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Denmark

DENMARK

Kingdom of Denmark

Kongeriget Danmark

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

Denmark is in Northern Europe, bordered primarily by the Baltic Sea and North Sea. It consists of the peninsula of Jutland, north of Germany, and close to 406 islands, about 80 of which are inhabited. The most populated and largest of the islands is Zealand, where the country's capital can be found; Funen; and Jutland. Denmark occupies 43,094 square kilometers (16,621 square miles), a little less than twice the size of Massachusetts. Germany shares 68 kilometers (42 miles) of border with Denmark, and the other 7,314 kilometers (4,545 miles) is coastline. In 1 July 2000, the Øresund Bridge was completed, connecting Denmark and southern Sweden. The Kingdom of Denmark also includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, and the territories of Greenland and the Faroe Islands.

POPULATION.

Denmark's population in 2000 was 5,336,394, and was projected to fall to around 5,200,000 in 2025. From the late 1960s to the present, the fertility and mortality rates have been declining. Average life expectancy at birth has increased, but it is notable that life expectancy for men and for women in Denmark is still lower than all of its neighbors, especially for women (in 1999 life expectancy for women was 78.3, while in the United States it was 80.1). The overall population growth rate has been consistently low at 0.31 percent.

The Danish population is extremely homogenous. As of 2000, 97 percent are Danes (ethnic Scandinavians), and the rest are Inuit (Eskimo), Faroese, and Germans. The proportion of elderly people in the population has been increasing as well, with the result that in 2000 only 18 percent were under 14, and 15 percent were over 65.

The population is highly urbanized, with around 85 percent living in cities. However, population density is low compared to places such as the United States and European countries farther south. It is worth noting that to be classified as "urban" in Denmark, a settlement needs only 250 people (compared to Greece, where "urban" is defined as a settlement of 10,000 or more). Urbanization has slowed in the 1990s, with some Danes reversing the pattern and moving back to rural areas.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

Denmark has a technologically advanced free-market economy, mainly involved in high value-added production such as processing and finishing products, rather than extracting and producing raw materials. Main exports are industrial products, followed by agricultural products chiefly livestock-based products such as cheese, pork, and other meats. Denmark's reliance on export trade has meant that its economy has been sensitive to fluctuations in world demand, although its generous welfare state policies since the 1960s have cushioned the population from suffering much from this volatility. Because of its geographic location, Denmark is an important distribution point for Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, England, and the rest of Europe.

Denmark's high-tech agricultural sector is the latest development in a long history of Danish farming. Before the late 1800s, Denmark's chief agricultural products were grains, but at the end of the 1800s an influx of cheap grains from the Americas and Russia caused prices to plummet. Danish farmers, supported by the government and the Folk High School Movement (a cultural and educational movement that encouraged knowledge-sharing, adult education, and agricultural research and reform, especially in rural areas), switched to livestock production, feeding their animals on the cheap grain. Danes developed an industry making processing machinery for its agricultural products. By the 1960s, industry had overtaken agriculture as the largest sector of the economy.

From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Danish economy followed a fairly regular cycle: increases in wages and benefits raised costs for firms, which led to price hikes and thus less ability to compete in foreign markets. This upset Denmark's balance of trade , as the high wages raised demands for imports, so the government would attempt to control rising consumption, usually by tightening credit and imposing a new tax. The 1970s and 1980s saw labor, political, and economic troubles as the government attempted to impose austerity measures such as harsh savings programs. Strong public opposition (including labor strikes) to various plans led to the repeated dissolution of the ruling coalition governments. After 1973, rising oil prices and the international recession led to high unemployment and low domestic demand.

External debt stayed high during the 1980s, consisting mainly of bonds bought by outside investors that required interest payments by the government. However, the extent of debt was not enough to discourage foreign investors, thus Danish business did not have to worry about financing drying up. While Denmark's balance of trade was positive from 1990 to 1997, that surplus was used to pay off the debt, which gradually fell from over 40 percent of GDP in 1990 to 24 percent in 1997. The budget deficit was not eliminated until the mid-1990s, but since then government has generally run a small surplus.

Businesses in Denmark are mainly small- and medium-sized. Over 75 percent of Danish industrial companies employ fewer than 75 people. Most farms are family-owned, a tradition that was partly supported by a law prohibiting public companies from owning farms. This prohibition was lifted in 1989. The increasing accessibility to consumers in Europe has begun to encourage Danish businesses to look at ways to supply these consumers on a larger scale, including the possibility of merging small companies together into larger ones, as well as developing networks of coordination and communication between several companies.

Across most of the political spectrum, Danes are committed to ensuring a basic level of economic equality, which has been the impetus behind the creation and maintenance of a large and generous welfare, social security, national health care, and education system. The public sector in 1999 employed close to 800,000 people, over 25 percent of the labor force . Since the 1960s, the public sector has ensured that despite economic fluctuations, everyone in Denmark has completely free access to health care and education, as well as unemployment benefits, sick leave, parental leave, and housing and childcare subsidies . Although unemployment has been one of Denmark's most persistent problems, in the new century it has fallen remarkably, to a current low of just under 6 percent.

In 2000, Denmark opted out of the final stage of the European Monetary Union (EMU), choosing to keep their own currency rather than join the euro. However, as the krone is closely tied with the euro, the Danish economy is not autonomous. Arguments against the EMU in Denmark mainly accentuate the need to retain political autonomy. These opponents stress that integration into the EMU could result in a threat to Denmark's commitment to economic equality and the environment, especially if Danish businesses were required to compete with those based in countries which do not require them to comply with similar environmental or labor regulations.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

Queen Margarethe II is officially the head of state, but actual power resides in the prime minister and his or her cabinet (called "the government" in Denmark and virtually all other parliamentary systems, and similar to a U.S. "administration") and the Folketing (the parliament). The Queen formally appoints the prime minister and the cabinet, but this appointment is always the result of behind-the-scenes maneuvering and coalition-building after a general election. The prime minister is accountable to the Folketing for his or her actions. Most ministers have their own ministries, (such as the Ministry of Finance or the Ministry of the Environment), but some individual ministers may be selected without being assigned to a specific ministry. Legislation is created cooperatively by the Folketing and the government. Proposals for laws are considered twice in the Folketing, and if approved, must then be approved by the Queen and the government. The Queen is not independent from the government in approving legislation, but rather acts under its advice.

The Folketing has 179 seats; members are elected by proportional representation (voters elect parties rather than individuals, that receive a number of seats in the legislature proportional to the percentage of votes received). This system encourages the proliferation of political parties that may form coalitions not only to form governments, but to pass legislation in the Folketing. The prime minister can call an election at any time in the hopes of gaining more seats for the ruling coalition. And as in virtually all parliamentary systems, new elections may be called if there is a vote of no confidence in the Folketing, although this has not happened since 1909. The minimum level of popular support necessary for a party to be represented in the Folketing is 2 percent (corresponding to 3 or 4 seats), and 2 seats each are reserved for representatives from the Faroe Islands and Greenland.

Like much of Scandinavia, Denmark has a good record on women's representation in government and politics at both the local and national levels. In the government in the year 2000, 35 percent of cabinet ministers were women, as were 37 percent of the Folketing (compared with the United States in 2000, where women were 41.4 percent of the cabinet but only 12 percent of Congress).

Since 1973, there have been 10 major political parties. Underlying all but the most extreme right wing of the parties is the Nordic emphasis on the importance of economic equality, ensured by strong social welfare programs. The issue of whether or how to join the European Community has been important to all the parties over the past 20 years, but does not divide them according to traditional "right-left" alignments.

The parties in the government in 2001 were elected in March 1998. The ruling coalition is comprised of the Social Democratic Party (65 seats), the Socialist People's Party (13 seats), the Radical Liberal Party (7 seats), and the Unity Party (5 seats); in the opposition are the Liberal Party (43 seats), the Conservative Party (17 seats), the Danish People's Party (13 seats), the Center Democratic Party (8 seats), the Christian People's Party (4 seats), and the Progress Party (4 seats).

The Social Democrats and Socialist People's Party do not wish Denmark to rely solely on market forces to organize the economy, and place a priority on equalizing income distribution and living standards. Trade unions are especially associated with the Social Democrats. The Radical Liberals (Det Radikale Venstre) are to the right of Social Democrats, and want to curb public spending, lower income tax rates for high earners, and reduce benefits for the unemployed. The Unity Party or Unity List is an alliance of far-leftist and environmental groups, to the left of the Social Democrats.

The Conservative Party (CP) has been generally gaining in popularity since the mid-1970s, although its peak was in the 1980s. Representing especially the interests of business and property owners, the Conservatives emphasize the rights of ownership while trying to reduce power of trade unions. While still supporting a welfare state, the CP wants to limit public spending on social programs, but increase spending on defense. The CP is fairly pro-European integration. The Liberal Party (Venstre) is close to but more extreme than the conservatives in wishing to reduce government spending and power, and are strongly pro-European integration. The Danish People's Party (DPP) is a nationalist party for ethnic Danes, against immigration and suspicious of refugees. They are strongly anti-European integration, although they support free trade and market-based agricultural policy. The DPP are for social welfare programs, but only for Danish citizens, and also support abolishing or greatly reducing property, inheritance, and other taxes. The Center Democratic Party wants fewer taxes, especially for individuals. They do support social welfare programs and are also pro-Europe. The Christian People's Party (CPP) was formed in response to the late-1960s legalization of abortion laws and lessening of restrictions on pornography, both of which they oppose. They want to decentralize political decisions, avoid special interests, and emphasize protecting the environment and quality of life. They have historically had a small share of popular vote, usually just above the 2 percent threshold required for representation in the Folketing. The Progress Party (PP) was founded in 1990, an extreme right-wing party with a reputation for unruliness. Their main platform is to abolish income taxes and greatly reduce government spending, and to restrict immigration. Against joining the European Union, their arguments often alienate more tolerant Danes, while some of their leaders and members have espoused more explicitly racist attitudes. Many of the other parties are reluctant to form a coalition with them.

In 1997, the public sector employed around a quarter of the workforce, and provided health care, welfare, social security, education, and administration of the government. Government-owned businesses are also still important to the economy, although there has been increasing privatization in recent years. Recently privatized businesses include a life insurance company (now totally private), the national telecommunications company TeleDanmark (totally private), Copenhagen Airport (now 49 percent private), and the computer services company Datacentralen, 75 percent of which was sold to the U.S.-based Computer Sciences Corp. The large Postal Service and Danish State Railroads companies have also been turned into private companies, although the government actually owns these firms. Some other public services such as sanitation, cleaning, and catering to public institutions are also being privatized.

The value-added tax (VAT) is the main source of government revenue, accounting for over one-quarter of total revenue in 1998. At 25 percent, it is one of the highest VAT rates in the world. Income tax is also high. In 1999, the marginal income tax rate was 40 percent for taxable incomes up to $21,500, while the highest bracket was about 60 percent for taxable incomes of more than $37,000. In 2001, 40 percent of all Danes in full-time employment were in the highest tax bracket. The Danish government, fearing an economic slowdown, is beginning to shift its tax burden somewhat away from individual incomes. "Green taxes" on pollution and to enforce environmental regulations are expected to make up some of the difference, and are already generating significant revenues; in 1995 over 8 percent of tax revenue came from environmentally-related taxes (over 2 percent of GDP). In the same year in the United States, only 4 percent of tax revenues came from environmentally-related taxes (less than 1 percent of GDP).

Even though most Danes must give almost half of their salaries to the government as income tax, they get most of it back in the form of free, high-quality health care, education, and transfer payments . For example, in 1996, 47 percent of the DKr386 billion collected by the national government was returned to the public in the form of transfer payments such as unemployment and sickness benefits, old-age pensions and housing subsidies. Some 60 percent of all government revenues from taxes in 1996 were spent on the health service, while transfer payments accounted for 40 percent of total public revenues (22 percent of GDP).

At 32 percent, corporate taxes are high. Denmark plans to reduce them to 26 percent by 2002. However, contrary to many economists' predictions, Denmark's high corporate tax rate has not discouraged foreign investment. In a surprising situation that suggests that there must be multiple reasons why foreign companies choose to invest, Denmark in 1997 showed an increase in foreign investment that was an amazing 308 percental-most 10 times that of the European Union as a whole.

The Danish currency is pegged in a fixed exchange rate with the euro, so interest rates nearly always follow the European Central Bank. This relationship changed slightly after the referendum in 2000 when the Danes narrowly voted to reject the last stage of the EMU and keep their own separate currency. After the referendum, the Danish national bank raised its interest rates, which encouraged people to borrow less (since interest on loans was higher), and thus reduced the amount of money in circulation. As money became scarcer, its value increased, and the bank prevented the krone from devaluation . However, the krone has never been allowed to fluctuate beyond the level allowed by the exchange rate mechanism (ERM).

Denmark was the first country to establish a Ministry for the Environment, in 1972. Danes spend more per capita on environmental protection than most nations in the world. This has also inspired the development of a local industry of pollution control equipment, which is now a significant international force. This environmental focus has also affected the Danes' relation to European integration. Many have feared that joining the European Union (EU) would require them to lower their standards of environmental protection in order to remain in line with the other EU nations. Other than environmental protection laws, there are few regulatory controls on the economy.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Denmark has a thoroughly modern and extensive infrastructure . Its numerous islands have encouraged the development of a network of ferry services in domestic waters with 415 kilometers (258 miles) of waterways. A well-maintained road and rail network includes 71,437 kilometers (44,388 miles) of highways (including 843 kilometers, or 524 miles, of expressways), and 2,859 kilometers (1,773 miles) of railways which serve almost every town. Some 508 kilometers (316 miles) of the railways are privately owned, while the rest are owned by the state.

In cities, environmental concerns have encouraged bicycle riding for all. Urban traffic is minimized by legislation requiring nearly all new shops be built within the existing commercial centers of cities, towns, and villages. Additionally, most new workplaces are required to be a short walking distance from a transit stop. Shops, offices, and factories must make accommodations for bicyclists and pedestrians. As a result, in 1998 less than one-third of travel within cities was via cars and trucks, and motorized traffic in the city centers had increased very little over the past 25 years.

As of 1999, Denmark had one of the world's highest density air networks, with 28 paved-runway and 90 unpaved-runway airports. Air service for Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is provided by Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS). Copenhagen Airport was voted "World's Best Airport of 2000" by the International Air Transport Organization, the same year that also saw the completion of the 7.8-kilometer Øresund bridge linking Denmark with Sweden.

Danes consumed 33.03 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity in 1998, importing 2.68 billion kWh, and exporting 7.1 billion kWh. Most of the imported fuel is coal, which in 1998 amounted to 6.3 million tons. Denmark is shifting further away from coal use, as the 1998

Communications
Country Newspapers Radios TV Sets a Cable subscribers a Mobile Phones a Fax Machines a Personal Computers a Internet Hosts b Internet Users b
1996 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999
Denmark 309 1,141 585 248.4 364 N/A 377.4 540.30 1,500
United States 215 2,146 847 244.3 256 78.4 458.6 1,508.77 74,100
Germany 311 948 580 214.5 170 73.1 304.7 173.96 14,400
Norway 588 915 579 160.1 474 50.0 373.4 754.15 2,000
aData are from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.
bData are from the Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org) and are per 10,000 people.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

figure is 60 percent lower than it was just 2 years earlier. Since the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the 1960s, Denmark was self-sufficient in oil production by the 1980s. In 1998 oil production was 238.35 million barrels per day (bpd) with exports of 8.98 million bpd, while natural gas production was 267.68 billion cubic feet (bcf), and exports were 95.35 bcf. The state owns significant shares in both oil and natural gas extraction, although the giant Maersk/A.P. Møller Corporation is also a dominant figure. Overall, in 1998 Denmark generated 4.27 billion kWh of electricity. Fossil fuel from its own reserves accounted for 90.8 percent of this electricity, hydroelectric power for 0.07 percent, and the remaining 9.13 percent was generated by other means, including wind power. Denmark has, since 1980, banned nuclear power, and focuses much research and development on conservation and alternative energy sources.

Denmark has an excellent telecommunications system based on 3.20 million telephone lines (1995). Cellular phone ownership increased by 304 percent from 1993 to 1997, and in 1999, such telephones were owned by 49 percent of the population, including nearly every person between ages 17-25. Cell phone ownership per capita in 1997 was 190 per 1,000, as compared to the U.S. figure of 128 per 1,000. Denmark's burgeoning IT services industry is supported by high Internet connectivity; 90 percent of all businesses use some aspect of the Internet. The Danish government has strongly supported the development of personal as well as business Internet use. In January of 2001, the prime minister announced that the government intends to provide all households in Denmark with access to the Internet, while at that time nearly 50 percent of all households with a computer were already connected.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

In modern Denmark, the economic sectors of agriculture and industry are so closely linked that it is difficult to separate their influences. Both food and wood-based industries such as paper depend heavily on agriculture for raw materials while using sophisticated technology to process them. In addition, agricultural production itself is quite technologically advanced. The agricultural sector's highly technical nature means that its great productivity is generated by a small fraction of the total workforce4 percent in 2000. In contrast, well over two-thirds of the workforce was employed in the service sector in the same year.

Agriculture in Denmark also includes forestry and fishing. The agricultural industry was Denmark's first engine of growth, especially its livestock production and forestry industry. Agriculture's economic influence relative to other sectors has basically been declining; by the 1960s, industry had surpassed it in terms of employment and percentage of GDP, and by 2000 agriculture made up 3 percent of GDP. Despite the small size of Denmark's agricultural sector today, it is comparatively highly productive, accounting for around 15 percent of exports in 1999. In 1998, Denmark was the world's seventh-largest producer of pork, while the Danish fishing industry was the second-largest in Europe.

The lack of raw materials other than agriculture (until the discovery of oil and natural gas in the 1960s), meant Denmark's industries developed as secondary production and processing concerns, usually specializing in narrowly-defined fields. This has led to the predominance of small-or medium-sized firms making niche products, often with a high-tech or design focus. For example, in a small design-oriented field such as furniture making, Denmark excelsin 1998 accounting for 20 percent of furniture exports by EU countries. The complexity and versatility of this organization of the industry has somewhat sheltered the Danish manufacturing industry from fluctuations in the world market. Alongside food processing and agro-industry, chemicals and engineering are important industries, and electronics are increasing in significance. Denmark's position in the North Sea has led to the development of a strong shipbuilding sectorit is currently the world's third-largest shipbuilder after Japan. The general trend in the manufacturing industry is that work-and material-intensive industries such as food processing, textiles, and metals decline or stagnate, while knowledge-and technology-based industries such as chemicals, electronics, and engineering have been expanding. Industry contributed about one-quarter of GDP in 2000. The sophisticated technology of much of Denmark's industrial sector has meant that high or increasing productivity does not always correspond with high or increasing employment. Over the past decade, the percentage of the workforce employed in manufacturing has remained fairly constant at around 25 percent.

In 2000, Denmark's services sector contributed more than two-thirds of GDP. Private services accounted for around two-thirds of productivity, and public services the remaining one-third. However, many private services are in fact subcontracted to public institutions. The majority of public services are in health, welfare, and administration. In the service sector as a whole, business services and wholesale/ retail trade accounted for the most productivity growth. Wholesale and retail trade is the largest employer in private services, in 1997 accounting for a little over half of service sector employment. Between 1992 and 1998, the service sector saw a 12 percent increase in employment. Public services have consistently accounted for nearly one-third of employment in services (mostly in health and education) over the past decade, while telecommunications and business services have slowly increased their share of employment.

AGRICULTURE

Denmark is the only country in the Baltic region with a net export of agricultural products, producing 3 times the amount of food it needs for itself. A good percentage of arable land and moderate climate has been conducive to agriculture, but the sector's extremely advanced technology and infrastructure are what have made it so productive in recent years. Although agriculture's role in the Danish economy has steadily decreased as industrialization and economic development has progressed, it is still essential as a source of foreign currency, a direct and indirect source of jobs, and as a supply of everyday foodstuffs.

The increasing mechanization of agriculture, combined with changes in farm management and organization, plus the draw of industrial employment in the cities, has meant fewer people are required to farm ever-increasing quantities of land. Farm sizes have increased, and the number of individual farms has dropped dramatically since the 1950s. From the 1970s into the 1990s, 2,600 individual holdings disappeared every year, absorbed into larger farms. In the first half of the 20th century Denmark had around 200,000 individual farms, averaging 16 hectares in size; by 1997, there were about 60,900 farms averaging 43.6 hectares. Family-run farms are still dominant in Denmark, where even in 1997, some 91 percent of farms were family-owned and run, 7 percent company-owned, and the rest owned by the state, local authorities, and foundations. Along with increasing farm size, the typical farmer has to an increasing extent concentrated on one sole branch of farming, and specialization in animal production has led to fewer types, but larger numbers, of livestock.

In 1996, primary forestry occupied approximately 3,000 employees, while forestry formed the basis for most of the work for around 34,000 employees in the wood manufacturing industry. Denmark is Europe's primary supplier of Christmas trees. Profits from forestry have historically been invested both in modernization of the industry and in investment in other industries. The state is the largest owner of forests, with one-third of forested land under its control. The rest is owned by a multitude of private companies, individuals, and institutions.

In the early 1990s, Denmark was among the top 10 to 15 fishing nations in the world, catching 1.6 million tons in 1993. Industrial fishing (catching fish for industrial use, i.e. producing fish meal and fish oil) has been the most important branch of fishing with a total catch in 1993 of 1.2 million tons. In 1993, the export value of the fishing industry was around DKr10 billion, corresponding to some 4 to 5 percent of Denmark's total exports.

Environmental legislation has been on the increase in the past decade, some of which has directly affected productivity. For example, the greater emphasis on forests and parks has meant that some land had to be turned away from farming use. New restrictions on waste disposal and contamination have also forced some farmers to limit or end production.

INDUSTRY

MANUFACTURING.

In 1996, 45 percent of the manufacturing industry's total production went to export, corresponding to 75 percent of total exports. Mechanical engineering production, especially of electronic goods, was an increasing proportion of the sector's value, and also created some 12,400 new jobs between 1980 and 1996. Nearly all Danish electronics production is exported, including products such as measuring instruments, microphones, equipment for tele-and radio communication, computer networks, power units, engine controls, and hearing aids. Food, drink, and tobacco production/processing, by contrast, has declined between 1993 and 1997 from around 30 percent to around 25 percent of production in manufacturing. The Carlsberg beer company is the most significant producer of beverages, in 1998 having a turnover of DKr29.3 billion and employing 20,500 workers. The largest employers in manufacturing are the makers of metal products, machinery, and equipment; the food-processing industry (bacon factories, dairies, corn mills, and breweries); the paper and graphic industries; and manufacturers of transport equipment, especially shipbuilding. A significant percentage of workers are also employed making wood and wood products.

CHEMICALS.

The chemical industry has also grown through the last decade, and in 1999 accounted for 24 percent of all chemical production in the EU. Denmark, in 1996, was the world's second-largest per capita exporter of pharmaceuticals, with exports valued at almost DKr15 billion. Novo Nordisk, despite its status as one of the largest chemical companies, is still in many ways typical of Danish industrial style: a high-tech, highly-specialized firm, investing heavily in research (in this case on insulin, hormones, and enzymes), exporting 98 percent of its products.

ELECTRICITY, COAL, GAS, AND OIL.

Denmark is the third-largest oil producer in Western Europe, in 1998 producing 233.35 million barrels per day (bpd) of petroleum, while in the same year natural gas reserves produced 267.69 billion cubic feet (bcf) per year. Natural gas exports at that time were over 95 bcf per year, primarily to Sweden and Germany. Danish oil and gas production in 1998 was worth just over DKr30 million. In 1999, the energy and water industries together employed 17,000 people. Maersk/A.P. Møller, the largest company (of any kind) in Denmark, is heavily involved in oil production, although it began as a shipping concern. Statoil (owned by the state of Norway), and the American-based multinational Amerada Hess are the other significant operators in this industry. At the end of the century, Denmark was still opening up new areas of the North Sea for exploration, and it is possible that new reserves will be discovered. The government retains its shares in some oil industries, and licenses the right to explore and extract.

CONSTRUCTION.

The construction industry illustrates the trend of a decline in work-intensive manufacturing. Devastated in the 1970s and 1980s by a severe fall in house building, production, and employment in this construction fell considerably and stayed low through the late 1990s. The value of construction products fell from 12 percent of GDP in 1972 to 6 percent in 1996. Over that time, employment fell by 43,000. The building and construction industry is mainly made up of small companies in which independent (paid) and assisting (unpaid) spouses constitute a relatively large proportion of those employed. The rapid decline in this sector in Denmark has in the first half of the 1990s led to the industry being more export-oriented, partly through Danish firms increasing activity in Germany. Construction has shifted somewhat from mainly making new buildings (which had accounted for 47 percent of its work in 1970) to a greater focus on repairs and maintenance, which grew from 23 percent in 1970 to 38 percent of construction work in 1999. New building construction in that time frame fell to 32 percent.

SERVICES

TOURISM.

In 1997, 2.2 million tourist arrivals in Denmark were recorded (a 4 percent increase from 1993). In 1999, tourism generated around DKr44 billion in revenues, an increase of 1 million from the year before. This made it the third-largest sector after industry and agriculture. The attractions most visited by tourists are Tivoli Gardens (Copenhagen), Lego Land (Billund), Hans Christian Andersen's House and Museum (Odense), and the Viking Ship Museum (Roskilde). Old manor houses and castles are also popular destinations, while Copenhagen harbor was in 2000 one of the most popular stops on European cruises.

Tourism employed over 70,000 (1999) people full-time in the facilities described above, as well as 650 hotels, 30 inns, 525 registered campsites, and over 100 youth hostels. In 1998, the Danish Ministry of Business and Industry, SAS, the Danish Tourist Council, and other tourism interest groups joined forces with local authorities to promote Denmark as a tourist destination for businesspeople and wealthy weekend tourists from the United States, Germany, Southern Europe, Sweden, and Russia. The 3-year international marketing project was estimated to cost a total of US$7.7 million, of which SAS was to pay US$4 million, the Ministry of Business and Industry US$1.3 million, and the rest will come from various municipalities.

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE.

Employment in the service sector is dominated by the wholesale and retail trades, with 441,000 people in 1998. However, employment has declined since the 1970s, as the sector has seen considerable vertical integration (an overall integration of retail, wholesale, and in certain cases production sectors). Moreover, 1980s-era mergers within the sector (horizontal integration) have marked both areas, leaving wholesale and retail highly concentrated (with a few firms dominating the market). In 1995, 4 percent of firms accounted for about 75 percent of the total turnover. In 1998, there were 8 wholesalers operating domestically, the largest 2 of which were Maersk and the cooperative FDB, which together accounted for 61 percent of the market in 1998. Total transactions in 1998 amounted to US$10.7 billion. In retail, even though a few large players dominate the industry as a whole, there are still a large number of small shops; 3 out of 4 retail shops are one-person businesses, while the remainder are mainly small companies or cooperatives.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS.

Growth in postal and telecommunications services was larger than any other business sector; from 1992 to 1998 productivity grew by 44 percent. Deregulation of the industry, beginning in 1986, paired with strong research and development supported by the government allowed firms to take advantage of new technologies. However, technological advances have meant that growth was not accompanied by much of a rise in employment, which in 1996 was 45,000 people, the same as in 1986. The major telecommunications companies are at least partly-owned by foreign companies. TeleDanmark, in which Ameritech (U.S.) owns a controlling interest, and Sonofon cellphones, almost half of which is owned by Bellsouth (U.S.), together account for over 75 percent of the market.

FINANCIAL SERVICES.

Between 1989 and 1996 there was a one-third decline in the number of domestic bank and financial institution branches. This was mainly due to Denmark's banks being burdened by a number of bad debts in the early 1990s. Since 1994, the improvement in both Denmark's economy and the banks' lending policies has contributed to more stability in the industry, along with a number of consolidations among the country's banks. The reduction of branches of institutions coincided with a 14 percent decline in the number of employees over the same 7 years. In 1998, Denmark had 95 banks with assets of US$216 billion, while total assets of the 5 largest banks totaled US$179 billion, over 80 percent of total banking sector assets. The 2 largest banks, Den Danske Bank and Unidanmark-Gruppen, also operate as financial "supermarkets" offering a wide range of financial services, and account for 50 percent of the financial service market. Danish banks are technologically sophisticated, and have invested heavily in computers and the development of electronic transfer systems, in 1998 adopting one of the first nationwide electronic payment card systems (Dankort). Employment in business services has been increasing throughout the last decade; by 1999, 326,000 people worked in the financial services sector, with Den Danske bank employing 11,409 people, and Unidanmark-gruppen employing 9,960.

TRANSPORTATION.

Road transport, both trucking/hauling and personal transport such as taxi services, dominates the domestic transportation sector. Road transport in 1996 generated just under half of the total revenues from the transport sector, while the remaining value was divided among other types of the transport: shipping (16 percent), railways (11 percent), and aviation (7 percent). The transport sector created around 9 percent of Denmark's GDP and 7 percent of total employment in 1996. Activity in the sector as a whole has risen steadily and at a faster rate than overall productivity since the 1980s. Production value in the sector rose by 74 percent between 1986-1996. In 2000, over half of Danish international trade was by road, and most of the remainder by sea. Denmark's increasing expertise in making high-tech liner and tanker ships has helped the shipping sector in recent years. Shipping accounts for most of Denmark's international freight traffic, and the country's almost 600-vessel merchant fleet is the fourth-largest in the European Union. Denmark's Maersk shipping line bought the U.S.-based Sea-Land Services in 1999 to become the largest container shipping line in the world.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Denmark is one of the most trade-oriented economies in the world. As a base for exporting, Denmark has many advantages. Its key location as the only Scandinavian country connected to mainland Europe, plus its position on the Baltic sea, gives it access to lucrative markets for both EU and non-EU countries. Its extensive infrastructure and well-educated, high-skilled workforce also help promote trade and foreign investment.

Germany is currently Denmark's most important export destination, followed by Sweden and the United Kingdom. Exports to these 3 countries totaled 41.7 percent of Danish exports in 1997. The United States is the largest trading partner outside the EU, and accounted for almost 5 percent of Denmark's total trade value in 1997. Over one-third of Danish industrial exports are machines and instruments, while pharmaceuticals, energy (especially oil), meat, and meat products make up the rest.

Trade (expressed in billions of US$): Denmark
exports Imports
1975 8.712 10.368
1980 16.749 19.340
1985 17.090 18.245
1990 35.133 32.228
1995 49.036 43.223
1998 47.070 44.994
SOURCE: International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1999.

Denmark's main imports are raw materials and unfinished products that are used in its own industrial sector. In 1997, imports for the industrial sector were about 70 percent of total imports, while the rest were consumer products, including cars. Of the services imported, computer software and management consulting are very important. Imports from Germany, Sweden, and the UK account for 42 percent of total imports.

The early 1990s were a difficult time for Danish international trade as its 3 most important marketsGer-many, the UK, and Scandinaviawere all performing sluggishly. More recently trade has increased, especially due to a depreciation of the Danish krone. The krone is expected to remain stable through the next few years, which may reduce the growth in exports. However, Denmark is currently exporting more than it imports in all 3 sectors: industry, agriculture, and services.

MONEY

Since the 1980s, Denmark has pursued a fixed exchange rate linked to the German mark. On 1 January 1999, monetary policy was linked to the new European Central Bank. In September 2000, Denmark opted out of the European Monetary Union's (EMU) third phase (establishment of a joint EU currency and relinquishment of jurisdiction over monetary policy), although the country's economic performance exceeds the established criteria for membership. This was due to resistance on the right, especially from nationalist groups who wish to retain the Danish currency and not tie its economy so closely to that of Europe, and equal resistance on the left, where many fear that equalizing human rights and environmental regulations with the EU will chip away at the Danish welfare state and its environmentally-conscious business practices.

The National Bank of Denmark (Danmarks Nation-albanken) is the only bank of issue in the country and enjoys a special status as a self-governing institution under government supervision. Profits in the National Bank

Exchange rates: Denmark
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1
Jan 2001 7.951
2000 8.083
1999 6.976
1998 6.701
1997 6.604
1996 5.799
Note: The Danes rejected the Euro in a September 28, 2000 referendum.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].

revert to the state treasury. Although Denmark has retained its own currency, separate from the EU, its currency is so closely tied to the euro that monetary policy often closely follows the European Central Bank. The National Bank lends to smaller banks and to the central government, and is responsible for administration of the foreign exchange policy.

The Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) was established in the capital in 1861, and in 1999 had 233 listed companies. At the end of 1999 its market capitalization was US$105.29 billion. The CSE was a pioneer in computerized trading, being the first in the world to introduce electronic bonds and shares.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

The Gini Index measures the level of income inequality in a country, with 100 equal to total inequality (basically one person receiving all the income), and 1 indicating total equality (everyone having exactly the same income).

Raija Julkunen, a lecturer on social policy at the University of Jyväskylä, describes the differing U.S. and Nordic attitudes towards the role of the state: "American culture conceives citizenship and welfare as diametrically opposed, as if state-ensured welfare did not go along with a free society. In the Nordic countries, on the other hand, the notion of a welfare state has a positive ring to it. Only social rightsguaranteed minimum income, employment, education, health caremake citizens free and equal." The Nordic approach has succeeded in that there is virtually no poverty in Denmark.

Denmark's extensive social welfare system has existed in its current form since the 1960s, but has roots in Danish culture back to the 1930s. Because of Danes' long-standing preoccupation with economic equality, there is less of a difference between Denmark's high-in-come and lowest-income citizens than in the United States or many other countries. People who work in restaurants or cleaning buildings have free access to the same quality of healthcare as those who are lawyers, professors, or accountants. They have paid holidays, maternity

GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1975 1980 1985 1990 1998
Denmark 22,984 25,695 29,332 31,143 37,449
United States 19,364 21,529 23,200 25,363 29,683
Germany N/A N/A N/A N/A 31,141
Norway 19,022 23,595 27,113 28,840 36,806
SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.
Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage Share: Denmark
Lowest 10% 3.6
Lowest 20% 9.6
Second 20% 14.9
Third 20% 18.3
Fourth 20% 22.7
Highest 20% 34.5
Highest 10% 20.5
Survey year: 1992
Note: This information refers to income shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita income.
SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].

and paternity leave, sick leave, and unemployment benefits.

All families with children under 18 receive, irrespective of income, family allowances consisting of a regular, tax-free amount per child, with a higher rate for children under 7 years of age. Bread-winners who are single parents or pensioners can receive additional allowances per child. Families with children are entitled to free home help if the person who has the responsibility for the home and the children cannot manage it on account of, for instance, illness or confinement. Among other things, families living in rented accommodation can, depending on family income and the size of the rent, receive a housing benefit (in December 1998, there were 169,000 recipients).

According to sociologists Jens Hoff and Jorgen Goul Andersen in their article "The Danish Class Structure" in Acta Sociologica (1989), the concept of class is difficult to compare between countries with this kind of social system and countries such as the UK, the United States, or in less-developed countries. Class in Denmark is tied less to things like income and healthcare, and more to location, profession, and the kind of work engaged in, i.e. the amount of control over one's own responsibilities. Much of the Danish labor force works without much individual control over workplace decisions, without supervising others, and without much autonomy. This might make them working class by some definitions. However, these workers' quality of life is still very high by most standards, underscoring the impression that in Denmark, there is a lack of status distinctions between those who have high-skill or low-skill jobs.

One facet of the Danish welfare model has been the belief that benefits should not be tied to the kind of job one has, or whether someone is working or not. This approach has proven problematic as the country continually struggles with its unemployment rateespecially among the young. Critics argue that there is not enough incentive for people to choose to be employed rather than collect unemployment money. However, proposals of dramatic reductions in benefits are political suicide, as Danes are wary of what they might see as the sacrifice of a commitment to equality.

WORKING CONDITIONS

In 1999, the Danish workforce numbered 2.89 million, while the unemployment rate was 5.7 percent. The labor force is shrinking in Denmark. This is partly due to the aging of the population, as more workers retire than enter the workforce each year. High income taxes combined with generous unemployment assistance also may dissuade many, especially young workers, from entering the work-force. The government is currently attempting to restructure its taxation system to change this picture, shifting the burden of taxation away from individual income.

The standard working week is 37 hours, with a minimum of 5 weeks mandatory vacation. Three-quarters of those in employment have a 5-day work week, while those out sick may be paid up to 90 percent of their wage (with a maximum of DKr2,556 per week).

Danish laws guarantee the right of workers to organize and all (except civil servants and essential service

Household Consumption in PPP Terms
Country All Food Clothing and footwear Fuel and power a Health care b Education b Transport & Communications Other
Denmark 16 6 11 3 17 5 43
United States 13 9 9 4 6 8 51
Germany 14 6 7 2 10 7 53
Norway 16 7 11 5 4 6 51
Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.
aExcludes energy used for transport.
bIncludes government and private expenditures.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

workers) have the right to strike, as well as the right to bargain collectively. The government stands behind these rights, does not interfere with unions, and prohibits anti-union discrimination by employers. More than 75 percent of all wage earners are organized in trade unions, as are about the same percentage of salaried employees, and collective bargaining is very common. Strikes are also rather common; in 1997, 101,700 workdays were lost due to labor conflict.

Mothers get extensive maternity leave4 weeks prior to the birth of a child, and up to 24 weeks after while fathers get paternity leave of 2 weeks after the birth. From the fifteenth week after the birth the mother can transfer all or a portion of her remaining maternity leave to the father. A tax-free benefit (known as the "children's check") is paid to the parents of all children 7 to 18 years old regardless of the household income. Denmark's child-care system enables either or both parents to work outside the home. In 1994, 80.3 percent of 3 to 6 year-olds were in childcare, (compared to 57.4 percent 10 years earlier). Women who used to be expected to care for their own children no longer face the same demand; in Denmark women's rate of participation in the workforce is very highin 1995 89 percent that of men. In the same year women's salaries were 88.1 percent of men's.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1871. Denmark's socialist movement is officially founded, the start of a strong and diverse socialist tradition influencing Danish politics in the years to come.

1901. Change of political system to a constitutional monarchy, creating the Government (body of ministers selected by the queen) and the Folketing (representatives elected by the people).

1914-18. Denmark remains neutral during World War I.

1915. Constitutional reform; women and servants are enfranchised.

1933. Social reform movement begins, expanding the welfare and education system.

1940. Denmark occupied by Germany during World War II.

1941. United States establishes military bases in Greenland (with Danish ambassador's approval).

1945. Denmark liberated from Germany at the end of World War II.

1948. Faroe Islands, until this time part of Denmark, are granted home rule, which allows them control over domestic policy.

1949. Denmark joins North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a strategic military alliance of Western European and North American non- communist nations.

1960. Denmark joins European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA), which reduces or eliminates barriers to trade (such as tariffs ) between participants.

1967. Pornographic text and photography (excluding photos of children) is legalized, a sign of Denmark's progressive/permissive social attitudes; however, response to this and the stance on abortion leads to the founding of the Danish Christian People's Party.

1973. Compulsory National Health Insurance set up (replacing sickness benefits fund).

1973. Denmark joins the European Economic Community (EECan organization of states that lowered barriers to trade between them).

1976. Social Assistance Act introduces a unified structure of public assistance and benefits, partly needs-based.

1979. Greenland, formerly part of Denmark, is granted home rule.

1985. Greenland leaves EEC over fears of EEC regulations' effects on its fishing industry.

1985. Denmark joins the European Union.

2000. Danes reject final stage of European Monetary Union (EMU) in a referendum.

FUTURE TRENDS

Danish manufacturing remains a strong base for growth, especially as research and development help support its further extension into high-tech industry. The Danish government's support for the growing use of Internet services for both businesses and individuals bodes well for Danish flexibility and responsiveness to global market trends. Public investment in education, particularly in relation to computers and computing, also supports prospects for growing computer-related services.

Unemployment has been reduced for the present, but the main mechanism was to shrink the size of the work-force through early-retirement plans and state-funded sabbaticals. A smaller workforce drives wages up, raising production costs for many Danish businesses, which makes them less competitive internationally. This has affected Denmark's balance of payments , which has even dipped into negative territory in recent years. It is not clear what effect this will have on the economy, but if the government can manage to strike a balance, keeping inflation and interest rates low without hurting industrial competitiveness, then a small deficit may be an acceptable price to pay.

Denmark's greatest challenge for the future is due to its aging population. Its welfare and social security system will be severely strained by the demands of the growing population of elderly people and the shrinking work-force and sources of tax revenues. If nothing is changed, Denmark will not be able to maintain the standard of benefits it currently grants to its citizens. As most Danes are fiercely supportive of state guarantees of a standard of living, any government attempting to reduce those guarantees faces hostility and resistance. The current government has made some changes in the labor market (reducing and altering some benefits and pensions), but it is unclear how much the public in the highly-unionized workforce will stand for reductions in benefits or wages. The governing coalition must tread carefully if it is to make changes without seeming to compromise its commitment to material equality.

In October of 2000, Danes voted not to join the last stage of the European Monetary Union, and to keep its own currency. Despite the urging of Prime Minister Poul Rasmussen, the Danish public did not support the euro. However, the krone is still closely tied to the euro, and Denmark's economic decisions, particularly monetary ones, will be heavily influenced by the EU. Resistance to the EMU has been made more on political grounds than economic ones. There is some fear that opting out of the EMU will hurt prospects for foreign investment, which in the previous 5 years had increased dramatically in Denmark. The current government has demonstrated its friendliness to business by lowering corporate taxes and other business taxes, which may help to counteract any possible flight of investment. It is too soon to tell if either effect has come to pass.

DEPENDENCIES

GREENLAND.

Greenland (local name Kalaallit Nunaat) is the world's largest island, with an area of 2,175,590 square kilometers (840,000 square miles), slightly more than 3 times the size of Texas. Only 15 percent of the island is not covered in ice. There are no crops or trees, but there are many plants and flowers, as well as seals, fish, and reindeer. The population in 1998 was 54,100 with high birth and death rates. Greenlanders (Inuit and what the CIA World Factbook calls "Greenland-born whites") form the majority with 87 percent of the population, and the rest are Danish and others. Languages spoken are Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, and English. The 56 towns and villages on the island are mostly small; 40 have fewer than 500 people, and only 3 have more than 4,000. The administrative capital is Godthåb, called Nuuk in Greenlandic, with around 12,100 people.

Greenland was first a Danish colony in the 1300s, when Norway and Denmark were united kingdoms. In World War II, when Germany occupied Denmark, the U.S. and Danish ambassador in Washington D.C. agreed that U.S. troops could be stationed in Greenland. Some U.S. air bases remain there even now. A referendum (a nation-wide vote on a particular issue) in 1979 gave Greenland "home rule." Denmark has jurisdiction over foreign policy, defense, and justice, and there is joint authority over its oil and mineral resources. Greenland has its own legislature.

The population depends on fishing, and some also hunt seals. There is a small amount of mining, but the harsh climate and lack of transportation infrastructure have prevented much development. Greenland's economy has not been strong in the past 10 years. Since 1990, imports have outpaced exports. Following the closure of Greenland's last lead and zinc mine in 1989, the fishing industry and grants from the Danish government became the mainstay of the economy. In 1999, grants from mainland Denmark and EU payments for the right to fish in Greenland's waters made up about 50 percent of the home-rule government's revenues. As the cod is threatened with extinction, shrimp fisheries have taken over as the most important income earner.

Greenland is also looking to tourism as a sector for growth; however, the season is quite short due to the long and harsh winters. The public sectorboth publicly owned businesses and municipalitiesplays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. Greenland joined the European Community together with Denmark but withdrew in February of 1985 (after a referendum in 1982) due to disagreement with the EC over fishing policy.

FAROE ISLANDS.

The Faroe Islands (local name Foroyar) are north of the Shetlands and northwest of Scotland, between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. There are about 30 islands, 18 of which are inhabited, with a total 2000 population of 45,296. The total land area is 1,399 square kilometers (540 square miles). The population is mostly descended from Viking settlers who landed there in the 8th century. The local language is Faroese, descended from Old Norse, although Danish is also required in schools, and adults on the island can speak it. The capital of the Faroes is Torshavn.

The Faroes have been part of the Danish Kingdom since the 14th century, but were granted home rule in 1948, although the Danish government is still responsible for defense and other aspects of administration. Denmark's Folketing (Parliament) reserves 2 seats for representatives from the Faroes.

Despite their small and remote location, the Faroes have a good domestic and international communications infrastructure, with 22,000 main telephone linesabout one for every 2 people on the island. There is also a satellite earth station and a fiber-optic submarine cable that links the Islands to Iceland and Denmark. There are 14 radio stations and 7 television stations.

The mild winters, cool summers, and rocky terrain of the Faroes are unsuitable for agriculture, and in the past, sheep farming was very important to the economy. Nowadays fish and fish products are the center of the economy, with fish products comprising 90 percent of exports. Most other food is imported. This near-total dependence on fishing means the economy is very vulnerable, both to the changes in world demand and to environmental change. Even with the fishing industry, the Faroe Islands depend significantly on grants from Denmark. Without Danish government bailouts in 1992 and 1993, the Faroese economy would have gone bankrupt. The Faroes did not join the European Community (EC) when Denmark did, because of disagreement with EC fishing policies, which, the Faroese felt, put them at a disadvantage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Actions Speak Louder." FT.com: Financial Times Survey. <http://specials.ft.com/ln/ftsurveys/country/sc8186.htm>. Accessed February 2001.

Christensen, Donna. Information Technology in Denmark. <http://www.american.edu/initeb/dc4053a/denmark.htm>. Accessed July 2001.

"Denmark." Tradeport. <http://www.tradeport.org/ts/countries/denmark>. Accessed February 2001. "Denmark: The Smug Debtor." Economist. September 3, 1988.

"Economic Indicators: Spending on the Environment." OECD Observer. October 1999.

Economist Information Unit. Country Report: Denmark. London: EIU, November 2000.

Europa World Year Book 2000. 41st edition. London: Europa Publications, 2000.

Hoff, Jens, and Jorgen Goul Andersen. "The Danish ClassStructure." Acta Sociologica. Vol. 32, No. 1, March 1989.

International Labor Organization. <http://www.ilo.org>. AccessedFebruary 2001.

Miller, Kenneth E. Denmark: A Troubled Welfare State. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Royal Danish Embassy. <http://www.denmarkemb.org>. AccessedFebruary 2001.

Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Denmark. <http://www.um.dk/english/danmark/danmarksbog/>. Accessed February 2001.

Statistics Denmark. <http://www.dst.dk/dst/dstframesetuk.asp>.Accessed February 2001.

United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/indexgeo.html>. Accessed February 2001.

Walljasper, Jay. "What Works? Denmark!" The Nation. Vol.266, No. 3, January 26, 1998.

Larisa Mann

CAPITAL:

Copenhagen.

MONETARY UNIT:

Danish krone (DKr). 1 Danish krone is made up of 100 øre. There are coins for 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 krone and 50 and 25 øre. Paper currency comes in denominations of DKr1,000, 500, 200, 100, and 50.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, and chemicals.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, textiles, and paper.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

US$136.2 billion (purchasing power parity, 2000 est.).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

Exports: US$50.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000). Imports: US$43.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000).

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Denmark

Denmark

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Kingdom of Denmark
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 5,352,815
Language(s): Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
Literacy rate: 100.0%
Area: 43,094 sq km
GDP: 162,343 (US$ millions)
Number of Daily Newspapers: 31
Total Circulation: 1,481,000
Circulation per 1,000: 347
Total Circulation: 66,000
Circulation per 1,000: 16
Newspaper Consumption (minutes per day): 27
Total Newspaper Ad Receipts: 5,475 (Krone millions)
As % of All Ad Expenditures: 50.80
Magazine Consumption (minutes per day): 7
Number of Television Stations: 25
Number of Television Sets: 3,121,000
Television Sets per 1,000: 583.1
Television Consumption (minutes per day): 174
Number of Cable Subscribers: 1,403,440
Cable Subscribers per 1,000: 264.8
Number of Satellite Subscribers: 800,000
Satellite Subscribers per 1,000: 149.5
Number of Radio Stations: 357
Number of Radio Receivers: 6,020,000
Radio Receivers per 1,000: 1,124.6
Radio Consumption (minutes per day): 128
Number of Individuals with Computers: 2,300,000
Computers per 1,000: 429.7
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: 1,950,000
Internet Access per 1,000: 364.3
Internet Consumption (minutes per day): 10

Background & General Characteristics

The Kingdom of Denmark comprises the North Sea archipelago and islands of continental Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Continental Denmark has coastlines totaling 7,400 kilometers (4,600 miles) and a land border with Germany of only 67.7 kilometers (42 miles). The population of continental Denmark was estimated at 5.14 million in 1989, and projections anticipate little growth in the future. The Danes are descendants of the Norsemen (Vikings) who were dominant in Scandinavia and England during the eleventh century. The Danes are closely linked with the Swedes and Norwegians in cultural heritage and languagea derivative of East Scandinavian German. The Germans in South Jutland constitute the only non-Danish citizen minority and they comprise about 1 percent of the population. In the 1990s, an influx of Arabic Muslim workers created a new minority for which accommodations of housing, amenities, and education are made by the Danish welfare state.

The 18 Faroe Islands, with a landmass of about 1,399 square kilometers, lie to the northwest of Denmark in the Atlantic Ocean between the Shetland Islands and Iceland. During World War II, Great Britain occupied and protected the Faroes from German invasion from 1940-45. The Faroes have been governed by Denmark since the fourteenth century, but a high degree of home rule was attained in 1948 and affirmed in the revised Danish Constitution of 1953. The 45,661 inhabitants (July 2001 estimate) are primarily descendants of Viking settlers who arrived in the ninth century. The Faroese language derives from Old Norse and Danish, and is similar to Icelandic and Norwegian.

Greenland (Danish: Gronland, Greenlandic: Kalaalli Nunaat), situated in the North Atlantic, was claimed in its entirety by Denmark in May 1921. Denmark colonized Greenland in the eighteenth century at the same time it established trading companies in the West Indies. Green-land's capital, Nuuk (formerly Godthab), is the oldest Danish settlement on the island (1721). In 1917, the United States purchased the Danish West Indies islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John (now the U.S. Virgin Islands) and, at the same time, relinquished all U.S. claims to the Peary Land, the north Greenland area explored by Robert Edwin Peary. Norway's claims to land on the eastern coast settled by Norwegian fishermen were declared invalid in 1933 by the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague.

Greenland, the largest island in the world, encompasses 2.18 million square kilometers (840,000 square miles) of land and ice. Except for about 410,450 square kilometers (18,430 square miles), a polar ice sheet, glaciers and smaller ice caps cover the island. Sometimes the ice sheet reaches a depth of 4,300 meters (14,000 feet). Less than 342,000 square kilometers (132,000 square miles) are suitable for habitation. More than 90 percent of Greenland's population lives along the southern and western coasts of the island.

Greenland's population of 56,376 (2002 estimate) are Inuit (Eskimo) or Greenland-born Caucasians, and the balance are mainly Danish. The primary language is Greenlandic, a mixture of Inuit and Danish, but Danish also is an official language. The Danish Constitution of 1953 integrated Greenland into Denmark, and gave Greenland the right to elect two representatives to the Danish parliament. In a January 1979 referendum Greenlanders voted for home rule and formed their own seven-member executive body, the Landsstyre, and a 31-member parliament, the Landting.

From 1660 to 1849, Denmark was an absolute monarchy. Absolutism ended on June 5, 1849, when King Frederik VII signed a constitution that made Denmark a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament modeled on that of England. However, continual conflict between the Crown and the powerful Landting (Upper House) on the one hand, and the more liberal Folketing (Lower House) on the other, led to constitutional changes in 1866, 1901, and 1953. The reforms resulted in a constitutional monarchy, unicameral legislature (Folketing ) and a government organized by ministries that administer the present welfare state.

Newspapers came into existence in Denmark during the years of the absolute monarchy (1660-1849). Four newspapers founded in the eighteenth century still dominate the market. The oldest daily paper is the Berlingske Tidende in Copenhagen, founded by the Berling family in 1749, 35 years before The Times in London. The Berlingske Tidende adopted a moderate conservative viewpoint that appealed to the great landowners that made up the Landting and to business interests in the capital. Hence, from the beginning it has specialized in foreign and financial news as well as political debate, but also covered literature and the arts.

Three papers founded in the eighteenth century are the Stiftstidende dailies published in Aalborg (1767), Odense (1772), and Aarhus (1794). All three are independent, but the Fyens Stiftstidende in Odense expressed conservative views, while the other two took a liberal stance. Initially, each of these influential dailies published morning and evening editions. Political and social developments occurring simultaneously with industrialization during the latter half of the nineteenth century led to the establishment of a four-party political system and a parallel four-paper system.

Two major political parties that emerged from the bicameral legislature of 1849 were the Venstre (Liberal Party) and Det Konservative Folkeparti (The Conservative People's Party). A constitutional revision in 1866 led to the rise of two more political parties, the radical Social-Liberal Party (Det Radikale Venstre ), representing small landholders and some of the intelligentsia who broke away from the Venstre in 1905; and the Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokratiet ) that played a major role in the Danish labor movement. Each of the four political parties established a nationwide network of opinion-shaping newspapers that espoused the ideas of the party and resulted in a four-paper system.

The Venstre (Liberal Party), representing agricultural interests, and Det Konservative Folkeparti (Conservative Party) representing primarily the middle class, formed networks of about 60 newspapers each. The Berlingske Tidende and its sister paper in Copenhagen, the Nationaltidende, voiced conservative views in two editions daily. Both papers devoted sections to business interests such as shipping and agriculture, law and politics, and issued a special weekly sheet devoted to women's interests. A chief regional daily with conservative views was the Jyllandsposten (founded in 1871), a morning paper published in Aarhus. The Jyllandsposten rapidly gained a reputation for quality coverage of foreign and national business and commerce.

The Social-Liberal network grew to approximately two dozen papers, the most influential of which was Politiken (1884) in Copenhagen. Politiken became the most cosmopolitan paper in all of Scandinavia. It introduced the English system of small pages, prominent headlines, and heavy use of illustrations. Many important persons in the political and social movements of Denmark contributed columns and articles to this newspaper. Danish literature and art were well represented in its pages. Politikin 's owners also issued a successful evening paper, the Extrabladet (1904), which promoted social-liberal views.

The first Social-Democratic Party daily, the Social-Demokraten (later changed to Aktuelt ), appeared in Copenhagen in 1872. By 1900, there were 20 more Social-Democratic papers in circulation in the provinces. The Social-Democrats agitated for revision of the constitution and were instrumental in gaining recognition of the principle of parliamentary government in the constitutional revision of 1901. This ended many years of deadlock between the Folketing on one side, and the Crown andLandsting on the other. The Social-Democratic papers also played a vital role in obtaining the vote for peasants, workers, and women, and became the voice of the labor unions in Denmark.

Ironically, the government reforms of 1901 that were urged by the press, lessened to some extent the power of the press to shape opinions, as the reorganization of the government spread responsibilities among ministries and their accompanying bureaucracies.

When Henrik Cavling took over Politiken in 1905, he initiated changes in the newspaper world that would shift priority from politics to news and a broad range of social and cultural topics. The new trends in journalism set by Politiken led to steady increases in media consumption, and by 1913 there were 143 independent dailies in 30 Danish towns, reaching almost 100 percent of the Danish populace. However, the need for more reporters to serve the growing numbers of newspapers increased the costs, as did technological advances in the form of telephones, telegraph, typesetting machines and rotary presses. Between 1925 and 1938, competition for readers and advertising revenues to meet rising costs led to mergers and closures that reduced the number of daily newspapers to 60.

The surviving dailies faced competition from 15 illustrated weekly magazines with a combined circulation of 2.2 million, and 330 local district papers and advertising weeklies distributed free of charge to 1.3 million households. City newspapers increasingly focused on news and matters of general interest as well as editorial comment. Provincial dailies cultivated local material, but included hard news, background, and a range of topical interests. District weeklies reached 80-90 percent of the adult population of Denmark. Newspapers owned more than half the district weeklies, accounting for 60 percent of the total circulation.

Papers with similar content have been published, but with less than daily frequency, in Greenland (i.e., Atuagagdliutut/Gronlandposten ). Political viewpoints are more pronounced in the Faroe Islands by the moderate Dimmalaetting, the independent Dagbladid, and the state paper, the Social-Democratic Socialurin.

Weekly magazines fell into two primary categories: family and women's magazines. Typically, content was and is dominated by fashion, home and life styles, and serialized fiction. Popular early weeklies were the Familie Journal and Hjemmet. Illustrated weeklies like Ilustreret Tidende focused on news from the entertainment world. In appearance, they resembled the Illustrated London Times.

The magazine press includes highly specialized journals that focus on topics of interest to particular readers. Some are periodicals and bulletins published by trade unions and social organizations for their membership. Others are professional journals and technical publications. Two early monthlies, Tilshueren and Gads danske Magasin, were scholarly journals, while the popular Klods-Hans was a sort of Danish Punch.

