111, and consular fax: 39-081-583-8275.

There are U.S. Consular Agents located in:

Genoa: Via Dante 2, tel: 39-010-584-492, and fax: 39-010-553-3033;

Palermo: Via Vaccarini 1, tel: 39-091-305-857, and fax: 39-091-625-6026;

Venice: Viale Galileo Galilei, 30, tel: 39-041-541-5944, and fax: 39-041-541-6654.

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San Marino

San Marino

Type of Government

San Marino is a parliamentary republic with two heads of government, called the Captains Regent, and a legislature known as the Great and General Council. Founded in the early fourth century, San Marino is the oldest republic in the world, and much of its legal code has been in place for more than five centuries.

Background

At twenty-four square miles, San Marino is the third-smallest independent country in Europe, after the Vatican and Monaco. Located largely on the slopes of Mount Titano, it is surrounded by the Romagna and Marches regions of Italy, and is home to twenty-nine thousand people, most of whom are ethnically and culturally Italian and speak the Italian language. According to legend, a Croatian stone carver named Marino founded the nation in 301 after coming to the area to help restore a villa on the nearby coast. Mount Titano served as Marino’s quarry for building stone, and he traveled there often. A Christian, he took to evangelism, and a reputation as a holy man and healer followed. At the time, a prominent local family owned Mount Titano and was said to have given Marino the land in gratitude for his services.

A representative government began to take shape in San Marino in 1244, when its citizens appointed two lawyers as the joint leaders of the government. In the same century the Arengo, a council composed of the heads of all the families in San Marino, came into existence. The representative nature of San Marino’s government has changed little since that time.

Government Structure

At the local level, town councils govern San Marino’s nine townships. At the national level, the two appointed heads of government—the positions originally established in 1244—are today known as the Captains Regent. They hold supreme executive power over the other branches of government and are commanders in chief of the republic’s small military force. Elected every six months by the legislative branch of government, the Great and General Council, the Captains Regent has significant power, but it is held in check by the other branches of government. At the end of the captains’ six-month term, their time in office comes under the scrutiny of the Sindacator, a citizens’ tribunal, through which the San Marinese people may judge the captains’ performance in office.

The legislature, called the Great and General Council, is responsible for the creation of all laws and bylaws. It consists of sixty members who serve five-year terms and are elected by San Marinese citizens eighteen years of age and older. Besides appointing the Captains Regent, the council appoints three secretaries of state, nine government ministers, and all diplomatic agents and consuls. The council also approves the annual budget, as well as all treaties and agreements. Judges and magistrates for the republic are Italians nominated by the Great and General Council who are brought in to serve for limited terms.

Political Parties and Factions

The two principal political parties in San Marino are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS) and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD). Established in 1948, the Catholic, conservative PDCS is the stronger of the two parties, consistently winning at least twenty-five seats in the Great and General Council. Because neither party wins a clear majority, governance is generally by a coalition. The election of 2006 resulted in a center-left coalition led by the PSD.

Major Events

San Marino has been occupied by foreign powers twice during its history. In 1503 the country was briefly occupied by the Italian military leader Cesare Borgia (1475?–1507) in an attempt to unite the Romagna region under his control. In 1739 San Marino was occupied by the Italian statesman Giulio Alberoni (1664–1752), but independence was restored through the intervention of Pope Clement XII (1652–1740). After the unification of Italy in the nineteenth century, a treaty between the two nations guaranteed San Marino’s continued independence.

Twenty-First Century

San Marino’s economy relies heavily on tourism, which supplies approximately 50 percent of its income. With the growth of the San Marinese banking industry in the late twentieth century, Italy and other European nations became concerned about tax evaders using the country as a haven, and San Marino pledged to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that it would take measures to combat money laundering and tax evasion.

Matteini, Nevio. The Republic of San Marino: Historical and Artistic Guide . San Marino: Azienda Tipografica Editoriale, 1981.

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San Marino

San Marino

  • Area: 24 sq mi (61 sq km) / World Rank: 202
  • Location: Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, surrounded by Italy, in southern Europe.
  • Coordinates: 43°46′N, 12°25′E
  • Borders: 24 mi (39 km), all with Italy
  • Coastline: None
  • Territorial Seas: None
  • Highest Point: Monte Titano, 2,477 ft (755 m)
  • Lowest Point: Torrente Ausa, 180 ft (55 m)
  • Longest Distances: 8 mi (13km) NE-SW; 6 mi (9 km) SE-NW
  • Longest River: None of significant length
  • Natural Hazards: None
  • Population: 27,336 (July 2001 est.) / World Rank: 199
  • Capital City: San Marino, west-central San Marino
  • Largest City: San Marino, 5,000 (2000 estimate)

OVERVIEW

San Marino is a tiny landlocked country, located entirely within Italy, about 15 mi (24 km) southwest of the city of Rimini, in the Apennine Mountains between Italy's Marche and Romagna regions. It is Europe's third-smallest independent state (only Vatican City and Monaco are smaller) and the world's second-smallest republic (after Nauru). San Marino is dominated by Mt. Titano, on whose slopes and crest most of the irregularly shaped country is situated. However, there is enough level land at the base of the mountain for agriculture. San Marino is situated on the Eurasian Tectonic Plate.

MOUNTAINS AND HILLS

The limestone peaks of Mt. Titano occupy the central part of the republic. There are three major peaks, with ancient fortifications on each one. The summit of Mt. Titano (2,477 ft / 755 m) commands a panoramic view of the Adriatic Sea, only 12 mi (19 km) away. Mt. Titano is bordered by hills to the southwest.

INLAND WATERWAYS

Rivers

San Marino lies largely within the basin of Italy's Marecchia River, into which the San Marino River drains, flowing northward and forming part of the republic's border with Italy. The Marano and Ausa rivers drain into the Adriatic Sea.

