FLORA AND FAUNA
ENERGY AND POWER
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
CAPITAL: Rome (Roma)
FLAG: The national flag is a tricolor of green, white, and red vertical stripes.
ANTHEM: Fratelli d'Italia (Brothers of Italy).
MONETARY UNIT: The euro replaced the lira as the official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. €1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = €0.79697) as of 2005.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.
HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Liberation Day, 25 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Assumption, 15 August; All Saints' Day, 1 November; National Unity Day, 5 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 25 December; St. Stephen's Day, 26 December. Easter Monday is a movable holiday. In addition, each town has a holiday on its Saint's Day.
TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.
Situated in southern Europe, the Italian Republic, including the major islands of Sicily (Sicilia) and Sardinia (Sardegna), covers a land area of 301,230 sq km (116,306 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Italy is slightly larger than the state of Arizona. The boot-shaped Italian mainland extends into the Mediterranean Sea with a length of 1,185 km (736 mi) se–nw and a width of 381 km (237 mi) ne–sw. It is bordered on the n by Switzerland and Austria, on the ne by Slovenia, on the e by the Adriatic and Ionian seas, on the w by the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian seas, and on the nw by France, with a total land boundary length of 1,932 km (1,200 mi) and a coastline of 7,600 km (4,712 mi).
Situated off the toe of the Italian boot, Sicily has a surface area of 25,708 sq km (9,926 sq mi). Sardinia, which is about 320 km (200 mi) nw of Sicily, covers an area of some 24,090 sq km (9,300 sq mi). Within the frontiers of Italy are the sovereign Republic of San Marino, with an area of 61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi), and the sovereign state of Vatican City, which covers 44 hectares (108.7 acres).
The long-disputed problem of Trieste, a 518 sq km (200 sq mi) area situated at the head of the Adriatic Sea, between Italy and Yugoslavia, was resolved in 1954, when Italy assumed the administration of Zone A, the city and harbor of Trieste, and Yugoslavia of Zone B, the rural hinterlands of the Istrian Peninsula. A treaty of October 1975 made the partition permanent.
Italy's capital city, Rome, is located in the west-central part of the country.
Except for the fertile Po River Valley in the north and the narrow coastal belts farther south, Italy's mainland is generally mountainous, with considerable seismic activity. During Roman times, the city of Pompeii, near present-day Naples (Napoli), was devastated first by an earthquake in ad 63 and then by the famed eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (1,277 m/4,190 ft) in ad 79. In the last century, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake in the Calabrian-Sicilian region occurred in December 1908 that leveled the cities of Reggio di Calabria and Messina and left about 100,000 dead. A quake in the south on 23 November 1980 (and subsequent aftershocks) claimed at least 4,500 lives.
The Alpine mountain area in the north along the French and Swiss borders includes three famous lakes—Como, Maggiore, and Garda—and gives rise to six small rivers that flow southward into the Po. Italy's highest peaks are found in the northwest in the Savoy Alps, the Pennines, and the Graian chain. They include Mont Blanc (4,807 m/15,771 ft), on the French border; Monte Rosa (Dufourspitze, 4,634 m/15,203 ft) and the Matterhorn (Monte Cervino, 4,478 m/14,692 ft), on the Swiss border; and Gran Paradiso (4,061 m/13,323 ft). Marmolada (3,342 m/10,965 ft), in northeast Italy, is the highest peak in the Dolomites.
At the foot of the Alps, the Po River, the only large river in Italy, flows from west to east, draining plains covering about 17% of Italy's total area and forming the agricultural and industrial heartland. The Apennines, the rugged backbone of peninsular Italy, rise to form the southern border of the Po Plain. Numerous streams and a few small rivers, including the Arno and the Tiber (Tevere), flow from the Apennines to the west coast. The highest peak on the peninsula is Corvo Grande (2,912 m/9,554 ft). Vesuvius is the only active volcano on the European mainland.
While altitudes are lower in southern Italy, the Calabrian coast is still rugged. Among the narrow, fertile coastal plains, the Plain of Foggia in northern Apulia, which starts along the Adriatic, and the more extensive lowland areas near Naples, Rome, and Livorno (Leghorn) are the most important. The mountainous western coastline forms natural harbors at Naples, Livorno, La Spezia, Genoa (Genova), and Savona, and the low Adriatic coast permits natural ports at Venice (Venezia), Bari, Brindisi, and Taranto.
Sicily, separated from the mainland by the narrow Strait of Messina, has the Madonie Mountains, a continuation of the Apennines, and the Plain of Catania, the largest plain on the island. Mount Etna (3,369 m/11,053 ft) is an isolated and active volcano in the northeast.
Sardinia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, is generally mountainous and culminates in the peak of Gennargentu (1,834 m/6,017 ft). The largest and most fertile plains are the Campidano in the south and the Ozieri in the north. The principal bay is Porto Torres in the Gulf of Asinara.
Climate varies with elevation and region. Generally, however, Italy is included between the annual isotherms of 11°c and 19°c (52°f and 66°f). The coldest period occurs in December and January, the hottest in July and August. In the Po Plain, the average annual temperature is about 13°c (55°f); in Sicily, about 18°c (64°f); and in the coastal lowlands, about 14°c (57°f). The climate of the Po Valley and the Alps is characterized by cold winters, warm summers, and considerable rain, falling mostly in spring and autumn, with snow accumulating heavily in the mountains. The climate of the peninsula and of the islands is Mediterranean, with cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Mean annual rainfall varies from about 50 cm (20 in) per year, on the southeast coast and in Sicily and Sardinia, to over 200 cm (80 in), in the Alps and on some westerly slopes of the Apennines. Frosts are rare in the sheltered western coastal areas, but severe winters are common in the Apennine and Alpine uplands.
Plants and animals vary with area and altitude. Mountain flora is found above 1,980 m (6,500 ft) in the Alps and above 2,290 m (7,500 ft) in the Apennines. The highest forest belt consists of conifers; beech, oak, and chestnut trees grow on lower mountain slopes. Poplar and willow thrive in the Po Plain. On the peninsula and on the larger islands, Mediterranean vegetation predominates: evergreens, holm oak, cork, juniper, bramble, laurel, myrtle, and dwarf palm.
Although larger mammals are scarce, chamois, ibex, and roe deer are found in the Alps, and bears, chamois, and otters inhabit the Apennines. Ravens and swallows are characteristic birds of Italy. Abundant marine life inhabits the surrounding seas.
As of 2002, there were at least 90 species of mammals, 250 species of birds, and over 5,900 species of plants throughout the country.
Italy has been slow to confront its environmental problems. Central government agencies concerned with the environment are the Ministry for Ecology (established in 1983), the Ministry of Culture and Environmental Quality, the National Council for Research, and the Ministry for Coordination of Scientific and Technological Research. Localities also have responsibility for environmental protection, but most of the burden of planning and enforcement falls on regional authorities. The principal antipollution statute is Law No. 319 of 1976 (the Merli Law), which controls the disposal of organic and chemical wastes; enforcement, however, has proved difficult.
Air pollution is a significant problem in Italy. United Nations sources estimate that carbon monoxide emissions increased by 12% in the period between 1985 and 1989. In the 1990s Italy had the world's 10th highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 407.7 million metric tons per year, a per capita level of 7.03 metric tons. In 2000, the total of carbon dioxide emissions was at 428.2 million metric tons.
Water pollution is another important environmental issue in Italy. The nation's rivers and coasts have been polluted by industrial and agricultural contaminants and its lakes contaminated by acid rain. In 2001 the nation had 160 cu km of renewable water resources with 53% used in farming activity and 33% used for industrial purposes. Facilities for the treatment and disposal of industrial wastes are inadequate.
In July 1976, the city of Seveso, north of Milan (Milano), gained international attention after an explosion at a small Swiss-owned chemical plant released a cloud of debris contaminated by a toxic by-product, dioxin. More than 1,000 residents were evacuated, and pregnant women were advised to have abortions.
The long-term threat posed by flooding, pollution, erosion, and sinkage to the island city of Venice was highlighted by a disastrous flood in November 1966, which damaged priceless art treasures and manuscripts in Florence (Firenze). The digging of artesian wells in the nearby mainland cities of Mestre and Marghera so lowered the water table that the Venetian islands sank at many times the normal annual rate of 4 mm (0.16 in) a year between 1900 and 1975; with the wells capped as a protective measure, Venice's normal sinkage rate was restored. As of the mid-1980s, however, little effort had been made to control the number and speed of powerboats on the Grand Canal (the churning of whose waters causes buildings to erode), nor had the national government begun to implement a master plan for Venice approved in principle three years earlier. Rome has implemented a project designed, in part, to protect the Roman Forum and other ancient monuments from the vibration and pollution of motor vehicles.
In 2003, only about 7.9% of the total land area was protected. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 12 types of mammals, 15 species of birds, 4 types of reptiles, 5 species of amphibians, 17 species of fish, 16 types of mollusks, 42 species of other invertebrates, and 3 species of plants. Threatened species include the Sicilian fir, the black vulture, the spotted eagle, the wild goat, the great white shark, and the red-breasted goose. The Sardinian pika is extinct.
The population of Italy in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 58,742,000, which placed it at number 23 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 19% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 14% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 94 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005–10 was expected to be stagnant at 0.0%, a rate the government viewed as too low. The projected population for the year 2025 was 57,630,000. The population density was 195 per sq km (505 per sq mi), with the Po Valley being one of the most densely populated areas of the country.
The UN estimated that 90% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that population in urban areas was declining at an annual rate of -0.04%. The capital city, Rome (Roma), had a population of 2,665,000 in that year. Other major cities and their estimated populations include Milan, 4,007,000; Naples, 2,905,000; Turin (Torino), 1,182,000; Genoa, 803,000; Florence, 778,000; Palermo, 721,164; and Bologna, 369,955.
Emigration, which traditionally provided relief from overpopulation and unemployment, now represents only a fraction of the millions of Italians who emigrated during the two decades prior to 1914. From 1900 to 1914, 16 of every 1,000 Italians left their homeland each year; by the late 1970s, that proportion had declined to about 1.5 per 1,000. Of the 65,647 Italians who emigrated in 1989, some 26,098 went to Germany; 16,347 to Switzerland; 5,277 to France; 4,076 to the United States; and 23,849 to other countries. Immigration in 1989 totaled approximately 81,201 people, of whom West Germans accounted for 13,198. In 1990, 781,100 immigrants lived in Italy. This figure did not include some 600,000 who were believed to be illegal immigrants.
The overall impetus to emigrate has been greatly reduced by economic expansion within Italy itself and by the shrinking job market in other countries, especially Germany. Nevertheless, Germany had 560,100 Italian residents at the end of 1991, and France had 253,679 in 1990. Particularly significant in the first two decades after World War II was the considerable migration from the rural south to the industrial north, but by the mid-1980s, this flow had become insignificant.
In 1998, Italy received a total of 7,112 asylum applications, an increase of over 380% over the 1,858 applications lodged in 1997. The main countries of origin were Serbia and Montenegro, Iraq, and Turkey. Refugee status was granted in 29.6% of decisions on the applications made in 1998. Italy also hosted 5,816 people who arrived in 1999 from Macedonia under the UNHCR/IOM Humanitarian Evacuation Programme. However, in 2004 there were no asylum seekers in Italy, but 15,604 refugees and 886 stateless persons of concern to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In 2005, the net migration rate was estimated as 2.07 migrants per 1,000 population.
Italy has been the home of various peoples: Lombards and Goths in the north; Greeks, Saracens, and Spaniards in Sicily and the south; Latins in and around Rome; and Etruscans and others in central Italy. For centuries, however, Italy has enjoyed a high degree of ethnic homogeneity. The chief minority groups are the German-speaking people in the Alto Adige (South Tyrol) region and the Slavs of the Trieste area.
Italian, the official language, is spoken by the vast majority of people. While each region has its own dialect, Tuscan, the dialect of Tuscany, is the standard dialect for Italian. French is spoken in parts of Piedmonte and in Valle d'Aosta, where it is the second official language; Slovene is spoken in the Trieste-Gorizia area. German is widely used in Bolzano Province, or South Tyrol (part of the Trentino-Alto Adige region), which was ceded by Austria in 1919; under agreements reached between Italy and Austria in 1946 and 1969, the latter oversees the treatment of these German-speakers, who continue to call for greater linguistic and cultural autonomy.
Roman Catholicism, affirmed as the state religion under the Lateran Treaty of 1929, lost that distinction under a concordat with the Vatican ratified in 1985. However, the Catholic Church continues to hold a privileged status with the state. An estimated 87% of native-born Italian citizens claim to be members of the Roman Catholic faith; however, only about 20% are active participants. Jehovah's Witnesses form the second-largest denomination among native-born Italian citizens, with about 400,000 adherents. However, if immigrants are counted, the second-largest religion is Islam, with an estimated one million followers. About 100,000 people are Scientologists, 60,000 are Buddhists, 30,000 are Waldensians (a Calvinist sect), 30,000 are Jewish, and 20,000 are Mormons. The Orthodox and Protestant churches have small communities. Hinduism and Bahaism are also represented. About 14% of the population claim to be atheists or agnostics.
Italy's highway system, one of the world's best, in 2002 totaled 479,688 km (298,366 mi), all of which were paved, and included 6,620 km (4,117 mi) of expressways. These expressways carry heavy traffic along such routes as Milan-Como-Varese, Venice-Padua, Naples-Salerno, and Milan-Bologna-Florence-Rome-Naples. A major highway runs through the Mont Blanc Tunnel, connecting France and Italy. In 2003, there were an estimated 34,310,446 passenger cars and 4,166,033 commercial vehicles.
In 2004, Italy maintained a total of 19,319 km (12,016 mi) of standard and narrow gauge rail lines. Of that total, standard gauge accounts for 18,001 km (11,196 mi) of which 11,333 km (7,049 mi) are electrified, while 280 km (174 mi) of narrow gauge lines are electrified. The government owns and operates 80% of the rail system, the Italian State Railway (Ferrovie dello Stato-FS), including the principal lines. Connections with French railways are made at Ventimiglia, Tenda, and Mont Cenis; with the Swiss, through the Simplon and St. Gotthard passes; with the Austrian, at the Brenner Pass and Tarvisio; and with the Slovenian, through Gorizia.
The navigable inland waterway system, totaling about 2,400 km (1,490 mi), is mainly in the north and consists of the Po River, the Italian lakes, and the network of Venetian and Po River Valley canals. There is regular train-ferry and automobile-ferry service between Messina and other Sicilian ports. Freight and passengers are carried by ship from Palermo to Naples. Sardinia and the smaller islands are served by regular shipping. Regular passenger service is provided by hydrofoil between Calabria and Sicily, and between Naples, Ischia, and Capri.
As of 2005, Italy had 565 merchant vessels of 1,000 GRT or more, totaling 8,970,017 GRT. Genoa and Savona on the northwest coast and Venice on the Adriatic handle the major share of traffic to and from the northern industrial centers. Naples, second only to Genoa, is the principal port for central and southern Italy, while Livorno is the natural outlet for Florence, Bologna, and Perugia. Messina, Palermo, and Catania are the chief Sicilian ports, and Cagliari handles most Sardinian exports.
In 2004 there were an estimated 134 airports. As of 2005, a total of 98 had paved runways, and there were also three heliports. Italy's one national airline, Alitalia, which is almost entirely government-owned, maintains an extensive domestic and international network of air routes. Rome's Fiumicino and Milan's Malpensa and Linate are among the most important airports, being served by nearly every major international air carrier. In 2003, Italian civil aviation performed a total of 1,359 million freight ton-km and carried about 34.953 million passengers on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.
The Italian patrimony, based on Roman antecedents—with a tradition that extends over 2,500 years—is the oldest in Europe, next to Greece's. The Ligurians, Sabines, and Umbrians were among the earliest-known inhabitants of Italy, but in the 9th century bc they were largely displaced in central Italy by the Etruscans, a seafaring people, probably from Asia Minor. Shortly thereafter there followed conquests in Sicily and southern Italy by the Phoenicians and the Greeks. By 650 bc, Italy was divided into ethnic areas: the Umbrians in the north, the Ligurians in the northwest, the Latins and Etruscans in the central regions, and the Greeks and Phoenicians in the south and Sicily. The Etruscan civilization, a great maritime, commercial, and artistic culture, reached its peak about the 7th century, but by 509 bc, when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan monarchs, its control in Italy was on the wane. By 350 bc, after a series of wars with both Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy, and by 272 bc, they managed to unite the entire Italian peninsula.
This period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage (264–241 bc). In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Finally, in 146 bc, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage completely destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean. From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Sulla against Marius and his son (88–82 bc), Julius Caesar against Pompey (49–45 bc), Brutus and Cassius against Mark Antony and Octavian (43 bc), and Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor (31 bc), was accorded the title of Augustus ("exalted") by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Under imperial rule, Rome undertook a series of conquests that brought Roman law, Roman administration, and Pax Romana ("Roman peace") to an area extending from the Atlantic to the Rhine, to the British Isles, to the Iberian Peninsula and large parts of North Africa, and to the Middle East as far as the Euphrates.
After two centuries of successful rule, in the 3rd century ad, Rome was threatened by internal discord and menaced by Germanic and Asian invaders, commonly called barbarians (from the Latin word barbari, "foreigners"). Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity, and churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople, greatly reducing the importance of the former. From the 4th to the 5th century, the Western Roman Empire disintegrated under the blows of barbarian invasions, finally falling in 476, and the unity of Italy came to an end. For a time, Italy was protected by the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, but a continuing conflict between the bishop of Rome, or pope, and the Byzantine emperor culminated in a schism during the first half of the 8th century.
After the fall of the Roman Empire and the reorganization of the peninsula, from the 6th to the 13th century, Italy suffered a variety of invaders and rulers: the Lombards in the 6th century, the Franks in the 8th century, the Saracens in the 9th, and the Germans in the 10th. The German emperors (of the Holy Roman Empire), the popes, and the rising Italian city-states vied for power from the 10th to the 14th century, and Italy was divided into several, often hostile, territories: in the south, the Kingdom of Naples, under Norman and Angevin rule; in the central area, the Papal States; and in the north, a welter of large and small city-states, such as Venice, Milan, Florence, and Bologna.
By the 13th century, the city-states had emerged as centers of commerce and of the arts and sciences. Venice, in particular, had become a major maritime power, and the city-states as a group acted as a conduit for goods and learning from the Byzantine and Islamic empires. In this capacity, they provided great impetus to the developing Renaissance, which between the 13th and 16th centuries led to an unparalleled flourishing of the arts, literature, music, and science. However, the emergence of Portugal and Spain as great seagoing nations at the end of the 15th century undercut Italian prosperity. After the Italian Wars (1494–1559), in which France tried unsuccessfully to extend its influence in Italy, Spain emerged as the dominant force in the region. Venice, Milan, and other city-states retained at least some of their former greatness during this period, as did Savoy-Piedmont, protected by the Alps and well defended by its vigorous rulers.
Economic hardship, waves of the plague, and religious unrest tormented the region throughout the 17th century and into the 18th. The French Revolution was brought to the Italian peninsula by Napoleon, and the concepts of nationalism and liberalism infiltrated everywhere. Short-lived republics and even a Kingdom of Italy (under Napoleon's stepson Eugene) were formed. But reaction set in with the Congress of Vienna (1815), and many of the old rulers and systems were restored under Austrian domination. The concept of nationalism continued strong, however, and sporadic outbreaks led by such inveterate reformers as Giuseppe Mazzini occurred in several parts of the peninsula down to 1848–49. This Risorgimento ("resurgence") movement was brought to a successful conclusion under the able guidance of Count Camillo Cavour, prime minister of Piedmont. Cavour managed to unite most of Italy under the headship of Victor Emmanuel II of the house of Savoy, and on 17 March 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel II as king. Giuseppe Garibaldi, the popular republican hero of Italy, contributed much to this achievement and to the subsequent incorporation of the Papal States under the Italian monarch. Italian troops occupied Rome in 1870, and in July 1871, it formally became the capital of the kingdom. Pope Pius IX, a longtime rival of Italian kings, considered himself a "prisoner" of the Vatican and refused to cooperate with the royal administration.
The 20th Century
The new monarchy aspired to great-power status but was severely handicapped by domestic social and economic conditions, particularly in the south. Political and social reforms introduced by Premier Giovanni Giolitti in the first decade of the 20th century improved Italy's status among Western powers but failed to overcome such basic problems as poverty and illiteracy. Giolitti resigned in March 1914 and was succeeded by Antonia Salandra. During World War I, Italy, previously an ally of the Central Powers, declared itself neutral in 1914 and a year later, in April 1915, joined the British and French in exchange for advantages offered by the secret Treaty of London. At the Versailles Peace Conference, Italy, which had suffered heavy losses on the Alpine front and felt slighted by its Western allies, failed to obtain all of the territories that it claimed.
This disappointment, coupled with the severe economic depression of the postwar period, created great social unrest and led eventually to the rise of Benito Mussolini, who, after leading his Fascist followers in a mass march on Rome, became premier in 1922. He established a Fascist dictatorship, a corporate state, which scored early successes in social welfare, employment, and transportation; in 1929, he negotiated the Lateran Treaties, under which the Holy See became sovereign within the newly constituted Vatican City State and Roman Catholicism was reaffirmed as Italy's official religion (the latter provision was abolished in 1984). The military conquest of Ethiopia (1935–36) added to Italy's colonial strength and exposed the inability of the League of Nations to punish aggression or keep the peace.
Italy joined Germany in World War II, but defeats in Greece and North Africa and the Allied invasion of Sicily toppled Mussolini's regime on 25 July 1943. Soon Italy was divided into two warring zones, one controlled by the Allies in the south and the other (including Rome) held by the Germans, who had quickly moved in, rescued Mussolini, and established him as head of the puppet "Italian Social Republic." When German power collapsed, Mussolini was captured and executed by Italian partisans.
The conclusion of the war left Italy poverty-stricken and politically disunited. In 1946, Italy became a republic by plebiscite; in the following year, a new constitution was drafted, which went into effect in 1948. Under the peace treaty of 10 February 1947, Italy was required to pay $360 million in reparations to the USSR, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ethiopia, and Albania. By this time, the Italian economy, initially disorganized by Mussolini's dream of national self-sufficiency and later physically devastated by the war, was in a state of near collapse. By the early 1950s, however, with foreign assistance (including $1,516.7 million from the United States under the Marshall Plan), Italy managed to restore its economy to the prewar level. From this point, the Italian economy experienced unprecedented development through the 1960s and 1970s.
Politically, postwar Italy has been marked by a pattern of accelerating instability, with 48 different coalition governments through 15 March 1988. In May 1981, the coalition of Prime Minister Arnaldo Forlani was brought down after it was learned that many government officials, including three cabinet ministers, were members of a secret Masonic lodge, Propaganda Due (P-2), that had reportedly been involved in illegal right-wing activities. Left-wing terrorism, notably by the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse), also plagued Italy in the 1970s and early 1980s. In January 1983, 23 Red Brigade members were sentenced to life imprisonment in connection with the kidnapping and murder of Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978; another 36 members received sentences of varying lengths for other crimes, including 11 murders and 11 attempted murders, committed between 1976 and 1980. By the mid-1980s, the Mafia actively engaged in extortion, government corruption, and violent crime, as well as a central role in global heroin trafficking.
By 1986, however, internal security had improved. A major effort against organized crime was under way in the mid-1980s; over 1,000 suspects were tried and the majority convicted in trials that took place in Naples beginning in February 1985 and in Sicily beginning in February 1986.
Revelations of corruption and scandals involving senior politicians, members of the government administration, and business leaders rocked Italy in the early 1990s. Hundreds of politicians, party leaders, and industrialists were either under arrest or under investigation. The scandals discredited the major parties that had governed Italy since 1948, and the instability gave impetus to new reformist groups.
In August 1993, Italy made significant changes in its electoral system. Three-fourths of the seats in both the Chamber and the Senate would be filled by simple majority voting. The remainder would be allocated by proportional representation to those parties securing at least 4% of the vote. The first elections under the new system in March 1994 resulted in a simplification of electoral alliances and brought a center-right government to power. Silvio Berlusconi, founder of the "Go Italy" (Forza Italia) movement, emerged as prime minister. Berlusconi, a successful Italian businessman, was a newcomer to Italian politics. He was supported by the Alliance for Freedom coalition, which had received over 42% of the vote and 366 seats.
Berlusconi's government, however, became victim to charges of government corruption and on 22 December 1994 he was forced to resign in the face of a revolt by the Northern League, one of the parties in his ruling coalition. Three weeks after Berlusconi's resignation, his treasury minister, Lamberto Dini was named prime minister. He formed a government of technocrats and set about to enact fiscal and electoral reforms. Pragmatism and a lack of viable alternatives kept him in power until supporters of his main political rival, Silvio Berlusconi, presented a motion that he step down. When Dini learned that two splinter groups in his center-left coalition (the Greens and the Communist Refounding party) would not vote in his favor, he resigned on 11 January 1996 rather than face a no-confidence vote.
The elections, held on 21 April 1996, saw a center-left coalition, dominated by the former communists (DS), take control of the country for the first time in 50 years. Romano Prodi, an economics professor with little political experience, was chosen to serve as prime minister on 16 May. His coalition government collapsed after it failed to win a vote of no-confidence over the budget. President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro asked Massimo D'Alema, the leader of the DS and of the largest party in the Olive Tree, to form a new administration. His cabinet retained the same members from the left and center as before. This government also continued to pursue fiscal consolidation to join European economic and monetary union in 1999. Prodi left for Brussels to take up the presidency of the European Commission in May 1999. D'Alema reshuffl ed his cabinet in 1999 but it finally fell in April 2000. The immediate cause was the dismal performance in regional elections. The center-left won 7 out of 15 regions while the right, under the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi, took 8 regions.
The coalition of 12 discordant political blocs backed the Treasury Minister, Giuliano Amato, to become the new prime minister (appointed by President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in office since May 1999). Prior to the fall of the D'Alema administration, the government had scheduled an important referendum to scrap the last remaining vestiges of direct proportional representation in the electoral system. Only one-third of the electorate bothered to vote on 21 May 2000, not enough to validate the referendum outcome.
Berlusconi's House of Liberties coalition, led by Go Italy, secured 368 seats in the Chamber of Deputies in the May 2001 parliamentary elections, to the Olive Tree coalition's 242 seats. (The House of Liberties coalition also won a majority in the Senate.) After becoming Italy's 59th postwar prime minister, Berlusconi faced long-standing charges of criminal wrongdoing, including bribery; he became the first sitting Italian prime minister to appear at his own trial. It was not until December 2004 that Berlusconi was cleared of all charges.
Italy offered the use of its airspace and military bases to the US-led coalition in its war with Iraq, which began on 19 March 2003, although Italy did not send troops to the region and did not allow coalition forces to launch a direct attack on Iraq from Italy. Some 75% of Italians opposed the use of military force against the Saddam Hussein regime, but Berlusconi adopted a position of solidarity with the US-led coalition.
In a plebiscite on 2 June 1946, the Italian people voted (12,700,000 to 10,700,000) to end the constitutional monarchy, which had existed since 1861, and establish a republic. At the same time, a constituent assembly was elected, which proceeded to draft and approve a new constitution; it came into force on 2 January 1948. Under this constitution, as amended, the head of the Italian Republic is the president, who is elected for a seven-year term by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives. Elections for a new president must be held 30 days before the end of the presidential term. Presidential powers and duties include nomination of the prime minister (referred to as president of the Council of Ministers) who, in turn, chooses a Council of Ministers (cabinet) with the approval of the president; the power to dissolve parliament, except during the last six months of the presidential term of office; representation of the state on important occasions; ratification of treaties after parliamentary authorization; and the power to grant pardons and commute penalties. Although the constitution limits presidential powers, a strong president can play an important political as well as ceremonial role.
Legislative power is vested in the bicameral parliament, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Members of the 630-seat lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, must be at least 25 years old and are elected for five-year terms. The 315 elective members of the Senate must be at least 40 years old and are elected for five-year terms. Former presidents of the republic are automatically life senators, and the president may also appoint as life senators persons who have performed meritorious service. Citizens must be at least 25 years of age to vote for senators; otherwise, those over the age of 18 may vote in all other elections.
In August 1993, Italy made significant changes in its electoral system. Three-fourths of the seats in both the Chamber and the Senate would be filled by simple majority voting. The remainder would be allocated by proportional representation to those parties securing at least 4% of the vote. The first elections under the new system in March 1994 resulted in a simplification of electoral alliances and brought a center-right government to power. Silvio Berlusconi, founder of the "Go Italy" (Forza Italia) movement, emerged as prime minister.
The constitution gives the people the right to hold referenda to abrogate laws passed by the parliament; a referendum requires at least 500,000 signatures. Four referenda had been held by 1987 (against the legalization of divorce in 1974, against increased police powers and state financing of the political parties in 1978, and against government cuts in wage indexation in 1985), and in all of them, the voters approved the parliamentary decisions.
In May 1999, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was elected by the parliament as president of the Republic of Italy.
On 21 May 2000, Italian voters were asked to decide on electoral reform by increasing the number of lower house seats filled on the basis of a nonproportional system to 100%, effectively scrapping the last remaining element of pure proportional representation. The referendum needed to secure a quorum of 50% of the electorate to gain validity. The final turnout of 32% was much lower than expected and was an alarming sign of voter fatigue and popular disaffection.
On 13 May 2001, Silvio Berlusconi was again elected as head of state, this time as the leader of the five-party "Freedom House" political coalition of Forza Italia, the National Alliance, the Northern League, the Christian Democratic Center, and the United Christian Democrats. Although this coalition government was the longest running in Italy's postwar history, after a low showing in regional elections, Berlusconi was forced to resign and form a new government in April 2005. Italy's 60th government since liberation was formed on 23 April 2005.
Italy has a complex system of political alignments in which the parties, their congresses, and their leaders often appear to wield more power than parliament or the other constitutional branches of government.
Basic party policy is decided at the party congresses—generally held every second year—which are attended by locally elected party leaders. At the same time, the national party leadership is selected.
The most important political party traditionally had been the Christian Democratic Party (Partito Democrazia Cristiana—DC), which stood about midway in the political spectrum. In the 1983 national elections, the DC commanded 32.9% of the vote and won 225 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, down from 38.3% and 262 seats in 1979; in 1987, however, its electoral strength increased again, to 34.3% and 234 seats. From 1948 until 1981, the prime minister of Italy was consistently drawn from the ranks of the DC, whose religious and anti-class base constitutes both its strength and its weakness. Its relationship with the Church gave it added strength but also opened it to criticism, as did its popular association with the Mafia. In 1992, massive investigations uncovered widespread corruption, leading to many arrests and resignations of senior government officials. As a result of these scandals and corruption charges, the DC disbanded in 1994.
To the right and the left of the DC stood a wide range of parties, the most prominent of which was the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano—PCI), the largest Communist party in Western Europe at the time. The PCI had been second in power and influence only to the DC, but in the 1980s, its electoral base declined, despite the fact that it effectively severed its ties with both the former USSR and Marxism-Leninism.
Of all the parties of the mid to late 20th century, the most powerful were, in addition to the DC and PCI, were Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano—PSI), the Italian Socialist Democratic Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano—PSDI), the Italiant Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano—PRI), the Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano—PLI), the Radical Party (Partito Radicale), the Italian Social Movement, (Movimento Sociale Italiano—MSI), the Proletarian Democracy (Democrazia Proletaria—DP), and the enviornmentalist Greens party. However, the 1990s saw the demise, creation, and restructuring of many Italian political parties. As of 2005, only the PRI and the Greens parties exist. Partly due to the end of the Cold War, in part due to the Mafia crackdown in the 1990s, and primarily due to the related corruption scandals that involved most of the major parties, the overhaul of the political party system was so significant that, although there has been little actual constitutional change, the post-1992 period is often referred to as the "Second Republic."
With the rise in political parties, government functioning was dominated by coalition party formations. The April 1996 election saw a resurgence of the left as the Olive Tree coalition, anchored by former communists calling themselves the Party of the Democratic Left (PDS), gained 284 seats in the 630-seat Chamber of Deputies and 157 seats in the 315-seat Senate. The Refounded Communists won 35 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, the separatist Northern League 59, the center-right Freedom Alliance 246, and others 6. The elections of April 1992 failed to resolve Italy's political and economic problems. The election of March 1994 under new voting rules resulted in the following distribution of seats in the Chamber (lower house): Alliance for Freedom, 42.9% (Forza Italia, Northern League, National Alliance—366 seats); Progressive Alliance, 32.2% (Democratic Party of the Left, Communist Refounding, Democratic Alliance, Greens, Reformers—213 seats); and Pact for Italy, 15.7% (Popular Party, others—46 seats).
The domination of the center-left came to an end in the May 2001 election when Berlusconi's right-leaning coalition, Freedom House (formerly the House of Liberties), was comprised of his Forza Italia (Go Italy) party; the National Alliance, Northern League, Christian-Democratic Center Party; United Christian Democrats; and the New Italian Socialist Party. This coalition won 368 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and 177 in the Senate. The Olive Tree coalition—composed of the Democrats of the Left, the Daisy Alliance (including the Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, and the Democrats), the Sunflower Alliance (including the Greens and the Italian Democratic Socialists), and the Italian Communist Party—came in second with 242 seats in the lower house (128 in the Senate). The Communist Refounding took 11 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and the Olive-Southern Tyrols People's Party of German speakers secured 5 seats in the lower house.
Under the terms of the 1948 constitution, Italy is divided into 20 regions. Five of these regions (Sicily, Sardinia, Trentino–Alto Adige, Friuli–Venezia Giulia, and the Valle d'Aosta) have been granted semiautonomous status, although the powers of self-government delegated from Rome have not been sufficient to satisfy the militant separatists, especially in Alto Adige. Legislation passed in 1968 granted the remaining 15 regions an even more limited degree of autonomy. All the regions elect a regional council. The councils and president are elected by universal franchise under a proportional system analogous to that of the parliament at Rome.
The regions are subdivided into a total of 94 provinces, which elect their own council and president, and each region is in turn subdivided into communes—townships, cities, and towns—that constitute the basic units of local administration. Communes are governed by councils elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term. The council elects a mayor and a board of aldermen to administer the commune. A commissioner in each region represents the federal government.
Minor legal matters may be brought before conciliators, while civil cases and lesser criminal cases are tried before judges called pretori. There are 159 tribunals, each with jurisdiction over its own district; 90 assize courts, where cases are heard by juries; and 26 assize courts of appeal. The Court of Cassation in Rome acts as the last instance of appeal in all cases except those involving constitutional matters, which are brought before the special Constitutional Court (consisting of 15 judges). For many years, the number of civil and criminal cases has been increasing more rapidly than the judicial resources to deal with them.
The Italian legal system is based on Roman law, although much is also derived from the French Napoleonic model. The law assuring criminal defendants a fair and public trial is largely observed in practice. The 1989 amendments to the criminal procedure law both streamlined the process and provide for a more adversarial (as opposed to inquisitorial) system along the American model.
By law the judiciary is autonomous and independent of the executive branch. In practice, there has been a perception that magistrates were subject to political pressures and that political bias of individual magistrates could affect outcomes. Since the start of "clean hands" investigations of the government, including the judiciary, in 1992 for kickbacks and corruption, magistrates have taken steps to distance themselves from political parties and other pressure groups.
Since 1949 Italy, as a member of NATO, has maintained large and balanced modern forces. The total strength in 2005 was 191,875 active personnel, with reserves numbering 56,500. Army personnel numbered 112,000, and whose equipment included 320 main battle tanks, 300 reconnaissance vehicles, 122 armored infantry fighting vehicles, 2,036 armored personnel carriers, 14 amphibious assault vehicles, and 1,562 artillery pieces. Navy personnel in 2005 totaled 33,100, including 2,000 Marines. Major Italian naval vessels included 1 aircraft carrier, 2 destroyers, 12 frigates, 8 corvettes, 14 patrol/coastal vessels, 13 mine warfare ships, 3 amphibious ships, and 94 logistics/support vessels. The navy also operated six tactical submarines. The air force had a total strength of 44,743 personnel with 199 combat capable aircraft, in addition to various electronic warfare, antiair defense, transport and training aircraft. In 2005, Italy also had a paramilitary force of 254,300 active personnel, of which 111,367 were Carabinieri. Italian armed forces were deployed among 19 countries or regions in various peacekeeping, training or active military missions. Italy's military budget for 2005 was $17.2 billion.
Italy has been a member of the United Nations since 14 December 1955 and participates in the ECE and several UN nonregional specialized agencies, such as FAO, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, IFC, WHO, and the World Bank. It is a member of the Council of Europe, the European Union, NATO, and the OECD. Italy held the EU presidency from July to December 2003. Italy also participates in the Asian, African, Caribbean, European, and the Inter-American development banks, and is a part of G-7, G-8, and G-10. The country holds observer status in the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, the OAS, and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA).
Italy is a guest in the Nonaligned Movement. The country has supplied troops for UN operations and missions in Kosovo (est. 1999), Lebanon (est. 1978), India and Pakistan (est. 1949), and Ethiopia and Eritrea (est. 2000), among others. Italy belongs to the Australia Group, the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (London Group), the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
In environmental cooperation, Italy is part of the Antarctic Treaty; the Basel Convention; Conventions on Biological Diversity, Whaling, and Air Pollution; Ramsar; CITES; the London Convention; International Tropical Timber Agreements; the Kyoto Protocol; the Montréal Protocol; MARPOL; the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change and Desertification.
As the Italian economy, the world's sixth-largest, has expanded since the 1950s, its structure has changed markedly. Agriculture, which in 1953 contributed 25% of the GNP and employed 35% of the labor force, contributed in 1968 only 11% of the GNP and employed only 22% of the active labor force—despite continued increases in the value of agricultural production. Agriculture's contribution to the GDP further declined to 8.4% in 1974, 5% in 2001, and 2.3% in 2004. Conversely, the importance of industry has increased dramatically. Industrial output almost tripled between 1953 and 1968 and generally showed steady growth during the 1970s; in 2004, industry (including fuel, power, and construction) contributed 28.8% to the GDP. Precision machinery and motor vehicles have led the growth in manufacturing, and Italy has generally been a leader in European industrial design and fashion. Services in 2004 accounted for 68.9% of the economy. However, apart from tourism and design, Italy is not internationally competitive in most service sectors.
Despite this economic achievement, a number of basic problems remain. Natural resources are limited, landholdings often are poor and invariably too small, industrial enterprises are of minimal size and productivity, and industrial growth has not been translated into general prosperity. The rise in petroleum prices during the mid-1970s found Italy especially vulnerable, since the country is almost totally dependent on energy imports. In addition, because economic activity is centered predominately in the north, Italians living in the northern part of the country enjoy a substantially higher standard of living than those living in the south.
Partly because of increased energy costs, inflation increased from an annual rate of about 5% in the early 1970s to an annual average of 16.6% during 1975–81, well above the OECD average. Inflation was brought down to 14.6% in 1983 and to between 4 and 6% during most of the 1990s. In 1997 it was reduced to under 2%, its lowest level in 30 years. The inflation rate was estimated at 2.3% in 2004.
From 1981 through 1983, Italy endured a period of recession, with rising budget deficits, interest rates above 20%, virtually no real GDP growth, and an unemployment rate approaching 10%. Unemployment hovered around the 10 to 12% range for most of the 1990s and at 9% into the 2000s. Between 1985 and 1995, GDP growth averaged 1.9% a year. It was quite low in 2003, at 0.7%. The GDP growth rate stood at an estimated 1.3% in 2004, and was flat in 2005. Economic growth was expected to pick up to a still disappointing 1–1.2% in 2006–07.
Italy's large public debt, public sector deficit, low productivity growth, and burdensome and complex tax system, are generally blamed for the poor state of the economy. A rigid labor market and generous pension system are also seen as responsible for a sluggish economy. The Silvio Berlusconi administration by 2002 had abolished an inheritance tax, a move which was popular among affluent Italians. The 2005 budget included substantial tax cuts and a reduction in the number of tax rates from five to four. The corporate tax rate was reduced from 36% to 33% in 2004. Berlusconi also attempted to loosen labor laws to increase temporary work contracts and to ease hiring and firing practices. The government in the early 2000s was geared toward implementing spending cuts to spur consumer spending and corporate research and development. Pension reform, called a "financial time bomb" by economists, was proposed by the government and resulted in strikes in parts of Italy in mid-2003. Italy spends a massive 14% of GDP on pensions. In 2004, Italy raised the minimum age for state pensions from 57 to 60, but only beginning in 2008.
One of Italy's strengths is the thriving state of its small firms, which are often family owned. In 2003, the average number of workers per enterprise was just over four, the second-lowest figure in the EU. These small businesses are able to succeed in niche markets. However, the high proportion of small businesses has meant that Italy spends less on research and development than other European countries: in 2003, Italian spending on R&D as a share of GDP was barely half of the EU average. This causes Italy to experience a loss of competitiveness, and sluggish growth. In 2004, the economy grew by less than the euro-area average for the eighth time in nine years. Many Italian firms are still in traditional manufacturing areas that should have been abandoned when competition from Southeast Asia and China grew in the 1990s.
Italians spend more than other Europeans on clothes and shoes, and are second only to Spaniards in spending in bars, restaurants, and hotels. Because many Italians rent their living spaces, expenditure on housing is low.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Italy's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $1.6 trillion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $28,300. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 0%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 1.9%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 2.1% of GDP, industry 28.8%, and services 69.1%.
According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $2.137 billion or about $37 per capita and accounted for approximately 0.1% of GDP.
The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Italy totaled $887.34 billion or about $15,405 per capita based on a GDP of $1.5 trillion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1.6%. In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 23% of household consumption was spent on food, 12% on fuel, 3% on health care, and 17% on education.
Italy's labor force in 2005 was estimated at 24.49 million. In 2003 the occupational breakdown had 4.9% in agriculture, 32.2% in industry, 62.8% in the services sector, and 0.1% in undefined occupations. The estimated unemployment rate in 2005 was 7.9%.
The law provides the right to form and join unions, and many workers exercise this right. According to union claims, between 35% and 40% of the nation's workforce was unionized as of 2005. About 35% of the labor force was covered by collective bargaining agreements, which also included nonunion employees. The right to strike is constitutionally protected, and workers engage in collective bargaining. Employers may not discriminate against those engaged in union activity.
As of 2005, the legal workweek was set at 40 hours, with overtime not to exceed two hours per day or an average of 12 hours per week. However, in the industrial sector, maximum overtime was set at no more than 80 hours per quarter and 250 hours annually, unless limited by a collective bargaining agreement. Minimum wages in Italy are not set by law, but through collective labor contracts, which establish wages and salaries in every major field. In most industries these minimum rates offered a worker and family a decent standard of living. Labor contracts may also call for additional compulsory bonuses, and basic wages and salaries are adjusted quarterly to compensate for increases in the cost of living. With some limited exceptions, children under age 15 are prohibited by law from employment.
Of Italy's total land area of 29.4 million hectares (72.6 million acres), 10.7 million hectares (26.4 million acres), or 36.4% of the land, were under annual or permanent crops in 2003. Small, individually owned farms predominate, with the majority three hectares (7.4 acres) or less. In 2001, about 5% (1.4 million persons) of the economically active population was in the agricultural sector.
Despite government efforts, the agricultural sector has shown little growth in recent decades. The imports of agricultural products increased from $19.6 billion in 1987 to $31.6 billion in 2004. Italy has to import about half of its meat. The land is well suited for raising fruits and vegetables, both early and late crops, and these are the principal agricultural exports. Although yields per hectare in sugar beets, tomatoes, and other vegetable crops have increased significantly, both plantings and production of wheat declined between 1974 and 1981. Thus, although Italy remains a major cereal-producing country, wheat must be imported. The government controls the supply of domestic wheat and the import of foreign wheat.
Production of major agricultural products in 2004 (in thousands of tons) included sugar beets, 10,100; wheat, 8,628; corn, 10,983; tomatoes, 7,497; oranges, 2,064; potatoes, 1,809; apples, 2,069; barley, 1,167; and rice, 1,496. In 2004, Italy produced 8,692,000 tons of grapes, and 4,531,000 tons of olives, and 879,000 tons of olive oil. In 2003, Italy had 1,680,000 tractors (third in the world) and 37,500 harvester-threshers.
Some 4,377,000 hectares (10,816,000 acres) are meadows and pastures. Both a growing need for fodder and insufficient domestic production compel Italy to import large amounts of corn. In 2005, the country had 6,314,000 head of cattle, 9,272,000 hogs, 8,020,000 sheep, 1,985,000 goats, 300,000 horses, and an estimated 100 million chickens. That year, total meat production from hogs, cattle, sheep, and goats was 4,099,000 tons. Of the meat produced, 38% was pork, 29% was beef, 24% was poultry, 2% was mutton, and 7% was from other sources. Meat production falls short of domestic requirements, and about half of all meat consumed must be imported. Although Italy produced 10.5 million tons of cow milk in 2005, dairy farming remains comparatively undeveloped. Both dairy and beef cattle are raised mainly in the north. The value of animal output in 2003 exceeded €14.3 billion, third highest in the EU after France and Germany.
Italy's geography provides abundant access to marine fishing. Peninsular Italy and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia together have over 8,000 km (4,900 mi) of coastline and over 800 landing ports equipped for fishing boats. There are also 1,500 sq km (580 sq mi) of lagoons and 1,700 sq km (650 sq mi) of marine ponds. Although coastal and deep-sea fishing in the Mediterranean engage over 50,000 fishermen, the fishing industry is unable to meet domestic needs. As of 2003 there were 15,915 Italian fishing vessels with a fishing capacity (gross tonnage) of 178,334 tons. Since the extension of the 200-mile limit zones and the consequent drop in the total catch, Italy's fishing industry has declined because their deep-sea vessels were not suited to Mediterranean fishing. Also, about 1,700 vessels (10% of the fleet) went out of service during 2000–02 as a result of EU-funded policies for the reduction of fishing in the Mediterranean. The total catch in 2003 was 314,807 tons, 98% from marine fishing, with a value of about €1.4 billion. Anchovies, sardines, hake, mullets, and swordfish together accounted for 44% of the volume in 2003. In 2003, Italy produced 89,000 tons of canned tuna and 20,000 tons of canned anchovies. The majority of the Italian fish harvest (up to 50%) is not officially recorded but sold directly to restaurants, wholesalers, and fish-mongers. Anchovy, rainbow trout, sardine, and European hake are the main finfish species caught. Sponges and coral are also commercially important. The main commercial fishing ports are Mazara del Vallo, Palermo, San Benedetto del Tronto, Chioggia-Venezia, and Genoa.
There are over a thousand intensive production fish farms that belong to the Italian Fish Farming Association, with 60% located in northern Italy. Total Italian aquaculture production in 2003 was 244,000 tons, valued at €250 million.
The major portion of the 10 million hectares (24.7 million acres) of forest is in the Alpine areas of northern Italy; few extensive forests grow in central or southern Italy or on the islands. Italy has more softwood than hardwood growth and extensive coppice (thicket and small shrub) stands. The overall forest structure consists of 42% coppice stands, 26% softwoods, and 25% hardwood high stands. The only species that are commercially important are chestnut, beech, oak, and poplar. Chestnut and beech stands account for 31% of the hardwood forest and for over 40% of Italian wood production; oak comprises 8% of wood production. Poplar is the only species grown using managed forestry practices. Poplar plantations account for only 1% of the total forest area but for 50% of domestic wood output. Forest resources are stable and meet about 19% of annual demand. Italian wood output in 2003 consisted of 9 million cu m (318 million cu ft). Approximately 90% of Italian forest product exports consist of wooden furniture, semifinished wood products, and other finished wood products. The Italian furniture industry accounted for 37,987 firms with 229,054 employees in 2002, with an industry turnover of almost €22.8 billion. The diversity in species composition, ownership patterns, topographic constraints, and conflicting resource management strategies have all contributed to limiting the productivity of Italian forest resources. Italy is a major importer of hardwood and softwood lumber, since its rugged terrain and disjointed forestland restrict domestic production. In 2002, the Italian wood and wood product sectors employed 412,815 workers in 87,906 companies with a total turnover of about $36 billion. Some 80% of the raw materials used for manufacturing furnished wooden products are imported. Imports of forest products in 2004 were valued at $9.5 billion, while exports totaled $4.3 billion.
Although Italy was relatively poor in mineral resources, it was, nevertheless, a major producer of feldspar, pumice and related materials, as well as of crude steel, cement (second-largest in the EU), and a leading producer of dimension stone and marble. The country also continued to supply a significant portion of its own need for some minerals. Industrial mineral production in 2003, including construction materials, was the most important sector of the economy. Italy has been a significant processor of imported raw materials, and a significant consumer and exporter of mineral and metal semi-manufactured and finished products.
Production totals for the leading minerals in 2003 were: feldspar, estimated at 2,500 metric tons; barite, estimated at 30,000 metric tons, unchanged from 1999; fluorspar (acid-grade and metallurgical-grade), estimated at 45,000 tons; hydraulic cement, estimated at 40 million tons; pumice and pumiceous lapilli, estimated at 600,000 tons (from Lipari Island, off the northern coast of Sicily); and pozzolan, estimated at 4 million tons (from Lipari). Alumina production (calcined basis) in 2003 was estimated at 925,000 metric tons. In addition, Italy produced antimony oxides, gold (from Sardinia), mine lead, mine manganese, bromine, crude clays (including bentonite, refractory, fuller's earth, kaolin, and kaolinitic earth), diatomite, gypsum, lime, nitrogen, perlite, mineral pigments, salt (marine, rock, and brine), sand and gravel (including volcanic and silica sands), soda ash, sodium sulfate, stone (alabaster, dolomite, granite, limestone, marble, marl, quartz, quartzite, sandstone, serpentine, and slate), sulfur, and talc and related materials.
Marble and travertine quarrying from the famous mines in the Massa and Carrara areas was still significant. Marble was quarried at hundreds of locations from the Alps to Sicily. The most important white-marble-producing area was in the Apuan Alps, near Carrara, and accounted for one-third of the country's 100,000 tons of white marble. Important colored-marble-producing areas included the Lazio region, Lombardy, the Po Valley, Puglia, Sicily, Venice, and Verona-Vincenza. Reserves of several types were considered to be unlimited; half of the country's output was in block form and half was exported.
Italy's proven oil and natural gas reserves are each the fourth-largest in the European Union (EU). The country has completely stopped the production of coal. Still, Italy must rely heavily on foreign sources to meet its energy needs.
According to the Oil and Gas Journal, Italy has proven oil reserves estimated at 622 million barrels, as of 1 January 2005. Estimated production in 2004 averaged 147,000 barrels daily, of which crude oil accounted for 104,000 barrels per day, of which about 89% was accounted for by the National Hydrocarbon Agency (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi), or ENI, Italy's largest oil and natural gas company of which the Italian government holds a controlling 35% stake. However, domestic demand far outstrips production, with consumption in 2004 estimated at 1.90 million barrels per day. Net imports for that year are estimated at 1.75 million barrels per day. In 2004, the former Soviet Union was Italy's largest supplier at 28%, followed by Libya (24%), Saudi Arabia (13%), and Iran (10%).
More than 70% of ENI's production comes from the Val d'Agri project in the south of Italy, the Villafortuna project in the north, and from the Aquila project off the Adriatic coast in the southeast. Development of the Tempa Rossa field, with an estimated 200 million barrels of oil, is being led by France's Total, and is expected to enter production by 2007 with a peak output of 50,000 barrels per day.
Oil has been partly replaced by natural gas, whose consumption is expected to continue rising in the future, driven largely by the construction of combined-cycle, gas-fired turbines. Italy has proven natural gas reserves of 8.0 trillion cu ft, as of 1 January 2005, according to the Oil and Gas Journal. Natural gas production in 2004, according to Eurostat totaled 440 billion cu ft. Combined with declining field output, Italy's reliance on natural gas imports has increased. In 2004, imported natural gas accounted 84% of the country's demand vs. 59% in 1985, according to Eurostat. Algeria (38%), Russia (32%), and the Netherlands (14%) were Italy's largest natural gas suppliers in 2004.
In 2001, Italy completely closed down its domestic coal production industry, when it shuttered its last production facility. In 2002, coal met only 6.8% of Italy's energy needs. In that year, demand for coal amounted to 21.8 million short tons, of which most was used to provide electricity. In the first half of 2004, South Africa supplied 26% of the coal consumed by Italy, followed by Colombia (12%) and the United States (11%).
Italy's total electric generating capacity was estimated at 69.1 GW in 2002, with thermal accounting for 78% of capacity, hydropower at 19% and other renewable sources at 3%. In 2002, it was estimated that output totaled 262 billion kWh, with consumption totaling an estimated 294 billion kWh, and net imports totaling an estimated 32 billion kWh.
Characterized both by a few large industrial concerns controlling the greater part of industrial output and by thousands of small shops engaged in artisan-type production, Italian industry expanded rapidly in the postwar period. Industrial production almost tripled between 1955 and 1968 and has generally showed continued growth, although the global recession that began in 2001 slowed industrial production and the economy as a whole. The lack of domestic raw materials and fuels represents a serious drag on industrial expansion. Industry accounted for 28.8% of GDP in 2004, and employed 32% of the labor force. Manufacturing accounts for approximately 90% of total merchandise exports.
Three state-holding companies have played a large role in industry: ENI (National Hydrocarbon Agency), IRI (Industrial Reconstruction Institute), and EFIM (Agency for Participation and Financing of Manufacturing Industry). IRI was the 16th-largest industrial company in the world in 1993, with sales of $50.5 billion; it had shareholdings in over 100 companies (including banks, electronics, engineering, and shipbuilding) and 333,600 employees in 1992. EFIM controlled armaments and metallurgy industries. Debt-ridden EFIM was liquidated, IRI became dismantled through sell-offs, and as of 2005, the state had reduced its stake in ENI and Enel (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica), the national electricity company. Major private companies are the Fiat automobile company; the Olivetti company (office computers and telecommunications); the Montedison chemical firm; and the Pirelli rubber company. The bulk of heavy industry is concentrated in the northwest, in the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle. The government has made concerted efforts to attract industry to the underdeveloped southeast.
With the drive toward greater European integration in full gear, Italy, along with its fellow EU member-states, is liberalizing its economic and commercial legislation. These promise a marked change in the Italian business scene as mergers and foreign investment increase. In early 1999, Olivetti mounted a successful hostile takeover for Telecom Italia.
Italy has become known for niche products, including fashion eye-wear, specialized machine tools, packaging, stylish furniture, kitchen equipment, and other products featuring high design. The "made in Italy" stamp is associated with quality and style. Traditional industries are iron and steel, machinery, chemicals, food processing (including olive oil, wine, and cheese), textiles, clothing, footwear, motor vehicles, and ceramics. The construction industry stands to gain in importance in the early 2000s, as Italy's less-developed regions are slated for infrastructure development.
Foreign competition has cut into the Italian textile industry. Following the expiration of the World Trade Organization's longstanding system of textile quotas at the beginning of 2005, the EU signed an agreement with China in June 2005, imposing new quotas on 10 categories of textile goods, limiting growth in those categories to between 8% and 12.5% a year. The agreement runs until 2007, and was designed to give European textile manufacturers time to adjust to a world of unfettered competition. Nevertheless, barely a month after the EU-China agreement was signed, China reached its quotas for sweaters, followed soon after by blouses, bras, T-shirts, and flax yarn. Tens of millions of garments piled up in warehouses and customs checkpoints, which affected both retailers and consumers.
The still-standing aqueducts, bathhouses, and other public works of both ancient republic and empire testify to the engineering and architectural skills of the Romans. The rebirth of science during the Renaissance brought the daring speculations of Leonardo da Vinci (including discoveries in anatomy, meteorology, geology, and hydrology, as well as a series of fascinating though ultimately impractical designs for a "flying machine"), advances in physics and astronomy by Galileo Galilei, and the development of the barometer by Evangelista Torricelli. To later Italian scientists and inventors the world owes the electric battery (1800), the electroplating process (1805), and the radiotelegraph (1895).
In 2001, Italy had 1,156 scientists and engineers per million people engaged in research and development (R&D). In that same year, expenditures on R&D totaled $16.7 trillion or 1.11% of GDP. High technology exports in 2002 totaled $19.730 billion, or 9% of the country's manufactured exports.
The National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche—CNR), founded in 1923, is the country's principal research organization. CNR institutes and associated private and university research centers conduct scientific work in mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, technology, engineering, medicine, biology, and agriculture. Especially noteworthy are the National Institute of Nuclear Physics, in Rome, and the Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies, in Milan.
Italy has 47 universities offering courses in basic and applied sciences. The Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenzo, founded in 1930, is located in Florence. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 30% of university enrollment. In 2002, of all bachelor's degrees awarded, 25.8% were in the sciences (natural, mathematics and computers, and engineering)
Milan is the principal commercial center, followed by Turin, Genoa, Naples, and Rome. Genoa, the chief port of entry for Milan and Turin, handles about one-third of Italy's trade; Naples is the principal entrepôt for central and southern Italy. Adriatic as well as Middle Eastern trade is carried through Ancona, Bari, and Brindisi. Although small retail units predominate, department stores and supermarkets are playing an increasingly important role. In 2000, Italy ranked second in Europe in franchise business operations with about 562 companies and over 31,400 franchises.
Advertising in all forms is well developed, and the usual mass media (billboards, neon signs, newspapers and magazines, radio, cinema, and television) are used extensively. Market research is handled by over 100 firms.
Usual business hours in northern Italy are from 8:30 am until 12:30 pm and from 3:30 to 6:30 pm. In central and southern Italy, customary hours are 8:30 am to 12:45 pm and 4:30 or 5 to 7:30 or 8 pm. Most firms are closed in August. In general, banking hours are 8:30 am to 1:30 pm and 3 pm to 4 pm, Monday through Friday. Retail establishments are generally closed on Sundays.
Industrial products, textiles and apparel, shoes, and foodstuffs are Italy's most important exports. However, the textile industry has been hit hard by foreign competition in recent years, especially from China. Fuels, meat, grain products, and various raw materials are among the major imports. Trade deficits were substantial between the end of World War II and 1955, but between 1956 and 1968 the deficit gradually declined, and Italy's trade balance continued in relative equilibrium through 1972. Then, as prices of crude oil and other raw-material imports rose, Italy again began registering growing trade deficits. In 1993, however, a large surplus was recorded because of an export boom that followed the devaluation of the lira in September 1992, and Italy has had a trade surplus ever since. In 2004, the value of exports of goods was $352.2 billion, and imports were $341.3 billion, resulting in a trade surplus of $10.9 billion.
The bulk of manufactured imports come from EU countries and the United States, which are also the leading customers for Italian exports. The big commodity exports from Italy in 2004 included industrial and automobile machinery and parts (40.3%), textiles, clothing, and leather (13.5%), chemicals (9.6%), and metal products (9.5%). The major imports included machinery and transportation equipment (34.5%), chemicals (13.4%), energy minerals (10.3%), and metals and metal products (10.3%). Italy's leading markets in 2004 were Germany (14.1% of all exports), France (12.5%), the United States (8.3%), and the United Kingdom (7.1%). Italy's leading suppliers in 2004 were Germany (18.1% of all imports), France (11.4%), the Netherlands (5.8%), and the United Kingdom (4.8%).
Italy did not have serious balance of payments problems after the mid-1970s. Exports soared after 1992, turning Italy's balance of payments positive. The growth in exports was extremely strong in the northeast, where small and medium-sized companies produce high-quality and low-cost products—ranging from industrial machinery to ski boots—for French, German, Japanese, and Indian customers.
Italy had current account surpluses from 1993 to 1999, but in 2000 the country registered a $5.6 billion deficit, after an $8.2 billion surplus in 1999. Italy experienced weak economic growth in the period 2001–05. In 2004, the current account balance showed a deficit estimated at $15.1 billion (0.9% of GDP).
|Balance on goods||9.7|
|Balance on services||-1.4|
|Balance on income||-22.1|
|Direct investment abroad||-9.9|
|Direct investment in Italy||17.3|
|Portfolio investment assets||-58.5|
|Portfolio investment liabilities||61.4|
|Other investment assets||-29.8|
|Other investment liabilities||44.3|
|Net Errors and Omissions||0.6|
|Reserves and Related Items||-1.1|
|(…) data not available or not significant.|
The Banca d'Italia, the central bank, was the sole bank of issue and exercised credit control functions until Italy's accession to the European Central Bank, which now controls monetary policy and the euro, the EU's common currency (excepting the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden). La Banca d'Italia is still responsible for controlling domestic inflation and balance of payments pressures.
In March 1979, Italy became a founder member of the European Monetary System (EMS) and its Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). During the first 10 years of its membership, the lira was allowed to diverge by up to 6% against other member currencies before action had to be taken, compared with 2.25% for other ERM currencies. Uncertainty about Italy's ability to meet the convergence targets of the 1992 Treaty for European Union (Merastricht) for inflation, interest rates, and participation to stabilize the rate, the lira was withdrawn from the ERM in September 1992, after which the lira declined to just under DM1:L1,000. At the beginning of 1996 it began to appreciate again, and immediately after the April election it rose to L1,021:DM1. The introduction of the euro in 2002, however, made all that irrelevant.