World War II and the occupation of Denmark by the Germans from 1940-45 interrupted the publication of many papers, and after the war, much of the production equipment was worn out or had been destroyed. Only a few new post-World War II papers were established. These included the bipartisan Kristeligt Dagblad, the financial daily Bersen, the Communist organ Land og Folk, and Information, the latter two originally publications of the Resistance.

The Constitution of 1953 created a unicameral parliament (the Folketing ) and organized the Danish government into multiple ministries, headed by a prime minister. This led to the formation of more political parties representing special interest groups, so that the four-party system no longer applied. In the 1960s, under pressure of competition from radio and television, changes in reader interests, and increasing costs of technology, newspapers suffered a further decline. The number of Danish households receiving at least one daily paper dropped from 100 percent to 75 percent. Newspaper closures in 1958-71 coincided with the end of the four-party system and brought an end to the four-paper system at the same time.

In 1988 there were 46 general-interest dailies with a total circulation of approximately 1.85 million. Those figures have remained fairly constant. With the decrease in numbers, the national newspapers like Berlingske Tidendeand Politiken in Copenhagen, and Jyllands-Posten in Aarhus, increased their market share, while Copenhagen's midday tabloids, B.T. and Ekstrabladet, and evening papers Information and Berlingstke Aftenavis, lost almost 40 percent of their circulation. Larger regional newspapers merged with or took over the market share of smaller ones and increased circulation proportionately. Dominant regional papers remaining are Fyens Stiftstidende in Odense, Nordjyske Stiftstidinde in Aalborg, theAarhus Stiftstidende in Aarhus, and the Jydske Vestkysten in Esbjerg.

In addition to keen competition for advertising revenue and modernization of technology, a major factor in the increased popularity of large national newspapers is the content emphasis on foreign and national news, business, and cultural coverage. Each of Copenhagen's two large morning dailies has five or six foreign correspondents plus "stringers" in various areas, though much of their foreign news comes through Ritzau's Bureau and Reuters news services. To compete with the appeal of radio and television to the general populace, the newspapers have targeted their content to well-educated people who prefer the in-depth news coverage provided by newspapers to the sound bites on radio and television.

In appearance, all the general-interest dailies have virtually the same format. Typically, the Berlingske Tidende has a seven-column page (56 x 40 cm), with week-day editions of about 40 pages and Sunday editions of up to 84 pages. The largest regional and provincial dailies run about 20 pages on weekdays, and smaller papers 12-14 pages. On average, one-third of space is devoted to advertising, but it can run as high as two-thirds in some issues. The major city dailies published in Denmark in 2000 and their circulation estimates are shown below.

According to Danish Circulation Control, five of the major dailies published in Denmark in 2000 and their circulation estimates are: Berlingske-Tidende, published in Copenhagen, founded 1749, weekday circulation of 156,000; Politiken, published in Copenhagen, founded 1884, circulation of 143,000; Edstrabladet, published in Copenhagen, founded 1904, circulation of 135,000; B.T., published in Copenhagen, founded 1916, circulation of 123,000; Jyllands-Posten, published in Aarhus, founded 1871, circulation of 180,000.

The large daily newspapers, national and regional, are quality publications, with a high content of foreign and national news, business and commerce. The smaller provincials are less formal in tone and feature more local news and culture. Large headlines, pictures and illustrations enliven the appearance, but generally, Danish newspapers avoid lurid sensationalism.

Even celebrity-oriented illustrated magazines set limits on what is appropriate to publish. According to the 1997 World Press Freedom Review, one Danish magazine editor announced on the day following the death of Britain's Princess Diana in Paris that he would no longer use photographs taken by the intrusive paparazzi. The Review also reported that in August 1997, the Danish Press Council condemned Se og Hoer (See and Hear) for publishing a French paparazzo's photographs of Danish Crown Prince Frederik and a woman companion bathing in the grounds of a French chateau.

Economic Framework

Denmark lies directly in the path of European trade flowing in all directions via the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Skagerrak. A merchant fleet of more than 1,500 ships engage in overseas trade. Inland vessels and ferries connect with a network of roads, bridges, and railroads that transport goods and people to Central Europe, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Exports include agricultural products, pharmaceuticals, motor ships, dairy equipment, cement machinery and electronic equipment. Denmark imports coal and oil from Germany, Great Britain, and the United States, and industrial raw materials from various countries.

Copenhagen (Kobenhavn), Denmark's capital and largest city, has one of the busiest airports (Kastrup) of Northern Europe. It is the terminal port for the great arc over the North Atlantic from the United States and Canada, as well as the corresponding arc across the North Pole to Japan and East Asia. Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) operates worldwide. Likewise, Copenhagen's Free Port serves 5,000-6,000 ships annually as they exchange cargoes without the expense and formalities of clearing customs. Aarhus, Odense, and Aalborg also are centers of trade and commerce.

The fishing industry, individual and cooperative, is a major factor in the Danish economy. Denmark's 12,000 fishermen bring in cod, herring, eels, lobster and shrimp from the North Sea and numerous species of freshwater fish from the coastal waters and the fjords that penetrate deep into the interior. About half the catch is sold at auction. The skippers of fishing vessels are often the owners, but customarily, the crews share in the expense and profits.

Denmark's agricultural industry is dominated by cooperatives. About 70 percent of mainland Denmark's land area (43,094 square kilometers, 16,639 square miles) is devoted to agriculture. Approximately 179,000 medium-sized farms of 10-30 hectares (25-75 acres) account for one-half the cultivated area. About 27,000 "smallholdings" (farms of 5-10 hectares) were carved out of former large estates, but some wealthy landowners' manor houses with surrounding buildings can still be seen on the landscape.

Fifty percent of the land produces crops of cereal grains, mainly barley, but also oats, rye and wheat. The feed crops complement the grasslands in serving the important cattle and dairy industries, which provide 90 percent of all farm income. Danish animal husbandry and farming are productive due to applied scientific research in the selection of grains, soil treatment, automated milking machines and mechanized farm equipment.

Since the mid-1900s, industrial development has displaced agriculture as the most important segment of the economy. Urban industries employ about 40 percent of the labor force and contribute 40 percent of the gross national product (GNP). A third of Denmark's industrial workers are employed in manufacturing. One important export is cement, including products and expertise, as Danish engineers build cement plants at home and abroad. Denmark's largest corporation, the East Asiatic Company, Inc. (founded in 1897), has 100 branch offices and 35,000 employees worldwide. It maintains a fleet of 30 ships, and owns mines, rice mills, and rubber plantations. In Australia, the company is engaged in industry and timber. In Canada, it owns forests and operates sawmills and paper factories. In Brazil, it is in the coffee trade; in Africa, timber and auto imports.

Fishing and shipbuilding are paramount in the Faroe Islands. The rocky coasts of the Faroes provide nesting grounds for seabirds but very little arable land for agriculture. Dwarf shrubs and grassy heath are suitable for grazing sheep, so principal exports include mutton and wool, along with frozen and salted fish, and fish products such as liver oil. The Faroe Islands Dairy Centre supplies all 45,000 inhabitants in the islands with fresh milk and dairy products. The Centre serves as a cooperative, giving production and marketing assistance to producers in order to advance the quality and efficiency of Faroese agriculture. Nearby oil production in the North Sea offers hope that oil deposits will be found in the Faroes, allowing more diversification in the economy and lessening dependence upon the annual subsidy from Denmark. During World War II, the Faroe Islands were occupied and protected from German invasion by the British Navy. The Faroese import-export partners are Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, Iceland, and the United States.

Greenland, with its state-of-the-art communications and meteorological stations, is important to all nations traversing the airways and seas of the North Atlantic. When Germany occupied Denmark during World War II and threatened Greenland, the Danish minister in Washington negotiated an agreement with the United States to assume protective custody over Greenland for the duration of the war. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine and constructed landing fields, seaplane facilities, and installations necessary to protect Greenland and the American hemisphere. In 1947 Denmark requested an end to the 1941 wartime agreement. In April 1951 a new pact was negotiated, giving Denmark control of the U.S. naval station on Greenland, providing for joint defense areas, and authorizing members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to use all naval, air, and military bases on the island. The agreement further authorized the United States to build and maintain a strategic air base at Thule in northern Greenland, about 1,500 kilometers from the North Pole.

Greenland's main industry is fishing (salmon, cod, halibut and shrimp) and dozens of fish processing plants dot the southern and western coasts. Disko Bay boasts some of the world's largest shrimp beds. In the north and east, seals, foxes and polar bears are hunted for their fur. Seabirds are hunted for meat, eggs and down. Also, the southern area provides limited areas for sheep and cattle breeding. Greenland's major exports are fish and fur. Principal trading partners are Canada, Australia, the United States, Denmark and the United Kingdom.

In 1952 the Danish government and private interests in Denmark, Sweden and Canada formed a company to exploit deposits of iron, lead, zinc, tungsten and cryolite (a mineral used in the production of aluminum) in eastern Greenland. By 1990, mining had exhausted the reserves. Deposits of coal, copper, molybdenum and uranium have been located, but not fully exploited. Thule Air Base supports a community of military and civilian personnel from the United States and Denmark.

Denmark was the first industrialized country to establish a Ministry of the Environment. But despite its advanced stage of environmental planning and worldwide activism, all of Denmark's environmental problems have not been solved. Though 98 percent of sewage is treated and sulfur dioxide emissions reduced, agricultural runoff has caused harmful algae growth in the North Sea that increasingly threatens drinking water supplies. By 1997, 32.2 percent of the country had been placed in protected areas. Denmark is still working to clean up three thousand hazardous waste sites identified in the 1980s. In 1988, in response to ecological disasters that destroyed the lobster colonies in the strait between Denmark and Sweden, the Folketing passed more rigorous measures to protect the environment.

Denmark includes Greenland and the Faroes in regional and international environmental agreements pertaining to air pollution and the ozone layer, ship pollution and marine life, climactic changes, endangered species and habitats. In 1985 the Folketing passed legislation against the future construction of nuclear power plants in Denmark and agreed to help establish a Nordic nuclear-free zone.

Denmark joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949, the European Free Trade Association (1959), and the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union (1972). In 1992 Danish voters rejected the Maastricht Treaty, which provided for increased integration of currency and politics with the European Union, creating considerable political controversy within the government. Denmark remains a member of the EU, and elects 16 members of the European parliament. Greenland joined the EU with Denmark in 1972, but withdrew in 1985 due to a dispute over fishing quotas. The Faroe Islands are not part of the EU.

Press Laws

Freedom of the press is guaranteed under Denmark's Constitution of 1849, and this right is respected in practice. The chief limitation of fair comment in speech and writing has been to protect the privacy and reputation of the individual. Most press libel cases since World War II have hinged on this issue. Libel cases have rarely resulted in sentences of imprisonment, but in those few cases where it has, terms in prison have never exceeded three months. Under press law, legal responsibility for a signed article rests with the author, but for the unsigned article and other materials, legal responsibility rests with the editor. The trend in interpreting press law is toward increased freedom for journalists to protect sources. A special national agency operates as a "corrections board" to hear complaints about a newspaper's refusal or failure to print a correction of any factual material that has been incorrectly or wrongfully printed, and a fine may be imposed if the board holds the paper liable.

A new legal provision, resulting from the Danish experience under the Nazis, declares that no citizen may be deprived of liberty because of political or religious convictions or descent. The official state-supported church is Evangelical Lutheran, to which 91 percent of the Danes belong. Citizens do have the right to form other congregations for the worship of God. Citizens cannot be required to pay taxes to support a denomination to which they do not belong, but neither are they permitted to form a religious group and engage in practices that are "at variance with good morals or public order." This affects the press indirectly, in that aberrant religious practices may become the subject of reporting and editorial comment.

The 1997 World Press Freedom Review reported that for the first time in Denmark's history, a prison sentence was handed down for threats made against a journalist. The case grew out of a three-year war between the Hells Angels and Bandidos biker gangs that left 12 people dead and more than 70 wounded. The gangs threatened journalists who covered the trials. One Bandido was jailed for two months for threatening Per Rasmussun, a freelance photographer filming outside the court building where a Bandido member was on trial. Two other Bandidos were tried for making repeated visits to the home of photographer Flemming Keith Karlsen and threatening him with death. Conviction of the Bandidos was seen as a major victory for the press.

Censorship

For more than 200 years under the absolute monarchy, Denmark's newspapers were subject to censorship. Since the adoption of the Constitution of 1849, which guaranteed freedom of the press, the Danish government has exercised no control over the press. Nor has it attempted to control the flow of news and information from government administrative agencies to the press.

The only exception is the censorship exercised by the Germans who occupied Denmark during World War II. A 1939 non-aggression pact with Germany allowed the Danes a measure of control over their legal and domestic affairs until 1943. But in 1943-1945, rigid censorship was imposed, and all publications were compelled to print only the news and articles approved by the Nazis.

State-Press Relations

Denmark's newspapers consistently have opposed direct financial aid from the government, but as an increasing number of newspapers failed, government expanded its indirect subsidies to the press. Subsidies take the form of relief from value-added taxes, reduced rates for telephone and postal charges, and government payments for agency advertisements and printing the results of the national lottery. Low-interest loans also are available from the government-created Financial Institution of the Daily Press to which the government makes annual contributions.

The Joint Council of Danish Newspapers (Danske Dagblades Faellesrepraesentation ) is made up of representatives of political associations, editors and publishers. Founded in 1936, this organization speaks to the authorities and the general public on behalf of the newspapers. The council has developed a code of ethics and a directive treatise on Good Press Habits in Reporting Criminal Cases. The Danish Press Council (Pressenaevnet) was established in 1965 for the purpose of passing judgment on interpretations and alleged violations of the code.

Most newspapers are members of the Danish Newspaper Publishers Union. The union handles common economic issues with the exception of wage agreements with typographical workers, which are handled by a special employers' union. On occasion, the government may be called upon to mediate a labor dispute such as the 1977 strike that shut down Berlinske Tidende and two other newspapers for six months.

The government has exerted greater control of radio and television media. From 1925 to 1964, the state maintained a monopoly over radio broadcasts, and from 1962 to 1998, a state monopoly of television.

Radio Denmark (Danmarks Radio or DR), an independent public monopoly, has sole rights to present radio and television broadcasts under the Broadcasting Act (Radioloven ) of June 11, 1959. Until May 1987 a governing Radio Council (Radioradet ) operated under the Ministry of Cultural Affairs. The council was charged with responsibility to establish general principles that govern the content and quality of programs. In May 1987 the Folketing passed legislation that replaced the Radio Council with an 11-member governing board. The Minister of Communications names the chair; the political parties in the Folketing select nine members; and DR personnel choose one. The board appoints the director-general of DR, and has overall responsibility for DR's operations.

A Program Committee advises the board. It is composed of 21 members, one-third chosen by listeners' and viewers' associations, two-thirds chosen by organizations representing business, labor, education, religion, art, sports, and consumers. The Program Committee authorizes program plans, suggests additional broadcast series, discusses political items and events, elections, and parliamentary transmissions that impact upon broadcast content and schedules. Complaints about DR are heard by a three-member independent agency.

DR operates two public television stations. Both are subject to public service obligations with regard to news and educational programming. Since 1988, local commercial television stations have been permitted to broadcast advertising. Since 1997, television stations are allowed to form networks. The government appoints a five-member board to manage the commercial station, TV2. Advertising commercials may be run only at the beginning and end of a program. No advertising is permitted for medicines, beer, wine, spirits or tobacco. No ads may be run for special interest organizations, political parties, or religious groups. DR is required to meet public service requirements, but commercial stations like TV2 are not.

In 1983 the Folketing enacted a temporary law, made permanent in 1987, allowing the operation of local and private radio and television stations. Stations must acquire a permit to operate from a board appointed by the municipal government. Stations cannot be operated or controlled by commercial interests or newspapers, but they may make agreements with newspapers to supply news programming. They are allowed to sell time to political parties and religious entities.

News Agencies

Ritzau's Bureau, founded in 1866, is the primary supplier of national and international news to Danish media. Since 1947 Ritzau's Bureau has been owned cooperatively by the Danish press. The Bureau disseminates more than 10,000 words of foreign copy per day, of which 50-55 percent comes from Reuters, 25-30 percent from AFP, and 6-7 percent each from DPA and the Swedish TT. Ritzau's Bureau handles all distribution of Danish news abroad. Content of the foreign-bound material is about 86 percent news and 11 percent information.

There is an International Press Center in Copenhagen, where the Foreign Ministry's Press and Information Department provides services to the Foreign Press and the foreign correspondents of Danish media. The Association of Danish Newspapers, Danish District Weeklies, and Danish Specialist Press, all headquartered in Copenhagen, serve their respective newspapers and other publications. Most Copenhagen papers import newsprint and equipment through a cooperative purchasing agency, and share distribution costs through their own agency, the A/S Bladkompagniet.

Broadcast Media

Amateur radio broadcasts began in Denmark about 1920, and by 1923 three Copenhagen newspapers were broadcasting news via radio. In 1925 Statsradiofonien, a state radio monopoly was established that lasted until 1964. During the 1930s, radio became an important news media, reaching 75 percent of all Danish households. In 1959, competing radio newscasts were replaced by a single radio news service (Pressens Radioavis, renamed Danmarks Radio or DR), with major newspapers editing the news. Additional radio channels were added in 1963-1964 when the state monopoly was broken.

DR operates four channels: Programme 1 (P1) broadcasts information and cultural programs; Programme 2 (P2musik) airs mainly classical music; Programme 3 (P3) is a music and news channel aimed at younger listeners; and Programme 4 (P4) broadcasts regional news and entertainment. In 1983, local radio stations appeared, initially financed by voluntary contributions from various organizations, but since 1988 also by advertising. Radio 2, a national commercial station, has been on the air since 1997.

DR began television news transmissions in 1953. Though the state television monopoly was not broken until 1988, the rapid growth of satellite and cable television channels posed serious competition for newspapers, tabloids and weekly entertainment magazines. In 1996 DR added a second television channel.

On October 1, 1988, TV2 began transmissions and in October 2000, TV2 added a second channel. The first commercial station in Denmark was TV3, owned by the international media group SBS, which began broadcasting from London via satellite on January 1, 1988. Since April 1997, TvDanmark has broadcast in eight regions, with programming primarily focused on entertainment and regional news. Since 2000, TvDanmark has operated two channels.

The four public service stations are partly or fully financed by license fees.

In 1999, DR channels 1 and 2 garnered 31 percent of the viewing audience, while TV2's share was 36 percent. TV3 gained 11 percent, and TvDanmark 8 percent. All other channels shared 14 percent of the market. The market report estimates that the average Danish viewer watches television for 2 hours and 38 minutes per day.

Radio Denmark has radio and television studios at Copenhagen, Aarhus, Abenra, Aalborg, and Odense. In 1986 there were 49 radio transmitters serving 2.05 million receivers and 32 television transmitters with 1.95 million receivers. Though TV2 generates advertising revenues, radio and television are financed primarily from license fees required of all radio and television set owners. Usually, the television license also covers radio use, but if the household has no television, it must have a license for radio receivers only. Radio licenses cost about one-fourth the fee for television licenses. A reduced fee applies for senior citizens and disabled pensioners.

Radio Greenland (Kalaalit Nunaata Radio or KNR) is an independent public entity administered by a seven-man board appointed by the Greenland government. A management committee operates KNR-Radio and KNRTV, broadcasting daily radio and television programs throughout Greenland. KNR-TV annually broadcasts about 300 hours in Greenlandic and 2,000 hours in Danish. It also transmits television news from DR daily. KNR-Radio broadcasts 2,500 hours in Greenlandic, 900 in Danish, and 2,200 hours of music each year. KNR has news departments in Nuuk, North and South Greenland and Copenhagen, and delivers news to Greenlanders in both Greenlandic and Danish languages. Local radio and television productions are culturally oriented, and financed partly by advertising revenue. KNR has its own production studios in Nuuk, the capital, where it employs about 120 people.

Faroese Radio is not under the jurisdiction of DR, but like Greenland, cooperates with it. Faroe Islanders are served by the state radio Utvaap Foroya, and Ras 2 radio station. Sjonvarp Faroya (SvF), the Faroes' national television company, is the only television station broadcasting in Faroese. The station transmits 40 hours a week, covering news, documentaries, entertainment, culture, sports and drama. The station employs 35 people plus 15-20 freelance workers and specialists. The station reaches about 13,000 households throughout the islands. Surveys confirm that SvF commands 70-80 percent of viewers, especially for local news and productions.

The Voice of Denmark shortwave radio service transmits daily 45-minute programs in Danish and 30-minute programs in Spanish and English. Transmissions are beamed to South America, North America, the Far East, Southern Asia, Africa and Greenland. Programs are generally free of political propaganda; they focus on news, commentaries, and interviews related to events in Denmark. The primary purpose of the foreign broadcasts is to promote a broader awareness of Denmark and its culture. A related publication, The Voice of Denmark, is published four times a year, and provides information about the shortwave broadcasts in Danish, English and Spanish. The expansion of broadcast media has placed increasing pressure on the print media, particularly tabloids and weekly entertainment magazines.

Electronic Media

Most major radio and television channels in Denmark have established Internet services to provide news updates, essays, film and other services, in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroes. Thirty-one Denmark newspapers provide online services. Media outlets with the resources to provide Internet services have a strong advantage in the advertising market. In the 1970s and 1980s, electronic media, radio and television took over much of the advertising market that had been dominated by the print media in the 1960s.

Education and Training

Denmark has a nine-year compulsory education system beginning at age seven. The education obligation may be fulfilled in the free municipal Folkeskole or private school, or by home schooling. In 1993 the Danish Parliament adopted a new Folkeskole Act, which led to numerous reforms aimed at achieving a balance between subject-specific and general education during the nine years of compulsory education. After completing the required education, the student make proceed to upper secondary education at either of two levels: general education qualifying for access to higher education, or vocational or technical education qualifying for access to the labor market.

All higher education is free to students, and all institutions are funded by the state, though they are self-governing and independent as to program offerings and budget decisions. The student may select the short-cycle non-university program of one to three years to study technical programs, market economics, or train as a computer specialist. These programs are primarily offered at business and technical colleges. The medium-cycle university programs of three to fours years comprise the bachelor's degree programs of universities and other higher education institutions in the university sector. The institutions collectively offer a diverse range of professional training choices in education, liberal arts, science, and medicine, in which a student may prepare for a profession or move toward a university master's degree program. The long-cycle higher education program of five to six years is research-based and offered by institutions in the university sector.

All institutions of higher education in Denmark are free to admit as many qualified applicants as they have space and qualified faculty to teach. There are no entrance examinations for students, but they must be recommended by the secondary school they attended. Each institution establishes its own criteria of selection if it cannot admit all applicants. State funding grants to the institutions are based on the specific programs offered and the number of active students per year.

The government operates a school for journalists in Aarhus, which graduates about 200 students each year. The program consists of 18 months of study, 18 months of practical experience, and a final year of study. In addition, there are vocational colleges and institutions for training production technicians in print media, radio and television, and electronic media.

Summary

The Danish press has made steady progress in quality and diversification for more than a hundred years, although faced by wars, political upheavals and financial reverses. The dominant positions of several large daily newspapers founded in the eighteenth century speaks to their survival capabilities and to the Danish people's attachment to their newspapers. Without doubt, the newspapers shall maintain their constitutional freedoms, despite the indirect government subsidies they accept to lower costs.

The shift to radio and television for mass media consumption is global, and newspapers have taken the competition in stride, adjusting their services to include use of the mass media outlets of radio, television and the Internet.

It remains to be seen whether the government will relinquish its remaining controls over radio and television and allow unfettered competition. The rapid growth from two to eight television stations after the state monopoly was broken may have evoked a slowdown in the government's relaxation of restrictions in order to avoid the financial instability that often comes with rapid expansion. Economic contractions in the private sector may have severe impact on the advertising revenue of the media. Government subsidies and capital outlay for communications facilities are dependent upon projected revenues from license fees and taxesmajor factors in decisions to limit or encourage growth.

The Danish press has diversified in the face of competition, and thereby increased the depth and quality of programming in newspapers, radio and television. One concern is maintaining credibility in the national media as coverage increasingly reflects the violence and immorality existing in the global society.

Another factor that may influence the future of the media is whether the Faroese and the Greenlanders will be content with home rule status or will seek complete independence from Denmark.

The Danish pressprint, broadcast, and electronicseems well able to adapt to circumstances. Constitutional freedom of the press is exercised by the print media, while radio and television are partly funded and controlled by the state. Media consumption increases along with the varieties of media. Even as the electronic media inspires more consumption of programs with international orientation, there is a corresponding rise in interest in media focused on local communities and national identity.

The Internet is both a challenge and an opportunity for the print and broadcast media to expand their reach and influence to audiences beyond Denmark, and to promote awareness of Danish culture and society at home and abroad. From its past performance and history, Denmark's press seems well able to meet the challenge and take advantage of the opportunities.

Significant Dates

  • 1997: Commercial Radio 2 began broadcasting nationally. Television stations received permission to form networks and expand.
  • 1999: Two Danmarks Radio (state) television channels, DR1 and DR2, lost market dominance to commercial station TV2.
  • 2000: Commercial television station TV2 began broadcasting on two channels, and TvDanmark implemented broadcasts on two channels.
  • 2001: Internet site designers in Denmark increased by 85 percent in one year.
  • 2002: Thirty-one Danish newspapers and two in the Faroe Islands provide services via electronic media.

Bibliography

"Danish History." Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic. Available from http://lysator.liu.se/nordic/scn/faq33.html.

Danish Ministry of Education (Undervisnings Ministeriet). "Principles and Issues in Education." Available from http://www.uvm.dk/publications/.htm.

"Denmark." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2001. Available from http://encarta.msn.com.

"Denmark." In 1999 World Press Freedom Review. Available from http://www.freemedia.at/wpfr/denmark.htm.

"Faroe Islands." Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In The World Factbook. Available from http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/fo.html.

"Greenland." Microsoft Encarta Online Deluxe. Available from http://encarta.msn.com.

Harvey, William J., and Christian Reppien. Denmark and the Danes: A Survey of Danish Life, Institutions and Culture. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1915, 1970.

Kurian, George Thomas. Facts on File: National Profiles, Scandinavia. New York and Oxford: R.R. Donnelley & Sons, 1990.

Logan, F. Donald. The Vikings in History. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books, 1983.

. Denmark: A Troubled Welfare State. Boulder, San Francisco and Oxford: Westview Press, 1991.

Miller, Kenneth E. Friends and Rivals: Coalition Politics in Denmark, 1901-1995. Lanham, MD and London: University Press of America, Inc., 1996.

Rying, Bent, Editor-in-Chief. Denmark: An Official Handbook. Copenhagen: Krak, for Press and Information Department, Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1970.

Marguerite R. Plummer, Ph.D.

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Denmark

DENMARK

Kingdom of Denmark

Major Cities:
Copenhagen, Århus, Odense

Other Cities:
Ålborg, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Gentofte, Helsingør, Horsens, Kolding, Naestved, Randers, Ribe, Roskilde, Vejle

EDITOR'S NOTE

This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report dated December 1992. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http://travel.state.gov/ for the most recent information available on travel to this country.

INTRODUCTION

DENMARK is the oldest kingdom in Europe, tracing its written history as far back as the Viking period of the eighth and ninth centuries. A country of gentle beauty, friendly people, and cosmopolitan life-style, modern Denmark is an industrialized nation with a high standard of living and one of the world's most advanced social welfare societies. The homogeneity of culture, breadth of economic activity, and variety of political opinion make it a stimulating place to visit.

A nation of rich cultural and intellectual heritage, Denmark continues to contribute to achievements of the modern world. Writers, scientists, philosophers, musicians, artistsall with international recognitionare indicative of the range of accomplishments that have been reached in this fairy-tale kingdom so honored by its most-beloved son, Hans Christian Andersen.

MAJOR CITIES

Copenhagen

Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, lies on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand on the straits connecting the Baltic Sea to the North Sea. Between Zealand and mainland Denmark lie the island of Fyn and two channelsthe Great Belt and the Little Belt. Copenhagen's strategic location on a main trade route between the Baltic and northern countries has made it one of the great transit ports of northern Europe.

With over 1 million people, Copenhagen is Denmark's largest city. Starting as a small fishing village more than 1,000 years ago, the city has grown into a major European commercial and cultural center. Its name (Kobenhavn or Merchant's Harbor) reflects its historical association with shipping and international trade. Copenhagen's busy harbor and shipyards confirm the significant role these activities continue to play in the city's economic life.

Despite the modern pace of its commercial activity, Copenhagen maintains its Old World charm. The skyline is dominated by stately towers, their copper roofs green with age; thus its popular name, "city of beautiful towers."

Many buildings in the city's center date back hundreds of years, some as far back as the 16th and 17th centuries. The old houses that line the canals and cobblestone streets provide a sharp contrast to modern, high-rise apartment complexes that dominate the fast-growing suburbs and newer parts of the city.

The high standard of living of its citizens is reflected in the clean, well-maintained appearance of the city. Despite its size, many wooded parks and small lakes give Copenhagen an almost provincial quality. Copenhagen is a favorite of tourists, and thousands of Americans visit the city each year.

Food

Most types of food are available on the local market year round.

Clothing

Woolen clothing is worn most of the year. Even in summer, a light wrap or sweater is usually needed after sundown. Rainwear is a necessity. Ready-made clothing for men, women, and children is available at prices often higher than those in the U.S. Shoes for men, women, and children are imported from all over Europe, but narrow widths are not readily available.

Supplies and Services

Supplies: All major brands of toilet articles and cosmetics are available, but taxes on cosmetics are high. Few American patent medicines are available in Danish drugstores, since most medicines are sold only by prescription.

Basic Services: Tailors and dressmakers are available but increasingly rare. Laundries, Laundromats, dry-cleaners, and shoe repair shops do work comparable to that in the U.S. Adequate electronics repair is available, but usually slow. Spare parts for U.S. makes are in limited supply. Denmark has many good barbershops and excellent beauty shops. Most basic services are more costly than in the U.S.

Religious Activities

The Lutheran Church is the state church of Denmark. Roman Catholic, Reformist, Unitarian, Methodist, Baptist, Seventh-day Adventist, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also hold services here. A minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America holds services for the International Church of Copenhagen. Services in English are also held at the Anglican Episcopal Church of St. Albans and the International Baptist Church. Catholic services in English are held at two churches in greater Copenhagen. Jewish services are held at the synagogue weekday mornings, Saturday morning, and every evening at sunset.

Education

The three English-language schools listed below are recommended for children of American travelers. Request admittance as far in advance as possible due to possible lack of vacancies in certain classes. The school year runs from mid-August to June. Use the following addresses:

Copenhagen International Schools Copenhagen International School (CIS)
Gammel Kongevej 15
1610 Copenhagen V
Tel.: 31 21 46 33

Copenhagen International Junior School (CIJS)
Stenosgade 4C
1616 Copenhagen V
Tel.: 31 22 33 03

Rygaards School
International Division
54 Bernstorffsvej
2900 Hellerup
Tel.: 31 62 10 53

The Copenhagen International Schools (Senior and Junior) are housed adjacently in a downtown location near public transportation.

The Senior School (CIS) was founded in 1963 to provide English-language secondary education for children of the international community (grades 10 to 13). The CIS curriculum is that of a U.S. general academic, college-preparatory public school. The school also prepares students for the international baccalaureate. English, German, French, and advanced Danish are taught as foreign languages, and all students must participate in a program of study of the Danish language and culture. The school's testing program includes the PSAT, SAT, and Achievement tests; ACT tests can be arranged.

The Copenhagen International Junior School (CIJS) was founded in 1973 to meet the growing demand for a school for younger children. It comprises pre-kindergarten and kindergarten (4-and 5-year-olds, with 3-year-olds who will be 4 before the end of December), primary school (grades 1 to 6), and middle school (grades 7 to 9). Pupils through grade 6 are taught in self-contained classrooms; those in grades 7 to 9 have a departmentalized curriculum taught by specialists in their fields.

The curriculum is international, combining the best of American and British education. The international school's curriculum will be followed as it becomes available.

The school is accredited by the European Council of International Schools and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Iowa tests of basic skills are available in grades 4, 6, and 8.

Rygaards School is located in a residential suburb of Copenhagen accessible by train and bus. The school was founded in 1909 by Catholic Sisters of the Assumption and is now recognized and supported by the Danish State. Children of all faiths are accepted.

The International Division consists of a preschool (4-to 6-year olds), a junior department (6-to 11-year-olds), and a senior department (12-to 16-year-olds). In addition to the International Division, Rygaards has a Danish Division. These two divisions function independently but in collaboration under one board and one headmaster.

The students at Rygaards come from 40 or more nations. Most of the teachers are British, and the academic instruction follows the British system, culminating in London University "O" level examinations in the final year. This corresponds to American kindergarten through grade 11.

Rygaards has an active Parents' Association. After-school activities are available for many age groups.

Special Educational Opportunities

Copenhagen has many nursery schools and kindergartens, both public and private. They are operated independently of the elementary schools, and completion of kindergarten is not a prerequisite for entrance to elementary school.

Musical instruction is readily available for adults and children. Excellent contemporary and abstract art and dancing instruction are available.

Many municipalities (kommune) in the greater Copenhagen area offer extensive and inexpensive adult education programs with a wide variety of subjects, some taught in English. Several such courses are offered for the study of Danish. These courses usually begin in September and end in February. Pamphlets listing the courses are widely distributed in the Copenhagen area.

Sports

Facilities are available for most popular sports. Many neighborhood gymnasiums in Copenhagen have indoor swimming pools. Tennis and badminton are popular, and several clubs have indoor and outdoor courts. Squash clubs are also available. A number of 18-hole, private golf courses are located near Copenhagen. Bowling, flying, gliding, and hang gliding are also available. Sports equipment is more expensive than in the U.S. but is available everywhere.

Touring and Outdoor Activities

Summer sports are popular during the short, warm season. Yacht clubs are located along the coast, and sailing is enjoyed from May to October. Many swim in the sea in the summer, despite the chilly water temperature. Fishing on small, private lakes is available. Bicycling and hiking are popular, and hiking and biking clubs sponsor trips to some charming rural areas close to Copenhagen. You may hire horses at lower rates than in the U.S. Several reputable riding schools have indoor rings for winter riding.

Excellent pheasant and duck shooting and some deer hunting is possible, but a game license is required. To obtain one, you must pass a test or hold a U.S. hunting license.

Winter sports are limited to ice skating and occasionally some cross-country skiing north of Copenhagen. Serious skiers must travel north to Norway, or south to France, Germany, Austria, Italy, or Switzerland. Oslo is 8 hours away by train, or overnight by the excellent sleep ferry from Copenhagen. The Bavarian and Swiss Alps are 18-24 hours away by train. Copenhagen travel agencies offer excellent, modestly priced, 8-day package ski trips to these areas.

Many guided tours of Copenhagen are available. One popular tour takes you by boat through the canals of Copenhagen into the harbor and past the famous statue of the Little Mermaid.

The airline charter industry is highly developed and competitive here, providing inexpensive vacation packages to all parts of Europe and many other points abroad.

Entertainment

Copenhagen's movie theaters show the latest American and European films. Most feature films are shown in their original language, with Danish subtitles.

This Week in Copenhagen (which, despite its name, is a monthly publication) lists a wide variety of events of interest.

Copenhagen has symphony orchestras, a ballet (one of the world's finest), and a national opera company. The most famous of the orchestras is the Radio Denmark Symphony, which gives weekly concerts in winter and often features leading American and European artists. The ballet and opera each offer several performances a week from September through May. Ticket prices are reasonable. Half-price tickets are often available after 5 pm on the day of the performance.

Many fine museums are located in or near Copenhagen, including the National Museum of Art and the Carlsberg Glyptotek (with an excellent Rodin collection).

The world-famous Tivoli amusement park, in the heart of the city, is synonymous with the spirit of Copenhagen. Open from May 1 to early September, Tivoli features arcades, rides, restaurants, and light and serious music in an atmosphere for children and adults.

Copenhagen has many fine restaurants. Traditional Danish cuisine is good, though often bland. Modern Danish cuisine is modeled on that of France. Hard liquor and wine are expensive; a bottle of the house table wine can double the price of a meal. Most Danes stick to beer and snaps (a Danish drink made from potatoes and flavored with caraway) with their meals. Danish beer is deservedly world renowned.

Clubs

The American Club of Copenhagen holds monthly luncheon meetings, with guest speakers talking on topics of interest to the membership, which consists of American and Danish business and professional men and women.

The American Women's Club in Denmark, founded in 1934, is a philanthropic and social organization whose membership is predominantly American, but also includes many Danes and women of other nationalities.

This is an active social club with both daytime and evening groups for bridge, handicrafts, sports, and cultural/educational activities. The club is actively engaged in projects to raise money for scholarships, art awards, and charities. The club meets monthly on the second Tuesday.

The International Women's Club of Copenhagen (IWC), a nonprofit organization founded in 1977, was formed to welcome and assist newcomers and their families to Denmark, to further goodwill and friendship, and to give financial and material support to philanthropic projects.

A regular, monthly luncheon is held on the fourth Thursday of each month. A program is presented at each luncheon, either with an international theme or on some aspect of life in Denmark. Also, a wide range of activities is offered, giving members an opportunity to meet in smaller groups. Sports, language, and cultural interests are catered to so that there is something for everyone.

Copenhagen also has local chapters of Rotary International, Free Masons, Odd Fellows, and American Legion.

Århus

Århus (also spelled Aarhus) is Denmark's second largest city. Located on the east coast of central Jutland on Århus Bay, the city has a population of over 217,000. A commercial, industrial, and shipping center, Århus is also one of Denmark's oldest cities, developing rapidly after becoming an episcopal see in the 11th century. A decline followed the Reformation of the 16th century, but Århus began to prosper again in the 18th century.

Århus is also an important cultural center, with a university, a theater, a large library, and restored-town museum consisting of several old Danish houses. Other buildings of note include the Cathedral of St. Clemens, built in the 12th century, and the town hall, constructed in 1942 of Norwegian marble.

Århus' museum of prehistory, Mosegård, contains a fascinating exhibition which includes the "Grauballe Man," a mummified person of two millennia ago. The city also is the site of the world's largest fire-engine museum, and of a fine aquarium.

Tivoli Friheden, Århus' large amusement park, is open daily from late April to mid-August; concert performances are frequent features.

Odense

Odense, Denmark's third largest city with a population of 145,000, is located in the north-central part of Fyn Island. Linked by canal with the Odense Fjord, the city is an important commercial, industrial, and cultural center, as well as a rail junction. Odense, meaning "Shrine of Odin" (the supreme Norse god), has large shipyards which export agricultural produce. Machinery, textiles, beer, electrical equipment, and motor vehicles are manufactured.

One of the oldest cities in northern Europe, Odense was founded in the 10th century and became an episcopal see in 1020. Its Cathedral of St. Knud, built in the 13th century, is one of the finest examples of Danish Gothic architecture. Odense is perhaps best known as the birthplace (in 1805) of Hans Christian Andersen, author of such fairy tales as The Ugly Duckling, The Emperor's New Clothes, The Snow Queen, The Little Mermaid, and more than 160 others. A small, red-tiled house at the corner of Han Jensensstraded and Bangs Boder, near downtown Odense, is Andersen's birthplace. The neighborhood has been restored to its 19th-century appearance and the Andersen home is now part of an impressive museum devoted to the Danish writer.

Other cities of importance on Fyn Island are Nyborg, with a population of 16,000, a seaside resort, known for its shipyards and textile mills; and Svendborg (population of 28,000), with its shipyards and breweries.

OTHER CITIES

ÅLBORG (spelled Aalborg until 1948) is located on Jutland in northern Denmark. Jutland, the peninsula that divides the North Sea from the Baltic Sea, is the only part of Denmark attached to mainland Europe. It has unspoiled beaches, medieval hamlets, lush countryside, and an English-speaking population that is quite hospitable. Ålborg, the capital of Nordylland County, is situated on the Lim Fjord and is a major industrial and cultural center, as well as a commercial seaport. With a current population of about 120,000, Ålborg manufactures machinery, chemicals, cement, liquor, ships, and textiles. Known since the 11th century, the city was chartered in 1342. Of interest here is the 12th-century Cathedral of St. Botolph and a 16th-century castle. The local museum was designed by the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto. Scandinavia's largest festival of drama, dance, and music is held annually in Ålborg in September. Near the city is Rebild National Park, where American Independence Day is celebrated each year by Danes and Danish-Americans. Nearby, too, is Legoland, with its miniature cities, Mount Rushmore and Statue of Liberty replicas, and other wonders built from Lego blocks. Ålborg is also known for its oysters, both succulent and plentiful, from the Lim Fjord.

ESBJERG , Denmark's largest fishing port, is located in southwest Jutland on the North Sea. With a current population of 73,000, Esbjerg is a commercial and industrial center whose main development came after the construction of its port in the late 19th century. It was chartered as a city in 1899. Esbjerg's harbor, the best on the peninsula's west coast, exports meats and dairy products.

FREDERICIA , a seaport on the southeastern Jutland, has a population of close to 37,000. An important industrial center and rail junction, as well as a port of Lille Baelt, Fredericia manufactures textiles and chemicals and also has an oil refinery. Frederick III built the town as the main fortress on Jutland in 1650, and there was no expansion beyond the ramparts. Fredericia was the scene of the battle in which the Danes defeated the Prussians on July 6, 1849. Modern development began when the fortress was closed in 1909.

GENTOFTE , a suburb north of Copenhagen with a population of more than 77,000, is situated in eastern Denmark, less than 10 miles north of Frederiksberg. Many of the country's foreign embassies are located here. Gentofte has a horse-trotting course and is the home of the famous Tuborg breweries.

HELSINGØR (also called Elsinore) is located in northwestern Sjaelland directly across the Øresund Strait (or Sound) from Hälsingborg, Sweden. About 25 miles north of Copenhagen, Helsingør experienced its greatest growth from the 15th to the mid-17th century, when Danish kings collected tolls from the ships passing through the straits. Today, Helsingør is a fishing port, summer resort, and industrial center, manufacturing ships, machinery, textiles, and beer. Helsingør is probably best known as the site of Kronborg Castle, built between 1554 and 1585 and completely restored in the years 1925 to 1937. Considered the most secure fortress in the country, it was captured by Sweden in 1660. However, the castle is most famous as the scene of Shakespeare's Hamlet ; although Hamlet never lived at the castle, it is often the site of performances of the play. A maritime museum also is housed at Kronborg. The city is home to 35,000 residents.

HORSENS is a port on Horsens Fjord, on the east coast of central Jutland. With a population of 49,000, the city is a commercial and industrial center 23 miles south of Århus. It exports dairy products and manufactures tobacco products, textiles, and electrical equipment. A fortified town in the Middle Ages, the 13th-century monastery and church within its ramparts may be visited in Horsens today.

KOLDING is located in south-central Jutland on the eponymous fjord, an inlet of Lille Baelt. A seaport which exports cattle, fish, and grain, Kolding has a population of 53,000. Dating back to the 10th century, the city is the site of two important battles in Danish history; in 1644, the Danes defeated the Swedes here and, on April 12, 1849, the Danes were defeated in the Schleswig-Holstein conflict. Historical buildings include the oldest stone church in Denmark, built in the 13th century, and Koldinghus, a royal castle built in 1248.

Situated in southeastern Denmark, NAESTVED is about 35 miles south of the capital. Built around a Benedictine monastery which was founded in 1135, Naestved developed into a market center after the monks moved in the 12th century. The city's landmarks include St. Peder Kirke, the only reminder of the monastery; St. Morten's Kirke; and the remains of a medieval hospital, which is now a museum. The city manufactures textiles, glass, pottery, and paper. With a population of about 40,000, Naestved also has a fishing port.

RANDERS is a seaport on east Jutland, at the mouth of the Gudenå River. Located 22 miles north of Århus, Randers, whose population is 56,000, is a commercial and industrial center that produces dairy products. The city was founded in the 11th century and was an important trade center in the Middle Ages. Noted for its salmon fishing today, Randers has a 15th-century edificeChurch of St. Mortonand an 18th-century town hall.

About 15 miles south of Esbjerg is the town of RIBE , the capital of Ribe County. With a population of 8,000, the city is known for its architecture. Its cathedral, built about 1130, and restored in the late 19th century, is an excellent example of Dutch Romanesque design. Ribe prospered in the Middle Ages; the Black Friar's Abbey (built 1228), St. Catherine's Church (built about 1230), and the city hall (14th century) are examples of architecture from that period. There is also a wealth of 16th-and 17th-century houses.

ROSKILDE is a residential suburb 20 miles west of Copenhagen. A port on the Roskilde Fjord, it is one of the oldest cities in Denmark, serving as the country's capital from the 10th century until 1443, when it was replaced by Copenhagen. Roskilde was Denmark's ecclesiastical center from 1020 to 1536; then, during the Reformation, it was suppressed. The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, ceded Denmark's lands in southern Sweden to Charles X of Sweden. The city's cathedral, built late in the 12th century, contains about 40 royal tombs, including those of most Danish kings. There is also a museum of Viking ships and an atomic research center nearby. The city's current population is approximately 43,000.

VEJLE , in central Jutland, is a seaport on the fjord which bears its name. A commercial and industrial center and a rail junction, with a population of nearly 48,000, Vejle manufactures soap, textiles, and leather goods. St. Nicholas Church, built in the 13th century and later restored, is among the interesting local sights.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

Denmark lies directly north of Germany and south of Norway. The European part of the country proper is slightly smaller than Vermont and New Hampshire combined. Denmark consists of the Jutland Peninsula and 406 islands, of which 100 are inhabited. The straits between these islands connect the Baltic and the North Seas.

About 40 percent of the population is located on the island of Zealand, the largest island in Denmark proper. Here, the capital, Copenhagen, can be found.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands, although self-governing, are parts of Denmark. Greenland is the largest island in the world.

Denmark is regarded as an agricultural country. However, dramatic changes have occurred in recent years, and today only about 5 percent of the population is employed in agriculture.

The coastline is irregular and dotted with inlets, breaks, gently sloping fjords, and impressive cliffs. The public has access, as a right, to all the beaches of the country, including right of passage along privately owned shore.

Because Denmark is almost entirely surrounded by sea, it has a moderate, maritime climate. This, however, produces changeable weather, which makes forecasting an imperfect art. The average temperatures range from 32°F in February to 61°F in July. Temperatures vary slightly from day to night. Average annual rainfall is 24 inches. August and October are the wettest months. Days are short in winter, with about 6 hours of daylight in December and January. Daylight in summer lasts 18-20 hours.

Population

Denmark's population is about 5.4 million. About one-fourth live in Copenhagen and its suburbs.

The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark since prehistoric times. Danish, the principal language, is one of the more difficult European languages to speak; a reading knowledge is more easily acquired. Most Danes speak English.

Education is compulsory from ages 7 to 16 and is free through the university level on the basis of competitive exams.

The Lutheran Church is state supported and accounts for about 95 percent of Denmark's religious affiliation. Several other Protestant denominations and other religions exist.

Public Institutions

Denmark is the oldest kingdom in Europe. During the Viking period (9th-11th centuries), Denmark was a great power, based on the Jutland Peninsula, the island of Zealand, and the southern part of Sweden.

It became a constitutional monarchy with the adoption of the Constitution of 1849, which removed the King's absolute power and provided for separate administrative, legislative, and judicial agencies. This system was retained in the Constitution of 1953, now in force.

The Danish royal family is the oldest dynasty in Europe. The present Queen, Margrethe II, ascended to the throne in 1972.

The Queen, as head of the government, holds formal executive power, but her authority is mostly symbolic. She governs through the Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, who is chosen by the government party (or parties, in cases of coalitions) in the Parliament. The Prime Minister, in turn, appoints the Ministers, who implement government policy.

The Parliament, or Folketing, is unicameral. Its 179 members are popularly elected by universal suffrage. The usual term for the Folketing is 4 years, but the Prime Minister may call for national elections at any time. Eight parties are represented in Parliament, but none has enough seats to form a majority government alone.

The judicial branch of government is an appointed and independent Supreme Court.

Arts, Science, and Education

Denmark has a rich cultural and intellectual heritage and continues to contribute to the cultural achievements of the modern world. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe and the brilliant contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr are indicative of the range of Danish scientific achievement.

The "fairy tales" of Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75), the philosophical essays of Soren Kierkegaard, and the short stories of Karen Blixen (pen name Isak Dinesen) have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen.

Danish applied art and industrial design have won awards for excellence. The name Georg Jensen is famous for outstanding modern design in silver, and "Royal Copenhagen" is among the best of fine porcelains.

The Royal Danish Ballet is an exceptional company, specializing in the work of the great Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation.

International collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum, north of Copenhagen, and at the North Jutland Art Museum in Aalborg. The State Museum of Art and the Glyptotek, both in Copenhagen, contain treasures of Danish and international art. The Museum of Applied Art and Industrial Design in Copenhagen holds exhibits, featuring the best in Danish design.

Among Danish writers today, probably the most prolific is Klaus Rifbjergpoet, novelist, playwright, and screenwriter. Benny Andersen writes poems, short stories, and music. Poems by both writers have been translated into English by Curbstone Press. Kirsten Thorup's Baby, winner of the 1980 Pegasus Prize, is printed in English by the University of Louisiana Press. The psychological thrillers of Anders Bodelsen also appear in English.

In music, Hans Abrahamsen and Per Norgaard are the two most famous living composers. Hans Abrahamsen's works have been performed by the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C.

Two Danish films, "Babette's Feast" and "Pelle the Conqueror," won Academy Awards as Best Foreign Film in 1988 and 1989, respectively.

Danish education follows the traditional European system. School attendance is mandatory through age 15, when most students either continue their education or enter an apprenticeship program. Danes take great pride in achieving the status of skilled workers. Great emphasis is placed on adult education. Many evening courses are offered at Copenhagen University and in high schools.

Higher education is offered at commercial and technical colleges and universities. Denmark's universities are at Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, Roskilde, and Aalborg. The University of Copenhagen, the oldest and largest, has five faculties: theology, law and economics, medicine, arts, and science. Other seats of higher learning include the Technical University of Denmark, Academy of Engineers, Dental Colleges, and School of Pharmacy. In addition to academic requirements, foreign students must be fluent in the Danish language.

Interest in science and the arts is promoted by universities and special foundations such as the Carlsberg/Tuborg Foundation. Other research is financed by the State.

One of Denmark's best known institutes is the Niels Bohr Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen.

Commerce and Industry

An agricultural economy until World War II, in the postwar period, initially assisted by the Marshall Plan, Denmark rapidly developed into a modern industry and services society. Agriculture and fishing today account for 3 percent of the economy, services 72 percent, and industry 25 percent. Metal working and food processing are the most important industries.

Denmark's few natural resources are farmland, fish, and oil and natural gas in the North Sea. The Danish economy is, therefore, based on adding value to domestic and imported raw materials. Its living standard is one of the highest in the world. It has a highly unionized, well-paid, and skilled labor force. Denmark is heavily dependent on foreign trade. About 73 percent of total commodity exports are manufactured products and 17 percent agricultural and fish products.

2000 saw a 2.8% increase in the economy, assisted by continued strong exports, but also by a recovery in domestic demand. The present inflation rate, 2.9 percent, is low among the OECD countries. Following more than a quarter of a century of recurring balance-of-payments deficits, resulting in a large foreign debt and consequently large interest payments, the balance shifted into a surplus in 1990 and 1991, where it has remained, with the exception of a temporary deficit in 1998.

The U.S., in 2000, ranked number seven among Denmark's trading partners, accounting for more than 4 percent of total Danish commodity trade worth $68 billion. The EU accounts for more than half of the trade, Germany alone for 22 percent. Major U.S. exports to Denmark are aircraft, machinery and EDP equipment. Major Danish exports to the U.S. are machinery and equipment, foodstuffs (mostly canned ham and pork), and furniture.

Denmark is a major shipbuilding and shipping nation. A large share of shipping earnings stem from liner trade to and from the U.S. Danish shipbuilding.

Transportation

Local

Traffic moves on the right. Copenhagen's public transportation system is excellent. It includes bus and train service that is quick, clean, safe, and convenient. Fares are reasonable and monthly passes are available at reduced rates. Trains provide quick service to the suburbs, but little between midnight and 5 am.

Taxis are usually plentiful. All taxis have meters for calculating fares. They are not expensive.

Regional

Copenhagen is connected to all major European centers by rail and air. Both TWA and Delta Air Lines have daily service between the U.S. and Copenhagen. Tower Air operates flights twice weekly. Scandinavian Air Lines and other international airlines also provide service between Copenhagen and major U.S. cities.

Daily rail service is available to most European capitals. Ferries travel to Norway, Sweden, Germany, Poland, and England.

Many Danes use bicycles, not only for recreation, but also as a primary means of transportation. Designated bicycle lanes exist on most major thoroughfares. They are situated between the street and the sidewalk. Bicycles are required to have reflectors and, at night, are required to display a white light in front and a red light on the rear. Insurance is recommended. New bicycles are more expensive in Denmark than in the U.S.

Bicycles have the right-of-way and cars must yield to them. The only time a bicycle must yield to a pedestrian or a motor vehicle is when a pedestrian exits a city bus or when a motor vehicle is turning with a protected turn green light.

Pedestrians and motorists must not walk or turn into a bicycle lane.

Communications

Telephone and Telegraph

Local and long-distance telephone services are good. International telephone and telegraph service is available from Copenhagen to all parts of the world. AT&T credit card "USA Direct" service, MCI, and Sprint are available for calls to the U.S. and result in significant savings. Local telephone bills are received quarterly. No itemized breakdown of charge per call is available, even for long-distance calls, unless an operator is used.

Radio and TV

Denmark has two national TV channels and three national radio stations. Two Swedish TV channels can be received in Copenhagen with a good antenna. American and British programs and movies are often shown on all four TV channels in the original English, with Danish/Swedish subtitles. Color transmission is excellent. The PAL standard is used for broadcasting by Danish TV. Cable TV is available in most areas. Both CNN International and BBC are available on cable, as well as French, German, and Norwegian stations. Where cable is not available, satellite reception is available. Both systems have costs similar to those in the U.S.

Radio reception from Swedish, German, and British stations, as well as the German-based American Forces network, is possible with a good receiver and antenna.

Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals

Time, Newsweek, the Wall Street Journal, and the International Herald Tribune are sold locally. These and other English-language newspapers are sold at the main train station and in lobbies of large hotels. Danish libraries are good and have English sections. Books in English are also available at the British Council library.

Copenhagen bookstores sell the latest American and British books at about double the U.S. price.

Health and Medicine

Danish medical care is of high quality and is comparable to the medical care one finds throughout Western Europe. However, despite its high quality, the system for providing care in Denmark is different from that in the U.S. Waiting periods are common for routine, non-emergency surgery. Diagnostic tests take longer to schedule than in the U.S.

Medical Facilities

Diagnostic laboratories and specialists in all fields of medicine are available. Hospitals are well-equipped and reasonably priced. Maternity hospitals and many clinics are available. Most doctors and dentists speak English.

Most medicines are available locally. They may not, however, be the same brand names as those used in the U.S. Prices are higher than in the U.S., even though the prices are state controlled. Bring a supply of medicine that you know you will need.

Community Health

Sanitary conditions in Denmark are excellent. Danish law is strict about commercial processing, cooking, handling, and serving of foods. All dairies in the city supply pasteurized milk from tubercular-tested cows. All milk is safe to drink. Copenhagen is cleaner than most U.S. cities of comparable size.

Denmark has had no serious epidemics in years. Colds, influenza, and throat infections may be aggravated in winter by dampness and lack of sunshine. Persons with arthritis, rheumatism, and sinus troubles may find winter uncomfortable.

Preventive Measures

No special health risks occur in Denmark, and no special inoculations are required. Any needed immunization is available in Copenhagen.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

Jan. 1 New Year's Day

Jan. 6 Three King's Day

Feb. 14 Valentine's Day

Mar/Apr.Palm Sunday

Mar/Apr.Maundy Thursday*

Mar/Apr.Good Friday*

Mar/Apr.Easter*

Mar/Apr.Easter Monday*

Apr. 16 Queen Margrethe's Birthday

Apr/May.Common Prayer Day*

May/JuneAscension Day*

May Mother's Day*

May/JuneWhitsunday*

May/JuneWhitmonday*

June 5 Constitution Day

June Father's Day*

June 15 Flag Day

June Mid Summer Party*

Dec. 24 Christmas Eve

Dec. 25 Christmas Day

Dec. 26 Second Christmas Day

Dec. 31 New Year's Eve

*variable

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Travel to Copenhagen involves no special problems. Danish weather is variable, so bring clothing for cold and rain, whatever the season.