Castles – San Marino
Name Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Capital
Acquaviva 1.88 4.86 Acquaviva
Borgo Maggiore 3.48 9.01 Borgo
Citta 2.74 7.09 San Marino
Chiesanuova 2.11 5.46 Chiesanuova
Domagnano '2.56 6.62 Domagnano
Faetano 2.99 7.75 Faetano
Fiorentino 2.53 6.56 Fiorentino
Montegiardino 1.28 3.31 Montegiardino
Serravalle / Dogano 4.07 10.53 Serravalle
SOURCE : Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989.

THE COAST, ISLANDS, AND THE OCEAN

San Marino is landlocked.

CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

San Marino has the mild, temperate climate typical of northeastern Italy. Summer highs rarely rise above 79°F (26°C), and winter lows rarely fall below 19°F (7°C). Annual rainfall averages between 22 in (56 cm) and 32 in (80 cm).

There is some level land at the base of Mt. Titano, which is given over to agriculture. The mountain itself supports pasturelands as well as forests. Tree species include pine, oak, ash, elm, poplar, olive, and other varieties typical of northeastern Italy.

HUMAN POPULATION

San Marino is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with 1,139 people per sq mi (448 people per sq km) in 2001. More than 95 percent of the population is urban, living in the nation's nine small towns. The capital city of San Marino is located on the western slope of Mt. Titano, close to the summit. Commercial activity is centered on Borgo Maggiore, some 600 ft (183 m) below San Marino and connected to it by a winding road 1.5 mi (2.4 km) long.

NATURAL RESOURCES

San Marino's most important natural resources are its scenic landscape, which attracts tourists, and the limited area of arable land at the base of Mt. Titano. Building stone is its only mineral resource.

FURTHER READINGS

Carrick, Noel. San Marino. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, The Marches, and San Marino. London: Black, 1994.

Cleary, Amelia. "My Country 'Tis So Wee: The Little Country of San Marino Puts Its Stamp on the World." Washington Post November 15, 2000: Style section, C15.

"Now, After 1,600 Years, Time to Join the World (San Marino to Become Member of the United Nations)." New York Times February 26, 1992.

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San Marino

San Marino

At a Glance

Official Name: Republic of San Marino

Continent: Europe

Area: 23 square miles (60 sq. km)

Population: 27,336

Capital City: San Marino

Largest City: San Marino (4,498)

Unit of Money: Italian lira

Major Languages: Italian

Literacy: 96%

Land Use: 17% arable, 83% other

Natural Resources: Building stone

Government: Republic

Defense: 3.7 million

The Place

San Marino is in the Appennine Mountains of northeastern Italy, which surround it. Mount Titano, the country's highest mountain, is 2,478 feet (755 meters) high and has 3 peaks. On top of each peak is a tower built during the Middle Ages. Much of the country, including its capital, also called San Marino, stands on Mount Titano. San Marino is the second-smallest country in the world with an area of 23 square miles (60 square kilometers). The country's spectacular views, fortress walls, cakes, wine, and colorful festivals draw thousands of tourists every year. San Marino has a mild summer climate, with temperatures that average about 75° F (24° C). Winter temperatures sometimes fall below freezing. The country has an average annual rainfall of 35 inches (89 centimeters). The soil in San Marino is poor and rocky. The mild climate and ample rainfall, however, enable farmers to grow a variety of crops.

The People

San Marino's people are similar to the people of northern Italy. Nearly all San Marinese are Roman Catholics and speak Italian, and their customs are like those of Italy. The people of San Marino are proud of their long tradition of independence. More than 20% of San Marino's people work in the tourist industry, which includes hotels, restaurants, and souvenir shops. Other people work in quarries or in the leather or cheese industries. Farmers raise cattle and sheep and grow grapes and wheat. Nearly everyone in San Marino can read and write. The law requires children to attend school from the ages of 6 to 14. After elementary and secondary school, many students pursue higher education in Italy. Most homes have a telephone, radio, and TV. Life expectancy is 81 years.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

Compiled from the June 2003 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.


Official Name:
Republic of San Marino


PROFILE
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS
TRAVEL


PROFILE


Geography

Area: 60 sq. km.; about one-third the size of Washington, DC.

Cities: Capital—San Marino (pop. 4, 352). Other cities—Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano.

Terrain: Rugged mountains.

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers.


People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Sammarinese.

Population: (1999) 26,628.

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

Language: Italian.

Education: Literacy—96%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—5.5/1,000 live birth rates. Life expectancy—81.37 years.

Work force: 18,000.


Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.

Branches: Executive—Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state), Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council, Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs (head of government). Legislative—unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial—Council of Twelve.

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities.

Political parties: Christian Democratic Party, Democratic Progressive Party, San Marino Socialist Party, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, Communist Refoundation.

Suffrage: Universal over 18.


Economy

GDP: (2000 est) $850 million.

Per capita income: (2000 est) $32,000.

GDP growth: (2000 est) 8%.

Natural resources: Building stone.

Agriculture: Products—wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides.

Industry: Types—tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine.

Trade: Exports—85% to Italy. Imports—manufactured goods, food. Partners—Italy, eastern Europe, South America, China, Taiwan.



PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The population of San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Crop farming, sheep farming, and the working of stone from the quarries formed the early backbone of San Marino's economy. It has no mineral resources, and today most of the land is cultivated or covered by woods.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 when a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmation fled to the island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman Emperor Diocletian. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano and founded a small community of people following their Christian beliefs. It is certain that the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano only dates back to the middle ages. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed "Land of San Marino," and was finally changed to its present-day name, "Republic of San Marino."


The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads of state.


The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time there public entered into an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II Piccolomini gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.


San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries twice in its history, both for only short periods of time. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, occupied the republic until his death several months later. In 1739, Cardinal Alberoni used military force to occupy the country, but civil disobedience was used to protest this, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by the Pope's recognition of San Marino's rights and restored them to independence.



GOVERNMENT

The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.


Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the Regents' activities. If they warrant it,
judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.


The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense, and Secretary of State for Finance, Budget and Programming, Information and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; Education, Culture, University and Justice; Territory, Environment and Agriculture; Health and Social Security; Trade and Relations with the Town Council; Communication, Transport, Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services, Tourism and Sport; Industry and Crafts; and Labour and Cooperation.

The Council of Twelve is elected by the Great and General Council for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.


The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every 5 years and they are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on there way to being submitted to the Great and General Council.


The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives, both for historical and social reasons. The only native judges are the Justices of the Peace, who only handle civil cases where sums involved do not exceed 25 million lire. The Council of Twelve serves as an appeals court in the third instance.


Principal Government Officials
Last Updated: 12/19/02


Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning: Stolfi, Fiorenzo

Sec. of Finance, Budget, & Posts & Telecommunications: Mularoni, Pier Marino

Sec. of Health & Social Security: Zafferani, Rosa

Sec. of Industry & Craftsmanship: Rattini, Maurizio

Sec. of Interior & Civil Protection: Francini, Loris

Sec. of Justice, Relations with Local Governments, & Information: Cecchetti, Alberto

Sec. of Labor: Venturini, Giancarlo

Sec. of Public Education, University, & Cultural Institutions: Valentini, Pasquale

Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture: Berardi, Fabio

Sec. of Tourism, Trade, & Sports: Andreoli, Paride

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York:

San Marino has honorary Consulates General in Washington, DC and New York, and an honorary Consulate in Detroit. The honorary Consulate General in Washington, DC is located at 1899 L Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036.


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The three main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS), the Socialist Party of San Marino (PSS), and the Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino (PPDS) in addition to several other smaller parties. Due to the small size of San Marino and its low population, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. As a result of the June 2001 election, the PDCS and PSS control a majority of seats in the Council.


Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue, but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy.


The main issues confronting the current government include economic and administrative problems related to San Marino's status as a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining separated from the European Union (EU). The other priority issue will be to increase the transparency and efficiency in parliament and in relations among parliament, cabinet, and the Captains Regent.



ECONOMY

San Marino's per capita GNP in 2000 stood at $32,000 with more than 50% of that coming from the tourism industry which draws about 3.15 million people annually. One of the greatest sources of income from tourism comes from the sale of historic coins and stamps. In 1894, San Marino issued the first commemorative stamps and since then that has been part of a large livelihood in the republic. All 10 of the Post Offices of San Marino sell these stamps and collectable coins, including "Legal Gold Tender Coins."

Traditional economic activities in San Marino were food crops, sheep farming, and stone quarrying. Today farming activities focus on grain, vines and orchards, as well as animal husbandry (cattle and swine). Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the banking industry and from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, furniture, clothing, paints, fabrics, and spirits/wines.


The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are comparable to those of Italy. In addition, San Marino maintains the lowest unemployment rate in Europe, a state budget surplus, and no national debt.



FOREIGN RELATIONS

San Marino is an active player in the international community. Currently the Republic has diplomatic relations with over 70 countries.


San Marino is a full member of the United Nations, International Court of Justice, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, International Red Cross Organization, and the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIIT), among others. It also cooperates with UNICEF and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and has official relations with the European Union. From May 10 until November 6, 1990, San Marino held the semi-annual presidency of the European Council of Ministers.


U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

The United States and San Marino enjoy friendly diplomatic relations. San Marino consistently supports U.S. foreign policy positions as well as U.S. candidates to international organizations. The two countries are on excellent terms, and the U.S. includes San Marino within the Florence consular district. United States consulate general officers visit San Marino regularly.


Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Florence, Italy (CG), Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, 38, 50123 Firenze • PSC 59 Box F, APOAE 09624, Tel [39] (055) 239 8276/7/8/9, 217-605, Fax 284-088; COM Tel 211-676, Fax 283-780.

CG: William W. McIIhenny
DPO/CON/MGT:Steven F. Harper
COM: Barbara Lapini
RSO: Robert A. Hartung (res. Rome)

Last Modified: Thursday, November 20, 2003



TRAVEL


Consular Information Sheet for Italy
March 27, 2003


Country Description: Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available. Additional information may be obtained from the Italian Government Tourist Board by telephone at 212-245-5618 or via the Internet: http://www.enit.it.


Entry Requirements: A valid passport is required. Italian authorities may deny entry to travelers who attempt to enter Italy without a valid passport. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. For further information concerning entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Tel: 202-612-4400 or via the Internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or the Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco.

Tourists staying other than in hotels for more than one month should register with the local police station and obtain a permesso di soggiorno (permit to stay) within eight days of arrival in Italy. Visitors to Italy may be required to demonstrate to the police upon arrival sufficient means of financial support. Credit cards, ATM cards, travelers' checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. can be used to show sufficient means.


In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.


Dual Nationality: U.S. citizens born in Italy and/or who are also Italian citizens may be subject to compulsory military service and other laws imposing special obligations upon them in Italy. Those who might be affected should inquire at an Italian embassy or consulate regarding their status before traveling to Italy. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. For additional information, see the Consular Affairs home page on the Internet: http://travel.state.gov for our Dual Nationality flyer.


Safety/Security: There have been occasional episodes of violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues. In 2001, there was violence associated with the demonstrations against the G-8 meeting in Genoa. Italian authorities, at various times, have found bombs outside public buildings; they received bomb threats and were themselves the subjects of letter bombs. These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements. Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances. In March 2002, Americans were warned by the Department of State about possible actions by extremist groups in Italy.

In recent months, there have been increasing numbers of peace demonstrations, some with thousands of protestors, in various cities in Italy. In addition, pacifists have protested or attempted to block transportation movements of military equipment, particularly near U.S. military installations, in parts of the country.


Demonstrations may have an anti-American character. Even those intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence. U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take commonsense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when the occur.