In 2002, five banks are of nationwide standing: Intesa-Bci, San Paolo-IMI, the Banca di Roma, Unicredito Italiano, and the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro. There are many major international banks with branches in Italy. Among the more important are Chase, Citibank, Bank of America, HSBC, and others. The Istituto Mobiliare Italiano is the leading industrial credit institution; it also administers important government industrial investments. In 1987, the government privatized Mediobanca, another major industrial credit institution.
Two major banks, formally part of the Instituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) group, were privatized in 1993–94: Unicredito Italiano (CREDIT) and Banca Commerciale Italiana (COMIT). The privatization of another IRI bank specializing in medium- and long-term lending, the Instituto Mobiliare Italiano (IMI), was completed in 1996.
A new banking law was passed in 1993, to bring Italy into conformity with the EU's Second Banking directive, and to introduce two major innovations which aim to move Italy toward a model of universal banking. It allows banks to hold shares in industrial concerns; and it eliminates the distinction between banks (aziende di credito) and special credit institutions (aziende di credito speciale), thus allowing all banks to perform operations previously limited to specific types of intermediary.
On 30 January 1997, the government drafted legislation to promote restructuring and consolidation in Italy's largely inefficient and highly fragmented banking sector. The bill is the latest in a series of attempts since 1990 to rationalize the sector. However, it comes just as Italy's two biggest banks, CARIPLO and what is now San Paolo-IMI, announced plans to begin privatization by the end of 1997, and other banks in the private sector begin to negotiate strategic alliances, notably between: the private sector bank Ambroveneto and CARIPLO; Cassa di Resparmia di Torino and the Cassa di Risparmio di Verona. Mergers are also changing the face of the Italian banking industry. In early 1999, four of the five largest Italian banks were involved in such deals. Unicredito Italiano and Banca Commerciale Italiana merged to form Eurobanca, while San Paolo-IMI and Banca di Roma also planned to combine their operations. The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand deposits—an aggregate commonly known as M1—were equal to $458.4 billion. In that same year, M2—an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual funds—was $628.9 billion. The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 4.26%.
There are 10 stock exchanges in operation. The most important is that in Milan (established in 1808). The others, in order of importance, are Rome (1812), Turin (1850), Genoa (1855), Bologna (1861), Florence (1859), Naples (1813), Venice (1600), Trieste (1755), and Palermo (1876). Since 1974, the markets have been regulated by the National Commission for Companies and the Stock Exchange.
Radical reforms have been introduced in recent years in order to vitalize the stock market, which is greatly undercapitalized considering the size of the Italian economy. At the end of 1995, the capitalization of the Milan bourse was the equivalent of just 18% of GDP, compared with 32% in France and 122% in the United Kingdom. However, by 2002 market capitalization had increased to 41% of GDP.
In September 1991, stock market intermediation companies (SIM), a new form of stock broking and fund management firm, were introduced to accompany the shift from the open-outcry call auction system to a screen-based continuous auction market, which was completed in July 1994. In order to stimulate the demand for shares, in 1994 shareholders were given the option of paying a 12.5% flat tax rate instead of declaring dividends as part of taxable income. At the beginning of 1996, proposed Services Directive included the privatization of the stock market and the administrative bodies that run it as one of its main objectives.
Despite a certain amount of volatility, the Milan stock exchange index (MIB) has risen by 10.6% on 26 March 1997 since the end of 1996 and daily volume of transactions were up substantially. In early-mid-2000, the MIB index hovered between 31,700–31,800. However, since the onset of the global recession, the index has dropped significantly. From January 2002 to January 2003, the MIB dropped 4.4%, down to 16,208, slightly more than half of its peak value. In 2004, the MIB-30 Index rose 16.9% from the previous year to 31,220. On the Borsa Italiana, a total of 269 companies were listed as of 2004, which had a market capitalization of $789.563 billion.
The insurance industry is government-supervised, and insurers must be authorized to do business. Automobile insurance was made compulsory in 1971, and coverage is also required for aircraft, powerboats, hunters, auditors, yachts, nuclear facilities, and insurance brokers. Among the most important nonlife insurance companies in Italy as of 2003 were Ras, Generali, Sai, and Assitalia. Leading life insurance companies as of 2003 included Alleanza, Creitras, Generali, and Sanpaolo. In 2003, the value of direct premiums written totaled $111.761 billion, with life premiums accounting for $71.694 billion. Italy's top nonlife insurer in 2003 was Fondiaria-SAI, with total written nonlife premiums (including personal accident and healthcare) of $4,272.6 million. In that same year, the country's leading life insurer was Creditras, with gross written life premiums of $5,977.6 million.
The insurance regulatory body is the Instituto per Viglanza sulle Assicurazioni Private di Interesse Collettivo (ISVAP-the Institute for Control of Private Insurance Companies). European Union reporting and other insurance directives are being implemented. A unique and helpful feature of Italian insurance company reports is the inclusion of financial statements of major subsidiary or affiliated companies.
The Italian insurance market was traditionally characterized by a relatively large number of insurers with no one organization dominating the industry, although there were some very large, old insurance organizations which date back to the early 19th century. There are a number of foreign insurance companies operating through subsidiaries in Italy: these are primarily French and German companies. Italy's market indicates moderately low penetration when compared to North America and Northern Europe, especially for life products. In recent years, the volume of life products has increased quite rapidly as the consumer has become aware that the Italian Social Security System benefits will have to be supplemented by individual savings and as insurance awareness has increased through advertising campaigns and the distribution of insurance products through the extensive branch banking system of the country. Foreign influence and industry consolidation in the Italian insurance industry is expected to rise due to the adoption of the euro and the emerging willingness of Italian companies to mount hostile takeover bids. Much of the new merger-mania expected to sweep Italian insurance is projected to come from the banking sector as banks continue to expand their interests in insurance sales.
Reflecting both increasing economic activity and the pressures of inflation, the Italian budget has expanded continually since 1950. The Italian economy has traditionally run a high government
|Revenue and Grants||444.5||100.0%|
|General public services||…||…|
|Public order and safety||…||…|
|Housing and community amenities||…||…|
|Recreational, culture, and religion||…||…|
|(…) data not available or not significant.|
debt, but in recent years it has been quelled somewhat, despite lackluster growth. In 1995, the debt stood at 124% of GDP, but declined to 110.6% in 2000 and 109.4% in 2001. At that point the Italian government still had a long way to go to get down to the EU-imposed debt-to-GDP ration of 60%. Since 1996, Italy has maintained a primary budget surplus, net of interest payments, and has reduced its deficit in public administration from 1.7% of GDP in 2000 to 1.4% in 2001. However, given the high national debt, the EU remains concerned about Italy's budgetary policies.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Italy's central government took in revenues of approximately $785.7 billion and had expenditures of $861.5 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -$75.8 billion. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 107.3% of GDP. Total external debt was $1.682 trillion.
The Italian tax system is considered among the most complicated in the world. Since the late 1990s, the government has been using tax cuts to stimulate economic growth. On 1 January 1998 the government introduced the Dual Income Tax (DIT) system designed to encourage investment by taxing income deemed to be derived from the increase in equity capital in a company at a lower rate than the standard corporate income tax rate. In 2003, the corporate income tax rate (IRPEG), at 36% in 2002, was reduced to 34%. As of 2005, the standard corporate rate was 33%, excluding a 4.25% regional tax (IRAP) on productive activities. Capital gains realized by companies are taxable as business income under the IRPEG and IRAP, and capital losses are deductible. Dividends are taxed at 27% with complete withholding ("payment at the source" or PAYE). This rate may be reduced to 12.5% if residents can show that they had a "nonsubstantial participation" in the firm. A 0% rate applies to dividends paid to resident companies. The PAYE rate for dividends paid to branches of companies from other EU countries is 12.5%
The schedule of personal income tax rates was reformed in 2003 to reduce tax rates and to increase the amount covered by the lowest income band. As of 2005, the individual tax rate progressively increases to a top rate of 39%. However, a solidarity contribution of 4% pushes the top rate to 43%. On 25 October 2001 Italy's gift and inheritance taxes were abolished by the Parliament.
Italy's main indirect tax is its value-added tax (VAT) introduced on 1 January 1973 with a standard rate of 12%, replacing a turnover tax on goods and services. Since 10 January 1997 the standard rate has been at 20% and is applicable to most goods and services. A reduced rate of 10% is applied to some foodstuffs, certain fuel supplies, some transport and some housing, consumers, catering services and live animals. A 4% rate is applied to some foodstuffs, books, newspapers and periodicals, agricultural inputs, and medical equipment. Basic medical and dental services, as well as financial and insurance services are exempt from VAT. A 0% rate is applied to supplies of unwrought gold and ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap, and land not suitable for buildings. Other taxes on transactions include stamp taxes, and contract registration tax.
Italy's membership in the European Union has greatly influenced its tariff structure. Duties on imports from then-European Community members and their dependencies were gradually reduced following the Rome Pact in 1957 and disappeared by 1969, more than a year ahead of schedule. Duties on goods from Greece, which entered the European Community in 1981, were reduced gradually and eliminated by 1986. Italy's adjustment of its tariff structure to that of the now-European Union also has resulted in a substantial reduction of duties on products imported from areas other than the European Union, including the United States.
Import duties on manufactured goods from non-EU countries range from 5–8%, while raw materials enter mostly duty-free. Other import taxes include a value-added tax (VAT) that ranges from 0–20% depending on the product and excise taxes on alcoholic beverages, tobacco, sugar and petroleum products.
Because of a lack of domestic venture capital, the government encourages foreign industrial investment through tax concessions on a case-by-case basis. Foreign ownership, however, is limited by law and includes the following regulations: foreign investment can be limited for "reasons essential to the national economy." As a consequence, foreign investment in banks is limited to less than 5% of an institution's capital without government consent. Although privatization is encouraging foreign investment, defense industries remain off limits to non-Italians. However, the extent of the state's direct involvement in the economy has been greatly reduced by the privatization program carried out by successive governments since 1993, encouraged by EU restrictions on state aid to industry and the need to reduce public-sector debt. In an effort to increase confidence of foreign investors in Italy's economic development, the government has enacted legislation providing special incentives, particularly for investments in the south—Sicily, Sardinia, and the peninsula south of Rome. In recent years, and in accordance with EU liberalization, foreign restrictions on foreign investment in Italy have eased. The corporate tax rate was cut from 36% to 33% in 2004.
Annual foreign direct investment (FDI) into Italy was $2.6 billion in 1998, down from $3.7 billion in 1997. Total FDI stock in Italy in 1998 was about $103 billion. Annual FDI inflow jumped to almost $7 billion in 1999 and continued to increase for the next three years: to $13.4 billion in 2000, $14.9 billion in 2001, and $15.2 billion in 2002, an average of $13.7 billion a year. Total FDI stock in Italy reached about $140 billion by 2002. Italy has remained an underachiever, however, in the attraction of FDI. For the period 1988 to 1990, Italy's share of world FDI inflows was 60% of its share of world GDP. For the period 1998 to 2000, Italy's share of world inward FDI had dropped to only 20% of its share of world GDP. About 63% of inward stock in the 1990s had come from EU countries, up from 55% in the 1980s.
In the 1980s, outward FDI had about equaled inward FDI in Italy, but in the 1990s Italy became a net outward investor. From 1999 to 2002, average annual outward FDI from Italy was $18.4 billion. As of 2001, FDI stock held by Italians in foreign countries totaled about $236 billion. Roughly 60% of Italian holdings of outward stock in the 1990s were in EU countries, the same as in the 1980s.
From 2000–04, FDI inflows averaged 1.2% of GDP. In 2004, Italy jumped from 12th to 9th most attractive FDI destination in the world, driven primarily by increased confidence among US and Asian investors, according to the FDI Confidence Index. In 2004, intra-EU-25 FDI inflows to Italy amounted to €10.2 billion; extra-EU-25 inflows amounted to €1.9 billion. That year, outward Italian FDI flows to the EU-25 amounted to €14.2 billion; outward FDI flows from Italy to non-EU-25 countries amounted to €0.5 billion. In all, inward FDI in 2004 totaled $16.8 billion; outward FDI totaled $19.3 billion.
Under Mussolini, business and labor were grouped into corporations that, in theory at least, jointly determined economic policy. Also, under the Fascist regime, direct government control over the economy was increased through the creation of powerful economic bodies, such as the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction. Although the corporative system disappeared after the fall of Mussolini, the concept of economic planning remained firmly implanted among the large Marxist parties, as well as among Christian Democratic leaders, who—by different means and for different reasons—sought to create a society free from the class warfare associated with a strictly liberal economic system.
Principal government objectives following World War II were reconstruction of the economy; stabilization of the currency; and long-term, large-scale investment aimed at correcting the imbalance of the Italian economy and, in particular, the imbalance between northern and southern Italy. The first and second phases of this policy were accomplished by 1949. Then the government, supported by domestic financial and industrial groups and by foreign aid, principally from the United States, embarked on the third and most important phase, best known as the Vanoni Plan (after former finance minister Ezio Vanoni). Notable in this development effort was the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, a government agency set up to develop southern Italy and attract private investment to the region. Between 1951 and 1978, government spending on infrastructure in the south was $11.5 billion; additional low-cost loans totaled $13 billion, and outright grants amounted to $3.2 billion.
Simultaneously, direct government control of the economy increased through such government agencies as ENI (National Hydrocarbon Agency), whose activities expanded rapidly in the postwar era. The nationalization of the electric industry, in order to lay the industrial base for a more highly planned economy, and the creation of the National Economic Planning Board composed of leaders from government, industry, and labor were further indications of the importance attached to the concept of a planned Italian economy.
The combined effects of inflation, increased energy prices, and political instability posed serious economic problems during the 1970s. With Italy mired in recession in the early 1980s, economic policy was directed at reducing the public sector deficit, tightening controls on credit, and maintaining a stable exchange rate, chiefly through a variety of short-term constraints. A period of recovery began in 1983, leading to expanded output and lower inflation but also to expanded unemployment. The economic policy aims in 1987 included the reduction of the public-sector deficit and unemployment. Furthermore, improvement in the external sector (due mainly to the fall of oil prices and depreciation of the dollar) led to liberalization of the foreign exchange market in 1987.
Priorities of the early 1990s were cutting government spending, fighting tax evasion to reduce public debt, and selling off state-owned enterprises. At the end of the decade the results of these policies were mixed. Liberalization provided the impetus for greater foreign investment, while the funds generated from privatization eased the public debt. Italy qualified for the first round of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and entered the euro zone in 1999. Tax evasion remains a problem; the underground economy is still estimated at nearly 25% of official GDP. Moreover, the economic disparities between the prosperous north and the impoverished south remain.
The strength of the economy rests on the back of small- and medium-sized family-owned companies, mostly in the north and center of the country. In 2005, the average Italian company employed 4 people, and industrial companies had an average of around 9 employees, compared with an average 15 employees in the EU. In mid-2000, Italy's largest state holding company, Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI), was liquidated.
Italy's public debt in 2004 was estimated at 105.6% of GDP. The EU's mandated debt to GDP ratio is 60%. The budget deficit was forecast to rise from about 3% of GDP in 2004 to 4–4.5% in 2005–06, before falling to just under 4% in 2007. GDP growth remained flat in 2005, but was expected to pick up to a still disappointing 1–1.2% in 2006–07. Reform of the pension system continues to be a controversial policy issue. The focus of economic policy has been on cutting taxes, fighting unemployment, enhancing competitiveness, and reducing both the budget deficit and debt. However, the only areas in which the government had made limited progress by 2005 were in the labor market and the pension system. Balancing fiscal austerity and policies to promote growth pose a major economic policy challenge.
Social welfare legislation in Italy, begun in 1898, was redesigned by law in 1952 and has subsequently been expanded. All workers and their families are covered and receive old-age, disability, and survivor pensions, unemployment and injury benefits, health and maternity coverage. The system is primarily funded by employer contributions, along with employee payments and some government subsidies. Family allowances are paid for primarily by employer contributions, and are determined by the size and income of the family. Conditions for old age pensions have varying conditions. The first maternity coverage was initiated in 1912, and was most recently updated in 2001.
Despite full legal rights under law, women face some social discrimination in Italy. On average, women earn less than men and are underrepresented in management, the professions, and other areas. Sexual abuse and violence remain a problem, although when reported, the authorities prosecute perpetrators and assist victims. Increased public awareness of sexual harassment and violence increased the number of reported abuses in 2004. The government is committed to protecting and promoting children's rights.
Human rights are generally respected in Italy. Lengthy pretrial detentions still occur due to the slow pace of the judicial system, and occasional cases of the mistreatment of prisoners were reported. Discrimination based on race, sex, religion, ethnicity, disability, and language is prohibited by law.
A national health plan, begun in 1980, seeks to provide free health care for all citizens, but certain minimum charges remain. It is financed by contributions from salaries, by employers, and by the central government. Patients are still able to choose their own health care providers. Reform implementation in the 1980s and 1990s has been difficult. In 1994, the government announced plans to dismantle public universal insurance. Reforms in 1999 sought to integrate primary care with other health care programs, including home care, social services, and health education. Consistent health reforms are hampered by frequent political changes in administration. Most private hospitals have contracts with the national plan, but health care services are more highly concentrated in the northern regions of Italy. The shortage of medical personnel and hospital facilities in Italy's rural areas remains serious. Closure of a number of underutilized hospitals was planned and the government has been making efforts to curb the state deficit in health expenditures; budgets and estimates are repeatedly more than demand. Health care expenditures were 8.2% of GDP.
As of 2004, Italy had the highest number of physicians per capita at an estimated 606 per 100,000 people. In addition, there were approximately 446 nurses, 59 dentists and 110 pharmacists per 100,000 population. In the same year, Italy had 842 public hospitals and 539 private ones, for a total of approximately 276,000 beds.
The infant mortality rate, 72.1 per 1,000 live births in 1948, decreased to 5.94 per 1,000 by 2005, when average life expectancy was estimated to be 79.68 years. As of 2002, birth and death rates were estimated respectively at 8.9 and 10.1 per 1,000 people. Approximately 78% of married women (ages 15 to 49) were using contraception.
In 1999, immunization rates for children up to one year of age were: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 95%, and measles, 70%. The major causes of death were circulatory system diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, and accidents and violence. As of 2004, there were approximately 140,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.50 per 100 adults in 2003. There were an estimated 1,000 deaths from AIDS in 2003.
Italy's housing and public building program was a major item in the general program of postwar reconstruction. Between 1940 and 1945, almost 20% of the habitable rooms in the country were destroyed. From June 1945 to June 1953, however, of the 6,407,000 rooms destroyed or severely damaged, 354,100 were rebuilt and 4,441,000 were repaired. Under a special housing program, originally instituted with funds from UNRRA and subsequently financed by employer and employee contributions, a total of 15 million rooms were constructed between 1953 and 1961, alleviating the nation's immediate housing problems.
In the 1980s 59% of all dwellings were owner occupied and 36% were rented. Almost 88% had indoor flush toilets, 99.5% had electricity, 59% had central heating, and 34% were heated by a stove or similar source. In 1999, 156,000 new dwellings were completed.
Education is free and compulsory for eight years (for students age 6 through 15), this includes five years of elementary school and three years of lower secondary school. Next, students may choose to attend a technical school, a vocational school, or one of several academic secondary schools, which offer a choice of specialized programs in classical, scientific, linguistic, and artistic studies. All secondary programs generally cover a five-year course of study.
In 2001, about 98% of children between the ages of three and five were enrolled in some type of preschool program. Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 99% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 91% of age-eligible students. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 11:1 in 2003.
There are 55 state universities and 23 other universities, colleges, and higher learning institutes, including the University of Bologna (founded in the 11th century), the oldest in Italy, and the University of Rome, which is the country's largest. In 2003, about 57% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in some type of higher education program; with 49% for men and 65% for women. The adult literacy rate for 2003 was estimated at about 98.6%.
As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 4.7% of GDP, or 10.3% of total government expenditures.
Italy, with its rich cultural heritage, is one of the world's great storehouses of books and art. Among its many of libraries, the most important are in the national library system, which contains two central libraries, in Florence (5.3 million volumes) and Rome (5 million), and four regional libraries, in Naples (1.8 million volumes), Milan (1 million), Turin (973,000) and Venice (917,000). The existence of two national central libraries, while most nations have one, came about through the history of the country, as Rome was once part of the Papal States and Florence was the first capital of the unified Kingdom of Italy. While both libraries are designated as copyright libraries, Florence now serves as the site designated for conservation and cataloging of Italian publications and the site in Rome catalogs foreign publications acquired by the state libraries. All of the national libraries are public. The Estense Library in Modena holds 425,600 volumes, including illuminated manuscripts from the 14th to 18th centuries. The university libraries in Bologna (1.1 million volumes) and Naples (750,000 volumes) each hold important collections. The Medici-Laurentian and Marucelliana (544,000) libraries in Florence and the Ambrosiana Library in Milan are also important research centers. Italy's public library system has about 84 branches and holds a total of 41 million volumes.
Italy, a world center of culture, history and art, has more than 3,000 museums. Among the more important are the Villa Giulia Museum and the National Gallery in Rome; the National Archeological Museum and the National Museum of San Martino in Naples; the National Museum in Palermo; the Galleria dell'Academia, and Uffizi, Medici, Pitti, Bargello, and St. Mark's Museums in Florence; the National Museum in Cagliari, Sardinia; the Brera Museum in Milan; the Museum of Siena; the Archaeological Museum of Syracuse (Siracusa); the National Museum of Urbino; and the Guggenheim Museum and the Academy and Libreria Sansoviniana in Venice. Venice also has the Jewish Museum, the Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art, a Natural History Museum, an Archeological Museum, and the Museum of Byzantine Icons. The Campidoglio Museum, the Museum of Villa Borghese, and the Palazzo Barberini Museum, all in Rome, each contain important works of art by Italian masters. Naples hosts the Museum of Ethnoprehistory of Castel Dell'ovo and museums of paleontology, mineralogy, anthropology, and astronomy. The National Museum of Science and technology in Milan has an extensive exhibit on Leonardo da Vinci, including models of some of the machines designed by the Renaissance man. A Goethe museum, with manuscripts and illustrations describing Goethe's travels in Italy, opened in 1997 in Rome. Villa Torlonia, Mussolini's home, was renovated in 2001 and opened as a museum.
Communication systems in Italy, including telephone, telex, and data services, are generally considered to be modern, well developed, and fully automated. In 2003, there were an estimated 484 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were approximately 1,018 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.
Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI), a government corporation, broadcasts on three channels. In 2004, there were an additional four national broadcast channels, three of which were operated by Mediaset, a company owned by Prime Minister Berlusconi. A 2004 media law initiated an intent to partially privatize RAI. Advertising appears on RAI television, two of the three RAI radio networks, and on many private stations. In 2003, there were an estimated 878 radios for every 1,000 people. The number of television sets was unavailable in the same survey. Also in 2003, there were 230.7 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 337 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were 1,994 secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.
As of 2002, there were about 90 daily newspapers in the country, but not all of them had national circulation. The major daily newspapers (with their political orientations and estimated circulations) are: La Repubblica (Rome), left-wing, 754,300 in 2004; Corriere della Sera (Milan), independent, 582,500 in 2002; La Stampa (Turin), liberal, 536,233 in 2004; Il Sole-24 Ore (a financial news paper from Milan), 397,000 in 2002; Il Messaggero (Rome), left of center, 337,157 in 2004; Il Resto del Carlino (Bologna), 251,173 in 2004; Il Giornale (Milan), independent, 215,000 in 2002; and L'Unità (Rome-Milan), Communist, 200,760 in 2002. Panorama is the most popular news weekly with a circulation of 545,500 in 2002. The periodical press is becoming increasingly important. Among the most important periodicals are the pictorial weeklies—Oggi, L'Europeo, Epoca, L'Espresso, and Gente. Famiglia Cristiana is a Catholic weekly periodical with a wide readership.
Italy enjoys a free press, with vigorous expression of all shades of opinion. The majority of papers are published in northern and central Italy, and circulation is highest in these areas. Rome and Milan are the most important publication centers. A considerable number of dailies are owned by the political parties, the Roman Catholic Church, and various economic groups. In general, the journalistic level of the Italian papers is high, and two dailies, Milan's Corriere della Sera and Turin's La Stampa, enjoy international respect.
The law provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the government is said to respect these rights in practice.
Italian society abounds with organizations of every description. Many of these are associated with or controlled by political parties, which have their ideological counterparts in labor organizations, agricultural associations, cultural groups, sports clubs, and cooperatives. Among the most important organizations are the National Confederation of Smallholders and the General Confederation of Italian Industry, which strongly influences economic policy. The General Confederation of Agriculture, the General Confederation of Trade, and the General Confederation of Master Craftsmen also are influential. There are chambers of commerce in most major cities. There are labor and trade unions and professional associations representing a wide variety of occupations. A large number of professional organizations are dedicated to research and education in specialized fields of medicine or for particular diseases and conditions.
Catholic Action and the Catholic Association of Italian Workers are the most prominent of the religious organizations. The international religious Order of St. Augustine and the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) are based in Rome.
A number of political and religious organizations sponsor youth chapters. Scouting programs and chapters of the YMCA/YWCA are also active for youth. Sports associations are plentiful and include such a variety of pastimes as tennis, badminton, tae kwon do, cricket, and football (soccer). National women's organizations include the National Italian Women's Council, the Italian Association for Women in Development, and the Italian Women's Center, based in Rome.
Among Italy's tourist attractions are the artistic and architectural treasures of Rome and Florence; the thousands of historic churches and galleries in smaller cities; the canals and palaces of Venice; the ruins of ancient Pompeii; the Shroud of Turin, reputed to be the burial cloth of Jesus; and the delicacies of northern Italian cooking, as well as the heartier fare of the south. Tourists are also lured by Italy's many beaches and by excellent Alpine skiing. Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports, including football (soccer), bowling, tennis, track and field, and swimming. Italy won the World Cup in soccer three times, in 1934 (as host), 1938, and 1982. Cortina d'Ampezzo, in the Dolomites, was the site of the 1956 Winter Olympics. Rome hosted the Summer Olympics in 1960. Turin was the host the 2006 Winter Olympics.
A valid passport is necessary to travel to Italy. For stays of up to 90 days a visa is not required. Within eight days all travelers must register with local police and obtain a visitor's permit. Proof of sufficient funds for the visit may also be required.
Tourism, a major industry in Italy, brought in 39,604,118 visitors in 2003. There were 999,722 hotel rooms with 1,969,495 beds and an occupancy rate of 39%. Tourism expenditure receipts totaled $32.5 billion.
In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the daily expenses for staying in Rome at $490; in Florence, $437; in Milan, $442; and in Venice, $341.
The Italian peninsula has been at the heart of Western cultural development at least since Roman times. Important poets of the Roman republic and empire were Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus, 96?–55 bc), Gaius Valerius Catullus (84?–54 bc), Vergil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70–19 bc), Horace (Quintius Horatius Flaccus, 65–8 bc), and Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 bc–ad 18). Also prominent in Latin literature were the orator-rhetorician Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 bc); the satirists Gaius Petronius Arbiter (d.ad 66) and Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis, ad 60?–140?); the prose writers Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, ad 23–79), his nephew Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, ad 61?–113?), and Lucius Apuleius (ad 124?–170?); and the historians Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus, 86–34 bc), Livy (Titus Livius, 59 bc–ad 17), Cornelius Tacitus (ad 55?–117), and Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, ad 69?–140). Gaius Julius Caesar (100?–44 bc), renowned as a historian and prose stylist, is even more famous as a military and political leader. The first of the Roman emperors was Octavian (Gaius Octavianus, 63 bc–ad 14), better known by the honorific Augustus. Noteworthy among later emperors are the tyrants Caligula (Gaius Caesar Germanicus, ad 12–41) and Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, ad 37–68), the philosopher-statesman Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Annius Verius, ad 121–180), and Constantine I (the Great; Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, b. Moesia, 280?–337), who was the first to accept Christianity. No history of the Christian Church during the medieval period would be complete without mention of such men of Italian birth as St. Benedict of Nursia (480?–543?), Pope Gregory I (St. Gregory the Great, 540?–604), St. Francis of Assisi (1182?–1226), and the philosopher-theologians St. Anselm (1033?–1109) and St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–74).
No land has made a greater contribution to the visual arts. In the 13th and 14th centuries there were the sculptors Niccolò Pisano (1220–84) and his son Giovanni (1245–1314); the painters Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo, 1240–1302?), Duccio di Buoninsegna (1255?–1319), and Giotto di Bondone (1276?–1337); and, later in the period, the sculptor Andrea Pisano (1270?–1348). Among the many great artists of the 15th century—the golden age of Florence and Venice—were the architects Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446), Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378–1455), and Leone Battista Alberti (1404–72); the sculptors Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, 1386?–1466), Luca della Robbia (1400–1482), Desiderio da Settignano (1428–64), and Andrea del Verrocchio (1435–88); and the painters Fra Angelico (Giovanni de Fiesole, 1387–1455), Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni, 1392–1450?), Uccello (Paolo di Dono, 1397–1475), Masaccio (Tomasso di Giovanni di Simone Guidi, 1401–28?), Fra Filippo Lippi (1406?–69), Piero della Francesca (Pietro de' Franceschi, 1416?–92), Giovanni Bellini (1430?–1516), Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506), Antonio dei Pollaiuolo (1433–98), Luca Signorelli (1441?–1523), Perugino (Pietro Vannucci, 1446–1524), Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro Filipepi, 1447?–1510), Ghirlandaio (Domenico Currado Bigordi, 1449–94), and Vittore Carpaccio (1450–1522).
During the 16th century, the High Renaissance, Rome shared with Florence the leading position in the world of the arts. Major masters included the architects Bramante (Donato d'Agnolo, 1444?–1514) and Andrea Palladio (1508–80); the sculptor Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571); the painter-designer-inventor Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519); the painter-sculptor-architect-poet Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564); and the painters Titian (Tiziano Vecelli, 1477–1576), Giorgione da Castelfranco (Giorgio Barbarelli, 1478?–1510), Raphael (Raffaelo Sanzio, 1483–1520), Andrea del Sarto (1486–1531), and Correggio (Antonio Allegri, 1494–1534). Among the great painters of the late Renaissance were Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti, 1518–94) and Veronese (Paolo Cagliari, 1528–88). Giorgio Vasari (1511–74) was a painter, architect, art historian, and critic.
Among the leading artists of the Baroque period were the sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680) and the painters Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1560?–1609), Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1690–1770), Canaletto (Antonio Canal, 1697–1768), Pietro Longhi (1702–85), and Francesco Guardi (1712–93). Leading figures in modern painting were Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916), Amedeo Modigliani (1884–1920), Giorgio di Chirico (b.Greece, 1888–1978), and Giorgio Morandi (1890–1964). A noted contemporary architect was Pier Luigi Nervi (1891–1979).
Music, an integral part of Italian life, owes many of its forms as well as its language to Italy. The musical staff was either invented or established by Guido d'Arezzo (995?–1050). A leading 14th-century composer was the blind Florentine organist Francesco Landini (1325–97). Leading composers of the High Renaissance and early Baroque periods were Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525–94); the madrigalists Luca Marenzio (1533–99) and Carlo Gesualdo, prince of Venosa (1560?–1613); the Venetian organists Andrea Gabrieli (1510?–86) and Giovanni Gabrieli (1557–1612); Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), the founder of modern opera; organist-composer Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643); and Giacomo Carissimi (1605–74). Important figures of the later Baroque era were Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713), Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1743), Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725), and his son Domenico Scarlatti (1683–1757). Italian-born Luigi Cherubini (1760–1842) was the central figure of French music in the Napoleonic era, while Antonio Salieri (1750–1825) and Gasparo Spontini (1774–1851) played important roles in the musical life of Vienna and Berlin, respectively. Composers of the 19th century who made their period the great age of Italian opera were Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (1792–1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848), Vincenzo Bellini (1801–35), and, above all, Giuseppe Verdi (1831–1901). Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840) was the greatest violinist of his time. More recent operatic composers include Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1853–1919), Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924), and Pietro Mascagni (1863–1945). Renowned operatic singers include Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), Luisa Tetrazzini (1874–1940), Titta Ruffo (1878–1953), Amelita Galli-Curci (1882–1963), Beniamino Gigli (1890–1957), Ezio Pinza (1892–1957), and Luciano Pavarotti (b.1935). Ferruccio Busoni (1866–1924), Ottorino Respighi (1879–1936), Luigi Dallapiccola (1904–75), Luigi Nono (1924-1990), and Luciano Berio (1925–2003) are major 20th-century composers. Arturo Toscanini (1867–1957) is generally regarded as one of the greatest operatic and orchestral conductors of his time; two noted contemporary conductors are Claudio Abbado (b.1933) and Riccardo Muti (b.1941). The foremost makers of stringed instruments were Gasparo da Salò (Bertolotti, 1540–1609) of Brescia, Niccolò Amati (1596–1684), Antonius Stradivarius (Antonio Stradivari, 1644–1737), and Giuseppe Bartolommeo Guarneri (del Gesù, 1687?–1745) of Cremona. Bartolommeo Cristofori (1655–1731) invented the pianoforte.
Italian literature and literary language began with Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), author of The Divine Comedy, and subsequently included Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca, 1304–74), Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–75), Lodovico Ariosto (1474–1533), Pietro Aretino (1492–1556), and Torquato Tasso (1544–95). An outstanding writer of the Baroque period was Metastasio (Pietro Trapassi, 1698–1782), and Carlo Goldoni (1707–93) was the most prominent playwright of the 18th century. The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio Alfieri (1749–1803), Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), and Giacomo Leopardi (1798–1837). Alessandro Manzoni (1785–1873) was the principal Italian novelist of the 19th century, and Francesco de Sanctis (1817–83) the greatest literary critic. Among the Italian literary figures of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Giosuè Carducci (1835–1907; Nobel Prize winner, 1906), Giovanni Verga (1840–1922), Gabriele d'Annunzio (1863–1938), Luigi Pirandello (1867–1936; Nobel Prize winner, 1934), and Grazia Deledda (1875–1936; Nobel Prize winner, 1926) achieved international renown. Leading writers of the postwar era are Ignazio Silone (Secondo Tranquilli, 1900–78), Alberto Moravia (Pincherle, 1907–1990), Italo Calvino (1923–87), Umberto Eco (b.1932), and the poets Salvatore Quasimodo (1908–68; Nobel Prize winner, 1959) and Eugenio Montale (1896–1981; Nobel Prize winner, 1975). Outstanding film directors are Italian-born Frank Capra (1897–1991), Vittorio de Sica (1902–74), Luchino Visconti (1906–76), Roberto Rossellini (1906–77), Michelangelo Antonioni (b.1912), Federico Fellini (1920–93), Sergio Leone (1929–1989), Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922–75), Franco Zeffirelli (b.1923), Lina Wertmüller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg, b.1928), and Bernardo Bertolucci (b.1940). Famous film stars include Italian-born Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Alfonso Raffaele Pierre Philibert Guglielmi, 1895–1926), Marcello Mastroianni (1924–1996), and Sophia Loren (Scicoloni, b.1934).
In philosophy, exploration, and statesmanship, Italy has produced many world-renowned figures: the traveler Marco Polo (1254?–1324); the statesman and patron of the arts Cosimo de' Medici (1389–1464); the statesman, clergyman, and artistic patron Roderigo Borgia (Lanzol y Borja, b. Spain, 1431?–1503), who became Pope Alexander VI (r.1492–1503); the soldier, statesman, and artistic patron Lorenzo de' Medici, the son of Cosimo (1449–92); the explorer John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto, 1450?–98?); the explorer Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo or Cristóbal Colón, 1451–1506); the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512), after whom the Americas are named; the admiral and statesman Andrea Doria (1468?–1540); Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), author of The Prince and the outstanding political theorist of the Renaissance; the statesman and clergyman Cesare Borgia (1475?–1507), the son of Rodrigo; the explorer Sebastian Cabot (1476?–1557), the son of John; Baldassare Castiglione (1478–1529), author of The Courtier; the historian Francesco Guicciardini (1483–1540); the explorer Giovanni da Verrazano (1485?–1528?); the philosopher Giordano Bruno (1548?–1600); the political philosopher Giovanni Battista Vico (1668–1744); the noted jurist Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (1735–94); Giuseppe Mazzini (1805–72), the leading spirit of the Risorgimento; Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810–61), its prime statesman; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807–82), its foremost soldier and man of action. Notable intellectual and political leaders of more recent times include the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1907, Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833–1918); the sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923); the political theorist Gaetano Mosca (1858–1941); the philosopher, critic, and historian Benedetto Croce (1866–1952); the educator Maria Montessori (1870–1952); Benito Mussolini (1883–1945), the founder of Fascism and dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943; Carlo Sforza (1873–1952) and Alcide De Gasperi (1881–1954), famous latter-day statesmen; and the Communist leaders Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937), Palmiro Togliatti (1893–1964), and Enrico Berlinguer (1922–84).
Italian scientists and mathematicians of note include Leonardo Fibonacci (1180?–1250?), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Evangelista Torricelli (1608–47), Francesco Redi (1626?–97), Marcello Malpighi (1628–94), Luigi Galvani (1737–98), Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–99), Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), Amedeo Avogadro (1776–1856), Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826–1910), Camillo Golgi (1843–1926; Nobel Prize winner, 1906), Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937; Nobel Prize winner, 1909), Enrico Fermi (1901–54; Nobel Prize winner, 1938), Giulio Natta (1903–79; Nobel Prize winner, 1963), Italian-American Emilio Gino Segrè (1905–1989; Nobel Prize winner, 1959), Daniel Bovet (1907–1992; Nobel Prize winner, 1957), Renato Dulbecco (b.1914; Nobel Prize winner, 1975), Carlo Rubbia (b.1934; Nobel Prize winner, 1984), and Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-1989; Nobel Prize winner, 1986), and Italian-American Riccardo Giacconi (b.1931; Nobel Prize winner, 2002).
Italy has no territories or colonies.
Andrews, Geoff. Not a Normal Country: Italy after Berlusconi. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Pluto Press, 2005.
Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Findlen, Paula (ed.). The Italian Renaissance: The Essential Readings. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2002.
Gardner, Richard N. Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War. Lanham, Md.: Rowan and Littlefield, 2005.
Ginsborg, Paul. A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–1988. London: Penguin, 1990.
Hearder, Harry. Italy: A Short History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Moliterno, Gino (ed.). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Torriglia, Anna Maria. Broken Time, Fragmented Space: A Cultural Map for Postwar Italy. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
Wessels, Wolfgang, Andreas Maurer, and Jürgan Mittag (eds.). Fifteen into One?: the European Union and Its Member States. New York: Palgrave, 2003.
"Italy." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
"Italy." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Bari, Bergamo, Brescia, Bressanone, Cagliari, Catania, Messina, Modena, Padua, Parma, Siena, Syracuse
This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report 2001 for Italy. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http://travel.state.gov/ for the most recent information available on travel to this country.
Like the Roman god Janus, Italy wears two faces. One, soft with the patina of age, looks back on a glorious history—the awesome monuments of Imperial Rome, the ruins of Pompeii, the magnificence of canal-fretted Venice or colorful Florence, cradle of the Renaissance. The other face, shiny new, reflects the modernity of a nation surging with superhighways, busy factories, and skyscrapers.
Northern Italy, center of the nation's economic life, sprawls busily across the Po River plain. Industries sprout alongside time-worn medieval towns, and the alluvial soils make the area one of the richest agriculturally in southern Europe. Terraces on mountain slopes along the northern border grow grapes for wines and mulberry trees for leaves to feed silk-worms.
Central Italy is dominated by Apen-nine ridges. Once they helped bar unity; even now a village dialect may not be well understood only a few miles away. This is the nation's heartland; the region of Dante, Saint Francis, and Leonardo.
Southern Italy, once poverty ridden and ravaged by malaria and erosion, rebounds under reclamation projects and expanding industry. Pacing its life is sunny Naples, the city of Vesuvius, of Capri, and Amalfi, of effervescent people who sing when they are happy, sad, or in love.
Italy is one of the most attractive assignments in the Foreign Service. The country boasts not only a rich cultural and historical tradition, but also enjoys a varied, pleasant climate. Italians are favorably disposed toward Americans, partly for historical reasons, but mainly because of their general appreciation of things American. Americans generally enjoy Italy, though some find it more difficult than they expect. There is a chaotic element to life here that becomes immediately visible in street traffic, in bank lines, and in getting repairs done on an emergency basis. Urban air pollution has become a serious problem, particularly in Milan, Rome, and Naples.
Italy, as other Western democracies, currently faces striking economic and political challenges. It must reduce the economic differences between the wealthy north and the poorer south and control organized crime. In recent years, significant steps have been taken to deal with these problems, but they stubbornly persist.
Approached with a spirit of adventure, humor, and patience, a tour in Italy is sure to be rewarding, both personally and professionally.
Rome, one of the world's most famous cities, has been the capital of Italy since the nation's unification in 1870. It surrounds the small independent Vatican State, worldwide capital of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome is located about halfway down the Italian Peninsula, 15 miles inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, astride the Tiber River.
Although the seven original hills of the city are small (roughly 44-50 feet above sea level), some of the hills on the west bank of the Tiber, such as Monte Mario (elevation 462 feet), are considerably higher.
A city of about 2.6 million people, Rome is primarily a government and commercial center, though with growing industrial presence. It remains a city deeply imbued with a sense of history. Nevertheless, it is also a modern city with all the modern amenities, and difficulties.
Rome is an international capital. Not only does it host the world headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, it is also the home to the Food and Agricultural agencies of the United Nations (FAO). A sizable foreign community is in Rome. Approximately 17,000 Americans permanently live in the consular district, which includes the regions of Lazio (Latium), Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria.
A large variety of fresh produce is available locally. Prices and availability of particular items vary greatly with the season. Good beef can be hard to find, but veal is plentiful. Meats and poultry are much more expensive than in the U.S., and the meats are of different cuts. Groceries are available in great variety, including typically American cereals, crackers, and cheeses. Local bread keeps only a short time because it lacks preservatives.
Men: American clothing is practical and satisfactory. Summer suits of synthetic materials can be worn here 6 months a year. Winter suits, a medium-weight overcoat, and a raincoat are also needed. Sports jackets are very useful. Tuxedos are worn for formal nights at the opera. Formal wear can be rented in Rome.
Good ready-made suits are available, as are excellent tailors and a good selection of materials. Although prices vary greatly, the best tailoring is cheaper and the best material more expensive than in the U.S. Custom-made shirts of cotton and silk, worn by well-dressed Italians, are expensive. Underclothing, socks, and ready-made shirts are expensive. Fine silk ties and scarves, leather gloves, coats, and bags are a good buy.
Although Americans generally prefer American styling for their shoes, Italian shoes are considered attractive and are available in a wide range of styles and sizes.
Women: Wool or knit dresses and suits are popular and practical in Italy most of the year. American cottons are ideal for the summer. Cocktail tail and short dinner dresses are worn frequently to the opera, concerts and parties. Sportswear of all kinds is useful.
Dress shops are abundant in Italy, but the selection found in any one shop is limited. Clothing is in high fashion and made mostly of natural fibers (all wool, cotton, or silk). Casual wash-and-wear summer fashions are hard to find (i.e., knit tops and skirts). Winter skirts and sweaters are abundant, of good quality, and are reasonably priced. Remember that sizes and cuts are different and are not always to American taste. Good-quality undergarments are usually more expensive than similar items in the U.S. Some American brands are found locally.
Italian women occasionally have clothes made. This is expensive, but it assures quality. Quality materials are expensive, and simple cotton dresses may often cost as much as silk dresses. Silks and woolens, or blends, are beautiful and of good quality.
Italian shoes are stylish and attractive, but sizes generally vary by length only and do not always fit American feet. A few stores carry American-last shoes. Good comfortable walking shoes are hard to find, but all-leather boots are abundant.
Hats are seldom worn. Several hat shops in Italy sell ready made or made to order hats at prices comparable to those in the U.S. Ladies gloves and other leather goods are an Italian specialty and are generally cheaper than those in the U.S. Designer items from houses such as Gucci, Fendi and Valentino are expensive but cheaper than in the U.S.
Children: Beautiful handmade baby clothing and children's party dresses are abundant but expensive. Play clothes for children under 10 are available, but also expensive. Practical, inexpensive items, such as no-iron polyester/cotton clothing, are generally not available locally.
Supplies and Services
Adequate laundry and dry cleaning services are available, although not as numerous as in the U.S. Dry cleaning is expensive. Rome has both laundromats and coin-operated dry cleaning machines; however, paid attendants operate the machines with varying reliability. Shoe repair prices are comparable to those in the U.S. and the work is very good. Excellent hairdressers and barbers are available, but they are expensive by American standards. Several have English-speaking hairstylists. One should inquire about expertise with different hair-styles and types. It is possible to have an American manicure and pedicure.
Repairs to American radios, sound systems and electrical appliances are not always dependable because most local repairmen are not familiar with equipment made for the American market. It helps to have circuit diagrams or maintenance instructions for each item. Other repair services are generally good, but substantial effort may be required to locate the particular service needed.
Inexpensive plug adapters that eliminate the need for changing American plugs are sold locally.
Domestic help is expensive, particularly if you are seeking experienced personnel. Italian workers are rare and the majority does not speak English. There are many third-country nationals available. The mandatory requirement for locally hired non-EU household workers is that they possess a valid sojourn permit for work in Italy.
Household worker employment is governed by specific Italian laws and by a National Contract for Household Workers, which is reviewed and renewed every four years. Italian law requires that employers pay several benefits, including health and social security insurance, food/lodging when appropriate, annual leave, 13th month bonus and termination pay. The cost of these benefits may equal the worker's basic salary. This applies to_ all workers (EU or non-EU citizens) regardless of whether they are temporary, full time, or part time. Workers' rights are based on Italian standards that are legally enforceable and failure to observe these basic standards can lead to unpleasant situations for the employer.
Churches, synagogues and mosques in Rome with services in English include American Episcopal, Anglican, Baptist, Christian Scientist, Evangelical Assembly of God, Methodist, Mormon, Roman Catholic and Presbyterian. Services of other faiths include Bahai, German Lutheran, Greek, Seventh-day Adventist, Italian Waldensian Protestant, Jehovah's Witness, Russian Orthodox, Islamic and Jewish.
The following schools should be contacted as far in advance as possible for registration. Most schools provide student lunch facilities, athletic and recreational programs and bus service. The school year begins in September and ends in June. Good American, British, French and German schools are available. Private schools, including English and French, enroll an increasing number of Italian students because of disciplinary and curriculum reform problems in Italian public schools.
American Overseas School of Rome (AOSR) , Via Cassia 811, Rome 00189. Tel: 06 3326 4841, Fax: 3326 2608, E-mail: [email protected]. Nondenominational, coeducational day school offering instruction in the American educational system (kindergarten through grade 12.) Instruction is by a multinational but predominantly American faculty. The school program is primarily designed to prepare students for American universities. Credits are transferable to U.S. schools and colleges. The school has boarding facilities available for high school students at the Villa St. Dominique. Middle school students can board with local families. Preschool is available for 3-and 4-year-olds.
Marymount International School , Via di Villa Lauchli 180, Rome 00191. Tel: 06 3630 1742, Fax: 06 3630 1738, E-mail: [email protected]. An independent private day school is operated by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary. It follows the same course system and offers the same credits as their school in Tarrytown, N.Y, which is guided by the N.Y State Board of Regents program. It also offers the International Baccalaureate program. The faculty is primarily non-clerical and international, drawing many teachers from Ireland and Great Britain. Instruction is offered in English to girls and boys from kindergarten through grade 12. Early childhood classes are available for 3-and 4-year-olds.
St. Stephen's Schoo l, Via Aven-tina 3, Rome. Tel: 06 575 0605, Fax: 06 574 1941. A private international high school accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, it offers a program in English designed to meet the entrance requirements of U.S. and European universities through the International Baccalaureate program to boys and girls in grades 9 through 12. Faculty is primarily American. Boarding facilities are available for both boys and girls. The school does not provide bus service for day students.
St. George's British International School , Via Cassia Km. 16, (La Storta) 00123 Rome. Tel: 06 3089 0141, Fax: 06 3089 2490, E-mail: [email protected] Nondenominational English day school, offering instruction in English to boys and girls from kindergarten through high school. Faculty is British and the curriculum is the standard general college preparatory program designed to prepare students for British schools and universities. For students in the International Baccalaureate program, it is adaptable for transfer to American schools and universities.
CORE-The Cooperative School , Via Orvino 20, 00199 Rome. Tel/Fax: 06 8621 1614. This school was established in 1983 by a group of British-trained teachers and was formed as a cooperative. It is open to children of all nationalities from ages 3 to 11. All lessons are in English, although an optional Italian program provides for those who wish to enter the Italian state system at a later date. The curriculum emphasizes the basic skills, with each CORE teacher specializing in a subject that they teach throughout the school. Music, art, physical education and drama are part of their program.
Ambrit Rome International School , Via Filippo Tajani, 50 00149 Rome. Tel: 06 559 5305, Fax 06 559 5309, E-mail: [email protected]. Providing an international education based on American and British approaches and techniques, the school's programs of study and activities foster the development of the whole child with opportunities for growth in all areas. Awareness and understanding of different cultures is encouraged, especially an appreciation of Italy, its language and its culture. Foreign language instruction is introduced at any early age.
Special Educational Opportunities American University of Rome , (300 students) Via Pietro Roselli 4, 00153 Roma. Tel: 06-58330919, Fax: 06-5833-0992, E-mail: [email protected]. Instruction is in English. AUR offers bachelor-degree programs in business administration, international relations, interdisciplinary studies, and Italian studies and an associate degree in liberal arts. The American University of Rome is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools and licensed by the Education Licensure Commission of the District of Columbia. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several American colleges and universities.
John Cabot University , (400 students) Via della Lungara 233, 00165 Roma. Tel: 066819121; Fax: 06683-2088, E-mail: [email protected]. Instruction is in English. John Cabot University offers bachelor degree programs in business administration, international affairs art history and English language literature. Some associate degree programs are also available. John Cabot is affiliated with Hiram College in Ohio, which is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. All courses at John Cabot are transferable to Hiram College, which issues official transcripts for John Cabot students. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several American colleges and universities.
The Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) , Via Belmeloro 11, 40126 Bologna. Tel: 05-1232185, Fax: 05-1228-505, email:[email protected]. Instruction is in English. The Bologna Center is an integral part of The Johns Hopkins University's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) in Washing-ton, D.C. The center offers an interdisciplinary program of graduate studies in international relations. Courses are given in international economics, European studies (history, politics and culture), international law, U.S. foreign policy, and related topics (demography, the environment. and human resources).
Degrees earned at the Center are granted by the Johns Hopkins University. Degrees offered: diploma in international relations (one year), M.A. in international relations (two-years, with year two at SAIS in Washington), master of international public policy (MIPP-one-year program for mid-career professionals), and M.A. in international relations (two-year program for non-Americans in Bologna).
St. John's University , Oratorio San Pietro, Via Santa Maria Media-trice 24, 00165 Roma. Tel: 06636-937, Fax: 06636-901. Internet: http://www.stjohns.edu/academics/cba/graduate/rome.html. Instruction is in English. The Graduate Center of St. John's University, located at the Oratorio San Pietro in Rome, offers programs of study in business administration, church administration, and international relations. The M.B.A. program is fully accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (A.A.-C.S.B.) and offers a full-time and part-time American M.B.A. with a concentration in international finance. The church administration program began in 1996; the M.A. program in international relations began in 1997. This is a program of St. John's University in New York.
Almost any form of sports activity can be enjoyed in the vicinity of Rome, including golf, tennis, skiing, swimming, riding, boating, bicycling, hunting, and fishing. Spectator sports include soccer, boxing, horse racing, and auto and motorcycle racing.
Much of Rome's sports activity is organized around private clubs. Most memberships in private clubs are expensive and are not refundable. The Acqua Santa Golf Club, 5 miles from the city, has an 18-hole course. The Olgiata Country Club, about 10 miles north of the city, has a 27-hole golf course, swimming pool, tennis courts, riding horses, and a fine clubhouse. The membership fee is very high and you need a club member sponsor.
Several other tennis and swimming clubs are open to Americans. It should be noted that all sports/recreational facilities are very expensive to join.
Good sports equipment is available locally.
Touring and Outdoor Activities
An incredible number and variety of places of historical and artistic interest are found in and around Rome. Commercial and cultural organizations arrange tours and visits daily. Tours are conducted in a variety of languages, including English.
Naples is less than 3 hours by car and Florence is almost as close. Rome itself has major monuments and archeological and historical sites. These exist in greater richness and variety in Italy than in any other country. The many good guidebooks to Italy available locally or in the U.S. give details on tourist attractions.
Many recreation areas and campgrounds are found in the countryside. Good, but often crowded, beaches with cabanas and some beach equipment for rent lie within 20 miles of Rome and can be reached by public transportation. To the south, 2 hours or less by car, are beautiful and spacious beaches. Terminillo and Ovindoli, 2 hours by car or bus, are the nearest ski resorts with tow systems and equipment for rent. Some hunting and fishing is available in the countryside around Rome, but most hunting is generally limited to invitation-only private reserves. Horses are available from several riding academies in Rome at reasonable prices.
Hikers and mountain climbers will find a wealth of possibilities in the nearby Apennines. The Club Alpino Italiano offers 1-day trips for mountain hiking and, in winter, cross-country skiing.
Rome has many parks for children. The large, beautiful Villa Borghese park has a zoo, a small theater where children's movies are shown in Italian, Punch and Judy shows, pony rides, small bicycles for rent, a lake with boats for rent, and a large playground.
Rome offers a variety of entertainment facilities appropriate to a major capital city. Knowledge of Italian is valuable. Movie theaters show current Italian, American, and other films with Italian soundtracks. One or two theaters offer French, English, and American films with original soundtracks.
Several theaters present classics, modern plays, and revues, usually in Italian. Rome's formal opera season opens in December and continues through May, with excellent productions and performances by leading Italian artists. During the summer, opera moves outdoors to the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla and Ostia Antica. Concert performances are given frequently during the winter season; outdoor performances are held in summer, usually in the late evening. Prices for most of these musical events are reasonable. Visiting theatrical groups, as well as local pageantry, offer additional interest.
Rome has many discos and a few nightclubs. Good restaurants are plentiful, some steeped in atmosphere and others featuring famous food specialities. Many places offer outdoor dining in summer. Meals in fine restaurants can be expensive, but the discerning diner can often find a good buy as well as a good meal.
Rome has a variety of American organizations for men and women. Several hold monthly luncheons. Cub Scout and Brownie packs and Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops are supported by the American community.
Described by Petrarch as the "Pearl of Cities," Florence's glorious past and dynamic present never cease to fascinate students and visitors from all parts of the world. The splendors of the Italian Renaissance are seen not only in its famous churches, palaces, and museums, but are also kept alive in the tradition of crafts-manship, which makes Florence and the region of Tuscany one of the world's major artisan centers.
Florence is in the heart of a rich agricultural region whose principal products are cereal grains, vegetables, olives, and the famous Chianti wines. The city has a population of 500,000. About 30,000 are non-Italian residents, mainly other Europeans, Americans and Chinese citizens. Most members of the foreign colony (except the Chinese) and the Italians who move in this circle speak English. Very few in the general Italian population, however, and virtually no Italian officials speak or understand English. Shopkeepers, travel agencies, and hotels catering to tourists have English-speaking personnel.
The following churches have services in English: Christian Science Church, Via Baracca 150; Convento Ognissanti (All Saints Catholic), Borgo Ognissanti, 42; St. James American Church (Protestant Episcopal), Via Rucellai, 15; St. Marks (Anglican), Via Maggio, 16.
The American International School of Florence offers an American curriculum as well as an international baccalaureate program for children from preschool through grade 12, with preparation for American schools and colleges. Transportation is available. The address is Villa La Tavernule, 23/25 Via del Carota, 50012 Bagno a Ripoli (Firenze). Tel: 640033. Information on tuition and other charges can be obtained by writing directly to the school.
Florence also has a number of good private and state-run nursery and elementary schools. Italian is the language of instruction in most of these schools, although a few teach in French or German. Many schools provide bus transportation at an additional charge. A number of American parents have found Italian public schools very satisfactory, especially in the lower grades.
No English-language schools are in Florence for children with learning disabilities. Italian schools include handicapped children in classes with regular students under the guidance of specially trained teachers.
Special Educational Opportunities
Over 30 American colleges and universities, including some of the most prestigious, conduct a rich and wide range of full semester and summer programs in Florence and in other cities.
Several excellent schools in the Florence area, graduate and undergraduate, specialize in the fine arts, Italian language and culture, and music. These include the Pius XII Institute, the University of Florence Center of Culture for Foreigners, the Luigi Cherubini Conservatory of Music, the Instituto Statale d'Arte, and the Accademia delle Belle Arti. Tutoring is available in art, music, and Italian language.
There is ample opportunity to enjoy sports in the Florence area. Golf, tennis, swimming, riding, bicycling, hunting, and fishing are the most popular participant sports. Spectator sports are mostly limited to horse-racing and soccer.
A great deal of sports activity centers around private clubs. The Ugolino Golf Club, about a 30-minute drive from the city, has an excellent 18-hole course and swimming pool. The Circolo del Tennis offers good tennis courts and a small swimming pool. Children under 10 are not allowed to use the pool. Membership in both clubs is rather expensive.
Public sports facilities are limited to a number of children's playgrounds and a few large public swimming pools. Horseback riding is also available in and near Cascine Park.
Good sports equipment is available locally, but usually at higher than U.S. prices.
Touring and Outdoor Activities
The hills and mountains surrounding Florence are excellent for hiking, picnicking, and camping. Fishing and small game hunting are also popular in this area. In winter, there is skiing at nearby Abetone and Vallombrosa. Equipment can be rented at moderate rates at both places.
Seaside resorts and public beaches dot the Tyrrhenian coast within easy weekend distance of Florence. Closest resort areas are concentrated around the towns of Forte dei Marmi, Viareggio, and Tirrenia.
Florence and the surrounding countryside are rich in points of historical and cultural interest. Besides the world-famous museums, churches, and palaces in the city proper, hundreds of charming and historically important villas, monasteries, and churches are within its environs.
Bologna, Siena, Pisa, Lucca, and a number of smaller towns of great cultural interest are all within easy driving distance. In addition, excellent autostrade and train service link Florence with most major Italian cities, making them accessible for weekend trips.
Many good camp sites with facilities are open during the summer throughout Italy.
Each season a number of worthwhile cultural and artistic events happen in Florence. The city's musical life reaches its high point in May and June with the Maggio Musicale featuring concerts and operas by world-famous performers and conductors. In addition, a winter opera season is followed by a concert season and many other musical events throughout the year. Open-air concerts are given at the amphitheater in Fiesole and in various locations in Florence during the summer. Plays are occasionally performed at the city's two theaters, the Pergola and the Verdi, always in Italian.
Movies are very popular with Italians, and the city has many cinemas. Foreign films are shown dubbed in Italian. There is a small English-language cinema that has films most of the year.
Florence is the site of a number of important fairs, including a crafts fair, a biennial international antiques fair, a gift fair, and others. Florence and other nearby towns have traditional pageants and festivals, with participants in medieval costume, held in the spring, summer, and fall. Among the most important are the Scoppio del Carro and Calcio in Costume in Florence, the Palio in Siena, and the Giostra del Saraceno in Arezzo.
Florence has many bookstores, some with a good selection of books in English. The American Library of the University of Florence and the library at St. James American Church both have many general interest books in English.
A wide selection of music, camera equipment, and film is available locally at prices generally higher than in the U.S.
Florence and the other cities of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna have many good restaurants, ranging from the high-priced deluxe to the inexpensive, simple establishments called "trattorie." The nightclubs of Florence are few and expensive.
The city has an active American community, and ample opportunities for to make rewarding friendships with other Americans in the area. Much of the charitable and social activity for Americans centers around the St. James American Church and the American International League. Other American organizations with primarily Italian memberships include the American Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Clubs, and Lions Clubs.
The opportunities for forming friendships with Italians and nationals of other countries are limited only by the initiative of the individual. The many social, cultural, and charitable organizations in Florence offer occasions for meeting Italians. In addition, several foreign cultural organizations, including the British Institute, the Institute Francais de Grenoble, and the Kunsthistorisches Institut, present opportunities for getting acquainted with other foreign resident communities in Florence.
Milan is a city of contrasts. Old buildings, some dating from the Middle Ages, line the narrow winding streets of the central portion of the city, while modern glass and marble skyscrapers and wide boulevards characterize the newer areas.
The city has a bustling atmosphere reminiscent of New York or Chicago and has been called the least Italian of all Italian cities. It is surrounded by an extensive and growing industrial area. A number of satellite cities have been built, many characterized by two-to six-story medium-priced apartment complexes interspersed with park and garden areas. Milan itself is a city of apartment buildings; most range from six to eight stories. Practically all Milanese live in apartments, and the American one-family house with its yard and garden is found only in the suburbs. An extensive and growing industrial area surrounds Milan. A number of satellite cities have sprung up, characterized by two-to-six story, medium priced apartment complexes interspresed with park and garden areas.
Milan is not a tourist city. While probably 1.5 million tourists (10%-15% are Americans) travel through Milan, most are on their way to another destination. Many stop briefly to see the principal tourist attractions: the Milan Cathedral (Duomo), an amazing structure in flamboyant Gothic and the third largest cathedral in the world; the Brera Museum, one of Italy's outstanding galleries; and the Santa Maria delle Grazie church, the refectory of which contains Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper. Another major attraction is a performance at the world-famous La Scala opera house.
