Saint John (city, Canada)
Saint John, city (1991 pop. 74,969), S N.B., Canada, at the mouth of the St. John River on the Bay of Fundy. A major year-round port, it has an excellent harbor, large dry docks, and terminal facilities and maintains extensive shipping connections with Europe, North and South America, and the West Indies. The city is the commercial, manufacturing, and transportation center of New Brunswick, though it is being challenged by Moncton. It has pulp and paper mills, oil and sugar refineries, and food-processing plants. Lumbering and fishing are important. The site was visited (1604) by Champlain, and a fort and trading post was built (1631–35) by Charles de la Tour. In the struggle between France and England for possession of Acadia, the fort was captured and recaptured several times, finally becoming British in 1758. Growth of the city dates from 1783, when a large party of Loyalists from the United States established themselves there on land grants. The settlement was called Parr Town and in 1785 was incorporated with Carleton and named St. John, becoming the first incorporated city in Canada. Benedict Arnold lived and conducted a business there from 1786 to 1791. Much of the old city was destroyed by fire in 1877. Among notable features in St. John are Market Slip (1783), the old Loyalist Burying Ground (1783), Martello Tower (fortification; built 1812), the old court house (1830), the Roman Catholic cathedral and bishop's residence (1853), the New Brunswick Mus., and the Reversing Falls rapids on the St. John River. A branch of the Univ. of New Brunswick is in the city.
Saint John (river, United States and Canada)
Saint John, river, 418 mi (673 km) long, rising in N Maine and flowing NE to New Brunswick, Canada, then SE below Edmundston, past St. Leonard, Grand Falls, Woodstock, and Fredericton to the Bay of Fundy at St. John. It forms part of the border between Maine and New Brunswick. Its chief tributaries are the Aroostook and Tobique rivers. At Grand Falls the river drops 75 ft (23 m) in a great cataract. At its mouth, within the city of St. John, are the Reversing Falls Rapids, caused by the strong tides of the Bay of Fundy, which force the river to reverse its flow at high tide. The river was visited (1604) by the French explorers Samuel de Champlain and Sieur de Monts. In the 17th and 18th cent. it was an important route for French, Native American, and English traders, and several trading posts were established on its banks. It later became a major lumber transportation route. There are major hydroelectric power plants at Grand Falls, Beechwood, and Mactaquac. The river is navigable to Fredericton. The valley of the St. John is fertile, and potatoes are raised there.
St John Chrysostom (c.347–407), bishop of Constantinople, a Doctor of the Church. He attempted to reform the corrupt state of the court, clergy, and people; this offended many, including the Empress Eudoxia, who banished him in 403. His name means ‘golden-mouthed’ in Greek. His emblem is a bee, and his feast day is 27 January.
St John of God (1495–1550), the Portuguese founder of the Brothers Hospitallers, who fought as a mercenary for Spain against the French and Turks and later worked as a shepherd and a pedlar. His feast day is 8 March.
St John of Nepomuk (c.1345–93), priest and martyr, put to death by Wenceslas IV of Bohemia by being thrown into the river Moldau. He was later regarded as a martyr for the seal of the confession, since the story grew up that he had incurred the king's anger for refusing to reveal the contents of the queen's confession. His feast day is 16 May.
St John of the Cross (1542–91), a Spanish mystic and poet. A Carmelite monk and priest, he joined with St Teresa of Ávila in founding the ‘discalced’ Carmelite order in 1568. He also wrote mystical poems. His feast day is 14 December.
Saint John, one of the Twelve Apostles, traditional author of the fourth Gospel, three letters, and the Book of Revelation (see John, Gospel according to Saint; John, letters; Revelation); it is highly unlikely, however, that all five works were written by the same author. In the Gospels he and his brother, St. James (the Greater), are identified as sons of Zebedee; Jesus called them Boanerges or Sons of Thunder. The two brothers, together with Peter, were the three apostles closest to Jesus; they witnessed the Transfiguration and accompanied Jesus to Gethsemane. John has been thought to have been the disciple "whom Jesus loved." Jesus, in his dying moments, committed Mary to John's care. He is mentioned occasionally in the Acts of the Apostles, and Paul refers to him in Galatians. According to 2d-century authorities John died at an advanced age at Ephesus (c.AD 100). However, many scholars believe that John the apostle and John of Ephesus were two different persons. He is variously called John the Evangelist, John the Divine, and the Beloved Disciple. His symbol as evangelist is an eagle.
In c.27 ad he was preaching and baptizing on the banks of the River Jordan, and among those whom he baptized was Christ; John is reported to have said, ‘I saw the Spirit descending like a dove, and it abode with him’ (John 1:32).
He was beheaded by Herod Antipas after denouncing the latter's marriage to Herodias, the wife of Herod's brother Philip, and at the request of Herodias's daughter Salome.
During his ministry John is said to have lived in the desert wearing camel's hair and eating locusts and wild honey (Matthew 3:4), and this is how he is typically represented. His feast day is 24 June.
St John was present at the Crucifixion and it was to him that care of the Virgin Mary was confided by the dying Jesus; he is traditionally identified with the beloved disciple.
He has traditionally been credited with the authorship of the fourth Gospel, Revelation, and three epistles of the New Testament.
In Christian art he is represented with a book (for the Gospel) and his symbol of an eagle; he may also be shown with a cup holding a viper, recalling the challenge to him by a priest of Diana at Ephesus to drink poisoned wine. His feast day is 27 December.
The Acts of John belongs to the New Testament Apocrypha. It is a 3rd-cent. work notable for the ‘Hymn of Jesus’ (set to music by Gustav Holst) and for colourful stories of John's later life in Ephesus.