Crime: Italy has a low rate of violent crime, little of which is directed toward tourists. Petty crimes such as pickpocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching, however, are serious problems, especially in large cities. Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations, Rome's Termini, Milan's Centrale, Florence's Santa Maria Novella, and Naples' Centrale. Clients of Internet cafes in major cities have been targeted. Elderly tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones.


Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs. Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists' attention so that another can pickpocket them. In one particular routine, one thief throws trash or waste at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim's belongings. Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife, then remove the contents. Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars is a major problem. Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows. Thefts have also been reported from occupied vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights.


In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief punctures the tire of a rental or out-of-town car. An accomplice signals the flat tire to the driver and encourages the driver to pull over. When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver's belongings. Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts. There have been occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas.


On trains, a commonly reported trick involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink. Also, thieves have been known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists. The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words "police" or "international police." If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer's identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents. Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police.


The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance. The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

U.S. citizens can refer to the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad for ways to promote a troublefree journey. The pamphlet is available by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html, Washington, D.C. 20402, via the Internet at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html, or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.


Medical Facilities and Insurance: Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas. Public hospitals sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic. It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board). The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult their medical insurance company prior to traveling to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. Many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans to cover overseas health care expenses including emergency services such as medical evacuations.


When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the U.S. may cost well in excess of $50,000. Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have, when a medical emergency occurs, found it lifesaving. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, ask if payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or whether you will be reimbursed later for incurred expenses.

Some insurance companies include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death. Information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad, available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page or autofax: (202) 647-3000.


Other Health Information: Travelers should always carry a prescription for any drugs they are taking and should know the generic name of the drug. Most prescription drugs available in the U.S. can also be found in Italy. If you are taking an unusual medicine that is difficult to find even in the United States, we suggest that you bring an ample supply of the medicine with you when you travel. Mailing prescription drugs to Italy is time-consuming and complicated. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's international traveler's hotline at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or by visiting the CDC Internet home page at http://www.cdc.gov.


Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Italy is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.


Safety of Public Transportation: Good
Urban Road Condition/Maintenance: Fair
Rural Road Condition/Maintenance: Good
Availability of Roadside Assistance: Excellent


Streets in cities are often narrow, winding and congested; lane markings are often nonexistent; traffic lights are limited and often disobeyed; and a different convention of right-of-way is observed. Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of "Autostrada," or superhighways. Commercial and individual drivers travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds. Accidents in which excessive speed is a contributing factor do occur.


In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving. Roads are generally narrow and often do not have guardrails. Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of ground fog and poor visibility, which cause multiple-car accidents each year. Most Italian-specification automobiles are equipped with special fog lights. Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads.


For specific information concerning Italy's drivers' licenses, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at: http://www.enit.it, Tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5,00185 Rome. Tel: 39-06-4477. For information on obtaining international drivers' licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.


Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Italy's Civil Aviation Authority as Category 1 — in compliance with international aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy's air carrier operations. For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the U.S. at 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA Internet website at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign air carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact the DOD at (618) 229-4801.

Customs Regulations: Italian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Italy of items such as professional equipment, commercial samples, advertising materials and/or goods for exhibition and fair purposes. Tax-free shopping rules are strictly enforced. Be sure you have read and understood all the procedures and conditions regarding refunds before purchasing any item. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Italy in Washington or one of Italy's Consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements. The U.S. Customs Service may impose corresponding import restrictions in accordance with the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. (Contact the Customs Service at 202-927-2336 or Internet http://exchanges.state.gov/education/culprop for further information.)


Italy's customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet. ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States. For additional information, call (212) 354-4480, send an e-mail to [email protected], or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.


Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Special Circumstances: Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines). Most are announced in advance and are of short duration. Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended


Disaster Preparedness: Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy. Large Italian cities do not lie near fault lines, however, smaller tourist cities, such as Assisi do lie near fault lines and have experienced earthquakes. General information about disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov. Detailed information on Italy's earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.


Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events. Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000. The eruptions are relatively small in scale. Mt. Vesuvius, located next to Naples, is currently capped and not active. Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded. Two of Italy's smaller islands (Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolus Island chain north of Sicily) also have active volcanoes with lava flows. Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.


Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html or telephone 1-888-407-4747.


Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living in or visiting Italy are encouraged to register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Rome or at one of the three U.S. Consulates General and obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy.


The U.S. Embassy in Rome is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A. Tel: 39-06-46741 and fax: 39-06-4674-2217. Internet address: http://www.usembassy.it.

The U.S. Consulates are located in:


Florence, at Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci 38. Tel: 39-055-266-951; fax: 39-055-215-550.

Milan, at Via Principe Amedeo 2/10. Tel: 39-02-290-351 and fax: 39-02-290-35-273.

Naples, at Piazza della Repubblica. Tel: 39-081-583-8111 and fax: 39-081-761-1804.

There are U.S. Consular Agents located in:


Genoa, at Via Dante 2. Tel: 39-010-584-492 and fax: 39-010-553-3033.

Palermo, at Via Vaccarini 1. Tel: 39-091-305-857 and fax: 39-091-625-6026.

Trieste, at Via Roma 15. Tel: 39-040-660-177 and fax: 39-040-631-240.


This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 27, 2002, to update the information on Safety/Security.

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San Marino

San Marino

POPULATION 27,730
ROMAN CATHOLIC 99 percent
OTHER 1 percent

Country Overview

INTRODUCTION

The Republic of San Marino is the third smallest independent state in Europe. It is situated in central Italy (between the regions of Emilia-Romagna and Marche) and covers a total area of 24 square miles. In the middle of the country stands Mount Titano.

The San Marino parliament consists of the Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale), with 60 representatives. Two captains regent, who are elected every six months, act as heads of state. The State Congress is the executive organ and is made up of 10 members. Catholics make up almost the whole of the population.

RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE

In the "Declaration of Citizen's Rights and Principles of the San Marino Government" (1978), the state guarantees freedom of meeting and association, and expression of thought, conscience, and worship.

Major Religion

ROMAN CATHOLICISM

DATE OF ORIGIN 301 c.e.
NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS 27,500

HISTORY

Saint Marino, the founder of the country, was a stonemason from Dalmatia. In 301 c.e. he established on Mount Titano a community of Christians fleeing religious persecution by the Emperor Diocletian. Until the tenth century the population ruled itself. At the beginning of the eleventh century the state was governed by the Arengo, an assembly of heads of families, which drew up statutes and laws based upon democratic principles. In the fourteenth century the Arengo was replaced by the Grand and General Council.

San Marino became known as a republic and reached its present size in 1462. The history of this small state has predominately been one of freedom and independence, even if San Marino has had to defend itself from external threats on several occasions. There have been just brief military occupations, such as those of Cesare Borgia in 1503 and Cardinal Alberoni in 1739. In the latter case, independence was regained through the intervention of Pope Clement XII, who restored San Marino to its people's government on 5 February 1740.

The Republic of San Marino is part of the Diocese of San Marino-Montefeltro. In 1977, at the suggestion of Pope Paul VI, the name of the diocese was changed from Montefeltro to San Marino-Montefeltro, and some parishes were redistributed to adjoining dioceses. The bishopric had been at the fortress of San Leo until 1569, when it was transferred to the town of Pennabilli. Among the most important religious events in the history of San Marino were the papal visits by Julius II in 1506 and John Paul II in 1982.

EARLY AND MODERN LEADERS

Captain Regent Antonio Onofri has been called the Padre della patria (Father of our native land). In 1796 Napoleon offered San Marino support to widen its territory, but Onofri refused the offer because he believed that expansion and French interference would pose a threat to San Marino's freedom and independence. In 1948 Federico Bigi founded the Christian Democratic Party of San Marino. He also represented San Marino as a judge at the European Court of Human Rights. Another important figure was Giovanni Galassi, ambassador for San Marino (beginning in 1980) and deacon of ambassadors at the Holy See (beginning in 1998).

MAJOR THEOLOGIANS AND AUTHORS

Giovanni Bertoldi (died in 1445), a Franciscan friar and theologian born in San Marino, became bishop of Fermo. He made a translation into Latin and a commentary on Dante's Divine Comedy, which he presented to the bishops reunited at the Council of Constance (1413–18). Thanks to this Latin translation Dante's work began to circulate in Germany.

Another notable theologian was Valerio Maccioni (died in 1676). A member of the Theological College of Padua, he was an advisor to the duke of Brunswick and to the bishop of Morocco.

Among important figures of contemporary Catholicism is Father Ciro Benedettini (born in Serravalle in 1946), who edited Eco di San Gabriele, a Catholic magazine. In 1995 he became vice director of the press office of the Holy See.

HOUSES OF WORSHIP AND HOLY PLACES

The Basilica of San Marino, built in the mid-nineteenth century on the site of an ancient parish church, is the most significant place of worship in the country. Pope John Paul II visited it in 1982. Other churches of note are those of San Francesco and San Quirino, as well as the church of San Michele Arcangelo at Domagnano, built in 1542.

WHAT IS SACRED?

In San Marino the Catholic faith takes on the same form as in other western European countries, especially Italy. Devotion must be remembered to the founder saint, whose relics are housed in the Basilica of San Marino. At Baldasserona is the Sacellum of the Saint, a natural cave where Saint Marino first found refuge. It is a popular site for pilgrims to visit.

HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

The two most significant Catholic feast days are those of Saint Agatha and of Saint Marino. On the Feast of Saint Agatha (co-patron saint of the state), which takes place on 5 February, there is a procession from the town of Borgo Maggiore to the city of San Marino. The independence that was regained in 1740 is also commemorated on this day. Saint Marino, patron saint of the Republic, is celebrated on 3 September. After a High Mass in the Basilica of San Marino, large crowds take part in a procession through the streets of the city, displaying the relics of the saint. In the afternoon there are great town festivities that end with the Palio delle Balestre Grandi, a crossbow competition. In San Marino the Feast of Corpus Domini is a state holiday.

MODE OF DRESS

In San Marino Catholics do not dress differently from other citizens. Priests and other religious figures follow general Vatican regulations.

DIETARY PRACTICES

The Catholic Church does not envisage any special food restrictions for its members. There are only a few days during the year when the church recommends fasting and abstinence from meat.

RITUALS

At the Basilica of San Marino there are celebrations for the anniversary of the Arengo, the Militia Feast Day (25 March), and the election and installation (1 April and 1 October) of the captains regent. For baptisms and weddings a church celebration is usually followed by feasting and banquets.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Major moments of transition in San Marinese life have traditionally been marked by Roman Catholic ritual.

MEMBERSHIP

In San Marino in the late twentieth century, there emerged Catholic lay movements with the purposes of drawing lapsed Catholics back to the faith and missionizing among the unbaptized. The most common are Communion and Liberation, the Neocatechumenal Way, and the Renewal Charismatic Catholic.

SOCIAL JUSTICE

There are no Catholic schools in San Marino, but San Marinese Catholics are particularly active in state schools. Among the teachers at nursery schools there are always 12 nuns. Catholic teaching is compulsory in all schools, although a student may ask to be exonerated.

SOCIAL ASPECTS

San Marino has a divorce law, but abortion is illegal. In 1997 article 274 of the penal code condemning homosexuality was suppressed. The Diocese of San Marino-Montefeltro has been attempting to respond to threats to the Christian concept of family. For example, in 1993 a movement called Coppie in cammino (Couples on the Path) was established by a group of married and betrothed couples seeking to use Christian experience to address marital issues.

POLITICAL IMPACT

Catholicism has always had an indirect impact on public life in San Marino. The most important case is the presence of a San Marino Christian Democratic Party, founded immediately after World War II.

CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

One of the most hotly debated ethical subjects in San Marino is a proposed law in favor of abortion rights, which some citizens and political figures advocate. A project that many Catholics are against is the building of a casino on San Marino's territory.

CULTURAL IMPACT

Catholicism has had an important cultural role in San Marino. Local artists have drawn their inspiration from religious subjects and have created works for the main places of worship in the Republic. They are not well known outside of their country, with the exception of Maestro Menetto, an architect and stonecutter of the fourteenth century, and Antonio Orafo, who was such a highly esteemed goldsmith during the Renaissance that he became goldsmith of the Holy See. On national television every Saturday there is a slot dedicated to the Sunday gospel, and there are often special programs on religious subjects.

Other Religions

In San Marino there are also, even if not in significant numbers, Jehovah's Witnesses and Muslims. Because of the country's small size, there are no mosques.

Lorenza Gattamorta

See Also Vol. 1: Roman Catholicism

Bibliography

Balducci, Cristiana. Geografie e agiografia: Analisi della Vita Sancti Marini e ipotesi sulla libertas perpetua. San Marino: Edizioni del Titano, 1998.

Carrick, Noel. San Marino. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

Centro di documentazione della Biblioteca di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino, ed. Storia illustrata della Repubblica di San Marino. 3 vols. San Marino: AIEP, 1985.

Edwards, Adrian, and Chris Michaelides. San Marino. Oxford: Clio, 1996.

Foresti, Fabio. Quella nostra sancta libertà: Lingue storia e societànella Repubblica di San Marino. San Marino: AIEP, 1998.

Guardigli, Pier Paolo. Terre e torri: Per una storia economica e sociale della Repubblica di San Marino. San Marino: Edizioni del Titano, 1992.

Rossi, G., ed. A Short History of San Marino. San Marino: C.N. Packett, 1979.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

Compiled from the October 2004 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of San Marino


PROFILE

Geography

Area: 60 sq. km.; about one-third the size of Washington, DC.

Cities: Capital—San Marino (pop. 4,482). Other cities—Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano.

Terrain: Rugged mountains.

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective—Sammarinese.

Population: (12-31-2002) 28,753

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian.

Religions: Roman Catholic.

Language: Italian.

Education: Literacy—96%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—6.7/1,000 live birth rates (2003). Life expectancy—81.37 years.

Work force: approx 18,000.

Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.

Branches: Executive—Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state), Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council, Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs (head of government). Legislative—unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial—Council of Twelve.

Administrative subdivisions: 9 municipalities.

Political parties: Christian Democratic Party, Democratic Progressive Party, San Marino Socialist Party, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, Communist Refoundation.

Suffrage: Universal over 18.

Economy

GDP: (2002) Euros 935 million.

Per capita income: (2002 est) Euros 24,054.

GDP growth: (2004 est) 2%.

Natural resources: Building stone.

Agriculture: Products—wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, hides.

Industry: Types—tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine.

Trade: Exports—Euros 1,705 million (2001). 85% to Italy. Imports—Euros 1,744 million (2001) manufactured goods, food. Partners—Italy, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South America, China, Taiwan.


PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The population of San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Crop farming, sheep farming, and the working of stone from the quarries formed the early backbone of San Marino's economy. It has no mineral resources, and today most of the land is cultivated or covered by woods.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 when a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian fled to the island of Arbe to escape the anti-Christian Roman Emperor Diocletian. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano and founded a small community of people following their Christian beliefs. It is certain that the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano only dates back to the Middle Ages. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed "Land of San Marino" and was finally changed to its present-day name, "Republic of San Marino."

The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family. In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads of state.

The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II Piccolomini gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.

San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries twice in its history, both for only short periods of time. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, occupied the republic until his death several months later. In 1739, Cardinal Alberoni used military force to occupy the country. Civil disobedience was used to protest his occupation, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by the Pope's recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of San Marino's independence.


GOVERNMENT

The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council, and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council, which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget, as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.

Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the previous Regents' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the former head(s) of state can be initiated.

The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are (1) Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs; (2) Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense; (3) Secretary of State for Finance, Budget and Programming, Information and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; (4) Secretary of State for Education, Culture, University and Justice; (5) Secretary of State for Territory, Environment and Agriculture; (6) Secretary of State for Health and Social Security; (7) Secretary of State for Trade and Relations with the Town Council; (8) Secretary of State for Communication, Transport, Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services, Tourism, and Sport; (9) Secretary of State for Industry and Crafts; and (10) Secretary of State for Labor and Cooperation.

The Great and General Council elects the Council of Twelve for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.

The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every five years and are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on being submitted to the Great and General Council.

The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives, both for historical and social reasons. The only native judges are the Justices of the Peace, who only handle civil cases where sums involved do not exceed 25 million lire. The Council of Twelve serves as an appeals court in the third instance.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 12/29/04

Co-Head of State (Captain Regent): Giuseppe ARZILLI
Co-Head of State (Captain Regent): Roberto RASCHI
Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning: Fabio BERARDI
Sec. of Finance, Budget, & Transportation: Pier Marino MULARONI
Sec. of Health & Social Security: Massimo Roberto ROSSINI
Sec. of Industry, Craftsmanship, Trade, Telecommunications, & Economic Cooperation: Claudio FELICI
Sec. of Interior, Civil Protection, & Relations with Local Governments: Loris FRANCINI
Sec. of Justice, Relations with Local Governments, & Information: Alberto CECCHETTI
Sec. of Labor, tourism, Postal Service, & Sports: Paride ANDREOLI
Sec. of Public Education, University, & Cultural Institutions: Rosa ZAFFERANI
Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture: Gian Carlo VENTURINI
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Gian Nicola Filippi BALESTRA


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The three main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino (PDCS), the Socialist Party of San Marino (PSS), and the Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino (PPDS), in addition to several other smaller parties. Due to the small size and low population of San Marino, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. Following a period of political instability after the June 2001 elections, in December 2003 the three largest parties formed a coalition government with a view to reforming the electoral law and subsequently calling for early elections.

Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy. In recent years banking has also become an important economic activity.

Harmonization of statutes and policies with the EU is a major domestic and foreign policy priority of the republic. Another priority issue will be to increase the transparency and efficiency in parliament and in relations among parliament, cabinet, and the Captains Regent.


ECONOMY

San Marino's per capita GNP in 2002 stood at 24,054 Euros with more than 50% coming from the tourism industry, which draws about 3 million people annually. One of the greatest sources of income from tourism comes from the sale of historic coins and stamps. In 1894, San Marino issued its first commemorative stamps, which produced government revenue for the republic. All 10 of the Post Offices of San Marino sell these stamps and collectable coins, including "Legal Tender Gold Coins." Traditional economic activities in San Marino were food crops, sheep farming, and stone quarrying. Today farming activities focus on grain, vines,

and orchards, as well as animal husbandry (cattle and swine). Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the banking industry and from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, furniture, clothing, paints, fabrics, and spirits/wines. The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are comparable to those of Italy. In addition, San Marino maintains the lowest unemployment rate in Europe and no national debt.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

San Marino is an active player in the international community. Currently, the Republic has diplomatic relations with over 70 countries. Italy is the only country represented by an ambassador resident in San Marino. The Papal Nuncio, based in Rome, is the dean of San Marino's diplomatic corps.

San Marino is a full member of the United Nations, International Court of Justice, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, International Red Cross Organization, and the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIIT), among others. It also cooperates with UNICEF and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and has official relations with the European Union. From May 10 until November 6, 1990, San Marino held the semi-annual presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, headquartered in Strasbourg, France.


U.S.-SAN MARINO RELATIONS

The United States and San Marino enjoy friendly diplomatic relations. San Marino consistently supports U.S. foreign policy positions, as well as U.S. candidates to international organizations. The two countries are on excellent terms. The United States Consul General in Florence also serves as the U.S. diplomatic representative to San Marino. For consular purposes, the republic is within the jurisdiction of the Florence consular district. Consulate officials regularly visit San Marino to carry out diplomatic demarches, represent U.S. interests, and administer consular services.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

FLORENCE (C) Address: Lungarno A. Vespucci, 38; APO/FPO: PSC 59 Box 100 (f) APO AE 09624; Phone: +39-055-266-951; Fax: 39-055-284088; INMARSAT Tel: Iridium 881631458976; Workweek: 8:30-5:30 Mon to Fri

CG:William W. McIlhenny
PO:William W. McIlhenny
CON:Steven F. Harper
MGT:Steven F. Harper
ISSO:Steven F. Harper
Last Updated: 10/1/2004

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet—Italy

June 25, 2004

Country Description: Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available. Additional information may be obtained from the Italian Government Tourist Board via Internet at http://www.enit.it or telephone at: 212-245-5618.

Entry/Exit Requirements: A valid passport is required. Italian authorities may deny entry to travelers who attempt to enter without a valid passport. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. However, for all other purposes, such as work, study, etc., a visa is required and must be obtained from the Italian Embassy or Consulates before entering Italy. For further information concerning visas and entry requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 1601 Fuller St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, tel: 202-328-5500 or via the internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, accessible through the above Internet site.

Under Italian law, tourists are required to register with a local police station and obtain a "permesso di soggiorno" (permit to stay) within eight working days of their arrival, regardless of the intended length of stay. Visitors may be required to show police that they have sufficient means of financial support. Credit cards, ATM cards, travelers' checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. may be evidence of sufficient means.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for a child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Dual Nationality: U.S. Citizens born in Italy and/or who are also Italian citizens may be subject to compulsory military service and other laws imposing special obligations upon them in Italy. Those who might be affected should inquire at an Italian embassy or consulate regarding their status before traveling to Italy. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. For additional information, see the Consular Affairs home page at http://www.travel.state.gov for our Dual Nationality flyer.

Safety and Security: There have been occasional episodes of politically motivated violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues. At various times, Italian authorities have found bombs outside public buildings, have received bomb threats and were subjects of letter bombs. Firebombs or Molotov cocktails have been thrown at buildings or offices in the middle of the night. These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements. Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances.

Demonstrations may have an anti-American character. Even those intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence. U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take common sense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when they occur.

Italy remains largely free of terrorist incidents. However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Italy's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found. Up to date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-317-472-2328. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: Italy has a moderate rate of violent crime, some of which is directed towards tourists, principally for motives of theft. Some travelers have been victims of rape and beatings. There have been increasing incidents of drinks laced with drugs being used by criminals to rob, and in some cases, assault tourists. This occurs repeatedly in the vicinity of Rome's Termini train station. Instances have also occurred elsewhere in Rome, as well as in Florence and Naples. Criminals using this tactic "befriend" a traveler, at a bus stop, restaurant, cafe or bar in tourist areas, then eventually offer a drink laced with a sleeping drug. When the tourist falls asleep, criminals steal the traveler's valuables. There have also been instances where the victim was assaulted, either physically or sexually. Other embassies in Rome report this happening to their citizens as well.

Americans are advised to exercise caution when frequenting nightclubs, bars and outdoor cafes, particularly at night, because criminals may make initial contact with potential victims in such settings. Individuals under the effect of alcohol may become victims of crime, including robbery, physical and sexual assault, due to their impaired ability to judge situations and make decisions. This is particularly a problem for younger Americans visiting Italy, where age limits on the sale of alcoholic beverages is lower than in most U.S. states. If you are a victim of such a crime, please file a police report and contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulates. There are also in-country organizations, which provide counseling, medical, and legal assistance to certain crime victims.