For the resident, one of the finest aspects of life in Milan is its proximity to the Italian lake district, Alpine ski and summer resorts, the Italian Riviera and Adriatic beaches, and the tourist centers of Florence and Venice. By train, car, or plane, practically all of continental Europe can be reached in a day's travel time.
Milan is at about the same latitude as Ottawa, Canada, but the climate is temperate. Winter temperatures average 40°F-50°F; summer temperatures 65 ° F-85 ° F. Milan receives about 30 inches of rainfall a year; snow usually appears only a few times from December to March. Bring year-round clothing for the whole family, including gloves, hats, scarves for winter, and lightweight clothing for summer.
The headquarters of many of the largest Italian industrial firms are located in Milan, along with the headquarters of many of Italy's leading industries, trade associations, and largest banks. The city hosts many specialized trade fairs, national and international, throughout the year.
Milanis home to one of Europe's largest trade exhibition centers, the Milan fairgrounds. The U.S. Department of Commerce frequently holds exhibits of U.S. products and services at the trade fairs staged in Milan.
The permanent foreign colony in the area is substantial, including at least 5,000 Americans and a slightly smaller number of British nationals. Swiss, German, and Austrian nationals compose a large part of the foreign population.
The amenities of urban life—electricity, gas, central heating, elevator service, garbage collection, telephone service—are almost on a par with those in the U.S.
In recent years, Milan has become one of the most expensive cities in the world, and almost everything on the economy is more expensive than in the U.S.
Most Milan churches are Roman Catholic and use the Ambrosian rite. The Santa Maria del Carmine Catholic Church holds services in English. Other Catholic churches hold only Italian-language services, although the cathedral and a few other churches have English-speaking priests who will hear confessions.
The following Protestant churches hold services in English: Methodist Church, Via Porro Lambertenghi 28, Sunday at 10:45 am; All Saints' Episcopal Church (Church of England in communion with American Episcopal Church), Via Solferino 17, Sunday at 10:30 am; Church of Christ, Via del Bollo 5, Sunday at 10:30 am.
Christian Science Church, 16 Via Bigli, holds English services every Sunday morning and on Wednesday evening.
A Jewish synagogue located in Via Guastalla 19, holds evening prayer service daily in Hebrew and Italian; telephone 791-851.
The North Italy Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) is located at Via Gadames 128, telephone 308-7025. Two of the largest local Islamic associations are located at Viale Monza 160 and Via Fara 30.
The American School of Milan (ASM) is a nonprofit institution accredited by the Midwest State Association. ASM offers a typical American high school diploma as well as an International Baccalaureate (I.B.) for those students who qualify. Many U.S. colleges and universities recognize the I.B. as equivalent to up to one full year of college education. Recent ASM graduates have attended Harvard, Stanford, Princeton as well as other prestigious U.S. schools. ASM is directed by an elected board of governors. There is currently a Director and Vice Director of the school.
ASM is located in modern facilities on about 10 acres near the outskirts of Milan, about 1/2 hour by car from the center of the city. It averages an enrollment of about 500, including about 160 American students, and offers a full American curriculum from nursery through grade 12. Over 70% of the teaching staff is American.
In the high school, almost half the courses are honors, advanced placement, or international baccalaureate level. Class sizes are usually small, and SAT scores are generally above average.
The school also offers extensive athletic, music, drama, and other extracurricular programs. Field trips throughout Europe are regularly scheduled for upper grades.
ASM offers optional bus service, which provides service to the city. Every effort is made to ensure that a bus stop is within easy walking distance of each passenger's home.
Milan has two other institutions, the British School and the International School, which offer English-language instruction under the British educational system. Although these may be adequate at the elementary level, there are possible accreditation issues involved for middle or high school students returning to the U.S. or transferring to other American system schools. There are also German, Dutch, Swiss, French and Japanese schools. American children are ordinarily accepted in the Italian kindergartens and elementary grades without special formalities. Although the Italian educational system is good, inevitable language and curriculum problems occur, which become more serious in the higher grades.
Special Educational Opportunities
The three universities in Milan offer instruction only in Italian. Private and community-sponsored adult education courses are also available to Italian speakers in a wide variety of subjects ranging from the arts to technical areas such as engineering and accounting. Arrangements can be made in Milan for private lessons or tutoring in languages, music, art, dance, tennis, and horsemanship.
The Open University offers BA, BSc, MA, MSc, and MBA diplomas as well as professional training certificates from a range of over 150 correspondence courses in English.
The opera and ballet schools of La Scala attract advanced students of music and dance from many parts of the world. Many private teachers in these fields are directly or indirectly associated with La Scala.
While Milan has some outdoor sports facilities, most are on the outskirts or beyond the city proper. With few exceptions, Milan's private clubs are exclusive and expensive. Few Americans join. A small number of health clubs with swimming pools are available at fees equivalent to similar U.S. clubs.
Within the city are public indoor and outdoor swimming pools. Public pools are quite crowded on holidays and during summer weekends.
Several riding schools and clubs are located in the city and in the suburbs. Private and group riding lessons may be arranged.
The nearest golf courses are private clubs at Monza, Barlassina, Cari-mate, and Montorfano. All are within reasonable driving distances of Milan. Some occasionally issue honorary memberships, particularly to principal officers. Otherwise, large, nonrefundable initiation fees (several thousand dollars) are required. Others, with smaller initiation fees, rarely have enough turnover in membership to accept new members. There is one public golf course that is located on the outskirts of Milan.
The city's two Ice Palaces are open for ice skating from October to April.
A number of American-style bowling alleys can be found in Milan and the near suburbs. In summer, boating and swimming in the nearby lakes (Como, Maggiore, Garda, Lugano) and picnicking in the vicinity are popular. Swimming areas at the lakes usually have rock or gravel beaches, and in some areas swimming is only possible by diving from rocks. The nearest ocean beaches are around Genoa (2 hours by autostrada or 2 3/4 hours by rapido train).
Many ski areas are within an easy drive of Milan, including several within 2 hours of the city, so that even 1-day trips are feasible. Ski season usually runs from November or December through April or May. Resorts provide accommodations in all price ranges. Slopes range from very easy to very difficult, with all types of lift facilities. The lower Alpine areas are popular with mountain climbers during the summer; climbing areas for the beginner and the expert are available.
Baseball has a small following in Italy, and a number of amateur teams compete during the summer in the Milan area. Basketball is becoming increasingly popular; four major professional and semiprofessional teams are in the area. American football is beginning to find its place in the sporting scene.
A racetrack on the outskirts of Milan has horse races 5 days a week from spring through fall and 3 days a week in winter. Italy's principal spectator sport is soccer, which is played almost year round. Milan has two class A teams. Their matches at the San Siro Stadium draw crowds of up to 85,000.
Hunting and fishing in season are popular among Italians; licenses are required.
Touring and Outdoor Activities
In addition to the participation and spectator sports described above, northern Italy and neighboring France and Switzerland have much to offer the sightseer. Many points of historical and artistic interest are easily reached on 1-day trips.
Milan offers rich entertainment for the music lover. There is a large number of concert and recital series throughout the winter, many presenting world famous artists, orchestras, and chamber music groups that feature music from all eras.
The opera season at La Scala begins early in December and runs through mid-July.
Eight or nine theaters in Milan present legitimate stage productions (all in Italian), ranging from Shakespeare and Chekhov to works of contemporary Italian and foreign playwrights, to musical revues and operettas.
Milan has as many cinemas as any large American city, presenting foreign as well as Italian films. Several movie theaters present foreign films, including American, in the original language version.
The following organizations offer excellent opportunities to make international contacts: the Benvenuto Women's Club, meets monthly and regularly organizes additional inter-cultural programs for its international membership.
Americans in Milan is a group of Americans who operate under the umbrella of the Benvenuto Club. Monthly luncheons organized by the American Business Group are attended by Americans from a broad spectrum of American and Italian businesses.
The American Chamber of Commerce in Italy consists of Americans in business in Italy and Italian business representatives from firms doing business in the U.S. Its headquarters are in Milan; the Honorary President is the American Ambassador in Rome. Its business meetings and luncheons offer a chance to meet Italians in the commercial and economic fields. The Professional Women's Association has monthly evening meetings that provide professional women the opportunity to gather and make contacts in a social setting.
Few cities have undergone the social, political, and cultural changes that Naples has in its long and colorful history. Although Naples is a modern city with a range of modern problems, including crime, over-population, unemployment, traffic congestion, air pollution, and a stagnant urban center, it remains a beautiful city, a mixture of the old and modern, a city of great historical interest. Once a major Greek colony, and later ruled by the Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Swabians, and the Houses of Aragon and Bourbon, Naples is today a city of diverse cultural styles and competing historical influences. The splendid natural setting of the bay, flanked by Mount Vesuvius, the Sorrento Peninsula, and the islands of Capri and Ischia, continues to attract a heavy stream of visitors from all over the world.
Although Naples is a major seaport and an industrial and distribution center for southern Italy, the city's economy is still dominated by small artisans and entrepreneurs. Many foreigners live in Naples, with Americans forming the largest group. A small American business community and about 10,000 American military personnel and their dependents live in the area.
There are numerous Catholic churches throughout the city, with a weekly English-language Mass sponsored by the Filipino community at Gesu' Nuovo on Sunday afternoon.
Other churches with services in English are:
AFSOUTH Chapel. Catholic services at the NATO Base. Armed Forces Chapel. Nondenominational Protestant services, Sunday school, and Catholic Masses are held at the Naval Support Activity, Capodichino complex.
Christ Church. (Anglican/Episcopalian) at Via San Pasquale, Chiaia 15B.
Christian Science. Chapel behind Christ Church.
Church of Christ. Viale Augusto 164. Latter-day Saints. Piazza Vittoria 6.
A Jewish military chaplain visits Naples at regular intervals. There is an Italian synagogue in Naples that holds Sabbath services provided by a lay person and services at major holidays. In addition, the U.S. military forces sponsor services on the last Friday of each month and on certain high holy days.
Education The Department of Defense operates two schools: an elementary/middle school (which includes kindergarten), and a high school, both located at the new Gricignano facility that is nearly an hour outside of Naples. The schools are staffed with trained, experienced American teachers. These schools have special educational facilities for mildly developmentally delayed children and those with hearing and speech problems. They are accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. There is an active after school athletic program that includes volleyball, basketball, football, soccer, gymnastics, track, and tennis. There is a school newspaper and other extracurricular activities such as choir, band, drama, and science club. Bus transportation is provided at no extra charge if you are on an established route. The DOD buses will not go to neighborhoods where military dependent children do not reside. The school cafeterias serve soup, sandwiches, and milk at fair prices. The schools have no boarding facilities.
The Allied Nursery and Kindergarten School , a cooperative endeavor, is run by wives of NATO personnel. Located in one of the buildings at NATO Headquarters at Bagnoli, it provides instruction five mornings a week. transportation to and from school costs extra. There is usually a waiting period for admittance.
The International School of Naples , also located on the NATO base, is private, coeducational day school of about 150 students offers instruction in English from kindergarten through grade 12. The non-graded method of class assignment is used from grade 5 on. It is accredited by the European Council of International Schools. Teachers are American and British citizens, except for the Italian-language instructor. Emphasis is placed on a classical college preparatory curriculum. Bus transportation is provided from most areas of Naples.
The Italian-American Montessori School , also located on the NATO base, this school of about 300 students offers an English-language, American curriculum to children in kindergarten through grade 8, based on the teaching philosophy of Marie Montessori. Teachers are American or British. American textbooks are used in all classes. Bus transportation is available from most areas of Naples.
The University of Naples . The main campus is in the downtown section of the city. This school enjoys an excellent reputation and provides courses in agriculture, architecture, economics and commerce, engineering, law, letters and philosophy, medicine and surgery, naval affairs, oriental languages, pharmacy, science, mathematics and physics, and veterinary medicine. It is not too difficult for a foreigner to enroll in the university; however, instruction is in Italian.
Special Educational Opportunities
Naples boasts an Academy of Fine Art and a Conservatory of Music that Americans sometimes attend. At the NATO complex, the Universities of Maryland and Oklahoma offer courses leading to master's degrees in education, business administration, and human relations, and the University of Maryland and other schools offer undergraduate classes in various subjects. The University of Maryland and a growing number of other institutions also offer undergraduate and advanced degree courses via the Internet. (There are several Internet service providers available in Naples.) The French Institute gives French-language instruction to children and adults. Upon successful completion of various levels at the Institute, University of Grenoble certificates of accomplishment are awarded. Local schools offer typing, stenography, and related business subjects in English.
Language instruction is available. Private tutoring is available for persons wishing to study the language independently at a cost of approximately $25 an hour.
Recreation and Social Life
Naples offers ample opportunity for sports and outdoor recreation during the long summer season. The Bay of Naples is ideal for sailing. Several beaches suitable for swimming are within an hour's drive.
In the winter, Roccaraso, a mountain ski resort about 2-1/2 hours from Naples, offers trails for beginners as well as experienced skiers. Skis and other equipment can be rented locally or at the resort at, reasonable prices. The Naples area has many interesting places for hiking, sightseeing, and picnicking, including the islands of Capri and Ischia and the beautiful towns along the Amalfi Coast Sorrento, Positano, Amalfi, and Ravello.
For artists, historians, and interested amateurs, Naples and the surrounding regions are rich in possibilities. The Palazzo di Capodimonte, with its large collections of paintings, tapestries, arms, and furniture, is one of the most impressive museums in Italy. The National Museum houses the world's finest collection of Roman antiquities, many of them recovered from Pompeii. Countless numbers of small churches, museums, and castles within the city reflect the many periods and styles of Neapolitan history.
Excursions outside the city to places such as Paestum, Pompeii, and Herculaneum (to name only the most famous) offer unparalleled opportunities for exploring the remains of earlier civilizations. Many other sites in southern Italy can be visited in the course of weekend outings by car.
Sports attire commonly seen in the U.S. is acceptable in this region.
The season at the world-famous San Carlo Opera begins in January and runs until December (as opposed to the norm of September to June). The 18 first-run Naples cinemas only occasionally offer films in English. In addition to plays and variety shows presented in five theaters in Naples, some spectator sports events are available.
Palermo is the capital of the region of Sicily, an area given broad powers of self-government by the national government in 1947. The city of Palermo, with a population of over 800,000, lies in a valley delineated by sharp rocky mountains that reach to the sea, with the Bay of Palermo presenting a topographical outline of striking natural beauty.
Though the city itself consists of a fair number of up-to-date commercial structures and many modern apartment buildings, it is also rich in Arab, Norman, and Spanish architecture, among others. The importance of these cultures in the history of Sicily is reflected in the many buildings that were left behind.
Winters are mild, and temperatures seldom drop below freezing. The famed Sicilian sunshine is no myth, and the weather is clear and sunny most of the year, with little rain during summer and fall.
Daily routine in Sicily is strongly influenced by the hundreds of years of Spanish rule. Meals are served late, lunch at 1:30 or 2 pm, and dinner at 8:30 to 9:30 pm. The noon meal is generally the larger of the two. A siesta after lunch is common, and all shops are closed from about 1 to 4 pm and remain open until 7:30 or 8 pm in the evening.
The grocery markets of Palermo are full of almost all types of food. One of the great joys of food shopping is the large variety of fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seafood. Most prices are comparable to those in the U.S., with the exception of meat, soap, and paper goods, which are about twice as expensive. Bread and wine are inexpensive and delicious. Palermo has several open-air markets that offer a unique view of one aspect of Sicilian life—the loud, boisterous methods of bargaining and selling. The city also has a few "supermarkets," but most people patronize the three or four small neighborhood shops, where one can buy everything needed. However, necessities for anything other than Italian cuisine are difficult to find on the local market.
Dining out in the Palermo-Mondello area can be a great experience, especially if one enjoys seafood. Prices are comparable to those in the U.S. Scores of good restaurants offer delicious traditional Sicilian dishes. The food lacks variety, however, since restaurants serving non-Italian fare are few in number.
An Anglican church in Palermo holds services in English. Since the pastor divides his time between Palermo and Taormina, the church is sometimes closed for several weeks or months. Three other Protestant churches offer services in Italian only. Catholic churches are numerous; one, the Church of Santa Lucia, Via Ruggero Settimo, in downtown Palermo, holds Mass in English each Sunday at 5:30 pm.
No English-speaking schools are in Palermo, nor are there any educational facilities available for learning-disabled children.
Local schools—public, private, and parochial—accept foreign children at all levels. Palermo schools offer instruction only in Italian.
Special Educational Opportunities
No truly specialized training opportunities are in Palermo, although it is possible to pursue many and varied hobbies, sports, and crafts generally found in most other cities in Western Europe—if one speaks Italian. Pottery-making is one such craft that is popular in the city.
Palermo offers a wide range of spectator sports, with soccer the most popular. The city has a professional soccer team. There is horse and harness racing and an annual horse show. A local tennis club has excellent courts, and stars from all over the world compete at the annual invitational tournament.
Sports and outdoor activities are popular year round but particularly in summer. The centers for water sports are the nearby beaches and clubs of Mondello, a 15-minute drive from the center of the city.
Swimming, boating, sailing, fishing, water skiing, and skin diving are very popular. Along the coast, small open beaches and rocky coves, which are usually crowded, offer the swimmer and skin diver a chance to discover the wonders of the Mediterranean. Sailing is popular, and several private sailing clubs are found in the Palermo area. In addition, a number of enchanting islands off the coast offer opportunities for water sports.
The city has a modern bowling alley, two squash clubs, and several modestly equipped gymnasiums that offer lessons in judo and karate, with facilities for men and women. The scarcity of wild game (except rabbits and small birds) and the strict regulations governing the import and purchase of guns discourage most would-be hunters. A target range using clay pigeons is available for the enthusiastic marksman. Sicily has no golf courses. Skiing is done in the Madonie Mountains, 2 hours away, and on Mount Etna, 4 hours away. Camping facilities are available at various places throughout the island. A good variety of sports equipment can be found at the many sporting goods stores in Palermo at prices comparable to those in the U.S.
Touring and Outdoor Activities
Touring is one of the real delights of Palermo. Even the casual observer is impressed by the grandeur of Sicily's monuments and the beauty of the countryside. The National Museum of Palermo contains priceless artifacts dating from prehistoric, Greek, and Roman periods.
Museums in cities such as Gela, Agrigento, and Siracusa have collections that testify to the diverse and rich cultural history of the region.
Colorful local events, like the theater festivals held in Taormina in July and every other year in Siracusa in May-June, and religious ceremonies, especially at Easter and on other church holidays, are all profitable subjects for study and photography.
The city has many cinemas; foreign films are shown with Italian soundtracks. American films, dubbed in Italian, are often featured and are usually quite recent when released. TV programming in Italy is generally better than or at least comparable to that in the U.S. One can see many vintage American and European films on a regular basis, dubbed into Italian.
Palermo has two opera seasons; the principal one begins before Christmas and continues through June. Operas, operettas, and ballets are staged in the summer in an attractive amphitheater. Winter performances are usually excellent, with skillful and elaborate staging.
During the winter, good concerts are frequent, as some of Europe's best instrumental artists include Palermo in their tours. Tickets are often inexpensive. Theatrical companies with some of the best Italian actors occasionally visit the city with a repertoire of national and foreign plays. Musical variety shows are given often throughout the year, though mostly in winter. All these performances are in Italian.
Sicily is famous for its puppet shows, which are given in tiny, family-owned theaters. The performances are not polished, but they are interesting entertainment, particularly for children.
The city has several nightclubs, but only one or two with floor shows. The others have small bands, where the music ranges from soft and slow to the latest and loudest beat. Discotheques are also popular.
Americans generally confine their entertaining to informal lunches or dinners at home. Unless one makes a sustained effort to become acquainted with Italian families, social life is limited. The foreign colony is small, with few entertainment centers.
Palermo club life is limited. Several tennis clubs offer various types of sports activities, including tennis, swimming, and soccer. Initial membership costs are expensive, although monthly dues are not prohibitive.
Genoa (in Italian, Genova) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria. The city, at the head of the Ligurian Sea, is about 330 miles by road from Rome. Sunshine and mild weather predominate most of the year although, in winter, cold days made dismal by piercing gusts and chilling drizzle are a reminder that Genoa is a northern city. It is, in fact, located at the same latitude as Augusta, Maine. The usually mild climate is due to the mountains which shield the area in winter from the full effect of northerly winds coming from the Alps.
Greater Genoa is dominated by its port. Much of the city's commercial life is directly involved or related to shipping. Principal industries include a large steel plant owned by Italsider (the largest steel producer in Europe) and major shipbuilding and ship repair yards. Genoa is also the starting point of several oil pipelines which link the Mediterranean with central European countries.
The city is an important producer of heavy machinery, electric motors, generators, and allied products. Major industries in the area are mostly government owned. Relatively few are the privately owned, medium-size concerns which played such an important part in the "Italian economic miracle" of the early 1960s in the other northern industrial centers.
Genoa's population is just over 700,000. The city is built on different levels in, on, and about the hills which dominate the area. Splendid palaces are found in all parts of the city; the best known is the Palazzo Doria, home of the famous 16th-century Italian naval hero, Andrea Doria. The ancient, narrow streets, called vicoli (alleys), still exist in labyrinthine profusion near the central port basin. In other parts of the city, steep, winding footpaths lead to various levels, giving Genoa a distinctive atmosphere and appearance which persists despite all efforts at modernization.
To Americans, Genoa is above all the city in which Christopher Columbus was born and raised. The Genoese themselves are proud of this fact. Genoa maintains a sister-city relationship with Columbus, Ohio, and official visits and gifts are sometimes exchanged.
Apart from the Columbus tradition, many ties exist between Genoa and the United States. Genoese shipbuilders secretly sold ships to the American Republic during the Revolutionary War. Genoa was heavily damaged during World War II, and many residents still remember that important segments of local industry were rehabilitated with Marshall Plan aid.
Nevertheless, this is not to say that Americans can expect to be eagerly welcomed into Genoa's social life. The Genoese (in Italian, Genovesi) are, by tradition, conservative, laconic, and inclined to be suspicious of outsiders (even other Italians). This is probably the result of centuries of isolation.
Until the advent of the railroad, the Apennines were an almost impenetrable barrier to communications with the hinterland and, except for several hostile incursions from the north, Genoa had little overland contact with the rest of Europe, or even with the rest of Italy. Although Genoa was among the first great maritime trading centers as well as a leading seapower, the ancient Genoese city-state suffered several devastating invasions from the sea. The Saracens sacked the city several times. Thus, Genoa's role in maritime matters did not render its populace more cosmopolitan but, instead, tended to strengthen the traditional distrust of aliens, which is still part of the Genoese character.
This attitude appears to be changing, however, judging from the way the Genoese joke about themselves. The considerable influx of people from other Italian cities, notably immigrants from the south in search of employment, has also had a moderating effect. Still, one should expect considerably more reserve in personal and social contacts with the Genoese.
Italian is, of course, the principal language, but some of the people speak their own language, Genoese, among themselves. Genoese is definitely more of a language than a dialect, and there is an Italian-Genoese dictionary as well as a small body of literature in the vernacular.
Genoa's standard of living is high by almost any measure, but the city has not yet experienced the degree of modernization found in Milan, Turin, and other industrial centers of the prosperous north. Americans will find most of the goods to which they are accustomed available in Genoa, but often at higher prices than in the U.S.
Some 70 American families in business or engineering live in the greater Genoa area. In addition, about 3,000 Americans, largely of Italian origin, live in the district. During summer, numerous American tourists pass through the city every week. Most of them do just that—pass through—on their way to or from the French and Italian Rivieras. Thus, the city itself has remained relatively untouched by international tourism, and the Genoese, it would seem, prefer it that way.
The American International School in Genoa (grades pre-kindergarten through eight) is the only school with classes in English. It has a professional staff of 13, most of whom are American. The student body numbers about 85. A U.S. curriculum is followed, and Italian is a required subject. The school year extends from mid-September to mid-June. American International's address is Via Quarto 13C, 16148 Genoa.
The public school system in the city includes elementary (equivalent to grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), and secondary schools (classical pre-university high schools, and technical and vocational institutions). Parochial schools are numerous, especially for the elementary grades. A few nonreligious private schools are also in operation, but fluency in the language generally is required.
Private tutoring in most subjects, in either English or Italian, is available, and usually is necessary unless the student attends American International. Children planning to attend Italian schools may need language instruction, although young children generally learn the language quickly. Attendance at a local kindergarten is helpful in developing the preschool child's knowledge of Italian.
Instruction is available in voice and in almost every musical instrument, both from private teachers and in special schools. Painting courses are held throughout the year. Dance schools (mainly for children), exercise classes, and lessons in horseback riding, skin diving, and other sports are also available.
Adults with a good command of Italian can take courses at the University of Genoa. The French Institute offers advanced study of French language and literature, and is accredited by the University of Grenoble. The Italo-American Association has an educational program, including instruction in English, as well as a series of lectures and films on American culture and events. The Goethe Institute gives instruction in German language and culture.
The Genoa area offers opportunities for swimming, hiking, tennis, golf, roller skating, sailing, and rowing. Many beaches are only a short bus trip from the center of town, but they are of rocky surface rather than natural sand, and are polluted. The most popular and famous beaches and resorts along the Riviera (Santa Margherita, Rapallo, Portofino) are about 45 minutes from Genoa. Most of these are privately operated concessions and charge a rather stiff entrance fee. The city itself has an excellent outdoor swimming pool in suburban Albaro which is heated in the winter. Numerous other pool facilities exist, although most are private. One 18-hole golf course (in Rapallo) and one nine-hole course (in Arenzano) are within an hour's drive of Genoa. A few public and private tennis courts are available.
Soccer (calcio ) is the national sport; Genoa has two teams in the Italian league. During the season, which extends from early fall to late spring, a game is usually played every Sunday in the city's stadium.
Narrow, congested streets and a hilly terrain make bicycling difficult in Genoa. However, enthusiasts can enjoy flat stretches of road along the sea.
Hunting in the surrounding area is poor. Many private reserves are beyond the Apennines, but with access by invitation only.
Hiking enthusiasts will find pleasant walks near the sea or in the hills. Numerous points of scenic interest along the Italian Riviera are available for sight-seeing by bus or car. The Italian Yacht Club has a clubhouse and yacht basin in the port of Genoa, and sailing is popular throughout Liguria.
Several ski resorts in the nearby mountains, about a two-hour drive from Genoa, are open five months a year. Special excursions at group fares are organized each weekend during the season.
Entertainment facilities in Genoa include cinemas and theaters. Films shown in commercial theaters are dubbed in Italian. The Italo-Britannica and Italo-American Associations sponsor a film club which has biweekly showings during the winter months of English-language films with original soundtracks. Film Story, an association interested in the history of the cinema, shows films in English about once a week. Occasionally, local theaters will sponsor a series of recent American and British movies.
Genoa's opera house, Teatro Carlo Felice, was bombed during World War II, but has been newly rebuilt and reopened in late 1991. The facade of the 2,000 seat opera was reconstructed to match its 1826 original. An excellent local theatrical stock company performs throughout the winter season. Visiting companies from other cities present musical reviews, plays, and operettas. The annual concert season runs from October through February. A chamber music series also takes place during the winter months. A short opera season occurs in fall and in spring. Occasionally, a ballet will be performed during the opera seasons, and an outdoor ballet series is held in suburban Nervi every two years.
To celebrate the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the New World, the city of Genoa in 1992 held an international exposition called "Christopher Columbus: Ships and the Sea." As part of this exposition, a new aquarium was built. Two football fields in length, it is Europe's largest and features sea life from aquatic habitats around the world.
For many years, until the end of World War I, Trieste was the major port of Italy. It remained important until the end of World War II, when conflicting territorial claims between Italy and Yugoslavia led to the creation of the Free Territory of Trieste, administered by the Allied Military Government composed of American and British forces.
In October 1954, the London Memorandum of Understanding was signed by Italy, Yugoslavia, Britain, and the U.S., ending the military occupation of the city.
In early 1964, the Province of Trieste was grouped with the provinces of Gorizia, Udine, and later Porde-none, into the fifth special autonomous "region" of Friuli-Venezia Giulia; this region, plus the Veneto provinces of Venezia, Padova, Belluno, Treviso, and Rovigo, constitute what was the U.S. consular district.
Trieste's 258,000 inhabitants are principally Italian, but there is also a 10 percent Slovene minority, and the German and Austrian colonies are fairly large. American tourism to the district is concentrated in Venice and, during winter, to the major ski resort of Cortina d'Ampezzo.
The climate is pleasant. Summers are seldom hot and humid, and winters are usually without snow. From December to February, the famous Trieste bora (strong wind) often blows. Winds have reached over 100 miles per hour (although rarely) and may blow for three to four days at a time, intensifying the cold. Crisp, sunny days usually follow.
The International School of Trieste, sponsored by the International Center for Theoretical Physics and partially supported by the U.S. Government, was founded in 1964. Instruction is in English on the American system, offering grades one through eight, a kindergarten, and a nursery. The academic year is from September to June on a trimester basis, and the enrollment of approximately 200 students includes children of varied nationalities, mainly Italian. Information is available from International School at Villaggio del Fanciullo, Via Conconella 16 (Opicina), 34100 Trieste.
Some Americans send their children to the local schools, where instruction is in Italian. Previous tutoring is necessary for entry into all levels and, unless children speak Italian, they often must be enrolled one grade lower than the last completed. The Italian system involves five years of elementary school, three of middle school, and five of high school.
The University of Trieste offers a wide variety of college courses, all conducted in Italian. Individual or class lessons are available at the Conservatory of Music. The Art Institute of Trieste has a full curriculum available for students from 11 to 19 years of age, and the Museum of Modern Art offers inexpensive courses in painting and drawing. Also, extensive opportunities exist in Venice (about two hours by car or train) to pursue artistic and cultural studies.
Recreation and Entertainment
The most popular spectator sports in Trieste are soccer, trotting races, and basketball. Others include water polo, swim meets, sailing, rowing, horse shows, boxing, hunting, and fishing. Tennis and golf are available for those who wish to join clubs. Riding facilities exist, and extensive areas of the countryside are suitable for hiking. Excellent skiing and mountain climbing are found in the nearby mountains of both Italy and Austria.
Venice is about 100 miles away, some two hours by car or express train. Padua, Vicenza, and Verona—20, 45, and 75 miles, respectively, to the west of Venice—are also of considerable historic and cultural interest, and are connected with Trieste by express trains. Cortina d'Ampezzo, the popular Italian mountain resort in the Dolomites, about 130 miles by car from Trieste, offers sports (especially skiing) in winter and beautiful scenery at all times.
Only 30 miles from Trieste are the ancient Roman ruins of Aquileia, with important early Christian mosaics. The seaside resorts of Grado and Lignano, with long, sandy beaches and swimming and wading areas, are also close by. Slovenia is easily accessible, and its increasingly popular Dalmatian coast is within a weekend drive.
Trieste offers a wide range of entertainment for a city of its size. The local opera company's season runs from November to March. The Trieste Symphony's concert series, which takes place in fall and spring, is extensive. Recitals, concerts, and miscellaneous musical events also are held. During summer, theatrical presentations are staged in the open-air Roman theater and, in winter, the local repertory theater offers a series of presentations, all in Italian.
Turin (in Italian, Torino) has a long and interesting history dating back to ancient Rome and including a brief period (1861-65) as the first capital of unified Italy. However, it is now known as a modern, thriving, industrial center, particularly in the field of automobile manufacture and design. During the past quarter-century, it has grown at an astonishing rate, and Greater Turin has a current population of more than 1.2 million.
The city is the capital of the Region of Piedmont (Piemonte), which includes the provinces of Turin, Asti, Alessandria, Cuneo, Novara, and Vercelli—an area about the size of New Jersey, Delaware, and Rhode Island combined. The semi-autonomous Valle D'Aosta Region, north of Turin on the French and Swiss borders, is not included in the Region of Piedmont. Turin is by far the largest city in the district and is the financial, economic, and cultural capital. It is a most important industrial city, although this is not made evident by its architecture.
Turin is equidistant from Rome and Paris and, partially due to many years of French rule, newcomers are often surprised by the "non-Italian" appearance of the city. Wide, straight, tree-lined boulevards slice through the central areas, and the architecture is often a hybrid of Italian and French design. On clear days, the city's personality is radically changed by the awesome beauty of the nearby Alps, which surround it on three sides. On the fourth, or eastern, side, lush green hills—studded with churches and luxurious villas—rise from the banks of the Po River to overlook the city.
Turin has the highest standard of living in Italy. Unlike many cities, however, there is no focal point for its entertainment and cultural forces—no "center of town," and the streets of the city are remarkably free of crowds in the evening. Similarly, the important sights of Turin are not always found in the great piazzas or on main thoroughfares; one must seek them out or be told where to find them. Even getting there is often not enough; a beautiful chapel can be disguised as an office building, or a world-renowned museum can be housed in a structure as nondescript as its neighbors.
At first, friendships can be as difficult to find as the art treasures. The Turinese admit to being different from other Italians, and they take pride in it. In general, they tend to be reserved, courteous, and uninquisitive, and their distinct personalities have helped to create the atmosphere of their city. They prefer to amuse themselves privately; for example, Turin has an extremely limited nightlife for so large a city. American-style bars and adult nightclubs are limited in number, and there are few restaurants serving foreign cuisine.
Turin is not a tourist center for Americans. When a traveler arrives in Turin it is usually because of business or traveling en route to another city. This, more than anything, probably has contributed to the fact that Turin has retained much of its distinctive character despite its rapid growth. On a more personal level, it also has resulted in a novelty: a large Italian city in which practically no one speaks English.
Aside from the charms of the city, however, the tourist misses a great deal when he fails to stop here—pleasures and sights which residents of Turin have come to love. Only a very short distance from the city, for example, are some of the world's most famous ski resorts—Sestriere, Cervinia (Matterhorn), and Courmayeur. The Italian lakes are nearby, as are the French and Italian Rivieras. All of the foregoing can be reached in from one-and-a-half to six hours by car.
A glance at the map will be enough to demonstrate that Turin is an excellent starting point for longer trips to much of Europe. On the other hand, there is a great deal to see within the district itself. The countless Roman ruins, castles, medieval towns, and Alpine valleys can keep a traveler busy for months.
The American Cultural Association of Turin, an English-language school for nursery through high school, is located in a small hill town about 6.2 miles (10 kilometers) from the city. It has been in operation since 1974. The enrollment currently is 220. Italian is a required subject.
The school, which offers languages and the usual academic courses, maintains its facilities at Via Mario Mogna, 10020 Pecetto Torinese, Italy. Both the academic director and the elementary principal are Americans, as are more than half of the faculty members.
Some of the world's most spectacular scenery is visible just outside the city of Turin. The Valle d'Aosta begins 40 miles to the north. It runs directly into Mt. Blanc, Europe's highest peak, after figuratively glancing off Mt. Rosa and Mt. Cervinia (Matterhorn), which are the second and third highest European peaks. All around these famed summits, as well as in the west and the Maritime Alps, valleys are begging to be explored by car. The roads are not always wide or straight, but they are quite adequate.
The Monte Cenisio Pass into France is just west of Turin at an elevation of 6,000 feet, and Geneva is a four-hour drive via the Mont Blanc tunnel. Lake Como and the other attractions of the famed Italian lake country are available by public transportation or by a two-to-three-hour drive, as are most of the other interesting attractions of Italy.
Whether by car or public transportation, the visitor will enjoy touring in the Alps, in the picturesque wine country south of Turin, or in the nearby countries.
Travel time by car to the nearest point in France is one-and-a-half hours; Austria (except in the dead of winter), five-and-a-half hours; Liechtenstein, seven hours; and Spain, 14 hours.
The most popular participant sport in northern Italy is skiing. A dozen ski resorts are within easy reach of Turin, even for day trips. All these areas have lifts, instruction, and boots and skis for rent. If a skier tires of one side of the Alps, in an hour he can reach Chamonix just over the French border, or Zermatt, by cable car, on the Swiss side of the Matterhorn from Cervinia.
Hunting is popular. Quail and pheasant are the most common quarry, but some deer, chamois, and even ibex can be found.
The Circolo della Stampa Sports Club of Turin has 20 good tennis courts and a huge swimming pool. Other courts and pools are around town. An excellent 27-hole golf course is just outside the city, and there is a nine-hole, free course in town. It is difficult to join either golf club, but arrangements usually can be made for nonmembers to play the courses for a limited time.
Public swimming pools, available year round, are inexpensive. Mountain climbing, hiking, fishing (rainbow trout), rowing, skin diving, bowling, and even baseball are all practiced with great enthusiasm in this part of Italy.
Soccer (calcio ) is by far the most popular spectator sport. Attendance at basketball games grows every year, especially since the major teams have begun to import American stars.
The theater is active in Turin, with performances almost exclusively in Italian. The local repertory company (Teatro Stabile Torino) offers plays of high caliber and professional polish.
During winter, at least three productions are always in town at any one time. Movie theaters abound. Most of the better, and some not so good, American films are shown here, usually dubbed in Italian, as are British and continental films. Some movie clubs show a limited selection of films in the original versions.
Turin is the home of a symphony orchestra which broadcasts under the auspices of the Italian radio and television system each Friday during the season. A second organization, the Unione Musicale, presents a concert season, normally at least two programs a week. The Turin opera season, while not matching the splendor of neighboring La Scala in Milan, is thoroughly professional and relatively inexpensive for the best seats in the house. Turinese audiences are not inclined to be demonstrative, but they do appreciate good music.
Bologna lies in the province of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, at the foot of the Apennines. Now a transportation center with a population of 417,500, it was first an Etruscan town named Felsina, and its history is rich in Roman, Byzantine, Lombard, French, and church culture. It was a great intellectual and political center in medieval times.
Bologna has been part of Italy only since 1860, when annexation from Austria was voted. It had been church-controlled from 1815 to 1831, the year it was occupied by Austria. Bologna's prestigious university, the oldest in Europe, was founded in 1088 as a school of Roman law. Medical and theological faculties were soon introduced, but liberal arts were not added until the 14th century. Today, the enrollment is close to 60,000.
Some of Italy's most beautiful ecclesiastical structures are found in Bologna, most notably the old churches of San Petronio, Santa Maria dei Servi, Santo Stefano, and Santo Domenico. Several of the city's historic buildings were destroyed during the heavy bombing of World War II, among them the Archiginnasio and the exquisite 13th-century church of San Francisco.
Bologna has an excellent museum and art gallery; the city and the university attract serious students of art and architecture. Fine (and hearty) food is also one of Bologna's main offerings, and a number of restaurants are justly famous for their distinctive Bolognese cuisine.
Several major Italian publishing houses have headquarters in Bologna and each year the International Children's Book Fair is held here.
Venice (in Italian, Venezia), at the northern end of the Adriatic, is a city built on 118 alluvial islets and laced with 400 bridges. Once a dominant city-republic known as the "queen of the seas," Venice (population 352,500) is a major tourist attraction of Italy and, in fact, of all of Europe. Hundreds of thousands of visitors throng the squares and ride the famous gondolas and motoscafi (motor taxis) through the 160 canals which are the city's thoroughfares. Severe flooding in 1966 damaged much of Venice, but the splendid churches and public buildings have been restored and preserved. Art lovers and philanthropists throughout the world contributed millions of dollars toward the renovations.
Among the most famous attractions are the Piazza San Marco (St. Mark's Square), with its beautiful cathedral begun in the year 830, and consisting of examples of Byzantine, Greek, Gothic, and Oriental architecture; the 16th-century royal palace library; the Palazzo Ducale (Palace of the Doges, or dukes), rebuilt five times since its original structure was erected in 800; and the numerous galleries, palaces (most on the Grand Canal), and public gardens. Venice flies the emblem of the Winged Lion of St. Mark.
Throughout the year, Venice celebrates its illustrious past. In addition to its regular opera season, from December to March, there is a seemingly endless series of musical events, art exhibits, theater, religious festivals, and municipal celebrations.
There is a wide variety in Venice of hotel accommodations and dining facilities, from the simplest to the most luxurious. Shopping is excellent (although expensive) here, particularly for the world-famous Venetian glass and lace.
Close to Venice are several cities of the Veneto (administrative region) which are steeped in history and art. Among these are Padua, whose renowned 13th-century university is the second oldest in Italy, after Bologna's; Verona, celebrated as the city of Romeo and Juliet; and Vicenza, the birthplace of Andrea Palladio, Renaissance architect of note. Most visitors to Venice eventually find their way to these fascinating ancient towns.
BARI is the major commercial center of the Province of Apulia in southeast Italy. Situated on the Adriatic Sea, about 140 miles east of Naples, this city of 387,800 has boat-building, machinery, oil-refining, tobacco, wine, and printing enterprises. Bari's complete name is Bari della Puglie. It once was part of the kingdom of Naples.
BERGAMO is the capital of Bergamo Province, situated at the base of the Alps, 30 miles northeast of Milan. Divided into Upper and Lower Bergamo, this is a main industrial and cultural hub. Upper Bergamo is the original, fortified section, dating to the second century B.C., when it was the Roman town of Bergomum. It has been ruled by Romans, Venetians, French, and Austrians. Landmarks here include the Romanesque cathedral, the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, and the Bapistry, all in the Piazza Vecchia district. Lower Bergamo has been the city's center since the 19th century. The Academia Carrara here is noted for its outstanding art collection, one of Italy's best. Bergamo has preserved the birthplace of the composer Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) as a museum. The city has engineering works, textile mills, and cement factories. Its population is an estimated 122,000.
BRESCIA lies at the bottom of the Trompia Valley, 50 miles east of Milan. This area has several reminders of the Roman era, most notably the Capitoline Temple, built by Emperor Vespasian (8 B.C.-A.D. 79) in A.D. 73. The temple is adjacent to the Roman Museum, where one of the world's most celebrated sculptures, "Winged Victory," can be seen. Brescia is the seat of a bishop-ric and site of numerous churches, one dating to the eighth century. The Madonna del Carmine Church is considered a worthwhile tourist stop. Stairs behind the building lead to walls of a Venetian castle and, from this point, one can see across to the Alps. Brescia is also a railroad junction and manufacturing hub. It has a population of approximately 204,000.
The mostly German-speaking city of BRESSANONE is situated in the far north, 20 miles northeast of Bolzano on the Isarco River. With a population of 16,000, this is a tourist area known for its cathedral and Archbishop's Palace. There are 12 churches here, including several monasteries. Bressanone, as Brixen, belonged to Austria from 1803 to 1918.
CAGLIARI is the capital and main port of Sardinia, the largest of Italy's Mediterranean islands. Located on the Gulf of Cagliari in the south, it was founded by Phoenicians, but rose to prominence under the Romans, who made it Sardinia's major city. Remains in Cagliari's lower town attest to the Roman presence: a huge amphitheater, a house, and a great cemetery. The upper town has medieval remnants such as the cathedral, parts of the Pisan fortifications, and the University of Cagliari. An archaeology museum contains a renowned collection of Sardinian antiquities. Mineral exports, agricultural production, and salt mining constitute the local economy. The city has an estimated population of 225,000.
CATANIA , at the foot of Mount Etna in eastern Sicily, was founded by the Greeks in about 729 B.C. Its history reflects the many cultures which dominated it throughout the ensuing centuries—Greek, Roman, Saracen, and Norman. Catania suffered serious earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the 17th century. The city was a major German defense location in World War II, until successful attacks by the British in the summer of 1943.
MESSINA is a seaport in northeastern Sicily, dating to 730 B.C., when it was founded by the Chalcis Greeks. Now a trade and transportation center with a population of 273,000, Messina existed under the rule of many European conquerors, and has been part of Italy only since 1860. Its population was severely diminished during the plague in 1743, and the city was nearly demolished by earthquakes later in that century and again in 1908. Messina suffered heavy damage in World War II.
MODENA , with a population of 179,000, is said to be Italy's wealthiest city. It is located in the north-central region, 115 miles southeast of Milan and 200 miles northwest of Rome. Automobile manufacture is the mainstay of the economy; metal-working, iron foundries, and tanning are also important. An extensive urban renewal project here includes a massive, English-designed park. The Palazzo dei Musei art museum has one of the country's largest galleries, as well as rare illuminated manuscripts. Modena became a Roman colony in 183 B.C., and joined the Italian kingdom in 1860. A university was founded here in 1175.
PADUA (in Italian, Padova) a rail terminal and commercial city of 241,000, is situated in northeastern Italy. It was here in Italy's second oldest university (founded in 1222) that the great astronomer and physicist Galileo and the anatomist Fallopius taught, and here also that Dante and Petrarch (Petrarca, the poet and humanist) were among the famous students. Padua's botanical gardens, praised throughout the world, are the oldest in Europe, dating from 1545.
PARMA lies on the Parma River in the north, 75 miles northeast of Genoa. It has been a transportation center since the second century B.C., when it was built by the Romans. This is also an agricultural area known the world over for its Parmesan cheese and prosciutto ham; fertilizers and alcohol are also produced. Noted conductor Arturo Toscanini (1867-1957) and printer Giambattista Bodoni (1740-1813) were among Parma's famous residents. Tourist highlights include a 12th-century cathedral, with a masterpiece fresco of the Assumption; the Glauco-Lombardi Museum, housing a collection of personal items of Napoleon's Empress Marie-Louise; and the Palazzo della Pilotta, the home of the Farnese dukes. The city suffered extensive damage in World War II, but painstaking restoration efforts preserved much of its beauty. Its current population is approximately 180,000.
SIENA is a city of considerable interest. It is located in Tuscany, about 40 miles south of Florence and, with its 13th-century churches and palaces, retains much of its medieval appearance. It became independent in the 13th century, and rose to great cultural heights, but its artistic light was diminished by the plague (Black Death) which swept Europe in 1348. Siena's university, built in 1240, remains a seat of learning, and it is said that this city of 70,000 residents is the only place in Italy where pure Italian, with no regional dialect, is spoken. The major attractions of Siena are its Gothic-Romanesque cathedral, its 13th-century Palazzo Publico, and its Academia delle Belle Arti. The city is also famous for the Corsa del Palio (Race of the Banner), an annual medieval horse race which highlights the summer season. Around the central square of Siena (Piazza del Campo) are great palaces which bear the names of the city's noble families.
SYRACUSE (in Italian, Siracusa), situated on the southeastern coast of Sicily, was the leading city of ancient Europe. Founded by the Corinthians in 734 B.C., it grew to dominate the Mediterranean under the Greeks. After falling to the Romans in 211 B.C., the region was invaded by Franks in the third century A.D., and later by Arabs, Normans, Swabians, and Spanish. A 1693 earthquake devastated Syracuse, prompting rebuilding in a curious baroque architecture. Today this is a provincial capital of 119,000 residents. Local agricultural produce is processed in the city, and light industry plays a dominant role in the economy. Tourism is centered on Syracuse's Greek ruins, especially the fifth-century temple and a beautifully preserved theater. Performances are still held here, in even-numbered years. There is a regional archaeological museum in Villa Landolina Park.
Geography and Climate
Its prominent geographical feature is the 500-mile-long Italian Peninsula, which is shaped like a boot and extends southeast from Europe into the Mediterranean Sea. The Apen-nine Mountains form the backbone of the peninsula. North of the Apen-nine range lies the Po River Valley (300 miles from east to west), Italy's breadbasket and the center of Italian industry. North of the Po Valley are the foothills of the Alps, in which lie Italy's lake district. Its northern border meanders along the highest points of the southern Alpine passes.
The Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia, which lie southwest and west of the Italian peninsula, respectively, are the largest islands in the Mediterranean. These, along with Italy's other, smaller islands, have hosted trading colonies since the dawn of recorded history and have traditionally provided a window on the rest of the Mediterranean Basin (the western tip of Sicily, for example, is only 90 miles from Tunisia).
Italy's climate is generally pleasant. Although summer temperatures can rise into the mid-90's with high humidity, evenings are considerably cooler, allowing people to take to the streets and squares. In the winter, nighttime temperatures often drop to freezing, but snowfall outside the mountains is rare. In all seasons, the south tends to be warmer and drier than the north.
Italy has a population of roughly 57.6 million on a land mass about three-quarters the size of California. Population density is about twice that of California. Historically, many Italians have emigrated (significant numbers of Italian communities are in the U.S., Canada, Belgium, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, and Australia), and approximately 2 million Italians still work in other countries. Recently, however, Italy has been experiencing a growing influx of immigrants, a cause of controversy despite the fact that there would be essentially no population growth in Italy were it not for the arriving immigrants.
Outside of Rome and the main tourist centers, few Italians speak a second language. Even in the big cities, truly bilingual persons are hard to find. The most commonly spoken foreign languages are English and French.
With the exception of the German-speaking autonomous province of Bolzano (Bozen) and the significant Slovene population around Trieste, ethnic minorities are small. Isolated, ancient communities of Albanians, Greeks, Ladinos, and French-speakers, however, are here.
The Italian constitution provides religious freedom for all. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, although only a small minority regularly attends church. There are small Protestant (Waldensian), Jewish, and Greek Orthodox communities.
The Vatican or "Holy See" is an independent sovereign nation located in Rome, whose head of state is the Pope.
Italy has been a Republic since June 2, 1946, when a national referendum abolished the monarchy. The constitution, which took effect on January 1, 1948, established a bicameral Parliament (Senate and Chamber of Deputies), a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) and President of the Council (Prime Minister), who is Head of Government. The Council of Ministers must retain the confidence of both houses.
The President of the Republic, who is Head of State, is elected for seven years by Parliament sitting jointly with delegates from the 20 regions. The President has limited powers. He or she appoints the Prime Minister, subject to Parliamentary concurrence. The President can also dissolve Parliament and call for elections, if it is clear that no governing majority can be formed.
Seventy-five percent of parliamentarians are elected as individual candidates, 25% by proportional ballot. There are 630 deputies and 315 senators, plus a small number of senators-for-life including all former Presidents of the Republic and a few appointed by the President in recognition of service to the nation. Parliament is elected for five years but may be dissolved by the President before the expiration of its full term. Legislative bills may be introduced in either house but must be voted by a majority in both. Below the national level, Italy is divided into 20 regions (roughly equivalent to US. states), 103 provinces and over 8,000 communes (cities and townships). Regions and provinces have presidents and governing councils. Mayors and city councils are elected locally. each province has a prefect appointed by and representing the central government. he prefect has special responsibility for law and order issues.
Since 1953, no single political party has held an absolute majority in either house. Successive Italian governments have been formed by coalitions or other parties providing "external" support. Until recently, governments centered around the now-defunct Christian Democratic Party (DC) and until the early 1960s, were generally "center" coalitions (the DC plus Liberals, Social Democrats and Republicans). From 1962-94, most governments were "center-left" (the DC plus varying combinations of Socialists, Social Democrats, Liberals and Republicans). The Italian Communist Party (PCI) was excluded from government coalitions although, after the late 1970s, the PCI often provided "external" support to center-left government coalitions. The center-right governed briefly in 1994.
The "clean hands" trials of the early 1990s, which investigated illegal funding of political parties, completely changed the static landscape of Italian politics, and opened a period of transition and transformation which continues even at the beginning of the new century. By 1994, the large and powerful DC and Socialist parties had collapsed and out of their ranks, a number of new parties were formed. In 1991, the PCI broke with its communist tradition and eventually joined with former socialists, left-wing Christian Democrats and others to form the Democrats of the Left (DS). Center right "Forza Italia" was founded by entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi in 1994. In 1998, the center-left formed the first government headed by a former Communist (DS) Prime Minister, Massimo D'Alema.
Since the 1994 elections, a roughly "bipolar" arrangement has emerged in Parliament with the majority of seats controlled by either the center-right "POLO" coalition or the center-left coalition. New parties have subsequently been formed within the coalitions and a few parties (see below) remain unaligned.
The following are major parties with representation in the national Parliament (as of January 2000).
Democratici di Sinistra (Democrats of the Left)
Partito dei Communisti Italiani (Italian Communists)
Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People's Party)
Unione Democratica per L'Europa (Democratic Union for Europe)
Center-Right "POLO" Coalition
Allianza Nazionale (National Alliance)
Centro Cristiano Democratico (Christian Democratic Center)
Lega Nord (Northern League)
Rifondazione Communista (Communist Renewal)
Radicali (Radical Party)
Arts, Science, and Education
Italy is the wellspring of Western civilization and has been a world crossroads for over 2,000 years. Continuous learning, creativity, and technological advancement on the Italian peninsula have shaped virtually every aspect of Western culture. Etruscan and Samnite cultures flourished in Italy before the emergence of the Roman Empire, which conquered and incorporated them. Phoenicians and Greeks established settlements in Italy beginning several centuries before the birth of Christ, and the Greek settlements in particular developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in southern Italy are perhaps the most spectacular and best preserved anywhere. With Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312, Rome became the open and official seat of the Catholic Church, and Italy has had a profound effect on the development of Christianity and of Western concepts of faith and morality ever since.
Italy became a seat of great formal learning in 1088 with the establishment of the University of Bologna, the first university in Europe. Other Italian universities soon followed. These great centers of learning presaged the Renaissance, as did innovative works by Italy's great late-Gothic artists. The European Renaissance began in Italy and was fueled throughout Europe by Italian painting, sculpture, architecture, science, literature, and music. Italy continued its leading cultural role through the Baroque and Classical periods and into the Romantic period, when its dominance in painting and sculpture diminished and it reestablished a strong presence in music. Italian artists have been quite influential in the twentieth century. They were the primary exponents of Modernism in the 1920s and 1930s, and continue to have a strong presence in the international contemporary art market.
Today, Italy has one of the world's strongest and most vibrant popular cultures, and plays a large role in shaping worldwide trends in fashion, film, cuisine, industrial and interior design, advertising, and popular music. Following World War II, Italian neo-realism became an important force in motion pictures, and by the 1960s, Italy had established itself as one of a handful of great film cultures. Italian design shaped the look of the post-war world, and today Italy is arguably the international leader in fashion and design.
Italy's great presence in literature and the arts often overshadows its role in the development of science and technology. Italy has been a home for innovation in science and engineering in the centuries since Galileo formulated his theories of planetary movement and Leonardo da Vinci designed a primitive helicopter based upon his studies of nature. At the turn of the century, Marconi carried out experiments in electricity and developed the wireless, but he was preceded by Count Alessandro Volta, one of the pioneers of electricity, over 100 years earlier. By the end of the Second World War, Enrico Fermi's work in nuclear physics led to the development of both the atomic bomb and peaceful atomic applications. Today Italy is a strong competitor in high-technology sectors, including aerospace and communications. Italian education is still held in high regard for its rigor and thoroughness, and although the Italian curriculum and teaching method remains very traditional, Italy also produced Maria Montessori and her revolutionary educational theories.
Commerce and Industry
Italy has a diverse, industrial economy, the sixth largest in the world. It is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of textiles, clothing, gold jewelry, footwear and machinery to produce all those goods, as well as some agricultural products. Numerous Italian companies are famous worldwide, but it is small and medium-sized firms that dominate the economy and are responsible for its dynamism. Germany, France and the U.S. are the most important export markets. As in other industrialized countries, the role of the service sector is growing. Italy is very dependent on imported petroleum and natural gas from Libya, Iran, Algeria and Russia.
Industrial activity is concentrated in the north in a swath that runs from Torino in the west to the Veneto region near Venice in the east. This is one of the most industrialized and prosperous areas in Europe, and accounts for some 50 percent of national income. By contrast the center and particularly the south, or Mezzogiorno, are less developed. Unemployment in the Mezzogiorno is three times that of the north, and per capita incomes are much lower. Italy has a large underground economy. Researchers attribute that to high taxes and rigid labor laws, and estimate it accounts for one-quarter of gross domestic product.
Italy is a founding member of the European Union (formed through the Treaty of Rome) and, in 1998, of Europe's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Members of the EMU have ceded monetary authority to a European central bank and begun using the euro for accounting purposes. Euro bills and coins go into circulation in 2002. Polls indicate that Italians are among the strongest supporters in Europe of EMU and continued European integration. To qualify for the Monetary Union, successive Italian governments in 1992-97 implemented widely-praised fiscal discipline measures that produced sharply reduced government deficits and debt levels, lower interest rates and lower inflation. Challenges that Italy still faces are liberalizing labor laws and regulations that govern businesses, improving infrastructure, reducing bureaucracy and addressing a looming pension burden.
Due to traffic jams, narrow streets, and pedestrian-only sections in some shopping areas, public transportation is preferable in city centers. Private cars are preferable for traveling outside the city, however.
New vehicles are sold with city license plates, and it will take between 60 to 120 days before the vehicle becomes available. Car dealers ask for a maximum 10 percent deposit when the contract is signed.
Secondhand vehicles are available through local car dealers, but there is no IVA exemption on such vehicles. The cost for the transfer of titles ranges from $450-$600, based on the size of the engine of the vehicle.
Italy is a member of the Europena Community; its road code, in compliance with EC policies, requires catalytic converters.
If you want to nationalize your vehicle with city plates, you must produce: 1) a manufacturer's certificate stating that the catalytic converter on the vehicle meets EC standards; 2) a technical data information sheet. These documents must be endorsed and legalized with the Seal of the Secretary of the State (Apostille) from where the vehicle is purchased. These documents must be translated into Italian and notarized by an authorized translator in Italy.
The title and the registration card must also have the Apostille Seal and be translated into Italian.
The Italian Government requires the purchase of local liability insurance. Premiums for third-party liability are set by law and are, therefore, equal for all companies. Duty free-entry requests are not processed until the liability policy is in effect. Vehicle at driven into Italy must have an international "green card" certificate of insurance. Collision and theft insurance is available locally (but is expensive) or can be obtained from American insurers such as Clements in Washington, D.C., American International Underwriters, or USAA.
Current regulations allow foreigners to drive in Italy if they have a valid driver's license. If the license is not Italian, the original license with translation must be carried at all times.
Traffic moves on the right side of the road. The highways are generally well maintained but are often narrow and winding, the exception being the superhighways, called "autostrade."
Transportation within the cities, whether by bus, tram, or subway (in Rome and Milan) is good, although crowded at rush hours. Always be alert to the danger of pickpockets and purse-snatchers on public transportation. Taxis are usually available but expensive. They do not cruise looking for fares but wait at taxi stands throughout the cities or can be called by phone.
Telephone and Telegraph
Telephone connections within Italy and to international points are of excellent quality and reliable. For local calls, there is a usage charge of approximately two cents per minute. A long distance call to the U.S. can be direct dialed from any city at a rate of approximately $.50 per minute. You can also subscribe to callback services in the U.S. or utilize calling cards such as AT&T and MCI. Residential lines or service for a newly leased residence can be obtained within two weeks of placing an order.
Cellular phone service is reliable with a usage fee of approximately $1 per minute and a monthly basic service charge of $30. Bringing a cellular phone from the U.S. to Italy is risky in that converting and registering it is not always possible. A basic unit runs approximately $100 depending on the service agreement.
Personal telegrams can be sent for about $4.
International mail service between Italy and the U.S. is unreliable. Surface mail takes 6-8 weeks. Packages sent via international mail are subject to customs inspection.
Internet access in Italy is widely available. A number of internet service providers (ISP) provide free internet access via dial up phone lines. The telephone charges during connection to the ISP from within Rome are approximately one cent per minute, depending upon the time of day.
Personal computers with U.S. specifications may be used successfully, although transformers may be required. Computer accessories and peripherals are available in Italy and are generally compatible with equipment brought from the U.S.
Radio and TV
Italy has three state-controlled radio networks that broadcast day and evening hours on both AM and FM, in addition to RAI International on shortwave and virtual radio via internet. Program content varies from popular music to lectures, panel discussions, classical music, and opera, as well as frequent newscasts and feature reports. In addition, many private radio stations mix popular and classical music. A short-wave radio, though unnecessary, aids in reception of VOA, BBC, Vatican Radio in English and the Armed Forces Network in Germany and in other European stations.
The three public TV networks controlled by Radio-Televisione Italiana plus many other private stations offer varied programs, including news, operas, game shows, sitcoms, cartoons, plays, documentaries, musicals, and films-all in Italian. RAI also has a new 24-hour news and information system that is available on cable and at night on RAI-3. All programs are in color, except for the old black-and-white movies. Most Italians still depend on VHF/UHF reception, but both cable systems and direct satellite reception is increasingly common. Conventional satellite dishes can pick up European broadcasts, including some in English. Telemontecarlo and other private networks retransmit CNN and other American network programs late at night or in the early AM. CNN is widely available in four and five star hotels. Programs are chiefly news, sports, network comedies and movies.
Radios, TVs, VCRs (both using the PAL/SECAM standard) and DVDs are available locally, but at much higher prices than in the U.S.
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals
The International Herald Tribune is published six days a week in Italy and is available with an Englishlanguage supplement, "Italy Daily" (edited jointly with RCS Corriere della Sera) throughout most of the country. The European edition of The Wall Street Journal is published in Bologna, and along with USA Today, is available in major cities. European editions of Time and Newsweek are available one or two days after publication. Other foreign newspapers and magazines are also available on newsstands, and current U.S. magazines can be found there as well. The Center for American Studies in Rome subscribes to a variety of American magazines and professional journals and has over 70,000 volumes on subjects related to the U.S. Rome has several English-language bookstores with a varied but high-priced stock. A more limited selection in English is found in bookstores in other cities.
Health and Medicine
Quality medical facilities, including English-speaking physicians, specialists in most fields, and hospitals and clinics, are available in most cities. Public hospitals are usually understaffed, and frequently the staff does not speak English. Private hospitals are similar to those in the U.S. and are equally expensive. The staff in private hospitals may or may not speak English.
