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Northern War, Great
Northern War, Great (1700–21) Conflict in n Europe between Sweden and its neighbours. It began with an attack on Sweden by Denmark, Saxony, Poland, and Russia. Charles XII of Sweden defeated all his opponents (1700–06), but war renewed in 1707 when Charles invaded Russia. The Swedes were decisively defeated at Poltava (1709). Charles took refuge with the Ottoman Turks, encouraging their attack on Russia in 1710–11. At the ensuing peace treaties (1719–21), Sweden lost virtually all its n empire.