Petty crimes such as pick pocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching are serious problems, especially in large cities. Pickpockets sometimes dress like businessmen, so tourists should not be lulled into a false sense of security by believing that well-dressed individuals are not potential pickpockets or thieves. Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations, Rome's Termini, Milan's Centrale, Florence's Santa Maria Novella, and Naples' Centrale and Piazza Garibaldi. Travelers should also be alert to theft in Milan's Malpensa airport, particularly at car rental agencies. Clients of Internet cafes in major cities have been targeted. Tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones.

Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs. Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists' attention so that another can pickpocket them. In one particular routine, one thief throws trash, waste or ketchup at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim's belongings. Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife, then remove the contents. Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars are a major problem.

Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows. Thefts have also been reported from occupied vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights. Vehicles parked near beaches during the summer have been broken into and items stolen.

In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief signals a flat tire to the driver of another car and encourages the driver to pull over. Often, the tire has been punctured by an accomplice, while in other instances, there may, in fact, be nothing wrong with the vehicle. When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver's belongings. Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts. There have been occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas.

On trains, a commonly reported trick involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink. Also, thieves have been known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists. The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words "police" or "international police." If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer's identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents. Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police.

Organized criminal groups operate throughout Italy, but are more prevalent in the south. They have occasionally resorted to violence to intimidate or to settle disputes. Though the activities of such groups are not generally targeted at tourists, visitors should be aware that innocent bystanders could be injured.

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.

Although the investigation and prosecution of crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you understand the local criminal justice process and help you locate an attorney if needed.

U.S. citizens can refer to the Department of State's pamphlet, A Safe Trip Abroad, for ways to promote a trouble-free journey. The pamphlet is available by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, via the Internet at http://www.gpoaccess.gov, or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.

Medical Facilities and Insurance: Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas. Public hospitals sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic. It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board). The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult their medical insurance company prior to traveling to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. U.S. Medicare and

Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. Many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans to cover overseas health care expenses including emergency services such as medical evacuations.

When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the U.S. may cost well in excess of $50,000. Uninsured travelers requiring medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties unlike travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance. Prior to your trip, ask your insurance company if payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or whether you will be reimbursed later for incurred expenses. Some insurance companies include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.

Information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure, Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad, available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page.

Other Health Information: Travelers should always carry a prescription for any drugs they are taking and should know the generic name of the drug. Most prescription drugs available in the U.S. can also be found in Italy. If you are taking an unusual medicine that is difficult to find even in the United States, we suggest that you bring an ample supply with you when you travel. Mailing prescription drugs to Italy is time-consuming and complicated. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax: 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the U.S. The information below concerning Italy is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate for all locations or circumstances.

Safety of Public Transportation: Good
Urban Road Condition/Maintenance: Good
Rural Road Condition/Maintenance: Good
Availability of Roadside Assistance: Excellent on toll roads, good elsewhere

Streets in historical city centers are often narrow, winding and congested. Traffic lights are limited, often disobeyed and a different convention of right-of-way is observed. Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of "Autostrada," or superhighways. Commercial and individual vehicles travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds. Accidents do occur in which contributing factors include excessive speed, alcohol/drug use and/or sleepiness of long-distance drivers. Italy has one of the highest rates of car accident deaths in the European Union.

In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving. Roads are generally narrow and often have no guardrails. Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of fog and poor visibility, responsible for multiple-car accidents each year. Most Italian automobiles are equipped with special fog lights. Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads.

For specific information concerning Italian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at: http://www.enit.it, tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5, 00185 Rome, tel: 39-06-4477. For information on obtaining international drivers licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Italy's Civil Aviation Authority as Category 1 – in compliance with international aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy's air carrier operations. For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the U.S. at 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA Internet website at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Customs Regulations: Italian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Italy of items such as professional equipment, commercial samples, advertising materials and/or goods for exhibition and fair purposes. Tax-free shopping rules are strictly enforced. Be sure you have read and understood all the procedures and conditions regarding refunds before purchasing any item. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Italy in Washington or one of Italy's Consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements. The U.S. Customs Service may impose corresponding import restrictions in accordance with the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. Contact the Customs Service at (202) 927-2336 or Internet at: http://exchanges.state.gov/education/culprop for further information.

Italy's customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet. ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States. For additional information, call (212) 354-4480, send an e-mail to [email protected], or visit http://www.uscib.org.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products are illegal and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. A current list of those countries with serious problems in this regard can be found at http://www.ustr.gov/reports/2003/special301.htm.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations. They may differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Under the PROTECT Act of April 2003, it is a crime, prosecutable in the United States, for a U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien, to engage in illicit sexual conduct in a foreign country with a person under the age of 18, whether or not the U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident alien intended to engage in such illicit sexual conduct prior to going abroad.

Under the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998, it is a crime to use the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including the Internet, to transmit information about a minor under the age of 16 for criminal sexual purposes that include, among other things, the production of child pornography. This same law makes it a crime to use any facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including the Internet, to transport obscene materials to minors under the age of 16.

Special Circumstances: Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines). Most are announced in advance and are of short duration. Information on strikes may be found at http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it. Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended.

Disaster Preparedness: Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy. Principal Italian cities do not lie near these faults, but smaller tourist towns, like Assisi, do and have suffered earthquakes. General information about disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov. Detailed information on Italy's earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events. Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000. Mt. Vesuvius, located near to Naples, is currently capped and not active. Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded. Two of Italy's smaller islands, Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolian Island chain north of Sicily, also have active volcanoes with lava flows. Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html or telephone Overseas Citizens Services at 1-888-407-4747. This number is available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays). Callers who are unable to use toll-free numbers, such as those calling from overseas, may obtain information and assistance during these hours by calling 1-317-472-2328.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans residing, studying or working in Italy, and longer term tourists, are encouraged to register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Rome or at one of the three U.S. Consulates General and obtain updated information on travel and security.

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