Equivalents to most American medicines are available in local pharmacies. Bring an adequate supply of medications, however, in case what is needed is not available.
Sanitary controls throughout Italy are good. The water is safe but not fluoridated. Use only bottled water. Good pasteurized milk is available. Uncooked shellfish and uncooked pork are not safe. Precautions, such as washing fresh fruit and vegetables and avoiding raw seafood, are the same as those advisable in the U.S.
Environmental allergy symptoms are common during the spring and summer months due to dust and pollen levels. Viral and bacterial respiratory ailments are common during the winter months. Smog levels can be high in any of the major cities, but particularly in Milan. Throughout the country, when certain smog levels are exceeded, alternate day driving is instituted. No special immunizations are necessary other than those generally recommended.
Jan 1… New Year's Day
Apr. 25…Anniversary of the Liberation
May 1…Labor Day
June 2… Republic Day
June 24… St. John's Day (Florence)
June 29… St. Peter and St. Paul's Day
Aug. 15…Assumption Day
Sept. 19… St. Gennaros Day (Naples)
Nov 4.(Sun closest to this day)…WWI Victory Day
Nov. 1…All Saints' Day
Dec. 6…St. Nicholas Day
Dec. 7…St. Ambrogio's Day (Milan)
Dec. 8…Immaculate Conception
Dec. 25…Christmas Day
Dec. 26…St. Stephen's Day
In addition, each city observes the local patron saint's day.
NOTES FOR TRAVELERS
Passage, Customs and Duties
A passport is required. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. For further information concerning entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 White-haven Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Tel: 202-612-4400 or via the Internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or the Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco.
Those tourists planning to stay other than in hotels for more than one month should register with the local police station within eight days of arrival in Italy. Visitors to Italy may be required to demonstrate to the police upon arrival sufficient financial means to support themselves while in Italy. Credit cards, ATM cards, traveler's checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. can be used to show sufficient means.
Americans living in or visiting Italy are encouraged to register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Rome or at one of the three U.S. consulates general and obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy.
The U.S. Embassy in Rome, Italy is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A. Tel: 39-06-46741 and fax: 39-06-4674-2217. Internet address: http://www.usis.it.
The U.S. Consulates are located in:
Florence, at Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci 38. Tel: 39-055-239-8276/7/8/ 9, or 39-055-217-605; fax: 39-055-284-088.
Milan, at Via Principe Amedeo 2/10. Tel: 39-02-290-351 and fax: 39-02-290-35-273.
Naples, at Piazza della Repubblica. Tel: 39-081-583-8111 and fax: 39-081-761-1804.
There are U.S. Consular Agents located in:
Genoa, at Via Dante 2. Tel: 39-010-584-492 and fax: 39-010-553-3033.
Palermo, at Via Vaccarini 1. Tel: 39-091-305-857 and fax 39-091-625-6026.
Trieste, at Via Roma 15. Tel: 39-040-660-177 and fax 39-040-631-240.
Both dogs and cats must be accompanied by a health certificate containing the following: • Identification of the animal • Name and address of the owner • Statement that the animal has been examined on the date of issuance of the certificate and found sound. • Statement that the animal has been vaccinated for rabies at least 20 days, but no more than I 1 months, before the date of issuance.
The certificate expires 30 days after the date of issuance and must be signed by an official or officially accredited veterinary doctor of the country of origin. Importation of dogs is subject to payment of an import tax, which is 19% of the dog's value, as determined by customs authorities, and normally runs between $30-$60.
If the owner of the animal is in the U.S., a statement is required from the Department of Agriculture certifying that the veterinarian who examined the animal was authorized to do business in the U.S. Current regulations provide that dogs and cats are subject to examination by an Italian veterinarian at the border, airport, or other port of entry into Italy. Pets may be sent unaccompanied by air but not by ship.
All dogs on the streets must be muzzled and leashed. No exceptions are granted, and the regulations, though not generally enforced, are invoked in case of trouble.
Firearms and Ammunition
Up to a total of three pistols may be imported per year so long as the weapon is of the type, make and caliber registered in the "Catalogo Nazionale."
The same applies for shotguns. Three shotguns may be imported per year, so long as they are smooth bore. A shot gun with a rifled bore must be registered in the "Catalogo Nazionale" as mentioned above. Upon importation, the weapon would have to be sent to Gardone Valtrompia, Brescia, to the Banco Nazionale di Prova for balistic typing and marking.
Currency, Banking and Weights and Measures
As a member of the European Community, the Austrian monetary unit is the Euro, which is divided into 100 cent. Coins in circulation are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cent and 1 & 2 euros. Bank notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 euros. The exchange rate approximates 1.15 euro to $1 US.
Currency exchange facilities, which accept all convertible currencies and travelers checks, are available at the international airports and railroad stations, as well as at banks. They generally give better exchange rates than hotels.
Weights: 1 kilo equals 2.2 pounds (kilogram), 1 ounce equals 28.25 grams, 1 gram equals .04 ounces, 1 pound equals .45 kilograms.
A common unit of measure (weight) used when buying cold cuts, cheese, pasta, fruits and vegetables is the "etto" which equals 100 grams or about 4 ounces. If you ask for "due etti" of boiled ham, you would get about 8 ounces (half a pound.)
Liquid Measures: 1 quart equals .95 liter (almost a whole liter), 1 liter equals 1 quart, 2 ounces or 4 cups, 10 liters equal 2.64 gallons.
Distance: 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters, 1 mile equals 1.61 kilometers, 1 meter equals 39 inches, 1 kilometer equals .62 miles.
To convert kilometers to miles, divide the number of kilometers by 8 and multiply the result by 5 or multiply the number of kilometers by .6.
Temperature: Temperatures are expressed in degrees Centigrade or Celsius.
These titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country.
Barzini, Luigi. The Italians: a Full Length Portrait Featuring Their Manners and Morals. Simon & Schuster: New York, 1996 (c1964).
Bassani, Giorgio. The Garden of the Finzi-Continis: A Novel. William Weaver, translator. Fine Communications, 1997.
Burke, Greg. Parma: A Year in Serie A. Trafalgar Square, 1998.
Burnett, Stanton H. The Italian Guillotine: Operation Clean Hands and the Overthrow of Italy's First Republic. Stanton H. Burnett and Luca Mantovani. Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield in conjunction with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Calvino, Italo. Italian Folktales. George Martin, translator. Harcourt Brace, 1992.
Calvino, Italo. If On a Winter's Night a Traveler. William Weaver, translator. Harcourt Brace, 1982.
Claridge, Amanda. Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998.
Di Lampedusa, Giuseppe. The Leopard. Archibald Colquhoun, translator. lator. Pantheon Books: New York, 1988.
Frei, Matt Italy: The Unfinished Revolution. London, Mandarin, 1996.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. Italian Journey, 1786-1788. Translated by W.H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer. Penguin Books: London, 1962.
Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy. Sidney Alexander, translator. Princeton University Press, 1984.
Hay, Denys. The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Background. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Hearder, Harry. Italy: A Short History. Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Hofmann, Paul. The Seasons of Rome: A Journal. Henry Holt and Co.; New York, 1997.
Hutchinson, Robert J. When in Rome: A Journal of Life in Vatican City. Doubleday: New York, 1998.
Lamb, Richard. War in Italy, 1943-1996 1945: A Brutal Story. DaCapo Press, 1996.
Levi, Carlo. Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of the Year. Frances Frenaye, translator. Noonday Press, 1995.
Levi, Primo. If Not Now, When? William Weaver, translator. Penguin, 1995.
Levi, Primo. If This is a Man; and, The Truce. Stuart Woolf, translator. Penguin: New York, 1979.
Lintner, Valerio. A Traveller's History of Italy. 5th ed. Interlink Pub. Group, 1998.
Masson, Georgina and Tim Jepson. The Companion Guide to Rome. University of Rochester Press: Rochester, 1998.
Mayes, Frances. Bella Tuscany: The Sweet Life in Italy. Broadway Books: New York, 1999.
Mayes, Frances. Under the Tuscan Sun: At Home in Italy. Broadway Books: New York, 1996.
McCarthy, Mary. The Stones of Florence. Harcourt Brace: New York, 1989.
McCarthy, Mary. Venice Observed. Harcourt Brace: New York, 1963.
Parks, Tim. Italian Neighbors or, A Lapsed Anglo-Saxon in Verona. Fawcett Books: New York, 1993.
Parks, Tim. An Italian Education: The Further Adventures of an Expatriate in Verona. Avon Books: New York, 1995.
Pirandello, Luigi. Six Characters in Search of an Author. Eric Bentley, translator, Signet Classic, 1998.
Richards, Charles. The New Italians. Penguin Books: London, 1995.
Sciascia, Leonardo. Open Doors and Three Novellas. Sacha Ravinovitch and Marie Evans, translators. Vintage Books, 1993.
Silone, Ignazio. Bread and Wine. New American Library, 1988.
Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History. University of Michigan Press, 1998.
Stile, Alexander. Benevolence and Betrayal: Five Italian Jewish Families Under Fascism. Penguin, 1993.
Stile, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers: The Mafia and the Death of the First Republic. Vintage Books, 1996.
"Italy." Cities of the World. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Cities of the World. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
LOCATION AND SIZE.
Located in southern Europe, Italy is a peninsula extending into the Central Mediterranean Sea. It is shaped like a high-heeled boot kicking a "triangle"—the island of Sicily. Italy borders France to the west, Switzerland and Austria to the north, and Slovenia to the east. The country also shares a border with 2 tiny independent states, San Marino and the Vatican, both of which are entirely surrounded by Italian territory. Italy has an area of 301,230 square kilometers (116,304 square miles) and a coastline of 7,600 kilometers (4,722 miles), including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Comparatively, Italy is slightly larger than the state of Arizona. Rome, the capital city, is on the country's western coast at the heart of the peninsula. Other major cities include Milan, Naples, Genoa, Florence, Venice, Palermo, Bologna, and Bari.
In July 2000 the population of Italy was estimated at 57,634,327. In the same year the birth rate stood at 9.13 per 1,000 people while the death rate was 9.99 per 1,000 people. Thanks to the annual arrival of immigrants, the projected growth rate is 0.09 percent. The data clearly show that without the influx of foreign immigrants the Italian population would suffer a steady decline. More restrictive immigration policies are being adopted, and it is expected that by 2010 the population will decrease to 56,484,000.
According to 1996 statistics, just over 67 percent of Italians live in an urban setting; the rest live in the countryside. The regions with the highest density are Campania (with 426 people per square kilometer, or 1,103 per square mile, in 1998) and Lombardy (378 people per square kilometer, or 979 per square mile). The regions with the lowest density are Val d'Aosta (37 people per square kilometer, or 96 per square mile) and Basilicata (61 people per square kilometer, or 158 per square mile). The biggest city is Rome, with 2,646,000 inhabitants, followed by Milan (1,308,000), Naples (1,020,000), Turin (910,000), Palermo (687,000), and Genoa (641,000).
Ethnic Italians form 97 percent of the population, but there are small ethnic minorities such as German-Italian, French-Italian, Slovene-Italian, and Albanian-Italian, while foreign immigrants make up 1.8 percent of the population. The largest immigrant groups are Moroccans, Albanians, Filipinos, Americans, Tunisians, and Chinese. Italy—home to Vatican City, the seat of the Pope—is a predominantly Roman Catholic country, even though church attendance has been progressively falling. There are small Protestant and Jewish communities, but, as a consequence of the growing number of North African, Bosnian, and Albanian immigrants, the second religion of Italy today is Islam. With 18 percent of people over 65 and only 14 percent below the age of 14, there is widespread concern about the rapid rate at which Italy's population is aging. With average life expectancy at 79.03 years, the government is worried about the financial costs, such as health care and pensions, associated with an aging population.
Contrary to popular perception, Italian families are no longer as large as they once were, and it is becoming common for couples to have only 1 child. Economic well-being, a high cost of living, and the entrance of women into the workforce have had a tremendous influence on family structure. In 1961, about 14.4 percent of families had 4 or more children, compared to 1998 when only 1.4 percent of families had 4 or more. Without the arrival of immigrants, the Italian population would have fallen over the last decade. To reverse the negative trend, the government has adopted family-friendly policies. The government encourages families to have more children through tax breaks and direct grants. The policy has not been too successful, however, because people do not consider the financial incentives to be enough.
OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY
Italy's gross domestic product (GDP) of US$1.273 trillion makes it the sixth richest country in the world. In income per capita, it occupies 18th place. The country's economic success is a recent accomplishment. Italy was unified in 1861 after 3 wars of independence fought against various foreign rulers who dominated different parts of the country. The driving force behind Italy's unification was Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Piedmont and Sardinia, who waged wars against foreign rule in the name of Italian independence and territorial unity. Italy had long been carved up by foreign powers, but several self-ruling cities and kingdoms also existed. With the help of committed patriots, such as Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel accomplished his aim to unify the country under his rule. Despite the enthusiasm of unification, economic conditions were poor. Italy had few industries, and most people lived off agriculture. Furthermore, the difference between the more advanced northern half of the country and the poorer south was evident. The pace of industrialization was slow, and industry could not provide jobs for new generations of workers. Because of the poor standard of living and lack of work, many Italians left the country to find a better life, particularly in the United States. The first wave of mass emigration to the United States took place before the turn of the 20th century, followed by a second wave after World War I (1914-18). During the period of Italy's fascist rule, which lasted from 1922 until 1943, and then following the end of World War II (1939-45), many Italians migrated to European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and Belgium. Before the economic boom in the late 1950s, many Italians also migrated to Australia, South Africa, Switzerland, and Latin America.
The turning point in Italian economic history was the economic prosperity of the 1960s. At the time, private and state-owned enterprises took advantage of foreign assistance from the United States under the Marshall Plan and the launch of the European Economic Community (EEC) to restore the Italian economy. Despite skepticism about the European Common Market, Italy joined and profited from the progressive integration of Western European economies. By developing strong export-related industries, the industrial triangle of Milan-Genoa-Turin led the economic boom. Italian exports became attractive, and the growth of exports led to a strong internal demand for goods and services. Small and medium enterprises began establishing themselves and prospering in Northern Italy. These companies were the force behind economic growth as they exported machinery, engineering products, textiles, and clothing. Large private companies such as FIAT and state-owned companies such as ENI and ENEL also contributed to economic growth. Meanwhile, southern Italy remained impoverished, and its inhabitants migrated north in large numbers until the late 1970s.
In the following decades, Italy was able to consolidate its economic success, even though the economy was never again as strong as it had been in the 1960s. Comparatively, the Italian economy grew faster in the 1960s than any other European country, while around the world only the Japanese economy fared better. The 1970s and 1980s saw much more uneven development. Italy is heavily dependent on Algerian gas and Arab oil supplies, so it was hit hard by the oil crises of the 1970s. Despite this trouble, Italy's economy grew over 3 percent annually during the 1970s, though it began to slow at the end of the decade. The second oil crisis in 1979 and domestic political turmoil created high unemployment and high inflation . Strikes, demonstrations, flight of capital, and confrontations between the trade unions and businesses plagued the country. To steer the country away from this troubled period, political parties formed a Grand Alliance to find a solution that would satisfy most of the people. A national solidarity government was formed and managed to deal with the problem of stagflation (high inflation combined with high unemployment and stagnant consumer demand), reduce civil unrest, and lay the foundations for future growth. The country began to recover about 1983 and moved toward a new period of economic expansion. Strong economic performance allowed successive governments to make improvements in the welfare state that provides health care, education, pensions, infrastructure , and benefits.
Before the 1980s, Italy was a free market economy with a strong element of state control and state ownership. Many state-owned companies had operated efficiently and contributed to economic growth. By the mid-1980s, however, the state sector was beginning to create distortions in the economy. Many Italians employed by the state lived well above their means, accumulating debts and enjoying a free ride at the public expense. By the mid-1980s, appointments to the civil service and to the management of state-owned enterprises were handed out as political favors, leading to widespread corruption. The mismanagement of public resources drained the economy. Furthermore, the high costs of the welfare system put a strain on the country's finances, thanks to widespread corruption and waste in the health care, social security, transport, and education systems. The economic slump of the early 1990s highlighted the burden of the public debt and brought about radical measures to cut costs, privatize , and reduce the role of government in the economy.
The state began to withdraw from its role in the economy after a first round of privatization was carried out at the end of the 1980s. Large state-owned enterprises such as the motor car manufacturing company, Alfa-Romeo, were sold to private investors. The progressive disengagement of the state from the economy created more room for private investors. With the prospect of entrance into the European Monetary Union (EMU), Italy was forced to undertake massive reforms to lower inflation, reduce the deficit, and lower interest rates. By 1992 reforms accelerated as the state disengaged from the economic sphere. The radical changes brought success in tackling the high deficit through cuts to the welfare state and measures to limit waste. Inflation was brought under control by means of restrictive monetary policies , and the tax system was made more efficient. Because of the initiatives, Italy succeeded in qualifying to participate in the EMU.
By 1998 and 1999, Italy experienced sustained growth after many years of high taxes, budget cuts, and high unemployment. The relative importance of the Milan-Genoa-Turin industrial triangle declined, and small and mediumsized private enterprises in the northern part of the country became the chief participants in the new boom. Recovery from the economic recession of the early 1990s and acceptance into the EMU was due, in part, to the social partnership pact brokered by the government. Employers and labor united to put an end to confrontation and to adopt part-time contracts, flexible hours, and lower overtime rates. Even the public sector embraced these changes to improve its efficiency. Investments were made in technological development, salaries were frozen for months, and the workforce increased production in exchange for job security.
The Italian economy is now much more free-market oriented than at any previous time. Several sectors have been liberalized and state monopolies disbanded. Many state-owned enterprises have been privatized over the last 8 years, with 13 percent of these sold to national private investors and another 8 percent to foreign private investors. The remaining 79 percent were sold to the public via stock offerings. Over 500,000 workers were transferred from the public to the private sector between 1992 and 1998. Some of the largest companies to be privatized or already privatized included: AGIP, SNAM, and Italgas (in the energy sector); ILVA, Ansaldo, Nuovo Pignone, Dalmine, and Italimpianti (in the industrial sector); Credito Italiano, Banco di Roma, and Banca Commerciale (financial sector); Telecom Italia (communication sector); and Alitalia, Tirrenia, and SEA (transportation sector).
By 2000, Italy enjoyed a healthy economy characterized by slow growth. In fact, Italy had the slowest growing economy of the 11 founding members of the EMU. With the GDP growth of 1.4 percent in 1999, Italy lagged behind the 2.9 percent annual growth rate of other countries in the EMU. But growth increased in 2000, reaching an annual rate of 2.7 percent and may be expected to continue to improve in the coming years as the country continues to adjust to the new economic scenario created by the withdrawal of the state.
Despite the relatively healthy economy, high unemployment, underdevelopment in large areas of the south, and the large presence of an often criminal, informal economy continue to plague Italy. Most of the unemployed live in the south. Organized crime tries to recruit those people. Unemployment has always been a problem even in times of economic growth. In 2000 unemployment stood at 11.5 percent. Although unemployment is high, it may not be reflective of reality because of the number of people employed in the nation's informal sector. Living conditions in the south of Italy are difficult, the job market is tight, and emigration is still the preferred option of many young people. The government has made a serious attempt to address this problem by granting tax breaks to companies willing to set up business and hire workers in the south. CGIL, the largest Italian trade union, calculated that between October 1997 and April 2000 over 100,000 people found work in small or medium-sized enterprises in the south.
The government has toughened laws against businesses that fail to pay their taxes and who gravitate toward the informal economy. Companies that want to move from the informal economy and legalize receive help. The re-emergence of the companies entitles workers to social benefits and helps generate revenue for the state from taxes. Most of the new enterprises are active in the clothing, footwear, agricultural, and construction sectors. Although these businesses operate on a small scale, many hire a large number of workers. It is difficult to determine precise statistics because of the informal nature of the market.
It is incorrect to treat the whole of southern Italy as a homogenous area because there are substantial differences in economic and social development in different regions. For example, Abruzzo is more prosperous and developed than Calabria. Within the same southern region, production compares favorably with the more affluent north. Although social development and the standard of living is improving, overall indicators still point, however, to a significant gap between the north and the south.
Ironically, factories in the north suffer from a shortage of labor because of recent economic growth. Despite unemployment rates below 4 percent, southerners are reluctant to move to the north. Southern objections include the high cost of living in the north and the long hours accompanied by most of the manual job opportunities. Many people from the south with higher education hold out for better job prospects. Because of job vacancies, smaller companies in the north request more visas for eastern European and African workers.
POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION
Italy has been a democracy since the end of World War II, and despite its international reputation for political instability, the country has enjoyed largely consistent policies from successive governments. The country became a republic following the abdication of King Victor Emmanuel III in 1946 and the creation of a constitution in 1948. The country's president is elected by an electoral college whose members represent the popular vote. The president in turn selects a prime minister from the ruling coalition in the parliament. In elections held in 1999 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was elected president. Following legislative elections in 2001, Silvio Berlusconi was selected as prime minister.
Italy has a bicameral legislature consisting of a 315-member Senate and a 630-member Chamber of Deputies. Both houses are directly elected by popular vote, and members serve 5-year terms. The judicial branch is headed by a Constitutional Court whose members are appointed in equal number by the president, the parliament, and the administrative Supreme Courts.
The major parties that have dominated politics since 1946 are: the Christian Democrats (DC), the Communist Party (PCI), and the Socialist Party (PSI). The Christian Democrats have been the dominant force in Italian politics, continuously leading a coalition government from 1946 until the early 1990s. Until 1963, when the Socialist Party entered parliament, the Christian Democrats' coalition partners represented 3 smaller parties, the Republican Party (PRI), the Social Democratic Party (PSDI), and the Liberal Party (PLI). The main objective of all parties was the exclusion of the communists from government, and the resulting continuity of parliamentary representation ensured that there were no major swings of policy. This government coalition presided over a long period of economic growth and a satisfied electorate opposed to any radical change. The harsh recessions of the late 1970s, mid-1980s, and early 1990s, however, undermined the popularity of the DC-PSI axis, but it was not until 1992 that the political system fell apart. In that year, a major anti-corruption investigation that implicated politicians and heads of industry in a cash-for-favors exchange shook the political and economic establishment of the country.
The corruption scandals, combined with the collapse of the USSR that ended the ideological war over communism in Italy, radically altered the political system. In addition, a new economic recession for which mismanagement of the national economy was largely to blame hastened the exit of an already discredited political class. Thus, traditional parties disappeared, and new parties emerged between 1991 and 1994. Electoral laws were reformed, and in a radical move, proportional representation was abolished. It was replaced with the first-pastthe-post system, where the country is divided into constituencies, and the constituency seat goes to the winning candidate. (The congressional elections in the United States follow a comparable system.) The changes stood to give the electorate clear choices and were welcomed by many who believed that, with fewer parties in government, politicians would deal with concrete issues in non-ideological terms. Far from decreasing, however, the number of political parties has increased, and coalition government still prevails. Nevertheless, to a certain extent, expectations have been met, and the Italian electorate does face a clear choice at election time between center-right and center-left coalitions. Both sides have had periods in office since 1994.
The main parties within the center-right coalition are Forza Italia, National Alliance (AN), the Northern League (NL), and the Center Christian Democrats (CCD). The largest party is Forza Italia, led by media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi, who is also the leader of the coalition. This party believes strongly in further reducing the role of the state in the economic sphere and aims to accelerate the pace of privatization. Clearly conservative, Forza Italia also plans to cut the costs of the welfare state and introduce free-market competition in health and education, as well as cutting taxes. The Northern League shares these economic policies but also advocates increased political and fiscal autonomy for all regions by devolving responsibility to the regions for providing several fundamental services, including the provision of education, health care, transport, and law and order. Under this proposal, the regions would be empowered to raise taxes, keeping most of the revenue to spend as they decide, without central government interference. The NL represents, in electoral terms, the majority of northern voters, and its appeals for federal reforms are to be taken seriously. The National Alliance is the most right-wing party of the coalition and is mostly preoccupied with limiting foreign immigration, preserving the integrity of the national territory, and safeguarding the international credibility of Italy. It shares the broad economic approach of its partners but does not support the federal reforms advocated by the NL. The Center Christian Democrats offer a more moderate voice regarding immigration and social policies but argue for increased economic liberalization.
The center-right coalition was in power in 1994 for only 7 months and was unable to carry out their promised reforms because the Northern League withdrew from the alliance. The center-left coalition won the 1996 election. The main parties of the center-left coalition are the Democrats of the Left (DS), the People's Party (PPI), the Greens, the Democrats, and, after years in the wilderness, the Communist Party (PCI). The DS, the largest partner in the coalition, is a social-democratic party. The broad outline of its economic policy, shared by all its partners, favors liberalization, privatization, lower taxes, and job creation by means of financial incentives to employers. The PPI is one of the heirs of the old Christian Democrats (DC) and is the most socialist party of the coalition, supporting recognition of gay rights, subsidized housing for refugees, and abortion. In the economic sphere, the PPI is slightly to the left of the dominant DS and believes that the state should still play a strong role in managing the economy. One distinctive policy of the PPI is the advocacy of state aid to private schools run by the Catholic Church. The Greens subscribe to most of the economic policies advocated by the DS but are mainly concerned with the environmental aspects of those policies. In common with the Greens in the rest of Europe, they are particularly committed to limiting the use of motor cars in favor of a more environmentally friendly public transport system. Many of the economic policies of the right and left parties overlap; the difference is marked in matters of social policy, the environment, and federalism. The center-left coalition is not as keen as its opponents to introduce free-market competition in the provision of health and education, preferring a smaller, more efficient welfare state and, in principle, is not hostile to foreign immigration. Finally, the center-left supports administrative and political decentralization, but is against extensive federal reforms that would widen the already large gap between North and South.
The center-left coalition held power from 1996 to 2001, a period characterized by an economic slump and by Italian support for NATO actions in Kosovo. With the economy slumping in the runup to the 2001 legislative elections, the center-right parties, led by Silvio Berlusconi's right-wing Forza Italia, returned to power in a coalition that included some of the most right-wing parties in Europe. Since his return to power, Berlusconi has been an outspoken proponent of free trade and pro-business policies. He has promised to reduce unemployment, cut taxes, and reform education and the still-bloated state bureaucracy.
An aspect of Italian politics that should not be ignored is the growing disillusionment of the electorate. Many citizens feel that their participation in the political process makes no difference to government, and there has been a sharp decrease in party membership. Voter turnout has steadily decreased since the mid-1980s, and in the 1996 elections, 23.1 percent of voters either stayed away from the polls or spoiled their ballot papers. This is a worrying sign of disaffection, and many political parties are concerned that if this trend continues it will undermine the legitimacy of future governments.
The former leader of the Socialist Party, Giuliano Amato, launched a far-reaching privatization program in 1992, which was continued by both coalition governments. Aside from the sale of state assets, both coalitions agreed that the pension system should be reformed and its apparent generosity curtailed. The reform of the pension system was carried out in full by the center-left coalition in power from 1996 to 2001, which was able to convince the trade unions to accept a deal. Both coalitions are also in favor of increased international free trade, even though they advocate some sort of protectionist measures for so-called "cultural products" such as movies and TV programs, which promote Italian language and culture. Finally, budget cuts across the board (particularly as regards health and defense) have been welcomed by both coalitions. The general convergence of ideas on economic management should not, however, obscure the differences that still exist between left and right. These differences are highly visible when it comes to crucial social issues such as immigration, gay rights, and the environment.
Problems of corruption, including the infiltration of political institutions by organized crime, have long been a feature of Italian life. The present political system was born out of a popular reaction against the spread of corruption and crime, but the problem, though marginally worse in the 1970s and 1980s than it is as of 2001, refuses to go away. The new political structures seem only to have provided a pause in the usual pattern of "doing politics" and "doing business" in Italy.
Taxation in Italy is quite a complicated affair because there are numerous taxes that each citizen has to pay. Moreover taxation is high, representing 43.3 percent of the GDP. However, the number and quality of the public services are some justification for high taxes, and measures to simplify the tax system have been introduced since 1998. Income tax accounts for 34.9 percent of total tax revenues, while value-added tax (VAT) contributes 35.4 percent. In addition, local governments levy other indirect taxes .
The tax system is plagued by tax evasion, however. Many economists point to this problem as one of the main challenges Italy needs to resolve in the near future. The government is improving the situation, but there is still an enormous amount of work to do. Aside from the considerable sums of money that entirely escape the government due to the strength of the informal economy, there is significant income tax evasion. Employees in both the public and private sectors have their tax deducted from their paychecks and do not have to submit tax declaration forms. However, employers, self-employed professionals, and business owners must fill out tax forms and declare their profits. Huge numbers of people in these categories falsely report their earnings, thus lowering their tax bills. The state has as yet not found a method of tackling this situation. For many years tax evasion was ignored, thanks to a commonly accepted theory that it was conducive to economic development: the money would swell either consumption or investment. But tax evasion is clearly putting a strain on public finances, and its effects are particularly negative at a time of increasing cutbacks in public services. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) recognized the problem in 1998 and pointed out that far-reaching reforms had to be undertaken if tax evasion was to be reduced. The government is currently implementing certain reforms that are expected to make the system more coherent and make evasion less common.
INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS
Italy has an efficient and modern infrastructure, even though it performs poorly compared to other Western European countries of comparable size. The whole peninsula is well connected through an extensive system of railways, expressways, national roads, airports and seaports. Most of the infrastructure was rebuilt after the ravages of World War II and is subject to constant improvement and upkeep. However, many important projects have failed to materialize, among them the subway system in Naples, and more railways in the south and east to facilitate the movement of goods. At the same time, funds were given to many useless projects, built solely to line the pockets of those whose political or economic support could thus be counted upon.
Italy has a number of important international airports and the national carrier, Alitalia, has a fleet of 166 planes which transport 25 million passengers annually and connect Italy to 60 other countries. Overall, Italy has 136 airports, the most important being Fiumicino (Rome), Malpensa and Linate (both serving Milan), Ronchi dei Legionari (Trieste), Caselle (Turin), and Marco Polo (Venice). Seaports used to be a key element of the Italian transport system; they handle a substantial percentage of cargo until the mid-1970s. Due to the development of alternative means of transportation and competition from neighboring ports, however, their traffic has declined somewhat. The ports of Trieste, Genoa, Naples, Taranto, Augusta, Gioia Tauro, and Livorno are economically important to their respective regions. Italy is a major power in container shipping in the Mediterranean. The Italian merchant fleet consists of over 2,000 ships, 1,331 of which are over 100 tons. The country also has 1,500 miles of waterways that are used for commercial purposes, but this system is relatively undeveloped.
Since most goods in Italy are transported by road, the system is constantly upgraded and improved. It provides a highly developed and efficient network of interconnected highways and lesser roads, particularly in northern regions. The main routes at the hub of the road system are Turin-Milan-Venice-Trieste, Milan-Bologna-Florence-Rome, Milan-Genoa, and Rome-Naples. There are 6,460 kilometers (4,014 miles) of expressway, mostly in the northern and central regions, and the system overall is comprised of 654,676 kilometers (406,815 miles) of paved roads. Links to the rest of Europe are excellent. However, even Italy's extensive and sophisticated road network is now barely able to cope with the steadily increasing traffic.
The country's rail system is also highly developed and traverses a distance of 19,394 kilometers (12,051 miles). Italian passenger trains are generally punctual, comfortable, and cheap compared to the rest of Europe. They are the preferred means of travel for many commuters as well as tourists, who can thus avoid congested roads and urban areas. In order to improve the system, the state-owned rail company, Ferrovie dello Stato (FS), is currently developing a project to introduce high-speed trains like the French TGV.
Infrastructure is not the same quality throughout the country. While the road and rail networks are intricate and plentiful in the north and center of the country, the southern infrastructure is poor. Northern Italy's impressive economic growth and geographical proximity to the heart of Europe made it a key commercial area, and the
|Country||Newspapers||Radios||TV Sets a||Cable subscribers a||Mobile Phones a||Fax Machines a||Personal Computers a||Internet Hosts b||Internet Users b|
|aData are from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.|
|bData are from the Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org) and are per 10,000 people.|
|SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.|
infrastructure developed accordingly. By contrast, the geographical isolation and poor economic development of Southern Italy meant that infrastructure was never a priority except for seaports.
Italy has very few natural resources and must import most of them from neighboring countries. Crude oil comes mainly from Libya, Algeria, and countries in the Arab peninsula. Petroleum represents 4.5 percent of all Italian imports. Gas comes from Algeria, Tunisia and Russia through a number of pipelines. Furthermore, unlike Germany and France, Italy has no nuclear power capability and is completely dependent on imported energy. For this reason, Italy is one of the few Western European countries to enjoy very good relations with a number of Arab states. In 1998 and 1999, Italian prime ministers were the first Western leaders to visit countries such as Iran and Libya after many years of diplomatic isolation. In 1998, Italy consumed 266.705 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity, provided mainly by the formerly state-owned company ENEL, which was privatized in 1999. The generally reliable 220-volt power system covers the whole country.
Until recently, the state-owned company Telecom Italia provided telecommunications services in Italy, but the market recently opened to competition, thanks in part to the privatization of Telecom Italia in 1997, which remains the principal provider. There were 25 million main telephone lines in use in 1999. Like many other Western European countries, Italy is experiencing the Internet revolution, and in 1999 there were 68 Internet hosts per 10,000 people. More recent, but unconfirmed, figures claim that 10 million Italians surf the net. What distinguishes Italians from their neighbors in Western Europe is the quantity of mobile phones in circulation. They have proved particularly popular in Italy, and by 1998 there were 355 mobile phones per 1,000 people. This figure has certainly increased dramatically since then and recent figures record that 48 million cell phones have been sold in Italy since 1995.
Like all advanced capitalist economies, Italy is quickly moving away from its traditional economic sectors to become predominantly services-oriented, although the economic importance of the industrial sector is higher than the EU average. Agriculture accounted for 2.5 percent of the GDP in 2000, while industry and services accounted, respectively, for 30.4 percent and 67.1 percent of the GDP. Italy has recovered from the economic recession of the early 1990s in part through its efforts to develop the service sector even further. Services both to commercial enterprises and private individuals have grown in importance, while the relevance of the agricultural sector continues to decline. In the south, tourism is seen as one of the principal sectors for development, one that would generate employment in the region.
The manufacture of machinery, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, and food processing are the main industrial sub-sectors. Many of these enterprises manufacture goods almost exclusively for foreign markets and must, therefore, monitor international economic changes very carefully. These companies are largely concentrated in the northern regions and are often small or medium in size. More often than not, they are also family run, and the business is kept within the family for generations. The large manufacturers include such internationally recognized names as FIAT, Benetton, Parmalat, Mediaset, Pirelli, and Zanussi, multinational companies which produce a wide range of products across several manufacturing sectors.
An interesting aspect of Italian economic development is the increasingly important role that small and medium enterprises have come to play. These companies are often family run and can count on a well-qualified and dedicated workforce. They receive extensive support from local government and are well integrated into their communities. These complex business networks are known as integrated industrial districts, which means that almost every company in the same geographic area makes the same products, or necessary components for those products. This pattern enables all companies in the integrated district to share a common distribution network and to take delivery of energy resources or raw materials in huge amounts in one place. The system cuts costs to business and helps them to compete in the international markets. Thus, for example, the northern area of Friuli is renowned for its furniture making factories, the region of Marche for shoemaking, and so on.
Italy's employment statistics reflect its economic trends. The agricultural labor force is steadily diminishing (down to 5.5 percent of the total workforce in 1999), and industrial employment is also shrinking due to the impact of the new economy (to 32.6 percent in 1999). The service sector employs the largest percentage, 61.9 percent, of the Italian workforce. During the 1993-95 recession, the industrial sector went through a painful period of restructuring and many jobs were lost. Older workers were offered the option of early retirement, while others were enrolled in retraining programs. A substantial number of jobs were saved by the introduction of the social partnership plan.
The agricultural sector employed only 5.5 percent of the working population in 1999 and contributed only 2.5 percent of the GDP in 2000, with an output of over US$36 billion. However, in the southern regions of Basilicata, Calabria, and Molise, agriculture accounts for just over 20 percent of local employment. The decline of this sector in terms of employment and the GDP is, however, compensated for by ever-accelerating productivity. The agricultural profile is in line with all other Western European countries and is due specifically to the effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU). It is impossible to examine Italian agriculture without taking CAP into consideration since CAP is the basis for agricultural support across Western Europe. This EU policy ensures that subsidies and incentives are offered in order to sustain prices and guarantee a certain level of income to farmers. Thus, prices are artificially maintained, and if agriculture were to be liberalized in full, the sector would collapse throughout Europe. CAP was launched in the late 1950s to improve efficiency and as of 2001 accounts for most of EU expenditures, a staggering US$45 billion.
The CAP was not very successful in Italy in its initial stages because subsidies did not cover several traditional Mediterranean products such as olives, tomatoes, oranges, and lemons. When these were finally included, the more positive aspects of the policy emerged. First, it provided the necessary capital for mechanization, and Italy underwent rapid mechanization during the 1980s. Second, it offered an incentive to merge and thus enlarge the average farm. Through CAP, the EU buys up surplus products and, as a consequence, larger farms can be very beneficial to the economy. Finally, CAP ensures that all traditional Italian agricultural products are given some protection against cheap competition, with export traders subsidized to supply cut rates. Unfortunately, CAP seems to have favored northern farmers, but the government is attempting to correct the effects of CAP by offering grants and tax breaks to small farms in the south.
With only 5 percent of the land under cultivation, Italy is not self-sufficient in agricultural products, yet it enjoys an abundance of agricultural resources. Despite a negative balance of trade in agriculture, productivity is high, and the Mediterranean climate ensures that a variety of products are available both for internal consumption and external markets. Italy is a world leader in olive oil production and a major exporter of rice, tomatoes, and wine. Moreover, BSE, or "mad cow" disease, caused a major drop in beef consumption, while an increasing number of consumers turned towards organically grown produce.
The Italian government has always been a staunch defender of its national agricultural sector when it comes to negotiating production quotas with EU partners or seeking grants to defend the sector from decline. Funds to buy machinery, to compensate farmers for over-production, and to pay EU-imposed fines were constantly made available by the government. However, the Italian government was unable to stop the most recent CAP reform of 1997, which caused spending on Mediterranean products to decline in favor of increased spending for northern European dairy farmers.
In addition, Italian agriculture is suffering from changes in the climate and very poor management of the land. Large-scale farmers in the north live reasonably well, particularly in comparison to their counterparts in the south. The regional disparity is due partly to the effects of CAP and partly to organizational differences. In northern and central Italy, co-operatives has dominate. These farming co-operatives provide widespread support, both socially and economically, for their members, and help in rationalizing production and distribution. In the south, farmers have no production and distribution networks on which they can depend, and the smaller scale of their operations, combined with their isolation, curtails their ability to compete in the market.
Meat has never been a major Italian product, and most of the meat consumed in Italy is imported from other European countries, particularly Ireland and Germany. Italy is also quite weak in the dairy farming sector, although it exports a handful of distinctive cheeses such as parmesan, mozzarella, and gorgonzola. Fruit is grown almost exclusively in the south, with most of the oranges and lemons coming from Sicily. Apples grow in Trentino Alto Adige. But the real strength of Italian agriculture is the production of olives, wine, and tomatoes.
Olives are one of the country's most lucrative exports. In 1999 production reached a record 7.243 million quintals (a quintal is a unit of weight equal to 100 kilograms, or about 220 pounds), confirming Italy as the leading producer in the world. The hot Mediterranean climate makes the southern region of Italy well suited for olive production, with most olives produced in Puglia. The industry changed considerably during the 1990s, moving away from traditional farming methods to more intensive and mechanized production. Thus, half of the olive-producing land excludes other types of cultivation and small producers are being driven out as large companies take over processing and distribution in the olive industry. Italy's main international competitors in olive production are Greece and Spain. In 2000, due to poor weather conditions, Italy's output decreased to 4.929 million quintals and Italian olive production was outstripped by Spain.
Grapes are to be found in every Italian region. Winemaking has a very long tradition in the country, and Italy enjoys a positive trade balance in this sector. The vines yield 9,459,000 metric tons of grapes and 62,618,000 hectoliters of wine (a hectoliter is 100 liters). Until the mid-1980s, wine production was not generally of a high standard and, indeed, much table wine was cheap and of very poor quality. The industry then went through a series of reforms that introduced strict quality controls, and standards rose to a level whereby Italian wines can compete at international level with French wines. Italy's best-known wines are Chianti (produced in Tuscany), Barolo (produced in Piedmont), Soave (produced in the Veneto), and the white wines of Collio (produced in Friuli), Marsala (from Sicily), and Brunello (produced in Tuscany).
As in all other advanced Western economies, the Italian industrial sector is declining, decreasing the level of employment in industry and affecting the sector's contribution to the GDP. Industry employed 32.6 percent of the workforce in 1999, while contributing 30.4 percent to the GDP in 2000. However, manufacturing was the key to Italy's post-World War II economic boom and remains important. The steel industry in particular allowed the country to become one of the strongest economies in the world. All branches of the industrial sector grew very quickly, and Italian exports soared. Then, in the second half of the 1980s, the industrial sector went though a crisis, while the service sector expanded. With the onset of the second millennium, the loss of jobs in the industrial sector seems to have stabilized, and although facing tough international competition, Italian companies appear ready for the challenge.
The backbone of the manufacturing sector is a few internationally known multinationals, operating in company with large numbers of small and medium enterprises. The most noteworthy manufactured products include machine tools, textiles and clothing, motorized road vehicles, domestic appliances, arms, fertilizers, and petrochemicals. Most manufacturing firms are located in the north of the country, with very few large factories in southern Italy. When Italy experienced its economic miracle in the 1950s and 1960s, the manufacturing heart of the country was the industrial triangle of Milan, Genoa, and Turin. However, this area has lost its predominant role due to the demise of the steel mills and other heavy industry. The northeast of the country, mainly the regions of Lombardy, the Veneto, and Friuli, is now the engine of the Italian economy. Certain large enterprises have relocated some of their operations to southern Italy to benefit from tax breaks and a more flexible workforce, but the region still has a very poor concentration of factories. Furthermore, large state-owned factories shut down in Taranto, Crotone, Terni, and Naples in the late 1980s, causing the loss of thousands of jobs. This action was part of a rationalization plan that required either the closure or the privatization of state-owned companies, and the public sector workforce was encouraged to seek employment in the growing service sector.
The most important, and probably best known, Italian manufacturing business is FIAT. This multinational company, headquartered in Turin and headed by the Agnelli family, has been a major force in Italian economic life since the beginning of the 20th century. FIAT is mainly involved in the production of Fiat cars and has a number of plants in Italy and abroad. It also owns Alfa-Romeo, Lancia, and Ferrari. FIAT's combined operations produce 3 million cars per year in Italy. While its export market is reasonably healthy, FIAT's large share of the Italian market allows it to compete in the European market. The Italian government is still influenced by the idea that "what is good for FIAT is good for Italy," so it lends its support to the car manufacturing company. In recent years, the government has subsidized the purchase of brand new cars (in most cases, Fiats) from car owners who want to trade in their old model. Thanks to this scheme, FIAT was able to make the Punto, one of the best-selling small cars in the company's history. Many FIAT operations are headquartered abroad, with cars and trucks made in countries such as Poland, Russia, Brazil, and Spain. Finally, the year 2000 alliance with General Motors allowed FIAT to re-discover its U.S. market, which was abandoned when Japanese car manufacturers began exporting to the United States. FIAT is also heavily involved in many other sectors of the manufacturing industry: car components, trucks, motorcycles, industrial vehicles, weapons, and engineering machinery.
TEXTILES AND CLOTHING.
Another very important sub-sector in the manufacturing industry is textiles and clothing, which boasts some of the world's best known fashion designer labels, such as Valentino, Armani, Versace, Gianfranco Ferré, and Krizia. However, the more casual clothing market accounts for the financial success of this sector. The design, quality, and relatively inexpensive prices of its products have made textile manufacturing Italy's third largest business after engineering and construction. Almost 1 million workers are employed by the textile industry, which is a leading exporter of clothes and shoes. There are very few large enterprises in this industry; most producers have small or medium-sized factories. The real strength of the sector lies in the efficiency of its distribution networks, and in the fame they enjoy, particularly in newer markets like the United States and Asia where the top labels are status symbols.
One big name known throughout the world caters to customers of average income: Benetton. In recent years almost as well known for its controversial advertising as for its clothes, Benetton is a family-owned business located in the Veneto. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Benetton's annual sales figures passed the US$1 billion mark, with most of the income derived from export. By addressing the casual market rather than the high fashion market, Benetton was able to combine quality with affordable prices. The strategy paid off and helped other Italian manufacturers by creating a niche market from which they could all profit. However, currently, Benetton is not as strong as it was in the clothing market, and it has diversified into construction and communications. Nevertheless, the industry remains a vibrant cornerstone of Italian export.
While many of the more famous brand names are situated in northern Italy, the textile sector is reasonably strong in southern Italy, where an increasing number of producers have relocated some of their manufacturing. Fashion houses in particular tend to outsource their production to small, family-run businesses in the area of Naples or in Puglia, where workers are more flexible. They specialize in the manufacture of leather, from which clothes, handbags, wallets, and purses are made.
The development of the food processing industry in Italy has been similar to that of textiles. While its contribution to the GDP is far less substantial, it is nevertheless a significant economic sector. Fragmented and small-scale until the 1980s, the sector became more competitive by the 1990s through privatization and rationalization. Very powerful food manufacturing groups such as Barilla (makers of pasta) and Parmalat (dairy products) are dominant in their respective fields, not only in Italy but also abroad. Swiss-owned Nestlé acquired Buitoni pasta and Perugina chocolate in 1987 and thus has an important presence in Italy. As well as these main players, a wide range of small firms produce traditional Italian fare such as mozzarella cheese, Parma ham, and Calabrian sausages, without much recourse to modern technology. Most of the food products are destined for local consumption, but many are also exported. The widespread network of Italian restaurants abroad contributes to the increasing reputation and popularity of Italian foods throughout the world, and processed food exports represent a major element of numerous businesses in the sector.
Services have become the strongest foundation on which Italy builds its economic health. With a 67.1 percent share of GDP in 2000, the sector is the largest contributor to the national economy. The enormous expansion of service industries over the last couple of decades has encouraged the government to regard as a priority further investment in the sector. Since 1991, the number of employees in the service sector of the state bureaucracy, however, has steadily decreased as part of the government's cost-cutting policy and important state-run services are being given over to the private sector.
Italy competes with the United States, France, and Spain as one of the most popular destinations for international tourists, who flock to it in huge numbers. Approximately 30 million tourists visited the country in 1999 and, thanks to the Catholic Jubileum (a celebration of Catholic heritage) over 40 million visited in 2000. Surprisingly, tourism was not a priority for the country until the late 1980s. Then a coherent promotion program emerged and led to general improvements in transport, hotels and other tourist accommodations, museums, and monuments. The turning point was the 1990 soccer World Cup, when tourists descended on Italy for that event and rediscovered the country's other attractions.
Italy is extraordinarily rich in history, classical art and architecture, ancient cities and villages, glorious landscapes, and a coastline well served by beaches. The vast western historical and artistic heritage draws large numbers of visitors to Rome, Venice, and Florence, while the smaller cities such as Siena, Pisa, Naples, the Isle of Capri, and Taormina in Sicily are increasingly popular. The region of Emilia-Romagna is a favorite spot for those, such as the east Europeans, on a limited budget, while Sardinia and Sicily are more upscale destinations. In 1996, receipts from tourism amounted to over US$28 billion. If those working in the transport sector were to be included in the statistics for the tourist sector, almost half of the working population would be connected with tourism. However, as with so much else in Italy, tourism is highly concentrated in the center-north, where most of the hotels and accommodations are located. In recent years, however, both central government and local administrations have begun to invest heavily in tourist services in the southern regions. Potentially, tourism can bring hard currency and employment to the south, encouraging development in its comparatively neglected regions of the country.
The working conditions in the tourist industry vary considerably from region to region and from business to business. Many hotels, restaurants, and bars are family owned, and extra labor is hired at a low cost during the busy months. Conditions are better for workers in state-owned museums, tourist offices, and transport. An almost unlimited supply of labor from the informal economy is available to the tourist sector, and it is needy foreign immigrants who take the lowest paid and least pleasant jobs.
Italy has a highly developed retail system. Mass outlets in the form of supermarkets, malls, and multiple stores are becoming increasingly popular, and distribution is very well organized, particularly in the northern regions. The main chains are Standa, COOP, Esselunga, Sigma, and SPAR. Nevertheless, the retail sector is largely made up small, family-owned shops, and these remain the primary sales outlets for goods and services in the south. The shop-owners' association, a very powerful lobbying group, was able to convince government to withhold licenses for supermarkets and malls for 2 years so that small shop owners could claim back some business. Working conditions are decent in family-owned shops, where employers tend to treat outside help as if they belonged to the family. Italian shop assistants, unlike those in many other countries, are professionals who are likely to stay with their jobs for life.
Italy is a highly developed economy, and the financial and banking sector is similar to that of all other Western European countries. The Bank of Italy is the central bank, but with EMU now in place, the country's monetary policy is overseen by the European Central Bank. However, the Bank of Italy remains in charge of credit control and functions as the ultimate guarantor of other banks. The number of banks in Italy has always been high, with a wide range of financial institutions operating at different levels. There are national banks, both public and private, popular co-operative banks, savings banks, and chartered banks. Most of the co-operative and savings banks operate within a limited territory (provincial or regional). In general, banks are concentrated in the north. A notable exception to this is Sicily, where a large number of banks and other financial institutions are located for the less than healthy reason that organized crime requires money-laundering institutions under its control.
In recent years, mergers and takeovers have increased in order to strengthen and stabilize the banking system. Privatization has also helped to streamline the sector. Investment institutions, both public and private, are becoming increasingly important, with many people turning to investments to supplement their income. Since 1998, the banking system has been almost fully liberalized and most banks offer a wide range of financial services to their customers. Italian families have been traditionally very keen to save money, and, in 1999, the total deposits held in Italian banks amounted to US$450 billion. According to 1999 data, European banks use 53 percent of their available reserves to service individual loans, such as mortgages, with only 46.3 percent directed towards financing private sector businesses. Italy, however, does not conform to this pattern. Italian banks invest 66.7 percent of their resources in private enterprise, while only 18.3 percent is given to private consumers.
Italy recorded a trade deficit for several decades, largely due to the fact that the country lacked energy resources and was entirely dependent on imports for its supply. However, the 1990s brought a change of fortune, beginning with the devaluation of the lira in 1992 which allowed many businesses to compete in overseas export markets, particularly in Asia markets and the United States. The reduction of oil and gas prices in the
|Trade (expressed in billions of US$): Italy|
|SOURCE: International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1999.|
mid-1990s gave a further boost to small and medium-size companies, as did their aggressive promotion of their products, which enabled them to penetrate foreign markets. Today, "Made in Italy" is in many countries a well-regarded indication of quality. In 1998, Italy recorded a trade surplus, with imports totaling US$215.887 billion against exports worth US$242.332 billion. That surplus has since been trimmed, with export of US$241.1 billion in 2000 against imports of US$231.4 billion.
Italy benefits from the EU free market, which is not subject to any trade barriers or tariffs , and 56.8 percent of Italian exports went to other EU countries in 1999. Italy's main export destinations within Europe are Germany (16.4 percent), France (12.9 percent), the United Kingdom (7.1 percent), Spain (6.3 percent), and the Netherlands (2.9 percent). The country's biggest commercial partner outside Europe is the United States, which takes 9.5 percent of Italy's export goods. Recently, a number of Asian countries have become important buyers of Italian products, and exports, particularly of clothes and shoes, to Japan, South Korea, and China are increasing. Italy's major exports are transport equipment, electrical machinery, textiles and clothing, chemicals, and food and beverages. The single largest export is transport equipment, with FIAT the main supplier. FIAT not only exports the motor cars (including Ferraris) for which it is known worldwide, but also a number of other vehicles ranging from train carriages and metro cars to trucks and motorcycles.
The products of its EU partners also dominate Italy's imports. In 1990, over 61 percent of total imports came from EU countries: Germany (19.3 percent), France (12.6 percent), the Netherlands (6.3 percent), and Spain (4.4 percent). Outside the EU, the United States contributes 5 percent of imports. The composition of imported goods is evidence of the lack of energy resources and raw materials from which the country suffers. Thus, metal represents 9.9 percent of total imports, and petroleum represents 4.5 percent. Transport equipment also figures prominently, as do chemicals and food. All of the most important multinational businesses, across all sectors, operate in Italy, either directly or through subsidiaries. A number of them invested quite heavily in the country, particularly after the liberalization of the European market in 1987, under the auspices of the EU.
The value of the Italian lira has been volatile over the last 30 years and is generally considered a weak currency by comparison with other major currencies. Historically, the weakness of the Italian lira has been both a curse and a blessing for the country. On the one hand, Italy had to pay for energy resources and supplies in hard
|Exchange rates: Italy|
|euros per US$1|
|Note: Rates prior to 1999 are in Italian lire per US dollar.|
|SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].|
currency (U.S. dollars), and imported goods were expensive. On the other hand, a weak currency contributed to making high-quality Italian exports very appealing due to their relatively low prices, and the foreign markets were duly conquered. Moreover, high production costs were offset by relatively cheap labor.
Italy's participation in the European Economic Community (EEC) failed to stem the currency's volatility, and the lira was twice forced to withdraw from the fixed exchange rates that had been established among the member states. Following the last withdrawal in 1992, the government devalued the currency in order to boost exports at the height of the economic recession when the lira was under tremendous speculative pressure. The calculated gamble of devaluation paid off, particularly as regards exports to the United States, where U.S. consumers were ready to enjoy their country's economic boom.
Since the launch of the euro, the lira has found a previously unknown stability. The exchange rate is fixed, and in January 2002, the lira will be replaced by the euro, which will become the currency that competes against the U.S. dollar, and other currencies in the global market. Public opinion in Italy, unlike that of certain other countries such as the United Kingdom, welcomes the introduction of the new currency and does not seem to mind abandoning the traditional lira.
The Italian Stock Exchange (ISE), located in Milan, was founded in 1808, but until the mid-1980s it played a comparatively insignificant role in the national economy. Many businesses were suspicious of the stock exchange and chose to remain unlisted. However, since 1998, the ISE has grown into a dynamic force as a result of privatization, a new generation of progressive managers, and the requirements of the new economy. The public, too, is increasingly interested in stocks and shares and, as in the United States and elsewhere, a greater number of people are playing the market. Consequently, the ISE has expanded, and at the end of 1998 there were 223 listed companies. During 1997 and 1998, the volume of trading increased continuously, achieving and sustaining record levels. Privatization has certainly contributed to enhancing the qualitative level of listed companies and attracted a wider public. While Milan is by no means as important as London or Paris to European share dealing, it is becoming increasingly important to the Italian economy.
POVERTY AND WEALTH
The Italian Institute of Statistics assesses the class system using 6 different categories. The first is the bourgeoisie, which includes entrepreneurs employing a minimum of 6 people, self-employed professionals, and managers, and accounts for 10 percent of the working population. The white collar middle class covers employees engaged in non-manual jobs and makes up 17 percent of the working population. The urban petit bourgeoisie comprise 14 percent of the working population, defined as small entrepreneurs with a maximum of 6 employees, shopkeepers, and self-employed artisans. The rural petit bourgeoisie, at 10 percent, own and operate small enterprises in the primary sectors of agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing. The urban working class is the 37 percent of the workforce that is engaged in manual labor. Finally, the rural working class, at 9 percent, are employees of the primary sector. This class breakdown, in identifying 2 categories each of the working and entrepreneurial classes, is considered to be more precise than the more common method of class division and has been used since the mid-1980s.
The situation regarding upward social, or class, mobility in Italy is quite complex. In 1998, the absolute rate of mobility—people who belong to a different social class than their parents—was 60.3 percent for men and 64.9 percent for women, the great majority of the Italian work-force. However, when one breaks down the absolute rate of mobility figures by class and analyzes them in relation to the changes in occupation structure between the current times and the 1960s, the whole picture changes. The highest mobility rate is found within the rural working class (91.1 percent), due mainly to the fact that, in the space of one generation, the occupational weight of this class has been greatly reduced. The lowest rates of mobility are found in the classes that have not been radically
|GDP per Capita (US$)|
|SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.|
modified by the occupational structure: the urban working class and bourgeoisie. In these cases only half of the people are in a different class than their parents. It is, therefore, quite clear that true social mobility is perceived as being greater than it is. This conclusion is confirmed by data that give the rate of intra-generational mobility for all classes as 30.3 percent. Thus, the opportunities for social mobility still largely depend on an individual's social origins.
Despite being a wealthy country, Italy suffers from serious inequality in the distribution of wealth and resources. These dramatic statistics stand out: in 1998, 2,558,000 families (11.8 percent of the total) lived in poverty, which is equal to 7,423,000 individuals. The figure was even higher at the end of the 1980s, when families living in poverty represented 14 percent of the population. Once again, the contrast between north and south could not be clearer, with over 65 percent of impoverished families living in southern regions. The gap between the rich north and the impoverished south continues to increase, as does the depth of poverty itself. Of those classified as poor, elderly people living on a simple state pension make up 53 percent of households living in poverty. Their numbers, however, are steadily decreasing, to be overtaken by the working poor. This phenomenon, which looks likely to become a permanent feature of Italian society, affects couples with one or more children, where only one parent works, is under 40 years old, and has few qualifications and, thus, low earning power.
As a result of Italy's generous welfare state, the great majority of poor families do not live in extremes of squalor or deprivation. Essential needs provided by the state include basic health care and education, clean water supplies, and housing. Moreover, extensive family networks help those living in poverty to feel less isolated and are sometimes a source of financial help. However, it is extremely difficult for families in poverty to improve their circumstances, and over 70 percent of households classified as poor in 1994 remained poor 2 years later.
|Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage Share: Italy|
|Survey year: 1995|
|Note: This information refers to income shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita income.|
|SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].|
|Household Consumption in PPP Terms|
|Country||All Food||Clothing and footwear||Fuel and power a||Health care b||Education b||Transport & Communications||Other|
|Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.|
|aExcludes energy used for transport.|
|bIncludes government and private expenditures.|
|SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.|
Necessity often forces individuals in poverty to take up low-paid and unsafe jobs in the informal economy, where they are subject to threats and blackmail. In urban areas of the south, the younger generation finds it very difficult to obtain work and poverty drives a percentage of them into the arms of organized crime. Migration to the north or leaving Italy altogether still remain ways out for many. While poverty is less visible in the wealthy north, it does exist. In particular, young couples with 2 or more children who struggle to meet the high cost of living on low salaries find themselves caught in the poverty trap.
Official 1998 figures put the Italian workforce at over 23 million, with an unemployment rate of 11.5 percent, but these statistics fail to take the informal economy into account. Unemployment is substantially higher in the south and among the younger generation. Statistically, people from the south, under age 30 and with poor qualifications stand a 50 percent chance of being unable to find employment. Thus, both geography and age are major factors in the Italian labor market.
Italy has a number of trade unions which, although formally independent, are connected to the larger political parties. The strongest union has always been the Confederazione Generale Italiana Lavoratori (CGIL), originally of communist allegiance, but now affiliated with the leftist Democrats. Italian trade unions were very strong in the past, and thanks to their efforts in the 1970s and 1980s many Italian workers currently enjoy a high level of social protection. Some of this protective network is being dismantled, but the foundations remain in place. Following mass strikes and demonstrations in 1968 and 1969, a statute of workers' rights was finally made law in 1970, thus ensuring security of employment in larger firms. Smaller firms were exempted from adopting a number of the statute's measures, but its impact has nevertheless been considerable in promoting the rights of workers. Among other significant victories for the trade union was the wage indexing system, guaranteeing that salaries would rise in line with annual inflation; common job classification, which introduced standardized salaries throughout Italy for specific categories of work; paid maternity leave; and an increase in the number of paid holidays. Despite these measures, Italian workers are among the worst paid in Europe, and higher wages for all workers is a constant demand of the trade unions, since the strong and well-organized employers' associations do not ever award substantial increases. Poor wages, though, are generally offset by a number of other social benefits, and in recent years the working week has been reduced to 37 hours (down 2.5 hours) for the same pay. Furthermore, people who are laid off can count on employment checks for a number of months and are entitled to severance pay, no matter what the grounds for dismissal.
Workers in the informal economy tend to be poorly educated, live in high unemployment areas, and are often foreign immigrants. They are unable to take advantage of the benefits enjoyed by the legally employed, and their working conditions are inadequate. Those who run the informal economy ignore safety regulations, demand working hours that far exceed the legal maximum, make no contributions to pension funds, offer no job security, and give no severance pay. The informal economy has the greatest impact on farm laborers where work is seasonal, and on construction and textile production workers employed by small firms. Wages in the informal sector tend to be at subsistence level, but it is difficult to ascertain the actual figures. Despite the efforts of the EU to curb the informal economy in Italy and enforce safety regulations, over 1,000 workers die in the work place every year.