A valid passport is the only document needed for entry into Denmark. Neither a visa nor a vaccination certificate is required for entry.

U.S. visitors to Greenland and the Faroes require visas.

Cats and dogs imported from Australia, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.K. require no veterinary certificates. No stay is allowed outside these countries during travel to Denmark. The animals must be accompanied by their owner or other person.

Cats and dogs imported from other countries and Greenland require a special form, stating all relevant information, and certifying that the animal has been vaccinated against rabies, which must be presented to Customs. The certificate must further state that vaccination has taken place within the time limit of 1-12 months from the date of presentation. The pets must be accompanied by their owner or other person.

Import of other animals is subject to a special permit from the Danish Veterinary Authorities (contact Danish Consul).

A bilingual Danish-English certificate should be used if possible. A Veterinary Health Certificate, executed between 1 and 10 days before arrival in Copenhagen, is recommended.

The key to avoiding problems on arrival is to have the vaccination certificate, the health certificate, and the pet (s) accompany the traveler.

Denmark has decided not to convert to the euro. The Danish monetary units are kroner and ore, with 100 ore equaling 1 kroner. Coins are issued in 25 and 50 ore pieces, and 1, 5, 10, and 20 kroner pieces. Notes are issued in 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 kroner denominations. The current exchange rate is DKr 7.95=US$1.

The metric system of weights and measures is used in Denmark.

RECOMMENDED READING

These titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications.

Andersen, Ulla. We Live in Denmark. Watts, Franklin, Inc.: 1984.

Baedeker's Denmark. New York:Prentice-Hall, latest edition.

Birch, John H. Denmark in History. Gordon Press: 1976.

Borish, Steven M. The Land of the Living: The Danish Folk High Schools & Denmark's Non-Violent Path to Modernization. Blue Dolphin Publishing: 1991.

Flender, Harold. Rescue in Denmark. Repr. Paper. Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. Gronlund, J. The Denmark Book. Vanous Arthur Company: 1988.

Hansen, Judith E. We are a Little Land: Cultural Assumptions in Danish Everyday Life. Ayer Company Publishers, Inc.: 1981.

Hartling, Poul., ed. The Danish Church. Repr. of 1964 ed. Nordic Books.

Holbraad, Carsten. Danish Neutrality: A Study in the Foreign Policy of a Small State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Johansen, Hans C. The Danish Economy in the Twentieth Century. St. Martin's Press: 1986.

Jones, W. Glyn. Denmark: A Modern History, 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall, Inc.: 1986.

Jones, W. Glyn, and Kristen Gade. Blue Guide: Denmark. New York: Norton, 1992.

Lye, Keith. Take a Trip to Denmark. Watts, Franklin, Inc.: 1985.

MacHaffie, Ingeborg S., and Margaret A. Nielsen. Of Danish Ways. New York: HarperCollins, 1984.

Miller, Kenneth E. Denmark: A Troubled Welfare State. Westview Press: 1991.

Lerner, Geography Dept. Staff Denmark in Pictures. Lerner Publications Company: 1991.

P'alsson, Herman & Edwards, Paul. Kyntlinga Saga: History of the Kings Of Denmark. Coronet Books: 1986.

Tansill, Charles C. Purchase of the Danish West Indies. Repr. of 1932 ed. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.: 1968.

Danish Embassies have an excellent selection of government and tourist organization publications on Denmark.

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Denmark

Denmark

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Kingdom of Denmark
Region: Europe
Population: 5,336,394
Language(s): Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic, German, English
Literacy Rate: 100%



History & Background

Education is and has been regarded as one of the essential pillars of the Danish welfare state and has contributed to a relatively homogenous population and work force in Denmark. By international comparison, the Danish educational system today appears relatively coherent, comprehensive, and egalitarian. It is mainly controlled and financed by the State. School leaving, as well as the recognition of competences in further and higher education, is almost entirely regulated by the State through the Ministry of Education. However, the educational system includes a range of private institutions under public regulation and funding, and the participation of social interest groups and organizations in governing education is important for the function of the system. The core of education is a comprehensive primary school, which is, though locally governed, quite homogenous, and comprises a system of pathways into further and higher education. Furthermore, a wide range of education and training is available, particularly in adult and continuing education. The aim is for the system to be open and flexible; however, removing dead ends and detours caused by traditional admission criteria and lack of institutional coordination is still being attempted.

Until the sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church was responsible for education. After the Protestant Reformation, Denmark was one of the first European countries to establish a national Lutheran Church, and the Church had a huge historical influence on Danish education. The foundations of the system, stemming from Reformation statutes of the 1530s, survived until the end of the nineteenth century. In 1536, the State took over the grammar schools from the Catholic Church, and the history of the Danish national education system may be said to have begun from this date. State supremacy was accepted and even promoted by the Lutherans, with the result that the Church and the State were never in conflict.

The later development has been motivated by the national State and has been strongly influenced by the fact that Denmark was an agricultural society until World War II. Since then, a rapid development of the industrial and service sectors has taken place, and the development of the educational system may be regarded as a specific consequence of modernization.

The impact of modernization and novel philosophies of education was felt in three different directions, all related to social class. The most famous direction was the growing class of independent farmers, liberated from landlords and influenced by the revolutionary democratic trends in the rest of Europe. The result was a Free School Movement, which owes its origin to the ideas of N. F. S. Grundtvigpoet, clergyman and philosopher. Grundtvig criticized the grammar schools for being too academic and elitist, and was opposed to the rigid style of the Church. He defended a more joyous and lively religious practice. He believed in the "necessity of the living word for the awakening of life and the transmission of the spirit," as well as in the development of basic skills.

This rather romantic idea of a Nordic popular culture was to be promoted by folk high schools outside the control of the State. In 1852, Kristen Kold founded the first of many Scandinavian folk high schools. These schools had no entrance or leaving examinations, and instruction was confined to lectures. Students were generally adults from 18 to 30 years of age. The teaching includedwith local variationshistory, religion, Danish language and literature, mathematics, science, gymnastics, and practical farm work. The terms were five residential winter months and three residential summer months. This tradition of schooling based on an agricultural rural class endured until after World War II and has remained a part of nonformal Danish education, influencing the state school system and offering alternative schools of liberal as well as practical education.

During the nineteenth century, the rise of urban merchant classes needing a more practical type of schooling led to a secularization of the State school system, with the inclusion of modern languages and science in the curriculum. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a modern system of general education had thus already taken shape in the cities and towns, comprising the folkeskole ("school of the people") at the elementary level and the mellemskole ("middle school") at the middle level. The former Latin grammar schools were replaced by real-skoler (lower secondary schools). A three-year upper secondary school, or gymnasium, prepared students for university education of the German Humboldt'ian type. For another half century, however, the modernization mainly affected secondary education in urban communities. It was a very selective education system with a strong class bias, the streaming (or channeling) taking place at the mellemskole level.

The influence of the growing working class led to a demand for a more egalitarian school system. The labor movement secured public funding of primary schools and evening classes. The selectivity in admission to secondary education, however, remained unchallenged. Urban and rural communities had different types of school systems until the 1950s.


Constitutional & Legal Foundations


The Danish Constitution from 1849 (section 76) states that education shall be compulsory (whether provided by the family or school) and free in public institutions. It defines the goal of education to be the development of the pupil's personality, aptitudes, and needs, and the promotion of academic achievement and practical skills on the one hand and spiritual values and community consciousness on the other. Danish education has further been shaped by a small number of historic statutes and regulations such as the Grammar Schools Act of 1809, the Act of 1857 abolishing the control of crafts training by the guilds, the Apprenticeship Act of 1889, and the Act of 1814 introducing seven years of compulsory education, as well as a number of pieces of legislation in the second half of the 1900s.


Educational SystemOverview


Denmark is generally considered a progressive country. Several factors, howeverthe late modernization, the parallel existence of very different lifestyles, the decisive political influence of a self-conscious class of independent farmers with its own educational ideashelp to explain the contradictory trends in educational development and the comparative absence of planning. Legislation has most often taken the form of national ratifications of existing developments and compromises.

After World War II, a whole range of educational reforms was passed for political, economic, and social reasons. The Act of 1958 unified urban and rural school systems and established the 10-year folkeskole with its two components: the elementary hovedskole (main school) and the optional lower secondary school, the realafdeling. The gymnasium (upper secondary school) was reformed by the Act of 1961. The first legislation on vocational education and training were the Act on Technical Schools and the Act on Labor Market Training in 1960.

In 1976, a new Education Act reshaped the school system as it exists today. It introduced nine years of comprehensive primary and lower secondary education for all, and an optional 10th year and an optional preschool year. The act permits local authorities to abolish the previous division between language and science in the eighth and ninth grades, and encourages individualized teaching in foreign languages, mathematics, physics, and chemistry. This is regarded as the last step towards abolishing streaming of children during their schooling. However, in upper secondary schools, children are still channeled into either an academic branch giving access to higher education or a less academic and more practical vocational branch.

The free school tradition remains alive and visible: Besides alternative primary schools, there are still about a hundred residential folk high schools that embody the ideas of Bishop Grundtvig. Rather than primarily rural, today's students come from a broad range of young people, as well as senior citizens. Group work and seminars dominate the instructional calendar. Furthermore, there are choices of free schools for 14- to 18-year-olds: Efterskoler (continuation schools) offer an alternative to tenth grade of the folkeskole, and ungdomsskoler (youth schools) are designed for school-leavers who lack particular skills.


Primary & Preprimary Education

In Denmark, education is compulsory for nine years and usually commences in August in the calendar year of the child's seventh birthday. While preschool is optional, the majority of children attend one or more of the three types: the vuggestuer, which are day nurseries for children younger than three; the bo rnehave, which are kindergartens for children between three and seven; and the bo rnehaveklasser or preschool classes for children between five and seven.

The municipal folkeskole and private schools offer optional preschool classes (i.e., bo rnehaveklasser ) for the year preceding compulsory education; 97 percent of families accept this offer for their children. Since 1986, preschool classes have been an integrated part of primary education as it has been made possible for schools to combine some of the teaching in preschool classes with that of the first and second forms of primary school.


Primary & Lower Secondary Education: In Denmark, educationand not schoolingis compulsory for nine years, which means that education can take place in the public folkeskole, in private schools, or at home, providing that national standards are met and that an adequate range of subjects is offered to the pupil. Primary and lower secondary schooling is not separated in Denmark, and pupils thus attend the same school from the first form through to the ninth. Approximately 89 percent of children go to public schools (folkeskolen ) free of charge, while approximately 11 percent attend private schools.

Folkeskolen : The Danish folkeskole provides nine years of compulsory education free of charge. It also offers optional preschool classes and an optional 10th form. The aim is to contribute to the all-round academic, social, and personal development of the individual child by providing subject-specific qualifications and preparing pupils for living in a democratic society. The latter requires that the school and its daily life be based on intellectual freedom, equality, and democracy. As the schools are required to emphasize the personal and social development of each pupil, an intimate collaboration between the school and the pupil's home is considered vital. Pupils and parents or guardians must accordingly receive information about the child's academic and social performance at school at least twice a year.

The school year starts in August and ends in June, and comprises two hundred school days. The folkeskole has virtually abandoned streaming of children, and all pupils therefore automatically proceed to the next level. Pupils remain together in the same class for all nine years. While class sizes must not exceed 28, the average is 19 children; the pupil-teacher ratio is 10:4.

The Danish folkeskole employs a unique "classteacher" system, whereby one teacher is responsible for a class for nine years. The class-teacher supervises the academic, social, and personal development of all pupils in the class and is the principal link between the children's homes and the school. The class-teacher is allocated one weekly hour called "Klassens time" ("the lesson of the class") for discussion of issues concerning the well being of the class. Moreover, the class-teacher may spend some teaching time on camps, outings, or work experience.


Curriculum: The Minister of Education is responsible for setting the targets of achievement for each subject taught in the folkeskole ; however, local authorities and schools are free to decide on how to reach these. The Ministry of Education provides curriculum guidelines for each subject; the guidelines are merely recommendations, and the schools are allowed to formulate their own curricula as long as they are in accordance with the overall target levels. Most schools appear to employ the guidelines articulated by the Ministry.

Danish, mathematics, physical education/sport, and Christian studies are compulsory all nine years. Art must be taught from the first to the fifth forms, science and music from the first to the sixth forms, and history from the third to the eighth forms. Textile design, woodwork and metal work, and home economics should be taught at one or more levels within the fourth to the seventh forms. English is compulsory from the fourth to the ninth forms, geography and biology at the seventh and eighth forms. Physics and chemistry must be taught from the seventh to the ninth forms, and social studies should be offered in the ninth form. Pupils are offered instruction in German from the seventh to the ninth forms, but may be offered French instead.

There are certain compulsory topics to be included in the educational program. These consist of traffic safety, health and sex education, and educational, vocational, and labor-market orientation. Furthermore, a wide range of optional subjects may be offered from the eighth to the 10th form, including, for instance, word processing, technology, drama, Spanish, and common immigrant languages.

Pupils in the ninth and tenth forms are required to complete and present an interdisciplinary project. The project is assessed in a written statement, and if the pupil so wishes, a mark may be given and indicated on the school-leaving certificate.


School Leaving Examinations: There are two levels of school-leaving examinations in the Danish folkeskole : The Folkeskolens Afgangspro ve (the Leaving Examination) and the Folkeskolens Udvidede Afgangspro ve (the Advanced Leaving Examination). Both comprise a mixture of written and oral exams. The former may be taken in 11 subjects after the ninth and tenth forms, while the latter may be taken in five subjects after the tenth form only. Marks are awarded on a scale from zero to 13. The Ministry of Education provides standard rules for the examinations; the questions in written exams are set and marked centrally.

Neither of the leaving examinations is compulsory, and the pupil, along with parents or guardiansand following consultations with the schoolare free to decide whether to take them. School-leavers receive a leaving certificate with marks for the performance in classes during the final year and their examination results. Furthermore, the pupil may wish to include the mark for the ninth or 10th form interdisciplinary project.


Alternatives to the Public Folkeskole : There are 421 private schools distributed throughout Denmark. Rather than having been founded for academic reasons, these schools are generally based on denominational preferences, pedagogic theories, or political and social ideologies. Eleven percent of children attend private schools for the compulsory nine years of education.

The State subsidizes approximately 80 percent of private schools costs, while parents pay the remaining 20 percent, which in average amounts to 700 DKK per month, with substantial variation. The combination of non-academic reasons for founding private schools and the relatively low tuition fees means that, in contrast to other countries, Danish private schools are not generally considered "elitist," and they do not necessarily provide pupils with higher social status or advantages in terms of entry to higher education. Private schools are free to articulate the content of their curricula, but they are required to meet national standards in their providing school-leaving examinations.

Education of Teachers for the Folkeskolen : Denmark has a unified training system, training a group of teachers who cover the whole period of compulsory schooling with a minimal specialization of subjects, clearly distinguishing primary and lower secondary school teachers from other categories of teachers. The training takes approximately four years and consists of a mixture of theoretical studies and practical training in the form of practice teaching. The curriculum includes common core subjects such as Danish, psychology, pedagogy, social studies, arithmetic, and religion, as well as the in-depth study of two optional subjects. The course contains 16 weeks of practice teaching, divided into four periods of four weeks each, in four different schools. There are currently 18 colleges offering teacher-training courses.


Secondary Education


Efterskoler & Ungdomsskoler : Efterskoler (continuation schools) are boarding schools for the eighth to the tenth forms, and are completed with either the Leaving Examination or the Advanced Leaving Examination. Previously, these schools catered to pupils who had encountered academic, social, or personal problems in the formal school system; however, this image has changed dramatically, and the continuation schools are now attended by an increasing number of young people who desire a year or more away from home.

Ungdomsskoler (youth schools) are designed for school-leavers who lack particular skills; they may be residential as well as non-residential.

Nearly all school-leavers continue in some type of secondary education; 53 percent continue in upper secondary schools, which are academically oriented, whereas 41 percent attend colleges emphasizing a vocational content (either technically or commercially oriented).


Gymnasium & Ho jere Forberedelseseksamen (HF) : The Danish gymnasium and HF (Higher Preparatory Examination) are two forms of academically oriented upper secondary education and are attended by as many as 53 percent of all school-leavers. These programs contain a general education in its own right that also prepares students for higher education. Denmark has approximately 295 gymnasiums and HFs, of which 85 percent are publicly owned; the State covers the cost of these. The remaining 15 percent are private institutions; the State subsidizes 80 to 85 percent of the costs of these.

The gymnasium is the most traditional type of upper secondary school; it consists of a three-year course directed to students who have recently completed nine years of compulsory education. The HF was introduced in 1967 and is parallel to the gymnasium, but directed at those who have left the education system and wish to return to study. HF can be taken as a two-year full-time course or a single subject at a time.

Full-time students at the gymnasium or HF receive instruction in approximately 13 subjects. The courses contain a core of compulsory subjects such as Danish, English, mathematics, basic science, and history; students are further required to choose a number of electives from a wide range of subjects such as music, art, philosophy, and social studies. Students must also complete a major written assignment in their final year of study.

The gymnasium is completed with the studentereksamen (upper secondary school leaving examination) comprising 10 parts, three written and seven oral. Students are also assessed continuously in terms of their oral and written performance in classes. The HF is completed with the HF eksamen (higher preparatory examination). In contrast to the gymnasium, no marks are given for oral and written performance during the year; instead, students are required to take examinations in every subject studied. Marks are given on a scale from zero to 13, and students must have an average of six to pass their upper secondary education. The national examination system is administered by the Ministry of Education.


Ho jere Handels Eksamen (HHX) & Ho jere Tekniske Eksamen (HTX) : The HHX (higher commercial examination) and HTX (higher technical examination) comprise a vocationally oriented upper secondary education, which qualifies students for admission to higher education as well as for employment in trade and industry, usually in training positions. The two programs take three years each and are offered at most business and technical colleges. Admission requires completion of nine years of compulsory education.

The HHX and HTX consist of a core of compulsory subjects such as Danish, English and a second foreign language, as well as subjects specifically related to either commerce (e.g., business studies, economics, and sales) or technology (e.g., technology studies, vocational studies, and natural sciences). Students are further required to choose five or six electives from subjects relevant to their course. In their final year, all students must complete a major written assignment.

Some commercial colleges also offer the ho jere handelseksamen, or HH (higher commercial examination), which comprises a one-year course available to students who have completed an upper secondary school leaving examination. The HH consists of compulsory subjects and electives.

Examinations: Students at the HHX, HTX, and HH are required to take examinations in all subjects studied; students are also assessed continuously in terms of oral and written performance in classes. Marks are awarded on a scale of zero to 13, and students must obtain an average of six to pass their upper secondary education. The Ministry of Education is responsible for administering the examinations.


Teacher Qualifications & Teaching Structure: Teachers must have completed a master of arts or master of science degree, as well as an additional course in educational theory and practice to teach at the gymnasium, HF, HHX, or HTX. Unlike teaching in the folkeskole, upper secondary teaching is specializedthat is, each teacher teaches only one or two subjects.


Vocational Education & Training: An alternative direction of upper secondary education consists of vocational educations. Through the 1950s, vocational education took the form of apprenticeship in a specific craft. Through several reforms it has now become organized in the form of a number of vocational education programs, each oriented to a set of related technical, commercial, or service functions and consisting of schooling as well as practical training or apprenticeship. Since the nineteenth century, employers' branch associations and skilled workers' unionsrather than classical guildscontrolled the craft education. The intervention of the State resulted in a trilateral governing system, which remains today. The State, employers, and the trade unions share control of the quality of practical training and examinations, as well as the curriculum.

Today, vocational education offers dual programs with intermittent schooling and practical training (vekseluddannelse ). Technical schools (tekniske skoler ) provide a range of vocational programs based on traditional crafts, leading to recognized skilled professions. But the schools also offer training in advanced technical domains. Commercial schools, or handelsskoler, offer two-year day or evening classesleading to an examination (handelseksamen ) in general subjects, languages, accounting, or retail trade. There have been no apprenticeships in agriculture, but the residential agricultural schools (landbrugsskoler ) accepted students in this field without examinations for a professional education; recently this education has been included in the umbrella legislation of the traditional crafts' education. Banks and some public services have their own basic training programs. There is a tendency towards merging these particular programs with those provided and regulated by the State.

It appears that an increasing number of companies employ young people with no specific vocational skills or experience and train them. Meanwhile, the general level of vocational education is increasing. The commercial and technical schools also provide a general upper secondary education intended to be equivalent to the gymnasium as a path to higher education, but it puts less emphasis on classical education, arts, and sports, and more on vocationally relevant skills. Obviously these provisions of erhvervsgymnasiale programs (vocational education and training) attract different groups of young people with somewhat different class backgrounds and motivations, and they probably counteract a general trend of students moving into the gymnasium and academic higher education.


Higher Education


Denmark has five universities and a number of professional colleges that have gradually achieved university status (e.g., engineering and commerce). Mass university education has developed without overhauling the fundamental structure of institutions and programs. However, two of the universities are relatively new ones: Roskilde and Aalborg. These differ from the others in that the courses are organized around project work, and research and teaching are regarded as interdisciplinary. They were established as reforms in the 1970s and have had some impact on teaching in other universities, but not generally on structure. During the 1970s, a democratic governing system replaced the faculty collegial government. An unusual democratic culture has developed and still prevails, although it is on the decline. Universities in general have not been able to meet the demands for general reforms and for more openness and sensitivity to problems of society. Universities have resisted political pressure to adapt directly to the needs of industry and the labor market, and thus fueled a political process of applying criteria of the labor market and reorganizing the governing system of universities by centralizing and delegating substantial executive powers to rectors, deans and department heads. The views on the possible impact on the quality of education and research and on academic independence vary substantially, as do views on the need to reform universities.

Besides institutions at university level, there is a range of professional colleges that train primary school teachers, kindergarten and preschool pedagogues, nurses, and social workers, among other professionals. These have grown separately from other educational institutions, but have gradually become essential parts of the education system. In 2000, these colleges began to establish direct links to university institutions and research to strengthen professional education and direct research to issues related to these fields. They are part of a more open system for continuing education (see below), which may create new and flexible educational pathways. A "professional bachelor degree" is being introduced, giving access to master's degree programs at universities, which could trigger major changes in the traditional universities as well.


Administration, Finance & Educational Research

Almost all types of education are legally regulated, in most cases placing the responsibility for the direction and quality on the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Labor has developed training and general education for the least educated and skilled members of the labor force, sometimes in competition with the Ministry of Education. In the new millennium, the trend is to bring all education and training into one comprehensive system. Most education is provided in public institutions; in most private institutions, there is public recognition and a legal framework as well as substantial public funding. Within this standardized framework, there is, guided by relative political consensus, a strong tradition for delegating responsibility to local authorities for primary school administration. While the State had a more direct influence on universities and vocational education from the 1950s to the 1970s, since then there has been a political struggle between a market-oriented management style and a local democracy based on self-administration.

The executive governing is, however, quite different in the various educational domains. Primary schools and the academic secondary schools (gymnasiums ) are state-regulated but run by local authoritiesmunicipalities for primary schools, counties for upper secondary. Likewise, municipalities and counties are responsible for general adult education in community colleges and evening classes within the legal regulation of their minimum provision. Fundamentally, these schools have been controlled and developed by teachers. Today, we see new relations: The school management is strengthened in relation to teachers while held responsible to school boards in which parents have direct executive influence. Furthermore, the pupils' council is, in general, entitled to influence all matters deemed to concern them.

Though formally State-owned, vocational schools and labor-market training centers are governed by boards with a strong representation from local and national employers' associations and trade unions. On a national level, advisory councils also play a role in the development as well as in setting priorities. The State control has been strengthened, but is now being delegated while school management is strengthened.

Universities and folk high schools are both characteristicalthough very differentsectors of selfmanaging institutions funded by the state. They both feel the indirect but persistent pressure to adapt to societal trends and government concerns.


Nonformal Education


Adult & Continuing Education: Adult education comprises at least three major sectors. One is the liberal adult education in folk high schools, in evening classes, and at university extensions. Today, the variety of forms in this sector consist of compromises and has been influenced by the traditions of the rural free school movement in the nineteenth century and the working class in the first half of the twentieth century. During the second half of the twentieth century, a generous and liberal State support enabled this sector to become an educational leisure culture of substantial size. The formats vary from evening classes once a week through the winter season, to block courses, to residential courses of a few days, to the 14-week residential course of folk high schools. Approximately three-fourths participants are women), and all age groups are represented. During the 1980s, an interesting innovation took place in the form of day folk high schools; inspired by the classical folk high schools, these schools provide day courses mainly for unemployed adultspredominantly unskilled women. The courses are usually full-time for at least eight weeks and comprise general subjects, arts, language, personal development, and citizenship training.

A second sector, begun in the 1950s, provides general schooling for adults in community colleges (voksenuddannelsescentre, or VUC literally, "adult education centers"). The VUC attract people with very different backgrounds and goals; women make up approximately two-thirds of attendees. Students may attend full time or take only a single subject with a few lessons per week, which can be accumulated for a full examination diploma. The community colleges are still largely concerned with general adult education; however, there is a clear trend towards including these in a wider market of continuing education that embraces and partly merges with vocational and general education.

A third sector consists of training and education related to the labor market. In 1960, the State introduced a program to retrain workers for industry and construction to facilitate labor market mobility (arbejdsmarkedsuddannelserne, or AMU literally, "labor market educations"). This has developed into programs that provide both complete professional education and supplementary upgrading programs converting unskilled workers into skilled workers. This education and training covers a wide range of branches of industry and services, including business services such as cleaning and catering, and new branches such as waste handling and personal services. In most branches, there is a strong male dominance; a few domains, however, are dominated by females, which reflects the gender division of the labor market at large. The courses consist of basic and specific skills, whereas the comprehensive programs comprise technical skills as well as basic technology and social and general knowledge. The AMU centers have provided additional training services for young unemployed people and disadvantaged groups with the specific purpose of enabling access to the labor market, at times including general and vocational education.

Since 1990, an enormous expansion has taken place in continuing education, not only among workers, but to a larger extent among professionals, managers, middle managers, and specialists. Well-researched information about the extent of this activity is sparse, but it can be assumed to engage 2 percent or more of the work force in terms of work time spent. Much of it is provided ad hoc in the form of private courses for a specific group, or for employees of a specific company. Recently, State and communal employees have taken up continuing education and training as part of their employment, from part-time evening classes to concentrated courses, often two to three days in residence. The cost is usually higher than similar courses provided by the State, and such market-based activity carries no formal recognition to the participants outside their workplace.


Reform of Continuing Education: In 2000, the Danish government launched a major reform of adult and continuing education, which contained three pivotal aims:

  • To re-orient the entire education system and its institutions to a more direct collaboration with industry and business enterprises, and to provide continuing education more extensively.
  • To create a coherent system of continuing educationparallel to the present basic systemthat enables people to accumulate competencies throughout their lives through a sequence of programs, admission to each of which requires practical professional experience after successfully completing the previous program.
  • To reconstruct the funding of continuing education so that users (participants as well as their employers) pay more of the costs, and so that training and funding are offered in response to market needs.

For this purpose, a new "parallel system of competencies" has been established, comprising a sequence of programs at four levels: general adult education, advanced adult education, diploma, and master's degree. Part of the philosophy of this system is to allow for different ways of attaining these levels, including recognizing nonformal competencies. However, programs of study at each step are assumed to correspond to the level of teaching in the "ordinary" education system. They should largely cover the same content. In most cases, however, one step amounts to only one year of full-time ("ordinary") study; it is assumed that professional experience contributes to learning. Access to each level is defined by the completion of the previous level, plus at least two years of active relevant work based on the previous level of competence. The system is thus intended to enable a full "ladder climbing"in principle even enabling someone to study at the Ph.D. level after the completing the master's level. This latter step is still controversial, however; bridging between the two ladders is possible, but not an ordinary path.

The system gives credit to relevant vocational and professional experience; it is also assumed, howeverfor better or worsethat the quality of the new levels is likely to be different from that of ordinary education.

The details of the system are still in the making, and it is, therefore, difficult to assess its future impact. Much will depend on funding mechanisms. The intention is to leave the burden to individual users and employers, depending on the type of education and training. In some domains, this may imply a substantial shift away from a system of public funding, and this is therefore subject to political discussion and organizational bargaining. However, there seems to be no doubt that the model represents a trend in the overall educational system in three ways: recognition of real competencies; modular programs and lifelong access routes; and more flexible and multiple uses of educational institutions and programs. There is thus no doubt that this trend will persist, with potentially great impact.


Bibliography

Andrésen, A. The Danish Folkeho jskole Today: A Description of Residential Adult Education in Denmark, Copenhagen : Copenhagen: Folkehojskole Association of Denmark, 1991.

Bjerg, J. "Reflections on Danish Comprehensive Education 1903-1990." European Journal of Education, vol. 26 (2), 1991.

Dixon, W. Education in Denmark. Copenhagen: Centraltrykkeriet, 1958.

The Danish Gymnasium: General Rules. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Education, 1991.

The Danish Higher Preparatory Examination: General Rules. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Education, 1991.

Danish Youth Education: Problems and Achievements, Report to the OECD. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Education, 1994.

The Education System. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Education, 1998.

Jensen, Jens Hojgaard, and Henning Salling Olesen (eds.). Project StudiesA Late Modern University Reform. Copenhagen: Roskilde University Press, 1996.

Nordenbo, S. E. "Concepts of Freedom in Danish School Legislation," in Education for the 21st Century Commonalities and Diversities. Copenhagen: Waxmann, 1998.

Rordam, T. The Danish Folk High Schools. Copenhagen, 1965.

Salling Olesen, H. Adult Education and Everyday Life. Copenhagen: Roskilde University Press, 1989.

Salling Olesen, H., and P. Rasmussen. Theoretical Issues in Adult Education: Danish Research and Experiences. Copenhagen: Roskilde University Press, 1996.

The Transition from Initial Education to Working Life in Denmark. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Education, 1998.

Thodberg, C., and A. Pontoppidan. N. F. S. GrundtvigTradition and Renewal: Grundtvig's Vision of Man and People, Education and the Church, in Relation to World Issues Today, Copenhagen: The Danish Institute, 1983.

Webb, T. W., and L. Lerche Nielsen. Higher Education in Denmark. Roskilde: Institute VII and the Information Section, 1991.


Henning Salling Olesen and Thomas W. Webb

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Denmark

DENMARK

DENMARK. Denmark was an expansive, sparsely populated kingdom. It embraced Denmark itself, the Scanian provinces at the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula (until 1660), the kingdom of Norway and its vassal state, Iceland, the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein-Segeberg, the Færoe Islands, and the Baltic island of Bornholm. Its aggregate population in 1600 numbered around 1.5 million, but territorial losses incurred in 16581660 reduced that number somewhat. Although not a wealthy state, at its height it produced and exported substantial quantities of grain, hides, timber, fish, and cattle. Its main source of wealth and power came from its position astride the Sound and the Belts, which gave Denmark control over maritime traffic entering or leaving the Baltic. From 1426, the kings of Denmark collected the Sound Dues, a commercial duty on shipping passing through the Sound at Helsingør. The Sound Dues became the monarchy's single most important source of revenue, and command of the Sound gave Denmark prestige and influence disproportionate to its small population and resource base.

Before 1660, the system of government was a conciliar, elective monarchy under the rule of the Oldenburg dynasty, with its administrative center at Copenhagen. The kings shared power with the Council of State (Rigsråd), whose membership was drawn from a handful of aristocratic families. Diets and popular assemblies were generally insignificant at the national level. From 1536 to 1660, Norway, with its vassal state Iceland, was a mere province of Denmark, while the "duchies" of Schleswig and Holstein were the monarch's personal patrimony. The kings' dual identities as Scandinavian sovereigns and as princes of the Holy Roman Empire ensured that Denmark would enjoy close commercial and cultural ties with the German lands.

The sixteenth century witnessed a considerable expansion of royal and state power in Denmark. At the beginning of the century, Denmark was still linked to both Norway and Sweden by the Kalmar Union of 1397, but separatist tendencies in Sweden had rendered the union meaningless before its dissolution in 1523. The autocratic and centralizing rule of Christian II (ruled 15131523) sparked a national uprising in Sweden in 1520, leading to Sweden's independence three years later. The king's policies, which favored mercantile and peasant interests over those of the nobility, likewise stirred discontent within Denmark and led to his deposition in 1523. The council replaced Christian II with his more passive uncle, Frederick I (ruled 15231533), who paved the way for the Protestant Reformation by his toleration for Lutheran preaching. Civil warthe so-called "Count's War" (15341536)broke out when Frederick died, as the king's son, the avowedly Lutheran Christian of Holstein, and the exiled Christian II fought over the throne. Ultimately, Christian of Holstein was victorious and was crowned Christian III (ruled 15361559). Christian III introduced Lutheranism as the state religion, and, although he brought greater power and wealth (the latter through the confiscation of church properties) to the central authority, he maintained good relations with the great magnates and kept the realm at peace for his entire reign. His enviable record in this regard was shattered by his son, Frederick II (ruled 15591588), who conquered the Ditmarschen region in Holstein (1559) and brought Denmark to war with Sweden in the Seven Years' War of the North (15631570). Denmark proved unable to vanquish Sweden, but the bloody conflict severely disrupted Baltic trade and thus drew the attention of all Europe. The remainder of Frederick II's reign was peaceful, and after 1570 the king devoted himself to ecclesiastical reform, endeavoring as well to craft an international Protestant alliance. Denmark was at the height of its power and cultural influence: the navy was, in 1588, the equal of the Elizabethan fleet, and the monarchy supported such luminaries as the theologian Niels Hemmingsen (15131600) and the astronomer Tycho Brahe (15461601).

TRANSITION TO ABSOLUTISM

The central event in seventeenth-century Denmark was the transition to absolute monarchy. Following a difficult regency, Frederick II's ambitious son came to the throne as Christian IV (ruled 15961648). Christian IV sought to expand Denmark's dominance in Baltic and north German affairs, taking control of several secularized bishoprics in the Holy Roman Empire, challenging the waning commercial power of the Hanseatic League, initiating a trade monopoly in Iceland, and trying without success to conquer Sweden (the Kalmar War, 16111613). The king's fears of Habsburg aggression prompted him to take up the leadership of a Protestant coalition and to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War (16181648). Denmark's intervention, called the "Lower Saxon War" (16251629), proved calamitous. Denmark escaped utter destruction through a lenient peace treaty (Lübeck, 1629), but the war bankrupted the state, damaged Denmark's international reputation, and wrecked the relationship between king and council.

Christian IV's efforts to reassert his influence in German affairs, and to sidestep the opposition in the council, exacerbated the split between king and aristocracy. Sweden's invasion of Denmark near the end of his reign (the Torstensson War, 16431645) effectively ended Christian's political career. Christian's son and successor, Frederick III (ruled 16481670), was initially almost powerless because of the aristocratic reaction that followed his father's death. His attempt at revenge against Sweden (the Charles Gustav Wars, 16571660) was an abject failure; Swedish armies invaded Denmark and compelled the conclusion of a humiliating peace (Roskilde, 1658, and Copenhagen, 1660). Only Dutch intervention prevented the Swedish king Charles X Gustav (ruled 16541660) from partitioning Denmark. Denmark lost the Scanian provinces and much of Norway, and, thereby, control over the Sound.

The crushing defeat, a huge national debt, and a popular antiaristocratic backlash spurred a royalist revolution in the autumn of 1660. Frederick III accepted the diet's offer of hereditary and absolute kingship, confirmed by the Royal Law (Lex Regia) of 1665, Europe's only formal absolutist constitution. Under absolutism, which would survive until the revolutionary upheavals of 18481849, Denmark would gain a measure of order and efficiency, but it would never again attain the status of a major power. The old administration was replaced gradually by a collegial system, topped by a privy council; the nobility lost its tax-exempt status. During the reign of Christian V (ruled 16701699), the king and his chief ministers (notably Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld [16351699]) initiated a flurry of reforms and commercial endeavors, including the introduction of ranking in the noble estate (1671), the creation of the West Indies Company (1671), and a standardized law code (1683). Denmark had recovered sufficiently from the disasters of 16571660 to undertake an offensive war against Sweden (the Scanian War, 16751679), although all of the territories conquered by Danish forces were returned to Sweden as the result of French diplomatic pressure. Christian V's attempts to subjugate Hamburg and Holstein-Gottorp in the 1680s proved similarly fruitless.

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

The eighteenth century started with a new king (Frederick IV, ruled 16991730) and a new war. Denmark's resentment of its powerful neighbor Sweden continued unabated, and in 1700 Frederick IV attacked Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp in conjunction with offensives launched by Poland-Saxony and Russia (the Great Northern War, 17001721).TheyoungSwedishwarrior-king, CharlesXII (ruled 16971718), easily defeated Denmark and forced it out of the war within weeks. Although temporarily cowed, Frederick renewed the war after Charles XII's 1709 defeat at Poltava (in what is now the Ukraine), managing some limited territorial gains. The war continued in earnest after Charles XII returned in 1714 from his lengthy exile in Turkey but ground to a halt after the Swedish king's death in battle in Norway (1718). Although there were serious international crises involving Sweden in the 1740s and Russia in the 1760s, Denmark did not go to war again for the remainder of the century.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, the kings (Frederick IV, ruled 16991730; Christian VI, ruled 17301746; and Frederick V, ruled 17461766) steadily exerted greater control over Danish society while favoring the mercantile elite. The peasantry, already suffering the effects of falling grain prices, felt the most pressure: the creation of a national militia in 1701 restored to the landowning nobility considerable control over the lives of the peasants; to sustain the militia, further decrees enacted in 1733 restricted the movement of male peasants of military age. The trading companiesespecially the West Indies-Guinea Company, which managed the lucrative sugar exports from Denmark's colonies in the Caribbean (the present-day U.S. Virgin Islands)prospered, as did Copenhagen, the staple-town of several trade monopolies.

The Enlightenment had as profound an impact on Danish politics and society as it did on intellectual life. Mid-century witnessed the blossoming of literature and the arts in Denmark, as evidenced by the career of the author Ludwig Holberg (16841754). Though the last two kings of the century (Frederick V, 17461766; Christian VII, 17661808) were mediocrities at best, a series of ministers and royal favoritesAdam Gottlob Moltke (17101792), Andreas Peter Bernstorff (17351797), Johann Friedrich Struensee (17371773), and Ove Høegh-Guldberg (17311808)introduced typical "enlightened" reforms, aimed primarily at increasing agricultural productivity while improving the brutal living conditions of the peasantry. Struensee was personally responsible for sweeping reforms, including freedom of the press, but his unchecked ambition and scandalous affair with Queen Caroline Mathilde, the sister of King George III (ruled 17601820) of England, brought an end to both his career and his life in1772. Reforms continued despite this setback, culminating in the abolition of serfdom in 1788. At the closeoftheearlymodernperiod, Denmarkwasaprosperous, stable, and well-ordered state, but no longer a significant participant in international politics.

See also Absolutism ; Aristocracy and Gentry ; Baltic and North Seas ; Baltic Nations ; Brahe, Tycho ; Charles X Gustav (Sweden) ; Charles XII (Sweden) ; Enlightenment ; Habsburg Territories ; Holy Roman Empire ; Kalmar, Union of ; Luther, Martin ; Lutheranism ; Northern Wars ; Popular Protest and Rebellions ; Serfdom ; Sweden ; Thirty Years' War (16181648) ; Trading Companies .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barton, H. Arnold. Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era, 17601815. Minneapolis, 1986. The best account in English of the reform era in Denmark, particularly with regard to Struensee.

Christianson, John Robert. On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and His Assistants, 15701601. Cambridge, 2000. Well-researched analysis of Brahe's career, and of the vibrant intellectual atmosphere of Frederick II's court.

Frost, Robert I. The Northern Wars: War, State, and Society in Northeastern Europe, 15581721. New York, 2000. By far the best account, in any language, of the complicated series of conflicts in early modern Scandinavia and the Baltic.

Grell, Ole Peter, ed. The Scandinavian Reformation: From Evangelical Movement to Institutionalisation of Reform. Cambridge, U.K., 1995. Includes articles on the course and implications of the Lutheran Reformation in Denmark by Martin Schwarz Lausten, Thorkild Lyby, and Ole Peter Grell.

Jespersen, Leon, ed. A Revolution from Above? The Power State of 16th- and 17th-Century Scandinavia. Odense, Denmark, 2000. A summary of the work of the "Power State Project" of the 1980s and 1990s, including valuable essays by Leon Jespersen (Denmark) and Øystein Rian (Norway). Includes a thorough bibliography.

Lockhart, Paul Douglas. Denmark in the Thirty Years' War, 16181648: King Christian IV and the Decline of the Oldenburg State. Selinsgrove, Pa., 1996. Examination of Denmark's involvement in the war, as well as of the constitutional upheaval that followed.

Munck, Thomas. The Peasantry and the Early Absolute Monarchy in Denmark, 16601708. Copenhagen, 1979. Far broader than the title suggests; an excellent description of the rural classes and of the ramifications of absolutism.

Paul Douglas Lockhart

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Denmark

Denmark

Official name : Kingdom of Denmark

Area: 43,094 square kilometers (16,638 square miles, not including the Faroe Islands and Greenland)

Highest point on mainland: Yding Forest Hill (Yding Skovhoj) (173 meters/568 feet)

Highest point in territory: Slaettaratindur (Faroe Islands) (882 meters/2,894 feet)

Lowest point on land: Lammefjord (7 meters/23 feet below sea level)

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 402 kilometers (250 miles) from north to south, 354 kilometers (220 miles) from east to west

Land boundaries: Germany 68 kilometers (42 miles)

Coastline: Main territory 7,314 kilometers (4,545 miles); Faroe Islands 1,117 kilometers (614 miles) Territorial sea limits: 22 kilometers (12 nautical miles)

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

The small nation of Denmark occupies most of the Jutland (Jylland) peninsula and a number of large islands that separate the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. It shares a land border with Germany to the south. With a total area of about 43,094 square kilometers (16,638 square miles, not including the Faroe Islands and Greenland), the country is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Massachusetts. Denmark is divided into fourteen counties and two kommunes.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Denmark has administrative control over the Faroe Islands, located in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Great Britain. Greenland, located off the coast of North America in the Arctic Ocean, is also a part of Denmark; however, Greenland also has a limited home-rule government.

3 CLIMATE

The climate in Denmark is temperate. Days are typically humid and overcast; winters are mild and windy, and summers are cool. The mean temperatures are 0°C (32°F) in February, the coldest month, and 17°C (63°F) in July, the warmest month. Rainfall comes fairly evenly throughout the year, with the annual average amounting to approximately 61 centimeters (24 inches).

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Denmark is primarily a low-lying country covered with glacial moraine deposits. The moraines consist of a mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders, carried by glaciers from the mountains of Scandinavia and raised from the bed of the Baltic Sea, with an admixture of limestone and other rocks. These large deposits have formed gently rolling hills interspersed with lakes. Between the hills are extensive level plains, which were created when the meltwater washing away from the glaciers deposited sand and gravel outside the ice limit. The country's densest settlements are found on these heath-land plains.

The boundary line between the sandy West Jutland and the loam plains of East and North Denmark is the most important geographical division of the country. West of the line is a region of scattered farms. To the east, there are several villages with high population density. Valleys furrow the moraine landscape.

The coastlines of eastern Jutland and many of the nearby islands are heavily indented with fjords, bays, and other inlets, forming numerous natural harbors. Narrow straits separate most of the islands.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

Seacoast and Undersea Features

Denmark is almost completely surrounded by water. The main bodies of water are the North Sea to the west of Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the east, both of which are inlets of the Atlantic Ocean.

Sea Inlets and Straits

There are a number of inlets that separate the main Jutland Peninsula area of Denmark from its surrounding islands and countries. The Skagerrak Strait separates Denmark from Norway in the northwest. The Kattegat Strait lies between Denmark and Sweden to the east. The narrow Lille Strait separates the island of Fyn from the mainland. The Store and Langeland Straits lie between Fyn and the easternmost islands. The Øresund separates Sjælland from Sweden, and the smaller islands of Falster, Lolland, and Møn lie to the south across the Småland Sound.

Along the west coast of the peninsula there are two great fjords, Ringkøbing and Nissum. Further north is Nissum Bay. The northern coast is more regular, with the broad Jammer and Tannis Bays. In the east are Ålbæk and Ålborg Bays. These are punctuated by a number of fjords, most notably Lim Fjord, which stretches all the way across Jutland from Ålborg Bay to Nissum Bay in the west. The southern coast of Ålborg Bay juts east to form the Djursland Peninsula, south of which is Arhus Bay and many smaller fjords. On Sjælland, the capital of Copenhagen is situated on Køge Bay, with Stevn Cliff and Fakse Bay further to the south.

Islands and Archipelagos

There are 406 islands in Denmark (of which only 97 are inhabited), accounting for over one-third of its land area. The largest islands are Sjælland (7,015 square kilometers/2,709 square miles); Fyn (2,984 square kilometers/ 1,152 square miles), Lolland (1,234 square kilometers/480 square miles), Bornholm (588 square kilometers/227 square miles), and Falster (514 square kilometers/198 square miles). All of these islands except for Bornholm lie between Jutland and Sweden. Bornholm, Denmark's easternmost island, is southeast of Sweden in the Baltic Sea. It is a nature reserve that is accessible only by boat. There are no cars, modern buildings, or domesticated animals (such as cats or dogs) on the island.

The Faroe Islands are an archipelago of seventeen inhabited islands and one uninhabited island in the Atlantic Ocean, northwest of Britain. Among the larger islands are Stromp (374 square kilometers/174 square miles), Ostero (266 square kilometers/110 square miles), Vago (178 square kilometers/69 square miles), Sydero (153 square kilometers/59 square miles), and Sando (114 square kilometers/44 square miles). The Faroe landscape is rugged, characterized by a stratified series of basalt sheets with intervening thinner layers of solidified volcanic ash (tufa). Glacial action has carved the valleys into trough-shaped hollows and formed steep peaks. The highest point is on Ostero, called Slaettaratindur (882 meters/ 2,894 feet).

The world's largest island, Greenland, is located off the coast of North America in the Arctic Ocean. Although considered a part of Denmark, Greenland also has limited home rule.

Coastal Features

The coastlines of the Jutland Peninsula and the nearby islands are highly indented.

White chalk cliffs are found along the coastline of the small island of Møn, lying south of Sjælland. The cliffs rise from the beach about 128 meters (422 feet) in an area known as Møn Cliff (Møns Klint).

6 INLAND LAKES

Dozens of lakes dot the middle interior region of the Jutland, known as the Lakeland region. The largest lake in the country is Arre (40.6 square kilometers/15.7 square miles). It lies between Helsingør and Hillerød on Sjælland Island.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

The Gudenå River is the longest river, at about 160 kilometers (100 miles) long. It flows from the interior of Jutland north to the Kattegat Strait. Other smaller rivers include the Storå, the Skjern, and the Varde, all of which flow from the interior Jutland into the North Sea. Many of the country's rivers have been artificially rerouted.

8 DESERTS

There are no desert areas in Denmark.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Over 10 percent of the low-lying areas of Denmark are covered with trees, but almost none of this is primary (natural) forest. The woodlands contain mostly beech and oak trees, with other species including elm, hazel, maple, pine, birch, aspen, linden, and chestnut. Denmark's largest contiguous area of woodland is Rold Forest (Rold Skov), a public forest (77 square kilometers/30 square miles) that contains Denmark's only national park, Rebild Bakker. Located near the city of Ålborg, it is the last section of natural forest that once covered the eastern part of Jutland.

While there are many hills and ridges, the highest point, Yding Forest Hill (Yding Skovhoj) in eastern Jutland, only exceeds sea level by 173 meters (568 feet).

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

There are no significant mountain ranges within Denmark.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

There are no significant natural caves in Denmark; however, there are a few sites of underground chalk and limestone mines.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

With mostly low-lying lands, there are no real plateau regions within Denmark.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

A number of dikes and harbors have been constructed along sections of the coast of Denmark to protect the low-lying coastline regions from the flooding effects of the seawater.

Daugbjerg Kalgruber, located in western Denmark near Struer, is a carved chalk mine that extends underground for a length of about 35 kilometers (21 miles). The chalk once was used to produce lime, a major ingredient in concrete. Today, the mine is known to be a hibernating place for bats.

The Great Belt Fixed Link is a combination of bridges and tunnels that serve as a year-round transportation route between Denmark's two largest islands, Sjælland (on which Copenhagen is located) and Fyn. The twelve-year construction project (from 1986 to 1998) was the largest engineering project in the history of Denmark. The Link includes three components. First, the East Bridge is a 6.8-kilometer-long (4.2-mile-long) suspension bridge that crosses the strait between Sjælland and the small island of Sprøgo. Second, an 8-kilometer (5-mile) underwater tunnel connects Sjælland and Sprøgo as a railroad passage. And third, from Sprøgo to Fyn, a combined rail and road bridge runs for 6.6 kilometers (4.1 miles). The twin pylons of the East Bridge stand at 254 meters (833 feet) above sea level and are the highest structural points on Denmark.

14 FURTHER READING

Books

Bendure, Glenda. Denmark. London: Lonely Planet, 1999.

Hintz, Martin. Denmark. Chicago: Children's Press, 1994.

Symington, Martin. Passport's Illustrated Travel Guide to Denmark. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1996.

Periodicals

Kostyal, K. H. "Danish Light (Danish Jutland Peninsula)." National Geographic Traveler. July-August 1998, Vol. 15, No. 4, 96ff.

Web Sites

The Danish Ministry of the Environment. http://www.mem.dk/ukindex.htm (accessed March, 2003).

The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.um.dk/english/denmark (accessed March, 2003).

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Denmark

DENMARK

After World War I, psychoanalysis was diffused among artists and pedagogues, but the discipline was condescendingly dismissed by the leading university professors in philosophy, psychology, and psychiatry.

After hearing a speech by Ernest Jones in 1926, though, the psychologist Sigurd Næsgaard became the first Dane to undertake a serious study of Freud. In February 1933, Wilhelm Reich gave a speech in Copenhagen and the IPA was requested to allow him to come to Denmark as a training analyst; the answer, however, was negative. Instead the Danes were offered Jenö Hárnik from the Institute of Psychoanalysis in Berlin. Unfortunately he turned out to be psychically ill, and all that survives of his brief stay in Denmark are the reports of the scandal caused by his behavior. Reich was to come to Denmark anyway in May 1933, but as a political refugee. He was only granted six months' asylum, which was not extended, as he was suspected of practicing psychoanalysis without the requisite work permit.

Reich nonetheless remained in touch with a circle of disciples in Denmark during his ensuing stays in Sweden and Norway. Another influence came from Oskar Pfister, who enjoyed a certain popularity among prominent theologians and teachers. He gave a series of much-attended talks in Copenhagen in 1936.

From 1930 on, a series of more or less short-lived psychoanalytic societies were founded in Denmark, all marked by their respective founders and leaders. The most important was the group that surrounded Sigurd Næsgaard, who in the public eye was largely identified with Danish psychoanalysis. Another group was led by P. C. Petersen, who had a background in dairy production, and it represented especially the inspiration of Pfister. A third group arose around Reich's Danish pupils, led by the physicians J. H. Leunbach and T. Philipson; these were known in particular for their work in the movement for sexual reform.

The person with the greatest influence on the establishment of psychoanalysis in Denmark was Sigurd Næsgaard (1883-1956). He started as a teacher and then completed a university degree in philosophy and psychology. He had strong roots in the Danish high school movement, and considered general education, education reform, and sexual freedom his most important goals. As a psychoanalyst he was self-taught. His large authorship is characterized by a popularizing tendency and a predilection for pat and quick-witted interpretations. He is known for his analyses of a number of the important cultural figures of his time, among others the painter Asger Jorn. Some of the leading Danish IPA analysts after World War II also started their analytic careers on his couch.

The Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society that was founded at the IPA congress in 1934 had only one member with a Danish address, the Hungarian Georg Gerö, a pupil of Reich who had been educated at the Institute of Psychoanalysis in Berlin. Under pressure from the IPA, Gerö broke with Reich around 1937. The only known work of his in Denmark today is his training analysis of the psychiatrist Poul Færgeman. Gerö emigrated to the United States at the beginning of World War II.

Færgeman (1912-67) left for the United States in 1946 to terminate the training analysis he had started with Gerö in Denmark. He later became a member of the New York Psychoanalytic Society, but returned to Denmark in 1960 and joined the Danish society. He is best known for his work with psychogenic psychoses (Færgeman, 1963). Because of his premature death he was not to have the influence on Danish psychoanalysis to which he seemed entitled.

After the war, Næsgaard and Petersen each established new societies. Both sought admission to the IPA, but since neither had had IPA-accredited training, they were unsuccessful. Instead, the initiative slid to another group. The Swedish analyst Nils Nielsen, member of the IPA, came to Denmark in 1949 with a view towards starting a number of training analyses and founding a psychoanalytic society. The Danish psychiatrists Thorkil Vanggaard and Erik Bjerg Hansen, who had received accredited psychoanalytic training in New York and Vienna, respectively, later joined Nielsen. Their Danish Psychoanalytic Society attained status as a study group under the IPA in 1953 and obtained full IPA membership in 1957. The society hosted the international IPA congresses in 1959 and 1967. The accession of members was low, as was the level of activity throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

Thorkil Vanggaard (1910-1998)) was the strong leader of the Danish Psychoanalytic Society in the years following World War II. He received his psychoanalytic training in New York with Robert Bak as his training analyst. His psychoanalytic authorship is not prolific, but a fairly original theory of the phallus as a meditating symbol in connection with the transfer of authority from master to pupil merits mention (Vanggaard, 1972). He was vice president of the IPA from 1967 to 1969, but then began to move away from psychoanalysis and left the psychoanalytic society in 1984. He is known to the Danish public rather for his highly controversial position on gender roles and incest than as a psychoanalyst.

Not till 1980 was the increasing general interest in psychoanalysis reflected in the number of members. Among the Danish public, psychoanalysis has mainly been represented by psychologists, researchers and writers with no analytical training (e.g., Andkjær Olsen and Køppe, 1988).

In the 1990s the Danish Psychoanalytic Society had around 30 full members, of whom more than one third are from the southern part of Sweden, having chosen to belong to the Danish society due to the fact that Copenhagen is closer than Stockholm. There is no institute, and the society depends greatly on its collaboration with the other Scandinavian societies, who among other things have cooperated since 1978 on the publication of the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review (in English).

Among the societies that do not belong to the IPA are the Group Analytic Institute (established with the support of the British group analysts Colin James and Malcolm Pines) and the Psychoanalytic Circle (Lacanian).

Ole AndkjÆr Olsen

Bibliography

Andkjær Olsen, Ole, and Køppe, Simo. (1988). Freud's theory of psychoanalysis. New York: New York University Press.

Færgeman, Poul. (1963). Psychogenic psychoses. London: Butterworths.

Reimer, Jensen, and Paikin, Henning. (1980). On psychoanalysis in Denmark. Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 3, 103-16.

Paikin, Henning. (1992). Denmark. In P. Kutter (Ed.), Psychoanalysis international. A guide to psychoanalysis throughout the world (Vol. 1, Europe ). Cannstatt: Frommannn-Holzboog.

Vanggaard, Thorkil. (1972). Phallos. New York: International Universities Press.

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Denmark

Denmark

area:

43,070sq km (16,629sq mi)

population:

5,349,212

capital (population):

Copenhagen (615,115)

government:

Parliamentary monarchy

ethnic groups:

Danish 97%

languages:

Danish (official)

religions:

Christianity (Lutheran 91%, Roman Catholic 1%)

currency:

Krone = 100 ore

Kingdom in w Europe. Denmark is Scandinavia's smallest country. It consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and more than 400 islands, 89 of which are inhabited. The capital, Copenhagen, lies on Sjaelland (the largest island) facing Sweden across The Sound, a narrow strait, which leads from the Baltic Sea to the Kattegat and the North Sea. Odense lies on the island of Fyn. To the nw lie the self-governing Danish dependencies of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The island of Bornholm, off the s tip of Sweden, is also a Danish possession.

Denmark is flat and mostly covered by rocks deposited here by huge ice sheets during the last Ice Age. The highest point is only 171m (561ft) above sea level.

Climate and Vegetation

Denmark has a cool but pleasant climate due to North Atlantic Drift. In cold winter spells, The Sound may freeze over. Summers are warm, and rainfall occurs throughout the year. The wettest seasons are summer and autumn.

Much of Denmark is a patchwork of green fields, lakes and sandy beaches. Forests of oak and elm trees once covered the land, but most of the original forests have been felled. Today planted belts of beech, pine and spruce help to break the force of strong westerly winds.

