CALIXTUS °, name of several popes.
calixtus ii (1119–24).
Calixtus ii first issued the bull Sicut Judaeis which served as a model for many of his successors down to the 15th century (cf. Papal *Bulls). The reason for its first issuance may have been the deteriorating status of the European Jews following the massacres perpetrated in the First Crusade. Additionally, the likelihood that anti-Jewish legislation might be adopted by the Ecumenical Council, which the pope called to meet in the Lateran Palace in 1123, may have motivated the Jews of Rome to appeal to the pope. The date of this bull may therefore have been 1122 or 1123.
calixtus iii (1455–58).
Calixtus iii displayed the anti-Jewish sentiments which characterized his native Spain in the 15th century. His coronation parade was marred by a riot over the Torah scroll which the representatives of the Jewish community were carrying in accordance with custom; the mob's attempt to rob the ornaments endangered the pope's life. In 1455 Calixtus iii objected to the proximity of the Palermo synagogue to a church. He imposed a special tax on the Jews of the Papal States to help to pay for the proposed Turkish war. In 1456 he issued a brief, revoking the privileges which some of his predecessors had extended to the Jews. However, he granted permission to establish Jewish loan banks in the duchy of Milan.
Grayzel, in: Studies… A.A. Neuman (1962), 243–80; Baron, Social2, 4 (1957), 7–8; Vogelstein-Rieger, 2 (1895), 15–16; L. Poliakov, Les banchieri juifs et le Saint-Siège (1965), 118–9.
"Calixtus°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtusdeg
"Calixtus°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtusdeg
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.