Trade unionism in Italy has been in decline since the mid-1980s and most paid-up union members are retired workers. The influence of the unions has declined due to the reduction of the workforce in the industrial sector, the skepticism with which the trade union elite is perceived, and government policy aimed at weakening the unions. Much that was achieved by the unions has been abolished or is on the verge of being dismantled. Privatization, liberalization, and budget cuts have reduced the protection network, and businesses have a far freer hand in dealing with the workforce. Consequently, employers' contributions towards pensions are being slashed, and overtime is not as well paid. The pressure of international competition and the necessity to maintain a healthy budget mean that labor costs have to be cut in both the private and public sectors. In order to preserve jobs, the trade unions and employers entered into a pact by which workers moderate their requests and accept cuts in exchange for job security.
Women have been entering the workforce since the early 1960s. They are a significant presence in all sectors of economy and tend to continue working after marriage, and even after having children. Many, however, are still employed in sectors that have been traditionally perceived as suited to women, such as education, health care and social services. The difficulty of coping with a full time job and raising children is a real burden to many women, and they increasingly turn to part-time work, which, though becoming more common, is an underdeveloped sector in Italy.
COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1861. Italy is unified after decades of struggle against foreign occupation. The king of Piedmont becomes king of Italy.
1870. Radical land reform takes place, intended to benefit the peasant workers, but few profit from the reforms, and living conditions for farmers decline.
1880s. Prime Minister Giolitti embraces protectionism and places high tariffs on a number of agricultural and industrial products to defend the national sectors. The policy backfires, access to foreign markets collapses, and a tariff war with France ensues.
1890s. The tariff war with France ends. The economy begins to develop, but many leave the country in search of a better life. The United States and South America are the preferred destinations.
1899. Giovanni Agnelli founds FIAT in Turin.
1915. Italy joins the Allies and fights against Germany and Austro-Hungary in World War I (1914-18).
1922. In the wake of enormous postwar political and economic problems, Benito Mussolini's fascist movement comes to power. Mussolini is appointed prime minister and radically changes the country.
1925. Mussolini completes his design of transforming Italy into a fascist dictatorship. He reshapes the economy to focus on agricultural self-sufficiency, a strong industrial sector and a rapid military build-up. The economy is mixed: private companies co-exist with many state-owned companies.
1936. Italy enters the colonial race and invades Somalia, which remains an Italian colony until the end of World War II.
1939-45. Italy enters World War II as an ally of Nazi Germany in 1940. With the downfall of Mussolini in 1943, however, Italy switches its allegiance to the Allies.
1946. Following a national referendum, King Victor Emmanuel III abdicates, and Italy becomes a republic. A government of national unity is formed to tackle the country's problems.
1952. Italy becomes a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community with Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
1957. Italy becomes a founding member of the European Economic Community, the predecessor to the European Union. The Italian "economic miracle" begins through a combination of free market principles and heavy government intervention.
1963. The Socialist Party abandons its leftist stance and joins the Christian Democrat government. This coalition holds power until 1994.
1968-69. The country is shaken by a series of strikes and demonstrations. Workers and students demand the improvement of working and living conditions. The government meets many demands, and a more modern welfare state is established.
1973. The first oil crisis slows economic growth but does not stop it.
1977. The economy grinds to a sudden halt. Political crisis and stagflation lead to the formation of a government of national unity, as left-and right-wing terrorism spreads.
1980. Rationalization and privatization commence and continue throughout the decade, with private companies becoming dominant.
1984. The beginning of a new economic miracle. Low oil prices, technological innovations, and cheap labor drive the Italian economy forward. However, only the northern regions benefit from this growth.
1992. The old political class is swept away by corruption scandals. The new government embraces neo-liberal policies based on massive budgetary cuts, privatization, and the promotion of worker flexibility. The lira is de-valued to boost exports. The policy succeeds, and Italy exports more than it imports. Italy signs the Maastricht Treaty, which provides for further European economic integration. Among the measures to which Italy subscribes is participation in the European Monetary Union.
1994. The center-right coalition led by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi wins the elections but remains in power only 7 months. A temporary government led by technocrats replaces it.
1996. The center-left coalition wins the elections and continues with economic liberalization.
1999. Italy qualifies for monetary union with 11 other EU countries and plans for the introduction of a single currency, the euro.
2001. A center-right coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi gains control of the government.
The liberalizing efforts of the 1990s laid the foundations for the present growth, and Italy entered the new millennium on a high note, embracing the European Monetary Union and its new currency, the euro. The country's technological revolution is succeeding, the network of small and medium-sized enterprises is solid, international competitiveness is strong, and the balance of trade is positive. The government is consolidating the excellent results obtained by limiting expenditures and is waging a determined battle against tax evasion. Italy's economic outlook is, therefore, a positive one, particularly as the level of education is rising, and population growth is manageable. All indicators point to continued improvements in living standards. The future will see the Italian economy integrated even more into the economy of its European partners, and the European Union will eventually become a fully integrated body in all economic matters, including taxation.
There are, however, still a number of negative aspects that plague the economic and social well-being of Italy. First and foremost is the gap between the north and the south, which has widened over the past couple of decades, with government policies and EU grants proving unable to bring about any substantial improvement. Closing this gap is Italy's biggest challenge in securing a healthy future.
The weight of the informal economy also remains a major problem. While attempts have been made to reduce the impact of this sector, it remains considerable, and in escaping state control, it has a negative effect on working conditions, quality control, and fiscal revenues. While the informal economy may represent a source of income for many poorer families in the short term, in the long run it will undermine the official economy and, therefore, the country as a whole. Finally, there is the problem of persistent unemployment. Even when the economy is doing very well, the number of people out of work is higher than the European average. Unemployment stood at 11.5 percent in 2000. The government needs to address this problem as a matter of urgency.
Italy has no territories or colonies.
Banca d'Italia. <http://www.bancaditalia.it>. Accessed October 2001.
Confederazione Generale Italiana Lavoratori. <http://www.cgil.it>. Accessed October 2001.
Diamanti, Ilvo. Il Male del Nord. Rome: Donzelli, 1996.
Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Profile: Italy. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2001.
Embassy of Italy in the United States. <http://www.italyemb.org>. Accessed October 2001.
ISTAT. Rapporto sull'Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2000.
Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations. <http://www.italyun.org>. Accessed October 2001.
Randlesome, Collin. Business Cultures in Europe. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
Sassoon, Don. Contemporary Italy: Economy, Society, and Politics since 1945. London and New York: Longman, 1997.
Sechi, Salvatore, editor. Deconstructing Italy: Italy in the Nineties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2001. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed September 2001.
U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: Italy, July 2000. <http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/italy_0007_bgn.html>. Accessed October 2001.
U.S. Department of State. FY 2001 Country Commercial Guide: Italy. <http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/2001/europe/index.html>. Accessed October 2001.
Welcome to the Italian Trade Commission Web Site. <http://www.italtrade.com/ice/index.html>. Accessed October 2001.
Italian Lira (L). One lira equals 100 centesimi. There are coins of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 lire. There are notes of 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 lire. The lira will be replaced in January 2002 by the euro, the new unified currency of the European Union (EU). One euro will be worth 1,936.27 lira at a fixed exchange rate. All lira coins and bills will disappear, and by June 2002 only euros will be in circulation.
Engineering products, textiles, clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco, minerals, non-ferrous metals.
Engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals, non-ferrous metals, textiles, clothing, food, beverages, tobacco.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:
US$1.273 trillion (purchasing power parity, 2000 est.).
BALANCE OF TRADE:
Exports: US$241.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000). Imports: US$231.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000).
"Italy." Worldmark Encyclopedia of National Economies. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/economics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Worldmark Encyclopedia of National Economies. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/economics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
|Official Country Name:||Italian Republic|
|Language(s):||Italian, German, French,Slovene|
|Number of Primary Schools:||20,361|
|Compulsory Schooling:||8 years|
|Public Expenditure on Education:||4.9%|
|Foreign Students in National Universities:||24,858|
|Educational Enrollment:||Primary: 2,816,128|
|Educational Enrollment Rate:||Primary: 101%|
|Student-Teacher Ratio:||Primary: 11:1|
|Female Enrollment Rate:||Primary: 100%|
History & Background
Italy is a parliamentary republic divided into 20 autonomous territorial regions. Each region is divided into provinces. Italian is the official language for the majority of Italy's 57.6 million inhabitants; however, regions with localized languages are considered "special status regions," and resources are provided to meet the educational needs of those living in these areas. Roman Catholicism is the most popular religion, but there is no official state religion. After experiencing political disunity from the fifth to the nineteenth century, Italy began unification in 1859 with the seizing of Lombardy from Austria.
As a member of the European community, Italy has become increasingly globalized and its population reflects the diversity of immigrant cultures and languages. The role of schools has expanded to accommodate the needs of changing demographics. In the nineteenth century there was a high degree of illiteracy among the Italian population, especially in the southern region, notably in Sicily. As Italy shifted from agricultural to industrial society, schools became increasingly more important to the socioeconomic and cultural development of the country in the twentieth century. In the new millennium, Italian schools are emphasizing literacy skills for a post-industrial global democracy.
Educational institutions, including religious, Catholic based and other private schools, had always been available to the ruling classes. The oldest university in Europe was established in Bologna in 1158.
Italian public education can be traced to 1859 when law 3725 mandated four years of free, compulsory elementary education and the Casati Law centralized the Italian educational system. In 1904, law 407 extended compulsory education, mandating all children through age twelve to attend schools. At the same time, the Italian governments recognized the needs of a more industrialized society and implemented vocational training.
In 1923, the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades were separated from elementary school and became scuole di avviamento (technical schools). Compulsory education was extended by two years. Elementary schooling, which was divided into three lower grades and two upper grades, continued until approximately 1957. Giardini d'infanzia (kindergartens) were established by a 1923 royal decree, but they were not officially operated until 1968.
During the fascist era (1922-1943), Ministry of Education and provveditori (provincial inspectors) controlled Italy's educational system and dictated the rigid curriculum and policy. Municipalities had very limited power. Elementary schools were allowed a more creative curriculum and upper secondary students were encouraged to engage in historical-critical inquiry, but the main emphasis was on standardized curriculum and methodology.
Since the 1950s, the Italian school system has undergone profound changes. Decentralization of administration has increased. Syllabi and curriculum have been revised, and teaching methodology has improved. Teachers have greater roles as instructional leaders in the educational process. Inservice training and other means of professional development provide educators with current information in their fields of specialization.
Constitutional & Legal Foundations
In 1859, before the unification of Italy, the Legge Casati (Casati Law) established the provisions for the organization of state education. The law included five sets of regulations dealing with higher education, upper secondary classical education, technical education, primary education and normal schools (for elementary teacher preparation). This system called for highly centralized administration and a clear division of upper secondary education between the liceo classico (a pre-university requirement) and vocational, "utilitarian" secondary schools for practical job training. The Coppino law introduced compulsory schooling in lower primary grades.
The 1923 Gentile reform legislation made the following provisions: preschool (nursery school) was neither compulsory nor free; five-year-olds must attend primary schools, which were divided into two groups or cycles; lower secondary education had six different institutions; upper secondary education had five different institutions; and higher education included state-funded universities and private universities.
Radical school reform occurred as a result of the fall of fascism and the 1948 constitution that espoused democratic principles. The basic principles of education were established by the Italian Constitution, which emphasizes freedom of education; the nation/state's responsibility for providing educational institutions at various levels; education for all individuals regardless of background; parental responsibility for educating children; and financial resources for needy students to pursue higher education. Article 33 states that teaching about arts and sciences shall be free and open to all and that the republic shall establish the general educational principles and create state [public] schools of all levels. Article 33 reaffirms that schooling must be compulsory and free, but it allows private schools to be established as long as they meet all requirements and standards of public schools. This article also allows institutions of higher learning to be established autonomously within the limits of the law.
The first paragraph of Article 34 ensures that schools shall be open to all citizens and, like a portion of Article 33, emphasizes educational equality. This article provides for government scholarships for needy students. Article 117 establishes regional authority over vocational education (except those requiring higher education).
Some laws governing Italian education include law 1054, which relates to nursery school education (giardini d'infanzia, scuole materne ); law 653, which addresses school exams; and law 503, which is concerned the elementary school curriculum for scuole elementari. During the 1960s, a number of laws reformed Italy's educational system: law 444 applied to preschool education; law 1895 established middle schools (scuole media ); law 119 modified school examples; law 910 opened universities to upper secondary (liceum ) students, including those attending non-university track upper secondary institutions; and in 1961 a law made technical colleges more flexible so they could more easily adapt to technology advances.
Legislation passed in the 1970s led to significant educational reforms. Law 477 provided for the legal status of state school personnel, the establishment of school assemblies, and the implementation of experimental educational methodologies. Law 517 regulated teaching in elementary and secondary schools, student assessment, and integration of special needs students. Because of this legislation, evaluation of students' progress no longer relied exclusively on exam grades; teachers' analyses of students' progress and development were also included. Teacher-designed lessons were required to accommodate the needs of individual students and include remediation for special needs students.
Additional reforms in the 1970s focused on the structuring of schools and schooling to meet the needs of a growing global labor market. Curricula included the study of science, math, and languages. Student exchange programs were initiated and expanded. Teaching pedagogy and content, program criteria, and modes of student assessment were revised and updated. Inservice training for teachers encouraged them to become "transformational leaders."
Two key pieces of reform legislation were passed in the 1980s. Law 270 provided regulation regarding the legal status of teachers, recruitment, and training, and Law 168 established the Ministry for University of Scientific and Technological Research.
In the 1990s there were a number of new laws and presidential decrees relating to education. Law 148 reformed elementary education. Law 341 reformed the university teaching. Law 104 continued to emphasize the integration of handicapped students in school. Law 59, passed in 1997, reformed public administration and simplified school administrative procedures; implemented in 2000-2001, these regulations granted wider educational, organizational, and research autonomy to schools.
Several presidential decrees directly related to portions of Law 59: decree 275 established strict regulations concerning the number of students per class; decree 233 regulated territorial organization of schools; decree 258 ordered reorganization of the Educational Documentation library in Florence and the European Center for Education; decree 300 provided for the reform of Regional Institutes for Research, Experimentation and In-Service Training (IRRSAE); and decree 112 introduced strong education decentralization from the Ministry of Education to provincial and local authorities.
University autonomy has also been widened. Law 425 reformed state exams for higher education, and Law 9, passed in 1999, re-emphasized the need for compulsory education and extended it to 10 years.
In 2000, some legislative issues addressed the equity and equality of education between public and private schooling. Other legislative concerns targeted changes in Italy's education system that would better prepared its citizens to enter the twenty-first century job market.
Basic Italian educational principles are constitutionally founded and ensure free, compulsory educational opportunity for all children. The Italian educational system's philosophy of education varies from teacher centered to student centered. The highly standardized curriculum was designed to facilitate school transfer in both public and private schools. There has been a gradual shift from rote memory assignments and assessments to less formal methods, which stress creativity and the application of critical inquiry and higher order thinking skills. In 1989 all issues related to higher education were transferred to the Ministry for Universities and Scientific Research.
The Italian educational system provides nursery school for 3- to 5-year-olds; elementary school for 6- to 11-year-olds; lower secondary or middle school for 11- to 14-year-olds; upper secondary school or vocational training for 15- to 18- or 19-year-olds; and university, university institutes, or Fine Arts academies for those 19 and older. Upper secondary schools include classic or scientific high schools (five years) leading to higher education/university studies; artistic (four years); technical school (five years); vocational school (five years or more); nursery school and primary teacher training (three years); and higher/university education (three to five years).
The overall responsibility for education in Italy rests with two bodies: the Ministry of Public Instruction for preschool, primary, and secondary education and the Ministry for Universities and Scientific Research. There are close links between these two ministries and the Finance Ministry regarding budget matters and the Labor and Social Security Ministry for connecting schooling with the world of work. Educational reform continues in Italy with its main focus on the role of the ministries regarding policy, budget, curriculum, pedagogy, and administration or distribution of responsibilities.
Since the late 1950s, educational responsibilities and services have become gradually decentralized, and in 1972 many of the Ministry of Public Instruction's administrative powers were transferred to regional and local authorities. Since 1975 regions have had the primary responsibility for vocational education and training; they have consulted with the Ministry of Labor to ensure the appropriate programs and training are being provided. In 1985 pedagogical and programs guidelines were established for elementary and lower elementary school. Since 1999, all citizens aged 6 to 16 years must attend a compulsory education program. Parents have the option of sending their children to school or providing compulsory education themselves or employing a tutor. Those parents who assume direct responsibility for their children's education must file yearly reports with the Provincial Director of Education documenting their compliance with the established curriculum, and the children must pass state exams. A very small percentage of parents select for this type of education.
Student attendance is the responsibility of head teachers (direttore didattico ) who are the equivalent of school principals in the United States. The mayor of each comune or township provides head teachers with lists of all children who, according to the General Registry Office, should be enrolled in school. When children complete their elementary education, head teachers are responsible for transferring students to lower secondary or middle schools. Head teachers contact parents of children not attending schools; non-compliance with attendance policies can result in punishment for parents or guardians.
Major reforms have taken place within the Italian school system to meet the needs of global education in the European Community and find educational compatibility within member nations. A Ministry of Public Instruction decree states that the study of other languages is essential for educational and professional development. Elementary schools were reorganized to include the study of modern languages, which are essential for effective communication and educational mobility within the European community. Middle and upper secondary school curricula include the study of foreign languages. Italians also realize that the study of languages and cultures are essential to meet the needs of immigrant populations as well as to encourage active, participatory citizenship in a global democracy.
This European dimension of education can be traced to Comenius (1592-1670), the Czech philosopher of education, who was concerned with schools as democratic arenas of intellectual discourse. His philosophy emphasized political unity, religious reconciliation, and educational cooperation. Initiatives of the European dimension on education include promoting equivalence of academic diplomas and mobility; fostering cooperation in education and research among universities; re-examining school curriculum, organization, exit exams, guidance and counseling, and extra-curricular activities.
A resolution from the European Community outlined objectives for strengthening the European dimension in education: to give young people a sense of European identity in the context of history and culture, and especially in safeguarding universal values of democracy, social justice, and human rights; to encourage youth to become full participants and contributing members in the European Community; and to point out the advantages and the challenges of European citizenship and cooperation in intercultural understanding The European dimension in education includes awareness of European citizenship in an interdependent world; the importance of building relationships; the involvement of extracurricular activities.
Educational legislative provisions are made within member countries of the European Community. EURYDICE, the Italian agency at the Library of Pedagogical Documentation, has strengthened its commitment for an integrative effort to publish and disseminate international information and documentation to benefit members of the European community. Italy cooperates with member countries on exchanges of classes, students, and teachers, as well as other educational initiatives and cultural agreements. Students who are citizens of the European community may attend school in Italy for professional education and training. The Office of Cultural Exchange at the Ministry of Public Instruction had directed its efforts to activities toward wide-ranging cooperative projects. A pilot project connected 300 territorial schools to the Internet so students would have international access to information and educational opportunities.
Educational cooperative efforts include implementing instructional reform, establishing school age levels of entry and exit, providing professional training courses for secondary students, reinforcing language acquisition, reducing the number of dropouts, providing student guidance and orientation, and organizing programs of equivalency, mobility, and exchange. Programs like SOCRATES, ERASMUS, and LEONARDO are essential to the development of quality education across members of the European Community. The ministries of education have increased a financial commitment to participate in the European education dimension.
An efficient service of pedagogical documentation, information, and research is needed to promote and develop autonomous projects within existing cooperative networks. Important aspects of the European dimension of education are to facilitate and integrate the process of communication, to provide for the service of information, and to ensure the dissemination of research results throughout regions, provinces, and countries in the European Community.
Intercultural education has become an essential component of the Italian educational system at all levels of schooling to create a new awareness of the European dimension in citizenship. These school programs define the dimensions of socialization by providing opportunities for students to come into contact with cultures and languages different from Italian society and to learn to become world citizens. The Italian educational system promotes cultural pluralism in the curriculum by encouraging students to develop a healthy sense of respect for cultural differences and to approach the study of issues from a multiple perspective, while maintaining universal values of social justice and equity.
Since 1985 primary schools have stressed instructional objectives that deal with the importance of inter-cultural education emphasizing the need for understanding and cooperating with culturally different persons to prevent the danger of stereotyping and prejudice. In 1991 these objectives became part of nursery school education where the term multicultural education was introduced and stressed the importance of identifying, recognizing, and valuing cultural diversity in school and global, democratic societies.
Secondary schools have had less direction from the state in incorporating multicultural awareness in the curriculum; however, there are initiatives included in educational objectives and curriculum to integrate intercultural communication and understanding, as well as develop multiples ways of thinking critically. A 1994 ministry educational decree emphasizes the need for providing multicultural awareness and activities as a global response to a society that is becoming increasingly multicultural. This decree also reinforces the rights of immigrant and migrant children to equal opportunity and equity of access to education and training.
Italy participates in European network projects created for intercultural and multicultural education. Many of these programs, coordinated by the Office of Cultural Exchange, are specifically designed for teacher training in intercultural and teaching and learning for a multicultural society, including bilingual education and teaching of Italian to immigrant students. The Office of Cultural Exchange published a report, "Intercultural Education: Experiences and Prospects," which gives an overall picture of the theoretical and practical aspects of intercultural and multicultural education and highlighting the importance of cross-cultural communication for global democracies.
In 1996 the central role of the European dimension in education was reaffirmed; schools will continue stressing intercultural awareness and understanding for a global society. Information and experiential opportunities for intercultural education issues and opportunity for international educational exchanges and multilateral school partnerships within the European Community are exemplified in programs like SOCRATES, LEONARDO, and ERASMUS. An increasing number of students participate in these programs throughout Europe. For example, Italian students enrolled in an agricultural course may be permitted to study in France or Portugal for one year and receive equivalency in mobility, credits, and grades.
A 1998 educational decree ensures that immigrant children in Italy must receive compulsory education, have access to information, and have all the rights to education services in the school and community. The school community respects the cultural and linguistic diversity of its members, encourages the sharing of cultural differences, and promotes mutual respect and tolerance. The school community promotes and encourages initiatives to respect and protect the culture and language diversity and provides opportunities for intercultural experiences and activities.
Preprimary & Primary Education
Schooling usually begins with noncompulsory early childhood education or nursery school for children aged three to five. Nursery school education is free for public institutions. As more women enter the workforce, more government sponsored and private childcare facilities are available for infants and young children. In 2000, approximately 96 percent of three to five year olds attended public or private nursery schools (Scuola Materna, Scuola dell'Infanzia, and Giardini d'Infanzia ). At age six, children enter free, compulsory elementary schools (Scuola Elementare or Scuola Primaria ), which last five years.
Nursery school teachers emphasize activities that enhance creativity skills, social attitudes, autonomy, and the learning process; children are readied for elementary school. Often children are placed in classes by developmental level, rather than age. Schools must accommodate students with special needs. Most classes have 25 students. Teachers are responsible for allocating the necessary hours and activities to meet the educational objectives. In 1992-1993 there were 27,274 preschools with approximately 1,569,811 students and 75,601 teachers. In September 2000, preprimary schools were given the autonomy in terms of organization, pedagogy, and curriculum, as long as the schools complied with the general objectives of the national educational system. Educational objectives for early childhood education include the interaction of culture and language with identity, autonomy, and competence. Curriculum includes body and movement; language (speech and words); spatial orientation and order of things; time and nature; and the self and relationship to others. There is a similarity between Italian and American early childhood curriculum and pedagogy; both have the goal of preparing children to become members of a democratic society.
Early childhood education in Italy has become world famous. The Reggio Emilia schools have become "laboratories" studied and modeled by teachers from many countries, especially the United States. The philosophical model of Reggio Emilia nursery schools and kindergartens focuses on constructivist theoretical foundations that emphasize a learner-centered curriculum and teaching methodology. These preschools link their practices to the theoretical perspectives of John Dewey, a progressive American educator.
The Reggio Emilia schools create an educational world in which children work and play in communities and learn to respect other persons and divergent points of view. Teachers guide children through critical inquiry. Many of the activities include building structural art objects that require critical thinking skills using linguistic and mathematical processes and the ability to work in cooperative groups. The curriculum includes long-term projects in a variety of media that foster connections between school and the home, family, and community and develop awareness and appreciation for regional, national, global cultural heritage.
Another influential early childhood theorist was Maria Montessori, the well-known Italian educator, who believed that children could learn math and language skills by applying knowledge. Her philosophy, curriculum and teaching methods have given impetus to Montessori schools in the United States and other countries. Montessori concentrated on the goal and process of education, rather than its methods. She defined the educational process as the development of the total human being in relationship to the environment and cultural context. Montessori believed that schooling should correspond to each child's developmental stage. She wrote that children begin exploring the world around them at birth, gradually moving from sensory to cognitive awareness.
In Montessori schools, children are introduced to materials in a sequential and logical progression. They are taught that freedom implies responsibility, self-discipline and working cooperatively with others. Montessori educational materials are designed for exploration and self-discovery. Academic study must have long, uninterrupted blocks of time to allow students to explore, reflect, and problem solve. For Montessori, the ultimate goal of education for a young adult is to develop within the individual the desire for life-long learning.
In 1985 and 1990 there were educational reforms regarding the curriculum and structure of primary education and its connection to preschool. Legislation in 1985 promoted early literacy and the development of the individual child. A 1990 law called for curricular connections between primary school activities with those of preschool and lower secondary school. These links encourage consistency of curriculum, pedagogy, and student cognitive development.
In 1999, compulsory education was extended to 10 years. Students begin the mandatory program when they are six-years-old. Primary/elementary schools (Scuola Elementare or Scuola Primaria ), which can be public or private, must follow some national educational regulations; however, the 1997 Bassanini law 59 allows some freedom in curricular and pedagogical structure. The number of number of hours spent in class varies; students may attend classes for 27, 30, or 40 hours per week. Teachers have the autonomy and opportunity to design flexible curricula that meet student needs and national educational objectives. They ensure that the curricula includes examples from the European perspective, develop cross-cultural activities with a European focus, and establish contacts with other schools via pen pal and other programs.
Schools are required to provide students' families with an instructional plan describing subjects and activities for regular and optional curriculum; student assessment methods; research and experimentation activities; and the role of teachers in the school organization. Support is given to special needs students. The inclusion of learning disabled students provides all children with an opportunity for understanding and respecting differences.
Children usually attend schools closest to their home. Most classes have 25 students, but schools are established when there are 10 or more children of compulsory education age. The school year has a total of 200 days per year. It begins in September and ends June 30 with holidays at Christmas, Easter, and in the summer. Classes are usually from 8:30 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. with a lunch break of approximately 90 minutes. In 1992-1993 there were 22,710 primary schools with approximately 2,959,564 students and 264,615 teachers.
Elementary education is divided into two cycles. Cycle one is two years, and cycle two is three years. Students pass automatically from cycle one to two. During cycle one, teachers play a dominant role in the classroom and use a multidisciplinary curriculum. At times various classes may be grouped together and team-taught. Classroom activities are the responsibility of the Teachers Assembly (Collegio dei Docenti ). During the second cycle, teaching is divided into subject areas and different teachers teach the various subjects according to their specialty. Teaching is organized into modules around three main areas: linguistic expression, scientific-logicalmathematical, and historic-geographic-social. Teachers coordinate activities to ensure coherence and uniformity. Textbooks are chosen by individual teachers. Primary school curriculum includes Italian language, foreign language (French, German, or other) depending on the region of the Italian border, mathematics, science, history, geography, social studies, art, music, physical education, and Catholic religion (optional).
Student assessment and progress are tracked throughout the year by teacher observations; homework; and written work, oral work, and presentations. Parents or guardians received non-numerical reports (scheda ) about three times per year that emphasize the student's overall development commitment to learn. Parents are allowed to meet with teachers for an explanation of the report. At the end of the fifth grade students must pass written and oral exit examinations (Esami di Licenza Elementare ), which will allow them to enter compulsory lower secondary or middle school (Scuola Media ).
Secondary schools (Scuola Secundaria ) are divided into lower and upper secondary education. Lower secondary or middle school is compulsory, lasts three years, and is for students 11- to 14-years-old. In 1992-1993 there were 9,857 lower secondary school with approximately 2,059,044 students and 233,034 teachers. The goal of these schools is to prepare students for life and careers. Individual subjects are taught by teachers with specialty in the field; however, teachers use cooperative, interdisciplinary planning and curricular connections to ensure coherence and uniformity. The curriculum includes Italian, history, civics, geography, foreign language, mathematics, sciences (physics, chemistry, and natural sciences), technical education, art, music, physical education, and catholic religion (optional). Teachers use non-prescribed, commercial textbooks.
Student assessment no longer includes marks from 1 through 10 or remedial exams. Each teacher enters narrative comments on the learning progress and maturity level of the student. The personal report card (Sheda Personale ) is prepared by each teacher and presented to the class council (Consiglio di Classe ) where all teachers agree on a written final assessment with explanatory notes that is sent to parents. The class council decides on the student promotion to the following academic year. At the end of the third year, all students take an exam consisting of three written tests in the subject areas of Italian, mathematics, and a foreign language and a multidisciplinary oral test. Students who fail must repeat the academic year. Passing students earn an overall assessment of excellent, good, or satisfactory and receive a middle school certificate (Diploma di Licenza Media ). This enables them to enter upper secondary education.
Upper secondary education is available for students aged 14 to 19. Most upper secondary schools are public and require a fee that may be waived according to the family financial need and the student assessment at the end of the year. The school year is from September until the end of June. Programs vary from three to five years. The majority of Italian teenagers attend Liceo Classico and Liceo Scientifico to prepare for university studies. Others attend art schools (Liceo Artistico or Istituto d'arte ); music school (Conservatorio di Musica ); elementary teacher preparatory programs (Istituto Magistrale ) or nursery school preparatory programs (Scuola Magistrale ). Some students attend the Liceo Linguistico, a privately funded and operated upper secondary institution. Those students who do not wish to pursue a university education may enroll in technical or vocational schools (Istituti Tecnici or Istituti Professionali ) after middle school for three years or more of training and education in applied fields.
The classical type education includes the classic liceum and the scientific liceum. The classical liceum prepares students for the university and other types of higher education. Liceum studies take five years and consist of two cycles: the lower cycle of two years and the upper cycle of three years. Students attend school six days per week and lessons are one hour per subject. Curriculum includes Italian language and literature, Latin language and literature, Greek language and literature, foreign language and literature, history, philosophy, natural sciences, chemistry, geography, mathematics, physics, history of art, and physical education. Catholic religion is optional. The scientific liceum prepares students for university education with emphasis in the sciences. Curriculum includes Italian language and literature, Latin language and literature, foreign language and literature, history, philosophy, geography, natural sciences, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics, physics, drawing, and physical education. Catholic religion is optional.
Teacher Training (Istituto Magistrale ) for primary school teaching provides access to further study at schools of education at the university level. This program requires four years of coursework and may include a fifth year leading to university studies in the field of education. Curriculum includes Italian language and literature, Latin language and literature, foreign language and literature, philosophy, courses on teaching methods and educational psychology, history, civics, geography, natural sciences, chemistry, mathematics, physics, drawing, history of art, choral music, and physical education. Students may elect to study the Catholic religion or a musical instrument.
Nursery school teacher training (Scuola Magistrale ) is a three-year course of study. Curriculum includes Italian language and literature, education courses, history, geography, accounting, mathematics, natural sciences, hygiene and pediatrics, music and choral singing, home economics, theory and application of physical education, handicrafts, drawing, and teaching methods. Catholic religion is optional.
Assessment for all types of classical, upper secondary schooling is done by individual teachers according to each subject. At the end of the year the Class Council determines each student's final assessment. Students must earn marks between a six and a ten for each subject; those with lower marks must repeat exams in September prior to entering a new school year. At the end of upper secondary school, students must take an exam consisting of two written tests and an oral test. The oral portion of the exam is given by an examining board, which asks questions based on the written exams. Students are expected to demonstrate expressive and critical ability. Those passing the exam receive a certificate of completion (Maturita ). In 1992-1993 there were 753 classical liceums with 231,064 students and teachers; 1,038 scientific liceums with 472,950 students and teachers; 541 primary teacher training schools with 159,518 students and 57,370 faculty; and 165 nursery teacher training schools with 21,522 students and teachers.
Artistic liceum provides students with specialization in painting, sculpture, stage design, and architecture. Coursework lasts for four years with access to higher education at the Fine Arts Academy (Academia di Belle Arti ) or schools of architecture at the university. Following a fifth year, students may obtain a certificate of art (Diploma di Maturita Artistica). General curriculum includes Italian language and literature, history, history of art, mathematics, physics, natural sciences, chemistry, physical geography, and physical education. Art curriculum includes life drawing, still life, figure modeling, ornamental modeling, geometric drawing, perspective, elements of architecture, and anatomy for artists.
Art schools (Istituti d'Arte ) prepare students for traditional craftwork in industry, such as in ceramics, textiles, printing, glass, or gems. Courses last approximately three years and lead to the master of art diploma (Diploma di Maestro d'Arte Applicata ). Students who complete two additional years of coursework obtain the upper secondary certificate (Diploma di Maturita di Arte Applicata ). Curriculum for art schools includes general subjects (Italian language and literature, history, civics, history of art and applied arts, mathematics, natural sciences, chemistry, and geography) and art curriculum (geometric and architectural drawing, life drawing, and plastic arts). Catholic religion is optional.
Special education is provided for by law and is available for special needs students, including the handicapped. Special students attend regular classrooms; however there also self-contained classrooms for students who are not able to be included in regular classroom instruction. There are also institutes for the blind and the deaf. Teachers at these institutes receive special training so they can work with these students. Classes for the blind include physical therapy, telephone switchboard, and basket weaving.
The handicap law of 1992 provides for special education for nursery school, elementary, and middle school students. Some classes are also held in rehabilitation centers and hospitals for children unable to come to school. These classes are set up by the provincial directorates of education in coordination with health services, as well as public and private centers under contract to the Health Ministry and the Ministry of Labor. Teachers with specific training in psychology and associated pedagogy are hired for these centers. Teachers with a specialized credential in special education become support teachers (Insegnanti di Sostegno ) in local school groups (Circolo Didattici ) for nursery and primary schools and in individual secondary schools. Special education teachers often work alongside a regular teacher, providing support to the special needs students.
Students between the ages of 14 and 17 may enroll in three-year technical or vocational programs that have an optional additional two years of education and training. Technical Schools (Istituto Tecnico ) prepare students to work in jobs in agriculture, industry, business, tourism, surveying, foreign trade, laboratory technicians, and many other practical professional occupations. Vocational Schools (Istituto Profesionale ) prepare students for work in industry, agriculture, trade, hotel business, and other skilled work in the labor market.
Technical and vocational schools have similar curricula, which include general classes (Italian language and literature, history, civics, geography, foreign languages, mathematics, physics, natural sciences, chemistry, drawing, and physical education) and coursework within the field of specialization. Catholic religion is optional. Assessment for these schools is similar to that of upper secondary schools. In 1992-1993 there were 2,962 technical schools with 1,273,682 students and 111,334 teachers and 1,702 vocational schools with 534,044 students and 51,852 teachers.
Italy has the two oldest universities in Europe. The School of Medicine in Salerno was founded in the ninth century, and the University of Bologna was founded in the eleventh century. A number of other universities were founded by the end of the sixteenth century. The University of Padua and the University of Modena were founded in 1200. The universities of Rome, Perugia, Pisa, Florence, Naples, and Siena were founded in 1300. The universities of Turin, Parma and Catania were founded in 1400, and Messina was founded in 1500.
Article 33 of the Italian constitution allows public and private entities to establish institutions of higher education: universities, academies, and non-university higher education, such as art institutes. Other higher education institutions include the Higher Institutes of Physical Education, higher institutions with special statutes (Oriental Institute of Naples, the Higher Naval Institute of Naples, the College of Education of Pisa), schools of postgraduate and specialist studies, and other university level institutions. These institutions function fairly autonomously and are overseen by the Ministry for University of Scientific and Technological Research, which ensures some uniformity of curricula, standards, and examinations.
In 2000, university education was provided by 76 universities: 51 national universities, three polytechnic institutes, 12 free universities, 5 university institutes, 2 universities for foreign students, and 3 high schools (upper secondary). More than 1.0 million students attend Italian universities that employ more than 65,000 faculty members. Levels of university coursework include first level programs leading to a university diploma (Diploma Universitario ), which has been eliminated under current reform law and Special professional Training Schools (Scuole Dirette a Fini Speciali ). Second level programs lead to a university degree (Diploma di Laurea ). Third level programs lead to a specialization degree (Diploma di Specializzazione ) and research doctorate (Dottorato di Ricerca). Admission to third level degrees requires a (Diploma di Laurea ).
Students who complete the liceum may go directly to the university. Admission to the university requires candidates to have an upper secondary school certificate (Maturita or Diploma di Istruzione Secundaria Superiore ) earned after five years of study. Entrance exams are required for certain university programs and count for 70 percent of the admission, while grades from the Maturita count for 30 percent. Students are given numbers and placed on waiting lists according to their grades. Those with higher marks will be admitted to the university. Some candidates retake exams to achieve the higher marks needed for entering the university. The most crowded university programs are medicine, veterinary school, international studies, and environmental sciences. Other programs are less competitive and do not limit admissions.
Candidates apply directly to the institution they wish to attend. University students may pay registration and other fees. Needy students may apply and qualify for grants and loans; they may also hold part-time jobs. The academic year, which may be divided into semesters, starts in early November and ends in mid-June with final yearly exams in July. University degrees (Diploma di Laurea ) can be earned in the following professional fields: science, medicine, engineering, agriculture, economics, political-social law, literature (humanities). For each area of specialty there are compulsory and elective courses.
The average time for completing university course-work is from four to six years. A 1990 reform allows student to earn a university degree in a specialized working field (diploma di specialista ) within two to three years of coursework. Higher non-university education is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Instruction or Ministry of Education.
In November 1999, regulation 509 established criteria for a new university structure that allows universities to plan courses of study and provide teaching autonomy. In 2000, reforms were underway to integrate the Italian educational system within the structure of the European community. The plan calls for two university cycles of study to allow for student transfers and mobility among universities in Europe. Additional reforms focus on student requirements and credits (Credito Formativo Universitario or CFU ) and the three-year Laurea (L ) degree and five-year Laurea Specialistica (LS ) degree. To enroll in L courses, students must have a Diploma di Istruzione Secundaria Superiore; to enroll in LS courses, students must have a Diploma di Superamento dell'Esame di Stato.
The Ministry of the University and Scientific and Technological Research has reorganized university studies into five main areas: medicine; science and technology; humanities; law, politics, social sciences, and economics; and engineering and architecture. The Diploma di Laurea is designed to prepare students a high level of professional competency in their chosen field. The Laurea Specialistica provides additional advanced understanding and skills in the specialized profession. Written and oral exams are administered before students are allowed to advance within the university.
The university president confers university degrees and diplomas, which also reflect the higher education requirements of the European community. Each diploma reflects the student's course of study and the specific curriculum in the field of professional specialization. Some universities, in conjunction with national, local, public and private entities, may offer one year finishing courses in certain fields of specialization.
Non-university education includes Academies of Fine-Arts (Academia di belle Arti ), Higher Institutes for Art Industry (Istituto Superiore per le Industrie Artistiche ), National Academy of Dramatic Arts (Academia di Arte Drammatica ), National Academy of Dance (Academia di Danza ), and Academy of Music (Conservatoria di Musica ).
Vocational education and training are also part of non-university education. Initial vocational training is intended to promote employment and to allow individuals to keep abreast of new scientific and technological developments in the labor force. Vocational training is offered to young people who completed compulsory education and wish to earn a vocational certificate. This training is usually provided throughout the year by the following regional authorities: Ente Nazionale Istruzione Professionale (ENAIP); Associazione Cattolica Lavoratori Italiani (ACLI); Centro Nazionale Opere Salesiane (CNOS); Istituto Addestramento Lavoratori-Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori (IAL-CISL); and Ente Nazionale Formazione Addestramento Professionale dell'Unione Italiana Lavoratori (ENFAP-UIL).
Initial vocational training covers agriculture, industry, crafts, and services and includes courses leading to a first certificate; integration courses for completing secondary education; post-certificate courses for those requiring specialized certificates; courses and post-certification activities; and level two courses for additional certificates of specialization. During vocational education, students are often required to train in the workplace.
Some individuals between the ages of 15 and 25 have apprenticeships (Apprendistati ). Apprenticeships are based on a contract in which employers teach the student apprentice the necessary technical expertise to become a skilled worker. Apprentices receive financial compensation as they take theoretical courses and apply this knowledge in the workplace. At the end of the apprenticeship contract, these working students must pass a qualification exam in the particular apprenticeship field. There are approximately 605,000 young people involved in apprenticeship contracts; 53 percent are in the crafts sector. Approximately 80 percent of these apprenticeship enterprises are in Northern Italy.
Employment training contracts (Contratti di Formazione-Lavoro ) are covered by a 1983 law which provides for private and public companies and their consortia to take on a certain number of individuals between the ages of 15 and 30 for a period of 2 years. Enterprises must submit specific training plans and make a commitment to train and teach these individuals and assist them in transition to the world of work. The Italian government offers financial incentives to the companies that participate in this program.
Administration, Finance, & Educational Research
Administration of the Italian Educational system was at one time highly centralized. Since the end of the 1950s, there has been a trend toward decentralization, from the Ministries to the regional and provincial offices. Presidential decrees in 1972 and 1977 transferred more educational responsibility to the regions, provinces, and communes; however, finance, personnel, curriculum, and scientific research, and other specialized areas remained centralized. In 1989 the Ministry of the University and Scientific and Technological Research was created to guide, regulate, finance, and help with the administration of universities and research. Other responsibilities of this university ministry include coordination with the European community and international integration of the university system, admission requirements, monitoring and assessment. The Ministry for Public Instruction continues to be responsible for elementary, secondary, and tertiary, non-university education.
A 1997 law continued to delegate some educational responsibilities to regional and local governments, but major decisions still remain centralized. A 1999 presidential decree provided additional regional educational autonomy in terms of administration and management, school time and classes, and some curricular decisions. The 1999 decree also created an agency for vocational training and education that will work in conjunction with the Ministry of Public Instruction and the Ministry of Labor for effective coordination of vocational education and training. Law Decree 300 also called for the merger of the Ministry of Public Instruction with the Ministry of the University and Scientific and Technological Research; the merger should be completed by 2003.
National education authorities include the Ministry of Education based in Rome; central offices; regional schools superintendents (Sovrintendenza Scolastica Regionale ); and the Provincial Director of Education (Provveditorato agli Studi ). Within the Ministry of Public Instruction, the minister is assisted by one or more under-secretaries. The organizational units within the Ministry of Public Instruction deal with different levels and types of schools, teacher education and training, cultural exchanges, personnel administration. The Ministry issues general guidelines, legislation and directives for schools and schooling. There is a special service for preschool education, and three inspectors are responsible for physical education, art education, and employee pensions.
The minister may call upon certain individuals for advice, tasks, and budget. These persons include the Secretariat, members of the minister's cabinet and offices working with the Minister of Public Instruction; regional and provincial undersecretaries of state appointed directly by the Minister; and ministerial advisers. Directors general, inspectors, and departments may also be called for expert advice.
The Higher Council for Education (Consiglio Superiore della Pubblica Istruzione ) has replaced the National Education Council. This council assists the Minister of Public Instruction with planning and supervision of education policy. The central general administration of nursery schools (Servicio per la Scuola Materna ) assists the Minister in policy making and the implementation of educational activities (Orientamenti dell'Acttivita Educativa ). The central general administration of elementary and secondary education (Directorates ) deal with primary and lower and upper secondary schooling. These directors submit regulations to the Minister of Public Instruction regarding curricular implementation, teacher recruitment, non-teaching staff, student assessment, funding, and other school issues.
Central general administration of higher education under the Ministero dell'Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica is responsible for the implementation and evaluation of the university strategic plan; ensures the autonomy of individual universities; enhances university research; supervises and monitors university research plans; allocates funds according to specific, designated criteria; coordinates educational activities and research projects at the national and international level, especially within the countries in the European community; works in conjunction with the Ministero della Istruzione Pubblica in coordinating education at various levels in terms of inservice training of school personnel; fosters research in the field of education; and promotes cultural exchanges among schools and universities. The Ministry of University and Scientific and Technical Research is assisted by three departments: the Department of University and Student Autonomy (Dipartimento per l'Autonomia Universitaria e gli Studenti ), the Department for the Development and Promotion of Research (Dipartimento per lo Sviluppo e il Potenziamento del'Attivita di Ricerca ), and the Department for Economic Affairs (Dipartimento per agli Affari Economici ).
Additional councils assist the Ministry in matters of university education and administration. The Consiglio Universitario Nazionale (CUN) oversees university planning, the appointment of professors and researchers, and teaching regulations. The council is composed by 15 professors, 3 of whom representing 3 scientific disciplines; 8 student representatives; 4 technical and administrative staff representatives; and 3 members of the Conferenza Permanente dei Rettori della Universita Italiana (CRUI). These representatives are all elected members who remain in office for four years. CRUI is involved in the development of objectives for the university, the allocation of financial resources, and in the administration of didactic and scientific regulations regarding research.
The Commissione di Esperti per il Coordinamento tra l'Istruzione Universitaria e gli Gradi di Istruzione (Commission of Experts for the Coordination of University Instruction) is composed of three members appointed by the Consiglio Nazionale della Pubblica Istruzione, three members appointed by the CUN, two members appointed by the Consiglio Nazionale dell'Economia e del Lavoro (CNEL) representing employers and employees, one representative from the Regional Institute for Research and Refresher Courses (IRRSAE) which coordinates in-service teacher training, three experts nominated by the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, and three experts nominated by the Ministero dell' Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica. This commission concerns itself with students following university education and preparation for teaching.
Two new councils will be formed after 2000: the Consulta Nazionale per il Diritto agli Studi Universitari (National Council for the Rights of University Students) and Consiglio Nazionale degli Studenti Universitari (National Council of University Students). The National Council for the Rights of University Students will be composed of five university representatives, five regional representatives, and five students. The National Council of University Students will be comprised of 28 student members, elected by their peers, who are enrolled in degree or diploma programs. This council will be concerned with general criteria and teaching guidelines.
In Italy, local school administration includes provinces and communes. Education power at the provincial level includes the Provveditore agli studi and the Assessore Provinciale alla Pubblica Istruzione. These individuals are responsible for state and local administration of schools. The Provveditore is in charge of the promotion, coordination, supervision, and monitoring of provincial schools, except for the Fine Arts Institutes. He interprets the central laws and regulations for primary and secondary education in regional schools. The Provincial Director of Education establishes relationships among provincial andlocal school authorities. The Provveditore is also responsible for inservice education for teachers, special education, and health education. The Provincial Scholastic Council (Consiglio Scolastico Provinciale ) serves as a consulting body to the Provveditore. The Assessore alla Pubblica Istruzione is responsible for upper secondary education in terms of establishing and annexing schools and other aspects of physical facilities, including the integration of handicapped students, school networking, and school safety.
Commune offices and authorities, often representing small residential communities, are distributed throughout Italy and are concerned with the performance of functions and services needed in the daily operation of schools and student attendance. Additional responsibilities include subsidized student transportation, cafeterias, textbooks, and financial assistance for needy families. Communes have similar responsibilities as provincial bodies.
Specific administration and management of schools have become increasingly decentralized and grant schools autonomy in teaching, administration, research, and development. Schools are viewed as expressions of functional autonomy aimed at determining and providing educational opportunity. Schools are seen as institutions that assist with the cognitive, sociocultural, and moral development of citizens in a pluralistic society. Each school prepares a Piano dell'Oferta Formativa (POF), a plan that includes the philosophy, missions, and goals consistent with the general educational objectives and national standards. Schools are expected to reflect the cultural, social and economical realities of each community and provide equal opportunity in education for all citizens. The POF includes different teaching strategies that consider teaching and learning styles, especially the needs of culturally diverse students.
The Collegio del Docenti (Teacher Council) makes decisions regarding teaching and learning on the basis of general objectives defined by the Consiglio di Circolo (Cycle Council) or Consiglio di Istituto (Institutional or School Council). Parents and students have input in the decision-making process. School goals, regulations and decisions are distributed to students and parents during enrollment at the start of each academic year. Statutory rule of law concerning school autonomy makes it clear that schools must take into account cultural pluralism; provide equal opportunity for students; foster academic freedom in teaching and learning; as well as plan and implement educational and training interventions, which assist in the development of all learners. School decentralized decision-making includes teaching autonomy, organizational autonomy, and research autonomy. Teaching autonomy means that schools must carry out a plan that includes national objectives leading to an educational environment conducive to learning for all students.
Class schedules and lessons are flexible and arranged into modules, according to subject areas, which best meet student needs. Students are grouped for enhanced learning and teaching opportunity. In terms of organizational autonomy, schools are allowed to decide how to best allocate teaching resources and adapt teaching methodologies and curriculum according to student needs, as long as the schools follow their POF. Autonomy of research, experimentation, and development provides for curricular planning and assessment; training and professional development of school personnel; innovation of curricula and pedagogy; theoretical and experiential teaching and learning; and interdisciplinary curricular integration, including vocational education and training.
School autonomy also allows individual schools to increase course offerings and educational activities that take into account the social and cultural needs of the community. Schools are encouraged to build networks with other schools, universities, and private corporations and associations. These community network relationships encourage curriculum innovation, a variety of methods and strategies, collaborative research opportunities, cooperation in educational resources, and teacher exchanges.
Schools are given administrative and financial autonomy in staff recruitment, hiring, and teaching assignments. The Ministry of Education establishes guidelines for school autonomy to ensure some uniformity within the Italian educational system. This guiding framework includes specific educational objectives, minimum curriculum standards, compulsory curricular timetables, general criteria for student assessment, and general organization of adult education. Universities function under the guidelines of the Ministry of the University and Scientific and Technological Research, but they also have some provincial and regional autonomy in terms of staffing, curriculum, and research.
The Ministry of Public Instruction allocates funds directly to technical and vocational schools to use for materials and laboratories and other facilities needed for experiential education. Regions have specific powers and needs regarding school buildings, vocational education, school transportation, school meals, and providing textbooks free of charge. Provinces and communes are usually given freedom to use resources and finances to meet the needs of individual communities, while still maintain standards and requirements of the Ministry of Public Instruction. Provincial authorities cover the building cost of primary and lower secondary schools, as well as technical and scientific upper secondary schools. The communes cover the cost of upper secondary classical schools.
The Ministry of Universities and Scientific and Technological Research disperses financial resources among state and private universities that meet state level requirements. Private universities also received funding from private organizations, associations, or foundations. State universities are allowed to accept private funding contributions for resources and research. Additional income for universities comes from student tuition.
Evaluation of educational institutions is a concern. In 1999 the government established the National Institute for the Evaluation of the Educational System, which is responsible for the administration of institutional evaluation, documentation, and educational research. This institute monitors institutional evaluation and provides technical guidance and support. Inspectors from the Ministry of Education pay regular visits to schools to ensure educational quality and equity and implementation of ministerial directives. Inspectors' responsibilities include giving educational assistance in terms of planning, organization, and implementation of programs; technical assistance and advice for experimental and research activities; and defining and implementing in-service training for faculty and staff.
Article 33 of the Italian constitution establishes educational policy, which states that the government must establish a state school system for all children, providing opportunities commensurate with their aspirations, regardless of economic status and social situation, such as ethnic or linguistic background. Private bodies and individuals are entitled to establish schools and colleges of education. These schools may get state funding if they follow rules and guidelines, including health regulations, similar to those of public schools and ensure equal opportunity to students.
Nationally recognized private schools are also authorized to provide certificates of completion. Provincial Directors of Education supervise private schools at the preschool level. Private elementary schools include officially recognized schools (Scuole Parificate ) also supervised by the Provincial Director of Education (Provveditore agli Studi ); and authorized private schools run by persons with a Primary Teaching Training Certificate, or a classical or technical diploma (Magistrale from the Scuola Magistrale ). Teachers at these private schools may be asked to articulate a faith and morality statement.
Private education at the secondary level includes legally recognized schools (Scuole Legalment Risonosciute ) and state authorized schools (Scuole Pareggiate ). These schools have the same validity as state schools and can award a middle school certificate (Diploma di Licenza Media ). In recognized schools, curriculum, student assessment, and teacher qualifications are similar to public schools. Private schools may receive public funding in terms of government grants. Private education at a higher level include universities and other higher education institutions, as well as non-university higher level education for high levels of specialization, such as art institutes. If these institutes follow state guidelines, they may award certificates. The Ministry of Education's art inspector supervises the private art institutes.
At one time the primary goal of nonformal adult education was to eliminate illiteracy. Since the level and quality of literacy have risen, adult education has been focusing on preparing adults to enter the workforce and preparing individuals to continue their own educational attainment. Many of the students enrolled in adult education include housewives, unemployed persons, and immigrants seeking newer opportunities for employment and further education.
Scuole Populari were first established in 1947 to help eliminate illiteracy. These schools abolished in 1982. However, there are literacy courses for elementary and secondary school certificates of achievement for those who did not follow all prior educational steps. Management of adult schools is the function of territorial centers, which decide on the specific needs of communities. Adult education is planned and coordinated at the district level. Adult education centers usually function within an established school. The school principal is the coordinator for the adult education center.
Activities in adult centers include counseling and guidance for applicants; literacy education at various levels, including preparation for higher education; language (Italian) education and special language training for immigrants and others; vocational education and training; and preparation for certificates of achievement in compulsory elementary education and secondary school certificate. Many adults return to school for retraining and changing career paths. Most classes are offered in the evening to meet the needs of the working student population. Certification includes Diploma di Licenza Elementare, Diploma di Licenza Medi, and statement of vocational training and similar certificates of achievement for secondary education.
Italy is part of EDUVINET, Education via networks, a partner team of European Community member countries for Internet-supported teaching and learning and distance education in and among schools in Europe. Objectives of EDUVINET include training teachers, administrators, and students in using internet resources effectively; preparing young people and adults for the information age in interdependent democracies; extending educational European content available on the internet; and using educational resources more efficiently throughout European schools.
The EDUVINET Web site includes discussion forums, like EDUTALK; teaching, methodology, and curriculum; full text teaching resources; exemplary teaching content; teacher training opportunities; links to schools, teaching subjects, curriculum and pedagogy, and European information; opportunities for publishing with EDUVINET; and searching engines. EDUVINET is supported financially by the SOCRATES Open and Distance Learning Program. EDUVINET can also be a support network for distance education available through the Open University, which started in the England and has expanded through many European countries. Adult students find the Open University Distance Education opportunity a flexible means of continuing educational goals.
Teachers have always been considered government employees; however, they have their own collective bargaining unit at school level. Educational reforms have lead to increased decentralization. Individual schools are becoming the groups primarily responsible for the administration and management of the teaching staff. The Ministry of Public Instruction continues to be responsible for orientation, coordination, and verification of teaching status.
Until 1997-1998 primary school teachers were trained at upper secondary schools (Istitutos Magistrales ) for four years where the curriculum included academic courses on teacher training that included theory, methods, and teaching practice. Since 1998 nursery school and elementary teacher education are required to complete a four-year university degree (Laurea ).
Secondary school teachers always had been required to attend and earn a university degree in a specialized field. They may obtain the designation of Abilitazione from two-year specialization schools (Scuole di Specializzazione ). Those wishing to take the teaching exam (cattedre ) must have this designation. Teachers must pass another exam (concorso ) to obtain professional teaching status. Teachers also receive training on the integration of special needs students, such handicapped students; some teachers have a specialization in areas of special education. Teachers in recognized private schools must meet the same qualifications as public school teachers.
School principals or head teachers (Preside, Direttore Didattico, or Dirigente Scolastici ) are responsible for the overall management of the school, including instructional, financial, and personnel issues and represent the school within the community. They report directly to the Provincial Director of Education. The principals or head teachers coordinate all school activities and are responsible for meeting legislative provisions. They must guarantee equal opportunity and equity of resources to all students, taking into account the sociocultural needs of the community. These school leaders implement School Council decisions; organize the school internally, promoting and coordinating activities for faculty and staff; and develop class schedules, teacher assignments, and student disciplinary action. Other teachers or administrative directors may assist the principal or head teacher.
The recruitment of new Dirigente Scolastici is done through a course-competition announced by the Ministry of Public Instruction. Teachers with a university degree (Laurea ) who have been teaching for at least seven years can be admitted to this competition. Teachers who complete the general training course-competition satisfactorily and who meet placement qualifications can be placed in primary and middle schools. Teachers who complete specific secondary training can be placed as head teachers in upper secondary schools.
The School Council (Consiglio di Istituto ) is responsible for budgetary methods and the organization and planning of non-educational extra curricular activities. The council decides on the purchase of school equipment, teaching materials, and other resources; on the use of school facilities for curricular and extra curricular activities, including sports; on the remedial and support courses to be offered, and on the cooperative efforts with other schools and community groups. The council includes teachers, parents, and students. The chair of the council is an elected parent representative, and the principal serves an ex-officio member.
Teaching and educational activities are the responsibility of the principal, the Teachers' Assembly (Collegio dei Docenti ), the Interclass Council (Consiglio d'Interclasse ) for primary schools and Class Council (Consiglio de Classe ) for secondary schools. The Teachers' Assembly is composed of all the permanent and temporary teachers of each primary school group or individual primary or secondary school and is chaired by the school principal. The Teachers' Assembly is responsible for teaching and educational plans for each school year. The group must follow national legislation and guidelines and be cognizant of community needs and concerns. It encourages academic freedom and interdisciplinary teaching and learning. The Teachers Assembly is also responsible for evaluating teacher performance, selecting textbooks and other resources in consultation with teachers and parents, and for providing inservice for teachers and staff.
Rectors are univerisities' legal representatives. The faculty members at each university select someone among them to serve as rector or president. The rector carries out the decisions of the academic senate (Senato Academico ), the university decision-making body regarding academics and other educational issues. The president also works with the Consiglio di Administrazione, the board responsible for administrative and financial management. Various faculties within departments carry out instructional and research activities in fields of specialization. University teaching requires a doctorate in a field of specialization. The Faculty Committee, comprised of deans, professors and researchers, coordinates and carries out the academic responsibilities of the university related to curriculum, scholarship, and student advising. The committee makes decisions about teaching and research. Students may be a part of this committee. Inspectors visit schools to ensure that educational objectives are being met.
The federal government finances public education by providing salaries for teachers and staff and purchasing textbooks and other instructional materials and resources. Most funding is sent directly to regional and provincial offices for schools to use as they deem appropriate following guidelines from the Ministry of Public Instruction. The School Council is responsible for allocating funding for school maintenance, facilities, equipment, library expenditures, and academic resources. Preliminary budgets are prepared by an Executive Board elected by the School Council and chaired by the school principal. The school secretary, an ex-officio member of the board, is responsible for recording accounting and expenses.
University rectors are responsible for posting recruitment needs, procedures, and competitive exams for the posts of full, associate, and research professor. University faculty includes full professors and associate professors. Full professors are professors with tenure of first level (Professori di Prima Fascia or Ordinari ), and associate professors have tenure of second level (Professori di Seconda Fascia ). Professorial levels are assured academic freedom in teaching and research. Research professors (Professori di Ricerca ) contribute to the development of research and integrate and apply it to their teaching.
Contract professors are hired according to Ministry for Universities for Scientific and Technical Research (MURST) regulations for one- to six-year contracts to teach and assist in scholarship activities with professors and university students within specific fields of specialization. Budget considerations may limit these contracts. Native language collaborators and linguistic experts who have earned a Laurea may be hired to work on specific research projects with faculty and students for a specific time period. Lecturers from other countries are also hired for their areas of expertise and work for a limited contract period.
The Italian school system is divided into three tiers: primary, secondary, and higher education. School reform was introduced in the early 1960s and continues. The primary or elementary school is compulsory and free; elementary education starts at 6 years of age and lasts until a student is 11 years old. Students are required to pass an aptitude exam at the end of elementary school before entering secondary school.
Compulsory education has been extended to lower secondary education or middle school and, in 1999, to the first year of upper secondary school. At the end of middle school, students take another aptitude test before entering upper secondary school. At the end of upper secondary education, students must pass a final exam (Esame di Stato ) that allows them to earn a certificate (Diploma di Maturita ) to enter the world of work or gain access to universities and non-university higher education schools. Upper secondary schools, sometimes also referred to as higher education, include the classic, linguistic, and scientific schools (liceos ); education schools for nursery and elementary teachers; and technical, vocational, and professional schools.
There are private schools for all levels of education. Funding for private schools is primarily from private organizations; however, private schools may receive state funds if they follow the same guidelines as state public schools in terms of curriculum, personnel, and management.
Adult education exists for those who wish to acquire job skills, improve literacy levels, and continue their education. The Italian educational system recognizes the importance of cultural and linguistic pluralism and in schools. Accommodations are made for students with special needs. Italy, as a member of the European Community, is engaged in the European dimension of education and participate in a network of international initiatives.
CEDE (European Center for Education), 2001. Available from www.cede.it.
Center for Continuous Training in European Dimension, 30 April 2001. Available from http://www.ceses.it.
Commission of the European Communities. The Education Structures in the Member States of the European Communities. Brussels: EEC, 1987.
——. White Paper: Teaching and Learning: Towards the Learning Society. Brussels: EEC, 1995.
Consiglio, Vincenso. Education in Italy. Rome: Italian Ministry of Education, 1987.
EDUVINET, 23 March 2001. Available from http://www.land.salzburg.at.
European Community Educational Database, 2001. Available from http://www.eurydice.org.
Italian Ministry of Public Instruction, 2001. Available from http://www.istruzione.it.