History and Politics

In c.2000 bc, the Danes developed an advanced Bronze Age culture. Between the 9th and 11th centuries, Vikings terrorized much of w Europe and Danes were among the invaders who conquered much of England. In the 11th century King Canute ruled over Denmark, Norway and England. Queen Margaret unified the crowns of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1397. Sweden broke away in 1523, while Norway was lost to Sweden in 1814. Denmark adopted Lutheranism as the national religion in the 1530s and Danish culture flourished in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Christian IV led Denmark into costly wars with Sweden, and the Thirty Years War (1618–48) weakened the Danish aristocracy. Serfdom was abolished in 1788. In 1866 Schleswig-Holstein was lost to Prussia.

In the late 19th century, Denmark developed its economy and education system. Danes set up cooperatives and improved farming techniques. The Social Democratic Party dominated 20th-century Danish politics. Denmark remained neutral in World War I. In 1918, Iceland gained independence. During the 1920s, Denmark adopted progressive social welfare policies. In 1940 Germany occupied Denmark. In 1943, Christian X was arrested and martial law declared. Many Jews escaped to Sweden. In 1945, British forces liberated Denmark. Denmark played an important part in European reconstruction. In 1949, it relinquished its neutrality and joined NATO. In 1973, Denmark became the first Scandinavian member of the European Economic Community (EEC). In 1992, Denmark rejected the Maastricht Treaty by a slender majority, but reversed the decision in a second referendum (1993). In 1998 another referendum ratified the Amsterdam Treaty, which broadly expanded the power of the European Parliament. In 2000, Danes rejected joining the euro in a further referendum.

Economy

Danes enjoy a high standard of living (2000 GDP per capita, US$25,500). During the 1980s and 1990s, the Danish economy suffered from high unemployment and foreign debt. Other problems include pollution and the high cost of welfare provision. Despite being self-sufficient in oil and natural gas, Denmark has few natural resources. The economy is highly developed, with manufacturing employing 27% of the workforce. Products include furniture, electrical goods and textiles. Services, including tourism, form the largest sector, accounting for 63% of GDP. Farms cover c.75% of the land. Farming employs only 4% of the workforce but is highly technological and productive. Meat and dairy farming predominate. Fishing is also important.

Political map

Physical map

Websites

http://www.um.dk/en

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Denmark

Denmark

Culture Name

Danish

Orientation

Identification. The name of the country means "Borderlands of the Danes" in reference to a political unit created during the sixth through ninth centuries. This period was marked by a slow progression of sovereignty among the Danes, a people who originated in Skaane (today the southern part of Sweden) but eventually were based in Jutland. By the ninth century the Danes had gained mastery of the area known today as Denmark and maintained control until the late medieval period, including parts of modern Sweden and Norway. In the late medieval period, Denmark was reduced in size to approximately the area of contemporary Denmark.

Denmark is a small nation whose cultural unity is mitigated by regional traditions of rural, urban, and island communities with distinctions based on local language, food, and history. This situation has sometimes created friction between local history and national history.

Denmark historically includes the former colonies Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Greenland gained home rule in 1979. In 1948, the Faroe Islands became a self-governing territory within the Danish state.

Location and Geography. The kingdom of Denmark, which is situated in Scandinavia and northern Europe, is surrounded by the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea. The country covers approximately 16,634 square miles (43,095 square kilometers). Roughly eighty of its more than four hundred islands are inhabited. Jutland, Zealand, and Funen (Fyn) are the largest and most densely populated regions. There is a relative homogeneity in topography, with few areas at a high elevation. Since the sixteenth century, the capital has been Copenhagen, which is also the largest city.

Demography. The first census in 1769 counted a total of 797,584 people; by 1998, the total population was 5,294,860. Infant mortality, epidemics, war and emigration, better hygiene, food, and housing influenced population changes. The population increased from 2.5 to 5.3 million during the twentieth century, showing an interdependency between decline in population growth and industrialization, with the average number of children per woman decreasing from 4 to 1.5. Free abortion and sterilization rights since 1973 caused slower population growth, which in certain years was negative (1981 through 1984).

Immigration increased from 35,051 in 1988 to 50,105 in 1997. Immigrants from other Scandinavian and northern European countries account for most of the increases, but immigrants from southern Europe and the Middle East are the most noticed in public debate.

Linguistic Affiliation. Danish belongs to the Germanic family language within the Indo-European languages. Linguistic relatives are English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic, all of which descend from the ancient Teutonic language.

Danish is differentiated in individual, geographic, and social dialects. Language varies in terms of pitch, tonality, intonation, and pronunciation. Some dialects are mutually unintelligible. "Standard Danish" is one dialect among many.

There is no secondary language, but several languages, including English, German, French, Spanish, and Russian, are taught in schools. Most Danes can speak some English and German.

Many foreigners complain that Danish is difficult to learn because the same wording can have differing and even opposing meanings, depending on the intonation and context. Also, pronunciation does not necessarily follow spelling.

Symbolism. Markers of the national culture include the national flag (the Dannebrog), the national anthem, public holidays, and hymns, songs, and ballads. According to myth, the national flag descended from the sky to the Danish army during a battle in Estonia in 1219 and was institutionalized as a national symbol in the seventeenth century. The flaga horizontal white cross on a red field symbolizes a membership community and a sense of belonging, marking an extensive number of social events. Danes use the flag at festive occasions, including birthdays, weddings, sports events, political meetings, and public holidays. Hymns, songs, and ballads provide metaphors associated with Danish nationality, the mother tongue, school, history, and homeland. The national anthem, "Der er et Yndigt Land" ("There Is a Lovely Land"), was written around 1820.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. Denmark is a constitutional monarchy and the oldest kingdom in Europe. According to historical sources it dates back to the ninth century, but myth dates it as far back as the sixth century. The recent history of the nation features an outward-looking people focused on trade, welfare, equality, and democracy, which in Danish means "people's government" (folkestyre ). Fundamental values include a striving for freedom and equality, accomplished after battling for years with neighboring countries in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After centuries of sovereign rule by the king, the first common constitution was completed and signed in 1849, initiating a government with an assembly consisting of a lower house (Folketing ) and upper house (Landsting ). The making of a common constitution was an important element in the nineteenth century's political emphasis on the formation of nationhood.

National Identity. Beer, allotment gardens, the flag, the national anthem, democracy, Christmas, folk high schools, personal well-being, and coziness are some of the elements of the national culture, but questions of how the cultural heritage can survive and what it is emphasize the fact that Denmark is a nation of cultural borrowers. Danes constantly negotiate and change their culture in response to contact with people and items from other countries. However, for many people, the national identity lies in the Danish language.

Danes rarely refer to Danishness, a term used for the first time in 1836, but that term has been a hotly debated topic since the increase of immigration in the 1960s and Denmark's affiliation with the European Union (EU) in 1972. Much political and public debate on elements of nationality, sympathies, feeling, and patriotism occurred in the late twentieth century. Many Danes seem to have a strong national identification, although differences exist and a "Danish community" may be more imagined than real in regard to culture and traditions.

Ethnic Relations. Denmark once was considered an open and welcoming country to foreigners, but tensions between native residents and immigrants arose during the last decades of the twentieth century, culminating in the establishment of political parties whose platforms called for the exclusion of inhabitants of foreign ethnicity from social services and other forms of public support. Immigrants of the second and third generations tend to be doubly socialized, displaying competence in Danish values in public and in the native language at home.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Within a span of one-hundred fifty years, Denmark changed from an agricultural to an industrialized society. In the late nineteenth century, two-thirds of the population lived in rural areas and engaged in agriculture; today, only 15 percent live in rural areas, and many of those people have city jobs.

After the "green wave" of the 1980s, many city dwellers moved to the countryside, hoping to return to nature. However, many returned to urban areas after years of unfulfilled dreams. The long winters; long commutes to work, shopping, and entertainment; and the prevalence of gossip in local rural cultures were unpleasant for people who were accustomed to city life.

In cities, people hope to escape the restraints of social control in rural communities and seek conveniences such as better shopping, entertainment, and job opportunities. Migration to urban areas is common in the pursuit of education, and many young people from the provinces remain in the cities after graduation.

Architecture is marked by a division between the ideals of Denmark as a "fairy-tale country" and as a modern, industrialized one. The first image is characterized by traditional small houses with small windows, low ceilings, straw roofs, and gardens with flowers and vegetables. Even the castles are small and more "cute" than "grandiose." The modern ideal is marked by houses with slender lines and large glass windows or walls, very little outside decoration, and the use of bricks, tile, and ferroconcrete. Common to both architectural traditions is the fact that there are very few tall buildings. Apart from a few buildings from the 1960s in the largest cities, it is unusual to see buildings with more than five floors. Family houses often have one floor, usually with a garden.

Towns and cities are characterized by a center area with older houses (some several centuries old) and a periphery with newer houses, divided into business and residential areas. Village size is from five to one thousand houses, and many villages have been enlarged by new residential areas.

The government is situated in a royal castle built by Christian IV in the seventeenth century in central Copenhagen, symbolizing a harmonious relationship between the government and the royal family. The royal castle and the many statues of kings and politicians in the city support this symbolic harmony.

Anthropologists have noted a sharp distinction between public and private space and a pronounced preference for the private and domestic sphere in Danish culture. In urban public space, people stand close to one another in buses, subways, parks, and streets, but pretend that they do not see each other. The symbolic demarcation of closed groups such as friends and spectators is clear, with a tendency to form closed circles. An intrusion by strangers often causes offense and creates an even stricter demarcation. In rural areas, people are more likely to connect across public space, greeting and talking about the weather.

Private houses commonly are divided into areas for cooking, dining, and television-viewing and preferably have a private room for each family member. Private homes are considered spaces to "relax" and "be yourself"; many foreigners find it difficult to be invited to the home of a Dane. Usually only family members and close friends have this privilege, experiencing the coziness of a social event celebrated by sitting down, lighting candles, and eating and drinking. Colleagues, sympathetic foreigners, and more distant friends preferably are met only in public (workplace, bar, café, museum).

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Danes eat most of their meals at home and in private settings, although public dining places ranging from small hot dog stands to fancy restaurants are available and are used.

A breakfast of coffee, bread, or cereal is eaten at home. Sunday breakfast commonly includes fresh bakery bread, boiled eggs, juice, tea or coffee, and the Sunday newspaper.

Lunch at a work place, school, or institution is either homemade or available in kitchens or canteens, offering open sandwiches, hot meals, or a buffet table. It also may be bought at butcher shops, cafes, and sandwich bars. Open sandwiches are traditional, consisting of rye bread with salami, liver pâté, herring, roast pork, fried plaice, cod roe, cheese, chocolate, or fruit. Dinner at home traditionally consisted of an appetizer, a main course, and dessert. Soup, porridge and fish dishes were served but today are rarely eaten on a daily basis. A main course is traditionally composed of boiled potatoes, boiled vegetables such as green beans and cauliflower, and fried meat such as meat balls, cutlets, or roast pork served with brown gravy. Pizza, pasta, rice, chicken, and turkey have become common food items among young people. Imported fruit, vegetables, and spices are also common.

Inns often dating back several centuries throughout the country offer traditional Danish food. Pizzerias are found in small towns and cities. In larger cities, there are Chinese, Italian, and Greek restaurants, along with fast-food establishments from America, the Middle East, and South America and restaurants that serve Danish open sandwiches (smørrebrød ) and pastry. Food taboos include pet animals such as cats, dogs, and horses. The ecological movement and informed consumers have been mutually dependent since the 1970s. The demand for and production of organically grown foods have grown, and most supermarkets offer a range of organically grown vegetables, meat, and dairy products.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Danes eat or drink at every social occasion, preferably traditional dishes, cakes, and drinks. However, the act of drinking and eating together is considered more important than what is actually consumed. Formal social occasions include birthdays, weddings, anniversaries, baptisms, confirmations, graduations, and funerals. Private parties held in community centers or restaurants are common. Hosts spend from one to six months' salary on a formal party for rent, food, drinks, and musicians.

Holidays with special meals include New Year's Eve, Easter, Martin Mass, and Christmas. New Year's Eve traditionally is celebrated with boiled cod, Easter with elaborate lunches and roast lamb for dinner, and Martin Mass with roast goose. The traditional Christmas Eve dinner includes roast pork, roast duck, or goose stuffed with prunes, served with pickled red cabbage, white boiled potatoes, fried brown sugared potatoes, and thick brown gravy. Desserts include rice porridge and ris a la mande (rice porridge mixed with whipped cream, almonds, and vanilla and served with hot cherry sauce). At Christmas and Easter, special seasoned beers are sold. Christmas is celebrated by eating a traditional extravagant lunch and dinner that bring the family together.

Basic Economy. Natural resources are limited to agricultural land, clay, stone, chalk, lime, peat, and lignite. The economy is therefore heavily dependent on international trade. Farming accounts for two-thirds of the total land area, and agriculture produces enough edible products for three times the population. Industrial exports account for about 75 percent of total exports, while the share of agricultural exports is about 15 percent.

Land Tenure and Property. Most farmers are freeholders, 91 percent of them on individually owned family-run farms, 7 percent on company-run farms, and the rest on farms owned by the state, local authorities, or foundations. Private family houses typically are fenced off to delineate private property, or an invisible line between the garden and the pavement may indicate the border between private and public property. Neighbors discuss which parts outside their homes should be cleared for snow and which parts should be taken care of by municipal services.

Commercial Activities. The major goods produced include foods and beverages, textiles, paper, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, glass, ceramics, bricks, cement, concrete, marine engines, compressors, agriculture and forestry machinery, computers, electric motors, radio and communication equipment, ships, boats, furniture, and toys. Agricultural products include beef, pork, poultry, milk, and eggs.

Major Industries. The main industries are food processing, furniture, diesel engines, and electrical products. Major agricultural products include dairy products, pork, beef, and barley. Commercial fishing includes salmon, herring, cod, plaice, crustaceans and mollusks, mackerel, sprat, eel, lobster, shrimp, and prawns.

Trade. Major commodity groups sold on the international market include animal products (cattle, beef and veal, pigs and pork, poultry, butter, cheese, and eggs), vegetable products (grains, seeds, fruit, flowers, plants, and vegetables), ships, fish, fur, fuel, lubricating goods, and electricity. The major industrial exports are machines and instruments, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, chemical items, industrially prepared agricultural products, fish, crayfish and mollusks, furniture, textiles, and clothing. Imports, which lag slightly behind exports, include automobiles, fuel, consumer goods (food, clothing, electronics, and others), and goods to be further processed at local industries. The major trading partners are Germany, Sweden, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, the United States, Japan, and Italy.

Division of Labor. The division of labor is determined by gender, industry and socioeconomic status. Although agricultural products constitute a major proportion of exports, only 4 percent of the population is employed in agriculture, which has become highly industrialized and machine-driven. Close to 25 percent of the population is employed in trade, a similar number in industry, and more than 40 percent in other service.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Most national surveys dealing with social strata do not divide the population into different income groups. Instead, the population is categorized into five social layers, according to level of education and occupation.

Those social categories are academics, owners of large farms, and persons with more than fifty employees (4 percent); farmers with at least four employees, owners of companies with more than six employees, and college-educated business owners (7 percent); farmers with a maximum of three employees, owners of small companies, and persons with jobs requiring expertise (21 percent); skilled workers, small landowners, and workers with a professional education (37 percent); and workers without skills training (32 percent).

In the adult population, there has been an increase in unemployed people who receive public support from 6 percent in 1960 to 25 percent today. Increasing demands for skills in reading, writing, mathematics, computers, and stress management are among the factors that have caused this development. Unemployment rates are somewhat higher among ethnic minorities, with persons of Turkish descent having the highest rate.

Figures from 1996 show inequality in income distribution: Twenty percent of the lowest-income families accounted for 6 percent of total income, while 20 percent of the highest-income families accounted for 40 percent of the income.

Symbols of Social Stratification. According to a code of morality (the "Jante Law") which was formulated by the author Aksel Sandemose in his 1933 novel A Refugee Crosses His Tracks, a person should not display superiority materially or otherwise. Wealth and high social position are downplayed in public in regard to dress, jewelry, and housing. The point is to be discreet about individual distinction and avoid public boasting while allowing one's wealth to be recognized by persons in a similar economic position.

Political Life

Government. Denmark is a constitutional monarchy in which succession to the throne is hereditary and the ruling monarch must be a member of the national church. The parliament has 179 members, including two from Greenland and two from the Faroe Islands. Members of parliament are elected for four-year terms, but the state minister has the right to dissolve the parliament and force an election. The voting age has been eighteen since 1978. Since 1989, immigrants without Danish nationality have been allowed to vote and be elected in local elections. The minimum percentage of votes required for representation in the parliament is 2 percent.

Leadership and Political Officials. The first political groupings appeared in 1848, shortly before the first constitution was promulgated, and consisted of liberals (farmers), the center (intellectuals), and the right (landowners and higher officials).

Party policy is based on political principles and working programs; the former include fundamental political ideas, while the programs are action-oriented. Currently, ten political parties are represented in the parliament, ranging from socialist to conservative to liberal. Representatives to parliament are elected in local areas and thus represent their home localities as well as a political party.

Liberal parties traditionally strive for individual freedom, including freedom of thought, belief, speech, expression, individual choice, and ownership, and attempt to strengthen the rights of the individual citizen in relation to the state. Conservatives stress individual freedom, choice, and responsibility and attempt to protect the national culture and tradition. Modern conservatism includes confidence in the individual, an open and critical outlook, tolerance, and a free market economy, combined with a commitment to social security. Social Democrats favor a welfare society based on freedom, equal opportunity, equality, dignity, solidarity, cultural freedom and diversity, ecology, and democracy. Socialist parties seek a society based on political, social, and cultural diversity; ecological sustainability; social security; equal opportunity; responsibility for the weak; individual freedom; self-realization; active work for peace and disarmament; and a commitment to end global inequality. The Christian People's Party favors a democracy based on Christian ethical values, focused on individual freedom, social responsibility and security, the family, and medical ethics. For this party, a Christian view of human nature forms the basis for equal human value regardless of race, sex, age, abilities, culture, and religion.

Social Problems and Control. Executive power lies with the monarch, while legislative power is based in the parliament. In executive matters, the monarch exercises authority through government ministers. Judicial power lies with the courts of justice. The most common crimes are offenses against property, offenses against special laws in some municipalities, crimes of violence, and sexual offenses.

The police force consists of approximately 10,000 officers, who work at police stations located in local communities. Traditionally, Danish police have been known for their easy-going manner and "gentle" approach to difficult situations, relying more on dialogue and communication than on brute force. After years of becoming more centralized and distanced from the Danish people, there is now a trend in policing that involves forming new, smaller police stations in more towns and cities. In this new environment, officers are moving out of their cars and walking the streets, gaining closer contact with the people.

In criminal cases, those over the age of 15 may be punished by the courts. Those between 15 and 18 are held in special youth prisons that provide social training. Those above the age of 18 are imprisoned in one of the country's 14 state prisons. Due to a lack of prison space, convicted criminals sometimes wait for up to two years before they are actually imprisoned.

Military Activity. Since World War II, Denmark has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and it participated in NATO's actions in the Balkan crisis in the 1990s, particularly in Bosnia and Kosovo. Denmark also contributes to the United Nations peace forces in the Middle East and other areas. In 1993, the population voted not to join in the development of a common EU military force.

The military is staffed through a system of compulsory enrollment. The term of service, depending on one's duties, ranges from four to twelve months. Full mobilization in the defense forces involves fifty-eight thousand soldiers, while in the absence of war the number is only fifteen thousand. The defense forces include the navy, air force, home guard, and national rescue corps. The defense budget in 1997 was under 2 percent of the gross national product.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

All residents receive social support when they are unemployed, either through union insurance or locally run programs. Idled workers receive compensation that is equal to slightly less than the lowest wages paid for regular, full-time employment, and they are also guaranteed housing, food, and other basic necessities. After six months of unemployment, an individual meets with an officer from the local unemployment office to formulate a specific strategy for getting a new job. That strategy can include training, further education, or a government job that is supported by the local community in which the person lives.

Public and private programs to aid disabled individuals are found in every major town and city. Food and shelter are always provided, and sometimes disabled persons are placed with a type of foster family.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Danes pursue common interests in leisure, sports, and politics. Associations are essentially nongovernmental, originating in the late nineteenth century, when farmers and workers formed interest groups. Today Denmark has one of the highest proportions of association membership in the world. More than 90 percent of the population belongs to an organization, and more than 73 percent of the people have multiple memberships in more than three hundred thousand organizations.

Organizations and associations play three important roles. First, they have been able to develop common interests and identities among different groups of people. Second, practical improvements in the form of production, increases in salary, and membership discounts have been achieved. Third, organizations participate in the political struggle for the distribution of values and goods in society.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Denmark has the highest percentage of women in the labor market in Europe, with close to 80 percent of women being employed. Since the 1980s, the country has had a public policy of equality of men and women in regard to wages and working conditions, yet men are more likely to get top positions and in general earn higher wages than women. Persistent beliefs associate women with the family and men with work. These practices are enforced by employers who encourage single women and married men to pursue careers.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Since 1924 there have been women in the government, and the representation of women in politics has grown significantly. Today nine of twenty ministers are women. However, state ministers have always been men. The Equal Status Council was founded in 1974 and closed in 2000, when a new equal status law was issued.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Individuals are free to choose their marriage partners. Many people cohabit at a young age. Polygyny and polyandry are not allowed, and it is forbidden to marry close family and kin members. Since the late 1980s, homosexuals have had the right to register their partnerships with the local city council. People marry for love, but convenience and economic gains may be equally important. Parents who are not married may wed to give legal security to their children in case of sudden or accidental death.

Forty percent of the adult population is married, 45 percent is unmarried, 7 percent is divorced, and 7 percent is widowed. Divorce typically involves separation followed by a legal procedure.

Domestic Unit. The ideal household unit consists of a married couple and their children who are below age twenty. However, more than 50 percent of households have only one adult (single, divorced with children, or widowed). Extended families living together are rare. Young people usually leave the parental home in their late teens. Previously children stayed in the same town or municipality as their parents, but today families are dispersed across the country. Some people choose to live in shared houses on the basis of similarities in age or ideology or for practical purposes such as ecological farming. A number of collective forms of housing for the elderly have emerged.

Inheritance. For many centuries, men and women have had equal inheritance rights. If one member of a couple dies, the other partner inherits all the possessions of the deceased. If both partners die, their children inherit equal shares of their possessions. There are also special circumstances such as wills, separate estates, joint property, and divided or undivided possession of an estate.

Traditionally, the oldest son inherited the farm or the position as head of the family company after the death of the father. However, the son in this case has to compensate his mother and siblings economically. This tradition extends to the royal family, where the title of king traditionally has been passed from father to oldest son. Because King Frederik IX had no sons, the constitution was changed in 1953 to make it legal for his oldest daughter to inherit the throne.

Kin Groups. Family relations are traced back equally both matrilineally and patrilineally, and active kin groups often extend to the great-grandparents. Rural residents often hold "cousin-parties" (fætter-kusine-fester ) that are attended by up to 90 people.

Socialization

Infant Care. Three to six months of maternal leave is a legal right, but the mother may share the last three months of that leave with the father. Infants generally are breast-fed until the end of the period of maternal leave. Traditionally, the mother was the primary caregiver, but recently the father and other family members have been recognized as equally important in raising infants. Because Denmark has one of the highest rates of women in the labor market, most infants above six months of age spend the mother's working hours in public nurseries or private child care.

Infant care has been much debated, resulting in great variations in regard to ideas about how much an infant should be carried around, whether it should sleep alone or with the parents, whether parents should attend to a baby every time it cries, and how to manage infants who cry during the night. The overall tendency is that younger parents recognize the individual rights and needs of an infant more than older people do.

Child Rearing and Education. Most children enter kindergarten at age three, and many continue school attendance until their early teens. In 1997, more than 80 percent of three- to six-year-olds attended some kind of day care institution. The pedagogy practiced in nursery schools, kindergartens, and after-school centers is not research-based but is informed by changing ideologies of what children are like and what they need. An ideology of "self-management" is practiced in many institutions, leaving it up to the children to decide what they want to do and how, where, and when to do it.

In the ideal family, the mother and father share authority, including their children in decision making. In pedagogical circles, the term "negotiation-families" is used to illustrate this situation. Most children are materially well taken care of, with nourishing food, regular supplies of new clothes and toys, and a private room in the family house. Some people argue that working parents compensate for their absence by giving their children toys, videos, and computers.

Higher Education. There are five universities: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Southern Denmark, the University of Aarhus, Aalborg University, and Roskilde University Center. In 1996, 167,764 students were enrolled in those institutions: 93,544 women and 74,220 men. All children in Denmark are obligated to complete nine years of school, either at private or public institutions. After they have fulfilled that requirement, 50 percent of the students choose a trade by entering vocational training, which includes an apprenticeship and formal schooling. Thirty percent select a one- to three-year college training program, which prepares them for teaching, nursing, or other professional occupations. The remaining 20 percent enter university. Nearly two-thirds of graduating students apply for university, but the majority are not admitted; those who are turned down either reapply the next year or select one of the vocational or college options. Admission has become increasingly competitive, based on grade point averages. All higher education is free of charge.

Etiquette

Privacy is a primary value in Danish etiquette. One is not supposed to invite oneself into another person's house or look into other people's land, property, and salary. Danes show few emotions publicly, as the open expression of feelings is considered a sign of weakness. Unless provoked, Danes avoid getting into an argument, and they dislike being interrupted during a conversation.

Informality is considered a virtue. However, informality in social interaction makes it difficult to enter new social circles. At dinner parties, meetings, and conferences, there are no formal introductions, leaving it up to people to initiate interaction.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. Religious freedom is consonant with international standards on the right to freedom of religion. Eighty-six percent of the population belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which has for centuries been supported by the state and is considered the national church. Numerous other Christian communities exist, including the Catholic Church, the Danish Baptist Church, and the Pentecostal Movement. Other world religions represented in the country are Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, the Baha'i faith, and Sikhism. Recently, religious groups celebrating old Viking gods have emerged.

Religious Practitioners. The majority religion is Christianity, and at birth all Danes are considered to belong to the national church, with an obligation to pay church taxes as part of the income tax.

Since the fifteenth century priests have been educated in a university, and ministers in the national church are officials under the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs. The official duties of religious leaders include performing church ceremonies for local members of the national church and keeping a register of births, marriages, and deaths. Many religious practitioners participate in worldly affairs as social workers or advocate for the underprivileged in public debates.

Rituals and Holy Places. Churches are situated within and outside villages, towns, and cities and are surrounded by churchyards with cemeteries. In a Lutheran service, there is a minister, a cantor, a servant, and an organist. Members attend ritual events such as baptisms, confirmations, wedding ceremonies, and funerals and major religious events such as Christmas and Easter. Only a minority of people attend services regularly, and on weekdays churches are virtually empty.

Death and the Afterlife. Danes are not great believers in God; therefore, practices concerning death, the deceased, funerals, and the afterlife are handled in a rational and practical manner.

Dead persons are buried in coffins on the grounds of a church or are cremated and have their ashes buried in the graveyard. Graves are decorated with a gravestone with the deceased's name, dates, and greetings and are surrounded by greenery and flowers. After twenty years the grave is neglected unless family members pay for its care. Generally, religious practitioners are available to support the surviving relatives and talk about life, death, and the afterlife. Neoreligious communities have emerged in which people are guided to the other side to communicate with deceased family members and kin.

Medicine and Health Care

Since 1973, a tax-financed health care system has provided free access to health care throughout the life span within a national system. Treatment for inclusion in this system must adhere to theories and practices based on the sciences of medicine and psychology utilized by organized practitioners trained at accredited colleges and universities.

Most children are born in hospitals. Health visitors give families support for infant care and development. All children are offered an extensive vaccination program and medical examinations on a regular basis (at least once a year) until they leave school.

Fee-for-service health care is available from alternative practitioners and private hospitals. Alternative medicines such as homeopathy, reflexology, acupuncture, massage, diet therapy, and healing have been popular since the 1960s. Alternative explanatory models adhere to notions of holism and energy as important factors in disease and healing, aiming at indirect disease elimination. Alternative medicines have been well received by the population, with 20 percent of the population seeking alternative treatments in the 1980s and more than 30 percent in the 1990s.

In the 1990s, a number of private hospitals offering orthodox medical services and staffed with medical doctors, nurses, and other biomedical professions were established. Limited resources for national health care that caused long waiting lists led to the establishment of private hospitals offering treatments such as hip surgery and bypass operations.

Medical professionals increasingly stress the individual's responsibility for health through changes in lifestyle and personal habits. Smoking, alcohol abuse, poor dietary patterns, and lack of physical exercise are considered the main causes of disease. In surveys of lay perceptions of health and disease, the focus has been on notions of the importance of varied eating patterns, fresh air, regular exercise, a positive mood, and good social relations.

Secular Celebrations

Among the traditional secular celebrations is "Shrovetide" (fastelavn ), which is held in February and features children dressed in fancy costumes going from house to house singing songs and begging for money, candy, or even buns. The "1st of May Celebrations" were originally intended to celebrate the formation of workers' unions, but they have evolved into public parties with demonstrations, speeches, music, and drinking. "Saint Hans" is a midsummer celebration held on June 23 that features singing, speeches, and a traditional bonfire at which a doll symbolizing a witch is burned. Besides these national celebrations, farmers and other rural residents regularly hold harvest parties in August and September to celebrate crops that have been brought in from the fields.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Artists may join a union from which they receive insurance against unemployment. In this system of employment security, artists must produce input in the form of work, and many artists take menial jobs to maintain their union status. During their training, artists may receive subsidies through the State Education Grant and Loan scheme. A few artists are awarded a civil list pension on the basis of merit and talent. A few excellent artists are fully self-supporting.

Literature. Danish literature was initiated by the historian Saxo Grammaticus, who wrote about Danish history up to the end of the twelfth century, including Scandinavian mythology, with its traditional stories of gods and legendary heroes. Since that time, Denmark has had a long history of poetry and literature, with Hans Christian Andersen and Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen) being among the most famous writers.

Graphic Arts. There is an extended culture of painting, sculpture, textiles, and pottery. Those subjects are part of the school curriculum and are taught in leisure time courses. Many of the islands are known for their artifacts. Bornholm produces pottery, sculpture, and glass. Artifacts are exhibited at museums and art exhibitions attended by school children, university students, and tourists. Professional artists known outside Denmark include the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (17701844) and the contemporary painter Per Kirkeby.

Performance Arts. Music and dance from Europe have been dominant, but genres from Africa and South America have become popular. The Royal Danish Music Conservatory was founded in 1867, and the Rhythmic Music Conservatory was founded in 1986. Conservatories are for those with special talents and ambitions, while many other schools are open to a wider range of people. Danish cinema has been awarded many international prizes.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

University life dates back to the fifteenth century, with theology, medicine, and law as the first areas of study. The terminal degree was for centuries the magistergraden, which was between a master's and a doctoral degree. Recently this degree has been replaced by the kandidatgraden, which is equivalent to a master's degree. Theology was the first social science degree awarded. Major social sciences today are economics, political science, anthropology, and sociology.

The physical sciences are well established. The Technical University of Denmark was founded in 1829 and today is a leading international institution, training construction, chemical, computer, and mechanical engineers. However, young Danes tend to choose humanistic or social science studies over the natural sciences.

Universities are public and are run by the state, as are the Ministry of Research and a number of research councils that fund basic and applied research. Much technical research is applied, supported by public and private authorities, and much natural science research is funded by private companies and foundations. The Danish Technological Institute and the Academy for Technical Sciences are important in technology and information services.

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Kjœrgaard, Thorkild. The Danish Revolution, 15001800: An Ecohistorical Interpretation, 1994.

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Lassen, Moses. Hvem Forsvarer det Flerkulturelle Danmark? Danske Myndigheders Manglende Beskyttelse af Etniske Minoriteter mod Diskrimination, 1999.

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Maruyama, Magoroh. "The Multilateral Mutual Causal Relationships among the Modes of Communication, Sociometric Pattern and the Intellectual Orientation in the Danish Culture." Phylon, vol. 22, 1961.

Pedersen, Søren. "Vandringen til og fra Danmark i Perioden 19601997." In Indvandringen til Danmark: Internationale og Nationale Perspektiver, David Coleman and Eskil Wadensjö, eds., 1999.

Petri, Christian. Arv og Gave, 1998.

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Web Sites

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Ministry of Culture, Kulturministeriet: http://www.kulturministeriet.dk

Ministry of the Interior, Indenrigsministeriet: http://www.im.dk

Ministry of Social Affairs, Socialministeriet: http://www.socialministeriet.dk

Ministry of Trade and Industry, Erhvervsministeriet: http://www.em.dk/english/frame.htm

Women in Government: http://hjem.get2net.dk/Womeningovernments/Denmark.htm

Erling HØg and Helle Johannessen

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Denmark

Denmark

DANES 43

The people of Denmark are called Danes. They are almost all northern Europeans; the Danes are among the most homogeneous peoples of Europe. There is a small German minority in southern Jutland.

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Denmark

Denmarkarc, ark, Bach, bark, barque, Braque, Clark, clerk, dark, embark, hark, impark, Iraq, Ladakh, Lamarck, lark, macaque, marc, mark, marque, narc, nark, Newark, park, quark, sark, shark, snark, spark, stark, Vlach •matriarch, patriarch •tanbark • ringbark • stringy-bark •Offenbach • ironbark • oligarch •salesclerk • titlark • skylark •meadowlark • woodlark • mudlark •landmark • checkmark • Denmark •benchmark • waymark • trademark •seamark • Bismarck • telemark •tidemark • Kitemark • pockmark •Ostmark • hallmark • Goldmark •Deutschmark • bookmark • footmark •earmark • watermark • birthmark •anarch • car park • skatepark •ballpark •Petrarch, tetrarch •hierarch, squirearch •exarch • Pesach • loan shark •Plutarch • aardvark

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Denmark

DENMARK

DENMARK , kingdom in N.W. Europe. It was the first of the three Scandinavian countries where Jews were permitted to settle. The first arrivals were invited by King Christian iv, who, on Nov. 22, 1622, at the request of his Jewish mintmaster Albertus *Denis, sent a message to the leaders of the Sephardi communities in Amsterdam and Hamburg inviting Sephardi Jews to settle in the recently established township of Glueckstadt on the eastern border of Elbe in his duchy of Holstein, offering them religious liberty and commercial privileges. A few accepted the invitation and began trading and manufacturing operations there. Other Sephardi Jews were also active in Denmark in the 17th century as financiers and jewelers to the royal family and members of the Danish nobility. Benjamin *Mussafia, author of the talmudic dictionary Musaf ha-Arukh, was appointed physician to the royal family in 1646. His son-in-law Gabriel Milan became governor of the Danish West Indies in 1684. Members of Sephardi families such as Abenzur, Franco, Granada, De Lima, Meldola, De Meza, Moresco, and Texeira de Mattos continued to engage in financial operations in Denmark during the 17th and 18th centuries, but gradually lost their mercantile significance in the state economy and their predominance in the Jewish community. Jewish communities existed in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, then under Danish rule, from the beginning of the 17th century, in Altona and Ottensen (now part of Altona). German Jews wishing to settle in the kingdom of Denmark proper had to produce royal authorization before entering the country. This was granted only to applicants in possession of sufficient capital to establish industrial enterprises, to deal in substantial amounts of Danish merchandise, or to build their own houses. Later, German Jews, mainly from Hamburg and Altona, who married Danish Jewesses were also permitted to settle in Denmark. Rabbis, teachers, and other communal

functionaries were permitted to practice in Denmark if guaranteed by leaders of the community. There were 1,830 Jews in Denmark in 1782 (1,503 in *Copenhagen).

The 19th century was a period of cultural, social, and economic progress for Danish Jewry, though there was a spate of anti-Jewish polemics between 1813 and 1819. Jews received Danish citizenship in 1814, and the last restrictive legislation was abolished in 1849 by the Danish constitution. While at the beginning of the 19th century the majority of Danish Jews were in poor circumstances, by about 1900 they mostly belonged to the middle and upper classes. The Jewish population increased steadily until, in the middle of the 19th century, there were about 4,200 Jews living in Denmark. The number subsequently declined to 3,500 in 1901 owing to intermarriage and a low birth rate. After the *Kishinev pogrom of 1903 a number of refugees from Eastern Europe entered Denmark, some in transit for the United States via Bremen and Hamburg. About 200 who arrived in 1904–05 obtained permanent residence, and their number subsequently increased to approximately 2,000. After some difficulties in social and cultural adjustment they gradually integrated into the old established Danish-Jewish society. The total Jewish population with the new immigrants numbered 6,000 in 1921 and has remained substantially the same.

On a footing of equality with their countrymen, the Jews in Denmark have been able to contribute to the development of their country in every sphere, and many have achieved international renown. They include the sculptor Kurt Harald Isenstein (see *Art), the literary critic Georg *Brandes, the botanist Nathanael *Wallich, the physicians and scientists Ludvig Levin *Jacobson, Adolph *Hannover, and Carl Julius *Salomonsen. Joseph Michaelsen, who served as postmaster-general, is considered the originator of the Universal Postal Union. Among outstanding politicians and high-ranking state officials were the minister of finance Edvard *Brandes, Herman Trier (1845–1925), a member of parliament and of Copenhagen municipal council, Moritz Levy (1824–1892), and Marcus Rubin (1845–1923), directors of the Danish National Bank, and Georg Cohn, who served as state adviser on international law. In the cultural sphere, contributions were made by the poets Meir Aaron *Goldschmidt, Henrik *Hertz, Henri *Nathansen, Louis *Levy, and Poul *Levin; the painters and sculptors Ernst Meyer, Joel *Ballin, Albert Gottschalk (1860–1906), and Theodor Philipsen (1840–1920); and the composers Fini Henriques (1867–1940), and Victor Bendix (1851–1926). Valuable contributions to science and learning in Denmark were made by the psychologist Edgar Rubin and the physicist Niels *Bohr.

Until the end of the 18th century the Jewish community remained strictly Orthodox. Influenced by the emancipation movement in Germany, however, a *Reform party was formed in Denmark by Mendel Levin *Nathanson who initiated several changes in the administration and educational system of the Jewish community of Copenhagen. The Danish Reform movement occasioned a schism within the Jewish community which was aggravated when Nathanson tried with the aid of Isaac Noah *Mannheimer, a young Danish Jewish theologian, to introduce a Reform service in Copenhagen. When Abraham Alexander *Wolff took office as chief rabbi (1829) he succeeded to some extent in reconciling the Orthodox and Reform parties. He was succeeded by David *Simonsen, the first native-born rabbi in Denmark; after ten years of office he retired to devote himself to Jewish studies and worldwide philanthropic activity. The Mahzike Hadas association was founded in connection with the retirement in 1910 of the strictly Orthodox chief rabbi Tobias Lewenstein. The succeeding chief rabbis were Max Schornstein and Moses Friediger, who was deported to Theresienstadt in 1943 but survived to return to Denmark, where he died in 1947. He was succeeded by Marcus *Melchior and in 1969 by his son Bent Melchior (1929– ). The Zionist movement was introduced into Denmark in 1902 with the establishment of the Dansk Zionistforening. The World Zionist Congress headquarters moved to and operated from Copenhagen for the duration of the World War i period. Between 1933 and 1945 about 1,700 potential pioneers and members of Youth Aliyah from Central European countries received agricultural training with Danish farmers. The Danmark Loge of the B'nai B'rith was founded in 1912. Jewish periodicals in the Danish language have appeared in Denmark since 1907, except during the German occupation in World War ii. Magazines in Yiddish appeared between 1911 and 1936, and a Yiddish daily, the Folktsaytung, appeared during World War i. A literary periodical Tidsskrift for jødisk Historie og Litteratur, sponsored by the Danmark Loge, was published in Copenhagen from 1917 to 1925.

[Julius Margolinsky /

Rafael Edelman]

Holocaust Period

The fate of the Jewish community under German occupation was related to several factors: the attitude of the Germans to Denmark and its population and the attitude of the Danes to the Jews within their country. The German occupiers treated the Danes with respect, a dramatic difference compared with the way they related to occupied populations in Eastern Europe. Germany invaded Denmark on April 9, 1940, as part of its expansion westward. German occupation was limited: Danish institutions remained intact, even the Danish army and navy; only foreign affairs were no longer in Danish hands. Germany respected Danish sovereignty. The German occupation was administered by the Foreign Ministry and not the ss or the Gestapo and for internal bureaucratic reasons the Foreign Ministry wanted to keep it that way. Germany could not rule by decree in Denmark and thus there developed a policy of negotiation with Danish authorities, who collaborated within limits. Denmark had a long history of religious tolerance and did not perceive itself to have a "Jewish problem." The Danes regarded the Jewish question as a Danish problem rather than one of an isolated minority. They treated the Jews as fellow citizens. Throughout the 1930s, Denmark was reluctant to receive refugees but some Jews did manage to use Denmark as a country of transit and some 1,400 refugees from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia and 300 children of *Youth Aliyah remained there.

For almost three and a half years, from the day of Denmark's occupation on April 9, 1940, to the major crisis in the Danish-German relationship at the end of August 1943, the Danish Jewish community, including the refugees, remained more or less unmolested. This unusual phenomenon can be explained by the fact that while the Danes collaborated with the Germans in the so-called policy of negotiation, they simultaneously extended full political, social, juridical, and personal protection to the Jews and to their property. So convincing was the steadfast behavior of the Danish authorities and the population that the Germans did not think it wise to injure the small Danish Jewish population as long as they were interested in the smooth operation of the Danish-German Agreement of April 9, 1940. Mounting Danish resistance during the summer of 1943 eventually destroyed the popular base of this agreement, which was eventually abolished by the Germans on Aug. 28, 1943. Emergency rule was declared. Until that time the civil representatives of the German Reich, Cécil von Renthe-Fink, as well as Werner Best, who succeeded him in office, did everything they could in order to avoid a conflict with the Danes over the issue of the Jews despite repeated attempts by Nazi authorities in Germany and small groups in Denmark to raise the issue. Best's role is perplexing as he was a known antisemite. He had served as deputy head of the Gestapo and worked as part of the German military bureaucracy to organize deportations to Auschwitz. His pragmatic behavior in Denmark may be explained by a difference in the attitude of the Danish population toward its own Jews. Martin Luther, Foreign Minister Joachim von *Ribbentrop's representative at the *Wannsee Conference in January 1942, stated that action against Jews in the Nordic countries had to be postponed. Public opinion in Denmark on the "Jewish" question was unanimous and had been expressed by the leader of the United Danish Youth Movement, Professor Hal Koch, just before the conference. Reacting to some incendiary declarations by Nazi newspapers in Denmark, he proclaimed that all suggestions to the effect that Danish Jews should be molested must be categorically rejected because the issue was one of both justice and respect for the Jews and the preservation of Danish freedom and law.

The Jewish community, anxious to cooperate with the Danish authorities, kept its members as inconspicuous as possible and refrained from all illegal activity, including escape. Only a group of ḥalutzim tried to escape illegally with partial success. Anxious to sustain his position in Berlin and to position himself for advance, Best advocated using this opportunity of emergency rule to deport the Jews. He was appealing to two very different audiences: Nazi colleagues anxious to deport the Jews and impose the "Final Solution" and the native population and its officialdom that regarded such acts as disruptive. His plan was opposed in German circles in Denmark, and several leading German personalities tried to ensure its cancellation. Ironically, Best, who was mainly interested in the additional police force transferred to Denmark to execute the deportation, was not very eager to carry out the order once Hitler approved it. He attempted to have it canceled and then leaked news of the operation through F.G. Dukwitz, the attaché for shipping affairs, who maintained good relations with leading Danish Social Democrats and informed them of the impending danger for the Jews. The warning was quickly spread and after a slight delay it was regarded as credible by the Jewish community, which canceled Rosh Ha-Shanah services, and by Danish citizens' organizations. The Lutheran Bishop of Copenhagen, H. Fuglsang-Damgaard, openly urged Danes to protect the Jews, proclaiming:

Whenever persecutions are undertaken for racial or religious reasons, it is the duty of the Christian Church to protest against it for the following reasons:

…Because the persecution of the Jews is irreconcilable with the humanitarian concept of love of neighbors which follow from the message which the Church of Jesus Christ is commissioned to proclaim. With Christ there is no respect of persons, and he has taught us that every man is precious in the eyes of God.

…race and religion can never be in themselves a reason for depriving a man of his rights freedom or property. We shall therefore struggle to ensure the continued guarantee to our Jewish brothers and sisters [of] the same freedom which we ourselves treasure more than life.

…We are obliged by our conscience to maintain the law and to protest against any violation of human rights. Therefore we desire to declare unambiguously our allegiance to the word, we must obey God rather than man.

Seemingly overnight a rescue organization sprang up that helped 7,200 Jews and about 700 non-Jewish relatives escape to Sweden in less than three weeks. Danish captains and fishermen carried out this operation. What began as a spontaneous popular movement was developed into an organized action by the Danish resistance movement. Though the heroic nature of the rescue has become fable, still the fishermen charged for their services. The cost of the transfer amounted to about 12 million Danish crowns, of which the Jews themselves paid approximately 6½ to 7 million. The rest was provided out of private and public Danish contributions. Out of the action grew a regular flow of illegal traffic between Denmark and Sweden. Danish and Swedish Jews helped to organize it and kept it financially sound. This traffic continued until the end of the war and provided the Danish underground with a constant line of communication with the Allies.

The attitude of Sweden was also quite significant. It had informed the Germans of its willingness to accept the Jews and it made an announcement of its openness to these refugees on radio, thus independently encouraging the exodus of Jews across the narrow sea that separated Denmark from Sweden. By the fall of 1943, German troops were in retreat from El Alamein in North Africa to Stalingrad in the East. With reduced power came reduced influence.

During the night of the persecution (Oct. 1–2, 1943) and following it, less than 500 Jews were seized by the Germans. They were sent to *Theresienstadt and remained there until the spring of 1945, when they too were brought to Sweden by the action of the Swedish Red Cross, headed by Count *Bernadotte. The Danish rescue effort did not end in October 1943. Refugee property was carefully protected. Homes and their contents were inventoried and businesses placed in trust. Torah scrolls and holy objects were stored in churches and returned intact to the Jewish community after the war. Non-Jewish relatives who remained behind were supported. The Danish government was persistent in its inquiries about its citizens who were deported to *Theresienstadt. Packages were sent. In an attempt to alleviate Danish concerns, the Germans allowed a special Red Cross visit to the camp in 1944, even though what the visitors saw was a hoax. Danish Jews were the first prisoners to return home after liberation. Of the 464 Jews deported, only 51 perished. Upon their return from Sweden to Denmark at the end of the war, most of the Jews who escaped found their property intact. It may be estimated that approximately 120 people perished because of the persecution: about 50 in Theresienstadt and a few more in other camps. Close to the same number committed suicide or were drowned on their way to Sweden. Less than 2% of the Jewish population of Denmark perished.

After the war, unlike many other countries that did far less for their Jews, Denmark did not seek credit for the rescue. Yad Vashem's list of the Righteous Among the Nations of the World lists only one entry for Denmark, not one individual, but the Danish people. And Danish historians have been critical of the limited efforts to receive refugees and the improvised nature of the rescue. More should have been done, they have argued.

Why was Denmark different? The answer is still a matter of dispute though the exceptional character of Denmark is not. Danes at every level of society, from fishermen to high government officials, intellectuals to Church leaders alike have said that they simply treated Jews as the neighbors they were, and one does not allow the enemy who occupies one's country to deport neighbors. The explanation for their behavior may well be as simple as that.

[Leni Yahil /

Michael Berenbaum (2nd ed.)]

Postwar Period

The Jewish population of Denmark at the end of 1968 was about the same as before World War ii, i.e., between 6,000 and 7,000: 25% of the total population were descendants of the old established Danish Jews and 67% were emigrants from Eastern Europe and their descendants; 8% consisted of refugees from Germany and their children. Only 1% of the Jewish population resided outside Copenhagen. In the course of 1969 a further 1,500 Jewish refugees from Poland were taken into Denmark, mostly into the Copenhagen area. Almost all the Jews who were rescued during the war, as well as most of the deportees to *Theresienstadt and other camps, returned to Denmark at the end of the war. The birth rate continued to be low (only about 60 children born each year) and this was insufficient to keep the Jewish population at the same level. The good relations between Jews and non-Jews were maintained in the postwar period. Mutual goodwill was demonstrated on various occasions, such as the 10th and the 25th anniversaries of the rescue of Danish Jewry from Nazi persecution, or, in 1964, on the 150th anniversary of the granting of citizenship to Danish Jews, as well as by the sympathetic interest of the population in Jewish problems and in the State of Israel. Many Jews were prominent in the postwar period. Stephan *Hurwitz was appointed Ombudsman in 1955, when this high position in the administration was established; Henry *Grünbaum was minister of finance in the labor government from 1965 to 1968; and Erik Warburg was principal of the Copenhagen University from 1956 to 1958. The Jewish community was state-recognized and therefore entitled to assess all Jews in the country for taxation, unless they resigned formally from the community. This recognition also involved the rights of the rabbis to perform marriages and to register births and deaths. All community institutions were administered in a strictly traditional way. Most of the members of the Orthodox Mahzike Hadas community belonged simultaneously to the larger Jewish community. Community affairs were directed by a board of seven members, elected by an assembly of 20, which in turn was chosen in general elections. In addition to all religious services the community maintained a Jewish day school and three kindergartens, homes for the aged, and a spacious community center. The community supported an active Zionist Federation, *wizo, youth organizations, *B'nai B'rith, an organization of craftsmen, and two choirs. Danish Jewry participated in all efforts to aid the State of Israel and strengthened its ties with other Jewish communities through close cooperation with the *Conference on Jewish Material Claims, the *American Joint Distribution Committee, and Jewish communities in Europe.

Later Developments

It is estimated that some 3,000 Polish Jews fled to Denmark at the beginning of the 1970s as a result of antisemitism. Their arrival affected the development of Danish Jewry during the decade, although they included a comparatively high percentage in mixed marriages. Most of the Jews settled in and around Copenhagen, but hundreds were brought to Aarhus and Odense in the provinces and tried to organize some form of Jewish life in these towns. The Federation of Polish Jews in Denmark was established to represent the newcomers, but other organizations were also founded partly in opposition to the federation. A youth group with Zionist orientation called the Coordination Committee became active in organizing inter-Scandinavian seminars. Although many of the newcomers did join the Jewish community, at the elections for the Jewish Community Board in 1979 some Jews from Poland organized their own party and gained two out of the 20 seats of the Board.

The Jewish day school moved to new premises in 1974. At the end of the decade the number of pupils had risen to 325 with an additional 60 children in the kindergarten. With two other Jewish kindergartens almost 50% of the Jewish children in Copenhagen attended these day institutions. The 150th anniversary of the school was celebrated in 1980 in the presence of the minister of education and the mayor of Copenhagen; a Festschrift was published on the occasion.

After the death of Chief Rabbi Dr. Marcus *Melchior in December 1969, his son, Rabbi Bent *Melchior, was elected to succeed him. In 1972 he resigned because of a conflict with the board of the community after making some outspoken remarks about the tragic events at the Olympic Games in Munich. After six months of discussions, which threatened to sunder the Jewish community, a formula was found which enabled the chief rabbi to accept a new contract, and he was unanimously re-elected. Shortly after, an American-born assistant had to leave his post when he had admitted that he had traveled on an electric train on the Sabbath. He was succeeded by Danish-born Rabbi Bent *Lexner, the first rabbi of the community to be educated and ordained in Jerusalem. Upon Melchior's retirement in 1996, Lexner became chief rabbi.

The Bnei Akiva movement continued to be active in Jewish education of the young generation, and it inspired most of the aliyah movement. Another important educational activity was established through Dor Hemshech. Many young people were active in the work for Soviet Jewry, and the Actions Committee for Soviet Jewry succeeded in creating strong support among Danish public figures for this cause.

Arne *Melchior, for many years president of the Danish Zionist Federation, was elected in 1979 to a third term in the Danish parliament, representing the Center Democrats. The former minister of finance, Mr. Henry Gruenbaum, was also re-elected in the same elections, and a new member, Mr. Magnus Demsitz representing the Social Democrats, was elected. Dr. Rafael Edelmann, who for nearly 40 years headed the department of Hebraica and Judaica at the Royal Library in Copenhagen, resigned at the end of 1970 and went to Jerusalem, where he died in 1972. He was succeeded at the Royal Library by Ulf Haxen.

The traditional prayerbook with Danish translation was re-published in 1977. Among the very few changes was the inclusion of the prayer for the State of Israel and a new text for the special prayer used on Tisha be-Av. The same year the Jewish community began the publication of a new Danish translation of the Pentateuch, the work of Rabbi Bent Melchior.

Since the kings Christian iv and Frederick iii invited the first Jews to enter Denmark in the 17th century, relations between the Danish royal family and the Jewish community have been very close. This continued during the reign of Queen Margrethe ii. In 1983 she attended the festive service in the Copenhagen Synagogue on the occasion of the synagogue's 150th anniversary. A year later she participated in the celebrations of the 300th jubilee of the Copenhagen community. In 1987 the queen was host to an official state visit by Israel's president Chaim Herzog, and in 1992 she agreed to be the patron of the many 1993 events to mark the 50th anniversary of the unique rescue operation of Danish Jews in October 1943.

The good relations also reflect the general situation between Jews and Christians in the country. Although an increasing number of foreigners settled in Denmark during the 1980s and 1990s, leading to an unhappy rise in nationalistic outbursts against newcomers, the Jews in general were not affected by the negative feelings towards strangers. Many of the newcomers were Muslims, and not a few of them Arabs from the Middle East. Muslim immigration continued into the 21st century and there were occasional incidents involving young Arabs, but most have been regarded by the police as street brawls. In 2003 a leader of the Hizbut-Tahrir association in Denmark was sentenced to jail for disseminating slanderous pamphlets against Jews. The Jewish community joined forces with the majority fighting extreme rightwing forces. A small, insignificant Nazi party existed, but its "Fuehrer" fell in love with a Palestinian girl and had to resign. In 1996 the right-wing Dansk Folkeparti took the issue of sheḥitah to the Danish Parliament in a campaign against Jewish and Muslim ritual slaughter. Their bill was voted down but they have brought up the issue repeatedly over the years, and in early 2005 a new bill was introduced in Parliament. This time too a majority of mps voted against it. There was in fact no Jewish ritual slaughter in Denmark at the time because the Danish Jewish community imported its meat from Ireland and poultry from France. Nonetheless, the bill's defeat was a very important victory for the Jewish community.

The plo did not find it easier than the Nazis to establish themselves in Denmark. They opened an office in Copenhagen in the 1980s and many people on the political left were sympathetic toward the organization, in particular after the Lebanon war and during the first intifada. But a plan to assassinate the Danish chief rabbi and a few other prominent Danish Jews visiting Israel not only failed but also became the beginning of the end of the office. More successful was an Arab attempt in 1985 to bomb the Copenhagen Synagogue. Strong security measures have since then been maintained around Jewish institutions.

The Jewish community tried to fight the problem of assimilation in various ways. Strong connections with Israel were being maintained and there was steady immigration of young families. The percentage of Jews making aliyah remained one of the highest in all Western countries. A large number of Danish Jews now have close relatives in Israel, and Danish Jews visit Israel frequently. Another major effort was made in the educational field, but the small number of children born to Jewish families has led to a decrease in the number of children attending the Jewish day school.

The Danish Jewish community included a large number of elderly people. Since the 1960s two old-age homes for sick people have been established with the help of the municipality, and in 1992 a new building was erected with modern apartments for elderly Jews. The new institution is named after the famous Swede Raoul *Wallenberg, who saved tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews from Nazi persecution.

The comparatively small community, numbering 6,400 in 2005, nearly all in Copenhagen, participated in international Jewish organizations such as the World Zionist Organization, World Jewish Congress, and B'nai B'rith. Denmark's geographical position also called for an active contribution to the effort on behalf of Soviet Jewry, and until the removal of the Iron Curtain many Danish Jews visited the U.S.S.R. to bring Soviet Jews material on Judaism and support their political struggle for freedom. Since 1989 this work has changed in character. Strong cultural ties have been established with the Jewish population of the Baltic states, and in 1992 a big operation for relief work in St. Petersburg was started in an attempt to assist the large Jewish population of that city to survive physically.