Katz, Lillian G., and Bernard Cesarone. Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach. Urbana: ERIC Clearing House on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, 1994.
de Kerchove d'Exaerde, George. A Human Face for Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1990.
Lillard, Paula Polk. Montessori Today. New York: Schocken, 1996.
Ministry of University and Scientific and Technical Research, 10 November 1999. Available from http://www.murst.it.
Shennan, M. Teaching Europe. London: Cassell, 1991.
Le Transformazioni della Scuola nella Societa Multiculturale. Roma: Ministero della Publica Istruzione, 2001.
Visalberghi, A. Italy in International Encyclopedia of National Systems. New York: Pergamon, 1995.
Vivere l'europa., January 2000. Available from http://www.centrorisorse.org.
Zanetti, Kristin M. The Educational System of Italy. Milwaukee: ECE, 1996.
—Maria A. Pacino
"Italy." World Education Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
"Italy." World Education Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
|Official Country Name:||Italian Republic|
|Region (Map name):||Europe|
|Language(s):||Italian, German, French, Slovene|
|Area:||301,230 sq km|
|GDP:||1,073,960 (US$ millions)|
|Number of Daily Newspapers:||88|
|Circulation per 1,000:||121|
|Total Newspaper Ad Receipts:||1,828 (Euro millions)|
|As % of All Ad Expenditures:||23.20|
|Number of Television Stations:||358|
|Number of Television Sets:||30,300,000|
|Television Sets per 1,000:||525.3|
|Number of Cable Subscribers:||57,700|
|Cable Subscribers per 1,000:||1.0|
|Number of Satellite Subscribers:||2,350,000|
|Satellite Subscribers per 1,000:||40.7|
|Number of Radio Stations:||4709|
|Number of Radio Receivers:||50,500,000|
|Radio Receivers per 1,000:||875.5|
|Number of Individuals with Computers:||10,300,000|
|Computers per 1,000:||178.6|
|Number of Individuals with Internet Access:||13,200,000|
|Internet Access per 1,000:||228.8|
Background & General Characteristics
The Italian media system entered the new century with a combination of continued reliance on the traditional printed press and participation in the global shift to new delivery systems, including online journalism, the spread of personal computers, and digital television. Despite increasing reliance on digital technologies in every area of communication in Italy, the term "press" still mainly connotes the daily newspapers. Italy's daily newspapers have five distinguishing characteristics that set this medium apart from its counterpart in other west European countries: historically low levels of readership; a predominance of regional over national papers; a notable lack of independence of the press; virtual nonexistence of a popular press; and the existence of a group of daily "news"papers that are devoted solely to either sports, religious news or other specialized topics.
The first characteristic is the one most often stressed by analysts of the Italian press. Compared with other member countries of the European Union (EU), Italy's aggregate daily newspaper circulation (the social indicator used as a proxy to measure readership) ranks just above Greece and Portugal, the two least advanced Mediterranean European Union (EU) members. Paolo Mancini reports that aggregate daily newspaper circulation in Italy stood at 109 per thousand citizens in 1999, and he remarked that this is very low indeed when one considers that the comparable figure is near 600 in Norway (323). Throughout most of the twentieth century, readership of daily newspapers was constant at about five million. There was a small increase in the 1980s, fueled by a turn to commercialization of the press, to a high 6.5 million in the year 1990. Since then, the number has been falling again, to 6 million in 1998 (ISTAT 214). This figure of 6 million was computed by taking the annual circulation of daily periodicals, (2.2 million) and dividing by 365 days. This also means that aggregate daily newspaper circulation has decreased to 105 per thousand persons.
There are several direct and indirect causes of the low-readership phenomenon. A direct cause is related to the logistics of matching the reader with the paper. As is typical in other European nations, newspaper distribution in Italy is conducted almost exclusively via newsstands. However, for a variety of reasons related to permit requirements and attempts by operators to limit competition, the number of newsstands in Italy per 1000 persons is below that in Germany and France. Another technical problem is the fact that prices are determined by a joint committee of government and business, and have inevitably crept up. In addition to pointing to availability of newsstands and price per copy, we can address the obvious question: do Italians simply not read in general? True, Italians are not avid readers, but this statement needs to be qualified.
According to a survey conducted in 1956 (Lumley 4), nearly two thirds of the population reported never reading anything at all. Regional differences are significant, however. Until the fifties, Italy's population outside the major urban centers was mainly rural and poor, and illiteracy was still fairly high in the Mezzogiorno region and in rural areas in general. Almost four fifths of the population spoke a local dialect and were not very familiar with Italian. In some local dialects, the lira was referred to as the franc, while in another it was called a pfennig, which lends testimony to Italy's much more fragmented history. Italian is still in the process of becoming the language that every Italian is comfortable with, and much of the new vocabulary, including technical and specialized language transliterated from other languages, was slow to trickle down to the less educated tier of the population. More often than not, Italian journalists writing for major daily papers did not engage in concerted efforts to translate or explain unfamiliar words to their reading public.
Literacy rates increased in the next two decades, and most Italians were now able to read a newspaper. Yet, they still chose not to do so, for a variety of reasons, including alienation from bureaucracy and journalistic jargon used by the press, the non-availability of popular magazines and dailies, and the fact that a high proportion of the potential readership, women in particular, felt excluded from the mainstream public sphere (Lumley 4). Other types of media have a higher appeal to this population. Since the 1950s, radio and TV were the media of choice. More recently, it is not surprising that newspaper circulation decreased in the last decade, due to increased reliance on the Internet for access to daily news.
The predominance of regional over national newspapers in Italy is striking. One reason for this phenomenon is that the capital, Rome, is not an international center on the order of New York, Paris, or London, while several cities in northern Italy, notably Milan and Turin in the northwest, Bologna and Venice in the northeast, are important urban centers. While some regional newspapers have a high circulation and are nationally distributed, they tend to convey a regional bias that is often linked to the family that owns the paper. This has been the case for Il Corriere della Sera, whose owners have long imposed their own Milanese bias, and for La Stampa, owned by the Agnelli family of Turin, who are the major stockholders of the Fiat Company and who impart a Piedmontese bias to this nationally distributed paper. The lack of a truly national newspaper leaves room for many regional and multi-regional papers, e.g. Il Mattino, which is based in Naples and Il Resto del Carlino, based in Bologna (Lumley 2). Some party-affiliated daily newspapers, notably L'Unitá, and other sectarian daily newspapers have a truly national character and nationwide readership, and seem to be filling the void to some extent.
The third characteristic of the Italian daily press, its lack of independence, is intertwined with the previous one. Ownership by rich families, industrial groups and other financial power centers is typical, with often many newspapers published by the same group. A notable non-industrial financial center is the Catholic Church, which supports publication of the widely circulated daily paper of the Vatican, L'Osservatore Romano. In past decades, it was also typical to see daily newspapers published by political parties, which used the medium to circulate information to their members. While the Italian reading public is small, it is politically savvy. Italians display high percentages of party membership and voting turn-out, and membership is also high in labor unions and in a variety of cultural, professional and political interest groups (Mancini 320-1). Party newspapers could thus derive great political benefit from this method of communicating with their members. While most of the party papers have disappeared in the past decade, L'Unitá, the traditional publicity arm of the Communist Party (recently reborn as the Democratic Party of the Left) is still circulated nationwide, but has declined in importance.
One origin of Italy's press sectarianism is the genre of journalism that historically developed in Italy. As is the case in several other west European countries, journalism in Italy has grass-root beginnings in literary gazettes. As such, journalism has traditionally specialized in interpretation, intricate commentary and complex analysis rather than direct news reporting and detailed descriptions of events. Italian journalists are experts at the inchiesta giornalistica, the investigative in-depth report. Analysts of the Italian daily newspapers often note the irony residing in the fact that this medium of public discourse employs highly skilled journalists who face a public that does not read daily newspapers in significant numbers. Other origins lie in the fact that the press developed at the time of unification of the country, which fostered the founding of the Party newspapers, and the fact that the seat of power of the Catholic Church happens to be in the Italian peninsula. The Vatican is the world's richest nation in terms of income per capita, and it constitutes one of the main power bases, with a political agenda that is definitely not independent.
The final two major characteristics of the Italian press, non-existence of a popular press and the presence of daily newspapers devoted to a single non-news topic, are to some extent overlapping. Instead of producing tabloids, a format that is popular in several other EU member countries, Italian publishers focus on newspapers with specialized topics that tie in with a major passion of all Italians, sport, and in particular soccer. On days following a national soccer match or a World Cup competition, the circulation of sports papers like La Gazetta dello Sportand Il Corriere dello Sport-Stadio soars into the hundreds of thousands (Grandinetti 29, 40).
Daily, Weekly & Other Periodicals
According to the most recent statistics (Annuario Statistico Italiano 214), slightly over 10 million distinct periodicals appear in Italy (data for 1998). A relatively small percentage of these are daily printed newspapers. Of these, about two-thirds are listed as providing general daily news coverage, while the others deal with a variety of topics, including topics of interest to members of professional areas, commerce, sports, the arts, and labor unions (Annuario 214). A detailed listing of current and out-of-print newspaper titles, together with their place and first date of publication, ownership, editorial board, description of relevant facts, and a short bibliography related to each newspaper is provided by Grandinetti (1992) and readers interested in this detail should consult that publication. For the purpose at hand, a brief description of the major national, regional and party-affiliated papers follows. The nationwide Italian press has two major daily newspapers: La Republica and Il Corriere della Sera, both of which are published with local sections for each of the major urban areas. There are also a number of large regional and newspapers, notably Il Mattino (Naples), Il Messaggero (Rome) and La Stampa (Turin), which is the third largest daily newspaper. Many of the daily papers covering general news originated in the nineteenth century. Today, the major national and local newspapers are no longer affiliated with political parties, as used to be the rule in the past. The notable exception remains L'Unitá, the traditional newspaper of the Communist Party (Mancini 323).
In addition to the relatively few daily newspapers, there is a large number of weekly (482), biweekly (384) and monthly (2,148) magazines, with an additional 6,817 periodicals that have a lower frequency of circulation (Annuario 2000 214). In the beginning of the twenty-first century, the number of daily newspapers has increased, from a low of 113 in 1995 to 126, while the number of weeklies has declined significantly, from 624 in 1995 to its 2002 total of 482. Weekly magazines play an important role in distributing general news information to the public, with 176 of them devoted solely to news coverage and the remaining to music, sports, religion, and many other topics. The widest circulated weeklies in the general news category are Panorama and L'Espresso. Considering that these two weeklies are owned, respectively by the Mediaset-Berlusconi Group and the Espresso-La Republica Group, they reflect the main political trends of weekly press coverage and journalism.
New trends in commercial journalism
The year 1989 accentuated a new trend in Italian journalism, as the "soft" revolutions took their course in central and eastern Europe. Press coverage on events impacting on Italy, in particular increased immigration, revealed the dimensions of an Italian national identity. Immigration from north and central Africa, Asia and the ex-Eastern bloc nations has seen a rise since 1970 and increased sharply after 1989, especially from Albania, Poland, Romania, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India. Lax immigration policies and an extensive economia sommersa (under-ground economy) have traditionally lured immigrants, the vast majority of whom are illegal, to the peninsula. Anna Triandafyllidou's study published in 1999 documents the concomitant upsurge of ethno-nationalism in Italy. She points out that national community in Italy is not merely based in its territorial boundaries and its culture, but also by the melding of a restoration of Roman historic tradition with the revolutionary elements of the fascist legacy into the so-called Risorgimento (resurgence) movement. The development of a xenophobic attitude has been both demonstrated and perhaps even accelerated by public discourse in the press. Articles in the representative weeklies Panorama and L'Espresso show a discourse that continually differentiates Italians from immigrants. Immigrants are treated "not as individuals but as members of a given group that is categorized beforehand… (83)." The following titles of articles published in the two weeklies are representative of this public discourse: L'integrazione impossible (The impossible integration), L'Espresso, Oct. 10, 1990; L'Immigratio checi meritamo (The immigrant we deserve), L'Espresso, Oct. 13, 1991; A ciascuno il suo profugo (a refugee for everyone), L'Espresso, June 23, 1991; Oggi albanesi, poi… (Today Albanians, tomorrow…), Panorama, June 30, 1991; and Immigrati: quanti sono davvero e come fanno a entrare? (Immigrants: How many are there really, and how do they get in?).
In March 1999, the United Nations Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination issued a strongly worded criticism of Italy's practice of discrimination against Roma people. While it did not single out the Italian press, the Committee made mention of the lack of appropriate knowledge and training of law enforcement and other public officials in regards to the provision of the Convention. In looking at the role the Italian press has played in the public discourse regarding immigration, using the sample of titles of articles listed above, one may conclude that the press has not helped educate the public about the human rights of marginalized people and has instead devoted coverage to their "otherness."
Prior to the onset of commercialization of the 1980s, expansion of their paper's readership was not a prime economic strategy of newspaper publishers. Enzo Forcella, a well-known analyst of Italian journalism, explained in a 1959 essay entitled Millecinquecento Lettori that a journalist should try to reach only the following 1,500 privileged readers (Forcella 451):
"…a political journalist can count on about one thousand five hundred readers in Italy: ministers and under-secretaries (all), members of parliament (some), party leaders, trade-union representatives, high prelates and some industrialists who want to appear well informed. The rest don't count, even if the newspaper sells three hundred thousand copies. First of all, it is not believed that the common reader reads the first pages of the newspaper and, in any case, his influence is minimal. All of the system is organized for the relationship between journalists and the privileged group of readers."
Forcella's comments are often quoted because they encapsulate the main goals of newspaper publishers in the period up to the oil crisis and the resulting economic stagflation periods experienced by west European countries, and notably Italy, in the mid-seventies. The mid-seventies were a watershed for European economies, and Italy in particular. Until 1971, the Italian economy enjoyed high growth rates and unemployment rates that were stable, with high unemployment concentrated in the Mezzogiorno. Wage pressure was becoming evident in the northern industrial region at the end of the sixties, contributing to strikes and fueling wage inflation. Then came the two oil shocks of the 1970s, and economic growth could only be maintained by an accommodating monetary policy adopted by the Banca d'Italia. Accordingly, inflation reached 20 percent per year. Following the second oil shock of 1979-80, unemployment rates started to rise despite the easy monetary policy. High unemployment and inflation are costly for both business and government, because of two mechanisms. The first is the cassa integrazione (generally called the cassa ), a system jointly financed by business (at the rate of one percent of gross salaries) and by government. It pays at least 80 percent of one's salary over a period that may be unlimited. Many of the unemployed continue to work, at near full compensation, in the underground economy, which is estimated to be 20-35 percent of the economy (Neal and Barbezat 232). The underground economy is very diversified and closer to the surface than in other EU members, as many enterprises in Italy sublet their business space during night hours (Dauvergne 31). The second mechanism interacting with inflation, and some arguing that it is the main cause of inflation, is the scala mobile, which indexed salary increases to the projected cost of living. Since rising wages were a major factor causing rises in the cost of living, the Italian economy was caught in an inflationary wage-price spiral that contributed to a number of problems, including rising pension costs, balance of payments deficits and government deficits.
On the government side, economic problems contributed to short-lived administrations. On top of being plagued by persistent economic problems, Italy entered the period of the terror of the Red Brigades. The Brigatte Rosse (Red Brigades) was founded in 1969, an offshoot of the student protests and social movement of 1968, and vouched to establish a Marxist-Leninist state in a new Italy that would no longer be a member of NATO. The Red Brigades started a spate of terrorist acts in 1973, which included kidnapping and shootings of businessmen and others. Indro Montanelli, the editor of Il Giornale, was shot in the legs in 1977. The group lost all political support from the Left when it murdered former prime minister Aldo Moro, who was then the leader of the left wing of the Christian Democratic Party. After many members were arrested, the group disappeared in 1989. The murder of government adviser Marco Biagi in March 2002 has led to fears that the Red Brigades may be staging a comeback, however.
In the private sector, big industry is described (Dauvergne 32) as having found a "second wind" in the 1980s, but this was largely accomplished by means of massive layoffs (Locke Chapter 2) rather than truly innovative strategies. In the communications industry, the second wind was the beginning of a period of crass commercialization, and an end to the period where industrial groups held on to publishing enterprises that were not profitable and were considered useful mainly as a public relations tool.
The rise in commercialization of the media since the 1980s and the development of the Internet, has led to a shift from the printed press to the mass media as the prime vehicle for carrying political messages to the people, and this in an increasingly profit-oriented fashion. Gone are the party newspapers like Il Popolo, L'Avanti and La Vocce Republicana, the respective daily newspapers of the Christian Democrat, Socialists and Republican political parties. The new political party of Forza Italia relies solely on paid messages carried via commercial media for its advertising.
The market approach, so evident since the 1980s, has also brought with it an end to the era of massive subsidies from political and industrial owners to the media (Mancini 322), and this happened without reliance on money-making infotainment, and fluff entertainment programming. Indeed, TV news programming has increased significantly in the 1990s (it rose 11 percent from 1992 to 1996), and has well kept pace with cultural programming, which itself rose 13 percent during the same period (Mancini 322). However, it must be admitted that political sensationalism and exaggeration of conflicts is more visible in the new commercialized news environment than it was prior to the 1980s. Reporting is done using a simpler, less nuanced, less complex and, hence, less analytical and critical manner in the new media environment. There is an additional hidden social cost to the "sensationalization" of events in an effort to attract readers and viewers in the profit-oriented media. Sensationalization places increased emphasis on escalation of conflicts and de-emphasizes peacemaking and conflict resolution. Accordingly, coverage of the possibility of America waging war on Iraq takes on the quality of a TV program rather than the grim reality of a bloody war.
The Attempt at an Independent Press
While private ownership of the press was also typical in Italy before 1980, the owners of the media did not pursue a profit motive as much as they sought to favorably influence public opinion. What has remained unchanged throughout, is the lack of success of independent newspapers. Most attempts at establishing an independent newspaper in Italy fail. A typical example is the appropriately named L'Indipendente, founded in November 1991 with financial backing from a group of northern Italian investors (Publikompass) under the leadership of Guido Roberto Vitale, an investment banker, and also brother to Alberto Vitale, the CEO of Random House. The investors adopted the mission to create an objective newspaper in the English tradition. The paper's founding editor-in chief, Riccardo Franco Levi expressed the paper's ambitious editorial goal: "The idea was to found a quality newspaper, which Italy does not really have…In Italy, newspapers are aimed simultaneously at university professors and taxi drivers. We wanted to split that target, and we also wanted to separate news from opinion, something not usually done in Italy. And we wanted to be rigorously independent, as the masthead suggested" (Shugaar 16). The Levi interview uses the past tense, because the experiment in independent journalism was short-lived, even though L'Indipendente continues to be published to date. Although the paper contained truly independent journalism in its initial months, it was perceived by the reading public as uninspired and sterile. No one read the paper any more after its first few days and the other investors relieved Riccardo Franco Levi as editor-in-chief on February 14, 1992. By then, circulation had plummeted to about 15,000 after an early peak of 200,000. He was replaced by Vittorio Feltri, who represented the paper's financial backers and who adopted the goal of turning the paper into the black, even if this would involve making political alliances. By year-end, circulation recovered to the respectable 100,000 level, and the paper had become another mouthpiece for the northern industrial/political power base (Shugaar 17).
Press Laws & CENSORSHIP
The foundation for Italian press law is provided by the constitutional principle of freedom of individual expression, and in additional legislation. Article 21 of the Italian Constitution, approved on December 22, 1947 and effective January 1, 1948. The article sets out by providing that all persons have the right to express their thoughts freely, either verbally, in written form, or in any other form of communication (Pace). It further makes clear that the press will not be subjected to any authorities or to censorship. However, the broad freedom granted to the press in this sentence is immediately curtailed in the following paragraph of Article 21, which was the subject of heated debate during the constitutional assembly. As a rule, expressions in the press that are "counter to morality" are not permitted. Under certain circumstances, judicial authorities may order restraints to the press, provided that they base these orders on existing press laws in the civil and criminal code. In extreme situations and when judicial authorities have not yet been able to apply legal restraints police authorities may enforce a 24-hour sequestration.
A number of specific laws governing the press are also included in the Italian legal code, notably the Albertine Edict of 1848, the Penal Code, Public Security laws, and legislation setting up the Order of Journalists (1963) that lays out the guidelines for the journalism profession. Article 2461 of the Civil Code established the RAI (Radio televisione italiana ). Additional legislation provides legal penalties for slander against the state's religion, attacks against heads of state of foreign nations, espionage and similar offenses. In reality, however, court-ordered sequestration or legal penalties have seldom been applied to the printed media, despite the publication of sometimes-vicious attacks on the pope, the president, and other government officials. A notable exception took place during the legal court proceedings against members of the Red Brigade terrorist group, when Il Messagero published parts of an informant's secret pre-trial testimony, and a prison sentence was imposed on the journalist and a law enforcement officer.
While direct sequestration and penalty are rare, censorship of a more insidious variety has characterized the Italian press since the passage of the Constitution, since editors have been subservient to a political party, groups of industrial owners or the editorial politics of the private owner of a media empire (Berlusconi).
Compared with other advanced industrialized nations, freedom of the Italian press is not highly ranked. In its global survey of 186 countries, Freedom House (2001) assessed each country's system of mass communications. The authors of this study strive to use universal criteria, rooted in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, notably freedom of opinion and expression. Rather than studying constitutions and other laws, an attempt is made to observe everyday reality and practice. The following four dimensions are taken into account: government laws on the content of the news media; the degree of political influence on news content; economic influence on the media, either by government or private parties; and the degree of oppression of the media, either by means of physical threats or harm to journalists, or via direct censorship of the news and its distribution. Data for each dimension are gathered from a number of sources, including judgments of overseas correspondents and findings of international human rights organizations. When a form of restriction is considered to be present, points are recorded. Hence, the more points a nation scores, the less free is its press. While most European countries received low scores and ranked in the "free press" category, Italy received a ranking of 32, placing it in the "partly free" press group. Considering the pattern of ownership, industrial and political control of the major newspaper publishing groups and media networks, this finding is not too surprising.
In a more recent evaluation of the Italian media, the second annual Freedom of Expression awards, handed out by the Index on Censorship group in London in March 2002, the censorship award went to Silvio Berlusconi, for having placed "unprecedented powers of censorship into practice," and for having combined in the person of the prime minister the triad of "media, man and government" (Wells).
While Italian newspapers have been tied to politics since the nation's unification, a political party press emerged towards the end of the nineteenth century, with the publication of the Socialist Party's newspaper Avanti!, which was followed by the publication of daily newspapers by every political party, from Anarchists to Republicans. This press subculture provided discourse within the parties, while the commercial press reached out to the wider reading public. An obvious result of the strong party affiliation of a group of newspapers over approximately a century has been the move of journalists to high-level politicians and vice versa. Giovanni Spadolini's career path from editor of Il Corriere della Sera to leader of the Republican Party and subsequently to prime minister is a typical example (Lumley 6). Silvio Berlusconi's path from a brief term as prime minister to Mediaset media mogul is even more extreme, since he moved back into the prime minister seat in June 2001 and yet retained control over his media empire.
During the Fascist period, government interference in the press and political shaping of newspaper content were common. After the end of World War II and in the middle of the Cold War, government interfered with the press by means of covert funding of some newspapers and spying on the activities of others. During the stagflation period in the mid-1970s, a system of government subsidies to the press and a legal limit on TV advertising were instituted to protect newspapers that were failing financially. Dependence on government assistance and favorable legislation indirectly increased the political subservience of newspaper editors. At the same time, the journalism profession itself was molded by government in the postwar period. Political parties voted in 1944 to keep legislation that restricted access to the journalism profession to those persons admitted to the so-called albo dei giornalisti (the journalists' register). Furthermore, a 1963 law defined the profession of journalism, as it also defined the professions of lawyer and physician (Lumley 6-7).
While the period 1946-1974 can certainly be characterized as one where the press was largely beholden to government, many of the wide-circulation newspapers were molded by industrial owners rather than by government, and were used by them to gain access to the public political sphere. A newspaper that is owned by an industrial group will tend to be soft on environmental concerns, and cater to its owners' interests, lest its editor-in-chief be replaced.
The 1980s saw a major transformation of the mass media in Europe, and the Italian media shared in this transformation. It was evidenced in an economic expansion of the media system, persistent replacement of public by private ownership and increasing market competition. The major daily newspapers and periodicals were in 2002 owned by industrial groups.
Three major industrial groups presently have control, directly or indirectly, of daily and weekly publications and their publishers. These three groups are (1) the Espresso-La Republica group; (2) Fiat-Rizzoli (which owns part of Il Corriere della Sera, La Stampa and the publishing company Rizzoli ); and (3) Mediaset-Berlusconi group, which controls the daily newspaper Il Giornale, the weekly magazine Panorama and TV channels Canale 5, Italia 1 and Rete 4 (Triandafyllidou 85). Fiat-Rizzoli is the primary stockholder of Il Corriere della Sera, until recently the widest-circulated daily newspaper (Mancini 319-20) When we add La Stampa, the number-three paper in terms of circulation, to the portfolio, the power of Fiat-Rizzoli over the daily news is shown to be extensive. La Republica, which is the long-standing contender for first place, and has temporarily taken over Il Corriere della Sera in sales volume, is part of a large portfolio of newspapers, the Espresso-La Republica Group, owned by De Benedetti, a private entrepreneur. Lastly, Silvio Berlusconi, the one time ex-prime minister who was recently reelected as prime minister under a center-right coalition, owns the Mediaset empire, in addition to a number of other businesses.
Attitude toward Foreign Media
Members of foreign media, operating either as foreign correspondents in Italy or in association with offices of foreign press agencies there, are treated with the utmost cordiality by Italians. The foreign press has access to office facilities, receives subsidies for some operating expenses, and its members receive a number of personal perks. It is not unusual for a foreign correspondent stationed in Rome to remain in Italy after retirement.
Expulsions of members of the foreign media are unheard of in Italy today. However, there are instances where cordiality ends. There are occasions when journalists, including foreign correspondents, are simply not allowed to witness certain events, e.g., when law enforcement officers crack down heavy-handedly on immigrants. One such occasion, reported by eyewitnesses to the European Roma Rights Center (2000), was the raid of the Roma camp at Tor de' Cenci near Rome, on March 7, 2000, and the clandestine expulsion of 112 of its occupants. The foreign media are also treated with disdain by leading politicians when they react to their objective coverage of elections, scandals and general political events in Italy. Foreign correspondent for The Observer, Rory Carroll (2001) described Berlusconi's accusations of the foreign press as engaging in a communist plot and conducting character assassination. The foreign press did indeed engage in a concerted effort to paint Berlusconi ad a crook who should never have been considered eligible for public office because he heads a media empire. In the words of Giovanni Agnelli, the head of Fiat and a business rival of Berlusconi in the media field, the foreign newspapers "addressed themselves to our electorate as if it were the electorate of a banana republic." However, foreign correspondents do not have to go in hiding after filing their stories critical of Italy's most powerful politicians, showing again that the foreign media are well treated. The concerted feeding frenzy of the foreign media concerning the Berlusconi re-election and corruption scandals may however have led some Italians to lose respect for what they believed to be an objective foreign press.
The national Italian news agency is the Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA), the National Associated Press Agency. ANSA is Italy's largest press agency, and was established in Rome on January 13, 1945 as a cooperative company that was committed to maintain standards of independence and objectivity. Its statute declared that ANSA services would be distributed to publishers of Italian newspapers and to third parties, in the spirit of democratic liberty that is guaranteed by the Constitution, and to foster mutual assistance among its partners. The statute went on to state that collection and distribution of information to partners and non-partners would be done under criteria of rigorous impartiality and objectivity. The agency's written promise of rigorous independence was compromised as early as 1949, when ANSA became the recipient of government subsidies and its directors became government appointees.
ANSA presently consists of 43 publishing houses that print 50 daily newspapers. It has employment of 1000, as follows: 400 correspondents (94 of these abroad), 400 technical and administrative staff and 200 other employees. It is headquartered in Rome and maintains 19 regional bureaus in Italy and around the world. ANSA distributes domestic and foreign news, regional news, and international news in non-English languages, by means of satellite and data lines. ANSA no longer plays a pivotal role in providing information to Italy's daily newspapers, since the major international agencies (Associate Press, Reuters, United Press International and Tass) are available at low cost to Italian newspaper editors. ANSA's website can be accessed at http://www.ansa.it.
There are several other active news agencies, all of which are specialized to some extent. AGI Italy distributes daily news and columns on energy, life in Italy, European statistics, and other areas. ADN Kronos (owned by Guiseppe Marra Communications) focuses on daily news and job advertisements from both employers and job seekers. The Zenit news agency, which distributes religious news under the heading "The World Seen from Rome."
Broadcast & ELECTRONIC News Media
Until the 1990s Italy's national media consisted of print and broadcasting, the telephone system was not yet integrated with broadcasting, and the media economy was tied in to the state in a variety of ways. An attempt was made in 1990s to regulate the media and its ownership. Legge Mammí or Law 223, passed in 1990, prohibited cross-ownership between publishing and television companies, while Legge Maccanico or Law 249 capped the number of television channels that could be owned by the same operating company to 20 percent of the market, and prevented Telecom Italia, the nation's largest telecommunications company, from entering the terrestrial television market (Forgacs 131). The attempt at regulation was largely ineffective due to the integration of the various media markets. Analysts Pilati and Poli (199) argue for introduction of pragmatic rules rather than quantitative ceilings as a method to control market share.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the non-print media system was still dominated by television. Recently, however, Italian audiences have begun to turn away from generalist television, both because of its program content and because of increased use of the Internet for both entertainment and access to news. As mentioned above, TV journalism is more sensationalist and less complex than the traditional written word in the Italian Press. Since the largest audiences for news are TV audiences, TV basically sets the stage for what printed journalism must cover. Mancini (323) points to an important change in the role of the news-consuming public in Italy in the past 20 years. The average citizen in today's public sphere must possess his or her own political point of view and must have a strong emotional response to the sensationalized political events. He speculates whether the new dramatization in TV and press alike will "draw citizens closer to politics or contribute to their progressive withdrawal from it."
There are two major broadcasting networks in Italy: RAI (Radio televisione italiana) and Mediaset. Public service radio and television has been provided solely by the RAI, which operates under a renewable charter granted by the State. Its current charter will expire in 2014. RAI is set up as a limited company of national interest (societá per azioni d'interesse nationale ), outlined in Article 2461 of the Civil Code and headquartered in Rome. (Hibberd 153). Since it began operations in 1945, when liberal democracy had been restored, it was important for Italians to establish an impartial broadcasting network. The president of RAI stated its goal as follows (Hibberd 159):
In a liberal regime, characterized by the coexistence of different political parties and by the possibility of an alternation of power, the radio cannot be the instrument of government power or of the parties of opposition, but must remain a public service of dispassionate and impartial information which all listeners, whatever their beliefs, can draw upon.
Until September 2000, the state holding company IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale) held 99.5 percent of RAI's shares. After that date, its ownership was turned over to the Treasury. In 1976, the monopoly of RAI was ended by the Italian Constitutional Court, and the broadcasting system was opened to market competition. In the new century, with the application of new technologies and convergence of all forms of communication, it is likely that several parts of public service broadcasting, until today still under the auspices of RAI, will be privatized.
Television subscriptions numbered near 16 million in 1999 (ISTAT 215), or 276 per 1000 persons. Although this number has steadily decreased over the last few years, TV access is still much more widespread than daily newspaper use. There are again significant regional differences. Most of the subscribers to RAI-TV are from the North-Central region (11 million, for 309 subscriptions per 1000 inhabitants), and a much smaller number from the Mezzogiorno region (4.6 million, or 219 per 1000 inhabitants). The extremes are Liguria (357 per 1000 inhabitants) and Campania (175 per 1000 inhabitants).
The number of hours of TV programming broadcast by the two major networks is spread over several channels. RAI-TV's Rai Uno and Rai Due broadcast 8,760 hours in 1999 (27 percent of the total for the network) and Rai Tre broadcast 15,227 hours (47 percent). Mediaset's Canale 5, Italia 1 and Rete 4 each broadcast 8,760 hours. News programming was mostly provided by Canale 5 (3,209 hours) and Rete 4 (1,580 hours).
Similar to the printed press, Italy's broadcasting network also has a large number of companies that provide programming at the local level. A recent study of Italy's local broadcasting network interprets the meaning of the term local on the basis of both geographical location and own-programming. F. Barca (1999) conducted a quantitative count of the number of companies and then distinguished between those who produce at least a limited share of their own programming, on the one hand, and those who simply reproduce programs that were originally broadcast by other companies, on the other. The author found that the local broadcasting network is a crowded and active one. Owning a local TV station does not only yield direct economic advantage, but plays a more indirect role in owners' other economic activities as well (e.g., political participation).
As Italy is entering the digital age, an Internet audience numbering into the millions has emerged among the public. Recent online surveys of Italian Internet audiences (Magistretti 2001) show that they constitute the better educated, more well to do, and more liberal among the Italian population. The Internet audience comprises people who are distrustful of both the daily press and television, and use the Internet to obtain access to objective news (not just Italian), music, various forms of entertainment, merchandise and services.
The Internet also provides services for those who simply seek easier access to their favorite daily newspaper, or who wish to read their paper while away on travel. On-line newspaper delivery has expanded in the last few years. The first electronic editions to appear online were those of L'Unitá and L'Unione Sarda, both in 1995. The following is a list of Italian newspapers, with their URLs, that can be read online. The list is likely to expand.
- Brescia oggi, www.bresciaoggi.it
- Il Corriere del Sud, www.corrieredelsud.it
- Il Golfo, www.ischiaonlin.it/ilgolfo
- Il Messagero, www.ilmessagero.it
- L'Unitá, www.unita.it
- La Stampa, www.lastampa.it
- La Repubblica, www.repubblica.it
- La Gazzetta dello Sport, www.gazzetta.it
Online journalism in Italy is more innovative than its printed paper form, but is constrained by advertising. While the layout of printed newspapers maintains boundaries between articles and advertising, the Internet makes possible the use of links that take readers to a variety of products or to the website of a sponsor where they can read more detailed information about the topic treated in the journal article. This makes the article the hub of a variety of advertisements, and compromises the independence of the journalist and the newspaper (Sorice 206). On the positive side, however, the Internet makes possible the use of advertisements that are that are interactive with the consumer (Pasquali 188). Another problem faced by Italian online journals is their local focus, which to some extent conflicts with the global focus of the Internet. Thus far, printed newspapers have not seen a decline in sales that is directly due to a shift of readership to their online versions. La Republica has had remarkable success with the combination of its printed version and a very differently formatted online version, where readers can move to in-depth analyses of stories, participate in dialogues, and access a variety of special services and offers (Sorice 207). Personalization of service is an important marketing tool to attract subscribers to online newspapers.
The Italian television system is about to enter digital terrestrial television (DTT), which is expected to be widely available and replace analogue television in the next few years. Law 249 of 1997 also set up the Autoritá per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni , a regulatory agency that became operational in 1998. It made a number of recommendations in its white paper on digital terrestrial television, made public in November 2000. AGCOM predicts that DTT will enhance diversification of programs and will bring the public back to their television units. DTT will also be interactive and thus provide a number of flexible user options. Another visual medium, Italian cinema, is lagging behind in technology. To once again become a significant participant in the global market, with films that have more appeal than the mere nostalgia of films like Il Postino and La Vita é Bella, the Italian film industry must begin to use strategies that rely on digital technology and integration with culture production in other media.
Education & TRAINING
The journalism profession is outlined in legislation of 1963 that set up the Ordine dei Giornalisti (Order of xsJournalists). The Ordine established two basic categories of journalists, professionisti (full-time professionals, typically employed by one newspaper), and pubblicisti (free-lance journalists). A third category was added in the late 1970s, comprising such professionals as managing editors of professional and academic periodicals. The Ordine further establishes the vertical hierarchy from apprenticeship to licensed professional. The Ordine has the legal authority to impose penalties for violations of the rules and is accorded a number of other disciplinary powers. In 1968, a provision was added relating to press organization, in particular, the requirement that the dit-tore responsabile be a member of the Ordine. The dittore responsabile is a designated individual in whose single person resides the responsibility and, hence, liability for the material printed in the publication. This person may not be a member of Parliament, because deputies and senators are immune. For newspapers where the dittore responsabile is not an actual editor, the day-to-day operations of the paper are conducted by a managing editor or editore operante (Porter ix). The position of dittore responsabile existed in Italy more than hundred years prior to the 1968 provision, which only stipulated that the person be registered on the Ordine. Historically, Italian printers were often punished for producing materials they did not themselves write and expressing views that they might not even agree with. The Albertine edict of 1848 (named for King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia) separated printers from the responsibility for the content of their productions by stipulating that each piece of publication must have a designated dittore responsabile.
To become a professional journalist in Italy, even today, requires that one achieves registration to the Ordine. To become registered, aspiring journalists must pass an examination (the Esame di cultura generale ) and complete an apprenticeship. The examination is offered in April and October, and contains questions covering law, politics, and general knowledge, and can only be taken if applicants are at least 18 years of age and after they have completed an 18-month apprenticeship as a practicanto for low pay or no pay at all. Candidates who pass the written examination must stand for an oral examination held the next day, which covers questions on the following five topics determined by law: elements of the history of journalism; elements of sociology and social psychology; techniques and practices of journalism; judicial standards related to journalism and legislation relevant to the media; and professional ethics. The strict regulation of the journalism profession is reminiscent of the medieval guild system. Since most of the professional journalists have achieved registration via this route, university education and the earning of a degree in journalism is not yet highly valued as a way to enter and be successful in the profession (Holtz). Most professional journalists maintain the belief that the skills needed to become a member of the trade consist of writing skills, intuition, curiosity, and guts, as opposed to an education focusing on the humanities and the social sciences. The powerful journalists' trade association, the FNSI, still lobbies to limit expansion of university programs in journalism and also to directly limit the number of journalists listed on the Ordine. An aspiring journalist can theoretically obtain an apprenticeship by walking into the offices of the newspaper and applying for the position. In reality, however (Porter 51), apprenticeships tend to go to those applicants whose path has been prepared by means of a phone call or a letter from "somebody who knows somebody."
Once the apprentice is in the door, actual on-the-job training is very limited, since those who know and practice the craft have no time to teach it to a practicanto. The main pedagogical tool is trial and error, learning by cues, and the accumulation of skills by watching the more experienced journalists at their desks. This type of learning is not restricted to fresh practicanti. It is typical to news-room operations, and even staff members receiving an assignment to one of the foreign desks do not receive formal training.
Despite the political opposition from the organized profession and its political backers, journalism schools and universities are beginning to be sanctioned by the Ordine as an acceptable alternative to the apprenticeship. Students using this education plan still have to pass the examination, however. Four schools (located in Bologna, Milan, Perugia and Urbino) and two universities (Milan and Rome) offer journalism programs that are recognized by the Ordine. Many additional journalism programs have been installed in educational institutions in Italy and as extension programs of universities abroad, and universities that have degree programs in Communications also are adding more and more journalism. These programs and courses have yet to be recognized as equivalent by the Ordine. Only those programs that have course content approved by the Ordine will eventually be approved as equivalent to the apprenticeship.
The Italian media has been characterized by low degrees of freedom of the press, small numbers of readers and circulation of both newspapers and weekly magazines, lack of presence of both a popular press, and nonexistence of truly national let alone international newspapers. The media have traditionally been subservient to the state and to private owners. Even the profession of journalism is under government control. Since the printed press tends to follow agendas set by its industrial owners, and there is no popular press, television has temporarily captured the attention of the public. However, excessive commercialization and disenchantment with programming content has turned many viewers away from the medium in the 1990s. New technology is making its way into media communication, in the form of mobile telephony, satellite dishes, increased use of personal computers and the Internet, online journalism, and introduction of digital terrestrial television. Several trends can be predicted for the early twenty-first century:
- While dependence of the press on political and industrial powers is not typical for member countries of the EU, this phenomenon is not likely to disappear, since media mogul Silvo Berlusconi was elected prime minister in 2000. Since economic realities have led newspaper owners to expect profits denominated in Lira or Euros, rather than merely political gain, one can expect that government subsidies to the media will rise. This will not decrease the dependence of the press; rather it is tantamount to exchange of one master by another.
- Journalism will become more and more a profession learned by means of higher education at Italian universities, rather than a craft learned in apprenticeships and through experience. The globalization of the press via the Internet and the ease of access to foreign media is likely to contribute to this trend.
- Events in relation to terrorist attacks in the United States, with the help of networks operating in Europe, and the continuing influx of illegal immigrants who are refugees from the Balkans and other parts of the world is likely to continue to fuel anti-immigrant sentiments in Italy, which is likely to color the public discourse for a number of years.
- In view of the concentration of ownership of the non-public media in private hands, it is very unlikely that the Italian people will become avid consumers of domestically produced news and related materials. More likely than not, the foreign press may increase in importance, both in hard copy form, TV programs and access to the Internet. Why read a politically biased domestic paper when one can read the BBC News, Le Monde, The Economist and a host of well-respected media online?
- Looking beyond the current prime minister's negative stance towards the EU, it seems likely that Italy cannot distance itself significantly from the EU and yet remain one of the participants in the G7 summit meetings of the leaders of the worlds main economic powers. Thus, Romano Prodi's pro-EU stance (Willey) is likely to see a return in future Italian prime ministers, bringing with it the EU directives and a social contract that combat media elitism and seek to encourage use of the media to provide social inclusion rather than exclusion based on politics, region, class and immigrant status. The Italian press would benefit from participation in the public discourse surrounding this trend.
- Convergence of the different segments of the Italian media (print, film, broadcasting, telephony) will continue, with newspapers and magazines having online editions, broadcasting organizations having websites, digital TV transmission, digital editing and online delivery of films. (Forgacs 2001). Technical convergence also will contribute to increased economic convergence, which in Italy is a disturbing trend considering the lack of independence of the press and the media. The concomitant rise in consumer convergence, however, is a positive trend and a possible vehicle to democratize the media, provided that use fees do not lead to exclusion of the economically disadvantaged.
Barca, F. 1999. "The Local Television Broadcasting System in Italy." Media, Culture and Society 21(1): 109-122.
Brancato, Sergio. 2001. "Italy in the Digital Age: Cinema as New Technology." Modern Italy 6(2): 215-222.
Carroll, Rory. 2001. "Berlusconi attacks Foreign 'Plotters."'The Observer, Sunday, May 6, 2001.
Colombo, Fausto. 2001. "Mobile Telephone Use in Italy in the 1990s: Interpretative Models."Modern Italy 6(2):141-151.
Dauvergne, Alain. 1983. "Italy's Secret Strengths: How the Bumblebee of Western Europe Remains Aloft."World Press Review 30(5): 30-32.
European Roma Rights Center. 2000. Letter to the Italian Prime Minister. (Signed by Executive Director Dimitrina Petrova). Sunday, 12 March.
Forcella, Enzo. 1959, "Millecinquecento Lettori." Tempo Presente 6: 112-127.
Forgacs, David. 2001. "Scenarios for the Digital Age: Convergence, Personalization, Exclusion." Modern Italy 6(2): 129-139.
Freedom House. 2001. The World Audit. New York: Freedom House Publications.
Grandinetti, Mario. 1992. I Quotidiani in Italia: 1943-1991. Milan, Italy: FrancoAngeli s.r.l.
Hibberd, Matthew. 2001. "Public Service Broadcasting in Italy: Historical Trends and Future Prospects." Modern Italy 6(2): 153-170.
Holtz, Torsten. 1998. "Widespread Prejudices." The New Euroreporter. October.
ISTAT (Istituto Centrale di Statistica). 2000. Annuario Statistico Italiano. 2000. Rome, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica.
Kennedy, Frances. 2002. "Italy Fears Revival of Red Brigades after Government Aide is Shot Dead." The Independent. March 21, 2002.
Locke, Richard M. 1995. Remaking the Italian Economy. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Lumley, Robert. 1996. Italian Journalism: A Critical Anthology. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. Distributed by St. Martin's Press in the USA and Canada.
Magistretti, Stefano. "Two Online Surveys of Italian Internet Audiences: A Summary of Findings." Modern Italy 6(2): 171-180.
Mancini, Paolo. 2000. "How to Combine Media Commercialization and Party Affiliation: The Italian Experience." Political Communication 17(4): 319-324.
Pace, Alessandro. 1990. "Constitutional Protection of Freedom of Expression in Italy." European Review of Public Law 2: 71-113.
Pasquali, Francesca. 2001. "Imagining the Web: The Social Construction of the Internet in Italy." Modern Italy 2001(2): 181-193.
Pilati, Antonio, and Emanuela Poli. 2001. "Digital Terrestrial Television." Modern Italy 6(2):195-204.
Shugaar, Antony. 1995. "Berlusconi's Untamed Press." Columbia Journalism Review 33(6): 19.
——. 1993. "What, No Strings? The Italian Tradition and L'Indipendente." Columbia Journalism Review 32(4): 16-18.
Sorice, Michele. 2001. "Online Journalism: Information and Culture in the Italian Technological Imagery." Modern Italy 6(2): 205-213.
Triandafyllidou, Anna. 1999. "Nation and Immigration: A Study of the Italian Press Discourse." Social Identities 5(1): 65-88.
Wells, Matt. 2002. "Censorship 'Award' for Berlusconi." The Guardian. Friday, March 22.
Willey, David. 1999. "Europe Profile: Romano Prodi." Interview by David Willey, correspondent for BBC News in Rome. May 10, 1999.
"Italy." World Press Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/media/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." World Press Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/media/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
ITALY. The early modern period following the Renaissance is only now emerging from long neglect by historians, who once considered the period one of unbroken decline. This neglect is paradoxical considering that it was in the period of the late Renaissance and the Counter-Reformation that Italy attained its greatest influence in the Western world and a degree of wealth and sophistication that gave it the pilot role in European civilization. The two-and-a-half centuries following the end of the Italian wars in 1559 do not constitute a single period, however.
Unlike France, England, and Castile, which were relatively centralized monarchies with deep roots in the Middle Ages, and unlike Germany, which was a loose-knit confederation of a myriad of relatively stable states under the benign leadership of the Holy Roman emperor, Italy lacked a simple over-arching political framework that enjoyed a wide consensus. Medieval wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, partisans of papal and imperial authority, respectively, were fought to a stalemate where the reality of power lay with each major city and each great lord in central and northern Italy. Then a gradual and fairly rapid process of elimination of the small states by the larger ones resulted in a political map articulated around less than a dozen territorial states by the time of the Peace of Lodi in 1451. The large-scale Italian wars beginning in 1494 simplified this situation even more after a half-century of intermittent fighting. When the wars were over, the king of Spain, Philip II (ruled 1555–1598), was duke of Milan and king of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. A handful of Italian princes seated in Turin, Mantua, Ferrara, Parma, Florence, and Urbino were reduced to satellite status. The pope had now become effective ruler over all the Papal States in central Italy by eliminating the virtual independence of city-states like Perugia or Bologna. Three medieval city-republics still survived: the powerful Venetian state jealous of its independence, the rich but subservient Genoese republic, and the almost insignificant Luccan state. Once the French threat was definitively removed by a long succession of religious conflicts (1561–1629), Italy enjoyed the fruits of a Pax Hispanica that underpinned its economic growth and its new institutional stability.
The new principalities themselves were significant improvements over the unstable coalitions of interests in small city-states. Dynasties like the Medici in Florence, the Farnese in Parma, and the Savoy in Turin gradually reined in the privileges and the autonomy of feudal lords and ensured greater stability by offering more impartial justice. Italian urban governments were as efficient as those anywhere, and the political prerogatives enjoyed by established families in the towns and cities of central and northern Italy enabled them to govern conjointly with their princes. These princes also took the first steps to empower the elites of subject towns in their bureaucracies and employed them at their courts. While most princes built citadels to guarantee the docility of local nobles, they also entrusted the peasantry with arms and training as territorial militia. With time, even the new, upstart dynasties planted roots in the territories they ruled, cajoled the aristocracy to cooperate with them, wove alliances, and multiplied marriages with other dynasties in Europe. In short, they acquired legitimacy in the eyes of their subjects.
Similarly, the king of Spain held Neapolitan and Sicilian barons on a tighter leash and kept them from each others' throats. These aristocrats readily admitted the usefulness of a strong foreign monarch who served as a safety valve against overbearing and ambitious members of their own group. Spain held out many rewards for their compliant obedience and granted noble families ample autonomy in their fiefs. Spanish imperial ventures in the New World, in the Mediterranean, and in Flanders gave Italian elites almost everywhere a worthy theater in which to display their bravura and achieve their most lofty ambitions. Spanish power also kept the peace in Italy by barring the way to invaders and mediating the tensions arising between Italian states. Most of Italy lived contentedly in the Spanish shadow, and its elites joined the great Catholic crusades against heresy in Flanders, in France, and against the Turks in Hungary and the Mediterranean. More pacific Italians enriched themselves by helping finance the great Spanish military machine.
THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
This long sixteenth century, lasting until 1620, marked the creation of the first truly global economy with ramifications in Asia and the Americas. Much of the great flow of silver from the Spanish New World was diverted to the coffers of Italian businessmen who then reinvested it in large-scale trade. Italy enjoyed a number of cultural advantages it had accumulated since the Middle Ages. With Arabic numerals, with widespread numeracy, and commonplace recourse to paper transactions, Italians developed the most sophisticated financial and credit mechanisms anywhere. Italy's high-quality urban manufactures dominated the lucrative luxury sectors of international commerce, the skills to produce them protected and enhanced continually in each city. Venice was probably the most important industrial city in Europe, if not the world. Milan was
|Italian Ruling Dynasties|
|Duchy of Mantua|
|Francesco II Gonzaga (1484–1519)|
|Federico II (1519–1540)|
|Francesco III (1540–1550)|
|Vincenzo I (1587–1612)|
|Francesco IV (1612)|
|Vincenzo II (1626–1627)|
|Carlo I (1627–1637)|
|Carlo II (1637–1665)|
|Carlo Ferdinando (1665–1708)|
|Duchy of Ferrara, Modena & Reggio|
|Alfonso I d'Este (1476–1534)|
|Ercole II (1534–1559)|
|Alfonso II (1559–1597)|
|Cesare (1597–1628): bastard branch, minus Ferrara|
|Alfonso III (1628–1644)|
|Francesco I (1644–1658)|
|Alfonso IV (1658–1662)|
|Francesco II (1662–1694)|
|Francesco III (1737–1780)|
|Ercole III (1780–1803)|
|Duchy of Urbino|
|Guidobaldo I Montefeltro, (1503–1508)|
|Francesco Maria I Della Rovere (1508–1516 & 1521–1538)|
|Guidobaldo II (1538–1574)|
|Francesco Maria II (1574–1631)|
|Duchy of Parma and Piacenza|
|Pier Luigi Farnese (1545–1547)|
|Ranuccio II (1646–1694)|
|Philippe de Bourbon (1748–1765)|
a vast workshop fed from the great Po valley and provisioned, like the manufacturing cities around it in Lombardy, from much of Europe. Cities like Florence, Bologna, and Naples were also notable centers of manufacturing in a broad range of activities. This economy was directed, at the top, by large-scale bankers, dominated by the Genoese, meeting annually in Piacenza to sort out the exchange and credit needs of all of Europe. The manufacturing economy was complemented by one of the most efficient agricultural economies in the Western world, giving Italy the highest population density in Europe. The successful integration of livestock-raising, tree and vine crops, and cereals in central and northern Italy permitted landlords to utilize scant resources more rationally. If the country was not quite self-sufficient in food supplies, ruling elites adopted complex administrative measures to avert urban famine.
Italy was not least the seat of the Catholic Church. Despite the challenge to its hold over western Europe with Protestant reformations in Germany, France, and England, the great and complex institution survived and gradually recovered. The long and intermittent Council of Trent (1545–1563) enhanced the unity of the institution, while new religious orders like the Jesuits bolstered the power of the pontiff. The new Roman Inquisition (founded in 1542) quickly crushed any hint of nonconformity in Italy, while an array of committees rejuvenated the basic texts and doctrines of the faith. The Roman Curia grew to become one of the great courts of Europe, and the city of Rome grew with it, largely rebuilt and deploying modern concepts and tools of urbanism that made the Eternal City the most modern metropolis on the continent and a great repository of both sacred and secular architecture. The Council of Trent had far-reaching consequences for the practice of Catholicism throughout the world, but Italy was its motor, the area of recruitment of its most active proponents. It took decades for the central organs of the church to apply the council's decisions to the urban and rural hinterland, and much longer for these changes to bear fruit. Nevertheless by 1600 the reforms were everywhere in full swing, with the aim of Christianizing Italians in depth. One effect was to make the church an ever more powerful political entity that expanded its jurisdiction and its taxing power with respect to the state. Members of the social elite flocked to enter both old and new religious orders, or saw the church as a coveted career choice. Clerical discipline and doctrine were then relayed to men and women in both city and country via ever more numerous confraternities.
CULTURAL LEADER OF EUROPE
Italy's cultural inventions provided the standards to which Europeans complied in literature, architecture, art, and music until the end of the nineteenth century, although the country lost some of its pilot role by 1650. The era is synonymous with the baroque aesthetic, fashioned in Rome in the late 1500s, and often closely associated with the Catholic Church. Italian spectacles and festive activities were something of a magnet for Europeans, who imitated its styles. In music, both the small-scale madrigal and the large-scale opera were inventions of the period with a long future. Italian cities invented the modern conservatory to train professional musicians, as they invented the art academy as a place to master the techniques and the theory of painting, sculpture, and architecture. Rome and Venice witnessed the emergence of the first art "market" where buyers and sellers exchanged artworks as commodities. Over time, the baroque aesthetic gradually simplified to announce the basic principles of what would become neoclassicism in the eighteenth century. Italy remained the favorite destination of painters and architects seeking models elaborated in both modern and ancient times.
The proponents of all these reforms and inventions were very largely aristocrats. Urban living had given them a patina of urbanity that combined gentle birth, good breeding, a high level of education, and the ability to choose among a wide array of professional and amateur activities without equal in Europe. The humanist models of virtù exercised in this world were taught formally to nobles in Jesuitrun colleges created first in Italy and then exported throughout the Catholic world and beyond. At first, little prevented the active involvement of noblemen in commerce and manufacture, but as aristocratic mores formed a proper doctrine by the late sixteenth century, they began to withdraw from the active role to celebrate a more genteel otium ('leisure'). Yet it was precisely this detachment from mundane affairs that other Europeans found compelling. The pomp and formality of aristocracy defined the early modern elite, and even the age.
THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
The Italian pilot role was snatched away suddenly around 1620. The country was never fully protected from foreign threats. During all of the early modern age, Barbary pirates infested the Mediterranean and the Adriatic seas, seizing ships laden with merchandise belonging to Italians. Worse, flotillas of Muslim pirates raided coastal villages and carried off the population into slavery in North Africa or the Middle East. At times, even substantial cities like Reggio Calabria could be sacked by the largest of such flotillas. Italians and Spaniards responded by building a vast network of coastal fortresses and towers, manned with troops and backed with militia to rally threatened districts. The great Ottoman fleets were smashed at Lepanto in 1571, but insecurity reigned thereafter, checked only by the expansion or creation of Catholic crusading flotillas of the knights of Saint John of Jerusalem and of Santo Stefano, operating out of Malta or Livorno, or the small papal and Savoyard squadrons combined with Spanish vessels based in Genoa, Naples, or Sicily.
WARS AND POLITICS
The corsair raids were mere pinpricks next to the eruption of large-scale warfare in Italy and Europe after about 1613, which engulfed first the northern states and then gradually all the others. The Thirty Years' War, which began in 1618, widened to include France intermittently after 1625 and permanently after 1635. Northern Italy became a frequent battleground for contending armies, while other territories contributed troops and money, mostly in support of Habsburg Austria and Spain. The consequences of large-scale, long-term warfare threw the Italian economies into upheaval, destroying networks of credit and exchange, closing off markets, closing workshops, weakening survivors to the point of making them more vulnerable to contagious diseases. By the 1640s, mounting taxes and a dizzying public debt triggered a massive uprising in the kingdom of Naples that imperiled the Spanish regime. If the region saw the rapid recovery by Spain, the kingdom of Naples was too exhausted to remain a pillar of Spanish strength. During the seventeenth century, King Philip IV (ruled 1621–1665) privatized most of his assets in southern Italy in a desperate attempt to find cash to fight the war, reducing royal power in that region to a shadow. It would be decades before Spanish viceroys could muster enough strength in the form of tax revenue to impose their control over the mountainous hinterland and impose obedience on the most turbulent feudal lords. In Sicily, too, the number of troops in the coastal fortresses contracted to the edge of insignificance. Even Venice was drawn into a long and costly defense of its overseas empire against the Ottoman Turks in three very costly wars (1645–1670, 1684–1699, 1714–1718) that reduced its presence in the Middle East to a mere shadow. Hundreds of Venetian patricians died on the ramparts of Candia (present-day Hania), the capital of Crete, or in desperate sea battles with the Turks in the Aegean or the Dardanelles, or of typhus and plague contracted during military operations.
With the eclipse of Spanish power everywhere in Europe, Italian states became pawns in the new European state system articulated around a handful of emergent great powers. Challenged repeatedly by France, Spain was hard pressed to defend its overseas colonies and its European possessions. It almost lost Sicily in the 1670s in the aftermath of an urban revolt at Messina (1674–1678), and Naples and Sardinia escaped conquest only due to French lack of initiative. French pressure on Italian states convinced those princes and republics to let lapse their ties and alliances with Madrid. Only in 1690 did a challenge to French ambitions emerge with the Habsburg emperor Leopold I's (ruled 1657–1705) dispatch of an army to northern Italy, intent on filling the Spanish vacuum with an Austrian one. Leopold I intended to impose his jurisdiction (and his claims to Italian taxes) on the whole of northern and central Italy, as Charles V (ruled 1519–1556) had been briefly able to do in the sixteenth century. The demilitarization of most of the Italian states after the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 forced the smaller states without large standing armies, like Genoa, Mantua, Florence, and Modena, to comply reluctantly with imperial ultimatums. This crisis came to a head during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) when the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line opened a succession contested between France and the rest of Europe. Most of Spain acclaimed Louis XIV's grandson Philip as king and heir of all the Spanish dominions in 1700. However, the prospect of combining the weak global empire of Spain with the powerful and populous kingdom of France was too horrible to contemplate for the Austrian Habsburgs and their allies in England, Germany, and the Netherlands. Spanish territories in Italy meekly accepted the Bourbon candidate, Philippe d'Orléans, and most accepted the presence of French armies in Italy to defend the inheritance. The Gonzaga rulers of Mantua openly sided with the "Gallispans," as they were called. Piedmont was dragged into the French alliance at the outset of the war but changed sides in 1704. Campaigning on a scale never before seen, between the Gallispan forces and the imperial and Piedmontese in northern Italy, culminated in the perilous siege of Turin by the French in 1706. A victory there would probably have entrenched the Bourbon dynasty in Italy. At the last minute, an imperial army under Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663–1736) maneuvered its way to Piedmont and routed the Gallispan army and chased it out of Italy. In the subsequent campaigns, Austrian armies occupied all of Lombardy and the kingdom of Naples and imposed imperial tutelage on all the smaller states. Over the subsequent decades, Vienna would patiently extend its authority over them all, with the exception of Piedmont and Venice, which had substantial armies of their own.
ECONOMY AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS
The legacy of war in the seventeenth century included both disease and ruin. Hard times magnified the impact of diseases like the plague that swept away a quarter of the population of northern Italy in 1630 and then a quarter of southern Italy in 1656. The decline of food prices in the aftermath of the plagues also served to depress the entire economy, with the result that most peasants lost the land they owned due to insufficient revenues in hard times. Widespread misery took a lethal toll in frequent outbreaks of typhus, which killed hundreds of thousands of people each time there was a general harvest failure. Widespread poverty drove prices downward for at least a century, between 1620 and 1730, forcing all to curtail spending and investment. The urban manufactures lost their markets abroad and then increasingly their markets at home, too. Instead of importing food and raw materials and exporting high-quality manufactured goods, as in the past, Italians imported ever more manufactured goods from France, the Netherlands, and England, and sold agricultural commodities and semifinished products in exchange. From what we can measure, standards of living in Italian cities and villages declined along with the population. This was not an economic crisis, per se, preparing a rapid recovery. Rather, Italy fell quickly and enduringly behind its northern European neighbors and became the very example of stagnation and decline.
Italy lost its cultural ascendancy in the same period. After spearheading the mathematization of the universe, Italian philosophers formulated the first serious challenge to the Aristotelian worldview that the church supported. However, the church grew in strength throughout this crisis period, and with the active support of Italian princes, it mobilized against new currents in philosophy and science in an enduring manner. If Italy retained a larger number of universities and academies compared to other countries, these were gradually coopted by religious authorities vigilant against dangerous novelties. Italian elites ceased their campaign to spread literacy in cities and villages. Europe's cultural center of gravity shifted away from northern Italy to settle on the triangle of Paris-London-Amsterdam, which became the fulcrum of the Enlightenment.
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
The eighteenth century nevertheless witnessed a partial recovery of Italy, though it did not begin to close the gap with northwest Europe. The long depression of the European economy ended around 1730 as the newly rising population began to raise prices and intensify commercial exchanges. Italy's once-prized urban manufactures continued to lose ground, and the country ruralized further, while in northern Europe the cities gained ground absolutely and relatively. Nevertheless, famines became less frequent as large-scale maize and rice cultivation introduced these high-yield crops into the staple diet. A new interest in agricultural questions among the elite sparked an era of innovation and experiment, and investments aimed to reclaim farmland from marshes and hillsides. The Italian population increased from thirteen million to eighteen million at the end of the century, but European population increase was stronger outside Italy. Fortunes were made supplying grain and other foodstuffs to the cities, and the country exported food and other agricultural products like raw silk. Economic thinkers began to suggest lifting the number of restrictions hedging agricultural production and distribution, in the expectation that landlords would produce more food as prices rose. The widespread famines of the mid-1760s constitute a watershed in that governments everywhere began to liberalize the economy, and the grain trade in particular. Production did indeed rise, but prices rose relentlessly, too, and with them, misery proved irrepressible.
The same liberalizing trends were introduced into manufacturing, with the same mixed results. State monopolies and privileges protecting specific industries did not prove very successful. After mid-century, governments began to turn a blind eye to breaches in the regulations. Governments contributed to the expansion by investing effort in roads, canals, and monetary stability. More typically, new initiatives scattered to the countryside and used peasant labor that was abundant and cheap in the off-season. By the late eighteenth century, the future geography of Italian industry was already perceptible in Piedmont, northern Lombardy and the Veneto, Liguria, and northern Tuscany, producing cheap goods for popular markets in Italy and beyond. As the price of manufactured goods declined, something of a consumer revolution began to reach a large portion of the population, in central and northern Italy particularly.
The same secularizing trends at work north of the Alps began to weaken the monolithic nature of Tridentine Catholicism in the peninsula. In order to contest the challenges to their jurisdiction coming from France, Spain, and Austria, the popes gave new impetus to the study of church history, armed with the new tools of chronology and diplomatics. The unintended result was to have church scholars lead an assault on over a thousand years of church legends. A more critical form of erudition, a study of history, law, and institutions, made intellectual elites in Italy more suspicious of receiving tradition uncritically. After more than a century of active Counter-Reformation, the Italian clergy had never been so well educated or disciplined, but this meant that they were open to fresh intellectual currents, too. The church sometimes excoriated secular tendencies and arrested some of the early Freemasons (members of a philanthropical secret society who tolerated unorthodox religious views), but it could not reverse the trend. In the 1720s and 1730s Piedmont began to limit the church's jurisdiction, and took a more active role in education and charity, areas in which church institutions had been more active than the state. States began to invoke the need to appoint their own censors. Inquisition activities began to be curtailed, since they had always operated with the state's cooperation, and this was no longer automatically forthcoming. Italian states began to impose new taxes on church incomes, to reduce the tax immunities of clergymen, to reduce the number of priests and monks in their territories, and to abolish mortmain, which had prevented church land from being sold to secular landowners. Between 1750 and 1770 a spate of laws limiting the church's jurisdiction was issued all across Italy, sometimes accompanied by new concordats. Nevertheless, this did not entail the more profound dechristianization that was beginning in France. Popular attendance at church services was still very high everywhere. Over most of Italy, the late seventeenth and the entire eighteenth century witnessed missionary activity on an unprecedented scale over the entire countryside, instilling a more modern individual piety despite the theatrical flourishes typical of Mediterranean religiosity. If anything, the eighteenth century witnessed an unprecedented cultural gulf between urban cultural elites and the illiterate majority of Italians.
The intellectual dynamism in eighteenth-century Italy was considerable, across the gamut of genres. Increasing numbers of books were published in Italy, and ever more were imported, legally or as contraband. While censorship was still the norm, censors often intervened with a light hand. The church's index of prohibited books of 1758 was less severe than those preceding it, and was perhaps less severe than that of some Italian states. A great many forbidden works lined the bookshelves of Italian homes or libraries, often published in French. The publication of books was complemented by the multiplication of periodicals. While they rarely reached more than a couple of thousand subscribers each in northern and central Italy, they usually passed through more hands. These made known books published throughout Italy and the rest of Europe with very little time lag. Italian elites became conversant with French Enlightenment principles and with English ideas, too, spread by young aristocrats on the grand tour. By the 1760s and 1770s, the Italian authors who were members of academies and contributors to philosophical and literary journals began to disseminate their ideas close to the realm of power in Milan and Turin, Parma and Modena, Florence and Naples.
More often than not, Italian governments were friendly to such developments, which never encompassed much more than an urban elite. Many of the academies functioned with the blessing of princely governments. These governments evolved gradually in the direction of more discretionary power in the hands of the prince and his court, and a dwindling role for the noble heirs of the urban governments whose institutions reached back into the Middle Ages. The model was largely French, fashioned over several centuries by kings who gradually subjected great lords and autonomous regions to their authority. Piedmont applied these lessons most effectively with perfect continuity through the dukes of Savoy from Emanuel Philibert (ruled 1559–1580) onward. The house of Savoy domesticated its nobility by making service a condition of fiefholding. Nobles served in the army and at court, in both cases enhancing the power of the prince. Noblemen strove to be admitted to bureaucratic institutions in Turin. The dukes also adopted the French employment of powerful commissioners, called intendants, entrusted with the strict application of the duke's decisions in every district capital. With a more efficient government hierarchy, the dukes could afford to raise taxes and establish a standing army, which could be used to enforce its will on recalcitrant subjects. During the long reign of Victor Amadeus II (1683–1730), the duke single-mindedly pushed back provincial, aristocratic, and ecclesiastical privilege with the aim of increasing his revenues. These he spent principally on warfare. Aided by British and Dutch subsidies, Victor Amadeus fashioned a large and effective military force that helped tilt the balance against Louis XIV and resulted in the expansion of the state in Lombardy and the acquisition of Sardinia (1720) with its royal title. Along with Venice, but with more ambitious expansion aims, Piedmont possessed the only serious Italian army on the peninsula. By committing its army to one side or the other in the rivalry between the Bourbons and the Habsburgs, the Savoy dynasty was able to increase the size and power of the state.
Piedmont was eventually isolated after 1756 once Habsburgs and Bourbons decided to make peace to confront other threats. Both dynasties applied absolutist principles in the Italian areas they governed, although these were not completely novel in the eighteenth century. The French Bourbon kings considered Italy to be a sideshow and did not seek major gains there during the eighteenth century. Their sole durable initiative was to purchase the rebellious island of Corsica from Genoa in 1767 and to crush the rebels there. Ejected from the peninsula after 1707, the Spanish Bourbons returned in 1734 when a seaborne army enabled the adolescent Charles III (ruled in Naples 1734–1759) to take Naples and Sicily from Austria. Charles was long dependent upon instructions from his parents, who gave him an army composed chiefly of Spanish and other foreign troops. True to Bourbon principles, Charles sought to domesticate the Neapolitan aristocracy and rule through civil servants steeped in royalist tradition. Charles was forced by family allegiance to commit the kingdom to war against the Habsburgs after 1740. With luck, his army defeated an Austrian attempt at reconquest in 1744, and Neapolitan notables resigned themselves to the Bourbon regime. The chief minister in Naples, Bernardo Tanucci (ascendant 1740–1776), adopted principles long followed in France, then Spain, to curtail baronial and ecclesiastical jurisdictions and liberties to the benefit of royal government, and to recover the direction of tax offices alienated to private investors during the preceding century. The place of the church was drastically curtailed during the latter half of the eighteenth century, in part due to a new concordat. Feudal power receded more gradually, though baronial excesses and violence were largely things of the past after 1750. There was even some progress in enhancing royal control over the tax machinery and in streamlining government procedures. After Tanucci retired, and the crown settled on Charles's son Ferdinand I (ruled 1767–1825) and his Habsburg queen Maria Carolina, absolutist policies designed by aristocratic Freemasons hemmed in baronial power in Sicily, too. The Bourbons tried to maintain a credible army and rally the aristocracy around it, and in the 1780s they created a navy, too, with which to combat Barbary corsairs. In Naples the regime established a panoply of royal institutions, including a palace at Caserta modeled on Versailles. The regime was fairly deeply rooted in the kingdom when French revolutionaries overthrew it in 1799, and it was restored largely through popular rebellion.
NORTHERN ITALY AND THE HABSBURGS
Austrian Habsburgs applied the same general principles in the areas they governed after winning the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714. Initially they scooped up most of the Spanish territories in Italy: Milan, Naples, and Sardinia (exchanged with Piedmont for Sicily in 1720). Habsburg ambitions did not end there. Mantua was confiscated from the Gonzaga dukes for backing the Bourbons. The emperor Charles VI (ruled 1711–1740) also intended to incorporate into the empire the other Italian principalities: Parma on the extinction of the Farnese in 1731; Tuscany on the extinction of the Medici in 1737. Italians constituted about one-third of the emperor's direct subjects in those years.
But the incipient "Austrian" empire was a ramshackle conglomeration of territories articulated around the Austrian and Bohemian heartland, with its peripheries responding poorly to directives from the center. Its vulnerability in Italy was demonstrated during the War of the Polish Succession in 1733–1735 as Gallispan armies supported by Piedmont ejected imperial troops from both Lombardy and Naples, losing the latter definitively. When in 1740 a Prussian attack gave birth to a new coalition aimed at breaking up the Austrian Habsburg empire, triggering the War of the Austrian Succession, the new Habsburg regime headed by Maria Theresa had never looked weaker. The Danubian territories rallied around the dynasty, however, permitting the levy of new Habsburg armies for fighting in Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries. A new Spanish army operating in Emilia with Neapolitan support was beaten back. When Piedmont and Britain joined Austria soon after, the Habsburg Monarchy was able to mount better odds. Maria Theresa briefly lost Milan and Parma in 1745 to Gallispan troops but soon after recovered sufficiently to put the Bourbons on the defensive. French successes elsewhere finally allowed a Spanish Bourbon to become duke of Parma in 1748, but it was a limited success. Maria Theresa spent the rest of her reign reinforcing imperial institutions in Milan. As in Piedmont, the crucial initiative was to undertake a meticulous cadastre of landed property that allowed it to assess taxes more equitably and efficiently. Gradually, the monarchy took over the business of raising taxes, which was novel for the ancien régime. After 1765, Maria Theresa was aided by her eldest son, Joseph, who reigned as emperor between 1780 and 1790. As a result of their initiatives to stimulate the economy and streamline the administration, Milanese patricians gradually lost their hold over the region, to the benefit of Italians nominated from Vienna.
The Habsburg influence spread throughout Italy in the eighteenth century, prefiguring the predominance of Metternich's age in the early nineteenth century before Italian unification. Genoa relied on imperial troops to retain its shaky hold on Corsica. Maria Theresa's husband, emperor Francis I (ruled 1737–1765), succeeded the Medici to the grand-ducal throne of Florence, and ruled it from Vienna through the intermediary of Lorrainer officials, until his son Leopold (ruled 1765–1790) went to rule there directly after 1765. The Este line in Modena eventually merged with a Habsburg prince, extending Vienna's influence into Emilia. Once Habsburgs and Bourbons formed an alliance in 1756, it was cemented in place through a series of marriages, and queen Maria Carolina effectively brought Naples into the Austrian sphere of influence at the end of the century, displacing the Spanish connection of her Bourbon husband.
Habsburg reforms tended to be most drastic with respect to the Catholic Church. Maria Theresa was content to impose Vienna's jurisdiction in her territories, at the expense of the pope. It can be argued that she was following the Bourbon lead in this area, imposing ultimate state control over papal functionaries. Reforms to church structures under her sons Joseph II (in Lombardy and the Trentino) and Leopold (in Tuscany) were intentionally more fundamental, as both princes sponsored the spread of Jansenist principles at the expense of traditional Catholicism. Bishops nominated from Vienna were henceforth all selected with a view to uprooting "superstition" and "fanaticism." Priests were trained at great seminaries under state control, using a Jansenist catechism. The great majority of religious houses were closed by government order and their property confiscated. Most of these measures irritated most Italians, and the Tuscan reformers were challenged by traditional bishops and popular riots in 1787. Leopold decreed a pause in these and other reforms, but they marked the real end of the Counter-Reformation era in Italy, just before the arrival of French revolutionary troops in 1796.
Berce, Yves-Marie, Gerard Delille, Jean-Michel Sallmann, and Jean-Claude Waquet. L'Italie au XVIIe siècle. Paris, 1989.
Bianconi, Lorenzo. Music in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1987.
Cochrane, Eric. Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527–1800: A History of Florence and the Florentines in the Age of the Grand Dukes. Chicago and London, 1973.
——. Italy, 1530–1630. Edited by J. Kirshner. New York and London, 1988.
Cohen, Elizabeth S., and Thomas V. Cohen. Daily Life in Renaissance Italy. Westport, Conn., and London, 2001.
Delumeau, Jean. L'Italie de Botticelli à Bonaparte. Paris, 1974.
Gross, Hans. Rome in the Age of Enlightenment. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1990.
Hanlon, Gregory. Early Modern Italy: Three Seasons in European History. London and New York, 2000.
——. The Twilight of a Military Tradition: Italian Aristocrats and European Conflicts, 1560–1800. New York, 1998.
Mackenney, Richard. Tradesmen and Traders: The World of the Guilds in Venice and Europe, c. 1250–c. 1650. London, 1987.
Malanima, Paolo. La fine del primato: Crisi e riconversione nell'Italia del Seicento. Milan, 1998.
Marino, John, ed. Early Modern Italy, 1550–1796. Oxford and New York, 2002.
Marino, John, and Antonio Calabria, eds. and transl. Good Government in Spanish Naples. New York, 1990.
Pastor, Ludwig von. The History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages. 40 vols. London, 1936–1967.
Ricuperati, Giuseppe, and Dino Carpanetto. Italy in the Age of Reason, 1685–1789. New York and London, 1987.
Sella, Domenico. Crisis and Continuity: The Economy of Spanish Lombardy in the 17th Century. Cambridge, Mass., 1979.
——. Italy in the Seventeenth Century. New York and London, 1997.
Smith, Denis Mack. A History of Sicily. 2 vols. New York, 1969.
Symcox, Geoffrey. Victor Amadeus II: Absolutism in the Savoyard State, 1675–1730. Berkeley, 1983.
Venturi, Franco. Italy and the Enlightenment: Studies in a Cosmopolitan Century. Translated by Susan Corsi. New York, 1972.
Woolf, Stuart J. A History of Italy, 1700–1860: The Social Constraints of Political Change. London and New York, 1986.
"Italy." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Italy (Ĭt´əlē), Ital. Italia, officially Italian Republic, republic (2005 est. pop. 58,103,000), 116,303 sq mi (301,225 sq km), S Europe. It borders on France in the northwest, the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west, the Ionian Sea in the south, the Adriatic Sea in the east, Slovenia in the northeast, and Austria and Switzerland in the north. The country includes the large Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia and several small islands, notably Elba, Capri, Ischia, and the Lipari Islands. Vatican City and San Marino are two independent enclaves on the Italian mainland. Rome is Italy's capital and largest city.
Land and People
About 75% of Italy is mountainous or hilly, and roughly 20% of the country is forested. There are narrow strips of low-lying land along the Adriatic coast and parts of the Tyrrhenian coast. In addition to Rome, other important cities include Milan, Naples, Turin, Genoa, Palermo, Bologna, Florence, Catania, Venice, Bari, Trieste, Messina, Verona, Padua, Cagliari, Taranto, Brescia, and Livorno.
Northern Italy, made up largely of a vast plain that is contained by the Alps in the north and drained by the Po River and its tributaries, comprises the regions of Liguria, Piedmont, Valle d'Aosta (see Aosta, Valle d'), Lombardy, Trentino–Alto Adige, Venetia, Friuli–Venezia Giulia, and part of Emilia-Romagna (which extends into central Italy). It is the richest part of the country, with the best farmland, the chief port (Genoa), and the largest industrial centers. Northern Italy also has a flourishing tourist trade on the Italian Riviera, in the Alps (including the Dolomites), on the shores of its beautiful lakes (Lago Maggiore, Lake Como, and Lake Garda), and in Venice. Gran Paradiso (13,323 ft/4,061 m), the highest peak wholly situated within Italy, rises in Valle d'Aosta.
The Italian peninsula, bootlike in shape and traversed in its entire length by the Apennines (which continue on into Sicily), comprises central Italy (Marche, Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium regions) and southern Italy (Campania, Basilicata, Abruzzi, Molise, Calabria, and Apulia regions). Central Italy contains great historic and cultural centers such as Rome, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Perugia, Assisi, Urbino, Bologna, Ravenna, Rimini, Ferrara, and Parma. The major cities of S Italy, generally the poorest and least developed part of the country, include Naples, Bari, Brindisi, Foggia, and Taranto.
Except for the Po and Adige, Italy has only short rivers, among which the Arno and the Tiber are the best known. Most of Italy enjoys a Mediterranean climate; however, that of Sicily is subtropical, and in the Alps there are long and severe winters. The country has great scenic beauty—the majestic Alps in the north, the soft and undulating hills of Umbria and Tuscany, and the romantically rugged landscape of the S Apennines. The Bay of Naples, dominated by Mt. Vesuvius, is one of the world's most famous sights.
The great majority of the population speaks Italian (including several dialects). There are small German-, French-, and Slavic-speaking minorities. Nearly all Italians are nominally Roman Catholic, although there are small Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim communities.
Italy began to industrialize late in comparison to other European nations, and until World War II was largely an agricultural country. However, after 1950 industry was developed rapidly so that by 2006 industry contributed about 30% of the annual gross domestic product and agriculture only 2%. The principal farm products are fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives and olive oil, and livestock (especially cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats). In addition, much wine is produced from grapes grown throughout the country, and there is fishing.
Tourism is one of Italy's most important industries and a major source of foreign exchange. Manufacturing is centered in the north, particularly in the "golden triangle" of Milan-Turin-Genoa. Italy's economy has been gradually diversifying, shifting from food and textiles to engineering, steel, and chemical products. The chief manufactures include machinery; iron, steel, and other metal products; chemicals; motor vehicles; clothing and footwear; and ceramics. Although many of Italy's important industries are state-owned, the trend in recent years has been toward privatization. The service sector has growing importance in Italy and employs well over half of the labor force.
Italy has only limited mineral resources and has consistently increased its mineral imports; the chief minerals produced are petroleum (especially in Sicily), lignite, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, and pumice. There are also large deposits of natural gas (methane), and much hydroelectricity is generated. Italy, however, is still greatly dependent on oil to meet its energy requirements, and most of it must be imported.
Italy has a large foreign trade, facilitated by its sizable commercial shipping fleet. The leading exports are engineering products, textiles and clothing, machinery, motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals, food and beverages, tobacco, minerals, and nonferrous metals. The main imports are raw materials, chemicals, transportation equipment, metals, textiles and clothing, foodstuffs, and petroleum. The chief trade partners are Germany, France, Spain, and Great Britain.
Italy's economy has deceptive strength because it is supported by a substantial "underground" economy that functions outside government controls. Despite significant government progress in its war against organized crime, criminal organizations such as the Mafia and Camorra continue to exert a strong influence in S Italy, at times hindering governmental programs aimed at integrating the region more fully economically and politically into the national scene.
Italy is governed under the constitution of 1948 as amended. The president, who is the head of state, is elected by both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; there are no term limits. The premier, who is the head of government, is appointed by the president and approved by Parliament. The Council of Ministers, head by the premier, serves as the country's executive; it must have the confidence of parliament. The bicameral parliament consists of the 630-seat Chamber of Deputies, whose members are popularly elected, and the Senate, with 315 members elected by region, plus a few life members. All legislators serve five-year terms. In 1994, 1996, and 2001, most deputies and senators were directly elected, with approximately a quarter of the seats in both houses assigned on a proportional basis. Changes enacted in 2005 returned the country to a proportional system for electing national legislators except for those seats awarded to the winning coalition as a bonus. Administratively the country is divided into 15 regions and five autonomous regions, which also have parliaments and governments.
The following generalized outline of the highly complex history of Italy can be supplemented by the articles on individual cities and regions and by such general articles as Etruscan civilization; papacy; Italian art; Italian literature; and Renaissance.
Little is known of Italian history before the 5th cent. BC, except for the regions (S Italy and Sicily) where the Greeks had established colonies (see Magna Graecia). The earliest known inhabitants seem to have been of Ligurian stock. The Etruscans, coming probably from Asia Minor, established themselves in central Italy before 800 BC They reduced the indigenous population to servile status and established a prosperous empire with a complex culture. In the 4th cent. BC, the Celts (called Gauls by Roman historians) invaded Italy and drove the Etruscans from the Po valley. In the south, the Etruscan advance was checked about the same time by the Samnites (see Samnium), who had adapted the civilization of their Greek neighbors and who in the 4th cent. BC drove the Etruscans out of Campania.
The Latins, living along the coast of Latium, had not been fully subjected to the Etruscans; they and their neighbors, the Sabines, were the ancestors of the Romans. The history of Italy from the 5th cent. BC to the 5th cent. AD is largely that of the growth of Rome and of the Roman Empire, of which Italy was the core. Augustus divided Italy into 11 administrative regions (Latium and Campania, Apulia and Calabria, Lucania and Bruttium, Samnium, Picenum, Umbria, Etruria, Cispadane Gaul, Liguria, Venetia and Istria, Transpadane Gaul). By that time, at the beginning of the Christian era, all of Italy had been thoroughly latinized, Roman citizenship was extended to all free Italians, an excellent system of roads had been built, and Italy, made tax exempt, shared fully in the wealth of Rome. Never since has Italy known an equal degree of prosperity or as long a period of peace. Christianity spread rapidly.
The Barbarian Invasions
Like the rest of the Roman Empire, Italy in the early 5th cent. AD began to be invaded by successive waves of barbarian tribes—the Germanic Visigoths, the Huns, and the Germanic Heruli and Ostrogoths. The deposition (476) of Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor of the West, and the assumption by Odoacer of the rule over Italy is commonly regarded as the end of the Roman Empire. However, the Eastern emperors, residing at Constantinople (see Byzantine Empire), never renounced their claim to Italy and to succession to the West.
On the urging of Zeno, the Eastern emperor, the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great invaded Italy, took (493) Ravenna (which had replaced Rome as capital), killed Odoacer, and began a long and beneficent rule over Italy. Roman institutions were maintained with the help of scholars and administrators such as Boethius and Cassiodorus. After Theodoric's death (526), the murder (535) of the Gothic queen, Amalasuntha, was followed by the reconquest of Italy by Emperor Justinian I of the East and his generals, Belisarius and Narses. Except, however, in the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis (Rimini, Ancona, Fano, Pesaro, and Senigallia) on the central Adriatic coast, and the coast of S Italy, Byzantine rule was soon displaced by that of the Lombards, who under Alboin established (569) a new kingdom.
The papacy emerged as the chief bulwark of Latin civilization. Gregory I (reigned 590–604), without assistance from Byzantium, succeeded in saving Rome and the Patrimony of St. Peter from the Lombard conquest, thus laying the basis for the creation of the Papal States. At the same time, he effectively freed Rome from allegiance to the Byzantine conquerors.
The Lombards warded off Byzantine efforts at reconquest and in 751 took Ravenna; their advance on Rome resulted in the appeal of Pope Stephen II to Pepin the Short, ruler of the Franks, who expelled the Lombards from the exarchate of Ravenna and from the Pentapolis, which he donated (754) to the pope. Pepin's intervention was followed by that of his son Charlemagne, who defeated the Lombard king, Desiderius, was crowned king of the Lombards, confirmed his father's donation to the papacy, and in 800 was crowned emperor of the West at Rome. These events shaped much of the later history of Italy and of the papacy. Among the direct results were the claim of later emperors to Italy and the temporal power of the popes.
In the divisions (9th cent.) of the Carolingian empire (see Verdun, Treaty of; Mersen, Treaty of), Italy passed to the successive emperors Lothair I, Louis II, and Charles II; however, their control was largely nominal. Under Carloman (d. 880) and Emperor Charles III (reigned 881–87), local power became increasingly strong in Italy. Emperor Arnulf (reigned 896–99) failed to reassert authority.
From 888 to 962 Italy was nominally ruled by a series of weak kings and emperors including Guy of Spoleto, Berengar I of Friuli, Louis III of Burgundy, and Berengar II of Ivrea. The petty nobles were constantly feuding, and by the end of the period the papacy had sunk to its lowest point of degradation. The Magyars plundered N Italy, and in the south the Arabs seized (917) Sicily and raided the mainland. In 961, heeding an appeal by the pope for protection against Berengar II, the German king Otto I invaded Italy. In 962 he was crowned emperor by the pope. This union of Italy and Germany marked the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire.
Although the Alps had never prevented invaders from entering Italy, they did prevent the emperors from exercising effective control there. Again and again the emperors and German kings crossed the Alps to assert their authority; each time their authority virtually vanished when they left Italy. At best, their power was limited to the territories north of the Papal States. The popes, by exerting their influence and by arranging alliances with other powers, were important in frustrating imperial control.
Apulia and Calabria, after being briefly held again by the Byzantines, were conquered (11th cent.) by the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his successors, who also wrested Sicily from the Arabs and established the Norman kingdom of Sicily. In central and N Italy, the prevailing chaos was increased by the conflict between the emperors and the popes over investiture and by the contested succession to Tuscany after the death (1115) of Countess Matilda. Because the many petty lords were independent of imperial authority and because the cities gradually gained control over these lords, feudalism did not gain a firm foothold in central and N Italy. However, in the south the Norman kings and their successors, the Hohenstaufen and Angevin dynasties, firmly entrenched the feudal system, the worst features of which were later perpetuated by the Spanish rulers of Naples and Sicily. Thus, the great difference in social and economic structure between N and S Italy, which continued well into the 20th cent., can be traced back to the 11th cent.
The Rise of Cities
The characteristic development in central and N Italy was the rise of the city (see commune and city-state), beginning in the 10th cent. The rise was partly political in origin—the burghers were drawing together to protect themselves from the nobles—and partly economic—contact with the Muslim world was making the Italian merchants the middlemen and the Italian cities the entrepôts of Western Europe. The survival of Roman institutions and the example of the commune of Rome facilitated the process.
To protect their commerce and their industries (particularly the wool industry) cities grouped together in leagues, which often were at war with each other. The leagues were particularly strong in Lombardy. The attempt by Emperor Frederick I to impose imperial authority on some cities led to the formation of the Lombard League, which defeated the emperor in 1176. Rivalry among the cities, however, prevented the formation of any union strong enough to consolidate even a part of Italy. In the 13th cent. the struggle between Emperor Frederick II and the papacy divided the cities and nobles into two strong parties, the Guelphs and Ghibellines. Their fratricidal warfare continued long after the death (1250) of Frederick, which marked the virtual demise of imperial rule in Italy and the ascendancy of the papacy. In 1268, Frederick's grandson, Conradin, was executed at Naples, thus ending Hohenstaufen aspirations.
The factional strife led to the rise of despots in some cities. These despots, who were of noble or bourgeois origin, were generally factional leaders, who, having obtained the magistracy, made it hereditary. Some of them managed to restore order in the cities. In many cities, however, the republican institutions were upheld with little interruption. In other cities, dynasties were established and invested (14th and 15th cent.) with titles by the emperors, who still claimed suzerainty over N Italy. The most powerful princes (e.g., the Visconti and Sforza of Milan, the Gonzaga of Mantua, the Este of Ferrara, and the dukes of Savoy) and the most powerful republics (e.g., Florence, Venice, and Genoa) tended to increase their territories at the expense of weaker neighbors. The cities in the Papal States passed under local tyrants during the Babylonian captivity of the popes at Avignon (1309–78) and during the Great Schism (1378–1417).
By the end of the 15th cent. Italy had fallen into the following chief component parts: in the south, the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples, torn by the rival claims of the French Angevin dynasty and the Spanish house of Aragón; in central Italy, the Papal States, the republics of Siena, Florence, and Lucca, and the cities of Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, and Faenza (only nominally subject to the pope); in the north, the duchies of Ferrara and Modena, Mantua, Milan, and Savoy. The two great merchant republics, Venice and Genoa, with their far-flung possessions, colonies, and outposts, were distinct in character and outlook from the rest of Italy.
Constant warfare among these many states resulted in political turmoil, but did little to diminish their wealth or to hinder their cultural output. The wars were generally fought in a desultory manner by hired bands led by professional commanders (see condottiere). Compared to the Black Death, the plague that ravaged Italy in 1348, the local wars did little harm. Material prosperity had been furthered considerably by the Crusades; by the expanding trade with the Middle East; and by the rise of great banking firms, notably in Genoa, in Lucca, and in Florence (where the Medici rose from bankers to dukes). The prosperity facilitated the great cultural flowering of the Italian Renaissance, which permanently changed the civilization of Western Europe.
Political Disintegration and Rebirth
The Renaissance reached its peak in the late 15th cent. Meanwhile, Italy's political independence was threatened by the growing nations of France, Spain, and Austria. Quarrels among Italian states invited foreign intervention. The invasion (1494) of Italy by Charles VIII of France marked the beginning of the Italian Wars, which ended in 1559 with most of Italy subjected to Spanish rule or influence. Early in the wars, in which France and Spain were the main contenders for supremacy in Italy, several Italian statesmen, notably Machiavelli, came to the belief that only unity could save Italy from foreign domination. Pope Julius II consolidated the Papal States, but his Holy League, devised (1510) to drive out the French, failed to create a wider Italian unity.
After 1519 the Italian Wars became part of the European struggle between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. By the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), Spain gained the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples and the duchy of Milan. Foreign domination continued with the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14; see also Utrecht, Peace of) and the War of the Polish Succession (1733–35). By 1748, Naples, Sicily, and the duchies of Parma and Piacenza had passed to branches of the Spanish Bourbons, and the duchies of Milan, Mantua, Tuscany, and Modena to Austria. Remaining independent were the Papal States, the declining republics of Venice, Genoa, and Lucca, and the kingdom of Sardinia (see Sardinia, kingdom of), created in 1720 by the union of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia under the house of Savoy.
These centuries of political weakness were also a period of economic decline. The center of European trade shifted away from the Mediterranean, and commerce and industry suffered from the mercantilist policies of the European states. Taxes rose under Spanish rule, the amount of land under cultivation declined, the population decreased, and brigandage increased. Nevertheless, Italy continued to have considerable influence on European culture, especially in architecture and music. Yet to subsequent generations in Italy (especially in the 19th cent.), preoccupied with the concepts of national independence and political power, the political condition of 18th-century Italy represented national degradation. The French Revolution rekindled Italian national aspirations, and the French Revolutionary Wars swept away the political institutions of 18th-century Italy.
Napoleonic Triumph and the Rebirth of Italy
General Bonaparte (later Napoleon I), who defeated Sardinian and Austrian armies in his Italian campaign of 1796–97, was at first acclaimed by most Italians. Napoleon redrew the Italian map several times. Extensive land reforms were carried out, especially in N Italy. The Cispadane and Transpadane republics, established in 1796, were united (1797) as the Cisalpine Republic, recognized in the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797). In 1802 the Cisalpine Republic, comprising Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna, was renamed the Italian Republic; in 1805 it became the kingdom of Italy (enlarged by the addition of Venetia), with Napoleon as king and Eugène de Beauharnais as viceroy.
From 1795 to 1812, Savoy, Piedmont, Liguria, Tuscany, Parma, and the Papal States were annexed by France. In 1806, Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Naples; he was replaced in 1808 by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law. Sardinia remained under the house of Savoy and Sicily under the Bourbons. Napoleon's failure to unite Italy and to give it self-government disappointed Italian patriots, some of whom formed secret revolutionary societies such as the Carbonari, which later played a vital role in Italian unification.
The Congress of Vienna (1814–15) generally restored the pre-Napoleonic status quo and the old ruling families. However, Venetia was united with Lombardy as the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom under the Austrian crown, and Liguria passed to Sardinia. Naples and Sicily were united (1816) as the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Austrian influence became paramount in Italy. Nevertheless, the efforts of Metternich and of the Holy Alliance (e.g., in quelling insurrections in Naples and in Palermo) could not suppress the nationalist movement. The Risorgimento, as the movement for unification was called, included three groups: the radicals, led by Mazzini, who sought to create a republic; the moderate liberals, who regarded the house of Savoy as the agency for unification; and the Roman Catholic conservatives, who desired a confederation under the presidency of the pope. In 1848–49, there were several short-lived revolutionary outbreaks, notably in Naples, Venice, Tuscany, Rome, and the kingdom of Sardinia (whose new liberal constitution survived).
Unification was ultimately achieved under the house of Savoy, largely through the efforts of Cavour, Garibaldi, and Victor Emmanuel II, who became king of Italy in 1861. At that time, the kingdom of Italy did not include Venetia, Rome, and part of the Papal States. By siding against Austria in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Italy obtained Venetia. To Napoleon III of France, who had helped Sardinia defeat Austria in 1859, Sardinia had ceded Nice and Savoy. The protectorate of Napoleon III over the Papal States delayed the Italian annexation of the city of Rome until 1870. Relations between the Italian government and the papacy, which refused to concede the loss of its temporal power, remained a major problem until 1929, when the Lateran Treaty made the pope sovereign within Vatican City. After 1870, Austria still retained areas with largely Italian populations (e.g., S Tyrol and Trieste); Italian agitation for their annexation (see irredentism) went unfulfilled until World War I.
1861 to the Rise of Fascism
From 1861 until the Fascist dictatorship (1922–43) of Benito Mussolini, Italy was governed under the liberal constitution adopted by Sardinia in 1848. The reigns of Victor Emmanuel II (1861–78) and Humbert I (1878–1900), and the first half of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III (1900–1946) were marked by moderate social and political reforms and by some industrial expansion in N Italy (mainly in the 20th cent.). Periodic social unrest was caused by the dislocations attending industrialization and by occasional economic depression. In the underdeveloped south, rapid population growth led to mass emigration, both to the industrial centers of N Italy and to the Americas.
The outstanding statesmen of the pre-Fascist period were Agostino Depretis, Francesco Crispi, and Giovanni Giolitti. Colonial expansion was emphasized under Crispi, but was otherwise sporadic. A severe setback to Italian colonial aspirations was the establishment (1881) of a French protectorate over Tunisia; it was an important motive for the conclusion (1882) of Italy's alliance with Germany and Austria (see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente). Later, Italy acquired part of Somaliland in 1889 and Eritrea in 1890, but further advances in NE Africa were checked by the Ethiopian victory (1896) at Adwa. Libya and the Dodecanese were conquered in the Italo-Turkish War (1911–12).
In World War I, Italy at first remained neutral. After the Allies offered substantial territorial rewards, Italy denounced the Triple Alliance and entered (1915) the war on the Allied side. Although the Italians initially suffered serious reverses, they won (1918) a great victory at Vittorio Veneto, which was followed by the surrender of Austria-Hungary. At the Paris Peace Conference, Italy obtained S Tyrol, Trieste, Istria, part of Carniola, and several of the Dalmatian islands. Italian possession of the Dodecanese was confirmed. However, these terms granted far less than the Allies had secretly promised in 1915. Italian discontent was evident in the seizure (1919) of Fiume (see Rijeka) by a nationalist band led by Gabriele D'Annunzio.
Within Italy, political and social unrest increased, furthering the growth of Fascism. The Fascist leader (Ital. Il Duce) Mussolini, promising the restoration of social order and of political greatness, directed (Oct. 27, 1922) a successful march on Rome and was made premier by the king. Granted dictatorial powers, Mussolini quashed opposition to the state (especially that of socialists and Communists), regimented the press and the schools, imposed controls on industry and labor, and created a corporative state controlled by the Fascist party and the militia. The Fascist economic program as a whole was a failure, but some programs of lasting value (e.g., the draining of the Pontine marshes and the construction of a network of superhighways) were undertaken. The problems caused by an increasing population were aggravated by drastic immigration restrictions in the United States and by the economic depression of the 1930s.
World War II
Mussolini followed an aggressive foreign policy, and after 1935 he turned increasingly to militarist and imperialist solutions to Italy's problems. Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1935–36, easily overcoming the ineffective sanctions imposed by the League of Nations (from which Italy withdrew in 1937). At the same time, Italy drew closer to Nazi Germany and to Japan; in 1936, Italy formed an entente with Germany (see Axis). Italy intervened on the Insurgent side in the Spanish civil war (1936–39), and in 1939 it seized Albania.
At the outbreak of World War II, Italy assumed a neutral stance friendly to Germany, but in June, 1940, it declared war on collapsing France and on Great Britain. In 1940, Italian forces were active in North Africa (see North Africa, campaigns in) and attacked Greece; however, they were unsuccessful until German troops came to their aid in early 1941. Later in 1941, Italy declared war on the Soviet Union and on the United States. Soon Italy suffered major reverses, and by July, 1943, it had lost its African possessions, its army was shattered, Sicily was falling to U.S. troops, and Italian cities (especially ports) were being bombed by the Allies.
In July, 1943, discontent among Italians culminated in the rebellion of the Fascist grand council against Mussolini, Mussolini's dismissal by Victor Emmanuel III, the appointment of Badoglio as premier, and the dissolution of the Fascist party. In Sept., 1943, Italy surrendered unconditionally to the Allies, while German forces quickly occupied N and central Italy. Aided by the Germans, Mussolini escaped from prison and established a puppet republic in N Italy. Meanwhile, the Badoglio government declared war on Germany, and Italy was recognized by the Allies as a cobelligerent. The Allied Italian campaign was a slow, grueling, and costly struggle (see Cassino; Anzio). The fall of Rome (July, 1944) was followed by a stalemate. In Apr., 1945, partisans captured and summarily executed Mussolini. In May, 1945, the Germans surrendered.
After the war, Italy's borders were established by the peace treaty of 1947, which assigned several small Alpine districts (see Brigue and Tende) to France; the Dodecanese to Greece; and Trieste, Istria, part of Venezia Giulia, and several Adriatic islands to Yugoslavia (now in Slovenia and Croatia) and to the Free Territory of Trieste. In 1954, Trieste and its environs were returned to Italy. As a result of the war, Italy also lost its colonies of Libya, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland.
In 1944 the unpopular Badoglio cabinet had resigned, and thereafter various coalition cabinets followed each other until Dec., 1945, when Alcide De Gasperi, a Christian Democrat, became premier. De Gasperi remained an important influence on Italian politics until his death in 1954. In May, 1946, Victor Emmanuel abdicated, having previously transferred his powers to his son, Humbert II. After a month's rule, Humbert was exiled when the Italians in a plebiscite voted by a small majority to make the country a republic. A new republican constitution went into effect on Jan. 1, 1948.
Following the war, Italy became firmly tied to the West, joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949 and the European Economic Community (now the European Union) in 1958. It was admitted to the United Nations in 1955. In internal politics, Italy's Christian Democrats, Communists, and Socialists emerged from the war as the chief parties. The split of the Socialists into the majority Socialists (the left wing) and the minority Social Democrats (the right wing) enabled the Christian Democrats to maintain power at the head of successive coalition governments with the Social Democrats (until 1959) and other center parties and to exclude the Communists from the government. However, in the postwar years the Communists dominated the local politics of Tuscany, Umbria, and Emilia-Romagna.
In 1962, Premier Amintore Fanfani, a Christian Democrat, formed a center-left coalition with a cabinet that again included the Social Democrats, as well as the parliamentary support of the Socialist party, led by Pietro Nenni. However, Fanfani's government fell after general elections in 1963 and there was considerable uncertainty before Aldo Moro, also a Christian Democrat, was able to form a center-left coalition in late 1963. The Moro government fell in 1964 and in 1966, but on each occasion was re-formed after a brief hiatus. In late 1966, N and central Italy suffered severe flooding, with resulting damage to art treasures and libraries, especially in Florence.
The Continuing Political Seesaw
Beginning in the late 1960s, there was considerable industrial unrest in the country as workers demanded higher wages and better social services. Following the general elections of May, 1968, the Moro government fell again and a government crisis began that was only ended in Dec., 1968, when Mariano Rumor, a Christian Democrat, formed a coalition government with Socialist support. After Rumor's coalition fell for a third time in July, 1970, he was replaced as premier by Emilio Colombo, also a Christian Democrat.
Colombo resigned in Jan., 1972. After a long period of crisis, Giulio Andreotti, also a Christian Democrat, formed a new coalition government in June, 1972; for the first time in 10 years, the government had a center-right, rather than a center-left, character. But this combination also did not last long and was replaced (July, 1973) by a slightly left-of-center coalition headed by Rumor. In Mar., 1974, Rumor resigned, but he soon formed another center-left cabinet, the 36th government since the fall of Mussolini in 1943. In mid-1974, Italy faced an economic crisis; an austerity program was initiated in an attempt to reduce the soaring inflation rate and the overwhelming foreign trade deficit. Rumor's administration resigned again in October and was replaced by Moro.
Many other governments followed but had little success dealing with economic decline, corruption, and lawlessness. Growing popular dissatisfaction with Italy's chaotic political situation helped the Communists achieve a measure of participation in the government coalition in 1977. The extreme left and right, excluded by the coalition between Christian Democrats and Communists, accounted for a steady increase in political violence that terrorized politicians, businessmen, intellectuals, and members of the judiciary. In 1978 former premier Moro was kidnapped and murdered by the Red Brigade, a left-wing terrorist group.
Center-left coalitions dominated by the Christian Democrats continued to hold power until 1983, when the republic's first Socialist-led coalition took power under Premier Bettino Craxi. The continuing sluggishness of the economy caused Craxi to institute another austerity budget, which included tax increases, service cuts, and wage adjustments. Craxi led the government for four years, until he resigned in 1987 and was replaced by Christian Democrat Giovanni Goria. Ciriaco De Mita succeeded Goria in 1988, and was himself succeeded in 1989 by Giulio Andreotti, who at the age of 70 became premier for the sixth time. In 1991 the Italian Communist party changed its name to the Democratic Party of the Left. In the 1992 elections the Christian Democrats barely maintained their coalition with the Socialists, the Liberals, and the Social Democrats. Socialist Giuliano Amato was named premier.
Corruption probes, begun in 1992 and headed by Amato, led to the arrest of hundreds of business and political figures and the investigation of many others, including several party leaders and former premiers. In 1993 Premier Amato resigned and Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, head of Italy's central bank, succeeded him. In addition, legislation largely ending proportional representation in parliament was passed. The Christian Democratic party changed its name to the Italian Popular party in 1994, but after a split in 1995, the center-right faction became the United Christian Democratic party.
In new elections in Mar., 1994, a coalition of conservatives and neofascists won a majority in parliament. Billionaire industrialist Silvio Berlusconi of the fledgling conservative party Forza Italia became premier, but his coalition government disintegrated in Dec. It was succeeded by a "nonpolitical" center-left government under Lamberto Dini, and then, after elections in Apr., 1996, by a center-left government under Romano Prodi that included the Democratic Party of the Left. Following a series of upheavals over austerity measures put in place to prepare for European economic union, Prodi's government collapsed in Oct., 1997.
Massimo D'Alema, of the Democrats of the Left (the former Democratic Party of the Left), became premier (1998) as head of a new coalition government that included several political parties. Parliament named former premier Ciampi as president in May, 1999, replacing Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, who had held the office since 1992. In Apr., 2000, D'Alema resigned after his coalition suffered loses in regional elections. Socialist Giuliano Amato, D'Alema's finance minister and a former premier, formed a new center-left government that was substantially similar to D'Alema's.
Parliamentary elections in 2001 gave Berlusconi's conservative coalition a solid victory, and he became premier of a center-right government for a second time, ending six years of liberal rule. In 2003 parliament passed a law making the premier and other top Italian officials immune from prosecution while in office. The law was seen as a heavy-handed move to end Berlusconi's trial for bribery, and provoked an outcry from many in Italy. The constitutional court overturned the law, however, allowing the trial to proceed, and he was acquitted (2004) of bribery; other charges were dismissed.
Losses by the governing coalition in local elections forced Berlusconi to resign in Apr., 2005, and re-form his government. Later in the year Berlusconi secured passage of electoral changes that reestablished proportional representation as a basis for electing national legislators; the changes were designed to minimize his coalition's losses in the 2006 elections. In the Apr., 2006, elections Berlusoni's coalition narrowly lost to a center-left coalition led by Romano Prodi. Berlusconi challenged the results, alleging irregularities, but Italy' supreme court confirmed them later in the month. In May, Giorgio Napolitano, of the Democrats of the Left, was elected to succeed Ciampi as Italy's president, and Prodi subsequently formed a government. A government reorganization plan that would have increased the premier's powers and the autonomy of Italy's regions was defeated in a referendum in June, 2006; the plan had been proposed by Berlusconi's coalition.
In Feb., 2007, Prodi's government lost a foreign policy vote in Italy's senate and resigned, but the following week he re-formed his government and won a confidence vote. Later in the year the Democratic party was formed through the merger of the Democrats of the Left and center-left former Christian Democrats. Prodi's coalition unraveled in Jan., 2008, and he resigned after losing a confidence vote. Parliamentary elections were held in April, and resulted in a solid victory for Berlusconi's coalition; Berlusconi again became premier. In Sept., 2008, years of negotiation with Libya over compensation for three decades of Italian colonial rule ended with Italy agreeing to pay for 20-year, $5 billion compensation package.
Several hundred people died in Apr., 2009, in a earthquake whose epicenter was near L'Aquila, Abruzzi; damage was estimated at €12 million ($15.9 billion). In 2010, Italy, like many eurozone nations, was forced to adopt austerity measures to reduce government deficits that had increased as a result of the 2008–9 global downturn, but the proposed legislation provoked strong oppostion. A number of financial scandals involving government ministers as well as personal scandals involving Berlusconi also led to a loss of popularity for his government. There were increasing tensions and ultimately splits within the governing coalition during 2010; the government narrowly survived a no-confidence vote in December, and again in Oct., 2011.
In 2011 the government suffered losses in local elections (May) and in referendums on several pieces of legislation (June). As concerns over the country's financial situation increased in mid-2011, the government adopted an austerity budget in July, which was subsequently revised as Italy's difficulties with the bond markets continued and the European Central Bank made aid contingent on increased austerities. Berlusconi struggled to hold his splintering coalition together, and was finally forced from office (Nov., 2011) by the erosion of market and EU confidence in his economic and financial policies.
Mario Monti, an economist and former member of the European Commission, became premier of a nonpartisan government consisting of technocrats, and subsequently won passage of austerities and economic reforms. Italy continued to face recurring pressures in the bond markets during 2012, which led to the adoption of additional measures. In Dec., 2012, Monti's government lost the support of Berlusconi's party, and he submitted his resignation; the president dissolved parliament and called new elections for Feb., 2013.
The Democratic party–led center-left coalition won a lower house majority, but only a plurality in the senate. The popular vote was closer, however, with Berlusconi's coalition narrowly behind, followed by comedian Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement (the largest party in terms of votes); Monti's coalition was fourth. A new government proved difficult to form, with the Democratic leader, Luigi Bersani, resisting a coalition with Berlusconi, and the Five Star Movement refusing to take a secondary role in a coalition. The election of a new president also proved contentious. Napolitano was reelected (April) after party leaders appealed to him to become a candidate for a second term; he became the first Italian president to be reelected. Party disagreements led Bersani to step down as Democratic leader, and Napolitano appointed the deputy leader, Enrico Letta, as premier. Letta quickly formed a broad coalition that included the Democrats and Berlusconi's and Monti's parties. In the subsequent local elections (May–June) the center-left coalition did well while the Berlusconi's party and the Five Star Movement did poorly. In September Berlusconi withdrew support for the government over an impending vote that removed (November) him from the senate (because of his criminal convictions), but a revolt in his party forced him to support the government in a confidence vote in October. Berlsuconi's party subsequently withdrew (November) from the government, but his party split and the government survived a confidence vote.
In early 2014 the new leader of the Democrats, Matteo Renzi, became increasingly critical of the Letta government, which he accused of proceeding too slowly with reforms and failing to improve the economy. In February Letta resigned, and Renzi, who had been mayor of Florence and had never served in the parliament, became premier. Renzi subsequently sought a series of government reforms, and won passage of cuts in local government in April; labor reforms were passed later in the year. In Jan., 2015, Napolitano resigned as president for health reasons; Sergio Mattarella, a former government minister and justice of the constitutional court, was elected to succeed him. The following May, Renzi pushed through a revision of the electoral law for the Chamber of Deputies that retained the proportional system.
A bibliography of the early period and the barbarian invasions is listed under Rome. For the medieval period, see D. P. Waley, The Italian City-Republics (1969); J. K. Hyde, Society and Politics in Medieval Italy (1973); C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400–1000 (1981). For the Renaissance, see bibliography under Renaissance. For the modern period, see B. King, A History of Italian Unity (2 vol., 1924, repr. 1967); D. M. Smith, Italy (1959, repr. 1969); C. Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870–1925 (1967); S. J. Woolf, A History of Italy, 1700–1860 (1979); R. J. B. Bosworth, Italy: The Least of the Great Powers (1980) and Mussolini's Italy (2006); H. Hearder, Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento (1983); M. Clark, Modern Italy, 1871–1982 (1984); V. S. Pisano, The Dynamics of Subversion and Violence in Contemporary Italy (1987); P. Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–88 (1988) and Italy and Its Discontents: Family, Civil Society, State, 1980–2000 (2003); R. S. Cunsolo, Modern Italian Nationalism (1989); S. Tarrow, Democracy and Disorder: Protest and Politics in Italy, 1965–75 (1989); A. Stille, Excellent Cadavers: The Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic (1995); C. Duggan, The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy since 1796 (2008); D. Gilmour, The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples (2011).
"Italy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
"Italy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy-0
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Magic and sorcery in medieval Italy centered around the many great personalities of the church. Even several popes have been included by the historians of occult science in the ranks of notable Italian sorcerers and alchemists. There appears to have been some sort of folk tradition that the popes had been given over to the practice of magic ever since the tenth century, and it was alleged that Silvester II confessed to this charge on his death bed. Éliphas Lévi stated that Honorius III, who preached the Crusades, was an abominable necromancer, and the author of the Grimoire of Honorius, a book by which spirits were evoked.
Bartholomew Platina (1421-1481), quoting from Martinus Polonus, stated that Silvester, who was a proficient mathematician and versed in the Kabbalah, on one occasion evoked Satan himself and obtained his assistance to gain the pontifical crown. Furthermore he stipulated as the price of selling his soul to the devil that he should not die except at Jerusalem, where he inwardly determined he would never go.
He did become pope. But on one occasion while celebrating Mass in a certain church at Rome, he felt extremely ill, and suddenly remembered that he was officiating in a chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross of Jerusalem. He had a bed set up in the chapel, to which he summoned the cardinals and confessed that he had held communication with the powers of evil. He further arranged that when dead, his body should be placed upon a car of green wood drawn by two horses, one black and other white. He stipulated that the horses should be started on their course, but neither led nor driven, and that where they halted his remains should be entombed. The conveyance stopped in front of the Lateran, and at this juncture terrible noises proceeded from it, which led the bystanders to suppose that the soul of Silvester had been seized upon by Satan according to the agreement.
There is no doubt whatsoever that such legends concerning papal necromancers are simply inventions; they can be traced through Platina and Polonus to Galfridus and the chronicler Gervase of Tilbury, whom Gabriel Naudé termed "the greatest forger of fables, and the most notorious liar that ever took pen in hand!"
On par with such myths is that of Pope Joan, who for several years was supposed to have sat on the papal throne although a woman, and who was supposed to be one of the rankest sorceresses of all time. Many magic books were attributed to Pope Joan. Lévi has an interesting passage in his History of Magic (1913) in which he states that certain engravings in a life of this female pope, purporting to represent her, are nothing but ancient tarots representing Isis crowned with a tiara. "It is well-known that the hieroglyphic figure on the second tarot card is still called 'The Female Pope,' being a woman wearing a tiara, on which are the points of the crescent moon, or the horns of Isis."
But all Italian necromancers and magicians were by no means churchmen—indeed, medieval Italy was hardly a place for the magically inclined, so stringent were the laws of the church against the occult. One exception, astrology, however, flourished, and its practitioners were accepted into the highest levels of society. A Florentine astrologer named Basil, who flourished at the beginning of the fifteenth century, obtained some repute for successful predictions and was said to have foretold to Cosmo de Medici that he would attain exalted dignity, as the same planets had been in ascendency at the hour of his birth as at the birth of the Emperor Charles V.
Many remarkable predictions were made by Antiochus Tibertus of Romagna, who was for some time counselor to Pandolpho de Maletesta, Prince of Rimini. He foretold to his friend Guido de Bogni, the celebrated soldier, that he was unjustly suspected by his best friend, and would forfeit his life through suspicion. Of himself he predicted that he would die on the scaffold, and of the Prince of Rimini, his patron, that he would die a beggar in the hospital for the poor at Bologna. It is stated that the prophecies came true in every detail.
Although the recorded notices of sorcery in medieval times are few in Italian history, there is reason to suspect that although magic was not outwardly practiced, it lurked hidden in out-of-the-way places. An excellent portrait of the medieval Italian magician can be found in the popular myths of Virgil the Enchanter.
The Legend of Virgil
The fame of Virgil the Poet was so great in ancient Italy that in due time his name became synonymous with fame itself. From that it was a short step to the attribution of supernatural power, and Virgil the Roman poet became in the popular mind a medieval enchanter. His myth is symptomatic of magic in medieval Italy as a whole and is therefore described here at some length.
When the popular myth of Virgil the Enchanter first grew into repute is uncertain, but probably the earliest conception arose about the beginning of the tenth century and each succeeding generation embroidered upon it some new fantastic element. Soon, in the south of Italy (the necromancer's fame was of southern origin), mysterious legends of the enchantments he had wrought emerged.
Thus Virgil was said to have fashioned a brazen fly and planted it on the gate of fair Parthenope to free the city from the inroads of the insects of Beelzebub. On a Neapolitan hill he built a brass statue and placed a trumpet in its mouth. When the north wind blew a roar so terrible came from that trumpet that it drove the noxious blasts of Vulcan's forges back into the sea. At one of the gates of Naples, Virgil supposedly raised two statues of stone and gifted them respectively with the power of blighting or blessing the strangers who passed by one or the other of them on entering the city. He constructed three public baths for the removal of every disease afflicting the human body, but the physicians, in a dread of losing their patients and their fees, caused them to be destroyed.
Other wonders he was supposed to have wrought were woven into a biography of the enchanter, first printed in French about 1490-1520. A still fuller history appeared in English as "The Life of Virgilius," about 1508, printed by Hans Doesborcke at Antwerp. It set forth with tolerable clearness the popular type of the medieval magician, and is drawn upon in the following biographical sketch:
"Virgil was the son of a wealthy senator of Rome, wealthy and powerful enough to carry on war with the Roman Emperor. As his birth was heralded by extraordinary portents, it is no marvel that even in childhood he showed himself endowed with extraordinary mental powers, and his father having the sagacity to discern in him an embryo necromancer sent him, while still very young, to study at the University of Toledo, where the 'art of magick' was taught with extraordinary success."
"There he studied diligently, for he was of great understanding, and speedily acquired a profound insight into the great Shemaia of the Chaldean lore. But this insight was due not so much to nocturnal vigils over abstruse books, as to the help he received from a very valuable familiar. "
The story goes on to say that Virgil's father died and his estates were seized by his former colleagues, so his widow was sunk into extreme poverty. Virgil accordingly gathered together the wealth he had amassed by the exercise of his magical skill and set out for Rome to put his mother in a position proper to her rank. At Toledo he had been regarded as a famous student; but at Rome he was a despised scholar, and when he asked the emperor to execute justice and restore his estate to him, that potentate, ignorant of the magician's power, simply replied, "Methinketh that the land is well divided to them that have it, for they may help you in their need; what needeth you for to care for the disheriting of one school-master. Bid him take heed, and look to his schools, for he hath no right to any land here about the city of Rome."
Four years passed, and only such replies as this were given to Virgil's frequent appeals for justice. Growing at length weary of the delay, he resolved to exercise his wondrous powers in his own behalf. When the harvest came, he accordingly shrouded the whole of his rightful inheritance with a vapor so dense that the new proprietors were unable to approach it, and under its cover his men gathered in the entire crop with perfect security. This done, the mist disappeared.
Then his angry enemies assembled their swordsmen and marched against him to take off his head. Such was their power that the emperor fled out of Rome in fear, "…for they were twelve senators that had all the world under them, and if Virgilius had right, he had been one of the twelve, but they had disinherited him and his mother." When they drew near, Virgil once more baffled their designs by encircling his patrimony with cloud and shadow.
The emperor, with surprising inconsistency, now joined forces with the senators against Virgil, whose magical powers he should have feared far more than the rude force of the senatorial magnates, and made war against him. But who can prevail against the arts of necromancy? Emperor and senators were duly beaten, and from that moment Virgil, with marvelous generosity, became the faithful friend and powerful supporter of his sovereign.
It may not be generally known that Virgil, besides being the savior of Rome, was supposed to be the founder of Naples. This feat had its origin, like so many other great actions, in the power of love.
Virgil's imagination had been fired by the reports that reached him of the surpassing loveliness of the sultan's daughter. Now the sultan lived at Babylon (that is, at Cairo, the "Babylon" of medieval romancers) and the distance might have daunted a less ardent lover and less potent magician. But Virgil's necromantic skill was equal to magically raising a bridge in the air, and, passing over it, he found his way into the sultan's palace and into the princess's chamber. Speedily overcoming her natural modesty, Virgil bore her back with him to his Italian bower. There, he enjoyed his fill of love and pleasure, then restored the princess to her bed in her father's palace. Meanwhile, her absence had been noted, but she was soon discovered on her return, and the sultan, hastening to her chamber, interrogated her respecting her disappearance. He found that she did not know who had carried her off, nor where she had been carried.
When Virgil abducted and restored the princess on the following night, she took back with her, by her father's instructions, some fruit plucked from the enchanter's garden, and from its quality the sultan guessed that she had been carried to a southern land "on the side of France." These nocturnal journeys being several times repeated and the sultan's curiosity growing ungovernable, he persuaded his daughter to give her lover a sleeping draught. The deceived magician was then captured in the Babylonian palace and flung into prison, and it was decreed that both he and his mistress should be punished for their love by death at the stake.
Necromancers are not so easily outwitted. As soon as Virgil was apprised of the fate intended for him, he made, by force of his spells, the sultan and all his lords believe that the mighty Nilus, great river of Babylon, was overflowing in the midst of them, and that they swam and lay and sprang like geese, and so they took up Virgil and the princess, tore them from their prison, and placed them upon the aerial bridge. And when they were thus out of danger, Virgil delivered the sultan and all the lords from the river, and when they recovered their wits they saw the enchanter bearing the beautiful princess across the Mediterranean, and they marveled and felt that they could not hope to prevail against such supernatural power.
And in this manner Virgil conveyed the sultan's daughter over the sea to Rome. He was infatuated with her beauty, and,
"Then he thought in his mind how he might marry her [apparently forgetting that he was already married] and thought in his mind to found in the midst of the sea a fair town with great lands belonging to it; and so he did by his cunning, and called it Naples…"
After accomplishing so much for his Babylonian beauty, Virgil did not marry her. He did endow her with the town of Naples and its lands, and gave her in marriage to a certain grandee of Spain. Having disposed of her, the enchanter returned to Rome, collected all his treasures, and removed them to the city he had founded, where he resided for some years and established a school that speedily became of illustrious renown. Here he lost his wife, by whom he had no issue, built baths and bridges, and wrought the most extraordinary miracles. So passed an uncounted number of years, and Virgil at length abandoned Naples forever and retired to Rome.
In his Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches of Italy (1899) folklorist Charles Godfrey Leland gives a valuable account of the life and practice of the Italian strega, or witch, as described by a Florentine hereditary witch named Maddalena. He states:
"In most cases she comes of a family in which her calling or art has been practiced for many generations. I have no doubt that there are instances in which the ancestry remounts to medieval, Roman, or it may be Etruscan times. The result has naturally been the accumulation in such families of much tradition. But in Northern Italy, as its literature indicates, though there has been some slight gathering of fairy tales and popular superstitions by scholars, there has never existed the least interest as regarded the strange lore of the witches, nor any suspicion that it embraced an incredible quantity of old Roman minor myths and legends, such as Ovid has recorded, but of which much escaped him and all other Latin Writers…Even yet there are old people in the Romagna of the North who know the Etruscan names of the Twelve Gods, and invocations to Bacchus, Jupiter, and Venus, Mercury, and the Lares or ancestral spirits, and in the cities are women who prepare strange amulets, over which they mutter spells, all known in the old Roman time and who can astonish even the learned by their legends of Latin gods, mingled with lore which may be found in Cato or Theocritus. With one of these I became intimately acquainted in 1886, and have ever since employed her specially to collect among her sisters of the hidden spell in many places all the traditions of the olden times known to them. It is true that I have drawn from other sources but this woman by long practice has perfectly learned what few understand, or just what I want, and how to extract it from those of her kind.
"Among other strange relics, she succeeded, after many years, in obtaining the following 'Gospel,' which I have in her handwriting. A full account of its nature with many details will be found in an Appendix. I do not know definitely whether my informant derived a part of these traditions from written sources or oral narration, but believe it was chiefly the latter…
"For brief explanation I may say that witchcraft is known to its votaries as la vecchia religione, or the old religion, of which Diana is the Goddess, her daughter Aradia (or Herodias) the female Messiah, and that this little work sets forth how the latter was born, came down to earth, established witches and witchcraft, and then returned to heaven. With it are given the ceremonies and invocations or incantations to be addressed to Diana and Aradia, the exorcism of Cain, and the spells of the holy-stone, rue, and verbena, constituting, as the text declares, the regular church service, so to speak, which is to be chanted or pronounced at the witch meetings. There are also included the very curious incantations or benedictions of the honey, meal, and salt, or cakes of the witch-supper, which is curiously classical, and evidently a relic of the Roman Mysteries."