[Bent Melchior]

Relations with Israel

The relations between Denmark and Israel have been friendly and warm. Denmark was among the countries that voted for the partition of Palestine, and thus the establishment of a Jewish state, on Nov. 29, 1947, and recognized Israel soon after its establishment. Formal diplomatic relations were established on the ambassadorial level. Denmark has usually supported Israel at the United Nations and other international organizations. Of special note was its active support for Israel's right to free passage through the Suez Canal and the Gulf of Eilat, expressed in the attempt of the Danish boat Inge Toft to transport Israeli cargo through the Suez Canal in 1959. Trade relations developed from a modest scope to over $9,500,000 in 1968, with a balance between imports and exports, and $220 million in 2003, with Israel importing twice as much as it exported. Tourism from Denmark to Israel grew substantially over the years. The two countries maintained active friendship leagues, which concern themselves with disseminating information, caring for tourists, exchange visits of public figures, scientists, artists, etc. In most of the cities of Israel, streets or squares are named in honor of Denmark. In Jerusalem a monument to the rescue of Danish Jewry was erected on the 25th anniversary of the operation, and a comprehensive school in that city is named in Denmark's honor, and there is a King Christian x hospital at Eitanim. From the beginning of the 1960s, many thousands of Danish youth went to Israel every year for visits extending to a number of months, mostly working on kibbutzim. This movement led to the creation of a Danish organization of youth who worked on kibbutzim.

The appointment of Carmi Gillon, former head of Israel's General Security Service (gss), as ambassador to Denmark in 2001 sparked a minor diplomatic crisis when Danish Justice Minister Frank Jensen said that Gillon would be detained under suspicion "of having participated in, attempted, or assisted in torture" in his GSS role. Within a few months, however, the situation was defused.

[Yohanan Meroz]

bibliography:

C.E. Cohen, De Mosaiske Troesbekjenderes Stilling i Danmark… (1837); M.L. Nathanson, Historisk Fremstilling af Jødernes Forhold og Stilling i Danmark (1860); J. Salomon and J. Fischer, Mindeskrift i Anledning af Hundredaarsdagen for Anordningen af 29. Marts 1814 (1914); B. Balslev, De Danske Jøders Historie (1932); Moritzen, in: Contemporary Jewish Record, 3 (1940), 274–80; M. Hartvig, Jøderne i Danmark i tiden 1600–1800 (1951); G. Hartmann and F. Schulsinger, Physical and Mental Stress… Within the Jewish Population of Denmark (1952); J. Margolinsky, Gravspladserne på mosaisk vestre kirkegaard 1886–1955 (1955); idem, Gravspladserne på mosaisk nordre kirkegaard i Møllegade 1693–1953 (1956); idem, De jødiske kirkegaard i danske provinsbyer 1722–1956 (1957). holocaust period: L. Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry (1969); idem, in: wlb (Oct. 1962), 73 (bibliography); Wilhelm, in: ylbi, 3 (1958), 313–32; Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), 181–220; B. Outze (ed.), Denmark during the German Occupation (1946); Valentin, in: yivo Bleter, 8 (1953), 224–51; Y. Haestrop, From Occupied to Ally: Denmark's Fight for Freedom (1963); idem, Exposé, European Resistance Movement 1939–1945 (1960–64); A. Bertelsen, October '43 (Eng. 1956); Tid Landetz Beste, 1 (1966); W. Lord, A Night to Remember (1967), novel; E. Arnold, A Night of Watching (1967), novel; R. Oppenheim, The Door of Death (1948), novel; H. Flender, Rescue in Denmark (1963). contemporary period: A. Tartakower, Shivtei Yisrael, 2 (1966), 254–8; M. Melchior, A Rabbi Remembers (1968).

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Denmark

Denmark (dĕn´märk), Dan. Danmark, officially Kingdom of Denmark, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 5,432,000), 16,629 sq mi (43,069 sq km), N Europe. It borders on Germany in the south, the North Sea in the west, the Skagerrak in the north, and the Kattegat and the Øresund in the east. Copenhagen is Denmark's capital, largest city, and chief industrial center. In addition to the capital, other important cities include Ålborg, Århus, Esbjerg, Frederiksberg and Gentofte (suburbs of Copenhagen), Lyngby, Odense, and Roskilde.

Land and People

The southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, Denmark proper includes most of the Jutland peninsula; several major islands, notably Sjælland, Fyn, Lolland, Falster, Langeland, Als, Møn, Bornholm, and Amager; and about 450 other islands. The Faeroe Islands and Greenland, in the North Atlantic, are self-governing dependencies within the Danish realm. A part of the European plain, the country is almost entirely low-lying, and more than half of its land area is cultivated. The North Atlantic Drift (a warm ocean current) usually ensures a relatively mild climate, but occasionally ice closes the Baltic Sea, thus cutting off warmer waters and making the winter quite severe.

In addition to Denmark's Scandinavian majority, there are Eskimo, Faeroese, and German, minorities and, more recently, Turkish, Iranian, and Somali immigrants. Almost all the inhabitants of Denmark speak Danish (there are several dialects), and Faeroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), and German are also spoken. The great majority of Danes belong to the established Lutheran Church; there are small minorities of other Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Muslims.

Economy

Once essentially an agricultural country and still possessing a visibly rural landscape, Denmark after 1945 greatly expanded its industrial base so that by 2006 industry contributed about 25% of the gross domestic product and agriculture less than 2% (Denmark's other traditional industries of fishing and shipbuilding have also declined). Financial and other services, trade, transportation, and communications are also important.

The main commodities raised are livestock (pigs, cattle, and poultry), root crops (potatoes and sugar beets), and cereals (barley, wheat, and oats). There is a large fishing industry, and Denmark possesses a commercial shipping fleet of considerable size. The leading industries include food processing (especially meat and dairy goods) and shipbuilding and the manufacture of iron and steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, furniture and other wood products, windmills, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment. Metal products are made almost entirely from imported raw materials, as Denmark has scant mineral resources. Tourism is also a substantial industry.

Denmark's main exports are processed foods, agricultural and industrial machinery, pharmaceuticals, furniture, and windmills; the chief imports are machinery and equipment, raw materials, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, and consumer goods. The country's leading trade partners are Germany, Sweden, Great Britain, and other European Union countries.

Government

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy governed under the constitution of 1953. The monarch is the head of state. The prime minister, who is the head of government, is appointed by the monarch with the approval of the People's Assembly. The 179 members of the unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. Administratively, Denmark proper is divided into five regions, which are subdivided into 98 municipalities.

History

Ancient History to 1448

The Danes probably settled Jutland by c.10,000 BC and later (2d millennium BC) developed a Bronze Age culture there. However, little is known of Danish history before the age of the Vikings (9th–11th cent. AD), when the Danes had an important role in the Viking (or Norse) raids on Western Europe and were prominent among the invaders of England who were opposed by King Alfred (reigned 871–99) and his successors. St. Ansgar (801–65) helped convert the Danes to Christianity; Harold Bluetooth (d. c.985) was the first Christian king of Denmark. His son, Sweyn (reigned c.986–1014), conquered England. From 1018 to 1035, Denmark, England, and Norway were united under King Canute (Knut). The southern part of Sweden (Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge) was, with brief interruptions, part of Denmark until 1658.

After Canute's death, Denmark fell into a period of turmoil and civil war. Later, Waldemar I (reigned 1157–82) and Waldemar II (reigned 1202–41) were energetic rulers who established Danish hegemony over N Europe. With the end of the Viking raids and the development of a strong and independent church, the nobles were able to impose their will on the weaker kings. In 1282, Eric V (reigned 1259–86) was forced to submit to the Great Charter, which established annual parliaments and a council of nobles who shared the king's power. This form of government persisted until 1660.

Waldemar IV (reigned 1340–75) again brought Danish power to a high point, but he was humiliated by the Hanseatic League in the Treaty of Stralsund (1370). Waldemar's daughter, Queen Margaret, achieved (1397) the union of the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish crowns in her person (see Kalmar Union). Sweden soon escaped effective Danish rule, and with the accession (1523) of Gustavus I of Sweden the union was dissolved. However, the union with Norway lasted until 1814.

Denmark and Norway

In 1448, Christian I became king and established on the Danish throne the house of Oldenburg, from which the present ruling family (Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg) is descended. He also united (1460) Schleswig and Holstein with the Danish crown. The Reformation (early 16th cent.) gradually gained adherents in Denmark, and during the reign of Christian III (1534–59) Lutheranism became the established religion. In the late 16th and early 17th cent., Denmark had a brilliant court, with a brisk intellectual and cultural life; the astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a major figure, and the Danish Renaissance style of architecture (strongly influenced by that of the Low Countries) was developed.

The division of power in Denmark between the king and the nobles seriously handicapped the country's attempt to gain supremacy in the Baltic region. Denmark was involved in numerous wars with Sweden and other neighbors; the participation of Christian IV (reigned 1588–1648) in the Thirty Years War (1618–48) and the wars of Frederick III (reigned 1648–70) with Sweden caused Denmark to lose its hegemony in the north to Sweden. The Danish-Swedish Treaty of Copenhagen (1660) confirmed most of the Danish losses imposed by the Treaty of Roskilde (1658).

The wars weakened the nobility by reducing its numbers and strengthened the monarchy by increasing the power and importance of the royal army. Frederick III and Christian V (reigned 1670–99), aided by their minister Count Griffenfeld, were able to make the kingdom an absolute monarchy with the support of the peasants and townspeople. Denmark maintained an imperial status by continuing to rule over Iceland and by establishing (late 17th cent.) the Danish West Indies (see Virgin Islands). In the Northern War (1720–21) against Charles XII of Sweden, Frederick IV (reigned 1699–1730) gained some financial awards and the union of ducal Schleswig with royal Schleswig.

The later 18th cent. was marked by important social reforms carried out by the ministers Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff, Andreas Peter Bernstorff, and Johann Friedrich Struensee. Serfdom was abolished (1788), and peasant proprietorship was encouraged. In the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Denmark, having sided with Napoleon I, was twice attacked by England (see Copenhagen, battle of; Copenhagen). By the Treaty of Kiel (1814), Denmark lost Norway to Sweden and Helgoland to England, but retained possession of Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, and Iceland.

1814 to the Present

In the early 19th cent., Denmark's modern system of public education was started, and there was a flowering of literature and philosophy (led by Hans Christian Andersen and Søren Kierkegaard). As a result of plans for a liberal, centralized constitution, Frederick VII (reigned 1848–63) became involved in a war with Prussia (1848–50) over the status of Schleswig-Holstein. Denmark was defeated and agreed in the London Protocol of 1852 to preserve a special status for the two duchies. In the meantime, a new constitution was promulgated (1849), ending the absolute monarchy and establishing wide suffrage.

The new government attempted (1855) to incorporate Schleswig into the Danish constitutional system, and soon after the accession (1863) of Christian IX war broke out again (1864), this time with Prussia and Austria. Denmark was defeated badly and lost Schleswig-Holstein. This loss of about one third of the Danish territory was, however, offset by great economic gains that transformed Denmark, in the second half of the 19th cent., from a land of poor peasants into the nation with the most prosperous small farmers in Europe. This change was achieved largely by persuading the farmers to specialize in dairy and pork products rather than in grain (which was more expensive to produce than the grain imported from the United States). The folk high schools, originated by N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783–1872), played an important role in reeducating the Danish farmers. At the same time, the cooperative movement flourished in Denmark. Electoral reforms (1914–15) granted suffrage to the lower classes and to women and strengthened the lower chamber of the legislature.

Denmark remained neutral in World War I and recovered North Schleswig after a plebiscite in 1920. In the interwar period and after World War II, Denmark adopted much social welfare legislation and a system of progressive taxation. Although the Social Democratic government of Denmark had signed a 10-year nonaggression pact with Germany in 1939, the country was occupied by German forces in Apr., 1940. Christian X (reigned 1912–47) and his government remained, but in Aug., 1943, the Germans established martial law, arrested the government, and placed the king under house arrest.

Most of the Jewish population (including refugees from other countries) escaped, with Danish help, to Sweden. Among the escapees was Neils Bohr, the Danish physicist who went on to the United States and worked on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos. The Danish minister in Washington, although disavowed by his government, signed an agreement granting the United States military bases in Greenland. Danish merchant vessels served under the Allies, and a Danish resistance force operated (1945) under the supreme Allied command. Denmark was liberated by British troops in May, 1945. After the war, Denmark recovered quickly, and its economy, especially the manufacturing sector, expanded considerably.

Denmark became (1945) a charter member of the United Nations and, breaking a long tradition of neutrality, joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Frederick IX became king in 1947. In 1960, Denmark became part of the European Free Trade Association, which it left in 1972 in order to join the European Community (now the European Union). Denmark granted independence to Iceland in 1944 and home rule to the Faeroe Islands in 1948 and to Greenland in 1979. Frederick IX died in 1972 and was succeeded by Margaret II. In 1982, the first Conservative-led government since 1894, a center-right coalition headed by Poul Schlüter, came to power.

Having initially rejected (June, 1992) the European Community's Maastricht Treaty, an agreement that represented a major step toward European unification, Danish voters approved the treaty with exemptions in May, 1993. In 1993, Schlüter resigned; Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, a Social Democrat, became prime minister, heading a center-left coalition that was returned to office in 1998. In a blow to Rasmussen, Danish voters rejected adoption of the euro (see European Monetary System) in a referendum in Sept., 2000. Parliamentary elections in 2001 brought a Liberal party–led conservative coalition to power, and Anders Fogh Rasmussen became prime minister in the minority government. The government remained in office after the 2005 elections.

The publication of cartoons with images of the Prophet Muhammad in a Danish newspaper in Sept., 2005, brought protests from Danish Muslims and ambassadors from Muslim nations, because of Islamic prohibitions on any representation of Muhammad. The protests initially drew tepid responses from the newspaper and Danish officials. The subsequent distribution by Muslim clerics of the cartoons combined with even more offensive images, and the republication of the original cartoons in some other Western and non-Western papers, sparked sometimes violent anti-Danish and anti-Western protests and boycotts of Danish goods in many Muslim nations in early 2006, and led to apologies from the newspaper and Denmark.

After snap parliamentary elections in Nov., 2007, the Liberal-led government remained in office. Rasmussen stepped down in Apr., 2009, to become NATO's secretary-general (beginning in August); Lars Løkke Rasmussen, the finance minister, succeeded him as prime minister. Parliamentary elections in Sept., 2011, resulted in a narrow victory for a three-party center-left alliance led by the Social Democrats, and Social Democratic leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt subsequently became prime minister (and the first woman to hold the post). The June, 2015, elections were won by the Liberal-led center-right coalition, but after Lars Løkke Rasmussen failed to reach an agreement with other center-right parties, he formed a Liberal party minority government.

Bibliography

See K. E. Miller, Government and Politics in Denmark (1968); W. G. Jones, Denmark (1970); P. V. Glob, Denmark: An Archaeological History (tr. 1971); S. Oakley, A Short History of Denmark (1972); H. C. Johansen, The Danish Economy in the Twentieth Century (1986); P. Lauring, Denmark (tr., 7th ed. 1986); K. E. Miller, ed., Denmark (1987).

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Denmark

DENMARK

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS DANES
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Kingdom of Denmark

Kongeriget Danmark

CAPITAL: Copenhagen (København)

FLAG: The Danish national flag, known as the Dannebrog, is one of the oldest national flags in the world, although the concept of a national flag did not develop until the late 18th century when the Dannebrog was already half a millennium old. The design shows a white cross on a field of red.

ANTHEM: There are two national anthemsKong Kristian stod ved hojen mast (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and Der er et yndigt land (There Is a Lovely Land).

MONETARY UNIT: The krone (Kr) of 100 øre is a commercially convertible paper currency with one basic official exchange rate. There are coins of 25 and 50 øre, and 1, 5, 10, and 20 kroner, and notes of 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 kroner. Kr1 = $0.16863 (or $1 = Kr5.93) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard, but some local units are used for special purposes.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Constitution Day, 5 June; Christmas Day, 25 December; Boxing Day, 26 December. Movable religious holidays include Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Prayer Day (4th Friday after Easter), Ascension, and Whitmonday.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated in southern Scandinavia, the Kingdom of Denmark consists of Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Denmark proper, comprising the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland) and 406 islands (97 of them inhabited), has an area of 43,094 sq km (16,638 sq mi) and extends about 402 km (250 mi) ns and 354 km (220 mi) ew. Comparatively, the area occupied by Denmark is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Massachusetts. The Jutland Peninsula accounts for 29,767 sq km (11,493 sq mi) of the total land area, while the islands have a combined area of 13,317 sq km (5,142 sq mi). Except for the southern boundary with Germany, the country is surrounded by waterSkagerrak on the n, Kattegat, Øresund, and Baltic Sea on the e, and the North Sea on the w. Denmark's total boundary length is 7,382 km (4,587 mi), of which only 68 km (42 mi) is the land boundary with Germany.

Bornholm, one of Denmark's main islands, is situated in the Baltic Sea, less than 160 km (100 mi) due e of Denmark and about 40 km (25 mi) from southern Sweden. It has an area of 588 sq km (227 sq mi) and at its widest point is 40 km (25 mi) across.

Denmark's capital city, Copenhagen, is located on the eastern edge of the country on the island of Sjaelland.

TOPOGRAPHY

The average altitude of Denmark is about 30 m (98 ft), and the highest point, Yding Skovhoj in southeastern Jutland, is only 173 m (568 ft). In parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland, and in a few other areas, the coast is protected by dikes. All of Denmark proper (except for the extreme southeast of the island of Bornholm, which is rocky) consists of a glacial deposit over a chalk base. The surface comprises small hills, moors, ridges, hilly islands, raised sea bottoms, and, on the west coast, downs and marshes. There are many small rivers and inland seas. Good natural harbors are provided by the many fjords and bays.

CLIMATE

Denmark has a temperate climate, the mildness of which is largely conditioned by the generally westerly winds and by the fact that the country is virtually encircled by water. There is little fluctuation between day and night temperatures, but sudden changes in wind direction cause considerable day-to-day temperature changes. The mean temperature in February, the coldest month, is 0°c (32°f), and in July, the warmest, 17°c (63°f). Rain falls fairly evenly throughout the year, the annual average amounting to approximately 61 cm (24 in).

FLORA AND FAUNA

Plants and animals are those common to middle Europe. There are many species of ferns, flower, fungi, and mosses; common trees include spruce and beech. Few wild or large animals remain. Birds, however, are abundant; many species breed in Denmark and migrate to warmer countries during the autumn and winter. Fish and insects are plentiful. As of 2002, there were at least 43 species of mammals, 196 species of birds, and over 1,400 species of plants throughout the country.

ENVIRONMENT

Denmark's most basic environmental legislation is the Environmental Protection Act of 1974, which entrusts the Ministry of the Environment, in conjunction with local authorities, with anti-pollution responsibilities. The basic principle is that the polluter must pay the cost of adapting facilities to environmental requirements; installations built before 1974, however, are eligible for government subsidies to cover the cost of meeting environmental standards.

Land and water pollution are two of Denmark's most significant environmental problems although much of Denmark's household and industrial waste is recycled. In the mid-1990s, Denmark averaged 447.3 thousand tons of solid waste per year. Animal wastes are responsible for polluting both drinking and surface water. Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution threaten the quality of North Sea waters. A special treatment plant at Nyborg, on the island of Fyn, handles dangerous chemical and oil wastes. The nation has about 6 cu km of renewable water resources with 43% of annual withdrawals used for farming and 27% for industrial purposes.

Remaining environmental problems include air pollution, especially from automobile emissions; excessive noise, notably in the major cities; and the pollution of rivers, lakes, and open sea by raw sewage. In the early 1990s Denmark ranked among 50 nations with the heaviest industrial carbon dioxide emissions. In 1996, emissions totaled 56.5 million metric tons per year. In 2000, the emissions total dropped to 44.6 million metric tons.

As of 2003, Denmark had at least 220 protected sites, with an area of over 1.3 million hectares, or about 34% of the total land area. The Ilulissat Icefjord is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site; there are 38 Ramsar wetland sites. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 4 types of mammals, 10 species of birds, 7 species of fish, 1 type of mollusk, 10 species of other invertebrates, and 3 species of plants. Endangered species include the coalfish whale, blue whale, loggerhead, leatherback turtle, and Atlantic sturgeon.

POPULATION

The population of Denmark in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 5,418,000, which placed it at number 108 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 15% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 19% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 200510 was expected to be 0.2%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 5,527,000. The population density was 126 per sq km (326 per sq mi).

The UN estimated that 72% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.28%. The capital city, København (Copenhagen), had a population of 1,066,000 in that year. Other large towns are Aarhus (Arhus), 291,258; Odense, 184,308; Aalborg (Alborg), 162,521; Esbjerg, 82,314; and Randers, 62,252.

MIGRATION

Emigration is limited, owing mainly to the relatively high standard of living in Denmark. There are 500 refugees accepted every year by Denmark for resettlement. These refugees are those who need an alternative place to their first country of asylum, usually for protection-related reasons. An Integration Act took effect 1 January 1999. Under this act, most foreign nationals, including refugees, must participate in a three-year integration program, during which their social assistance is reduced. In 2004 Denmark received 65,310 refugees. The main countries of origin for these refugees were Bosnia and Herzegovina (25,395), Iraq (11,831), and Afghanistan (6,369). Also in 2004, Denmark received 3,235 asylum applications; of these, about 15% were given permission to stay. The countries of origin for asylum seekers were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iraq, Palestine, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Somalia, and Iran.

In April 1999 the government enacted a plan ("Lex Kosovo") to provide temporary protection for evacuees from Macedonia. (These were Kosovars who had already sought asylum in Denmark but whose cases were pending or had been rejected.) Under this plan, all were granted temporary protection for a renewable six-month period. As of August 1999, 2,823 people had been evacuated from Macedonia to Denmark.

In 2005 the net migration rate was estimated as 2.53 migrants per 1,000 population.

ETHNIC GROUPS

The population of Denmark proper is of indigenous northern European stock, and the Danes are among the most homogeneous peoples of Europe. The population is comprised of Scandinavian, Inuit (Eskimo), and Faeroese peoples. There is also a small German minority in southern Jutland and small communities of Turks, Iranians, and Somalis.

LANGUAGES

Danish is the universal language. In addition to the letters of the English alphabet, it has the letters ae, ø, and å. A spelling reform of 1948 replaced aa by å, but English transliteration usually retains the aa. There are many dialects, but they are gradually being supplanted by standard Danish. Modern Danish has departed further from the ancient Nordic language of the Viking period than have Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish (to which Danish is closely related), and there is a substantial admixture of German and English words. Danish may be distinguished from the other Scandinavian languages by its change of k, p, and t to g, b, and d, in certain situations and by its use of the glottal stop. Faeroese and Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect) are also used. Many Danes have a speaking knowledge of English and German, and many more are capable of understanding these languages.

RELIGIONS

About 84.3% of the people are nominally members of the official state religion, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which is supported by the state and headed by the sovereign. Only about 3% of these Evangelical Lutherans are active members. Muslims are the next largest group with about 3% of the population. Protestants and Roman Catholics together make up another 3% of the population. Christian denominations represented in the country include Baptists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Methodists, Seventh-Day Adventists, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Anglicans, and Russian Orthodox. Copenhagen is the site of the European headquarters for the Church of Scientology, which is not officially recognized as a religion by the state. There are about 7,000 Jews in the country. An indigenous religion known as Forn Sidr was officially recognized in 2003; followers worship the old Norse gods. About 5.4% of the population claim no religious affiliation and 1.5% claim to be atheists.

Religious freedom is provided by the constitution and this right is generally respected in practice. As the official church of state, the Evangelical Lutheran Church is the only church which receives state funding. A number of other religious groups have complained that this system is unfair and contrary to religious equality. In 1999 an independent four-member council appointed by the government published guidelines and principles for official approval of religious organizations. The guidelines establish clear requirements that religious organizations must fulfill, including providing a full written text of the religion's central traditions, descriptions of its rituals, an organizational structure accessible for public control and approval, and constitutionally elected representatives who can be held responsible by authorities. The guidelines also forbid organizations to "teach or perform actions inconsistent with public morality or order." Official approval offers tax-exempt status to the organization and marriages within approved churches are automatically recognized by the state.

TRANSPORTATION

Transportation is highly developed in Denmark. The road system is well engineered and adequately maintained. Among the most important bridges are the Storstrom Bridge linking the islands of Sjaelland and Falster, and the Little Belt Bridge linking Fyn and Jutland. A new train and auto link joins Sjaell and Fyn (18 km/11 mi); a new series of bridges connecting Denmark to Swedenspanning 4.9 mi across the Oresund Strait and costing Kr13.9 billionopened in July 2000. The link reduces transit time between the two countries to 15 minutes for cars and trucks and less than 10 minutes for high-speed trains. Cars travel on the upper tier and trains on the lower. As of 2002, Denmark had 71,474 km (44,414 mi) of roadways, all of which were paved, including 880 km (547 mi) of expressways. In 2003, Denmark had 1,894,649 passenger cars and 428,949 commercial vehicles registered for use.

The railway system had a total of 2,628 km (1,635 mi) of standard gauge railroad in 2004, of which 595 km (370 mi) was electrified.

The Danish merchant fleet as of 2005 was composed of 287 ships of at least 1,000 GRT, for a total of 6,952,473 GRT. The majority of these vessels belonged to the Danish International Registry, an offshore registry program allowing foreign-owned vessels to sail under the Danish flag. Denmark, which pioneered the use of motor-driven ships, has many excellent and well-equipped harbors, of which Copenhagen is the most important. Denmark also had 417 km of navigable inland waterways, as of 2001.

There were an estimated 97 airports in 2004, of which 28 had paved runways as of 2005. Kastrup Airport near Copenhagen is a center of international air traffic. Domestic traffic is handled by Danish Airlines in conjunction with SAS, a joint Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish enterprise. In 2003, about 5.886 million passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.

HISTORY

Although there is evidence of agricultural settlement as early as 4000 bc and of bronze weaponry and jewelry by 1800 bc, Denmark's early history is little known. Tribesmen calling themselves Danes arrived from Sweden around ad 500, and Danish sailors later took part in the Viking raids, especially in those against England. Harald Bluetooth (d.985), first Christian king of Denmark, conquered Norway, and his son Sweyn conquered England. During the reign of Canute II (101735), Denmark, Norway, and England were united, but in 1042, with the death of Canute's son, Hardecanute, the union with England came to an end, and Norway seceded. During the next three centuries, however, Danish hegemony was reestablished over Sweden and Norway, and in the reign of Margrethe (13871412) there was a union of the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish crowns. In 1523, the Scandinavian union was dissolved, but Norway remained united with Denmark until 1814.

The Reformation was established in Denmark during the reign of Christian III (153459). A series of wars with Sweden during the 17th and early 18th centuries resulted in the loss of Danish territory. Meanwhile, under Frederik III (r.164870) and Christian V (r.167099), absolute monarchy was established and strengthened; it remained in force until 1849. Freedom of the press and improved judicial administration, introduced by Count Johann von Struensee, adviser (177072) to Christian VII, were abrogated after his fall from favor. Having allied itself with Napoleon, Denmark was deprived of Norway by the terms of the Peace of Kiel (1814), which united Norway with Sweden; and as a result of the Prusso-Danish wars of 184849 and 1864, Denmark lost its southern provinces of Slesvig, Holstein, and Lauenburg. Thereafter, the Danes concentrated on internal affairs, instituting important economic changes (in particular, specialization in dairy production) that transformed the country from a nation of poor peasants into one of prosperous smallholders. Denmark remained neutral in World War I, and after a plebiscite in 1920, North Slesvig was reincorporated into Denmark.

Disregarding the German-Danish nonaggression pact of 1939, Hitler invaded Denmark in April 1940, and the German occupation lasted until 1945. At first, the Danish government continued to function, protecting as long as it could the nation's Jewish minority and other refugees (some 7,200 Jews eventually escaped to neutral Sweden). However, when a resistance movement developed, sabotaging factories, railroads, and other installations, the Danish government resigned in August 1943 rather than carry out the German demand for the death sentence against the saboteurs. Thereafter, Denmark was governed by Germany directly, and conflict with the resistance intensified.

After the war, Denmark became a charter member of the UN and of NATO. In 1952, it joined with the other Scandinavian nations to form the Nordic Council, a parliamentary body. Having joined EFTA in 1960, Denmark left that association for the EEC in 1973. Meanwhile, during the 1950s and 1960s, agricultural and manufacturing production rose considerably, a high level of employment was maintained, and foreign trade terms were liberalized. However, the expense of maintaining Denmark's highly developed social security system, growing trade deficits (due partly to huge increases in the price of imported oil), persistent inflation, and rising unemployment posed political as well as economic problems for Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s, as one fragile coalition government succeeded another.

Economic performance was strong after the mid-1990s. Annual growth of GDP was 3% between 1994 and 1998 although the rate dropped to 1.6% in 1999. (It was projected to be 2.3% in 200506.) Thanks to strong growth, unemployment fell from 12.2% in 1994 to 6% in 1999. In March 2000, the buoyant economic outlook prompted Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen to announce a referendum on Economic and Monetary Union to take place on 28 September 2000; it was rejected by 53.2% of the electorate. Voters narrowly rejected the Maastricht Treaty on European Union in 1992, but later approved it in 1993 after modifications were made in Denmark's favor. One of the special agreements was that Denmark could opt not to join EMU. For all practical purposes, however, Danish monetary policy has closely followed that of the European Central Bank and the Danish crown shadows the euro (the European single currency).

As with other European countries, Denmark in the 21st century sees illegal immigration as a major problem. The issue was a deciding one in the 20 November 2001 elections, with the right-wing xenophobic Danish People's Party (founded in 1995) gaining 12% of the vote and 22 seats to become the third-largest party in parliament. The new government composed of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party formed by Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen depended upon the Danish People's Party for legislative support. In June 2002, parliament passed a series of laws restricting the rights of immigrants, including the abolition of the right to asylum on humanitarian grounds, and cuts of 3040% in the social benefits available to refugees during their first seven years of residency. In February 2005, Fogh Rasmussen won a second term as prime minister as his Liberal Party again formed a coalition with the Conservative Party. Rasmussen became the first Danish Liberal leader to win a second consecutive term. The Danish People's Party, although not part of the governing coalition, strengthened its presence in parliament by two seats.

GOVERNMENT

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Legislative power is vested jointly in the crown and a unicameral parliament (Folketing), executive power in the sovereignwho exercises it through his or her ministersand judicial power in the courts. The revised constitution of 1953 provides that powers constitutionally vested in Danish authorities by legislation may be transferred to international authorities established, by agreement with other states, for the promotion of international law and cooperation.

The sovereign must belong to the Lutheran Church. The crown is hereditary in the royal house of Lyksborg, which ascended the throne in 1863. On the death of a king, the throne descends to his son or daughter, a son taking precedence.

Executive powers belong to the crown, which enjoys personal integrity and is not responsible for acts of government. These powers are exercised by the cabinet, consisting of a prime minister and a variable number of ministers, who generally are members of the political party or coalition commanding a legislative majority. No minister may remain in office after the Folketing has passed a vote of no confidence in him or her.

The single-chamber Folketing, which has been in existence since 1953, is elected every four years (more frequently, if necessary) by direct and secret ballot by Danish subjects 18 years of age and older. Under the 1953 constitution there are 179 members, two of whom are elected in the Faroe Islands and two in Greenland. Of the remaining 175 members, 135 are elected by proportional representation in 17 constituencies, and 40 supplementary seats are divided among the parties in proportion to the total votes cast.

A parliamentary commission, acting as the representative both of the Folketing and of the nation, superintends civil and military government administration.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Until 1849, the Danish form of government was autocratic. The constitution of 1849 abolished privileges, established civil liberties, and laid down the framework of popular government through a bicameral parliament elected by all men over 30. In 1866, however, the National Liberal Party, composed largely of the urban middle class, succeeded in obtaining a majority for a constitution in which the upper chamber (Landsting) was to be elected by privileged franchise, the great landowners gaining a dominant position. This proved the starting point of a political struggle that divided Denmark until 1901. Formally, it concerned the struggle of the directly elected chamber, the Folketing, against the privileged Landsting, but in reality it was the struggle of the Left Party (made up largely of farmers, but after 1870 also of workers) to break the monopoly of political influence by the Right Party (consisting of the landowning aristocracy and the upper middle class). Meanwhile, the workers established trade unions, their political demands finding expression in the Social Democratic Party. In 1901, Christian IX called on the Left to form a government, and thereafter it was the accepted practice that the government should reflect the majority in the Folketing.

In 1905, the Left Party split. Its radical wing, which seceded, became a center party, the Social Liberals, and sought to collaborate with the Social Democrats. In 1913, these two parties together obtained a majority in the Folketing, and a Social Liberal government led Denmark through World War I. A new constitution adopted in 1915 provided for proportional representation and gave the vote to all citizens, male and female, 25 years of age and older (changed in 1978 to 18 years). In an attempt to obtain a broader popular base, the old Right Party adopted the name Conservative People's Party, and thenceforth this party and the Moderate Liberals (the old Left Party), the Social Liberals, and the Social Democrats formed the solid core of Danish politics. The Social Democrats briefly formed governments in 1924 and in 1929, in association with the Social Liberals.

During the German occupation (194045), a coalition government was formed by the main political parties, but increasing Danish popular resistance to the Germans led the Nazis to take over executive powers. From 1945 to 1957, Denmark was governed by minority governments, influence fluctuating between the Social Democrats on the one hand and the Moderate Liberals and Conservatives on the other, depending on which of the two groups the Social Liberals supported. In 1953, a new constitution abolished the Landsting and introduced a single-chamber system in which parliamentarianism is expressly laid down.

Aims of the Social Democratic Party are to nationalize monopolies, redistribute personal incomes by taxation and other measures, partition farm properties to form independent smallholdings, and raise working-class living standards through full employment. It supports the principle of mutual aid, as practiced in a combination of social welfare and widespread public insurance schemes. The Conservative Party advocates an economic policy based on the rights of private property and private enterprise and is firmly opposed to nationalization and restrictions, though it is in favor of industrial protection. It calls for a national contributory pensions scheme that would encourage personal initiative and savings. The major parties support the UN and NATO and favor inter-Scandinavian cooperation.

Issues in the 1970s focused less on international matters than on policies affecting Denmark's economy. The general elections of December 1973 resulted in heavy losses for all the established parties represented in the Folketing and successes for several new parties, notably the center-left Democratic Center Party and the "Poujadist" Progress Party led by Mogens Glistrup, an income tax expert who reputedly became a millionaire by avoiding taxes and providing others with advice on tax avoidance. The Progress Party, established early in 1973, advocated the gradual abolition of income tax and the dissolution of over 90% of the civil service. The Social Democrats, who had been in power, lost significantly in this election, and their chairman, Anker Jørgensen, resigned as prime minister. In mid-December, Poul Hartling was sworn in as prime minister, with a Liberal Democratic cabinet. The 22 Liberal members in the Folketing made up the smallest base for any government since parliamentary democracy was established in Denmark.

When it became clear in December 1974 that the Folketing would not approve the drastic anti-inflation program the Hartling government had announced, general elections were again called for. In the January 1975 balloting, the Liberals almost doubled their representation in the Folketing. However, because most of the other non-Socialist parties had lost support and because three of the four left-wing parties simultaneously gained parliamentary seats, the preelection lack of majority persisted, and Hartling resigned at the end of the month. After several attempts at a coalition by Hartling and Anker Jørgensen, the latter's alignment of Social Democrats and other Socialist-oriented minority parties finally succeeded in forming a new government. Jørgensen remained prime minister through general elections in 1977, 1979, and 1981. In September 1982, however, dissension over Jørgensen's plan to increase taxes in order to create new jobs, boost aid to farmers, and reduce the budget deficit led the government to resign. A four-party coalition led by Poul Schlüter, the first Conservative prime minister since 1901, then took power as a minority government, controlling only 66 seats out of 179. After the defeat of his 1984 budget, Schlüter called for new elections, which were held in January 1984 and increased the number of seats controlled by the coalition to 79. Following elections in September 1987, however, the number of seats held by the coalition fell to 70.

The 1994 election brought to power a three-party coalition of Social Democrats, Center Democrats, and Radical Liberals (they commanded a total of 76 seats in the 179-seat parliament). The 1994 election produced significant difficulties for the political right. The Conservatives were usually the major right-wing force with a legacy of heading governments but it saw its representation drop to 28 seats from 31 while the Liberal Party increased its share of the vote from 15.8% to 23.3% and thereby became the largest opposition party. The center-left coalition survived the departure of the Center Democrats in 1996, which rejected Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen's decision to seek support for the 1997 budget from the far left. The fragile two-party coalition stumbled from one crisis to another in 1997 and the 1998 election promised to bring a Liberal-Conservative cabinet back to power. In February 1998, the Social Democrats recovered in opinion polls and Nyrup Rasmussen called a snap election.

The election results were as follows: Social Democrats 35.9% (65 seats), Radical Liberals 3.9% (7 seats), Center Democrats 4.3% (8 seats), Christian People's Party 2.5% (4 seats), Socialist People's Party 7.6% (13), Unity Party 2.7% (5 seats), Liberals 23% (43), Conservatives 8.9% (17), Progress Party 2.4% (4), and Danish People Party 7.4% (13 seats). Following the 1998 election, the Social Democratic and Radical Liberal coalition remained intact with Nyrup Rasmussen as prime minister. The Conservatives suffered a dramatic defeat and saw their share of the vote drop from 15% to 8.9%. The two far right partiesthe Danish People's Party and the Progress Partyrecorded the biggest gains by taking votes from the mainstream right-wing parties. In March 2000, Nyrup Rasmussen reshuffled his cabinet to breathe new life into government and to respond to the pressures coming from the Danish People's Party, which accused the government of being soft on immigration. Campaigning on a platform "Denmark for the Danes," the People's Party attracted a large number of sympathizers.

The issue of immigration remained primary in the early elections called for by Nyrup Rasmussen on 20 November 2001. Nyrup Rasmussen's Social Democrats suffered a major defeat, gaining only 29.1% of the vote and 52 seats. Center-right parties gained their largest majority since 1926. The Liberal Party (31.3% of the vote and 56 seats) and the Conservative People's Party (9.1% and 16 seats) formed a minority government headed by Anders Fogh Rasmussen (no relation to Poul Nyrup Rasmussen) that depended upon the anti-immigrant Danish People's Party (12% and 22 seats) for legislative support. Other parties represented in the Folketing following the 2001 elections were as follows: Socialist People's Party, 6.4% (12 seats); Radical Left, 5.2% (9 seats); Unity Listthe Red Greens, 2.4% (4 seats); Christian People's Party, 2.3% (4 seats); and the 2 representatives each from the Faroe Islands and Greenland.

Elections for the Folketing were next held on 8 February 2005. The percentage of the vote gained by each party and distribution of seats was as follows: Liberal Party, 29% (52 seats); Social Democrats, 25.9% (47 seats); Danish People's Party, 13.2% (24 seats); Conservative Party, 10.3% (18 seats); Social Liberal Party, 9.2% (17 seats); Socialist People's Party 6% (11 seats); Unity List, 3.4% (6 seats); and the two representatives each from the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Anders Fogh Rasmussen led a Liberal-Conservative coalition for a second consecutive term as prime minister. After the election, Fogh Rasmussen pledged to continue a "fair and firm immigration policy."

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

A major reform of local government structure took effect on 1 April 1970. Copenhagen, Fredericksberg, and the regional municipality of Bornholm enjoy dual status as both local and county authorities. The previous distinction between boroughs and urban and rural districts was abolished, and the number of counties was reduced from 25 to 14 (the number in 2005 stood at 13). The primary local units (municipalities), reduced from 1,400 to 275 (271 as of 2005), are governed by an elected council (kommunalbestyrelse) composed of 9 to 31 members who, in turn, elect a mayor (borgmester) who is vested with executive authority. Each county is governed by an elected county council (amtsiåd), which elects its own chairman, or county mayor (amstborgmester). County councils look after local matters, such as road building and maintenance, health and hospital services, and general education.

A major restructuring of local government was planned for 2007. The government's proposal was for the counties to be replaced by five regions, and for a reduction of the municipalities to 98. The new municipalities were to take over most of the responsibilities of the former counties. Most of the new municipalities were expected to have populations exceeding 20,000 people.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland enjoy home rule, with Denmark retaining responsibility for foreign affairs, defense, and monetary matters. Representatives of the Faroe Islands announced plans to organize a referendum on independence from Denmark by fall 2000. The government's response was to threaten to cut off all aid to the Faroese if they opted for independence. The referendum planned for May 2001 was cancelled.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

As a rule, cases in the first instance come before one of 82 county courts. Certain major cases, however, come under one of the two High Courts (Landsrettes), in Copenhagen and Viborg, in the first instance; otherwise these courts function as courts of appeal. The High Courts generally sit in chambers of three judges. In jury trials (only applicable in cases involving serious crimes) three High Court judges sit with 12 jurors. The Supreme Court (Hojesteret) is made up of a president and 18 other judges, sitting in two chambers, each having at least five judges; it serves solely as a court of appeal for cases coming from the High Courts. Special courts include the Maritime and Commercial Court. An Ombudsman elected by and responsible to parliament investigates citizen complaints against the government or its ministers.

The judiciary is fully independent of the executive and legislative branches. Judges are appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Minister of Justice and serve life terms. They may be dismissed only for negligence or for criminal acts. Denmark accepts compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice with reservations.

ARMED FORCES

Since 1849 Danish military defense has been based on compulsory national service. All young men must register at the age of 18 and are subject to 912 months' service. Voluntary military service is popular because of educational benefits. Total active armed forces numbered 21,180 in 2005, including 680 Joint Service personnel. The Army consisted of 12,500 active members, with the Navy at 3,800, and the Air Force at 4,200. There were also 129,700 members in the reserves which included about 59,300 in the volunteer home guard. The Danish Army had 231 main battle tanks, 310 armored personnel carriers, and 860 artillery pieces (176 are towed). Denmark's navy operated three guided missile corvettes in addition to 67 patrol/coastal and six minewarfare vessels. The Danish Air Force operates 62 combat capable aircraft. Danish forces participated in NATO, UN, and European Union missions in 13 countries/regions around the globe, including support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Military expenditures for 2005 amounted to $3.17 billion.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations on 24 October 1945 and belongs to ECE and several nonregional specialized agencies. In association with WHO, Denmark has supported UN relief work by supplying medical personnel to assist developing countries. The European regional office of WHO is in Copenhagen. The country is a member of the WTO. Denmark participates actively in multilateral technical aid programs, and the Danish Council for Technical Cooperation provides additional aid to developing countries in Asia and Africa. The nation also assists the African Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Denmark is a member of NATO and of various inter-European organizations including the Council of Europe, the European Investment Bank, G-9, the Paris Club, and the OECD. Denmark is a member of the European Union and an observer in the OAS.

As a member of the Nordic Council, Denmark cooperates with other northern countriesFinland, Iceland, Norway, and Swedenin social welfare and health insurance legislation and in freeing its frontiers of passport control for residents of other Scandinavian countries. The nation also participates in the regional Council of the Baltic Sea States and the Barents Council. Denmark has observer status in the Western European Union.

Denmark belongs to the Australia Group, the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (London Group), the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the Nuclear Energy Agency. In environmental cooperation, Denmark is part of the Antarctic Treaty; the Basel Convention; Conventions on Biological Diversity, Whaling, and Air Pollution; Ramsar; CITES; the London Convention; International Tropical Timber Agreements; the Kyoto Protocol; the Montréal Protocol; MARPOL; the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Denmark was traditionally an agricultural country. After the end of World War II, manufacturing gained rapidly in importance and now contributes 25.5% of national income, compared with 2.2% for agriculture. As of 2004, the service sector accounted for over 72.3% of GDP. Important service sectors are communications and information technologies, management consulting, and tourism. Shipping remains the most important service sector in Denmark: Denmark has always been a prominent maritime nation, and since much Danish shipping operates entirely in foreign waters, it contributes considerably to the nation's economy. Denmark also has important investments abroad.

Danish living standards and purchasing power are among the highest in the world, but the domestic market is limited by the small population, and most important industries must seek foreign markets in order to expand. Natural resources are limited, and therefore Denmark must export in order to pay for the raw materials, feeds, fertilizers, and fuels that must be imported. Integration into the EU's common agricultural policy has considerably improved Danish terms of trade by providing higher prices.

Productivity increased greatly in the postwar period. In agriculture the volume index for production rose steadily, while the agricultural labor force decreased. Similarly, improved techniques and mechanization in industry enabled production to increase, despite a percentage decline in the number of persons employed. In the 21st century, high-tech agriculture is a mark of Denmark's thoroughly modern market economy. As well, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, a stable currency, and a high dependence upon foreign trade all contribute to Denmark's prosperity.

From 1961 to 1971, the average annual rate of price increases in Denmark was 6.1%; in 1972, it was 6.6%; in 1973, 9.3%; and in 1974, partly because of rising oil costs, 15.2%. Throughout the remainder of the 1970s and through 1982, inflation remained in the 912% bracket. It then dropped from 6.9% in 1983 to 1.3% in 1993. By 1995, it had increased to 3.3% but in 1998 was down again to 1.8%. The inflation rate averaged 2% over the 200105 period.

Economic activity slackened during the 1970s, with GDP growth at 2.3% a year, down from a rate of about 4.5% during 196070. Growth remained moderate during the 1980s, averaging 2% a year. The GDP grew by 2.2% in 1990, but only at 1% in 1991, 1.2% in 1992, and 1.1% in 1993. In 1994, growth began to rebound, with GDP growing by 3.1%; in 1998 growth was 2.6%. In 2001, GDP growth was only 0.9%, down from 3% in 2000, largely due to the global economic slowdown and poor domestic demand. GDP growth recovered in 2004, helped by income tax cuts, and was forecast to remain solid in 200506. GDP growth was estimated at 2.9% in 2005, falling gradually to 2.6% in 2006 and 2.1% in 2007. This rapid economic expansion is being driven by strong household demand for goods and services, as well as healthy investment growth.

Recessions in 197475 and 198081 spurred a substantial rise in unemployment. From a rate of 0.9% in 1973, unemployment reached 12.3% in 1993. By 1995, it had decreased to 10.2%, still quite high compared to the United States, but about the same as other EU countries. By 1998, however, it fell to an estimated 6.5%. The unemployment rate stood at 6% in 2003 and 6.2% in 2004, among the lowest of EU countries.

Throughout the 1970s and through most of the next six years, Denmark's trade balance was in chronic deficit, but a surplus was registered in 1987 and continued through 1997. Denmark's vulnerability to the Asian and Russian financial crises in the late 1990s resulted in a balance of payments deficit in 1998. As of 2005, the current account had been in surplus since 1998. The current account balance as a percentage of GDP over the 200105 period was 2.8%.

Although Denmark easily met all of the criteria for membership in the European economic and monetary union (EMU), it opted to stay out of the euro zone. Denmark participates in the exchange-rate mechanism (ERM 2), which pegs the Danish krone to the euro. A referendum to ratify the EU constitutional treaty had been postponed indefinitely as of December 2005.

The government was likely to continue an expansionary fiscal policy in 2006, and the general government budget surplus was forecast to narrow. The Danish government lowered income and corporate taxes in 2004. Government debt remains high, at 47.4% of GDP in 2003, albeit down from the 200002 period.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Denmark's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $182.1 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $33,500. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 2.2%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 1.9%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 2.2% of GDP, industry 24%, and services 73.8%.

According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $941 million or about $175 per capita and accounted for approximately 0.4% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted about $8 per capita.

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Denmark totaled $100.33 billion or about $18,624 per capita based on a GDP of $211.9 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1.7%. In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 16% of household consumption was spent on food, 11% on fuel, 3% on health care, and 17% on education.

LABOR

In 2005, Denmark's labor force was estimated at 2.9 million. Of those employed in 2002, an estimated 79% were in the services sector, 17% in industry, and 4% in agriculture. The Danish unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 5.7%. The 198290 period brought a 1.3% decline in agricultural employment, a slight decrease in employment in manufacturing, and a large increase in employment in services, especially government services (education, social welfare, etc.). With the aim of holding down unemployment, the government offers the option of early retirement, apprenticeship and trainee programs, and special job offerings for the long-term unemployed.

As of 2005, an estimated 78% of all wage-earners were organized into trade unions. These unions are independent of the government or political parties. Most unions are limited to particular trades. Most workers are entitled to strike and that option is exercised often. Collective bargaining is practiced widely. Military personnel and the police are also allowed to form and join a union.

Although there is no nationally mandated minimum wage rate, the average net wage (including pension benefits) for adult workers was $29 per hour in 2004, which was sufficient to provide a decent standard of living for a family. The typical private sector workweek, as set by contract, not law, was 37 hours in 2005. Overtime is not compulsory. The minimum age for full-time work is 15 years, although children as young as 13 can work part-time, although there are limits imposed as to the tasks they can perform and the hours worked. Health and safety standards are set by law and cover school-age children in the workplace.

AGRICULTURE

About 54% of the land in 2002 was cultivated, most of it for feed and root crops. In 2003, agriculture engaged 3.4% of the labor force. Although agriculture is of great significance to the Danish economy, its relative importance declined from 19% of the GDP in 1961 to 2.1% in 2003.

The majority of farms are small and medium-sized; about 63% are smaller than 50 hectares (124 acres). In 2004, there were 45,624 Danish farms. Thousands of smallholdings have been established since 1899 under special legislation empowering the state to provide the land by partitioning public lands, by expropriation, and by breaking up large private estates. In the more newly established holdings, the farmer owns only the buildings (for which the state advances loans), the land being owned by the state and the smallholder paying an annual rent fixed under the land-tax assessment. Comparatively few new holdings have been established since 1951.

Grain growing and root-crop production are the traditional agricultural pursuits, but considerable progress has been made in recent decades in apple growing and the production of field, forage, flower, and industrial seeds. Although the soil is not particularly fertile and holdings are kept deliberately small, intensive mechanization and widespread use of fertilizers and concentrated feeds result in high yields and excellent quality. In 2002 there were 123,000 tractors and 97,000 harvester-threshers.

The crop yields of major crops for 2004 were (in thousands of tons): barley, 3,590; wheat, 4,759; rye, 146; sugar beets, 2,829; rapeseed (canola), 469; and corn for fodder, 4,381.

Agricultural exports supplied 17.2% of the value of Danish exports in 2004. Farm products provide materials for industrial processing, and a significant share of industry supplies the needs of domestic agriculture.

The Danish government devotes particular effort to maintaining the volume, price, quality, and diversity of agricultural products, but internal regulation is largely left to private initiative or exercised through private organizations, notably the cooperatives.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Denmark is generally regarded as the world's outstanding example of intensive animal husbandry. It maintains a uniformly high standard of operations, combining highly skilled labor, scientific experimentation and research, modern installations and machinery, and versatility in farm management and marketing. The excellent cooperative system guarantees the quality of every product of its members. Meat, dairy products, and eggs contribute a most important share of Danish exports. There is a close relationship between cost of feed and export prices.

The livestock population in 2004 included 1,646,000 head of cattle (including 563,000 dairy cows), 13,233,000 hogs, 141,000 sheep, 39,000 horses, and 16,136,000 chickens. Mink, fox, polecat, finnraccoon, and chinchilla are raised for their pelts. In 2004, 12.6 million pelts were processed, valued at Kr2.7 billion.

The value of exported meat and animal products in 2004 amounted to $4.6 billion, consisting primarily of live pigs and pork, cheese, and canned meat. Production in 2004 included 4,569,000 tons of milk, 46,700 tons of butter, and 335,500 tons of cheese. In addition, egg production was 81,000 tons in 2004. Some 50% of all eggs consumed domestically are produced by alternative methods, a phrase that generally refers to layers raised organically or in free-range. The government's goal is for all eggs to ultimately be produced by noncaged layers. Organic milk is also a growing market. Organically produced feed's share of the domestic market is also increasing.

FISHING

The country's long coastline, conveniently situated on rich fishing waters, provides Denmark with excellent fishing grounds. Fishing is an important source of domestic food supply, and both fresh and processed fish are important exports. During 199095, the government financially supported fleet reduction in order to alleviate structural problems in the industry, and 605 vessels left the fleet during those years. At the beginning of 2005, there were 2,180 Danish fishing vessels, with a combined 95,685 GRT. The catch is composed mainly of herring and sprat, cod, mackerel, plaice, salmon, and whiting; but sole and other flatfish, tuna, and other varieties are also caught. In 2004, total Danish landings were 984,037 tons.

Denmark is one of the world's leading seafood exporters. In 2003, fish exports were valued at $3.2 billion, up 17% from 2000.

FORESTRY

A law of 1805 placing all forestland under reservation stated that "where there is now high forest there must always be high forest." Various measures were adopted to maintain forest growth. Later revisions of the law compelled all woodland owners to replant when trees are felled and to give adequate attention to drainage, weeding out of inferior species, and road maintenance. As a result, forests, which occupied only 5% of Denmark's land area and were actually in danger of extinction at the beginning of the 19th century, now make up 10% of the land and are in excellent condition. The total forest area in 2000 was 486,000 hectares (1,200,000 acres). Spruce and beech are the most important varieties. The government would like to increase forest area to 800,000 hectares (1,977,000 acres), nearly 20% of Denmark's total area, during the next 80 years.

Roundwood harvested in 2003 amounted to 1.8 million cu m (64 million cu ft), of which about 75% came from conifers and 25% came from broadleaf species. Denmark is a large importer of softwood lumber, especially from the other Scandinavian countries, and is a large particleboard consumer. Total Danish wood trade in 2003 amounted to $2.3 billion, consisting of imports of $1.9 billion and exports totaling $391.5 million. Pine logs account for about 60% of the total value of imported wood, much of it used by the furniture industry. Danish furniture exports in 2004 amounted to more than $2.5 billion.

On 3 December 1999, the first hurricane ever recorded in Denmark destroyed large tracts of its forested areas. Estimated loss of trees amounted to 150% of Denmark's normal annual timber harvest.

MINING

Denmark's industrialized market economy depended on imported raw materials, its mineral resources were mainly fossil fuels in the North Sea, and the nonfuel minerals industry included mining and quarrying of chalk, clays, diatomite, limestone (agricultural and industrial), and sand and gravel (onshore and offshore). The industrial minerals sector was particularly active. There were some 90 pits in Denmark from which clay was mined; this material was used primarily by the cement, brick making, and ceramic tile industries. The production of sand, gravel, and crushed stone has become more important in recent years, not only in meeting domestic demand, but also as an export to Germany and other Scandinavian countries. Kaolin, found on the island of Bornholm, was used mostly for coarse earthenware, furnace linings, and as filler for paper; production was 2,500 metric tons in 2004, unchanged from 2000. There were important limestone, chalk, and marl deposits in Jutland. Chalk production totaled 1,950,000 tons in 2004. Limonite (bog ore) was extracted for gas purification and pig iron production. Large deposits of salt were discovered in Jutland in 1966; in 2004, 610,000 metric tons were mined. The country also produced fire clay, extracted moler, lime (hydrated and quicklime), nitrogen, peat, crude phosphates, dimension stone (mostly granite), and sulfur. According to the constitution, subsurface resources belonged to the nation, and concessions to exploit them required parliamentary approval.

ENERGY AND POWER

Denmark's energy sector is marked by negligible sources of waterpower, and no nuclear power plants. However, the country has significant oil and natural gas reserves located in the North Sea, and it is also turning to wind power as an important source of electrical power generation.

In 2002, Denmark's electrical generating capacity totaled 12.746 million kW. Of that total, conventionally fueled capacity accounted for 10.049 million kW. Geothermal/other fuel based capacity was next at 2.868 million kW and hydropower based capacity at 0.011 million kW. In that same year, Denmark generated 36.367 billion kWh of electric power, of which thermal fuel powered generation accounted for 29.319 billion kWh, followed by geothermal/other powered generation at 29.319 billion kWh, and hydropower generation at 0.032 billion kWh. Imports of electrical power in 2002 totaled 8.900 billion kWh, with exports for that year at 11.100 billion kWh. The Danish electrical generating sector is marked by its use of alternative or geothermal/other power sources, most notably, wind-driven generation. Although 80% of the nation's electric power was generated by fossil fuels, slightly more than 19% was generated by alternative sources. According to a report by BusinessWeek online, dated 30 April 2001, around 13% of Denmark's electric power is wind generated, and the country has become a leader in the manufacturing of wind powered generating equipment.

Denmark's position flanking the North Sea has given the nation a share of the significant oil and natural gas reserves that have been discovered there. As of 1 January 2002, Denmark had proven oil reserves of 1.23 billion barrels. By the end of 2004, according to British Petroleum (BP), Denmark's proven oil reserves rose to 1.3 billion barrels. In 2002, Denmark produced an average of 370,760 barrels per day of crude oil. In 2004, that total rose to an average of 394,000 barrels per day, according to BP. In addition, between 1999, and 2005, a number of new fields have begun to produce, boosting the country's crude oil output. However, starting in 1997, Denmark's oil consumption has steadily fallen, according to BP. In that year the consumption of all oil products dropped to 229,000 barrels per day, from 235,000 barrels per day in 1996. In 2003, total oil product consumption fell to 193,000 barrels per day, and in 2004 fell 1.8% to 189,000 barrels per day.