Briefly, in discussing the ritual of the Italian witches, Leland reports that at the Sabbath they take meal and salt, honey and water, and say a conjuration over these, one to the meal, one to the salt, one to Cain, and one to Diana, the moon goddess. They then sit down naked to supper, men and women, and after the feast is over they dance, sing, and make love in the darkness, quite in the manner of the medieval Sabbath of the sorcerers. Many charms are given connected with stones, especially if these have holes in them and are found by accident. A lemon stuck full of pins we are told is a good omen. Love spells fill a large space in the little work, which for the rest recounts several myths of Diana and Endymion in corrupted form.
Leland's interesting book was one of the major sources used by Gerald B. Gardner in his reconstruction of witchcraft in the 1940s and served as a model for the Book of Shadows, which modern witches claim as a traditional descent in their covens.
An early indication of the rise and spread of Spiritualism in Italy was surveyed in an article published in Civitta Catholica, the well-known Roman organ entitled "Modern Necromancy." It concluded,
"1st. Some of the phenomena may be attributed to imposture, hallucinations, and exaggerations in the reports of those who describe it, but there is a foundation of reality in the general sum of the reports which cannot have originated in pure invention or be wholly discredited without ignoring the value of universal testimony.
"2nd. The bulk of the theories offered in explanation of the proven facts, only cover a certain percentage of those facts, but utterly fail to account for the balance.
"3rd. Allowing for all that can be filtered away on mere human hypotheses, there are still a large class of phenomena appealing to every sense which cannot be accounted for by any known natural laws, and which seem to manifest the action of intelligent beings."
The famous medium D. D. Home visited the principal cities of Italy in 1852 and was so active in his propaganda that numerous circles were formed after his departure. Violent journalistic controversies arose out of the foundation of these societies, with the result that public interest was so aroused that it could only be satisfied with the publication of a paper on the subject. It was titled Il amore del Vero, issued from Geneva and edited by Pietro Suth and B. E. Manieri. In this journal accounts of the spiritual movements in the various countries of Europe, and the United States were published although the church and press leveled anathemas against the journal.
In the spring of 1863, a society was founded at Palermo named Il Societa Spiritual di Palermo, which had for its president J. V. Paleolozo, and such members as Paolo Morelle, professor of Latin and philosophy.
It was about the autumn of 1864 that lectures were first given on Spiritualist subjects in Italy. They were started in Leghorn and Messina, and although of a very mixed character and often partaking largely of the lecturer's peculiar idiosyncrasies on religious subjects, they served to draw attention to the upheaval of thought going on in all directions, in connection with the revelations from the spirit world.
In the year 1870, over a hundred different societies were formed, with varying success, in different parts of Italy. Two of the most prominent flourishing at that date were conducted in Naples, and according to the French journal Revue Spirite, represented the two opposing schools that have prevailed in Spiritualism, namely, those who accepted the idea of reincarnation —associated with the Spiritism of Allan Kardec from France —and those who looked for the continued upward progress of the soul, known in America and England merely as "Spiritualists."
About 1868, the cause of Spiritualism was energized (at least in the higher strata of Italian society) by the visit of Samuel Guppy and his wife Agnes Guppy-Volckman to Naples, where they took up residence for two or three years. Guppy-Volckman was known throughout Europe for her physical mediumship. Drawing upon Guppy's wealth and social standing, she was able to place her performance at the command of the distinguished visitors who crowded his salons. It soon became a matter of notoriety that the most exalted individuals in the land, including King Victor Emmanuel and many of his nearest friends and counselors, had become convinced of the truth of the phenomena exhibited through her mediumship.
About the year 1863 Spiritualism began to enjoy the advantage of positive representation in the columns of a new paper named the Annali dello Spiritismo (Annals of Spiritualism). This journal was published in Turin by Niceforo Filalete. The columns of the Annali recorded that a Venetian Society of Spiritualists named "Atea" elected General Giuseppe Garibaldi their honorary president, and received the following reply by telegraph from the distinguished hero, the liberator of Italy,
"I gratefully accept the presidency of the Society Atea. Caprera, 23rd September."
The same issue of the Annali contained a verbatim report of a "grand discourse, given at Florence, by a distinguished literary gentleman, Signor Sebastiano Fenzi, in which the listeners were considerably astonished by a rehearsal of the many illustrious names of those who openly avowed their faith in Spiritualism."
The years 1863-64 appear to have been rich in Spiritualist efforts. Besides a large number of minor associations, (their existence was recorded from time to time in the early numbers of the Annali and Revue Spirite ), about this time the Magnetic Society of Florence was formed. It would continue for many years to exert a marked influence in promoting the study of occult forces and phenomena. Seymour Kirkup, well known to the early initiators of Spiritualism, resided in Florence and contributed many records of spiritual phenomena to the London Spiritual Magazine. Nearly ten years after the establishment of the Magnetic Society of Florence, Baron Guitern de Bozzi, an eminent occultist, founded the Pneumatological Psychological Academy of Florence, but it was discontinued after his death.
Psychical Research and Parapsychology
In Italy, the divisions between Spiritualism and psychical research have tended to be blurred. Many eminent psychical researchers were sympathetic to Spiritualism if not actually endorsing its beliefs. One of the most famous investigators was the psychiatrist and criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) who was convinced by the evidence for survival after death. Marco Tullio Falcomer, who conducted experiments with the famous physical medium Florence Cook, was a Spiritualist, as was also Enrico Morselli (1852-1929) who had investigated the phenomena of the medium Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918).
Among other Italian psychical researchers were Giovanni Batista Ermacora (1869-98), Enrico Imoda (who investigated the phenomena of Linda Gazzera ), P. B. Bianchi, Angelo Brofferio (who became a Spiritualist), Ercole Chiaia, Philippe Bottazzi, Augusto Tamburini, and Rocco Santoliquido (1854-1930), who played a part in the founding of the Institut Métapsychique in Paris. Later researchers were Ernesto Bozzano (1862-1943), Giovanni Pioli of Milan, Lidio Cipriani of the University of Naples, William McKenzie of Genoa, Count Cesar Baudi De Vesme (1862-1938), Ferdinando Cazzamalli of Como, Fabio Vitali, G. C. Trabacchi, and Sante de Sanctis.
In 1901, the Società di Studi Psichici (Society of Psychic Studies) was founded in Milan. It was responsible for investigations of the mediums Augustus Politi, Eusapia Palladino and Lucia Sordi.
In 1937, the Società Italiana di Metapsichica (Italian Society of Metapsychics) was founded in Rome, in memory of Charles Richet, the noted French psychical researcher. In 1946, one group from the society headed by Ferdinando Cazzamalli formed the Association di Metapsichica, in Milan; at a later date the name was changed to Società Italiana di Parapsicologia, replacing the older term "metapsychics" with "para-psychology." It is currently headed by Emilio Servadio, at Via de Montecatini 7, 00186 Rome. The quarterly journal Metapsichica Rivista Italiana di Parapsicologia is the official organ of the Associazione Italiana Scientifica di Metapsichica headquartered at Via 5 Vittore, 19-20123 Milano.
Another active organization is the Centro Studi Parapsicologici (Center for Parapsychological Studies) established in Bologna in 1948, directed by Piero Cassoli. Other organizations include the Facoltà di Scienze Psichiche e Psicologiche (Faculty of Psychic and Psychological Sciences) of Academia Tiberina, established in 1960 (which may be reached at Via del Vantaggio 22, Rome), the Centro Italiano di Studi Metapsichici (Italian Center of Metapsychic Studies) founded in Pavia in 1968, which has conducted studies in psychic healing (and may be reached at Via Calascione 5/A, Naples), and the Centro Studi Parapsicologici de Bologna, Via Tamagno 2, Bologna.
Among periodicals the oldest is Luce e Ombre (Light and Shadow) founded in 1900 in Rome, edited from January 1932 from Milan under the title Ricerca Psichica. The journal Uomini e Idee (Men and Ideas) was launched in Naples in 1959 and in 1965 it was replaced by Informazioni di Parapsicologia (Parapsychology News) as a publication of the Centro Italiano di Parapsicologia. Since then, Luce e Ombra has been published quarterly by dell'Associazione Archivio di Documentazione Storica della Ricerca Psichica. Address: Bozzano-De Boni, Via Orfeo, 15, 40214 Bologna. The Fondazione Biblioteca Bozzano-DeBoni, with the Bozzano-DeBoni Library Foundation, is located at Via Guglielmo Marconi, 8-40122 Bologna. The website for the foundation is: http://www2.comune.bologna.it/fbibbdb/siti.htm. The foundation and research library is devoted primarily to psychical research and parapsychology, and was initially collected by Ernesto Bozzano (1862-1943) and Gastone De Boni (1908-1986) who were both recognized scholars in paranormal phenomenonology. It is a nonprofit association. DeBoni was responsible for reviving Luce e Ombra following the interruption of the war years from 1940 to 1946. In 2000, the publication celebrated the hundredth anniversary, and four volumes containing several of the articles throughout the hundred years were being published. A congress was held on June 3, 2000 also in celebration of this long pursuit.
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.
Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. Harper's Encyclopedia of Mystical & Parranormal Experience. San Francisco: HarperSan Francisco, 1991.
The Wonderful History of Virgilius The Sorcerer of Rome. London: Daure Nutt, 1893.
"Italy." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
RecipesPasta e Fagioli (Noodle and Bean Soup) .................... 135
Fettucine Alfredo....................................................... 136
Saltimbocca alla Romana (Veal Scallops) ................... 137
Italian Easter Bread.................................................... 138
Panettone (Italian Christmas bread) .......................... 138
Frittata ...................................................................... 140
Cannoli ..................................................................... 141
1 GEOGRAPHIC SETTING AND ENVIRONMENT
A fertile valley surrounds the Po River, the largest river in Italy. Many different plants thrive in its rich soil. Italy is surrounded by water on three sides and benefits from a variety of seafood and coastal vegetation.
Climate varies depending on elevation and region. Colder temperatures can be found in the mountainous regions, particularly within the high peaks of the Alps, a mountain range in the northwest. Temperatures are warmer in the Po River valley, the coastal lowlands, and on Italy's islands (Sicily and Sardinia), with an average annual temperature around 60°F.
Plants and animals also vary depending on elevation and region. Italy hosts a wide variety of trees, including conifers, beech, oak, and chestnut in the higher elevations. Evergreens, cork, juniper, laurel, and dwarf palms are widespread throughout the Po River Valley and Italy's islands.
2 HISTORY AND FOOD
From the early Middle Ages (beginning around A.D. 500) to the late 1800s, Italy consisted of separate republics, each with different culinary (cooking) customs. These varying cooking practices, which were passed down from generation to generation, contributed to the diversity of Italian cuisine. Italy's neighboring countries, including France, Austria, and Yugoslavia, also contributed to differences in the country's cuisine.
Italy changed in many ways when the economy flourished following World War II (1939–45). During this time, farming was modernized and new technologies and farming systems were introduced. Various culinary practices throughout the country's regions began to be combined after people started migrating from the countryside to the cities. Many southern Italians traveled to the north at this time, introducing pizza to northern Italians. Those from the north introduced risotto (a rice dish) and polenta (a simple, cornmeal dish) to the south. Fast foods, mostly introduced from the United States, have brought more culinary diversity to Italy. However, pride in the culture of one's region, or companilismo, extends to the food of the locality, and regional cooking styles are celebrated throughout the country.
3 FOODS OF THE ITALIANS
Although Italians are known throughout the world for pizza, pasta, and tomato sauce, the national diet of Italy has traditionally differed greatly by region. Prior to the blending of cooking practices among different regions, it was possible to distinguish Italian cooking simply by the type of cooking fat used: butter was used in the north, pork fat in the center of the country, and olive oil in the south. Staple dishes in the north were rice and polenta, and pasta was most popular throughout the south. During the last decades of the twentieth century (1980s and 1990s), however, pasta and pizza (another traditional southern food) became popular in the north of Italy. Pasta is more likely to be served with a white cheese sauce in the north and a tomato-based sauce in the south.
Italians are known for their use of herbs in cooking, especially oregano, basil, thyme, parsley, rosemary, and sage. Cheese also plays an important role in Italian cuisine. There are more than 400 types of cheese made in Italy, with Parmesan, mozzarella, and asiago among the best known worldwide. Prosciutto ham, the most popular ingredient of the Italian antipasto (first course) was first made in Parma, a city that also gave its name to Parmesan cheese.
Pasta e Fagioli (Noodle and Bean Soup)
- 5 cups water
- 1½ cups dried white beans: navy, baby lima, or northern
- 1 onion, coarsely chopped
- 2 cups canned Italian-style tomatoes, with juice
- 1 cup each of celery and carrots, finely chopped and sliced
- 3 cloves garlic, coarsely chopped, or 1 teaspoon garlic granules
- ½ pound cooked smoked ham, chopped
- 3 bay leaves
- ½ cup macaroni (shells, bows, or elbows), uncooked
- Salt and pepper, to taste
- ½ cup Parmesan cheese, grated, for garnish
- Place water and beans in saucepan.
- Bring to a boil over high heat for 3 minutes and remove from heat.
- Cover and set aside for 1 hour.
- Add the onion, tomatoes, celery, carrots, garlic, smoked ham, and bay leaves.
- Mix well and bring to a boil over high heat.
- Reduce to simmer, cover, and cook until beans are tender (about 1½ hours). Stir frequently.
- Add macaroni and mix well. Cover and continue simmering until macaroni is tender (about 12 minutes).
- Remove and throw out bay leaves before serving.
- Serve hot soup in individual bowls with a side dish of Parmesan cheese for the guests to sprinkle into their soup. Serve with crusty bread to dip in the soup.
Serves about 6.
- 1 cup butter or margarine at room temperature
- ½ cup heavy cream
- ½ cup Parmesan cheese, grated
- 1 pound cooked pasta, such as fettuccini (cook according to directions on package)
- Salt, pepper, and ground nutmeg to taste
- Cook pasta according to directions on package. Warm a serving bowl in the oven set to the lowest temperature until ready to use.
- Place butter or margarine in a mixing bowl, and using a wooden spoon, beat until light and fluffy. Gradually add cream and mix until well blended.
- Add the cheese by Tablespoon, beating well after each addition.
- Using oven mitts, remove the heated serving bowl from oven and place on a heatproof work surface.
- Place the drained, cooked pasta in the warm bowl and add cheese mixture.
- Make sure all the pasta is coated with the sauce.
- Add salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste and continue to coat pasta.
- Serve while very hot with a side dish of grated cheese.
- The dish goes well with a green salad with Italian dressing and warm garlic bread.
Commercial instant polenta is available in packages in the supermarket, usually displayed near the packaged rice. It would be an adequate substitute for the traditional method of preparation.
- 1 pound coarsely ground corn meal
- 8 cups water
- 1 teaspoon salt
- Measure the water into a large pot, add the salt, and heat the water to boiling.
- Add the corn meal to the boiling water in a very slow stream, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon to keep lumps from forming.
- Don't let the water stop boiling.
- Continue stirring as the polenta (mush) thickens, for about 30 minutes, adding small amounts of boiling water if necessary (the longer you stir, the better the polenta will be; the finished polenta should have the consistency of firm mashed potatoes).
- The polenta is done when it peels easily off the sides of the pot.
Saltimbocca alla Romana (Veal Scallops with Sage and Prosciutto)
Note: This recipe involves hot oil. Adult supervision is suggested.
- 12 slices of veal scallops (1½ pounds)
- 12 fresh sage leaves
- 12 slices of prosciutto ham
- Flour, for dusting
- 3 Tablespoons unsalted butter
- 3 Tablespoons olive oil
- 1 cup white wine
- 1½ pounds freshly cooked spinach, seasoned with salt and pepper
- Spread out veal scallops and lay one sage leaf and one slice of ham on each.
- Roll up and secure with toothpicks.
- Lightly dust each with flour.
- Heat the butter and oil in a skillet large enough to hold all the rolls in one layer.
- Sauté, turning the rolls carefully, until brown.
- Lift the veal from the pan and set aside on a warm platter.
- Add the wine to the skillet, add salt and pepper to taste, and cook to reduce the size by half.
- Arrange the hot spinach on a warm dish, place the veal on it, and cover with the wine sauce.
4 FOOD FOR RELIGIOUS AND HOLIDAY CELEBRATIONS
Every Italian village celebrates its own saint's day with a festival featuring fireworks, feasting, and dancing. The traditional main dish for these festivals is roast suckling pig. A popular Easter dish throughout Italy is Agnellino (roast baby lamb), often served with roasted artichokes.
Santa Lucia Dinner
Osso bucco (braised veal shanks) with baby artichokes
Lemon orzo (a rice-like pasta)
Arugula salad with lemon-garlic vinaigrette dressing
Ripe peaches and figs
Although the holiday bread called panet-tone is the best known of Italy's many holiday desserts, regions throughout the country have their own traditional holiday sweets featuring local ingredients. In the north, butter is a major ingredient of these desserts. Zelten cakes, similar to fruitcake, are filled with raisins, dates, figs, almonds, pine nuts, orange peel, rum, and cinnamon, are baked two or three weeks before Christmas because they improve with time. Strudel is popular in the Tyrol region in northern Italy. In the south, dessert recipes are more elaborate and use olive oil (instead of butter), lots of eggs, candied fruit, and honey. Among the best known are struffoli, fried cubes of egg pastry covered with honey and sprinkled with colored sugar, a specialty from Naples.
Italian Easter Bread
- 3 cups flour
- ¼ cup sugar
- 1 package active dry yeast
- 1 teaspoon salt
- ⅔ cup warm milk
- 2 Tablespoons butter, softened
- 7 eggs
- ½ cup mixed candied fruit, chopped
- ¼ cup almonds, chopped
- ½ teaspoon anise seed
- Vegetable oil
- In a mixing bowl, combine 1 cup flour, sugar, yeast and salt.
- Add milk and butter; beat 2 minutes on medium.
- Add 2 eggs and ½ cup flour; beat 2 minutes on high.
- Stir in the fruit, nuts, and anise seed, mixing well.
- Stir in enough remaining flour to form a soft dough.
- Place on a lightly floured board and knead until smooth, 6 to 8 minutes.
- Place in a greased bowl; turn once. Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled, about 1 hour.
- If desired, dye remaining eggs (leave eggs uncooked); lightly rub with oil.
- With a fist dipped in flour, punch dough down. Divide in half and roll each piece into a 24-inch rope.
- Loosely twist ropes together; place on the baking sheet and form into a ring. Pinch the ends together.
- Gently split ropes and tuck eggs into openings. Cover and let rise until doubled, about 30 minutes.
- Preheat oven to 350°F.
- Bake for 30 to 35 minutes, or until golden brown. Remove from the pan and cool on a wire rack.
Serves about 6.
Panettone (Italian Christmas Bread)
- 4 Tablespoons yeast
- 2 cups warm water
- ½ pound butter, melted
- 4 teaspoons salt
- 1 cup sugar
- 4 eggs, beaten
- 6 egg yolks, beaten (discard egg whites or save for another use)
- 10½ cups flour
- 2 cups citron, sliced fine
- 2 cups raisins, seedless
- Dissolve yeast in the water. Mix in the butter, sugar, salt, eggs, and yolks.
- Stir about 10 cups of flour into the butter and yeast mixture until blended.
- Spread a little flour on a board. Turn dough out onto the board and knead for 8 to 10 minutes. When the dough is soft and smooth, knead in the citron and raisins.
- Place dough in a greased, round pan, and brush the top with melted butter.
- Cover, and allow to rise until the dough has doubled in bulk (about 1 hour).
- Preheat oven to 425°F.
- Using a sharp knife, cut a deep cross in the top of the loaf.
- Bake for about 8 minutes, or until the top begins to brown. Lower heat to 325°F and bake for 1 hour more.
Serves about 10.
- 6 eggs
- 1½ cup sugar
- ½ cup butter, melted
- ½ cup vegetable oil
- 3 cups flour
- 2 teaspoons baking powder
- 4 teaspoons vanilla or almond extract
- Preheat oven to 350°F.
- Beat eggs. Add sugar and beat until thick and golden.
- Add melted butter and oil and beat well.
- Add vanilla or almond extract and blend well.
- Add flour and baking powder, and beat until a thick dough forms.
- Turn dough into ungreased 9-inch by 13-inch pan.
- Bake at 350°F for 15 to 20 minutes.
- Remove from oven and slice into three strips, 3 inches by 13 inches each.
- Cut each strip into slices about 1 inch wide.
- Place slices on a cookie sheet. Toast slices under the broiler. Turn, and toast other side.
Biscotti should be crunchy. Serve with coffee. Makes about 24 biscotti.
5 MEALTIME CUSTOMS
Italians generally eat three meals a day. Adults eat a light breakfast (la prima colazione ), often stopping at a coffee shop on their way to work for a caffellatte (coffee with milk) or cappuccino with bread, butter, and jam, or cake. Lunch and dinner are similar meals. They consist of an antipasto (an appetizer based on cold meats), a pasta or rice dish (depending on the region) such as risotto, a main meat or fish course, a salad, and cheese and fruit. Lunch (il pranza or la seconda colazione ) is the main meal of the day for many Italians and is eaten between noon and 2 p.m.
Whether eating at home or in a restaurant, Italians take food seriously. They prefer to dine in a leisurely fashion, savoring their meals over a bottle of wine and conversation. Wine and bread are always served during main meals. Even children are often allowed a taste of wine. In southern Italy, where people take a long break during the hottest part of the day, dinner (la cena ) is served later than in the north, often after 7:30 p.m.
In addition to their main meals, Italians have two traditional snack times. Spuntini (midmorning snacks) and the mid-afternoon merende. Both usually serve a type of bread dough with toppings. Some typical merende are bruschetta (usually a long loaf of bread, cut into slices and topped with seasonings), focaccio (an Italian flatbread), and crostini (fried slices of polenta). Originally a rural tradition, these snacks lost popularity following World War II as people migrated to
Italian cities. However, increased interest in traditional dishes and consuming healthy, lighter meals has helped these snacks become popular again, even in the United States.
- 2 eggs
- 1 teaspoon flat-leaf parsley, finely-chopped
- 1 small zucchini (known as courgettes throughout Europe), sliced thin
- 1 Tablespoon olive oil
- Salt and pepper to taste
- Place eggs and parsley into a bowl and beat well.
- Heat oil in a skillet over medium heat.
- Swirl the oil around in skillet to coat the bottom. Add the egg mixture.
- Arrange zucchini slices in a single layer on top of the eggs.
- Cook for 3 to 4 minutes. Hold a lid over the pan, and turn the pan over, flipping the frittata into the lid. Carefully slide the frittata back into the skillet, cooked side up. Cook other side until firm, about 2 more minutes. Add salt and pepper to taste.
- Cut into 4 or 6 wedges.
Serve warm or at room temperature. Serves 4 to 6.
Bruschetta (Toasted Garlic Bread)
- 6 slices of crusty white bread, cut ½- to ¾-inch thick, slices each cut in half
- 2 cloves garlic, lightly crushed
- ¼ cup extra virgin olive oil
- 1. Grill or broil the bread on each side.
- 2. Rub each slice with a crushed garlic clove, letting the juices sink into the bread.
- 3. Sprinkle olive oil and salt on the bread.
- 4. Serve warm, if possible.
- 18 ready-made cannoli shells
- 2 pounds ricotta cheese
- 2 cups powdered sugar
- ¼ cup candied orange and citron, finelydiced
- ¼ cup semisweet mini-chocolate chips
- ⅓ cup pistachio nuts, chopped medium to fine
- Mix the ricotta with the powdered sugar until it is no longer grainy.
- Blend in the candied fruit and chocolate.
- Whisk until the mixture is very creamy.
- Place filling in a wide-nozzled pastry tube and fill the shells. (A spoon may also be used).
- Place the chopped nuts on a flat surface and lightly dip both ends of the cannoli into the nuts to decorate.
Serve immediately. Serves 18.
6 POLITICS, ECONOMICS, AND NUTRITION
The government in Italy controls much of the agriculture of the country. It controls how much wheat can be produced, for example, and how much wheat can be imported. The government was not successful during the 1990s in its efforts to increase agricultural production. Italy imports about one-half of its meat, and in the late 1990s and through 2001, concerns over European beef because of mad cow disease and hoof and mouth disease caused the prices of beef to increase.
7 FURTHER STUDY
Albyn, Carole Lisa, and Lois Webb. The Multicultural Cookbook for Students. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1993.
Field, Carol. Italy in Small Bites. New York: William Morrow, 1993.
Halvorsen, Francine. Eating Around the World in Your Neighborhood. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Lukins, Sheila. All Around the World Cookbook. New York: Workman, 1994.
Penza, John, and Tony Corsi. Sicilian and American Pasta: 99 Recipes You Can't Refuse. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1994.
Roden, Claudia. The Good Food of Italy, Region by Region. New York: Knopf, 1991.
Delicious Italy. [Online] Availabe http://www.deliciousitaly.com/ (accessed August 7, 2001).
Epicurious: For People Who Eat. [Online] Available http://epicurious.com (accessed February 11, 2001).
International Women. [Online] Available http://www.internationalwoman.net/recipesitaly.htm (accessed August 7, 2001).
Lidia's Italy. [Online] Available http://www.lidiasitaly.com/ (accessed August 7, 2001).
"Italy." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/food/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/food/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
On June 7, 1925, Professor Marco Levi Bianchini (1875-1961), director of the psychiatric hospital of Nocera Inferiore (Salerno), helped create the Societa Psicoanalitica Italiana (SPI) (Italian Psychoanalytic Society). Of its members only Dr. Edoardo Weiss (1899-1970) had been analyzed. This was an important cultural event given the climate of indifference toward psychoanalysis in the world of Italian neuro-psychiatry, then dominated by Enrico Morselli (1852-1929).
In 1915, there appeared the first work of Freud translated into Italian and published by Marco Levi Bianchini for the Biblioteca Psichiatrica Internazionale under the title Sulla psicoanalisi (On Psychoanalysis); it included the five lectures given by Freud at Clark University in the United States. The review Archivio Generale di Neurologia, Psichiatria e Psicoanalisi, founded in 1920 by Levi Bianchini, became the official organ of the SPI in 1925.
On October 1, 1932, Edoardo Weiss transferred the SPI from Trieste to Rome, and Levi Bianchini became honorary president. Weiss, a Jewish physician from Trieste, had known Freud in Vienna when he was still a student and had been sent to Paul Federn for his personal analysis. He completed his training as an analyst in 1913 before obtaining, the following year, his medical diploma. After returning to Trieste he began to practice as a psychoanalyst (1919). The core of the new society consisted of Cesare Musatti (1897-1989), Nicola Perrotti (1897-1970), and Emilio Servadio (1904-1995), the last two being students of Edoardo Weiss.
Other new publications appeared, including the ephemeral Rivista di Psicoanalisi in 1932, which was banned by the Fascist government at the end of 1933. In 1931, Weiss's Elementi di Psicoanalisi was published, with a preface by Sigmund Freud. The book made an important contribution to the understanding of psychoanalysis, and in fact was the first true work of psychoanalysis published in Italy (in 1937 it was in its third edition).
But the cultural climate in Italy under Fascism was not conducive to the spread of psychoanalysis. To this must be added the hostility of official psychology, represented by the Catholic Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959, see especially the articles published between 1924 and 1925 in Civilità cattolica ), and mainstream philosophy, which was influenced by Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile. An opportunity arose, however, through the indirect contact between Freud and Benito Mussolini. The father of a patient of Edoardo Weiss, Giovacchino Forzano, was a friend of the Fascist dictator. During a consultation in Freud's office, in the presence of Edoardo Weiss, he asked Freud to dedicate one of his books to Mussolini. Weiss was extremely embarrassed but Freud accepted with a certain ironical detachment and wrote the following dedication in the volume selected (Warum Krieg?, Why War? ): "To Benito Mussolini, with respectful greetings from an old man who recognizes in you the hero of a culture. Vienna, April 26, 1933." Later (1952) Weiss felt obligated to explain Freud's behavior to Kurt Eissler, secretary of the Freud Archives in New York, insisting on his rejection of fascism. In a letter of June 30, 1956, to Ernest Jones, he attempted to contest the statement of his patient, the daughter of Giovacchino Forzano, according to whom Mussolini intervened with the Viennese authorities to ensure Freud's safety and enable the family to leave Vienna.
Notwithstanding Weiss's difficulties as the head of the Italian delegation, he was able to participate in the international congresses of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) in Wiesbaden (1932), Lucerne (1934), and Marienbad (1936). In 1935 the IPA recognized the SPI as a member society, but the Fascist government looked askance at the affiliation of Italian psychoanalysts with a foreign association. Emilio Servadio was refused the necessary authorization from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to affiliate with the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society and the IPA. In a report dated April 20, 1935, Carmine Senise, chief inspector of police, described the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society as a subversive movement of leftist Jews and claimed that Freud maintained relations with extremists and with Italian anarchists. This climate of hostility did not prevent Italian analysts from publishing in 1936, in the Biblioteca Psicoanalitica Internazionale, a series of essays entitled Saggi in onore di Sigmund Freud to celebrate Freud's eightieth birthday. That same year Ernest Jones, as president of the IPA, was forced to defend his Italian colleagues by writing a letter to the consul general of Italy in London, protesting the fact that the IPA had never recognized the Italian association. In September 1938, however, the Fascist government instituted race laws, and the SPI was dissolved. Emilio Servadio emigrated to India. In January 1939, Edoardo Weiss emigrated to Chicago, where he stayed for the remainder of his life.
Psychoanalysis in Italy did not resume activities until 1945. Joachim Flescher, a Polish doctor analyzed by Edoardo Weiss, had been very active in psychoanalysis and, by publishing a number of articles, sought to propagate knowledge of the field. In 1947, the SPI was officially reconstituted with Nicola Perrotti as president and with the assistance of Alessandra Wolff Stomersee, Princess Tomasi di Lampedusa (1895-1982), who had trained at the Berlin Institute during the early twenties and had returned to Palermo, where she had a small circle of students.
The review Psicoanalisi, founded by Joachim Flescher, became the official mouthpiece of the SPI. Meanwhile, the first Italian Congress of Psychoanalysis was organized in Rome in 1946, followed by a second congress in 1950, also held in Rome. Psicoanalisi was published during the years 1945-1946, but in 1948 Nicola Perrotti founded a new review, Psiche, which, like its French homonym Psyché, created by Marie Choisy, was devoted as much to research as it was to popularization. Within the cultural debate of the time, the speech given by Pius XII on April 15, 1953, played an important part, for, overlooking the reservations of Agostino Gemelli, the Church then recognized the validity of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. In 1955, the SPI reintroduced Rivista di Psicoanalisi, which has remained the official publication to this day. During the next few years some psychoanalysts trained in London by Melanie Klein and her students spread awareness of Kleinian theory in Italy. They included Adda Corti, Pierandrea Lussana, Mauro Morra, and Lina Generali Clementis. The systematic translation of the work of Melanie Klein, Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott, Herbert Rosenfeld, Donald Meltzer, and Hanna Segal also had considerable influence on psychoanalysis in Italy.
During the nineteen sixties, the SPI was involved in the creation of a number of local centers primarily devoted to scientific research and involvement in social policy. At the same time, differences regarding training were formalized with the establishment of three institutes—one in Milan and two in Rome—coordinated by the Commissione Nazionale del Training.
Interest in psychoanalysis among the public at large continued to grow. By the end of the sixties, there were a number of students, doctors and psychologists, surgeons, and psychiatrists, who had begun to look to the SPI, either to begin personal analysis or to seek supervision for their own treatment of others. During the nineteen-seventies and up to the mid-eighties, upon the initiative of Dr. Piero Bellanova (1917-1987), a number of SPI members joined together to form the Societa Italiana de Psicoterapie Psicoanalitica (SIPP) (Italian Society of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy). With help from the Tavistock Clinic in London, the profound interest in the work of Melanie Klein resulted in the creation of schools of child psychoanalysis, first in Rome, then in other cities throughout Italy. In 1979 Professor Adriano Giannotti (1932-1994) created, within the department of child neuropsychiatry at the School of Medicine in Rome, a "Corso di psicoterapia psicoanalitica dell'età evolutiva" (Developmental Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy).
Also in Milan, through the efforts of Professors Cesare Musatti, Franco Fornari (1921-1985), Antonio Imbasciati, Franco Ferradini, Giovanni Carlo Zapparoli, Dr. Enzo Morpurgo, and others, psychoanalysis entered the academic world and local medical institutions by training students and clinicians in psychoanalysis. Prompted by Professor Francesco Corrao (1922-1994), the so-called "Pollaloi" group was formed in Rome in the seventies to study and practice psychoanalysis according to the principles established by Wilfred Bion. A Centro Italiano de Gruppo Analisi (CIGA), inspired by the work of S. H. Foulkes, was also created in the seventies by Alice Ricciardi von Platen. During the seventies and early eighties, seminars were organized in Italy by Wilfred Bion, Donald Meltzer, Marta Harris, and Hanna Segal, which received considerable popular attention.
At the same time the work of Jacques Lacan became known in Italy through the effort of three of Lacan's own students—Giacomo Contri, Muriel Drazien, and Armando Verdiglione, who, in 1974, with Lacan's agreement, formed a new association, the Cosa freudiana. The systematic translation of Lacan's seminars and writings was begun by Giacomo Contri and continued by a student of Jacques-Alain Miller, Antonio di Ciaccia. In 1953, during the Congrès des Psychanalystes de Langues Romanes (Congress of Romance Language Psychoanalysts), held in Rome, Jacques Lacan introduced his program: "Fonction et champ de la parole et du langage en psychanalyse." Lacan returned several times to Italy for conferences and seminars. On October 31, 1974, a congress of theÉcole Freudienne de Paris was held in Rome, along with the first Congress (devoted to the topic of culture), held in 1982, of the Mouvement Freudien Internationale (International Freudian Movement), founded in Milan in 1976 by Armando Verdiglione. Verdiglione was arrested in 1986 and charged with "extortion, abandonment of the disabled, and criminal association," and condemned to four and a half years in prison.
In psychiatry the influence of psychoanalysis was evident in the new concept of mental illness and the new therapeutic methods illustrated by Professor Franco Basaglia (1924-1980). These led to Law 180/78, which profoundly transformed the organization and function of psychiatric hospitals in Italy.
In 1982, in the presence of the president of the republic Sandro Pertini, the Fiftieth Anniversary Congress of the Foundation of the SPI was held in Rome. During the eighties, the society had followed with growing interest the legislative procedure that resulted in the passage of legislation governing psychologists and psychotherapists (Law 56/89). The legislature examined the methods of intervention and engagement with the Italian state and planned to create a "Scuola di Formazione" (Training School) according to the terms of the new law.
Two IPA congresses were held in Rome, in 1969 and in 1989, and a Congress of Romance Language Psychoanalysts, was also held in Rome (1953, 1960) and in Milan (1964). The SPI as a whole and through its members has always maintained close contacts with its sister societies, especially in England and France. At the national congresses, the tenth of which was held in Rimini in 1994, foreign colleagues were always invited to attend. Throughout the eighties an attempt was made to promote interaction among members from different cities, either through seminars held every two years in Bologna or through yearly conferences organized by the center in Palermo. There were also a number of Italian-French colloquia held nearly every year, starting in November 1989.
Among the significant events of the nineteen-nineties were the revision of the bylaws and rules of the SPI, which dated back to 1974 (1994). Under the impetus of the Site Visit Committee, presided over by Serge Lebovici, a single and unique training institute, currently established in four locations—two in Rome, one in Milan, and one in Bologna—was formed that same year. At the same time a code of professional practice was published. In 1992, a circle of members led by Emilio Servadio and Adriano Giannotti led to the creation of a study group that was recognized by the IPA in 1993 as the Associazione Italiana de Psicoanalisi (AIPsi) (Italian Association for Psychoanalysis). A series of meetings were also held concerning the relation between psychoanalysis and culture, organized annually by the commune of Lavarone under the patronage of the autonomous province of Trento and the SPI. Glauco Carloni, Michel David, Anna Maria Accerboni, and Alberto Schoen assisted in organizing the meetings. The first Italian-Spanish colloquium took place in March 1996.
The theoretical and clinical contribution of Italian psychoanalysts to psychoanalysis merits respect. Aside from the work of Outre Cesare Musatti, who began the translation of the works of Sigmund Freud (OSF, 1967-1980), other important contributions have been made by Niccola Perrotti, Emilio Servadio, Franco Fornari, Eugenio Gaddini, Francesco Corrao, and Ignacio Matte Blanco, the Chilean psychiatrist and philosopher who became a naturalized Italian citizen.
The theoretical investigations concerning the "group field" and "analytic relationship" that characterized Italian psychoanalysis in the 1980s continued into the 1990s. Initiated by analysts who defined the analytic relationship as a system, their point of extra-analytic reference was systems theory while within analysis they relied fundamentally on Freudian metapsychology. Around the same time, Francesco Corroa, a psychoanalyst from Palermo, developed the group field model, deeply influenced by Wilfred Bion. Both trends developed clinical approaches through an extensive investigation into psychoanalytic methodology and epistemology. Several representatives of the psychoanalytic center of Milan, including Nissim Momogliano, employed not only Bion's work but the Kleinian-based clinical theory of Willy Baranger. Other Milanese colleagues were influenced by American intersubjective theory, which has gained currency in Europe in recent years.
The Italian Psychoanalytic Society has centers located in ten major cities, each relatively autonomous. Two reviews chart the ongoing development of psychoanalysis in Italy: Rivista di psicoanalisila, the official publication of the IPS, and Psiche, a journal with broader cultural aims that reaches an audience of specialists in other disciplines.
Accerboni, Anna Maria (1988). Psychanalyse et fascisme: deux approches incompatibles. Le rôle difficile d'Edoardo Weiss. Revue internationale d'histoire de la psychanalyse, 1, 225-243.
Bellanova, Piero, and Bellanova, A. (1982). Le due gradive. Roma: C.E.P.I.
Contri, Giacomo (1978). Lacan in Italia. Milan: La Salamandra.
David, Michel (1966). La psicoanalisi nella cultura italiana. Turin: Boringhieri.
Novelletto, Arnaldo (1989). L'Italia nella psicoanalisi. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana.
"Italy." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/italy
"Italy." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
As in other southern European countries, in Italy, new family structures are coming into being more slowly and in a smaller measure than in northern European countries and North America. These new structures include such patterns as cohabitation, extramarital births, single parenthood, and one-person households. These countries are examples of the so-called Mediterranean model (Laslett 1983). At the same time, Italian families, as well as those of the other Mediterranean countries, have been experiencing important transformations both in dimensions and in the relationships among their members (Barbagli and Saraceno 1997).
Since 1970, Italy has witnessed great changes in family size, age at marriage, marriage stability, and birthrate (among the lowest, if not the lowest, in the world), although the pace of change has differed by region: family behaviours in north-central regions are more like those of western European countries than of southern Italian regions. People marry later and less frequently, have fewer children, divorce more often, and create new family models such as cohabitation, extramarital births, single parenthood, and one-person households.
Beyond the traditional differences between north and south are other relevant regional variations: The so-called Third Italy (Umbria, Marche, Abruzzo, Toscana, Emilia, Veneto, and Friuli) was characterized in the past by patrilocal residence and by multiple or extended family structures, while southern regions were characterized by neolocal independent residence and nuclear families, even if women married very young. The nuclear structure of southern families may be connected to the concentration of property in fiefs, and to the settling of peasants in rural towns. This is unlike Tuscany or Lombardy in the north, where peasants lived in "poderi" or "cascine" located in the fields. Both patterns were traditionally evident in northwestern regions, with nuclear families in the urban areas and extended families in the countryside. The situation changed in the last half of the twentieth century, as multiple and extended families steadily decreased all over the country. Regional differences remain, although they are less marked than before (Barbagli 2000).
Italian families maintain strong bonds over generations. Children, after leaving home to establish new families, maintain strong relationships with their parents. Usually they live very near to one of the two parental families, make daily telephone calls to their parents (mainly the mother), and visit them weekly. Their relationships with their parents typically display strong reciprocal support and exchanges, including childcare, care of the elderly and ill, help with economic troubles, loans, and advice. One of the main characteristics of Italian families is the strong intergenerational solidarity that allows Italians to overcome difficulties, find jobs, look after children, and ask for loans in situations in which the family network provides what, in other Western countries, is granted by public or private institutions. This sense of connectedness explains the great relevance that family as an institution assumes in Italian culture. To be a member of a family is what gives the individual a guarantee against any serious trouble in life, more so than being a member of any other group (C. E. R. 1999).
Marriage and Children
People in modern Italy marry less frequently and at an older age than in the past. Women get married at age twenty-seven, on average, and men at almost thirty. By the end of the twentieth century, Italians faced a new model of marriage that caused a shift forward of all the different phases of the family life cycle: later exit from the family, later achievement of independence, and later experience of parenthood.
In 1999, separations and divorce increased in the north (respectively, 5.1% and 3%) more than in the south of Italy (2.7 percent and 1.2 percent per 1,000 married couples). When couples separate or divorce, more than 90 percent of minors live in the custody of their mothers, 94 percent of those under six years of age.
Civil marriages have increased as well, (16.8 percent in 1990 and 20.3 percent in 1996), mainly because second marriages have become more common, and one cannot marry twice in the Catholic Church. Consequently, new models of cohabitation, in which one or both spouses have had a previous marriage and children, become less unusual.
The number of marriages in which one of the members of the married couple is not an Italian doubled in the 1990s, from 2.2 percent in 1989 to 5 percent in 1999. These marriages take place mainly in the north of Italy, and most involve Italian men who marry women from Eastern Europe or Latin America. Very few Italian women marry
|source: Istat, Indagini Multiscopo, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1998.|
|six or more||2.4||2.3||1.8|
foreigners, and in these cases they marry mainly European men and men from North Africa, above all Morocco.
These processes and transformations of Italian families have been accompanied by a dramatic drop in the birthrate caused by the postponement of the birth of the first child, delayed marriages, and a new trend in deciding when one wants to become a parent. In 1971 the average age of women having their first child was 25.1; in 1998 it was 28.4. Only a small minority of Italian women have more than three children, and the majority have one or two. The average number of children per woman dropped from 2.4 in 1981 to 1.2 in 1998. In 1993-94 one-child families represented 43.8 percent of the total of all families with children; in 1997–98 they represented 45.2 percent.
To understand these changes in Italian family structures, it is important to consider the changes in the relationship of women to education and employment.
Education and Gender Roles
Italian women attend high school more successfully than do Italian men, and also more frequently. In 1950 only 7 percent of girls between the ages of fourteen and seventeen went to school, while 12 percent of boys did. In 1998-99 84 percent of the girls and 81 percent of the boys attended high schools. At university level women outnumbered men by the late 1990s. The increased level of education of Italian women helps to explain the greater presence of women in the labor market. However, Italian women are still well below the levels of other European and American countries (in 1999, 35.3% of Italian women aged fifteen and older were employed outside the home).
Women's traditional role of wife and mother is no longer appealing, and young housewives perceive their situation more as a necessity than as a choice. Working mothers declare themselves more satisfied than housewives and mothers, although they are weighed down by an enormous amount of work when one adds the work in the house to the work outside: 35 percent of young working mothers spend more than seventy hours working per week, and more than half, including those who work more than seventy, work more than sixty hours per week.
Italian men contribute very little to housework and childcare. The relations between husband and wife within the family are still very traditional, with a rigid separation of gender roles. Even children are asked to do very little housework, and gender differences are still present in the expectations of sons and daughters in helping with the housework: Boys are asked and expected to do less housework, have more freedom, and are less controlled by parents than are girls.
That Italian men contribute very little to housework and childcare may partially explain why Italy is experiencing a strong reduction in the number of children per couple among young couples. Italian mothers, unlike those of other western European and Western countries, do not leave the labor market even temporarily after having a child. The rigidity of the Italian labor market makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for mothers with young children to re-enter the job market, even after only a few years out. These mothers are not attractive to employers, who prefer men or childless women. Furthermore, part-time jobs are not common, and families have serious difficulties in living on only one salary. Therefore, the reproductive strategies of Italian families have changed, drastically reducing the number of children. This is compounded by the limited participation of the husband in childrearing and housework. Typically, a woman waits to get a good job, and after which it becomes very complicated to have more than one child without giving up the job.
Marriage and maternity are delayed to accomplish different goals: graduation from high school and university and the attainment of a stable occupation. These deep transformations are visible in the data from the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat 1998) on mothers with small children. The majority of women who have at least one small baby (0-2 years old) are working mothers (47.4 percent) while 42.8 percent are housewives. In the north of Italy 63.1 percent of mothers of young children are working; in the center 54.95 percent; while in the south the figure is only 31 percent, with 53.7 percent of the mothers as housewives.
Young People Living in the Parental Family
The rise in the age at first marriage means that young people spend a longer time living in the parental family, which is favored over alternatives such as premarital cohabitation.
According to the data from the Multiscope survey "Family, Social Subjects, and Childhood Conditions" carried out in 1998 by ISTAT, only 2 percent of youths (4% of males compared to 2.5 percent of females) between the age of eighteen and thirty-four are living with a partner, 3.8 percent are living alone, and roughly 60 percent are living in the parental family, a higher percentage than in earlier years. In fact, in 1990 about 52 percent of youths in the same age group were living with their families. The experimenting of alternative family models, such as cohabitation and living alone, does not seem to attract Italian young people, who traditionally leave the parental home at the time of marriage. Prior to this, they rarely have the opportunity to live alone both because students usually attend university in the town in which their family lives and because of a lack of social policies that promote an early departure from the parental family (absence of unemployment benefits and grants to students). To this one must add the difficulty in obtaining housing caused by a lack of subsidized loans or government financing. The growth in new family structures is due, therefore above all to marital instability, and in fact one-person households are made mainly of divorced men and women.
The 1990s showed some evidence of change. There was a slight increase in the percentage of one-person households among the young. Living alone, though, involved mainly people between the ages of thirty-five and fifty-four, while the percentage of lone elders (55-75 years) decreased because both men and women were living longer.
Gender differences are striking: the great majority of nonwidowed singles are males (29.4%
|source: Multiscopo Surveys 1990, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998.|
compared to 24.3% of females) living in central and northern towns, where the percentage of divorces and separation is higher. This is because in Italy, mothers usually receive custody of their children. In the south there is a smaller percentage of singles (16.7%). Marriages are more stable in this region, which also has the highest percentage of families that include an elderly member (Cer 1999). The larger number of elderly people, mainly women, that live alone in the north does not imply an absence of family ties. Usually the single elder is well-placed in the family solidarity network, giving and receiving both material help and solidarity from younger family members. In this light, the intensity and frequency of family relationships is a forced response (Saraceno 1998) to the lack of adequate government family policies.
The need for adequate social family policies is growing. In Italy more than in other European countries, two great demographic changes are underway: a marked fertility decrease (1.2 children per woman) and a progressive aging of the population. The decrease in young people and the increase of the elderly pose serious questions on the future of health and retirement policies. In 2050 there will be two elderly citizens per young person (Cer 1999). This forecast represents a threat to the persistence of family solidarity networks: the dwindling younger generations will have difficulties meeting the needs of an increasing number of elderly family members. Presumably the increase in single elderly citizens will be a cause of increased government expenditure on health and retirement benefits, and the growth in numbers of the nonactive (those retired, or too young or old to work) versus the active population will pose a problem for the pension system.
Barbagli, M. (2000). Sotto lo stesso tetto (Under the same roof). Bologna: Il Mulino.
Barbagli, M., and Saraceno, C., eds. (1997). Lo stato delle famiglie in Italia (The characteristics of Italian families). Bologna: Il Mulino.
C. E. R (1999). La solidarietà intergenerazionale nell'ambito familiare (Intergenerarional solidarity within the family). Rome: Quaderni Cer.
Laslett, P. (1983). "Family and Household as Work Group and Kin Group." In Family Forms in Historic Europe, ed. R. Wall, J. Robin, P. Laslett. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Saraceno, C. (1998). Mutamenti della famiglia e politiche sociali in Italia (Family's change and social policies in Italy). Bologna: Il Mulino.
ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica). (1998). "Family, Social Subjects and Childhood Conditions." In Indagine multiscopo, Roma. ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica). (2000). Rapporto annuale (Annual report, 1999). Roma.
Sabbadini, L. L. (1999). "Modelli di formazione e organizzazione della famiglia" (Formation and organization patterns of Italian families). Conference Le famiglie interrogano le politiche sociali. Bologna, 29-31 March. Available from http://www.Istat.it.
"Italy." International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Official name: Italian Republic
Area: 301,230 square kilometers (116,305 square miles)
Highest point on mainland: Mont Blanc (4,807 meters/15,772 feet)
Lowest point on land: Sea level
Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern
Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT
Longest distances: 381 kilometers (237 miles) from northeast to southwest; 1,185 kilometers (736 miles) from northwest to southeast
Land boundaries: 1,932 kilometers (1,201 miles) total boundary length; Austria 430 kilometers (267 miles); France 488 kilometers (303 miles); Holy See (Vatican City) 3 kilometers (2 miles); San Marino 39 kilometers (24 miles); Slovenia 232 kilometers (144 miles); Switzerland 740 kilometers (460 miles)
Coastline: 7,600 kilometers (4,723 miles)
Territorial sea limits: 22 kilometers (12 nautical miles)
1 LOCATION AND SIZE
The southern European nation of Italy occupies a long, slender peninsula shaped like a high-heeled boot that extends southeastward into the Mediterranean Sea. The country also fans out in all directions onto the European continent, toward the neighboring countries of France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. The major islands of Sicily and Sardinia, as well as many smaller islands and archipelagos, also form part of Italy's territory. Italy has twenty administrative divisions. The tiny independent republic of San Marino is a self-contained enclave about two-thirds of the way up the eastern coast of Italy. Vatican City in Rome is another independent entity within Italian territory. Italy covers an area of 301,230 square kilometers (116,305 square miles), or slightly more than the state of Arizona.
2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES
Italy has no territories or dependencies.
Italy has considerable climatic variation, from subtropical conditions in Sicily to year-round snowcaps in parts of the Alpine region. The northern part of the country has a continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Farther south, the climate becomes Mediterranean, with cool winters; hot, dry summers; and less variation between seasons. Average January temperatures range from 2°C (35°F) in Milan (northern Po basin), to 7°C (45°F) in Rome (central part of the peninsula), to 11°C (52°F) in the Sicilian city of Taormina. Average July readings for the same cities are Milan, 24°C (75°F), Rome, 25°C (77°F), and Taormina, 26°C (79°F). Rainfall is lower in the south and higher in the north. Average annual rainfall ranges from about 50 centimeters (20 inches) in Sicily, Sardinia, and the southeast coast of the Italian peninsula to 200 centimeters (80 inches) in the Alpine regions. Rainfall is highest in the upper regions of the Alps and Apennines.
4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS
Although Italy has many different subregions, it can be divided into the following four major regions: the territory north of the peninsula; the peninsula as far south as Campagnia and Apulia; the southernmost part of the peninsula (commonly called the Mezzogiorno); and the islands. Traditionally, a broader distinction has been made between the more industrialized and "European" north region of Italy and the more rural, "Mediterranean" south.
5 OCEANS AND SEAS
Four seas surround the Italian peninsula: the Adriatic, Ionian, Ligurian, and Tyrrhenian Seas. There is almost no spot in Italy that lies farther than 120 kilometers (75 miles) from a coastline. At its deepest point, the Ionian Sea reaches a depth of 4.4 kilometers (2.75 miles), the greatest depth recorded in Mediterranean waters.
Seacoast and Undersea Features
There are 7,600 km (4, 720 miles) of coastline in Italy.
Sea Inlets and Straits
At the northern end of the Adriatic Sea is the Gulf of Venice; to the south the Strait of Otranto connects it with the Ionian Sea. The large Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea is located between the "toe" and "heel" of the Italian "boot." The narrow, funnel-shaped Strait of Messina connects the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, separating Sicily from the Calabria region, at the tip of the Italian peninsula. The Malta Channel separates Sicily from Malta, and the Sicilian Channel lies between Sicily and the Tunisian coast.
Islands and Archipelagos
With an area of 25,708 square kilometers (9,926 square miles), Sicily, located just west of the "toe" of the Italian "boot," is both Italy's largest island and the largest island in the Mediterranean. The second-largest island, Sardinia, located northwest of Sicily, is close to Sicily in size, with an area of 24,090 square kilometers (9,300 square miles). Among Italy's smaller islands are those of the Tuscan Archipelago, whose largest island is Elba, where Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled in 1814 and 1815. Other islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea include the Ponza group and the islands of Ischia and Capri off the coast of Naples. The volcanic Lipari Islands at the southern edge of the Tyrrhenian Sea are the site of Stromboli, one of Italy's three active volcanoes.
The shoreline in Liguria includes both rocky areas and level stretches of gravel. Farther south, between Tuscany and Campagnia, promontories separate expanses covered by sandy beach and dunes. The coast of Calabria, the "toe" of the Italian boot, is mostly elevated. The Salentine Peninsula, which forms the boot's "heel," is part of the lowland Apulia region. Most of the Adriatic coast is flat, with a complex system of lagoons shaping the shoreline in the area around the Po delta and the Gulf of Venice. The Venetian lagoon is Italy's largest, covering 55,039 hectares (136,000 acres).
6 INLAND LAKES
Italy has some 1,500 lakes—it has more lakes than rivers. Most are found in the Alpine foothills at the edge of the Po Valley. The largest are the Garda, Maggiore, Como, Iseo, and Lugano. In the peninsula, volcanic lakes fill the craters of extinct volcanoes. The best-known of these is Lake Bolsena, which has two islands. Other volcanic lakes include Bracciano, Vico, Albano, and Nemi. The third type of lake found in Italy is the coastal lake. This category includes Lakes Orbetello, Massaciuccoli, Fondi, Lesina, Varano, and Salpi.
7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS
Since most of Italy's many rivers flow across the narrow Italian peninsula and into the sea, most of them are short. The longest rivers are in the northern part of the country. The longest and most important is the Po River, which also has the largest basin. It traverses the northern regions nearly all the way from the French border to the Gulf of Venice. Most of its tributaries flow from the Alpine lakes of the north. Italy's second-longest river, also in the north, is the Adige, which rises in the Alps and flows south to empty into the Gulf of Venice. In the peninsula, a number of rivers cross the Marche, Abruzzi, and Molise regions, including the Reno, the most important river flowing into the Adriatic. On the western side of the peninsula, the Arno and its tributaries flow through Tuscany; the Tiber is among the rivers that flow through Latium and Campagnia. The principal river draining the southern end of the peninsula is the Bradano.
There are no notable deserts in Italy.
9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN
Plains account for around 20 percent of Italy's terrain. The most extensive plains region is the Po Basin, which covers over 44,030 square kilometers (17,000 square miles) and has an average elevation of less than 101 meters (330 feet). At the opposite end of northern Italy, on the Ligurian coast, is the narrow coastal plain of the Gulf of Genoa.
Venice is Italy's largest wetland area. The Italian peninsula includes the Tuscan plains and the Maremma marshlands farther to the south; the Roman countryside, or Campagna, on both banks of the Tiber, and its coastal extension in the form of the reclaimed Pontine Marshes; the fertile plains of the Campagnia region; and the lowlands of Apulia.
DID YOU KNOW?
The currents that blow across the Strait of Messina, between the Ionian and Tyrrhenean Seas, were personified as the monsters Scylla and Charybdis in Homer's Odyssey. Scylla was located on the Calabrian coast and Charybdis was situated on the coast of Sicily.
Italy is a hilly country—hills cover roughly as much of its terrain as mountains do (about 40 percent in each case). The majority of Italy's hills are in the peninsula, in uplands that flank the Apennines on both sides. To the west, this terrain, called the Anti-Apennines, or sub-Apennines, forms a broad band across Tuscany. In the east, hills are found in the regions of Emília-Romagna and Marche. The mountain chains that continue the Apennine system on the island of Sicily also descend to hills in the eastern part of the island.
10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES
The two principal mountain ranges are the Alps and the Apennines. The Alps, a series of roughly parallel mountain chains and massifs, are commonly divided into three ranges. The Western Alps begin a short distance west of Genoa (Genova) and sweep in a great arc to Lake Maggiore. This range includes over fifty peaks with elevations over 3,048 meters (10,000 feet): two examples are, Mont Blanc (Monte Blanco), the highest peak in both Italy and France; and Gran Paradiso (13,323 feet/4,061 meters), the highest peak entirely within Italy. The Central Alps, extending from Lake Maggiore to the Adige River, also possess more than fifty peaks over 3,048 meters (10,000 feet); in contrast to the Western Alps, however, there are valleys between the mountain ranges. The Central Alps also cover a larger area than the Western Alps and have large glaciers. The Eastern Alps cover the area from the Adige River to the Tarvis Pass on the Serbia and Montenegro border. Also called the Venetian Alps, they are subdivided into the Dolomites, the Carnic Alps, and the Julian Alps. The Dolomites have eighteen peaks over 3,048 meters (10,000 feet) high.
The Apennine system is formed not by consecutive chains, like the Alps, but by staggered sections joined by passes. They are more rounded and less elevated than the Alps. The highest summit, at Monte Corno in the Gran Sasso range, is only 2,895 meters (9,500 feet). From Liguria to Palermo, the chain forms an arc that resembles a giant, narrow, inverted letter C.
There are three active volcanoes in Italy: Mount Stromboli in the Aeolian Islands, Mount Vesuvius near Naples, and Mount Etna on the island of Sicily. Mount Etna erupted during October and November 2002. Italy also has experienced devastating earthquakes, the most recent occurring in 1997.
11 CANYONS AND CAVES
There are a few small caves of interest to explorers in Italy.
12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS
Italy does not have major plateau areas. In places where tablelands are found, such as in the sub-Apennines that border the Apen-nine chain, they are broken up by hills and mountains.
13 MAN-MADE FEATURES
A network of canals crossed by bridges crisscrosses the city of Venice, which is surrounded by a shallow lagoon in the Adriatic Sea.
14 FURTHER READING
Altman, Jack, and Jason Best. Discover Italy. Oxford, England: Berlitz, 1993.
Cahill, Susan, ed. Desiring Italy. New York: Fawcett Columbia, 1997.
Casserly, Jack. Once Upon a Time in Italy: The Vita Italiana of an American Journalist. Niwot, CO: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1995.
In Italy Online. http://www.initaly.com/ads/heritage/savers.htm (accessed April 24, 2003).
Windows on Italy. http://www.miles.cnr.it/WOI/woiindex.html (accessed April 24, 2003).
"Italy." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 2, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
"Italy." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography. . Retrieved February 02, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/italy
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
301,270sq km (116,320sq mi)
Italian 94%, German, French, Greek, Albanian, Slovenian, Ladino
Italian 94% (official), Sardinian 3%
Christianity (Roman Catholic) 83%
Euro = 100 cents
ClimateItaly has a Mediterranean climate, except for Sicily, which is subtropical. Alpine winters are long and the frequent snow is ideal for winter sports.
History and PoliticsBy tradition Romulus and Remus founded ancient Rome in 753 bc. The Etruscans were overthrown by the Romans, who established a republic (509 bc). Rome gained a Mediterranean empire from the Punic Wars. Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar, whose assassination led to the formation (27 bc) of the Roman Empire under Augustus. Diocletian divided the Empire into Eastern (Byzantine Empire) and Western sections. The papacy ensured the continuation of Rome's influence. Pepin III (the Short) expelled the Lombards, and enabled the creation of the Papal States. His son Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the West (800).
In 962, Otto IV conquered Italy and established the Holy Roman Empire. Central and n Italy were controlled by powerful city-states, while the s established a feudal system under the Hohenstaufen and Angevin dynasties. The 13th-century battle between imperial and papal power divided the cities and nobles into the Guelph and Ghibelline factions. The Renaissance profoundly affected western civilization. Italian art and architecture was an informing force across Europe.
In the 16th century, Spain gained Sicily, Naples and Milan. The French Revolutionary Wars failed to bring reunification. Nationalist groups, such as the Risorgimento, emerged. Mazzini's republicans were defeated by monarchists led by Garibaldi and the Kingdom of Italy was unified under Victor Emmanuel II (1861). The papacy refused to concede the loss of Rome, and Vatican City was set up as a sovereign state (1929). The late 19th century was marked by industrialization and empire-building. Victor Emmanuel III's reign (1900–46) saw Italy enter World War I on the Allied side (1915). Italian discontent at the post-war settlement culminated in D'Annunzio's seizure of Trieste, and the emergence of fascism. In 1922, Benito Mussolini assumed dictatorial powers. Aggressive foreign policy included the seizure of Ethiopia and Albania. In 1936, Mussolini entered an alliance with Hitler. During World War II, Italy fought on the Axis side, but after losing its North African empire, Mussolini was dismissed and Italy surrendered (1943). Germany invaded and Italy declared war. Rome fell to the Allies in 1944.
The Christian Democrat Party emerged as the dominant post-war political force, with Alcide De Gasperi as prime minister (1945–53). In 1948 Italy became a republic and was a founder member of NATO (1949) and the