Denmark has proven reserves of natural gas, as of end 2004, of 0.09 trillion cu m, and output has steadily risen over the previous three decades. According to BP, in 2002, Denmark produced 8.4 billion cu m of natural gas. In 2004, output rose to 9.4 billion cu m.

Denmark has no proven coal reserves and must therefore import all the coal it consumes. In 2002, imports of hard black coal totaled 6,946,000 tons.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing greatly expanded after the end of World War II and now accounts for a greater share of national income than does agriculture. In 2004, manufacturing (including mining and utilities) accounted for 25.5% of the GDP, employing approximately 17% of the total working population. In the important food and drink industry, which tends to be relatively stable, the pattern differs for various branches, but meat packing has developed remarkably. The chemical, metalworking, and pharmaceutical industries have made notable progress. Handicrafts remain important, and Danish stone, clay, glass, wood, and silver products are world famous. Other important industries include: iron, steel, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture, shipbuilding and refurbishment, and windmills.

In the world market, Danish manufacturers, having a limited supply of domestic raw materials, a relatively small home market, and a naturally advantageous geographic position, have concentrated on the production of high-quality specialized items rather than those dependent on mass production. For example, Denmark became the world's largest supplier of insulin, the raw materials for which come from livestock intestines; the Danish company Novo Nordisk is the world leader in insulin and diabetes care. Denmark by the early 2000s produced some 2025% of the world's hearing aids.

Machinery, by far the most important industrial export, includes cement-making machinery, dairy machinery, diesel engines, electric motors, machine tools, and refrigeration equipment. Other important exports include meat and meat products (especially pork and pork productsDenmark is the world's largest exporter of pork), fish, dairy products, chemicals, furniture, ships, and windmills.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

The Ministry of Research is the central administrative unit for research policy. Among advisory bodies to it are the Danish Council for Research Policy, the Danish Natural Science Research Council, the Danish Medical Research Council, the Danish Agricultural and Veterinary Research Council, the Danish Technical Research Council, and the Danish Committee for Scientific and Technical Information and Documentation. The chief learned societies are the Royal Danish Academy of Science and Letters (founded in 1742) and the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (founded in 1937). Denmark also has 29 specialized learned societies in the fields of agricultural and veterinary science, medicine, natural sciences, and technology. Among the principal public research institutions are the universities Aalborg, Aarhus, Copenhagen, Odense, and Roskilde; the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University at Frederiksberg; the Technological University of Denmark near Copenhagen; the National Hospital in Copenhagen; the Risø National Laboratory near Roskilde; the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research at Charlottenlund; and the Danish Meteorological Institute at Copenhagen. In 198797, science and engineering students accounted for 25% of university enrollment. In 2002, a total of 10.6% of all bachelor's degrees awarded were for the sciences (natural sciences, mathematics and computers, and engineering). Many of the world's preeminent theoretical nuclear physicists have worked at the Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics, and Geophysics of Copenhagen University. Copenhagen has museums of geology and zoology and botanical gardens.

Research and development (R&D) expenditures in 2002 totaled $4,178.639 million or 2.51% of GDP. For that same year, there were 3,153 technicians and 4,822 researchers per million people actively engaged in R&D. In 2001, business provided 61.5% of all funding for R&D activities, followed by government at 28%, foreign sources at 7.8% and higher education at 2.6%. Total R&D spending that year came to $3,877.477 million, or 2.40% of GDP. In 2002, high-tech exports were valued at $8.089 billion and accounted for 22% of manufactured exports.

DOMESTIC TRADE

Large units are becoming more common in wholesale as well as retail trade, ordering directly from local manufacturers and foreign suppliers. Retail operations now include purchasing organizations, various types of chains, cooperatives, self-service stores, supermarkets, and department stores. Chain stores are gaining dominance in the nonfood retail goods market. The food retail sector is dominated by Dansk Supermarked, Coop Danmark, and about 30 other independent food import establishments. A 25% value-added tax applies to most goods and services.

Danish retail trade is marked by keen competition between independent retailers, manufacturers' chains, and consumer cooperatives. About 30% of all Danish retail establishments are in the greater Copenhagen area, and these account for almost 40% of all retail sales.

Business opening hours vary between 8 and 9 am; closing is between 5:30 and 7 pm for stores and 4 to 4:30 pm for offices. Early closing (1 pm) on Saturdays is now standard. Banking hours are from 9:30 am to 4 pm, Monday through Friday; also, 4 to 6 pm on Thursday.

General, trade, and technical periodicals are important media, and direct-mail, television, and film advertising are used extensively. The most important trade exhibition, the International Fair, takes place every spring in Copenhagen.

FOREIGN TRADE

The Danish economy depends heavily on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy. Raw materials for use in production used to account for more than half the value of imports, but have seen a considerable decline in recent years. Farm products traditionally comprised the bulk of total Danish exports, but since 1961, industrial exports have greatly exceeded agricultural exports in value. In 2003, industrial products accounted for 81%

Country Exports Imports Balance
World 64,614.0 56,230.5 8,383.5
Germany 11,182.1 12,904.9 -1,722.8
Sweden 7,875.0 7,206.2 668.8
United Kingdom 5,066.4 3,921.3 1,145.1
Areas nes 4,978.6 398.9 4,579.7
United States 3,688.4 1,823.0 1,865.4
Norway 3,652.2 2,533.9 1,118.3
France-Monaco 2,907.6 2,717.5 190.1
Netherlands 2,880.3 3,884.6 -1,004.3
Finland 1,994.5 1,301.3 693.2
Italy-San Marino-Holy See 1,942.3 2,300.7 -358.4
() data not available or not significant.

of Denmark's total commodity exports by value (of which machinery and instruments covered 35%); agricultural and fishing exports accounted for 10% (of which pork and pork products covered 48%Denmark is the world's largest exporter of pork). Raw materials and semi-manufactures accounted for 43% of imports, consumer goods 29%, capital equipment 14%, transport equipment 7%, fuels 5%, and other imports 2%.

Denmark's trading partners in 2003 (according to percent of total trade in goods) included Germany (21%), Sweden (13%), the United Kingdom (8%), the United States (5%), Norway (5%), Japan (2%), and eastern European countries (5%).

To curb domestic demand, the government introduced several fiscal restraint measures in 1986, resulting in a decline in imports. Such measures and a tight-money policy have curbed inflation and made Danish exports more competitive, leading to trade surpluses in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s. In 2004, total exports were $75.6 billion and imports were $67.2 billion, for a trade surplus of $8.4 billion.

A great producer of food, Denmark's commodity exports include meat, fresh fish, and cheese, each of which command a substantial percentage of the world's food exports in their categories. The country also exports fine furniture and medicaments.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

The decline in Denmark's trade balance since the end of World War II resulted in a serious deterioration in the balance-of-payments position, particularly after 1960. In the late 1960s, the course of Denmark's international economic activity paralleled trends in continental Europe, with high trade and capital flow levels being accompanied by a deteriorating current-account position; this condition continued into the early 1970s. The Danish government had hoped that Denmark's entry into the EC would reduce the country's persistent deficit and bring the balance on current account into a more favorable position, but this was not

Current Account 6,139.0
    Balance on goods 10,142.0
      Imports -55,060.0
      Exports 65,202.0
    Balance on services 3,811.0
    Balance on income -3,981.0
    Current transfers -3,833.0
Capital Account -45.0
Financial Account -4,495.0
    Direct investment abroad -1,314.0
    Direct investment in Denmark 2,908.0
    Portfolio investment assets -21,938.0
    Portfolio investment liabilities 6,012.0
    Financial derivatives -12.0
    Other investment assets -9,983.0
    Other investment liabilities 19,832.0
Net Errors and Omissions 3,075.0
Reserves and Related Items -4,674.0
() data not available or not significant.

the case in the late 1970s. Although current account deficits were reduced somewhat in 198081, thanks to the devaluation of the krone and the restrictive income and fiscal policies implemented in 197980, the deficit again increased in 1982 and by 1985 was at the highest level since 1979.

In 1990, after a century of deficits, the balance of payments showed a surplus of $1.3 billion, and rose to $4.7 billion in 1993. In 1994 the surplus dropped to $2.7 billion, but by 2002 it stood at $8.4 billion. The surplus has allowed Denmark to begin repaying its large foreign debt, which peaked in 1988 at $44 billion, or 40% of GDP. (External debt stood at $21.7 billion in 2000.) Net interest payments on debt continue to be a burden, accounting for about 10% of goods and services export earnings.

As of 2005, except for one year1998Denmark had had comfortable current account surpluses for 15 years. The current account surplus stood at $6.5 billion in 2004.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

By an act of 7 April 1936, the Danish National Bank, the bank of issue since 1818, was converted from an independent to an official government corporation. Its head office is in Copenhagen, and it has branches in provincial towns. The Nationalbank performs all the usual functions of a central bank, and it holds almost all the nation's foreign exchange reserves. Commercial banks provide short-term money to business and individuals, almost always in the form of overdraft credits, which are generally renewable.

Danish banks, hit particularly hard by the Nordic banking crisis of 199193, have rebounded. By the end of the decade, they had rebounded completely. Their recovery was bolstered in large part by continuing capital gains in securities markets. In mid-2003, there were 187 commercial and savings banks, eight mortgage credit institutions, 30 investment companies, 138 nonlife insurance companies, and 94 life assurance companies and multi-employer pension funds.

Credit and mortgage societies are active in Denmark. In 1982, index-linked real estate loans were introduced, initially carrying nominal interest rates of 2.5% per year, with balance and installments adjusted yearly according to variations in the consumer price index and wage indexes. In the mid-1990s, the lending rate was about 12%. The International Monetary Fund reports that in 1999, currency and demand depositsan aggregate commonly known as M1were equal to $54.7 billion. In that same year, M2an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual fundswas $97.5 billion. The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 3.37%. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 3%.

The stock exchange (or Bourse) in Copenhagen was built during 1619-30 by Christian IV. He subsequently sold it to a Copenhagen merchant, but it reverted to the crown and in 1857 was finally sold by Frederik VII to the Merchants' Guild. Although it is the oldest building in the world built as an exchange and still used as one, the nature of the business transacted in it has greatly changed. Originally a commodity exchange equipped with booths and storage rooms, the Bourse is now almost exclusively a stock exchange. In 1970, the Stock Exchange was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Commerce with a governing committee of 11 members. Only a few bond issues are made by manufacturing firms each year. In 1980, Denmark took the initial step toward becoming the first country to convert the issuing of stock, share, and bond certificates into a computer account registration system. As of 2004, a total of 178 companies were listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange, which had a total capitalization of $151.342 billion. In that same year, the KFX Copehagen rose 0.7% from the previous year to 286.7.

INSURANCE

The Danish insurance industry is regulated by the Danish Supervisory Authority of Financial Affairs. Danish companies do most stock insurance business. Some government-owned insurance companies sell automobile, fire, and life insurance and handle the government's war-risk insurance program. In Denmark, third-party auto insurance, workers' compensation, nuclear power station insurance, hunter's liability, dog liability, third-party aircraft liability and mortgaged property insurance are compulsory. The two primary pieces of legislation affecting the insurance industry are the Insurance Companies Act and the Insurance Contracts Act. The first contains regulations for establishing and operating insurance companies and describes the public supervision of the insurance business. The second governs relations between insurance companies, policy holders, and claimants. In 2003, the value of all direct premiums written totaled $16.737 billion, with life premiums accounting for the largest portion at $10.944 billion. Denmark's top nonlife insurer that same year was Tryg Skade, with gross nonlife premiums written of $1,177.9 million. Danica Pension was the country's top life insurer in 2003 with gross life premiums written of $1.772.4.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The finance bill is presented to the Folketing yearly; the fiscal year follows the calendar year. As a general rule, the budget is prepared on the "net" principle, the difference between receipts and expendituressurplus

Revenue and Grants 532,687 100.0%
    Tax revenue 420,202 78.9%
    Social contributions 29,548 5.5%
    Grants 7,716 1.4%
    Other revenue 75,221 14.1%
Expenditures 504,284 100.0%
    General public services 137,385 27.2%
    Defense 23,218 4.6%
    Public order and safety 13,265 2.6%
    Economic affairs 34,347 6.8%
    Environmental protection
    Housing and community amenities 8,257 1.6%
    Health 4,484 0.9%
    Recreational, culture, and religion 11,417 2.3%
    Education 63,669 12.6%
    Social protection 208,242 41.3%
() data not available or not significant.

or deficitof public undertakings being posted to the revenue accounts. By far the largest amounts of public expenditure are for social security, health, education and research, unemployment insurance, pensions, allowances, and rent subsidies. Under a new tax reform plan, agreed upon by the government and the Danish People's Party in March 2003, Danish citizens received tax relief in 2004, although at a lesser rate than originally was hoped. Denmark has yet to accept the euro as its currency, although it meets all the criteria set forth by the European Monetary Union to do so. The 1993 Finance Act serves as an example of how revenue is only to a limited degree spent on the public sector's own operational and initial expenditure, but mainly repaid to citizens. Out of the Kr340 billion the government had at its disposal in 1993, 46% was to be sent back to individual citizens as income transfers. In addition, the government transferred 12% of the budget to municipalities in the form of block grants, which also will largely end up as transfer payments to individuals.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Denmark's central government took in revenues of approximately $148.8 billion and had expenditures of $142.6 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately $6.2 billion. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 40.4% of GDP. Total external debt was $352.9 billion.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 2003, the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were Kr532,687 million and expenditures were Kr504,284 million. The value of revenues was us$80,857 million and expenditures us$76,546 million, based on a market exchange rate for 2003 of us$1 = Kr6.588 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 27.2%; defense, 4.6%; public order and safety, 2.6%; economic affairs, 6.8%; housing and community amenities, 1.6%; health, 0.9%; recreation, culture, and religion, 2.3%; education, 12.6%; and social protection, 41.3%.

TAXATION

Denmark's taxes are among the highest in the world. Danish residents are liable for tax on global income and net wealth. Nonresidents are liable only for tax on certain types of income from Danish sources.

The corporate income tax in Denmark is 30%, which must be prepaid during the income tax year to avoid a surcharge. Capital gains are also taxed at the 30% rate.

Personal income tax is collected at state, county and local levels. A tax ceiling ensures that combined income taxes do not exceed 59% of income. Income tax rates are progressive: 39% on income up to 22,118; 45% on income between 22,118 and 36,025; and 60% on income above 36,025. Several kinds of deductions or reductions can be applied to taxable income. Dividends are taxed at 28% up to the amount of personal allowance, after which the rate goes to 43%. Royalties are subject to a 30% tax rate. There is also a voluntary church tax with an average rate of 0.8%. The social security contribution from employee earnings is 9%, 8% for unemployment insurance and 1% for special pension scheme savings. The voluntary church tax and social security contributions do not count toward the 59% tax ceiling. Tax is withheld at the source. Foreign researchers and key employers may qualify for a gross tax of 25% on their salary instead of paying regular income tax. They are still liable for 9% social security contributions.

Denmark's main indirect tax in the value-added tax (VAT) first introduced in March 1967 with a standard rate of 10%. The current standard rate of 25% was introduced in January 1992. Daily newspapers and a few other goods and services are exempt from the VAT.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Denmarka consistent advocate of free and fair conditions of international tradehad until recently the lowest tariff rate in Europe. However, owing to shortages of foreign currency, Denmark did impose quantitative restrictions on imports, and as late as 1959 about 64% of Danish industrial production was so protected. On joining the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) on 8 May 1960, Denmark began eliminating tariff rates and quantitative restrictions on industrial products from other EFTA countries. By 1 January 1970, those that remained were abolished. On 1 January 1973, Denmark ended its membership in EFTA and became a member of the European Community, which not only represents a free trade area but also seeks to integrate the economies of its member states.

Denmark adheres to provisions of GATT on import licensing requirements although certain industrial products must meet Danish and EC technical standards. Denmark converted to the Harmonized System of import duties on 1 January 1988. Most products from European countries are duty-free. Duty rates for manufactured goods range from 514% of CIF value, and a 25% VAT is applied to imported, as well as domestic, products. Basic necessities and foodstuffs are given a 0% rate. Agricultural products are governed by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a system of variable levies, instead of duties.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Denmark is a rich, modern society with state-of-the art infrastructure and distribution system. A highly-skilled labor force and a northern location in Europe make it attractive to foreign investors wishing to have access to markets in Scandinavia, the Baltics, and other northern European destinations. Denmark is a firm advocate of liberal trade and investment policies and actively courts foreign investment.

Foreign investors are treated on an equal footing with Danish investors; investment capital and profits may be freely repatriated. After the late 1950s, Denmark attracted a moderate amount of foreign investment. In 1998, however, annual FDI inflows jumped from $2.8 billion to $7.7 billion and then soared to $32.3 billion in 2000. In terms of success in attracting FDI, Denmark went from the 62nd ranked country (out of 140 countries studied) on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Performance Index for the period 1988 to 1990 to the 12th ranked country for the period 19982000. Denmark's ranking in terms of potential for inward FDI increased from 10th place in the world to 8th place. In the economic slowdown of 2001and in decline in FDI inflows that followed the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, annual FDI inflow fell to about $14 billion in 2001 and to an estimated $7.7 billion in 2002.

The total stock of FDI in Denmark increased by 79% from 19982003, and corresponded to approximately 25% of GDP in 2003 (at $54 billion). Danish investment abroad amounted to 27% of GDP. The corporate tax is relatively low by EU-15 standards, at 28%. There is no additional local tax, franchise, or net wealth tax. The corporate tax is paid after deductions for expenses.

The largest foreign investors in Denmark are the United States, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The main sources of FDI stock in Denmark in 2003 were the United States (28%), Sweden (20%), the United Kingdom (10%), Norway (9%), and Germany (4%). The main destinations of Danish investment abroad in 2003 were the United Kingdom (12%), Norway (10%), Sweden (9%), the United States (6%), and Germany (6%).

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

For many years, Danish governments followed a full-employment policy and relied chiefly on promotion of private enterprise to achieve this end. Beginning in the late 1970s, however, the government increased its intervention in the economy, in response to rising unemployment, inflation, and budget deficits. Inflation has been curbed and budget deficits reduced. This bolstered the currency from devaluation, but at the cost of restraining growth, and unemployment continued to rise.

Government influence on private enterprise through the exercise of import and export licensing has diminished in recent years. The discount policy of the National Bank is of major importance to the business community. Control of cartels and monopolies is flexible. The government has in recent years sold part or whole interest in many business entities, including the national telecommunications company TDC, Copenhagen airports, and the government's computer services company, Datacentralen. Most of the country's power stations are owned and operated by local governments and municipalities.

Capital incentives are available to assist new industries, mainly in the less-developed areas of Denmark. Municipalities also provide infrastructure, industrial parks, or inexpensive land. Under a 1967 provision, the Regional Development Committee (composed of representatives of a number of special-interest organizations and central and local authorities) can grant state guarantees or state loans for the establishment of enterprises in less developed districts.

In 1978, Denmark reached the UN target for official development assistance (ODA) in the mid-1970s: 0.7% of GNP. It reached 0.96% of GNP in 1991, second only to Norway, and 1.01% in 2001, when it led the world in ODA. In 2004, Denmark set aside 0.84% of its GNP for ODA, third highest behind Norway and Luxembourg. Denmark's official assistance to developing countries amounted to $2 billion in 2004.

Unemployment was at a 25-year low in 2002, and the economy weathered the global economic recession fairly well. (Unemployment was also low in 2004, at 6.2%.) The government ran fiscal surpluses in order to prepare for the costs of an aging population. Nevertheless, state spending to total economic activity remains one of the highest in the world. Small and medium-sized businesses characterize the private sector, with companies with less than 50 employees accounting for approximately half of total employment, and only 12% of the workforce work in firms with more than 500 employees. Women are highly represented in the labor force.

The government was likely to continue an expansionary fiscal policy in 2006, and the general government budget surplus was forecast to narrow. The Danish government lowered income and corporate taxes in 2004, and announced in 2005 that it was working on simplifying the rules governing the taxation of dividends. Government debt remains high, but the public budget was in surplus in 2005.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to establish efficient social services with the introduction of relief for the sick, unemployed, and aged. Old age benefits date back to 1891. Social welfare programs include health insurance, health and hospital services, insurance for occupational injuries, unemployment insurance and employment exchange services, old age and disability pensions, rehabilitation and nursing homes, family welfare subsidies, general public welfare, and payments for military accidents. Maternity benefits are payable up to 52 weeks. In 2004 the retirement age increased to 69 years for residents.

According to the constitution, any incapacitated person living in Denmark has a right to public relief. Benefits such as maintenance allowances for the children of single supporters, day care, and others, involve neither repayment nor any other conditions; some others are regarded as loans to be repaid when possible. Family allowances are paid to families with incomes below a certain threshold; rent subsidies require a means test. Denmark has a dual system of universal medical benefits for all residents and cash sickness benefits for employees. All Danish citizens over 67 years of age may draw old age pensions. Disability pensions, equal in amount to old age pensions plus special supplements, are paid to persons with a stipulated degree of disablement.

Women make up roughly half of the work force. Laws guarantee equal pay for equal work, and women have and use legal recourse if they feel discriminated against. Spousal rape and spousal abuse are criminal offenses. There are crisis centers that counsel and shelter victims of domestic violence. Children's rights are well protected.

The constitution provides for freedom of the press and speech, assembly and association, and for religious freedom, and generally respects these rights. Discrimination based on sex, creed, race, or ethnicity is prohibited by law.

HEALTH

Denmark's health care system has retained the same basic structure since the early 1970s. The administration of hospitals and personnel is dealt with by the Ministry of the Interior, while primary care facilities, health insurance, and community care are the responsibility of the Ministry of Social Affairs. Anyone can go to a physician for no fee and the public health system entitles each Dane to his/her own doctor. Expert medical/surgical aid is available, with a qualified nursing staff. Costs are borne by public authorities, but high taxes contribute to these costs. As of 2004, there were an estimated 366 physicians and 972 nurses per 100,000 people. In addition, there were 90 dentists, 49 pharmacists, and 25 midwives per 100,000 people.

The total fertility rate in 2000 was 1.7, while the maternal mortality rate was 10 per 100,000 live births. Approximately 63% of married women (ages 15 to 49) used contraception. Cardiovascular diseases and cancer were the leading causes of death. Denmark's cancer rates were the highest in the European Union. The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.20 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 5,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 100 deaths from AIDS in 2003.

Danish citizens may choose between two systems of primary health care: medical care provided free of charge by a doctor whom the individual chooses for a year and by those specialists to whom the doctor refers the patient; or complete freedom of choice of any physician or specialist at any time, with state reimbursement of about two-thirds of the cost for medical bills paid directly by the patient. Most Danes opt for the former. All patients receive subsidies on pharmaceuticals and vital drugs; everyone must pay a share of dental bills. Health care expenditure was estimated at 8.4% of GDP.

Responsibility for the public hospital service rests with county authorities. Counties form public hospital regions, each of which is allotted one or two larger hospitals with specialists and two to four smaller hospitals where medical treatment is practically free. State-appointed medical health officers, responsible to the National Board of Health, are employed to advise local governments on health matters. Public health authorities have waged large-scale campaigns against tuberculosis, venereal diseases, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The free guidance and assistance given to mothers of newborn children by public health nurses have resulted in a low infant mortality rate of 4.56 per 1,000 live births (2005). Medical treatment is free up to school age, when free school medical inspections begin. As of 2001, children up to one year of age were vaccinated against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (99%) and measles (92%). In 2005, life expectancy at birth was 77.62 years. The overall death rate was 11 per 1,000 people.

HOUSING

In recent decades, especially since the passage of the Housing Subsidy Act of 1956, considerable government support has been given to housing. For large families building their own homes, government loans have been provided on exceptionally favorable terms, and special rent rebates have been granted to large families occupying apartments in buildings erected by social building societies or in buildings built with government loans since 1950. Subject to certain conditions, housing rebates have been granted to pensioners and invalids. An annual grant is made to reduce householders' maintenance expenses. This extensive support helped to reduce the wartime and immediate postwar housing shortage.

In 2005, there were 2,633,886 dwellings in the nation; 94% were occupied. About 38% were detached, single-family homes; another 35% were detached, multi-family homes and 12% were terraced or linked dwellings. Of the occupied dwellings, about 51% were owner occupied. About 26% of all dwellings consist of five rooms and a kitchen; only about 48,892 dwellings do not have a kitchen at all. During the period 19912004, less than 20,000 new homes were built each year. About 17,778 new dwellings were built in 2004, mostly by private builders. Approximately 231,906 dwellings were built before 1900. About 40% of the housing stock was built 195079.

EDUCATION

Primary, secondary, and most university and other higher education are free. Preschools are operated by private persons or organizations with some government financial aid. Education has been compulsory since 1814; currently, it is compulsory for nine years, for children ages 7 to 16. The Danish primary school system, known as the Folkeskole, covers the nine required years and many opt for an additional 10th year. English is included in the curriculum from the fifth grade. After basic schooling, two-thirds of the pupils apply for practical training in a trade or commerce at special schools. The remaining one-third enroll in secondary schools, which finish after three years with student examination and pave the way for higher education at universities. Municipal authorities, with some financial aid from the central government, have been responsible for providing schools for these children.

In 2001, about 90% of children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in some type of preschool program. Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 100% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 96% of age-eligible students. Most students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 10:1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was also about 10:1.

Adult education exists side by side with the regular school system. Founded as early as 1844, the folk high schools are voluntary, self-governing high schools imparting general adult education. In addition, there are hundreds of schools for higher instruction of pupils without previous special training. There are 12 universities, including the University of Copenhagen (founded in 1479), the University of Aarhus (founded as a college in 1928 and established as a university in 1933), the University of Odense (opened in 1966), and the University Center at Roskilde (founded in 1970). Attached to the various faculties are institutes, laboratories, and clinics devoted primarily to research, but also offering advanced instruction. There are about 100 specialized colleges with professional programs. Many specialized schools and academies of university rank provide instruction in various technical and artistic fields. All these institutions are independent in their internal administration. In 2003, about 67% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in some type of higher education program. The adult literacy rate for has been estimated at nearly 100%.

As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 8.5% of GDP, or 15.4% of total government expenditures.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

Denmark's national library, the Royal Library in Copenhagen, founded by Frederik III in 1653, is the largest in Scandinavia, with over 4.6 million volumes. The manuscript department of the Royal Library holds an extensive collection of the manuscripts and correspondence of Hans Christian Andersen and the Søren Kierkegaard Archives (manuscripts and personal papers). The National Museum of Photography (over 25,000 pieces) and the Museum of Danish Cartoon Art are also housed at the Royal Library. Three other large libraries are the University Library in Copenhagen, Copenhagen Public Libraries, and the State Library at Aarhus. The Regional Library of Northern Jutland includes a central library, 17 branch locations and 3 mobile units. As of 2002, there were 250 free public libraries throughout the country with 892 points of service. That year, the public libraries had a total of more than 31.4 million volumes. The Danish Library Association was founded in 1905. The Danish Union of Librarians had about 5,500 members in 2005.

Among the largest museums are the National Museum (with rare ethnologic and archaeological collections), the Glyptotek (with a large collection of ancient and modern sculpture), the State Art Museum (containing the main collection of Danish paintings as well as other Scandinavian artists), the Thorvaldsen Museum, the Hirshsprung Collection, and the Rosenborg Palace, all in Copenhagen, and the National Historical Museum in Frederiksborg Castle, at Hillerod. Among the newer facilities is the Amalienborg Museum in Copenhagen, which opened in 1994 and houses treasures of the royal family. The National Museum of Science and Technology in Elsinore includes the Teknisk Museum (Museum of Technology) and the Trafikmuseum (Transport Museum); the Kommunikationsmuseum (Museum of Communications) in Aalborg is an extension of the Teknisk Museum.

MEDIA

Although the government telephone service owns and operates long-distance lines and gives some local service, the bulk of local telephone service is operated by private companies under government concession with government participation. In 2003, there were an estimated 669 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were approximately 883 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people. Telegraph services are owned and operated by the government.

The radio broadcasting services are operated by the Danish State Radio System, on long, medium, and short waves. Television broadcasting hours are mainly devoted to current and cultural affairs and to programs for children and young people. There is no commercial advertising on radio or television; owners of sets pay an annual license fee. As of 1998 there were 2 AM and 355 FM radio stations and 26 television stations. In 2003, there were an estimated 1,400 radios and 859 television sets for every 1,000 people. About 236.7 of every 1,000 people are cable subscribers. In 2003, there were 576.8 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 513 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were 1,724 secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.

The largest daily newspapers (with their political orientation and 2002 circulation totals) are Ekstra Bladet (independent/social-liberal, 159,500), Politiken (independent/social-liberal, 153,500), Berlingske Tidende (independent/conservative, 160,100), B.T. (independent/conservative, 144,900), Aarhus Stiftstidende (independent, 176,400), Vendsyssel Tidende (independent, 114,000), Aalborg Stiftstidende (independent, 72,700), and Fyens Stiftstidende (independent, 66,400).

Complete freedom of expression, including that in print and electronic media, is guaranteed under the constitution. The media in Denmark are largely independently operated and are free from government interference.

ORGANIZATIONS

Nearly every Danish farmer is a member of at least one agricultural organization and of one or more producer cooperatives. The oldest agricultural organization, the Royal Agricultural Society of Denmark, was established in 1769, but most of the other organizations have been founded since 1850. They promote agricultural education and technical and economic development. Local societies have formed provincial federations, which in turn have combined into two national organizations, the Federation of Danish Agricultural Societies and the Federation of Danish Smallholders Societies. The Cooperative Movement of Denmark comprises three groups: agricultural cooperatives, retail cooperatives, and urban cooperatives. Owners of estates and large farms belong to separate organizations specializing in the affairs of larger agricultural units. Most consumers' cooperative societies belong to the Danish Cooperative Wholesale Society, which makes bulk purchases for member societies and also manufactures various products.

The Federation of Danish Industries and the Industrialists' Association in Copenhagen represent industrial undertakings and trade associations, safeguard and promote the interests of industry, and deal with trade questions of an economic nature. The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions has also been influential. The Council of Handicrafts represents various crafts, trades, and industries, and gives subsidies to technical and trade schools. The leading organizations of the wholesale trade are the Copenhagen Chamber of Commerce and the Provincial Chamber of Commerce. There are also active professional societies representing a broad range of career fields.

The scholarly and cultural organization of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters was founded in 1742. A wide variety of organizations exist to promote research and education in medical and scientific fields, such as Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the Danish Dental Association, the Danish Medical Society, and the Danish Cancer Society. The Danish Council of Ethics is appointed by the government to conduct research and offer legislative recommendations on bioethical issues.

A number of national and regional cultural organizations are active, as are associations representing popular sports and recreational activities. The Danish Athletic Federation represents about 30,000 athletes nationwide. The Danish Youth Council is an umbrella organization representing about 62 youth organizations with a combined membership of over one million youth. Youth organizations include the Conservative Youth of Denmark, Danish 4-H Youth, Danish Socialist Democratic, Faroe Islands Youth Council, Greenland Youth Council (SORLAK), scouting programs, and YMCA/YWCA.

Denmark has active chapters of The Red Cross, CARE, Caritas, Greenpeace, UNICEF, and Amnesty International.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Dozens of castles, palaces, mansions, and manor houses, including the castle at Elsinore (Helsingør)site of Shakespeare's Hamlet ware open to the public. Tivoli Gardens, the world-famous amusement park, built in 1843 in the center of Copenhagen, is open from May through mid-September. Copenhagen is an important jazz center and holds a jazz festival in July. The Royal Danish Ballet, of international reputation, performs in Copenhagen's Royal Theater, which also presents opera and drama. Greenland, the world's largest island, is part of the Kingdom of Denmark and attracts tourists to its mountains, dog sledges, and midnight sun.

A valid passport is required of all visitors except for Scandinavian nationals. Visas are not required for stays of up to 90 days.

Approximately 1,294,477 tourists visited Denmark in 2003. There were 41,729 hotel rooms with 106,080 beds and an occupancy rate of 35% in that year.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the cost of staying in Copenhagen at $288 per day.

FAMOUS DANES

Denmark's greatest classic writer and the founder of Danish literature is Ludvig Holberg (16841754), historian, philologist, philosopher, critic, and playwright, whose brilliant satiric comedies are internationally famous. Another important dramatist and poet is Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlaeger (17791850). The two most celebrated 19th-century Danish writers are Hans Christian Andersen (180575), whose fairy tales are read and loved all over the world, and the influential philosopher and religious thinker Søren Kierkegaard (181355). Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (17831872), noted theologian and poet, was renowned for his founding of folk high schools, which brought practical education to the countryside. The leading European literary critic of his time was Georg Morris Brandes (Cohen, 18421927), whose Main Currents in 19th-Century European Literature exerted an influence on two generations of readers. Leading novelists include Jens Peter Jacobsen (184785); Martin Anderson Nexø (18691954), author of Pelle the Conquerer (190610) and Ditte (191721); and Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (18731950), who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1944 for his series of novels. Karl Adolph Gjellerup (18571919) and Henrik Pontoppidan (18571943) shared the Nobel Prize for literature in 1917. Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen, 18851962) achieved renown for her volumes of gothic tales and narratives of life in Africa. Jeppe Aaksjaer (18661930), poet and novelist, is called the Danish Robert Burns. A great film artist is Carl Dreyer (18891968), known for directing The Passion of Joan of Arc, Day of Wrath, and Ordet. Famous Danish musicians include the composers Niels Gade (181790) and Carl Nielsen (18651931), the tenors Lauritz Melchior (18901973) and Aksel Schiøtz (190675), and the soprano Povla Frijsh (d.1960). Notable dancers and choreographers include August Bournonville (180579), originator of the Danish ballet style; Erik Bruhn (192886), who was known for his classical technique and was director of ballet at the Royal Swedish Opera House and of the National Ballet of Canada; and Fleming Ole Flindt (b.1936), who has directed the Royal Danish Ballet since 1965. The sculptor Bertel Th orvaldsen (17701844) is the artist of widest influence. Jørn Utzon (b.1918) is an architect best known for his design of the Sydney Opera House.

Notable scientists include the astronomers Tycho Brahe (15461601) and Ole Rømer (16441710); the philologists Ramus Christian Rask (17871832) and Otto Jespersen (18601943); the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted (17771851), discoverer of electromagnetism; Nobel Prize winners for physics Niels Bohr (18851962) in 1922 and his son Aage Niels Bohr (b.1922) and Benjamin Mottelson (b.1926) in 1975; Niels Rybert Finsen (b.Faroe Islands, 18601904), August Krogh (18741949), Johannes A. G. Fibiger (18671928), and Henrik C. P. Dam (18951976), Nobel Prize-winning physicians and physiologists in 1903, 1920, 1926, and 1944, respectively. Jens Christian Skou (b.1918) shared the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1997. Frederik Bajer (18371922) was awarded the Nobel Prize for peace in 1908. Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen (18791933), explorer and anthropologist born in Greenland, was an authority on Eskimo ethnology.

Queen Margrethe II (b.1940) became sovereign in 1972.

DEPENDENCIES

Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Faerøerne in Danish and Føroyar in the Faroese language), whose name stems from the Scandinavian word for sheep (får), are situated in the Atlantic Ocean, due n of Scotland, between 61°20 and 62°24n and 6°15 and 7°41w. The 18 islands, 17 of which are inhabited, cover an area of 1,399 sq km (540 sq mi). Among the larger islands are Streymoy (Strømø) with an area of 373 sq km (144 sq mi), Eysturoy (Østerø) with 286 sq km (110 sq mi), Vágar (Vaagø) with 178 sq km (69 sq mi), Suduroy (Syderø) with 166 sq km (64 sq mi), and Sandoy (Sandø) with 112 sq km (43 sq mi). The maximum length of the Faroe Islands is 112 km (70 mi) ns and the maximum width is 79 km (49 mi) nesw. The total coastline measures 1,117 km (694 mi).

The estimated population in July 2002 was 46,011. Most Faroese are descended from the Vikings, who settled on the islands in the 9th century. The Faroes have been connected politically with Denmark since the 14th century. During World War II (193945), they were occupied by the British, and in this period important political differences emerged. The Faroese People's party advocated independence for the islands; the Unionists preferred to maintain the status quo; and the Faroese Social Democrats wanted home rule. After the war, it was agreed to establish home rule under Danish sovereignty, and since 23 March 1948, the central Danish government has been concerned only with matters of common interest, such as foreign policy and foreign-currency exchange. The Faroes have their own flag, levy their own taxes, and issue their own postage stamps and banknotes. The Faroese language, revived in the 19th century and akin to Icelandic, is used in schools, with Danish taught as a first foreign language.

The Faroese parliament, or Logting, dates back to Viking times and may be Europe's oldest legislative assembly. Members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis from 7 constituencies to the 32-member Logting; representation has been fairly evenly divided among the four major parties. After the April 2002 election, the Union Party had 8 seats; Republican Party, 8; Social Democrats, 7; People's Party 7. The Independence Party and the Center Party had one seat each. The islands elect two representatives to the Folketing (Danish parliament).

In keeping with the islands' name, sheep raising was long the chief activity, but in recent years the fishing industry has grown rapidly. The total fish catch was nearly 360,000 metric tons in 1996; fisheries exports generated 94% of the territory's $471 million in exports in 1999. Principal varieties of fish caught are cod, herring, and haddock; almost the entire catch is exported. Exports go mainly to Denmark (32%), the United Kingdom (21%), France (9%), Germany (7%), Iceland (5%), and the United States (5%). Imports valued at $469 million in 1999, come mainly from Denmark (28%), Norway (26%), Germany (7%), Sweden (5%), and Iceland (4%). Agriculture is limited to the cultivation of root vegetables, potatoes, and barley, and contributed 27% to the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1999.

The economy is regulated by an agreement with Denmark whereby the central government facilitates the marketing of Faroese fisheries products and guarantees to some extent an adequate supply of foreign currency.

Greenland

Greenland (Grønland in Danish, Kalaallit Nunaat in Greenlandic) is the largest island in the world. Extending from 59°46 to 83°39 n and from 11°39 to 73°8w, Greenland has a total area of 2,166,086 sq km (836,330 sq mi). The greatest ns distance is about 2,670 km (1,660 mi), and ew about 1,290 km (800 mi). Greenland is bounded on the n by the Arctic Ocean, on the e by the Greenland Sea, on the se by the Denmark Strait (separating it from Iceland), on the s by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the w by Baffi n Bay and Davis Strait. The coastline measures 44,087 km (27,394 mi). The ice-free strip along the coast, rarely exceeding 80 km (50 mi) in width, is only 410,449 sq km (158,475 sq mi) in area. The rest of the area, covered with ice measuring at least 2,100 m (7,000 ft) thick in some places, amounts to 1,755,637 sq km (677,855 sq mi). Greenland has a typically arctic climate, but there is considerable variation between localities, and temperature changes in any one locality are apt to be sudden. Rainfall increases from north to south, ranging from about 25 to 114 cm (1045 in). Land transport is very diffi cult, owing to the ice and rugged terrain, and most local travel must be done by water. SAS operates flights on the Scandinavia-US route via Greenland, and tourists are being attracted by Greenland's imposing scenery.

The population, grouped in a number of scattered settlements of varying sizes, was estimated at 56,376 in 2002, down from 58,203 in 1996. Greenlanders are predominantly Eskimos, with some admixture of Europeans. The Greenlandic language, an EskimoAleut dialect, is in official use. Most native Greenlanders were engaged in hunting and fishing, but a steadily increasing number are now engaged in administration and in private enterprises. The Europeans chiefly follow such pursuits as administration, skilled services, and mining.

The Vikings reached Greenland as early as the 10th century. By the time Europeans rediscovered the island, however, Norse culture had died out and Greenland belonged to the Eskimos. Danish colonization began in the 18th century, when the whale trade flourished off Greenland's western shore. In 1933, the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague definitively established Danish jurisdiction over all Greenland. Up to 1953, the island was a colony; at that time it became an integral part of Denmark. Greenland held that status until 1979, when it became self-governing after a referendum in which 70% of the population favored home rule. The 31 members in the Landsting (parliament) are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation. In the election held November 2001, the left-wing Siumut Party won 10 seats; Inuit Ataqatigiit, 8; the right-wing Atassut Party, 7; the Demokratiit, 5; and the Katusseqatigiit, 1. Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing; following the December 2002 election, the representatives were from the Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit parties.

Fishing, hunting (mainly seal, and to a lesser extent fox), and mining are the principal occupations. Greenland's total fish catch in 1994 was 112,576 tons, and fisheries exports were valued at $267 million. Agriculture is not possible in most of Greenland, but some few vegetables are grown in the south, usually under glass.

At Ivigtut, on the southwest coast, a deposit of cryolite has long been worked by a Danish government-owned corporation, but reserves are believed to be nearing depletion. The government has a controlling interest in the lead-zinc mine at Mestersvig, on the east coast. Production began in 1956 and has continued sporadically. Low-grade coal mined at Disko Islands, midway on the west coast, is used for local fuel needs. Mining activities ceased in 1990 but exploration activity has revealed the potential for economic exploitation of antimony, barite, beryllium, chromite, coal, colombium, copper, cryolite, diamond, gold, graphite, ilmenite, iron, lead, molybdenum, nickel, platinum-group metals, rare earths, tantalum, thorium, tungsten, uranium, zinc, and zirconium. Fish and fish products make up the bulk of exports. Raw materials are administered jointly by a Denmark-Greenland commission. Underground resources remain in principle the property of Denmark, but the Landsting has veto power over matters having to do with mineral development.

A US Air Force base is situated at Thule, in the far north along the west coast, only 14°from the North Pole; Greenland also forms part of an early-warning radar network. An international meteorological service, administered by Denmark, serves transatlantic flights. In 1960, a 1,500-kW atomic reactor was set up in northern Greenland to supply electric power to a new US scientific base built on the icecap, 225 km (140 mi) inland from Thule.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annesley, Claire (ed.). A Political and Economic Dictionary of Western Europe. Philadelphia: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2005.

Decent Work in Denmark: Employment, Social Efficiency and Economic Security. Geneva, Switz.: International Labour office, 2003.

International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Kinze, Carl Christian. Marine Mammals of the North Atlantic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Miller, Kenneth E. Friends and Rivals: Coalition Politics in Denmark, 19011995. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.

Pasqualetti, Martin J., Paul Gipe, Robert W. Righter, (eds.). Wind Power in View: Energy Landscapes in a Crowded World. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002.

Wessels, Wolfgang, Andreas Maurer, and Jürgan Mittag (eds.). Fifteen into One?: the European Union and Its Member States. New York: Palgrave, 2003.

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Denmark

Denmark

PROFILE
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL CONDITIONS
ECONOMY
NATIONAL SECURITY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-DANISH RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the October 2007 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Kingdom of Denmark

PROFILE

Geography

Excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands

Area: 43,094 sq. km. (16,639 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than Vermont and New Hampshire combined.

Cities: Capital—Copenhagen (pop. 0.5 million in Copenhagen and 1.1 million in the Copenhagen Region). Other cities—Arhus (293,510), Odense (185,206), Aalborg (163,231).

Terrain: Low and flat or slightly rolling; highest elevation is 173 m. (568 ft.).

Climate: Temperate. The terrain, location, and prevailing westerly winds make the weather changeable.

People

Nationality: Noun—Dane(s). Adjective—Danish.

Population: (July 2006) 5,434,567.

Annual growth rate: 0.33%.

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali.

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%; other Protestant denominations and Roman Catholics 3%; Muslim 2%.

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), some German. English is the predominant second language.

Education: Years compulsory—9. Attendance—100%. Literacy—100%.

Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)—4.51/1,000. Life expectancy—men 75 years, women 80 years.

Work force: (2006) 2.8 million. Employment: Industry, construction, mining and utilities—23%; government—35%; private services—38%; agriculture and fisheries—4%.

Government

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: June 5, 1953.

Government branches: Executive—queen (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral parliament (Folketing). Judicial—appointed Supreme Court.

Political parties: (represented in parliament) Venstre (Liberal), Social Democratic, Konservative, Socialist People's, Social Liberal, Unity List, Danish People's.

Suffrage: Universal adult (18 years of age).

Political subdivisions: 13 counties and 271 municipalities.

Economy

GDP: (2006) $275.24 billion.

Annual growth rate: (real terms, 2006 est.) 3.2%.

Per capita GDP: $50,625.

Agriculture and fisheries: (2.4% of GDP at gross value added) Products—meat, milk, grains, seeds, hides, fur skin, fish and shellfish.

Industry: (21.0% of GDP at gross value added) Types—industrial and construction equipment, food processing, electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, textiles, windmills, and ships.

Natural resources: North Sea—oil and gas, fish. Greenland—fish and shrimp, potential for hydrocarbons and minerals, including zinc, lead, molybdenum, uranium, gold, platinum. The Faroe Islands—fish, potential for hydrocarbons.

Trade: (2006.) Exports—$90.97 billion: manufactured goods 81% (of which machinery and instruments 35%); agricultural products 10% (of which pork and pork products cover 48%), fuels 2%, fish and fish products 3%, other 4%. Imports—$84.23 billion: raw materials and semi-manufactures 43%, consumer goods 29%, capital equipment 14%, transport equipment 7%, fuels 5%, other 2%. Partners (percent of total trade in goods)—Germany 21%, Sweden 13%, U.K. 8%, U.S. 5%, Norway 5%, Japan 2%, east European countries 5%.

Exchange rate: 5.70 kroner=U.S. $1 as of late February 2007.

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark since prehistoric times. Danish is the principal language. English is a required school subject, and fluency is high. A small German-speaking minority lives in southern Jutland; a mostly Inuit population inhabits Greenland; and the Faroe Islands have a Nordic population with its own language. Education is compulsory from ages seven to 16 and is free through the university level.

Although religious freedom is guaranteed, the state-supported Evangelical Lutheran Church accounts for about 95% of those persons claiming religious affiliation. Several other Christian denominations, as well as other major religions, find adherents in Denmark. Islam is now the second-largest religion in Denmark.

During the Viking period (9th-11th centuries), Denmark was a great power based on the Jutland Peninsula, the Island of Zealand, and the southern part of what is now Sweden. In the early 11th century, King Canute united Denmark and England for almost 30 years.

Viking raids brought Denmark into contact with Christianity, and in the 12th century, crown and church influence increased. By the late 13th century, royal power had waned, and the nobility forced the king to grant a charter, considered Denmark's first constitution. Although the struggle between crown and nobility continued into the 14th century, Queen Margrethe I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland under the Danish crown. Sweden and Finland left the union in 1520; however, Norway remained until 1814. Iceland, in a “personal union” under the king of Denmark after 1918, became independent in 1944.

The Reformation was introduced in Denmark in 1536. Denmark's provinces in today's southwestern Sweden were lost in 1658, and Norway was transferred from the Danish to the Swedish crown in 1814, following the defeat of Napoleon, with whom Denmark was allied.

The Danish liberal movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and in 1849 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy. After the war with Prussia and Austria in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and adopt a policy of neutrality. Toward the end of the 19th century, Denmark inaugurated important social and labor market reforms, laying the basis for the present welfare state.

Denmark remained neutral during World War I. Despite its declaration of neutrality at the beginning of World War II, it was invaded by the Germans in 1940 and occupied until liberated by the Allied forces in May 1945. Resistance against the Germans was sporadic until late 1943. By then better organized, the resistance movement and other volunteers undertook a successful rescue mission in which nearly the entire Jewish population of Denmark was shipped to Sweden (whose neutrality was honored by Germany). However, extensive studies are still being undertaken for the purpose of establishing a clearer picture of the degree of Danish cooperation—official and corporate—with the occupying power. Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations and was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty.

Cultural Achievements

Denmark's rich intellectual heritage has made multifaceted contributions to modern culture the world over. The discoveries of astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), geologist and anatomist Niels Steensen (1639–86), and the brilliant contributions of Nobel laureates Niels Bohr (1885–1962) to atomic physics and Niels Finsen (1860–1904) to medical research indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–75), the philosophical essays of Soeren Kierkegaard (1813–55), and the short stories of Karen Blixen (pseudonym Isak Dinesen; 1885–1962) have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). Danish applied art and industrial design have won so many awards for excellence that the term “Danish Design” has become synonymous with high quality, craftsmanship, and functionalism. Among the leading lights of architecture and design was Arne Jacobsen (1902–1971), the “father of modern Danish design.” The name of Georg Jensen (1866–1935) is known worldwide for outstanding modern design in silver, and “Royal Copenhagen” is among the finest porcelains. No ‘short list' of famous Danes would be complete without the entertainer and pianist Victor Borge (1909–2000), who emigrated to the United States under Nazi threat in 1940, and had a worldwide following when he died a naturalized U.S. citizen in Greenwich, Connecticut, at the age of 91.

Visitors to Denmark will discover a wealth of cultural activity. The Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of the great Danish choreographer August Bournonville (1805–79). Danish dancers also feature regularly on the U.S. ballet scene, notably Peter Martins as head of New York City Ballet.

The Danish Film Institute, one of the oldest in Scandinavia, offers daily public screenings of Danish and international movies in their original language and plays an active role in the maintenance and restoration of important archival prints. Over the decades, movie directors like Gabriel Axel (Babette's Feast, 1987 Oscar for Best Foreign Film), Bille August (Buster's World, 1984; Pelle the Conqueror, 1988 Oscar for Best Foreign Film; The House of the Spirits, 1993) and Lars von Trier (Breaking the Waves, 1996; Dancer in the Dark, 2000 Cannes Golden Palm) have all won international acclaim. In addition, Denmark has been involved virtually from the start in development of the “Dogma film” genre, where small, hand-held digital cameras have permitted greater rapport

between director and actor and given a documentary film feel to their increasingly realistic works. Besides von Trier's Dogville (2003) starring Nicole Kidman, and The Idiots (1998), The Celebration (1998 Cannes Special Jury prize) by Thomas Vinterberg, Mifune's Last Song (1999 Berlin Silver Bear award) by Soeren Kragh-Jacobsen, and Italian for Beginners (2000 Berlin Silver Bear award) by Lone Scherfig all are prime examples of the Dogma concept.

International collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum north of Copenhagen, “Arken” south of Copenhagen, and the North Jutland Art Museum in Aalborg. The State Museum of Art and the Glyptotek, both in Copenhagen, contain master-pieces of Danish and international art. Denmark's National Museum building in central Copenhagen harbors most of the state's anthropological and archeological treasures with especially fine prehistoric and Viking Age collections; two of its finest satellite collections are the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde west of the metropolis and the Open Air Museum in a near northern suburb where original buildings have been transported from their original locations around the country and reassembled on plots specially landscaped to evoke the original site. The Museum of Applied Art and Industrial Design in Copen-hagen exhibits the best in Danish design. The world-renowned Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory exports worldwide. The ceramic tradition is carried on by designers such as Bjoern Wiinblad, whose whimsical creations remain as popular today as when they burst on the scene in the 1950s, and is carried on by younger talents such as Gertrude Vasegaard and Michael Geertsen.

Denmark has more than its share of impressive castles, many of which have been converted to museums. Frederiksborg Castle, on a manmade island in a lake north of Copenhagen, was restored after a catastrophic fire in the 1800s and now houses important collections in awe-inspiring splendor amidst impeccably manicured gardens. In Elsinore, Kronborg (or Hamlet's) Castle that once exacted tribute from passing ships now houses important furniture and art collections of the period, while hosting in its courtyard many touring summer productions of Shakespearean works. In Copenhagen, Rosenborg Castle houses the kingdom's crown jewels and boasts spectacular public gardens in the heart of the city

Among today's Danish writers, probably the best-known to American readers is Peter Hoeg (Smilla's Sense of Snow; Borderliners), while the most prolific is Klaus Rifbjerg—poet, novelist, playwright, and screenwriter. Benny Andersen writes poems, short stories, and music. Poems by both writers have been translated into English by the Curbstone Press. Suzanne Broegger focuses on the changing roles of women in society. Kirsten Thorup's “Baby” won the 1980 Pegasus Prize and is printed in English by the University of Louisiana Press. The psychological thrillers of Anders Bodelsen and political thrillers by Leif Davidsen also appear in English.

In music, Hans Abrahamsen and Per Noergaard are the two most famous living composers. Abrahamsen's works have been performed by the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC. Other international names are Poul Ruders, Bo Holten, and Karl Aage Rasmussen. Danes such as bass player Niels Henning Oersted Petersen have won broad international recognition, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival held each year in July has acquired a firm place on the calendar of international jazz enthusiasts.

Cultural Policy

The Ministry of Cultural Affairs was created in 1961. Cultural life and meaningful leisure time were then and remain now subjects of debate by politicians and parliament as well as the general public. The democratization of cultural life promoted by the government's 1960s cultural policy recently has come to terms with the older “genteel culture;” broader concepts of culture now generally accepted include amateur and professional cultural, media, sports, and leisure-time activities.

Denmark's cultural policy is characterized by decentralized funding, program responsibility, and institutions. Danish cultural direction differs from that of other countries with a Ministry of Culture and a stated policy in that special laws govern each cultural field—e.g., the Theater Act of 1990 (as amended) and the Music Law of 1976 (as amended).

The Ministry of Cultural Affairs includes among its responsibilities international cultural relations; training of librarians and architects; copyright legislation; and subsidies to archives, libraries, museums, literature, music, arts and crafts, theater, and film production. During 1970–82, the Ministry also recognized protest movements and street manifestations as cultural events, because social change was viewed as an important goal of Danish cultural policy.

Different governments exercise caution in moderating this policy and practice. Radio and TV broadcasting also fall under the Ministry of Culture. Although government expenditures for culture totaled about 1.0% of the budget in 1996, in 2006 governmment expenditures for culture totaled 0.66% of gross domestic product (GDP). Viewed against the new government's firm objective to limit public expenditures, contributions are unlikely to increase in the future. Municipal and county governments assume a relatively large share of the costs for cultural activities in their respective districts. Most support goes to libraries and archives, theater, museums, arts and crafts training, and films.

GOVERNMENT

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Queen Margrethe II has largely ceremonial functions; probably her most significant formal power lies in her right to appoint the prime minister and cabinet ministers, who are responsible for administration of the government. However, she must consult with parliamentary leaders to determine the public's will, since the cabinet may be dismissed by a vote of no confidence in the Folketing (parliament). Cabinet members are occasionally recruited from outside the Folketing.

The 1953 constitution established a unicameral Folketing of not more than 179 members, of whom two are elected from the Faroe Islands and two from Greenland. Elections are held at least every 4 years, but the prime minister can dissolve the Folketing at any time and call for new elections. Folketing members are elected by a complicated system of proportional representation; any party receiving at least 2% of the total national vote receives representation. The result is a multiplicity of parties (seven represented in the Folketing after the February 2005 general election), none of which holds a majority. Electorate participation normally is around 80–85%.

The judicial branch consists of about 100 local courts, two high courts, several special courts (e.g., arbitration and maritime), and a Supreme Court of 15 judges appointed by the crown on the government's recommendation.

Since a structural reform of local government was passed by the Folketing in 2004 and 2005, Denmark has been divided into five regions and 98 municipalities. The regions and municipalities are both led by councils elected every four years, but only the municipal councils have the power to levy taxes. Regional councils are responsible for health services and regional development, while the municipal councils are responsible for day care, elementary schools, care for the elderly, culture, environment and roads.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland enjoy home rule, with the Danish Government represented locally by high commissioners. These home rule governments are responsible for most domestic affairs, with foreign relations, monetary affairs, and defense falling to the Danish Government.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Queen: MARGRETHE II

Prime Min.: Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN

Min. of Cultural Affairs: Brian MIKKELSEN

Min. of Defense: Soren GADE

Min. of Development Cooperation: Ulla TORNAES

Min. of Economic Affairs, Business, & Trade: Bendt BENDTSEN

Min. of Education & Ecclesiastical Affairs: Bertel HAARDER

Min. of Employment: Claus Hjort FREDERIKSEN

Min. of Environment & Nordic Affairs: Connie HEDEGAARD

Min. of Family & Consumer Affairs: Carina CHRISTENSEN

Min. of Finance: Thor PEDERSEN

Min. of Food, Agriculture, & Fisheries: Eva Kjer HANSEN

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Per Stig MOLLER

Min. of Interior Affairs & Health: Lars Loekke RASMUSSEN

Min. of Justice: Lene ESPERSEN

Min. of Refugees, Immigration, & Integration: Rikke HVILSHOJ

Min. of Science, Technology, & Innovation: Helge SANDER

Min. of Social Affairs & Gender Equality: Karen JESPERSEN

Min. of Taxation: Kristian JENSEN

Min. of Transport & Energy: Jakob Axel NIELSEN

Chmn., Board of Governors, Danish National Bank: Nils BERNSTEIN

Ambassador to the US: Friis Arne PETERSEN

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Carsten STAUR

Denmark maintains an embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008-3683 (tel. 202-234-4300). Consulates general are in Chicago and New York.

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Political life in Denmark is orderly and democratic. Political changes occur gradually through a process of consensus, and political methods and attitudes are generally moderate. Growing numbers of immigrants and refugees throughout the 1990s, and less than successful integration policies, however, have in recent years led to growing support for populist anti-immigrant sentiments in addition to several revisions of already tight immigration laws, with the latest revision taking effect July 1, 2002.

The Social Democratic Party, historically identified with a well-organized labor movement but today appealing more broadly to the middle class, held power either alone or in coalition for most of the postwar period except from 1982 to 1993. From February 1993 to November 2001, Social Democratic Party chairman Poul Nyrup Rasmussen led a series of different minority coalition governments, which all included the centrist Social Liberal Party. However, with immigration high on the November 2001 election campaign agenda, the Danish People's Party doubled its number of parliamentary seats; this was a key factor in bringing into power a new minority right-of-center coalition government led by Liberal Party chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen (no relation to Nyrup Rasmussen). Parliamentary elections held February 8, 2005 returned the coalition to government for another term of up to four years. The coalition consists of the Liberal Party (“Venstre”) and the Konservative Party, holding 71 of the 179 seats in the Folketing, and has the parliamentary support of the Danish People's Party, holding another 24 seats. The opposition Social Democrats hold 47 seats and the Social Liberals hold 16 seats. Addressing the costs and benefits of the Denmark's comprehensive social welfare system, restraining taxes, and immigration are among the key issues on the current domestic political agenda.

Denmark's role in the European Union (EU) remains an important political issue. Denmark emerged from two referenda (June 2, 1992 and May 18, 1993) on the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union with four exemptions (or “opt-outs”) common defense, common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation, including law enforcement. The Amsterdam Treaty was approved in a referendum May 28, 1998, by a 55% majority. Still, the electorate's fear of losing national identity in an integrated Europe and lack of confidence in long-term stability of European economies run deep. These concerns were at the forefront of the September 28, 2000 referendum on Denmark's participation in the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union, particularly the common currency, the euro; more than 53% voted “no,” and Denmark retained its “krone” currency unit. The government and the pro-EU opposition have agreed, and Denmark has received an EU green light, to maintain the four opt-outs throughout the process of approving and ratifying a new EU constitutional treaty, with the ambition to eliminate all opt-outs in the longer term. The government intended to put Danish approval of the new EU constitution to the public in a referendum, but that process has been put on hold until further discussion of the constitution has taken place in the European Council. Denmark's relatively quiet and neutral role in international affairs was abruptly changed on September 30, 2005, when the Danish newspaper Jyl-lands-Posten printed 12 caricatures of Mohammed. Islamic law prohibits any visual portrayal of Mohammed, and Muslims viewed the caricatures as offensive. Muslims worldwide were infuriated with the Danes, beginning a boycott of Danish products and burning several Danish embassies. The Danish Government defended freedom of expression while it chastised the newspaper for inconsideration. The newspaper apologized, and the Danish Government repeatedly reiterated its support for freedom of religion, but the Islamic community still holds much animosity toward the Danes.

ECONOMY

Denmark's industrialized market economy depends on imported raw materials and foreign trade. Within the European Union, Denmark advocates a liberal trade policy. Its standard of living is among the highest in the world, and the Danes devote about 1% of gross national product (GNP) to foreign aid to less developed countries. In addition, Denmark in 2006 devoted 0.81% of GNP for overseas development, including for peace and stability purposes, refugee pre-asylum costs, and for environmental purposes in central and eastern Europe and developing countries.

Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy. Its principal exports are machinery, instruments, and food products. The United States is Denmark's largest non-European trading partner, accounting for about 6% of total Danish merchandise trade. Aircraft, computers, machinery, and instruments are among the major U.S. exports to Denmark. Among major Danish exports to the United States are industrial machinery, chemical products, furniture, pharmaceuticals, canned ham and pork, windmills, and plastic toy blocks (Lego). In addition, Denmark has a significant services trade with the U.S., a major share of it stemming from Danish-controlled ships engaged in container traffic to and from the United States (notably by Maersk-SeaLand). There are some 375 U.S.-owned companies in Denmark.

The Danish economy is fundamentally strong. Since the mid-1990s, economic growth rates have averaged close to 3%, the formerly high official unemployment rate stands at around 4%, and public finances have been in surplus. Except for one year—1998— Denmark since 1989 has had comfortable balance-of-payments current account surpluses, in 2006 corresponding to 2.45% of GDP. The former Social Democratic-led government coalition lowered marginal income tax rates but at the same time reduced tax deductions, increased environmental taxes, and introduced a series of user fees, thus increasing overall revenues. Under the tax reform plan agreed upon by the government and the Danish People's Party on March 31, 2003, taxpayers received tax relief in 2004, albeit at a lesser rate than the government proposed originally. Denmark has maintained a stable currency policy since the early 1980s, with the krone fomerly linked to the Deutschmark and since January 1, 1999, to the euro. Denmark meets, and even exceeds, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency—the euro) of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Although a referendum on EMU participation held on September 28, 2000 resulted in a firm “no” and Denmark, therefore, has not yet adopted the euro, opinion polls show support for EMU membership now exceeds 60%.

Danes are generally proud of their welfare safety net, which ensures that all Danes receive basic health care and need not fear real poverty. However, at present the number of working-age Danes living mostly on government transfer payments amounts to more than 800,000 persons (roughly 23% of the working-age population). Although this number has been reduced in recent years, the heavy load of government transfer payments burdens other parts of the system. Health care, other than for acute problems, and care for the elderly and children have particularly suffered, while taxes remain at a painful level. More than one-fourth of the labor force is employed in the public sector.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands

The Greenland economy has increased by an average of some 3% to 4% annually since 1993, the result of increasing catches and exports of shrimp, Greenland halibut and, more recently, crab. However, it was not until 1999 that the economy had fully recovered from the economic downturn in the early 1990s. During the last decade the Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a fiscal policy with mostly small budget surpluses and low inflation. The GHRG has taken initiatives to increase the labor force and thus employment by, among other things, raising the retirement age from 60 to 63 years. However, structural reforms are still needed in order to create a broader business base and economic growth through more efficient use of existing resources in both the public and the private sector. Due to the continued critical dependence on exports of fish, the economy remains very vulnerable to foreign developments. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. Close to one-half of the government revenues come from Danish Government grants, an important supplement of GDP. Greenland has registered a foreign trade deficit since the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine in 1989. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Two major aluminum producers reportedly have expressed interest in building smelters in Greenland to take advantage of abundant hydropower potential. Besides a continued increase in local content, i.e., using a Greenlandic rather than Danish work force in both the public and private sectors, tourism appears to be the sector that offers the best near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs. Air Greenland has announced it will begin its first scheduled service to North America in May 2007, with summer season flights to Baltimore.

Politically, the Greenland Home Rule Government has had increasing autonomy since its creation in 1979. An independent commission from Greenland made recommendations for greater self-rule in 2003. In May 2003, the Danish and Greenland Home Rule governments reached agreement on a set of power-sharing principles on Greenland's involvement in Danish foreign and security policy. The so-called Itilleq Declaration provides that Greenland will have foreign policy involvement with a view toward having equal status on questions of concern to both Denmark and Greenland. The Danish Government intends to form, together with Greenland, a new Danish-Greenlandic Commission to make joint recommendations to the Danish parliament on ways to update the Home Rule Act of 1979.

The Faroese economy has performed strongly since the mid-1990s with annual growth rates averaging close to 6%, mostly as a result of increasing fish landings and salmon farming and high and stable export prices. Unemployment is insignificant and there are labor shortages in several sectors. Most of the Faroese who emigrated in the early 1990s (some 10% of the population) due to the economic recession have now returned. The positive economic development also has helped the Faroese Home Rule Government produce increasing budget surpluses that in turn help to reduce the large public debt, most of it to Denmark. However, the total dependence on fishing and salmon farming makes the Faroese economy very vulnerable, and the present fishing efforts appear in excess of what is required to ensure a sustainable level of fishing in the long term.

Initial discoveries of oil in the Faroese area give hope for eventual oil production, which may lay the basis for a more diversified economy and thus less dependence on Denmark and Danish economic assistance. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark, albeit reduced from some 10% of GDP to about 6% in 2002, the Faroese have a standard of living comparable to that of the Danes and other Scandinavians.

Politically, the present Faroese Home Rule Government has initiated a process toward greater independence from Denmark, if not complete secession from the realm, a project the out-come of which it is too early to predict. In that respect, agreement on how to phase out the Danish subsidy plays a crucial role.

NATIONAL SECURITY

Although Denmark remained neutral during the First World War, its rapid occupation by Nazi Germany in 1940 persuaded most Danes that neutrality was no longer a reliable guarantee of Danish security. Danish security policy is founded on its membership in NATO. Since 1988, Danish budgets and security policy have been set by multi-year agreements supported by a wide parliamentary majority, including government and opposition parties. In 2006, Danish defense expenditures were 1.4% of GDP according to a NATO estimate.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Danish foreign policy is founded upon four cornerstones: the United Nations, NATO, the EU, and Nordic cooperation. Denmark also is a member of, among others, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; the World Trade Organization (WTO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the Council of Europe; the Nordic Council; the Baltic Council; and the Barents Council. Denmark emphasizes its relations with developing nations. Although the government has moved to tighten foreign assistance expenditures, it remains a significant donor and one of the few countries to exceed the UN goal of contributing 0.7% of GNP to development assistance.

In the wake of the Cold War, Denmark has been active in international efforts to integrate the countries of Central and Eastern Europe into the West. It has played a leadership role in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR), as well as in NATO's Operation Joint Endeavor/Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (IFOR/SFOR), and currently in the Kosovo Force (KFOR).

Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, and membership in NATO remains highly popular. There were several serious confrontations between the U.S. and Denmark on security policy in the so-called “footnote era” (1982–88), when a hostile parliamentary majority forced the government to adopt specific national positions on nuclear and arms control issues. With the end of the Cold War, however, Denmark has been supportive of U.S. policy objectives in the Alliance.

Danes have had a reputation as “reluctant” Europeans. When they rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on June 2, 1992, they put the European Community's (EC) plans for the European Union on hold. In December 1992, the rest of the EC agreed to exempt Denmark from certain aspects of the European Union, including a common defense, a common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation. On this revised basis, a clear majority of Danes approved continued participation in the EU in a second referendum on May 18, 1993, and again in a referendum on the Amsterdam Treaty on May 28, 1998.

Since September 11, 2001, Denmark has been highly proactive in endorsing and implementing United States, UN, and EU-initiated counter-terrorism measures, just as Denmark has contributed substantially to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan and the neighboring countries. In 2003, Denmark was among the first countries to join the “Coalition of the Willing” and supplied a submarine, Corvette-class ship, and military personnel to the coalition's effort in Iraq to enforce UN Security Council Resolution 1441. Since that time it has provided 500 troops to assist with stabilization efforts in Iraq. Prime Minister Rasmussen announced in February 2007 that most Danish troops would be withdrawn from Iraq by August 2007, as Iraqi forces had become capable of taking over security responsibilities in the Basra area, where the Danish troops had been concentrated.

U.S.-DANISH RELATIONS

Denmark is a close NATO ally, and overall U.S.-Danish relations are excellent. Denmark is active in Afghanistan and Kosovo as well as a leader in the Baltic region. Prime Minister Rasmussen reaffirmed that Denmark would remain engaged in Iraq even as its troop levels there decline. Denmark and the United States consult closely on European political and security matters. Denmark shares U.S. views on the positive ramifications of NATO enlargement. Denmark is an active coalition partner in the War on Terrorism, and Danish troops are supporting U.S.-led stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S. also engages Denmark in a broad cooperative agenda through the Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe (EPINE)—the U.S. policy structure to strengthen U.S.-Nordic-Baltic policy and program coordination. President Bush made an official working visit to Copenhagen in July 2005, and Prime Minister Rasmussen met with the President at Camp David in June 2006.

Denmark's active liberal trade policy in the EU, OECD, and WTO largely coincides with U.S. interests. The U.S. is Denmark's largest non-European trade partner with about 5% of Danish merchandise trade. Denmark's role in European environmental and agricultural issues and its strategic location at the entrance to the Baltic Sea have made Copenhagen a center for U.S. agencies and the private sector dealing with the Nordic/Baltic region.

American culture—and particularly popular culture, from jazz, rock, and rap to television shows and literature— is very popular in Denmark. Some 311,000 U.S. tourists visit the country annually.

The U.S. Air Force (USAF) base and early warning radar at Thule, Greenland—a Danish self-governing territory—serve as a vital link in Western defenses. In August 2004, the Danish and Greenland Home Rule governments gave permission for the early warning radar to be updated in connection with a role in the U.S. ballistic missile defense system. At the same time, agreements were signed to enhance economic, technical, and environmental cooperation between the United States and Greenland.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

COPENHAGEN (E) Dag Hammerskjolds Allé 24, 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark, APO/FPO PSC 73, APO/ AE 09716, +45 3341 7100, Fax +45 3543 0223, INMARSAT Tel +1 8816-314-39096, Workweek: 8:30 am until 5:00 pm, Website: http://denmark.usembassy.go

DCM OMS:Sue Ann Myers
AMB OMS:Jane Scott
DHS/ICE:James McDowell
MGT:Sarah C. Hall
AMB:James Cain
CG:Marilyn Rowdybush
PO:Marine Security Guard
CON:Marilyn Rowdybush
DCM:Sandra Kaiser
PAO:Thomas Leary
GSO:Greg Macdonald
RSO:Jeff Howard
AGR:Roger Wentzel (Res. The Hague) X 482
CLO:Renee Napolitano And Barbara Mozdzierz
DAO:CAPT Roger Coldiron
DEA:Timothy Moran
EEO:Mark Draper
EST:Erik Hall
ICASS:Chair Tom Leary
IMO:Jonathan Kirkpatrick
ISSO:Jonathan Kirkpatrick
LEGATT:Timothy Flynn
POL:William Mozdzierz
State ICASS:Tom Leary

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

August 23, 2007

Country Description: Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark.

Entry Requirements: Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its web site at http://www.denmarkemb.org for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Safety and Security: Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.

From time to time Copenhagen may experience protest activities from young people in their attempt to defend their self-proclaimed rights to either property (club activity buildings) or other privileges provided by Danish public means. American citizens should be aware that participation in illegal demonstrations or street riots may result in immediate imprisonment and long term bans on re-entering Denmark.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet website at http://travel.state.gov, where the current World-wide Caution Travel Alert, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.

Crime: Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and back-packs. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Due to the increase of crimes of opportunity, Embassy Copenhagen has experienced a high rise in passport thefts during the summer of 2007. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatnings-naevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, tel: (45) 33-92-3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; http://www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk; Email: [email protected] Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's web site at http://cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int.en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. Trains and buses connect Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark and to Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bicycles are also a common mode of transportation in Denmark. Passengers exiting public or tourist buses, as well as tourists driving rental cars, should watch for bicycles on their designated paths, which are usually located between the pedestrian sidewalks and the traffic lanes.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.denmark.org. See also additional information on driving in Denmark at http://www.trafikken.dk.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Denmark's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's internet web site at www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website: http://www.foedevarestyrelsen.dk.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy Locations: Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copen-hagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.

International Adoption

May 2007

The information in this section has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Please Note: There are few children eligible for intercountry adoption from Denmark, with a long waiting list of Danish prospective adoptive parents. While legally possible, inter-country adoption of a Danish orphan by foreigners is unlikely.

Patterns of Immigration: No Danish orphans have received U.S. immigrant visas in the past five fiscal years.

Adoption Authority: The Danish Ministry of Family & Consumer Affairs, Department of Family Affairs is the adoption law-making branch of the Danish government and is also the Central Authority for the Hague Intercountry Adoption Convention. The Department certifies adoption agencies and monitors their work to ensure that they comply with the law.

Danish Ministry of Family &
Consumer Affairs
Department of Family Affairs
Stormgade 2-6
1470 Copenhagen
Tel: +45-3392 3302
Fax: +45-3927 1889
Email: [email protected]
Web site: www.familiestyrelsen.dk

Joint Councils are established at the five Regional State Administrations (Statsforvaltning) in Denmark. The Regional State Administration mainly concentrates on family issues: divorce, child custody, maintenance. The prospective parents file their initial application with the local Joint Council of the Regional State Administration in the jurisdiction where they reside.

A Joint Council consists of three members—a social worker, a lawyer, and a medical officer. The Joint Council determines whether the initial application for adoption may be approved for further processing. Decisions reached by the Joint Councils may be appealed to the Danish National Board of Adoption, which is a department of the Ministry of Justice at:

Danish National Board of Adoption
Stormgade 2-6
1470 Copenhagen
Tel: +45-3392 3302
Fax: +45-3927 1889
Email: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.adoptionsnaevnet.dk

The Danish National Board of Adoption supervises the Joint Councils, observes national and international developments in adoption matters, collects information concerning adoption, negotiates with authorities and organizations in other countries, and supplies general information. A complete list of Joint Councils can be found at www.statsforvaltning.dk

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: The age difference between the applicant and the prospective child should not be more than 40 years. Married couples must adopt as a couple. Single people can also adopt. Danish law prohibits same-sex couples from adopting in Denmark.

Residency Requirements: Adoptive parents must be legally admitted residents of Denmark to adopt domestically or intercountry. Temporary visitors without an established home in Denmark cannot apply.

Time Frame: From the initial contact with the Joint Council at the Regional State Administration until the adoptive parents can be united with the child, the time frame is a minimum of 18 months, but may be as long as 21/2 years.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: Domestic adoptions in Denmark are processed via the five Regional State Administrations in the jurisdiction where the prospective parents reside. Private adoption agencies are accredited by the Danish government to provide adoption services. Please review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/ family for a list of agencies.

Adoption Fees: Domestic adoptions of Danish children are free of charge. The cost of an intercountry adoption (adopting a child in a third country and then taking him or her to Denmark to reside) is approximately Danish Kroner 74,000 (USD $13,500), depending on the country of the child's origin. Travel expenses must be added to this amount. Once the adoption has been finalized, the adoptive parents are entitled to a Danish Government lump-sum relief benefit of Danish Kroner 42,000 (USD $7,600) to help reduce their overall expenses.

Adoption Procedures: Prospective adoptive parents file an application with their Regional State Administration. The application is processed in three phases.

The first phase determines whether the applicants meet the following general conditions for adoptive parents: the age difference between the applicants and the child should not in general should not be more than 40 years; couples must be married and have lived in the same household for at least 21/2 years; the physical and psychological health of the applicants must meet certain criteria, the applicants' home must be suitable to house a child; the applicants must be of proper financial standing; and the applicants cannot have a criminal record that would make them unfit to become adoptive parents. Applicants cannot proceed to phase two without approval by the Joint Council.

The second phase is a pre-adoption counseling training program, mandatory for all applicants who have not previously adopted a child from abroad. The purpose of the training is to supply applicants with information concerning different aspects of adoption, and to provide a basis for the applicants themselves to determine whether or not they possess the necessary resources (financial as well as parenting abilities) to adopt a foreign child. The training course runs over a weekend and a half (one weekend session, followed by one Saturday or Sunday session). Participation in a pre-adoption training program costs Danish Kroner 1,500 (USD $275).

The third phase includes one or more interviews with the secretariat of the Joint Council. At the end of the third phase, a home study report is presented to the Joint Council for final decision and approval.

The prospective parents proceed by submitting their approval to one of the Danish government-authorized adoption agencies.

Adoption of a child is governed by the laws of the child's country of origin. The Department of State produces intercountry adoption flyers for every country in the world, and U.S. prospective adoptive parents, even if they are residing outside the United States, should consult the flyer for the country from which they plan to adopt. The U.S. Embassy in the child's country of origin will also be able to provide additional information.

Required Documents: The initial application form, which can be obtained from the Regional State Administration, must be accompanied by the following documents: birth certificate, marriage certificate, latest tax return showing financial status and documentation whether outstanding arrears exist, and a certificate of health. An application to participate in the pre-adoption counseling program must be filed with the

Department of Family Affairs, Office of Training Programs. If the applicants wish to continue the process after they complete the counseling program, a third application must be filed to start phase three. When the child arrives in Denmark from his or her country of origin (after that country's adoption procedures have been completed), the adoptive parents must apply to the Regional State Administration for an Adoption Certificate. With the Adoption Certificate, the adoption is finalized, and pursuant to Danish law, the adopted child has the same rights as a biological child.

Royal Danish Embassy 3200 Whitehaven Street NW Washington, DC 20008-3683 Tel: (202) 234-4300 Fax: (202) 328-1470 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.denmarkemb.org Denmark has Consulates General in Chicago and New York City.

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adoptive parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adoptive Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

U.S. Embassy
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24
2100
Copenhagen
Tel: +45-3341 7100
Fax: +45-35 38 96 16
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.usembassy.dk.

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in Denmark may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy in Copenhagen. General questions regarding intercountry adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children's Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-404-4747.

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Denmark

Denmark

THE GOLDEN AGE AND AFTER
POPULAR CINEMA FOR A SMALL NATION
EROTICISM AND HUMANISTIC REALISM
LARS VON TRIER'S KINGDOM
FAR FROM HOME
FURTHER READING

For a thousand years, Denmark has been an independent kingdom. Since 1849 it has been ruled with a democratic constitution and for over a century has enjoyed a generally peaceful history. Perhaps this history explains why Danish cinema in general is characterized by an atmosphere of jovial, often self-ironic humor and provincial calm. Denmark has been a film nation since the beginning of film history in the 1890s, and for some years around 1910, the Danish film industry was among the leading in Europe. This position, however, did not last long and after World War I, the impact of Danish cinema declined.

With the arrival of sound in Denmark in 1931, Danish film, soon dominated by popular comedies, became a profitable national business. However, with the arrival of television in the 1950s, cinema attendance declined, and in the 1960s the state began supporting the production of artistic films, since 1972 through The Danish Film Institute. Since the mid-1990s, Denmark has won a new position in world cinema, rather surprising for a nation with a population of 5.4 million and a yearly output of around twenty-five feature films (in all, about 1,000 Danish feature films have been produced since 1930). In particular, a groundbreaking filmmaker like Lars von Trier and his initiative, Dogma 95, have received international attention.

THE GOLDEN AGE AND AFTER

Film came to Denmark in 1896 when the first short films (probably British) were presented in a pavilion on the City Square of Copenhagen. Since December 1897 Danish productions, made by photographer Peter Elfelt (1866–1931), were also shown. The first film pioneer in Denmark, he made more than one hundred short films between 1897–1907—on sport, royalty, city life, and public events in the style of Auguste and Louis Lumière.

The first important Danish film production company was Nordisk Films Kompagni (now: Nordisk Film), established in 1906 by Ole Olsen. Nordisk, which has been a major player in Danish media for a century, took the lead with short, dramatic films, such as Løvejagten (Lion Hunt, 1907), directed by house director Viggo Larsen (1880–1957), a former army sergeant. Beginning in 1910 the longer feature films appeared. The first, Alfred Cohn's Den hvide Slavehandel (The White Slave Traffic, 1910) for Fotorama, was immediately plagiarized by Nordisk under the same title, with August Blom (1869–1947) as director. The small company Kosmorama made Urban Gad's (1879–1947) Afgrunden (The Abyss, 1910), in which Asta Nielsen (1881–1972) plays a young woman who leaves her sensible fiancé for a reckless circus artist, whom she murders when he betrays her. Nielsen and husband Gad soon left for Germany where Nielsen, in a diversity of roles, became one of the greatest European stars because of her psychological acting style.

During the silent years Denmark produced about 1,600 fictional films (features and shorts) and over 1,000 nonfiction films, although only about 250 are extant. In the Golden Age of Danish Cinema (circa 1908–1913) Danish films benefited from the internationalism of the silent era and were seen all over Europe, especially melodramas with a social and erotic theme, such as The Abyss and in Blom's Ved Fængslets Port (At the Prison Gates, 1911), starring Valdemar Psilander (1884–1917), the leading male star, and sensational films like the circus drama De fire Djævle (The Four Devils, 1911). A major artist and the most innovative figure in early Danish silent cinema was Benjamin Christensen (1879–1959). His spy story Det hemmelighedsfulde X (The Mysterious X, 1914) and the social crime story Hævnens Nat (Night of Revenge, 1916) explored new visual styles. Although the cinematic essay Häxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages, 1922), financed in Sweden, was a commercial failure, it is one of the most original and daring silent films in world cinema.

Nordisk's biggest production was Blom's costly and impressive Atlantis (1913), inspired by the Titanic disaster, which was a commercial disappointment. During World War I when Denmark was neutral, Nordisk made pacifist dramas, for example, the science fiction film Himmelskibet (A Ship to Heaven, 1917). Although Nordisk had a strong position in Germany, the Berlin branch was swallowed up in 1917 when the German military decided to nationalize the film industry with the Ufa (Universum Film Aktiengesellschaft). This restructuring contributed to the decline of Nordisk, which then concentrated on such costly productions as Carl Dreyer's (1889–1968) first films and A. W. Sandberg's literary adaptations of novels by Charles Dickens, including Store Forventninger (Great Expectations) and David Copperfield (both 1922), but without the expected international success. Only the new company, Palladium, established in Denmark in 1922, enjoyed international success with the comic team Fyrtaarnet og Bivognen (literally, the Lighthouse and the Sidecar), known abroad as Pat and Patachon (their actual names were Carl Schenstrøm [1881–1942] and Harald Madsen [1890–1949]).

POPULAR CINEMA FOR A SMALL NATION

Already in 1923 the Danish engineers Axel Petersen and Arnold Poulsen had presented their sound system. Nordisk went into liquidation in 1928 but was re-established in 1929 with the new sound system. The first feature film with Danish dialogue was Præsten i Vejlby (The Vicar of Vejlby, 1931), based on a literary classic and directed by George Schnéevoigt. In the 1930s, Denmark, too, was marked by depression and unemployment, but perhaps for that reason the dominating film genre was the jovial "folk comedy"—a light comedy with songs, and marked by an unfailing optimism—whose leading stars were Marguerite Viby (1909–2001) and Ib Schønberg. Outside the mainstream, Poul Henningsen (1894–1967) created Danmark (Denmark, 1935), the seminal and controversial work of the new Danish documentary film, a description of Denmark in a lyrical style that anticipated that of the British documentary Night Mail (1936).

The Nazi German occupation of Denmark from 1940 to 1945 meant restrictions for Danish film as well as for the society in general. There was soon a ban on showing American and British films in Danish movie theaters, and censorship did not allow the realities of the Occupation to be shown in Danish films. Instead, there was a demonstrative change to other darker genres, such as Danish noir films influenced by French poetic realism. In addition to sophisticated entertainment, there existed heritage films that presented nostalgic visions of a lost Denmark. After a long hiatus, Dreyer returned with the witch hunt drama, Vredens Dag (Day of Wrath, 1943), set in Denmark in the 1600s. With its story of torture and persecution, it was generally understood as an implicit commentary on the German Occupation. In addition, a short documentary by Hagen Hasselbalch (1915–1997), Kornet er i Fare (The Harvest Is in Danger, 1945), became famous because it appeared to be an informational film about agricultural pest control but clearly was a witty allegory about the Nazi invaders.

A few months after the end of the Occupation, the first films about the Danish Resistance appeared, and soon thereafter, a realistic breakthrough in Danish cinema came about with films about everyday life and social problems that somewhat resembled Italian neorealistic films. Most important were Bjarne Henning-Jensen's Ditte Menneskebarn (Ditte, Child of Man, 1946) and Johan Jacobsen's Soldaten og Jenny (Jenny and the Soldier, 1947). In the 1950s, a number of didactic films warning the nation about alcoholism and juvenile crime appeared, but generally the 1950s meant a return to the popular, cosy style of prewar Denmark. Die røde heste (The Red Horses, 1950), based on a novel dealing with an idyllic rural Denmark that probably never existed, by Morten Korch, a popular kitsch writer, was seen by over 60 percent of the population. The production company, ASA, made a whole series of successful Korch films (1950–1967) and also a series of more modern comedies about suburban life, Far til fire (Father of Four, 1953–1961), based on a comic strip about a widowed father with four children. Most of ASA's films were directed by Alice O'Fredericks (1900–1968), who had started at Palladium in the 1930s and probably is the only woman director in world cinema who for several decades was a major force in mainstream cinema. Her example may have been the inspiration for the relatively large number of female directors in Danish cinema, among them Astrid Henning-Jensen (1914–2002), who made Palle alene i verden (Palle Alone in the World, 1949), the seminal work of the Danish children's film tradition, and later Susanne Bier (b. 1960) and Lone Scherfig (b. 1959). Nordisk released the first Danish feature film in color, Erik Balling's (1924–2005) Kispus (1956), a romantic comedy set in the fashion world. Outside all the typical trends and traditions is Dreyer's religious drama Ordet (The Word, 1955), the only one of his films to enjoy general popularity with both Danish and international audiences (it earned a Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival).

CARL THEODOR DREYER
b. Copenhagen, Denmark, 3 February 1889, d. 20 March 1968

Carl Dreyer is the great Danish auteur, one of the masters of the cinema who created his own dark vision of human suffering and sacrifice. However, his increasingly formalistic style and austere universe placed him very far from mainstream Danish cinema. Dreyer's work is characterized by an intense formalism with carefully planned shots and by an uncompromising search for the inner life behind the surface of reality.

He started as a balloonist and journalist and came by coincidence into films in 1912. He wrote a number of manuscripts for Nordisk Film and also worked as editor. After his first film, the melodrama Præsidenten (The President, 1919), he made the ambitious Blade af Satans Bog (Leaves Out of the Book of Satan, 1920), four episodes about Satan's work in four different ages inspired by D. W. Griffith's Intolerance (1918). During the next decade he worked in several countries. In Norway he shot a Swedish film, Prästänkan (The Witch Woman, 1920), a bittersweet comedy about a young man who has to marry the old widow in order to get the job as parson. In Germany he made Die Gezeichneten (Love One Another, 1922), alove story set in Czarist Russia against the background of pogroms, and Mikaël (Chained, 1924) about a master painter (played by Benjamin Christensen) who becomes jealous when his young protégé falls in love with a countess.

In Denmark he made the realistic comedy Du skal ære din Hustru (Master of the House, 1925), about a father and husband whose tyrannical attitude is changed when his old nanny arrives. Its success led to an invitation to visit France, where he made La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (The Passion of Joan of Arc, 1928), one of the uncontested classics of world cinema. For this gripping presentation of the trial and execution of Joan of Arc, he developed a new ascetic style of closeups of an almost transcendental intensity. After directing the poetic horror story Vampyr: Der Traum des Allan Grey (The Vampire, 1932), he returned to Denmark. Several international projects were aborted and it was not until 1943, during the German Occupation, that he again made a feature film, the witch-hunt drama Vredens Dag (Day of Wrath, 1943).

After World War II, he wrote the manuscript for a film about Jesus and, for the rest of his life, tried untiringly but unsuccessfully to secure financing for it. He made two more films, Ordet (The Word, 1955), based on a play by Kaj Munk about a young woman who dies giving birth but miraculously is called back to life by her disturbed brother-in-law, and the spare and slow-moving melodrama Gertrud (1964), the story of a woman doomed to solitude because the men in her life are unwilling to sacrifice work and career for love.

Dreyer's personal background is a strange drama. His Swedish mother, probably made pregnant by her Danish master at an estate in southern Sweden, put him up for adoption in Denmark and died soon after. In his work, Dreyer, born Nilsson, constantly circles around the women suppressed in a man's world.

RECOMMENDED VIEWING

Prästänkan (The Witch Woman, 1920), Blade af Satans Bog (Leaves Out of the Book of Satan, 1921), Mikaël (Chained, 1924), La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (The Passion of Joan of Arc, 1928), Vampyr: Der Traum des Allan Grey (The Vampire, 1932), Vreden Dag (Day of Wrath, 1943), Ordet (The Word, 1955), Gertrud (1964)

FURTHER READING

Bordwell, David. The Films of Carl-Theodor Dreyer. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

Dreyer, Carl. Dreyer in Double Reflection. Translated by Donald Skoller. New York: Dutton, 1973.

Drum, Jean, and Dale D. Drum. My Only Great Passion: The Life and Films of Carl Th. Dreyer. Lanhan, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.

Milne, Tom. The Cinema of Carl Dreyer. New York: A. S. Barnes and London: Zwemmer, 1971.

Schrader, Paul. Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.

Peter Schepelern

The 1960s was marked by the drastic decline in cinema attendance—from 1950 through 1970 admissions fell from 52 million to 23 million people—due to the arrival of TV (Danmarks Radio started regular TV broadcasting in 1951, and was a monopoly until 1988). This decrease led to new film legislation in 1965 in which state support for the production of artistic films was introduced. In the long period when movie theaters were a very lucrative business, Denmark had a licensing system by which having a license was a precondition to running a movie theater and was given as a special reward to well-merited artists (such as Christensen and Dreyer) or to production companies that produced culturally valuable films. However, the decrease in cinema attendance led to the deregulation of cinema exhibition in 1972.

Overall, European cinema gained cultural respectability during the 1960s. New artistic movements flourished—most importantly, the French New Wave and modernist films by Fellini and Antonioni. In Denmark the 1960s became a transitional period: groundbreaking New Wave films, such as Palle Kjærulff-Schmidt's Weekend (1962), about disillusion among couples in their thirties, written by the versatile writer Klaus Rifbjerg, and modernist works, such as Henning Carlsen's Sult (Hunger, 1966), based on Knut Hamsun's novel about a starving writer in Kristiania (now Oslo) of the 1890s, appeared alongside the ever-popular folk comedy. Of particular note is Balling's Olsen-banden (The Olsen Gang, 1968–1981) series of thirteen films, in which the population recognized itself in the unsuccessful trio of petit bourgeois criminals who, guided by their leader Egon, are always involved in fantastic heists that inevitably go wrong. As had been his practice throughout his career, Dreyer produced a film that went completely against the grain of contemporary taste, the melodrama Gertrud (1964), his last work.

EROTICISM AND HUMANISTIC REALISM

In 1967 Denmark probably was the first country in the world to legalize literary pornography and in 1969 pictorial pornography for adults. The result was a short but profitable wave of erotic films that made Denmark famous as a liberal country. Palladium, the producer of Gertrud, started a series of erotic comedies. These so-called bedside comedies can hardly be described as pornographic, but rather as a combination of popular comedy and sex. Hugely profitable for some years, they vanished when, after Deep Throat (1972) and other hard-core films, the United States became the world's leading producer of pornographic material.

The 1970s became a period of diversity. The erotic films and the popular Olsen Gang comedies flourished and with the establishment in 1972 of The Danish Film Institute, art films gained support. A Danish Film School had been established in 1966 and a new generation appeared, the most original of whom was the documentarist Jørgen Leth. The state favored films for children and young adults (25% of the subsidy must be used on this category), resulting in a special trend. Such films as Nils Malmros's (b. 1944) Drenge (Boys, 1977), Søren Kragh-Jacobsen's (b. 1947) Vil du se min smukke navle? (Wanna See My Beautiful Navel?, 1978), Bille August's (b. 1948) Honning Måne (Honeymoon, 1978), and Morten Arnfred's (b. 1945) Johnny Larsen (1979) describe the vulnerable, marginalized young people, presented in undramatic, low-key stories with a melancholy atmosphere. This humanistic realism could be seen as related to the Danish literary tradition for focusing on the weak dreamer and reluctant antihero.

The tendency continued in the 1980s with masterpieces like Malmros's Kundskabens Træ (Tree of Knowledge, 1981), about desire and disillusion among school children, and Kragh-Jacobsen's children's fable Gummi-Tarzan (Rubber Tarzan, 1981). The most famous films of the period, however, were the two Academy Award® winners, Gabriel Axel's Babettesgæstebud (Babette's Feast, 1987), a conventional adaptation of an Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen) story about an exiled French cook in the late 1800s who wins a fortune and spends all the money making a dinner so she can once again show provincial Denmark her art, and August's moving Pelle erobreren (Pelle the Conqueror, 1987), based on Martin Andersen Nexø's classical novel about a boy's childhood among poor farm workers in the late 1800s.

State support for film production had started as support for film art, but during the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that all types of film needed state support if Danish film production were to survive. Danish movie theaters, which numbered 462 in 1960, 180 (with 347 screens) in 1990, and 166 theatres (379 screens) in 2003, depended on Danish films with popular appeal. In 1989 a new support system—the so-called 50/50 system, now the 60/40 system—was established, which, with some restrictions, gave 50 percent of the funding (yet only up to 3.4 million Danish kroner), later 60 percent and up to 5 million Danish kroner, if the company could provide the rest, on the condition that the film could be expected to have broad appeal (approximately 175,000 admissions). This support created a new wave of popular comedies, and especially successful in the domestic market were films that imitated the style of popular family films from the 1950s and 1960s, such as Krummerne (The Crumbs, 1991) and sequels.

A new tendency appeared with Ole Bornedal's Nattevagten (1994, remade in the United States as Nightwatch, 1997). Breaking with humanistic realism, it presented an effective horror plot with splatter and suspense totally foreign to Danish traditions. Where the unwritten rule of artistic Danish cinema was always to keep a distance from Hollywood mainstream genres, Nattevagten faced the challenge. The film was a refreshing landmark in new Danish cinema and was followed by such other mainstream films as Bier's comedy Den enesteene (The One and Only, 1999), which was hugely successful with the Danish audience. It was not the traditional "folk comedy" or family entertainment, but a romantic comedy in the style of Mike Newell's Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994).

LARS VON TRIER'S KINGDOM

Outside of all these trends stood the young Lars von Trier (b. 1956), who introduced his own personal style and original universe with the trilogy The Element of Crime (1984), Epidemic (1987), and Europa (Zentropa, 1991), which presented a flamboyant look in a postmodern style, influenced by Dreyer and Andrei Tarkovsky, of an apocalyptic Europe in the past, present, and future. Trier is also the main reason, though not the only one, that Denmark won a new position in world cinema since the mid-1990s.

It was also Trier who was behind the other important trend, Dogma 95. It started with a manifesto published by Lars von Trier with young Thomas Vinterberg (b. 1969) as co-signatory in March 1995. During the shooting of the TV serial Riget (The Kingdom, 1994; part two, 1997), Trier realized that it was possible to ignore the normal technical standards and cinematic rules when working with a strong story and fascinating characters. He had always believed in creative development through obstructions. On this basis he came up with a set of rules that prescribe that the films should take place "here and now," that all shooting should take place on location with no added props, that there should always be direct sound, that the camera should always be hand-held, and that there should be no artificial lighting, no optical work or superficial action, and no crediting of the director! Dogma was meant as a "rescue operation," an anti-illusion and anti-Hollywood initiative, in which the director swears "to force the truth out of my characters and settings."

When all cosmetics and effects are banished, story and character are left. This method allows for the actors to develop their characters. The first Dogma 95 films—Vinterberg's Festen (The Celebration) and Trier's The Idiots—came out in 1998, followed by Kragh-Jacobsen's Mifunes sidste sang (Mifune's Last Song, 1999) and Scherfig's Italiensk for begyndere (Italian for Beginners, 2000). The first Dogma films received prizes and much international attention, especially The Celebration, an incest drama, and Idioterne (The Idiots 1998), about a group of young people who pretend to be retarded in order to "reach their inner idiot." The Dogma films have continued to add new energy to Danish cinema, although twenty or so foreign Dogma films generally have been less interesting.

Before The Idiots Trier made his international breakthrough with Breaking the Waves (1996), a bizarre religious melodrama about a young Scottish woman who believes that her sexual martyrdom and death will make God cure her disabled husband. The miracle ending has reminiscences of Dreyer's Ordet. The film, internationally co-financed like most of his later work, was dominated by a hand-held camera style and Emily Watson's intense acting. Trier continued with the theme of the self-sacrificing woman in Dancer in the Dark (2000), in which Icelandic singer Björk, who also wrote the music, plays a Czech woman who must go to the gallows to save her son from blindness. It, too, is a simple and highly emotional fable, but also a groundbreaking experiment with the musical genre. In Dogville (2003), the first part of a projected American trilogy, Trier continued his fearless attempts to find different approaches. In this film, Grace (Nicole Kidman), who has run away from pursuers, finds shelter in a small American mountain village in 1933; first she is kindly received, but gradually there is a change of attitude and she is suppressed and abused. Contrary to the earlier Trier heroines, she fights back. A didactic and ironic fable about power and morality, the film is perhaps most striking for its Brechtian formalism, taking place on an almost bare stage with sets only outlined and dominated by a narrator's voice-over. The story about Grace continued with Manderlay (2005), in which Grace takes over an estate in the Deep South where slavery has been maintained. For Trier, an important intention behind the Dogma concept was to force himself out of routines and habits, and he continued this general method in the highly original De fem benspænd (The Five Obstructions, 2003). Here he challenges senior colleague Jørgern Leth to remake one of his early experimental films according to Trier's whimsical instructions.

In more mainstream Danish cinema, there has been considerable national success with realistic stories about everyday life, typically about couples and infidelity, parents and children, as in Bier's Dogma film Elsker dig for evigt (Open Hearts, 2002). Also popular have been bittersweet buddy movies that continue the typical Danish taste for stories about jovial, small-time crooks, such as Blinkende lygter (Flickering Lights, 2000), directed by Anders Thomas Jensen (b. 1972), who won an Academy Award® for the short Valgaften (Election Night, 1998). In the new generation the most promising art film talent is Christoffer Boe (b. 1974), who directed the subtle drama of the eternal triangle, Reconstruction (2003), about the illusions of love and reality.

FAR FROM HOME

Since the 1920s American films have dominated Danish movie theaters. In the last fifteen years of the twentieth century, there has been a tendency in most European countries for Hollywood blockbusters to dominate the movie theaters (55–60%), but the national films make up a relatively large percentage of the box office as well. In Denmark in the 1990s, 10 or 15 Danish films represented 30 percent of the box office. The losers are clearly films from other European countries, which accounted for only 10 percent. Of the 25 most often seen films in Danish cinemas between 1976 and 2004, 13 were from the United States, 11 from Denmark, and only one (a James Bond film) from another country.

For a small country, it is especially important to preserve the national culture and language, but it is also tempting to try one's luck in the international film world. Nielsen, Dreyer, and Christensen all went abroad to international careers during the silent years. Other Danes who went away to international careers are actors Jean Hersholt (1886–1956), who was seen in early Hollywood films, including Erik von Stroheim's Greed (1924); Torben Meyer, who is most remembered for Judgment at Nuremberg (1961); Brigitte Nielsen for Red Sonya (1985); and Connie Nielsen for Gladiator (2000).

In addition, August has produced international films, among them The House of the Spirits (1993), based on Isabel Allende's novel of the same title. In the twenty-first century, many Danish directors have made Danish films in English, for example, nearly all of Trier's films, as well as Vinterberg's It's All About Love (2002) and Dear Wendy (2005), Bornedal's I Am Dina (2002), and Scherfig's Wilbur Wants to Kill Himself (2003). However, often the result is that the filmmakers lose the Danish public without attracting a large international audience, for while the Danes go to the cinema to find entertainment and excitement, they also desire to see themselves and their own world portrayed on the screen.

SEE ALSO National Cinema

FURTHER READING

Cowie, Peter. Scandinavian Cinema: A Survey of Films and Filmmakers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. London: Tantivy, 1992.

Hjort, Mette. Small Nation, Global Cinema: The New Danish Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.

Hjort, Mette, and Ib Bondebjerg, eds. The Danish Directors: Dialogues on a Contemporary National Cinema. Translated by Metle Hjort. Bristol, UK: Intellect, 2001.

Hjort, Mette, and Scott MacKenzie, eds. Purity and Provocation: Dogma 95. London: British Film Institute, 2003.

Lumholdt, Jan, ed. Lars von Trier: Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003.

Mottram, Ron. The Danish Cinema before Dreyer. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1988.

Nestingen, Andrew, and Trevor G. Elkington, eds. Transnational Cinema in a Global North: Nordic Cinema in Transition. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2005.

Peter Schepelern

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Denmark

DENMARK

Compiled from the August 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark


PROFILE

Geography*

Area:

43,096 sq. km. (16,640 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than Vermont and New Hampshire combined.

Cities:

Capital—Copenhagen (pop. 0.5 million in Copenhagen and 1.8 million in the Copenhagen Region). Other cities—Aarhus (289,000), Odense (184,000), Aalborg (162,000).

Terrain:

Low and flat or slightly rolling; highest elevation is 173 m. (568 ft.).

Climate:

Temperate. The terrain, location, and prevailing westerly winds make the weather changeable.

*Excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands

People

Nationality:

Noun—Dane(s). Adjective—Danish.

Population (July 1, 2005):

5,432,335.

Annual growth rate:

0.34%.

Ethnic groups:

Scandinavian, German, Inuit, Faroese.

Religion membership:

Evangelical Lutheran 84.3%. Catholics, Jews, other Protestant denominations, and Muslims account for approximately 5%.

Language:

Danish, some German, Faroese, Greenlandic. English is the predominant second language.

Education:

Years compulsory—9. Attendance—100%. Literacy—100%.

Health:

Infant mortality rate (2005)—4.5/1,000. Life expectancy—men 75 years, women 80 years.

Work force (2005):

2.88 million. Employment: Industry, construction, mining and utilities—23%; government—35%; private services—38%; agriculture and fisheries—4%.

Government

Type:

Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution:

June 5, 1953.

Branches:

Executive—queen (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral parliament (Folketing). Judicial—appointed Supreme Court. Political parties (represented in parliament): Venstre (Liberal), Social Democratic, Konservative, Socialist People's, Social Liberal, Unity List, Danish People's.

Suffrage:

Universal adult (18 years of age).

Administrative subdivisions:

13 counties and 271 municipalities.

Economy

GDP (2003):

$212 billion.

Annual growth rate (real terms, 2004 est.):

2.1%.

Per capita income:

$37,883.

Agriculture and fisheries (2.4% of GDP at gross value added):

Products—meat, milk, grains, seeds, hides, fur skin, fish and shellfish.

Industry (21.0% of GDP at gross value added):

Types—industrial and construction equipment, food processing, electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, textiles, windmills, and ships.

Natural resources:

North Sea—oil and gas, fish. Greenland—fish and shrimp, potential for hydrocarbons and minerals, including zinc, lead, molybdenum, uranium, gold, platinum. The Faroe Islands—fish, potential for hydrocarbons.

Trade (2003):

Exports—$66.2 billion: manufactured goods 81% (of which machinery and instruments 35%); agricultural products 10% (of which pork and pork products cover 48%), fuels 2%, fish and fish products 3%, other 4%. Imports—$56.4 billion: raw materials and semi-manufactures 43%, consumer goods 29%, capital equipment 14%, transport equipment 7%, fuels 5%, other 2%. Partners (percent of total trade in goods)—Germany 21%, Sweden 13%, U.K. 8%, U.S. 5%, Norway 5%, Japan 2%, east European countries 5%.

Official exchange rate:

(2002 avg.) 7.88 kroner=U.S. $1; (2003 avg.) 6.59 kroner=U.S. $1.


PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark since prehistoric times. Danish is the principal language. English is a required school subject, and fluency is high. A small German-speaking minority lives in southern Jutland; a mostly Inuit population inhabits Greenland; and the Faroe Islands have a Nordic population with its own language. Education is compulsory from ages seven to 16 and is free through the university level.

Although religious freedom is guaranteed, the state-supported Evangelical Lutheran Church accounts for about 84% (down from 92% in 1984) of those persons claiming religious affiliation. Several other Christian denominations, as well as other major religions, find adherents in Denmark. Islam is now the second-largest religion in Denmark.

During the Viking period (9th-11th centuries), Denmark was a great power based on the Jutland Peninsula, the Island of Zealand, and the southern part of what is now Sweden. In the early 11th century, King Canute united Denmark and England for almost 30 years.

Viking raids brought Denmark into contact with Christianity, and in the 12th century, crown and church influence increased. By the late 13th century, royal power had waned, and the nobility forced the king to grant a charter, considered Denmark's first constitution. Although the struggle between crown and nobility continued into the 14th century, Queen Margrethe I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland under the Danish crown. Sweden and Finland left the union in 1520; however, Norway remained until 1814. Iceland, in a "personal union" under the king of Denmark after 1918, became independent in 1944.

The Reformation was introduced in Denmark in 1536. Denmark's provinces in today's southwestern Sweden were lost in 1658, and Norway was transferred from the Danish to the Swedish crown in 1814, following the defeat of Napoleon, with whom Denmark was allied.

The Danish liberal movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and in 1849 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy. After the war with Prussia and Austria in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and adopt a policy of neutrality. Toward the end of the 19th century, Denmark inaugurated important social and labor market reforms, laying the basis for the present welfare state.

Denmark remained neutral during World War I. Despite its declaration of neutrality at the beginning of World War II, it was invaded by the Germans in 1940 and occupied until liberated by the Allied forces in May 1945. Resistance against the Germans was sporadic until late 1943. By then better organized, the resistance movement and other volunteers undertook a successful rescue mission in which nearly the entire Jewish population of Denmark was shipped to Sweden (whose neutrality was honored by Germany). However, extensive studies are still undertaken for the purpose of establishing a clearer picture of the degree of Danish cooperation—official and corporate—with the occupying power. Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations and was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty.

Cultural Achievements

Denmark's rich intellectual heritage has made multifaceted contributions to modern culture the world over. The discoveries of astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), geologist and anatomist Niels Steensen (1639–86), and the brilliant contributions of Nobel laureates Niels Bohr (1885–1962) to atomic physics and Niels Finsen (1860–1904) to medical research indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–75), the philosophical essays of Soeren Kierkegaard (1813–55), and the short stories of Karen Blixen (pseudonym Isak Dinesen; 1885–1962) have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). Danish applied art and industrial design have won so many awards for excellence that the term "Danish Design" has become synonymous with high quality, craftsmanship, and functionalism. Among the leading lights of architecture and design was Arne Jacobsen (1902–1971), the "father of modern Danish design." The name of Georg Jensen (1866–1935) is known worldwide for outstanding modern design in silver, and "Royal Copenhagen" is among the finest porcelains. No 'short list' of famous Danes would be complete without the entertainer and pianist Victor Borge (1909–2000), who emigrated to the United States under Nazi threat in 1940, and had a worldwide following when he died a naturalized U.S. citizen in Greenwich, Connecticut, at the age of 91.

Visitors to Denmark will discover a wealth of cultural activity. The Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of the great Danish choreographer August Bournonville (1805–79). Danish dancers also feature regularly on the U.S. ballet scene, notably Peter Martins as head of New York City Ballet.

The Danish Film Institute, one of the oldest in Scandinavia, offers daily public screenings of Danish and international movies in their original language and plays an active role in the maintenance and restoration of important archival prints. Over the decades, movie directors like Gabriel Axel (Babette's Feast, 1987 Oscar for Best Foreign Film), Bille August (Buster's World, 1984; Pelle the Conqueror, 1988 Oscar for Best Foreign Film; The House of the Spirits, 1993) and Lars von Trier (Breaking the Waves, 1996; Dancer in the Dark, 2000 Cannes Golden Palm) have all won international acclaim. In addition, Denmark has been involved virtually from the start in development of the "Dogma film" genre, where

small, hand-held digital cameras have permitted greater rapport between director and actor and given a documentary film feel to their increasingly realistic works. Besides von Trier's Dogville (2003) starring Nicole Kidman, and The Idiots (1998), The Celebration (1998 Cannes Special Jury prize) by Thomas Vinterberg, Mifune's Last Song (1999 Berlin Silver Bear award) by Soeren Kragh-Jacobsen, and Italian for Beginners (2000 Berlin Silver Bear award) by Lone Scherfig all are prime examples of the Dogma concept.

International collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum north of Copenhagen, "Arken" south of Copenhagen, and the North Jutland Art Museum in Aalborg. The State Museum of Art and the Glyptotek, both in Copenhagen, contain masterpieces of Danish and international art. Denmark's National Museum building in central Copenhagen harbors most of the state's anthropological and archeological treasures with especially fine prehistoric and Viking Age collections; two of its finest satellite collections are the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde west of the metropolis and the Open Air Museum in a near northern suburb where original buildings have been transported from their original locations around the country and reassembled on plots specially landscaped to evoke the original site. The Museum of Applied Art and Industrial Design in Copenhagen exhibits the best in Danish design. The world-renowned Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory exports worldwide. The ceramic tradition is carried on by designers such as Bjoern Wiinblad, whose whimsical creations remain as popular today as when they burst on the scene in the 1950s, and is carried on by younger talents such as Gertrude Vasegaard and Michael Geertsen.

Denmark has more than its share of impressive castles, many of which have been converted to museums. Frederiksborg Castle, on a manmade island in a lake north of Copenhagen, was restored after a catastrophic fire in the 1800s and now houses important collections in awe-inspiring splendor amidst impeccably manicured gardens. In Elsinore, Kronborg (or Hamlet's) Castle that once exacted tribute from passing ships now houses important furniture and art collections of the period, while hosting in its courtyard many touring summer productions of Shakespearean works. In Copenhagen, Rosen-borg Castle houses the kingdom's crown jewels and boasts spectacular public gardens in the heart of the city.

Among today's Danish writers, probably the best-known to American readers is Peter Hoeg (Smilla's Sense of Snow; Borderliners), while the most prolific is Klaus Rifbjerg—poet, novelist, playwright, and screenwriter. Benny Andersen writes poems, short stories, and music. Poems by both writers have been translated into English by the Curbstone Press. Suzanne Broegger focuses on the changing roles of women in society. Kirsten Thorup's "Baby" won the 1980 Pegasus Prize and is printed in English by the University of Louisiana Press. The psychological thrillers of Anders Bodelsen and political thrillers by Leif Davidsen also appear in English.

In music, Hans Abrahamsen and Per Noergaard are the two most famous living composers. Abrahamsen's works have been performed by the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC. Other international names are Poul Ruders, Bo Holten, and Karl Aage Rasmussen. Danes such as bass player Niels Henning Oersted Petersen have won broad international recognition, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival held each year in July has acquired a firm place on the calendar of international jazz enthusiasts.

Cultural Policy

The Ministry of Cultural Affairs was created in 1961. Cultural life and meaningful leisure time were then and remain subjects of debate by politicians and parliament as well as the general public. The democratization of cultural life promoted by the government's 1960s cultural policy recently has come to terms with the older "genteel culture;" broader concepts of culture now generally accepted include amateur and professional cultural, media, sports, and leisure-time activities.

Denmark's cultural policy is characterized by decentralized funding, program responsibility, and institutions. Danish cultural direction differs from other countries with a Ministry of Culture and a stated policy in that special laws govern each cultural field—e.g., the Theater Act of 1990 (as amended) and the Music Law of 1976 (as amended).

The Ministry of Cultural Affairs includes among its responsibilities international cultural relations; training of librarians and architects; copyright legislation; and subsidies to archives, libraries, museums, literature, music, arts and crafts, theater, and film production. During 1970–82, the Ministry also recognized protest movements and street manifestations as cultural events, because social change was viewed as an important goal of Danish cultural policy. Different governments exercise caution in moderating this policy and practice. Radio and TV broadcasting also fall under the Ministry of Culture.

Although government expenditures for culture totaled about 1.0% of the budget in 1996, in 2002 government expenditures for culture totaled 0.3% of gross domestic product (GDP). Viewed against the new government's firm objective to limit public expenditures, contributions are unlikely to increase in the future. Municipal and county governments assume a relatively large share of the costs for cultural activities in their respective districts. Most support goes to libraries and archives, theater, museums, arts and crafts training, and films.


GOVERNMENT

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Queen Margrethe II has largely ceremonial functions; probably her most significant formal power lies in her right to appoint the prime minister and cabinet ministers, who are responsible for administration of the government. However, she must consult with parliamentary leaders to determine the public's will, since the cabinet may be dismissed by a vote of no confidence in the Folketing (parliament). Cabinet members are occasionally recruited from outside the Folketing.

The 1953 constitution established a unicameral Folketing of not more than 179 members, of whom two are elected from the Faroe Islands and two from Greenland. Elections are held at least every 4 years, but the prime minister can dissolve the Folketing at any time and call for new elections. Folketing members are elected by a complicated system of proportional representation; any party receiving at least 2% of the total national vote receives representation. The result is a multiplicity of parties (seven represented in the Folketing after the February 2005 general election), none of which holds a majority. Electorate participation normally is around 80-85%.

The judicial branch consists of about 100 local courts, two high courts, several special courts (e.g., arbitration and maritime), and a Supreme Court of 15 judges appointed by the crown on the government's recommendation.

Denmark is divided into 13 counties (Amter) and 271 municipalities (Kommuner). The chief official of the Amt, the county mayor (Amts-borgmester), is elected by the county council from among its members, according to the municipal reform of 1970. The cities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg function as both counties and municipalities.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland enjoy home rule, with the Danish Government represented locally by high commissioners. These home rule governments are responsible for most domestic affairs, with foreign relations, monetary affairs, and defense falling to the Danish Government.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 11/2/2005

Queen: MARGRETHE II
Prime Minister: Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN
Min. of Cultural Affairs: Brian MIKKELSEN
Min. of Defense: Soren GADE
Min. of Development Cooperation: Ulla TORNAES
Min. of Economic Affairs, Business, & Trade: Bendt BENDTSEN
Min. of Education & Ecclesiastical Affairs: Bertel HAARDER
Min. of Employment: Claus Hjort FREDERIKSEN
Min. of Environment & Nordic Affairs: Connie HEDEGAARD
Min. of Family & Consumer Affairs: Lars BARFOED
Min. of Finance: Thor PEDERSEN
Min. of Food, Agriculture, & Fisheries: Hans Christian SCHMIDT
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Per Stig MOLLER
Min. of Interior Affairs & Health: Lars Loekke RASMUSSEN
Min. of Justice: Lene ESPERSEN
Min. of Refugees, Immigration, & Integration: Rikke HVILSHOJ
Min. of Science, Technology, & Innovation: Helge SANDER
Min. of Social Affairs & Gender Equality: Eva Kjer HANSEN
Min. of Taxation: Kristian JENSEN
Min. of Transport & Energy: Flemming HANSEN
Chairman, Board of Governors, Danish National Bank: Nils BERNSTEIN
Ambassador to the US: Friis Arne PETERSEN
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Ellen Margrethe LOJ

Denmark maintains an embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008-3683 (tel. 202-234-4300). Consulates general are in Chicago and New York.


POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Political life in Denmark is orderly and democratic. Political changes occur gradually through a process of consensus, and political methods and attitudes are generally moderate. Growing numbers of immigrants and refugees throughout the 1990s, and less than successful integration policies, however, have in recent years led to growing support for populist anti-immigrant sentiments in addition to several revisions of already tight immigration laws, with the latest revision taking effect July 1, 2002.

The Social Democratic Party, historically identified with a well-organized labor movement but today appealing more broadly to the middle class, held power either alone or in coalition for most of the postwar period except from 1982 to 1993. From February 1993 to November 2001, Social Democratic Party chairman Poul Nyrup Rasmussen led a series of different minority coalition governments, which all included the centrist Social Liberal Party. However, with immigration high on the November 2001 election campaign agenda, the Danish People's Party doubled its number of parliamentary seats; this was a key factor in bringing into power a new minority right-of-center coalition government led by Liberal Party chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen (no relation to Nyrup Rasmussen).

Parliamentary elections held February 8, 2005 returned the coalition to government for another term of up to four years. The coalition consists of the Liberal Party ("Venstre") and the Konservative Party, holding 71 of the 179 seats in the Folketing, and has the parliamentary support of the Danish People's Party, holding another 24 seats. The opposition Social Democrats hold 47 seats and the Social Liberals hold 16 seats. Addressing the costs and benefits of the Denmark's comprehensive social welfare system, restraining taxes, and immigration are among the key issues on the current domestic political agenda.

Denmark's role in the European Union (EU) remains an important political issue. Denmark emerged from two referenda (June 2, 1992, and May 18, 1993) on the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union with four exemptions (or "opt-outs"): common defense, common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation, including law enforcement. The Amsterdam Treaty was approved in a referendum May 28, 1998, by a 55% majority. Still, the electorate's fear of losing national identity in an integrated Europe and lack of confidence in long-term stability of European economies run deep. These concerns were at the forefront of the September 28, 2000 referendum on Denmark's participation in the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union, particularly the common currency, the euro; more than 53% voted "no," and Denmark retained its "krone" currency unit. The government and the pro-EU opposition have agreed, and Denmark has received an EU green light, to maintain the four opt-outs throughout the process of approving and ratifying a new EU constitutional treaty, with the ambition to eliminate all opt-outs in the longer term. The government intended to put Danish approval of the new EU constitution to the public in a referendum, but that process has been put on hold until further discussion of the constitution has taken place in the European Council.


ECONOMY

Denmark's industrialized market economy depends on imported raw materials and foreign trade. Within the European Union, Denmark advocates a liberal trade policy. Its standard of living is among the highest in the world, and the Danes devote about 1% of gross national product (GNP) to foreign aid to less developed countries. In addition, Denmark in 2002 devoted 0.33% of GNP for peace and stability purposes, including to cover pre-asylum costs for refugees, and for environmental purposes in central and eastern Europe and in developing countries.

Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy. Its principal exports are machinery, instruments, and food products. The United States is Denmark's largest non-European trading partner, accounting for about 6% of total Danish merchandise trade. Aircraft, computers, machinery, and instruments are among the major U.S. exports to Denmark. Among major Danish exports to the United States are industrial machinery, chemical products, furniture, pharmaceuticals, canned ham and pork, windmills, and plastic toy blocks (Lego). In addition, Denmark has a significant services trade with the U.S., a major share of it stemming from Danish-controlled ships engaged in container traffic to and from the United States (notably by Maersk-SeaLand). There are some 325 U.S.-owned companies in Denmark.

The Danish economy is fundamentally strong. Since the mid-1990s, economic growth rates have averaged close to 3%, the formerly high official unemployment rate stands at 5.8%, and public finances have been in surplus. Except for one year—1998—Denmark since 1989 has had comfortable balance-of-payments current account surpluses, in 2002 corresponding to 2.9% of GDP. The former Social Democratic-led government coalition lowered marginal income tax rates but at the same time reduced tax deductions, increased environmental taxes, and introduced a series of user fees, thus increasing overall revenues. Under the tax reform plan agreed upon by the government and the Danish People's Party on March 31, 2003, taxpayers received tax relief in 2004, albeit at a lesser rate than the government proposed originally. Denmark has maintained a stable currency policy since the early 1980s, formerly with the krone linked to the deutschmark and since January 1, 1999, to the euro. Denmark meets, and even exceeds, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency—the euro) of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Although a referendum on EMU participation held on September 28, 2000 resulted in a firm "no" and Denmark, therefore, has not yet adopted the euro, opinion polls show support for EMU membership now exceeds 60%.

Danes are generally proud of their welfare safety net, which ensures that all Danes receive basic health care and need not fear real poverty. However, at present the number of working-age Danes living mostly on government transfer payments counts more than 800,000 persons (roughly 23% of the working-age population). Although this number has been reduced in recent years, the heavy load of government transfer payments burden other parts of the system. Health care, other than for acute problems, and care for the elderly and children have particularly suffered, while taxes remain at a painful level. More than one-fourth of the labor force is employed in the public sector.

Greenland and the Faroe Islands

The Greenland economy has increased by an average of some 3% to 4% annually since 1993, the result of increasing catches and exports of shrimp, Greenland halibut and, more recently, crab. However, it was not until 1999 that the economy had fully recovered from the economic downturn in the early 1990s. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) during the last decade has pursued a fiscal policy with mostly small budget surpluses and with low inflation. The GHRG has taken initiatives to increase the labor force and thus employment by, among other things, raising the retirement age from 60 to 63 years. However, structural reforms are still needed in order to create a broader business base and economic growth through more efficient use of existing resources in both the public and the private sector. Due to the continued critical dependence on exports of fish, the economy remains very vulnerable to foreign developments. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. Close to one-half of the government revenues come from grants from the Danish Government, an important supplement of GDP. Greenland has registered a foreign trade deficit since the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine in 1989. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Besides a continued increase in local content, i.e., using a Greenlandic rather than Danish work force in both the public and private sector, tourism appears to be the sector that offers the best near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.

Politically, the Greenland Home Rule Government has had increasing autonomy since its creation in 1979. An independent commission from Greenland made recommendations for greater self-rule in 2003. In May 2003, the Danish and Greenland Home Rule governments reached agreement on a set of power-sharing principles on Greenland's involvement in Danish foreign and security policy. The so-called Itilleq Declaration provides that Greenland will have foreign policy involvement with a view toward having equal status on questions of concern to both Denmark and Greenland. The Danish Government intends to form, together with Greenland, a new Danish-Greenlandic Commission to make joint recommendations to the Danish parliament on ways to update the Home Rule Act of 1979.

The Faroese economy has performed strongly since the mid-1990s with annual growth rates averaging close to 6%, mostly as a result of increasing fish landings and salmon farming and high and stable export prices. Unemployment is insignificant and there are labor shortages in several sectors. Most of the Faroese who emigrated in the early 1990s (some 10% of the population) due to the economic recession have now returned to the Faroe Islands. The positive economic development also has helped the Faroese Home Rule Government produce increasing budget surpluses that in turn help to reduce the large public debt, most of it to Denmark. However, the total dependence on fishing and salmon farming makes the Faroese economy very vulnerable, and the present fishing efforts appear in excess of what is required to ensure a sustainable level of fishing in the long term. Initial discoveries of oil in the Faroese area give hope for eventual oil production, which may lay the basis for a more diversified economy and thus less dependence on Denmark and Danish economic assistance. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark, albeit reduced from some 10% of GDP to about 6% in 2002, the Faroese have a standard of living comparable to that of the Danes and other Scandinavians.

Politically, the present Faroese Home Rule Government has initiated a process toward greater independence from Denmark, if not complete secession from the realm, a project of which the outcome is too early to predict. In that respect, agreement on how to phase out the Danish subsidy plays a crucial role.


NATIONAL SECURITY

Although Denmark remained neutral during the First World War, its rapid occupation by Nazi Germany in 1940 persuaded most Danes that neutrality was no longer a reliable guarantee of Danish security. Danish security policy is founded on its membership in NATO. Since 1988, Danish budgets and security policy have been set by multi-year agreements supported by a wide parliamentary majority, including government and opposition parties. Current resource plans are based on the 1999 defense agreement covering the period 2000–04. In 2003, Danish defense expenditures were 1.6% of GDP according to NATO statistics.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

Danish foreign policy is founded upon four cornerstones: the United Nations, NATO, the EU, and Nordic cooperation. Denmark also is a member of, among others, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; the World Trade Organization (WTO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the Council of Europe; the Nordic Council; the Baltic Council; and the Barents Council. Denmark emphasizes its relations with developing nations. Although the government has moved to tighten foreign assistance expenditures, it remains a significant donor and one of the few countries to exceed the UN goal of contributing 0.7% of GNP to development assistance.

In the wake of the Cold War, Denmark has been active in international efforts to integrate the countries of central and eastern Europe into the West. It has played a leadership role in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR), as well as in NATO's Operation Joint Endeavor/Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (IFOR/SFOR) and the Kosovo Force (KFOR).

Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, and membership in NATO remains highly popular. There were several serious confrontations between the U.S. and Denmark on security policy in the socalled "footnote era" (1982–88), when a hostile parliamentary majority forced the government to adopt specific national positions on nuclear and arms control issues. With the end of the Cold War, however, Denmark has been supportive of U.S. policy objectives in the Alliance.

Danes have had a reputation as "reluctant" Europeans. When they rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on June 2, 1992, they put the European Community's (EC) plans for the European Union on hold. In December 1992, the rest of the EC agreed to exempt Denmark from certain aspects of the European Union, including a common defense, a common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation. On this revised basis, a clear majority of Danes approved continued participation in the EU in a second referendum on May 18, 1993, and again in a referendum on the Amsterdam Treaty on May 28, 1998.

Since September 11, 2001, Denmark has been highly proactive in endorsing and implementing United States, UN, and EU-initiated counter-terrorism measures, just as Denmark has contributed substantially to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan and the neighboring countries. In 2003, Denmark was among the first countries to join the "Coalition of the Willing" and supplied a submarine, Corvette-class ship, and military personnel to the coalition's effort in Iraq to enforce UN Security Council Resolution 1441. Since that time it has provided 500 troops to assist with stabilization efforts in Iraq.


U.S.-DANISH RELATIONS

Denmark is a close NATO ally, and overall U.S.-Danish relations are excellent. Denmark is active in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kosovo, as well as a leader in the Baltic region. Denmark and the United States consult closely on European political and security matters. Denmark shares U.S. views on the positive ramifications of NATO enlargement. Denmark is an active coalition partner in the global war on terrorism, and Danish troops are supporting U.S.-led stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S. also engages Denmark in a broad cooperative agenda through the Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe—the U.S. policy structure to strengthen U.S.-Nordic-Baltic policy and program coordination. President Bush made an official working visit to Copenhagen in July, 2005.

Denmark's active liberal trade policy in the EU, OECD, and WTO largely coincides with U.S. interests. The U.S. is Denmark's largest non-European trade partner with about 5% of Danish merchandise trade. Denmark's role in European environmental and agricultural issues and its strategic location at the entrance to the Baltic Sea have made Copenhagen a center for U.S. agencies and the private sector dealing with the Nordic/Baltic region.

American culture—and particularly popular culture, from jazz, rock, and rap to television shows and literature—is very popular in Denmark. Some 311,000 U.S. tourists visit the country annually.

The U.S. Air Force (USAF) base and early warning radar at Thule, Green-land—a Danish self-governing territory—serve as a vital link in Western defenses. In August 2004, the Danish and Greenland Home Rule governments gave permission for the early warning radar to be updated in connection with a role in the U.S. ballistic missile defense system. At the same time, agreements were signed to enhance economic, technical, and environmental cooperation between the United States and Greenland.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

COPENHAGEN (E) Address: Dag Hammerskjolds Allé 24, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; APO/FPO: PSC 73, APO AE 09716; Phone: +45 3341 7100; Fax: +45 3543 0223; INMARSAT Tel: +1 8816-314-39096; Work-week: 8:30 am until 5:00 pm; Website:www.usembassy.dk

AMB:James Cain
AMB OMS:Jane Scott
DCM:Sandra Kaiser
DCM OMS:Judy Brooks
CG:Rekha Arness
PO:Marine Security Guard
POL:Blair Hall
CON:Rekha Arness
MGT:Robert Needham
AFSA:Dan Lawton
AGR:Roger Wentzel (res. The Hague) x 482
CLO:Kate Blandford
DAO:Geoffery Pack
DEA:Dan Bruce
ECO:Greg Burton
EEO:Blair Hall
EST:Lori Dando
GSO:Greg MacDonald
ICASS Chair:Marc Truumees
IMO:Jonathan Kirkpatrick
INS:Yolanda Paras
ISSO:Jonathan Kirkpatrick
LAB:Dan Lawton
LEGATT:Christopher Woiwode
PAO:Thomas Leary
RSO:Ted Collins
State ICASS:Dan Lawton
Last Updated: 1/3/2006

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

August 3, 2005

Country Description:

Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark.

Entry Requirements:

Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its website at http://www.denmarkemb.org for the most current visa information.

Safety and Security:

Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet website at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime:

Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have slightly increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while over-seas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatningsnaevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, TEL: (45) 33-92-3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk; Email: [email protected] Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); or via the CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. There is also a reliable train and bus network connecting Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.denmark.org. See also additional information on driving in Denmark at http://www.trafikken.dk.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Denmark as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well.

Special Circumstances:

The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website:http://www.uk.foedevarestyrelsen.dk/Animal/travelling_with_dogs_cats/Dogs_cats_and_ferrets/entry_dk_non_eu.htm

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy Location:

Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copenhagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.

International Adoption

January 2006

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Denmark, Greenland, and the Faeroe Islands Disclaimer:

The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and our current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Availability of Children for Adoption:

According to the Danish Ministry of Justice, Department of Private Law, and the two authorized adoption agencies in Denmark, no more than 15-20 children are available in Denmark for adoption per year. These children are mainly of an ethnic origin other than Danish and they are adopted domestically. The adoption agency AC International Child Support in Aarhus, Denmark, maintains a constant waiting list of approximately 800 Danish couples seeking domestic adoption. Although Danish legislation does not directly prohibit adoption of Danish children by prospective foreign parents outside of Denmark, international adoption of Danish children is a remote possibility since national adoptions have first priority.

Patterns of Immigration of Adopted Orphans to the U.S.:

Recent U.S. immigrant visa statistics indicate no visas have been issued to Danish orphans in the last five years.

Adoption Authority in Denmark:

Adoption in Denmark is effected pursuant to Danish law.

The Danish Ministry of Justice, Department of Private Law, is the adoption law making branch of the Danish Government and is also the Central Authority for the Hague Convention. The Department certifies adoption agencies and monitors their work to ensure that they comply with the law.

Address:
Danish Ministry of Justice
Department of Private Law
Stormgade 2-6
1470 Copenhagen
Tel: +45-3392 3302
Fax: +45-3927 1889
Email: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.familiestyrelsen.dk

Joint Councils are established at all Danish Government Offices throughout Denmark. The prospective parents file their initial application with the local Joint Council of the Government Office in the jurisdiction where they reside. A Joint Council consists of three members – a social worker, a lawyer, and a medical officer. The Joint Council determines whether the initial application for adoption may be approved for further processing. Decisions reached by the Joint Councils may be appealed to the Danish National Board of Adoption, which is a department in the Ministry of Justice at:

Danish National Board of Adoption
Stormgade 2-6
1470 Copenhagen
Tel: +45-3392 3302
Fax: +45-3927 1889
Email:[email protected]
Web site: http://www.adoptionsnaevnet.dk

The Danish National Board of Adoption supervises the Joint Councils, observes national and international developments in adoption matters, collects information concerning adoption, negotiates with authorities and organizations in other countries, and supplies general information.

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents:

Adoptive parents must be at least 25 years of age, and cannot be more than 40 years older that the prospective child. Married couples adopt as a couple. Single people can adopt. Danish law prohibits same sex couples from adopting in Denmark.

Residential Requirements:

Adoptive parents must be legally admitted residents of Denmark. Temporary visitors without an established home in Denmark cannot apply.

Time Frame:

From the initial contact to the Joint Council at the local Government Office until the adoptive parents can be united with the child, the time frame is a minimum of 18 months, but may be as long as 2 ½ years.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys:

Domestic adoptions in Denmark are processed via the local Government Offices in the jurisdiction where the prospective parents reside. The following two adoption agencies have been authorized by the Ministry of Justice, Department of Private Law to facilitate international adoptions:

DanAdopt
Hovedgaden 24
3460 Birkerod, Denmark
Tel: +45-4581 6333
Fax: +45-4581 7482.
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.danadopt.dk

AC International Child Support
Eckersberggade 17
8100 Aarhus C
Tel: +45-8612 6522
Fax: +45-8619 7853
E-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.a-c.dk

For U.S. based agencies, prospective adopting parents are recommended to contact the Better Business Bureau and licensing office of the Department of Health and Family Services in the state where the agency is located.

Adoption Fees in Denmark:

Domestic adoptions are free of charge. The cost of an international adoption is between Danish Kroner 72,000-110,000 ($12,000-18,500), depending on the country of the child's origin. Travel expenses must be added to this amount. Once the adoption has been finalized, the adoptive parents are entitled to a Danish Government lump sum relief benefit of Danish Kroner 40,000 ($6,500) to help reduce their overall expenses.

Adoption Procedures:

Prospective parents file an application with their local Government Office. The application is processed in three phases. Applicants cannot proceed to phase two without approval by the Joint Council.

The first phase determines whether the applicants meet the following general conditions for adoptive parents: the age difference between applicants and the child should not be more than 40 years; couples must be married and have lived in the same household for at least 2½ years, the physical and psychological health of the applicants must meet certain criteria, the applicants' home must be suitable to house a child, the applicants must be of proper financial standing, and the applicants cannot have a criminal record which would make them unfit to become adoptive parents.

The second phase is a pre-adoption counseling training program, mandatory for all applicants who have not previously adopted a child from abroad. The purpose of the training is to supply applicants with information concerning different aspects of adoption, and to provide a basis for the applicants themselves to determine whether or not they possess the necessary resources to adopt a foreign child. The training course runs over two weekend sessions and one evening session on a workday. Participation in a pre-adoption training program costs Danish Kroner 1,500 ($250).

The third phase includes one or more interviews by the Government Office. At the end of the third phase, a home study report is presented to the Joint Council for final decision and approval. The prospective parents proceed by submitting their approval to one of the Danish Government authorized adoption agencies.

Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at travel.state.gov/family

Documents Required for Adoption in Denmark:

The initial application form, which can be obtained from the local Government Office, must be accompanied by the following documents: birth certificate, marriage certificate, latest tax return and documentation whether outstanding arrears exist, and a certificate of health. Application to participate in the pre-adoption counseling program must be filed with the Department of Private Law, Office of Training Programs. If the applicants wish to continue the process after they complete the counseling program, an application must be filed to start phase three. When the child arrives in Denmark, the adoptive parents must apply to the Government Office for an Adoption Certificate. With the Adoption Certificate, the adoption is finalized, and pursuant to Danish law, the adopted child has the same rights as a natural child.

Authenticating U.S. Documents to be Used Abroad:

Denmark is not a party to the Hague Legalization Convention. All U.S. documents submitted to the Government Offices in Denmark must be authenticated. Visit the State Department website at travel.state.gov for additional information about authentication procedures.

Denmark—Embassy and Consulates in the United States:

Royal Danish Embassy
3200 Whitehaven Street NW
Washington, DC 20008-3683
Tel: (202) 234-4300
Fax: (202) 328-1470
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site:
http://www.denmarkemb.org

Denmark has Consulates General in: Chicago and New York City.

U.S. Immigration Requirements:

Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at travel.state.gov/family

Applying for a Visa for your Child at the U.S. Embassy in Denmark:

Please visit the web site for the U.S. Embassy in Copenhagen for information on how to immigrate your child to the United States at http://www.usembassy.dk/or email the Embassy at [email protected]

U.S. Embassy in Denmark:

As soon as prospective adopting parents arrive in Denmark, they should contact the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in order to register their presence in Denmark. The Consulate Section is located at:

Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24
2100 Copenhagen
Tel: +45-35 55 31 44
Fax: +45-35 38 96 16
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.usembassy.dk

Additional Information:

Specific questions about adoption in Denmark may be addressed to the U.S. Embassy in Denmark. General questions regarding international adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children's Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4 th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-404-4747.

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Denmark

Denmark

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environment

6 Population

7 Migration

8 Ethnic Groups

9 Languages

10 Religions

11 Transportation

12 History

13 Government

14 Political Parties

15 Judicial System

16 Armed Forces

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Foreign Trade

27 Energy and Power

28 Social Development

29 Health

30 Housing

31 Education

32 Media

33 Tourism and Recreation

34 Famous Danes

35 Bibliography

Kingdom of Denmark
Kongeriget Danmark

CAPITAL: Copenhagen (København)

FLAG: The Danish national flag, known as the Dannebrog, is one of the oldest national flags in the world, although the concept of a national flag did not develop until the late 18th century when the Dannebrog was already half a millennium old. The design shows a white cross on a field of red.

ANTHEM: There are two national anthems— Kong Kristian stod ved hojen mast (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and Der er et yndigt land (There Is a Lovely Land).

MONETARY UNIT: The krone (Kr) of 100 øre is a commercially convertible paper currency with one basic official exchange rate. There are coins of 25 and 50 øre, and 1, 5, 10, and 20 kroner, and notes of 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 kroner. Kr1 = $0.16863 (or $1 = Kr5.93) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard, but some local units are used for special purposes.

HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Constitution Day, 5 June; Christmas Day, 25 December; Boxing Day, 26 December. Movable religious holidays include Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Prayer Day (4th Friday after Easter), Ascension, and Whitmonday.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Situated in northern Europe (in an area known as Scandinavia) the Kingdom of Denmark consists of Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Denmark proper, comprising the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland) and 406 islands (97 of them inhabited), has an area of 43,094 square kilometers (16,639 square miles), slightly less than twice the size of the state of Massachusetts.

The Jutland peninsula accounts for 29,767 square kilometers (11,493 square miles) of the total land area, while the islands have a combined area of 13,317 square kilometers (5,142 square miles). Except for the southern boundary with Germany (68 kilometers/42 miles), the country is surrounded by water. The total coastline is 7,314 kilometers (4,544 miles).

Denmark’s capital city, Copenhagen, is located on the eastern edge of the country on the island of Sjaelland.

GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Geographic Features

Area: 43,094 sq km (16,639 sq mi)

Size ranking: 130 of 194

Highest elevation: 173 meters (568 feet) at Yding Skovhoj (Ejer Bavnehoj)

Lowest elevation: -7 meters (-23 feet) at Lammefjord

Land Use*

Arable land: 53%

Permanent crops: 0%

Other: 47%

Weather**

Average annual precipitation: 60.2 centimeters (23.7 inches)

Average temperature in January: 0.1°C (32.2°f)

Average temperature in July: 17.8°C (64.0°f)

* Arable Land: Land used for temporary crops, like meadows for mowing or pasture, gardens, and greenhouses.

Permanent crops: Land cultivated with crops that occupy its use for long periods, such as cocoa, coffee, rubber, fruit and nut orchards, and vineyards.

Other: Any land not specified, including built-on areas, roads, and barren land.

** The measurements for precipitation and average temperatures were taken at weather stations closest to the country’s largest city.

Precipitation and average temperature can vary significantly within a country, due to factors such as latitude, altitude, coastal proximity, and wind patterns.

2 Topography

The average altitude of Denmark is about 30 meters (98 feet). The highest point, Yding Skovhoj in southeastern Jutland, is only 173 meters (568 feet). In parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland, and in a few other areas, the coast is protected by dikes (structures built to prevent flooding). Almost all of Denmark proper consists of a glacial deposit over a chalk base. The surface is made up of small hills, moors, ridges, hilly islands, raised sea bottoms, and, on the west coast, downs and marshes. There are many small rivers and inland seas. The longest river is the Guedena, with a length of 160 kilometers (100 miles). The largest lake is Lake Arre on Sjaelland Island, with an area of 40.6 square kilometers (15.7 square miles).

3 Climate

There is little fluctuation between day and night temperatures, but sudden changes in wind direction cause considerable day-to-day temperature changes. The mean temperature in January is 0.1°c (32.2°f), and in July, the warmest month, 17.8°c (64°f). Rain falls fairly evenly throughout the year. The annual average amounts to approximately 60.2 centimeters (23.7 inches).

4 Plants and Animals

Plants and animals are the same as those common to middle Europe. There are many species of ferns, flower, fungi, and mosses. Common trees include spruce and beech. Few wild or large animals remain. Birds, however, are abundant. Many species breed in Denmark and migrate to warmer countries during the autumn and winter. Denmark’s national bird is the white swan. Fish and insects are plentiful.

5 Environment

Land and water pollution are two of Denmark’s most significant environmental problems, even

though much of Denmark’s household and industrial waste is recycled. Animal wastes are responsible for polluting both drinking and surface water. Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution threatens the quality of North Sea waters. A special treatment plant at Nyborg, on the island of Fyn, handles dangerous chemical and oil wastes.

Other environmental problems include air pollution, especially from automobile emissions; excessive noise, notably in the major cities; and the pollution of rivers, lakes, and open sea by raw sewage. In the early 1990s Denmark was one of the fifty nations with the heaviest industrial carbon dioxide emissions.

Denmark had 220 protected sites as of 2003, covering about 34% of the total land area. The list of threatened species in that year included three species of mammals and two breeding bird species. Endangered species include the coalfish whale, blue whale, loggerhead turtle, leatherback turtle, and Atlantic sturgeon.

6 Population

In 2005, the population of Denmark was estimated at 5.42 million. The Faroe Islands had an estimated population of 42,000 people in 2003, and Greenland had 56,000 people that year.

Excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland, the population density was about 127 persons per square kilometer (329 per square mile) in 2006. The population of Copenhagen, the capital and principal city, was 1.39 million in 2001, including suburbs.

7 Migration

Emigration is limited, owing mainly to the relatively high standard of living in Denmark. Most Danes who emigrate go to the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, or other Scandinavian and European countries. There are 500 refugees accepted every year by Denmark for resettlement. Under the Integration Act, a law passed in January 1999, these refugees must participate in a three-year integration program. The estimated net immigration rate in 2005 was 2.53 immigrants per 1,000 population.

8 Ethnic Groups

Most of the Danes are of northern European ancestry. The population is comprised of Scandinavian, Inuit (Eskimo), and Faroese peoples. There is also a small German minority in southern Jutland and small communities of Turks, Iranians, and Somalis.

9 Languages

Danish is the universal language. There are many dialects, but they are gradually being replaced by standard Danish. Many German and English words have been incorporated into modern Danish. The Danish language is closely related to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish. All evolved from the ancient Nordic language of the Viking period. Modern Danish has deviated further from its roots than the other Scandinavian languages. Faroese and Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect) are also spoken. Many Danes can speak English and German, and many more are capable of understanding these languages.

10 Religions

Over 86% of the people are members of the official religion, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which is supported by the state and headed by the king or queen. Muslims are the next largest group with about 2% of the population. Other Protestants and Roman Catholics together make up another 3% of the population. About 9% of the population claim no religious affiliation.

Religious freedom is provided by the constitution, although an independent four-member council appointed by the government publishes guidelines and principles for official approval of religious organizations. The guidelines establish clear requirements that religious organizations must fulfill. The guidelines also forbid organizations to “teach or perform actions inconsistent with public morality or order.”

11 Transportation

Transportation is highly developed. As of 2002 Denmark had 71,474 kilometers (44,414 miles) of paved roadways, including 880 kilometers (547 miles) of expressways. The road system is well engineered and adequately maintained. Oresund Bridge, the world’s largest cable-stayed bridge connecting Denmark to Sweden, opened in July 2000.

The railway system had a total of 2,628 kilometers (1,635 miles) as of 2004, of which 595 kilometers (370 miles) was electrified.

In 2005 the Danish merchant fleet was composed of 287 ships of at least 1,000 gross registered tons (GRT). Denmark has many excellent and well-equipped harbors, of which Copenhagen is the most important.

Kastrup Airport near Copenhagen is the center of international air traffic. Approximately 6 million passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights in 2003.

12 History

Although there is evidence of agricultural settlement as early as 4000 bc and of bronze weaponry and jewelry by 1800 bc, little is known about Denmark’s early history. Tribesmen calling themselves Danes arrived from Sweden around ad 500, and Danish sailors later took part in the Viking raids, especially in those against England.

Harald Bluetooth (d. 985), the first Christian king of Denmark, conquered Norway, and his son, Sweyn, conquered England.

Denmark, Norway, and England were united until 1042, when the union with England came to an end, and Norway chose to secede. During the next three centuries, however, Danish control was reestablished over Sweden and Norway. During the reign of Margrethe (1387–1412) there was a union of the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish crowns. In 1523 the Scandinavian union was dissolved, although Norway remained united with Denmark until 1814.

The Protestant Reformation was established in Denmark during the reign of Christian III (1534–59). A series of wars with Sweden during the 17th and early 18th centuries resulted in the loss of Danish territory. Denmark was deprived of Norway by the terms of the Peace of Kiel (1814) and lost its southern provinces of Slesvig, Holstein, and Lauenburg as a result of the Prusso-Danish wars of 1848–49 and 1864.

After this the Danes concentrated on internal affairs, instituting important economic changes. In particular, the increased specialization in dairy production transformed the country from a nation of poor peasants into one of prosperous farmers. Denmark remained neutral in World War I (1914–18), and after a vote in 1920, North Slesvig was reincorporated into Denmark.

Ignoring the German-Danish nonaggression pact of 1939, Adolf Hitler invaded Denmark in April 1940. The German occupation lasted through World War II (1939–45) until 1945. At first the Danish government continued to function, protecting the nation’s Jewish minority and other refugees as long as it could. Some 7,200 Jews eventually escaped to neutral Sweden.

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Name: Anders Fogh Rasmussen

Position: Prime minister of a constitutional monarchy

Took Office: November 2001, reelected February 2005

Birthplace: Ginnerup, Nørre Djurs, Denmark

Birthdate: 26 January 1953

Education: University of Århus, degree in economics, 1978

Spouse: Anne-Mette Fogh Rasmussen

Children: Three children

Of interest: Active in politics at a young age, he helped found the Young Liberals faction of the center-right Liberal Party while in high school.

However, when a resistance movement developed, destroying factories, railroads, and other targets, the Danish government resigned in August 1943 rather than carry out the German demand for the death sentence against the resistance fighters. Thereafter, Denmark was governed by Germany directly, and conflict with the resistance grew.

After World War II, Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations (UN) and of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In 1952 it joined with the other Scandinavian nations to form the Nordic Council. Having joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1960, Denmark left that association for the European Community (EC) in 1973.

Meanwhile, during the 1950s and 1960s, agricultural and manufacturing production rose impressively, a high level of employment was maintained, and foreign trade grew.

However, the expense of maintaining Denmark’s highly developed social security system, persistent inflation, rising unemployment, and increases in the price of imported oil posed political as well as economic problems for Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s, as one weak coalition government followed another.

Economic performance continued to be a major issue in the 1990s. Voters narrowly rejected the Maastricht Treaty on European Union (EU) in 1992, but voted to approve it in 1994 after modifications were made in Denmark’s favor.

Denmark rejected European Monetary Union with the EU in 2000, so it is not part of the “euro” zone.

As with other European countries, Denmark in the 21st century sees illegal immigration as a major problem. The issue was a deciding one in the 20 November 2001 elections, with the right-wing anti-immigrant Danish People’s Party (founded in 1995) gaining 12% of the vote and 22 seats in parliament. In June 2002 parliament passed a series of laws restricting the rights of immigrants. In the February 2005 election the Danish People’s Party increased their percentage of the vote to 13.2% and increased their seats in parliament to 24.

13 Government

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Legislative power is vested jointly in the monarch and in a single-chamber parliament Folketing. Executive power belongs to the sovereign—through his or her ministers—and judicial power is exercised by the courts.

The sovereign must belong to the Lutheran Church. The crown is hereditary in the royal house (family) of Lyksborg, which ascended the throne in 1863. On the death of a king, the throne descends to his son or daughter, a son taking precedence. The current sovereign is Queen Margrethe II, who ascended the throne on 14 January 1972.

The single-chamber Folketing is elected every four years (more frequently, if necessary) by direct, secret ballot by Danish citizens, who are 18 years of age and older. There are 179 members of the Folketing, 2 of whom are elected to represent the Faroe Islands and 2 for Greenland.

Denmark is divided into 14 counties and 275 local units. Each is governed by an elected council.

14 Political Parties

The major parties support the United Nations and NATO and favor inter-Scandinavian cooperation. Aims of the leading Social Democratic Party are to break up monopolies, redistribute personal incomes by taxation and other measures, divide large farm properties into smaller units, and raise working-class living standards through full employment.

The Conservative Party advocates an economic policy based on the rights of private property and private enterprise. It calls for a national pension system that would encourage personal initiative and savings.

Following the 1990 general election, a new center-right coalition government was formed with Paul Schlüter remaining as prime minister. The coalition was reformed in 1994 and was composed of the Social Democrats, the Social Liberals, the Center Democrats, and the Christian People’s Party with Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (Social Democrat) as prime minister, a post he retained after the 1998 elections.

Poul Nyrup Rasmussen called for early elections on 20 November 2001. His Social Democrats suffered a major defeat, gaining only 29.1% of the vote and fifty-two seats. Center-right parties gained their largest majority since 1926. The Liberal Party (31.3% of the vote and 56 seats) and the Conservative People’s Party (9.1% and 16 seats) formed a minority government headed by Anders Fogh Rasmussen (no relation to Poul Nyrup Rasmussen) that depended upon the anti-immigrant Danish

Yearly Growth Rate

This economic indicator tells by what percent the economy has increased or decreased when compared with the previous year.

People’s Party (12% and 22 seats) for legislative support. Anders Fogh Rasmussen won reelection in February 2005.

15 Judicial System

As a rule, cases have their first hearing before one of 82 local courts. Certain major cases, however, come under the high courts (Landsrettes) in Copenhagen and Viborg; otherwise these courts function as courts of appeal. The supreme court (Hojesteret), made up of a president and 18 judges, serves solely as a court of appeal for cases coming from the high courts.

16 Armed Forces

All young men must register for military service at the age of 18 and are subject to 9 to 12 months service. Women may volunteer for service, including service on combat vessels. Total active armed forces in 2005 numbered 21,180. The army consisted of 12,500 personnel, the navy 3,800, and the air force 4,200. There were also 129,700 members of the reserves and 59,300 in the volunteer home guard. Military expenditures for 2005 amounted to $3.17 billion.

17 Economy

Traditionally Denmark has been an agricultural country. Since the end of World War II, however, manufacturing has gained rapidly in importance. Now manufacturing contributes more than agriculture to national income. Denmark has always been a prominent shipping nation.

Danish living standards and purchasing power are relatively high, but because Denmark is a small country, most important industries must seek foreign markets in order to expand. Natural resources are limited, and therefore Denmark must export in order to pay for the raw materials, feeds, fertilizers, and fuels that must be imported. As a result, the national economy has been greatly influenced by trends and developments abroad.

Denmark joined the European Community (EC, now European Union or EU) on 1 January 1973.

The Danish government pledged to lower taxes in 2003, but the high cost of maintaining the welfare state makes it difficult to put those cuts into effect. Government debt remains high, even though the public budget was in surplus in 2002. Unemployment in the early 2000s was among the lowest of the EU countries. Service oriented industries such as communications and information technologies, management consulting, and tourism have become increasingly important to the economy. In 2001 gross domestic product (GDP) growth was only a little over 1%, down from 3% in 2000, largely due to the global economic slowdown that began that year.

18 Income

In 2005, Denmark’s gross domestic product (GDP) was $182.1 billion, or about $33,500 per person. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at a little over 3%. The average inflation rate in 2002 was 1.9%.

19 Industry

Manufacturing has greatly expanded since the end of World War II and now accounts for a far greater share of national income than does agriculture. The chemical, metalworking, and pharmaceutical industries have made notable progress. Handicrafts remain important, and Danish stone, clay, glass, wood, and silver products are world famous. The food and drink industry is important, and meatpacking has developed in recent years. In 2004 industry accounted for about 25% of the GDP.

Machinery, by far the most important industrial export, includes cement-making machinery, dairy machinery, diesel engines, electric motors, machine tools, and refrigeration equipment. Other important exports are canned foods, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, furniture, metal and paper products, ships, and textiles.

20 Labor

In 2005, the labor force was estimated at 2.9 million. Of those employed in 2002, 79% were in service, 17% in industry, and 4% in agriculture. Unemployment stood at 5.7% in 2005.

As of 2005, an estimated 80% of all wage-earners, mostly blue-collar workers and government employees, were organized in trade unions. Since 1988 employers have had to insure their staffs against accidents incurred at work. Those disabled by work accidents are entitled to medical attention and compensation.

Although there is not nationally mandated minimum wage, the average net wage for adults was $29 per hour in 2004. This amount was sufficient to provide a decent standard of living for a family. The minimum age for full-time work is 15 years.

21 Agriculture

About half of the land is devoted to agriculture. The majority of farms are small or medium sized. Grain growing and root-crop production are the traditional agricultural pursuits, but considerable progress has been made in recent decades in apple growing and the production of field, forage, flower, and industrial seeds.

Major crops include barley, wheat, rye, sugar from beets, rapeseed (canola), and carrots. In 2004, agricultural exports accounted for 17.2% of the value of all exports.

22 Domesticated Animals

Denmark is generally regarded as the world’s outstanding example of intensive animal husbandry (raising animals). It maintains a uniformly high standard of operations, combining highly skilled labor, scientific experimentation and research, modern installations and machinery, and versatility in farm management and marketing.

The livestock population in 2004 included 1.6 million head of cattle, 13.2 million hogs,

Components of the Economy

This pie chart shows how much of the country’s economy is devoted to agriculture (including forestry, hunting, and fishing), industry, or services.

141,000 sheep, 39,000 horses, and 16.1 million chickens. Mink, fox, polecat, finnraccoon, and chinchilla are raised for their pelts.

Meat, dairy products, and eggs contribute a most important share of Danish exports. The value of exported meat and animal products in 2004 amounted to $4.6 billion, consisting primarily of live pigs and pork, cheese, and canned meat. Production in 2004 included 4.56 million tons of milk, 46,700 tons of butter, and 335,500 tons of cheese. In that year egg production amounted to 81,000 tons. About 50% of all eggs consumed domestically are produced by organic or free-range methods. The government’s goal is for all eggs to ultimately be produced by non-caged methods. Organic milk is also a growing market. Organically produced feed is increasing in importance in the domestic market.

23 Fishing

The country’s long coastline, conveniently situated on rich fishing waters, provides Denmark with excellent fishing grounds. Fishing is an important source of domestic food supply and both fresh and processed fish are important exports. The catch is composed mainly of herring and sprat, cod, mackerel, plaice, salmon, and whiting; but sole and other flatfish, tuna, and other varieties are also caught. Both trout and eel are important. In 2004, total Danish landings were 984,037 tons.

Denmark is one of the world’s leading seafood exporters. In 2003, fish exports were valued at $3.2 billion, up 17% from 2000.

24 Forestry

Denmark’s forests make up more than 10% of the land area. On 3 December 1999, the first hurricane ever recorded in Denmark destroyed large tracts of its forested areas. Estimated loss of trees amounted to 150% of Denmark’s normal annual timber harvest. The total forest area in 2000 was 455,000 hectares (1,124,000 acres). The government would like to increase forest area to nearly 20% of Denmark’s total area during the next 80 years.

Roundwood (timber that is unsawed or not cut in squares, as in poles) harvested in 2003 amounted to 1.8 million cubic meters (64 million cubic feet). Spruce and beech are the most important trees. Denmark is a large importer of softwood lumber, especially from the other Scandinavian countries, and is a large particle-board consumer. Total Danish wood trade in 2003 amounted to $2.3 billion, consisting of imports of $1 billion and exports totaling $688 million. Pine logs account for about 60% of the total value of imported wood, much of it used by the furniture industry. Danish furniture exports in 2004 amounted to more than $2.5 billion.

25 Mining

Clay is mined from some ninety pits and used primarily by the cement, brick-making, and ceramic tile industries. The production of sand, gravel, and crushed stone has become more important in recent years, not only to meet domestic demand, but also as an export to Germany and other Scandinavian countries. Kaolin, a kind of fine, white clay, found on the island of Bornholm, is used mostly for coarse earthenware, furnace linings, and as filler for paper. Production of kaolin in 2004 was about 2,500 tons. There are important limestone, chalk, and marl (a loose deposit found in sand or silt that is largely made up of calcium) deposits in Jutland. Chalk production totaled 1,950,000 tons in 2004. Limonite (bog ore) is extracted for gas purification and pig-iron production. In 2004, 610,000 tons of salt were mined. The country also produces fire clay, extracted moler, lime (hydrated and quicklime),

nitrogen, peat, crude phosphates, dimension stone (mostly granite), and sulfur.

26 Foreign Trade

The Danish economy depends heavily on foreign trade. Raw materials for use in production account for more than half the value of imports. Farm products traditionally comprised the bulk of total Danish exports, but since 1961, industrial exports have exceeded agricultural exports in value. In 2003 industrial products accounted for 81% of Denmark’s total commodity exports by value; agricultural and fishing exports accounted for 10%. In 2004, Denmark’s exports totaled $75.6 billion and imports came to $67.2 billion.

Principal exports are meat, dairy products, ships, fish, furniture, and medicines. Principal imports are machinery, petroleum, chemicals, grains and other food, consumer goods, industrial supplies, and transportation equipment.

In 2004, Denmark’s main trade partners were Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Norway, France, the United States, the Netherlands, Finland, Japan, and Italy.

27 Energy and Power

Denmark has almost no hydropower and no nuclear power plants. In 1996 the government

Yearly Balance of Trade

The balance of trade is the difference between what a country sells to other countries (its exports) and what it buys (its imports). If a country imports more than it exports, it has a negative balance of trade (a trade deficit). If exports exceed imports there is a positive balance of trade (a trade surplus).

set a target of achieving 20% of electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2003. Also in the 1990s, the government launched a major initiative aimed at developing wind power. In 2002, 14.8% of electricity consumption in Denmark came from wind. In 2004, Denmark broke a record for growth in wind sales, at 60%. The 1996 target has been surpassed.

Some domestic lignite and peat are used, and diesel power is employed in some small energy-generating plants, but the main sources of energy are imported coal and fuel oil, with the exception of wind power. In 2000, 34.1 billion kilowatt hours of electricity were generated.

Production of oil in 2004 averaged 394,000 barrels per day. Proven reserves were estimated at .09 trillion barrels.

28 Social Development

Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to establish efficient social services. Social welfare programs include health insurance, health and hospital services, insurance for occupational injuries, unemployment insurance and employment exchange services, old age and disability pensions, rehabilitation and nursing homes, family welfare subsidies, general public welfare, and payments for military accidents. Maternity benefits are payable up to 52 weeks.

All Danish citizens over 67 years of age may draw old-age pensions. Disability pensions are paid to persons with a certain degree of disability. Family allowances are paid to families with incomes below a certain level.

Women make up roughly half of the workforce. Laws guarantee equal pay for equal work, and women have and use legal recourse if they encounter discrimination. There are crisis centers that counsel and shelter victims of domestic violence.

29 Health

Danish citizens have free medical care. For some medical care, the government only pays two-thirds of the cost. All patients receive subsidies for medicines. Everyone must pay a share of dental bills. There are over 290 physicians per 100,000 people.

Mothers of newborn children receive free advice and support from public health nurses. School-age children receive free medical checkups at school. In 2006 life expectancy at birth was about 77.6 years.

As of 2004, Denmark’s cancer rates were the highest in the European Union (EU). The number

Selected Social Indicators

The statistics below are the most recent estimates available as of 2006. For comparison purposes, data for the United States and averages for low-income countries and high-income countries are also given. About 15% of the world’s 6.5 billion people live in high-income countries, while 37% live in low-income countries.

IndicatorDenmark Low-income countriesHigh-income countriesUnited States
sources: World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006; Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006; World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Per capita gross national income (GNI)*$31,770 $2,258$31,009$39,820
Population growth rate0.4% 2%0.8%1.2%
People per square kilometer of land127 803032
Life expectancy in years: male75 587675
female80 608280
Number of physicians per 1,000 people2.9 0.43.72.3
Number of pupils per teacher (primary school)n.a. 431615
Literacy rate (15 years and older)99% 65%>95%99%
Television sets per 1,000 people859 84735938
Internet users per 1,000 people604 28538630
Energy consumed per capita (kg of oil equivalent)3,853 5015,4107,843
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)9.7 0.8512.9719.92
* The GNI is the total of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a year. The per capita GNI is calculated by dividing a country’s
GNI by its population and adjusting for relative purchasing power.
n.a.: data not available >: greater than <: less than

of people living with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was around 5,000 in 2004. That year fewer than 100 deaths a year were the result of AIDS.

Extensive government support helped to reduce the housing shortage that occurred during World War II and in the years right after the war. The total number of dwellings in 2005 was 2.63 million, of which 94% were occupied.

31 Education

Nearly the entire Danish adult population is literate. Education is free for primary and secondary schools. Most university and other institutes of higher education are free as well. Preschools are operated by private persons or organizations with some government financial aid.

Education is compulsory for children ages seven to sixteen. The Danish primary school system, known as the “Folkes Kole,” extends for nine years. Many children add an optional tenth year. English is included in the curriculum beginning in the fifth grade. After basic schooling, two-thirds of the pupils apply for practical training in a trade or commerce at special schools. The remaining one-third go to secondary schools. After three years there, student examinations determine who is eligible for higher education at universities.

Girls and women comprise almost 50% of those receiving education at all levels. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level is estimated at 10 to 1. Fully 99% of primary-school age children enroll in school, while 90% of those eligible attend secondary school.

Denmark has four universities. Many university departments have specialized institutes devoted primarily to research. All institutions of higher education have a combined enrollment of over 175,000 students.

32 Media

In 2003, there were approximately 669 lines per 1,000 inhabitants. Mobile cellular phones number over 1.4 million. Telegraph services are owned and operated by the government.

The radio broadcasting services are operated by the Danish State Radio System, on long, medium, and short waves. Television broadcasting hours are mainly devoted to current and cultural affairs and to programs for children and young people. There is no commercial advertising on radio or television; owners of sets pay an annual license fee. There are 2 AM and 355 FM radio stations and 26 television stations. In 2006 Denmark had 1,349 radios and 859 television sets per 1,000 population. About 264 of every 1,000 people subscribe to cable television. Also in 2006 there were 577 personal computers per 1,000 people and about 604 out of every 1,000 had access to the Internet.

The largest newspapers, and their 2002 circulations, were: Aarhus Stiftstidende, 176,400; Berlingske Tidende, 160,100; Ekstra Bladet, 159,500; Politiken, 153,500; B.T., 144,900; and Vendsyssel Tidende, 114,000.

Complete freedom of expression, including that in print and electronic media, is guaranteed under the constitution. The media in Denmark are largely independently operated and are free from government interference.

33 Tourism and Recreation

Dozens of castles, palaces, mansions, and manor houses, including the castle at Elsinore (Helsingør), site of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, are open to the public. Tivoli Gardens, the world-famous amusement park, built in 1843 in the center of Copenhagen, is open from May through mid-September. Copenhagen is an important jazz center and holds a jazz festival in July. The renowned Royal Danish Ballet performs in Copenhagen’s Royal Theater, which also presents opera and drama. Greenland, the world’s largest island, is part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Tourists come for its natural attractions, such as the mountains and midnight sun, as well as the man-made spectacle of dog sledges.

Denmark hosted about 1,294,477 visitors in 2003. That year there were 41,729 hotel rooms with 106,080 beds and a 35% occupancy rate.

34 Famous Danes

Denmark’s greatest classical writer and the founder of Danish literature is Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754). The two most celebrated nineteenth-century Danish writers are Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), whose fairy tales are read and loved all over the world, and the influential philosopher and religious thinker Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855). Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783–1872), noted theologian and poet, was renowned for his founding of the folk high schools, which brought practical education to the countryside.

Leading novelists include Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873–1950), who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1944 for his series of novels. Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen, 1887–1962) achieved renown for her volumes of Gothic tales and stories of life in Africa. Famous Danish musicians include the composers Niels Gade (1817–1890) and Carl Nielsen (1865–1931).

Notable dancers and choreographers include August Bournonville (1805–1879), originator of the Danish ballet style, and Fleming Ole Flindt (b.1936), who has directed the Royal Danish Ballet since 1965.

Notable scientists include the astronomers Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) and Ole Rømer (1644–1710); the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777–1851) discoverer of electromagnetism. Nobel Prize winners for physics include Niels Bohr (1885–1962), his son Aage Niels Bohr (b.1922), and Benjamin Mottelson (b.1926).

Frederik Bajer (1837–1922) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1908. Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen (1879–1933) was an explorer and anthropologist born in Greenland.

35 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bendure, Glenda. Denmark. Hawthorn, Australia: Lonely Planet, 1996.

Hansen, Ole Steen. Denmark. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1998.

James, Alan. Denmark. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2000.

Levine, Ellen. Darkness over Denmark: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. New York: Holiday House, 2000.

Stein, R. Conrad. Denmark. New York: Children’s Press, 2003.

Trapp, Clayton. Denmark. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 2002.

WEB SITES

Country Pages. www.state.gov/p/eur/ci/da/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Government Home Page. denmark.dk. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

World Heritage List. whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/dk. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

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Denmark

Denmark

Compiled from the August 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark

PROFILE

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

GOVERNMENT

POLITICAL CONDITIONS

ECONOMY

NATIONAL SECURITY

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.-DANISH RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands

Area: 43,094 sq. km. (16,639 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than Vermont and New Hampshire combined.

Cities: Capital—Copenhagen (pop. 0.5 million in Copenhagen and 1.1 million in the Copenhagen Region). Other cities—Arhus (293,510), Odense (185,206), Aalborg (163,231).

Terrain: Low and flat or slightly rolling; highest elevation is 173 m. (568 ft.).

Climate: Temperate. The terrain, location, and prevailing westerly winds make the weather changeable.

People

Nationality: Noun—Dane(s). Adjective—Danish.

Population: (July 2006) 5,434,567.

Annual growth rate: 0.33%.

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali.

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%; other Protestant denominations and Roman Catholics 3%; Muslim 2%.

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), some German. English is the predominant second language.

Education: Years compulsory—9. Attendance—100%. Literacy—100%.

Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)—4.51/1,000. Life expectancy—men 75 years, women 80 years.

Work force: (2006) 2.8 million.

Employment: Industry, construction, mining and utilities—23%; government—35%; private services—38%; agriculture and fisheries—4%.

Government

Type: Constitutional monarchy.

Constitution: June 5, 1953.

Government branches: Executive—queen (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative—unicameral parliament (Folketing). Judicial—appointed Supreme Court.

Political parties: (represented in parliament) Venstre (Liberal), Social Democratic, Konservative, Socialist People’s, Social Liberal, Unity List, Danish People’s.

Suffrage: Universal adult (18 years of age).

Political subdivisions: 13 counties and 271 municipalities.

Economy

GDP: (2005) $258.7 billion.

Annual growth rate: (real terms, 2005 est.) 1.4%.

Per capita income: $37,883.

Agriculture and fisheries: (2.4% of GDP at gross value added) Products—meat, milk, grains, seeds, hides, fur skin, fish and shellfish.

Industry: (21.0% of GDP at gross value added) Types—industrial and construction equipment, food processing, electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, textiles, windmills, and ships.

Natural resources: North Sea—oil and gas, fish. Greenland—fish and shrimp, potential for hydrocarbons and minerals, including zinc, lead, molybdenum, uranium, gold, platinum. The Faroe Islands—fish, potential for hydrocarbons.

Trade: (2005 est.) Exports—$84.95 billion: manufactured goods 81% (of which machinery and instruments 35%); agricultural products 10% (of which pork and pork products cover 48%), fuels 2%, fish and fish products 3%, other 4%. Imports—$74.69 billion: raw materials and semi-manufactures 43%, consumer goods 29%, capital equipment 14%, transport equipment 7%, fuels 5%, other 2%. Partners (percent of total trade in goods)—Germany 21%, Sweden 13%, U.K. 8%, U.S. 5%, Norway 5%, Japan 2%, east European countries 5%.

Exchange rate: (2004 avg.) 5.9911 kroner=U.S. $1; (2005 avg.) 5.9969 kroner=U.S. $1.

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark since prehistoric times. Danish is the principal language. English is a required school subject, and fluency is high. A small German-speaking minority lives in southern Jutland; a mostly Inuit population inhabits Greenland; and the Faroe Islands have a Nordic population with its own language. Education is compulsory from ages seven to 16 and is free through the university level.

Although religious freedom is guaranteed, the state-supported Evangelical Lutheran Church accounts for about 95% of those persons claiming religious affiliation. Several other Christian denominations, as well as other major religions, find adherents in Denmark. Islam is now the second-largest religion in Denmark.

During the Viking period (9th-11th centuries), Denmark was a great power based on the Jutland Peninsula, the Island of Zealand, and the southern part of what is now Sweden. In the early 11th century, King Canute united Denmark and England for almost 30 years.

Viking raids brought Denmark into contact with Christianity, and in the 12th century, crown and church influence increased. By the late 13th century, royal power had waned, and the nobility forced the king to grant a charter, considered Denmark’s first constitution. Although the struggle between crown and nobility continued into the 14th century, Queen Margrethe I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland under the Danish crown. Sweden and Finland left the union in 1520; however, Norway remained until 1814. Iceland, in a “personal union” under the king of Denmark after 1918, became independent in 1944. The Reformation was introduced in Denmark in 1536. Denmark’s provinces in today’s southwestern Sweden were lost in 1658, and Norway was transferred from the Danish to the Swedish crown in 1814, following the defeat of Napoleon, with whom Denmark was allied.

The Danish liberal movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and in 1849 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy. After the war with Prussia and Austria in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and adopt a policy of neutrality. Toward the end of the 19th century, Denmark inaugurated important social and labor market reforms, laying the basis for the present welfare state.

Denmark remained neutral during World War I. Despite its declaration of neutrality at the beginning of World War II, it was invaded by the Germans in 1940 and occupied until liberated by the Allied forces in May 1945. Resistance against the Germans was sporadic until late 1943. By then better organized, the resistance movement and other volunteers undertook a successful rescue mission in which nearly the entire Jewish population of Denmark was shipped to Sweden (whose neutrality was honored by Germany). However, extensive studies are still undertaken for the purpose of establishing a clearer picture of the degree of Danish cooperation—official and corporate—with the occupying power. Denmark became a charter member of the United Nations and was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty.

Cultural Achievements

Denmark’s rich intellectual heritage has made multifaceted contributions to modern culture the world over. The discoveries of astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), geologist and anatomist Niels Steensen (1639-86), and the brilliant contributions of Nobel laureates Niels Bohr (1885-1962) to atomic physics and Niels Finsen (1860-1904) to medical research indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75), the philosophical essays of Soeren Kierkegaard (1813-55), and the short stories of Karen Blixen (pseudonym Isak Dinesen; 1885-1962) have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of