Skip to main content

Northern Tier

NORTHERN TIER

the region comprising the countries of iran and turkey in the middle east and afghanistan and pakistan in central asia; its location on the border of the soviet union made it an area of high interest for u.s. defense planners and their allies during the cold war.

In the early 1950s the Northern Tier assumed strategic significance in Anglo-American plans for defense of the Middle East against an attack that the Western powers assumed the Soviets would launch in a drive toward the Suez Canal. The Western allies intended to arm Turkey and also to prepare Iraq and Syria, neither of which was contiguous with the Soviet Union, to resist invasion. The United States and Britain planned to defer Iran's participation but attempted to convince Egypt to join Western planning for the Middle East Command (1951) and the Middle East Defense Organization (1952).

Egypt's refusal to participate in such regional defense plans brought the schemes to an end; nevertheless, the Western powers still believed that a "Middle East NATO" was possible. In April 1954 the United States signed an arms deal with Iraq and hoped that the bilateral treaty that Turkey and Pakistan signed that month could be expanded to include several Arab states. In 1955 Britain arranged and then joined with Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey in the Baghdad Pact, which had the support of the United States.

see also baghdad pact (1955); central treaty organization (cento); middle east defense organization (medo).


Bibliography


Hahn, Peter L. The United States, Great Britain, and Egypt, 19451956: Strategy and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Kuniholm, Bruce Robellet. The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East: Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Louis, William Roger. The British Empire in the Middle East: 19451951: Arab Nationalism, the United States, and Postwar Imperialism. New York; Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1984.

zach levey

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Northern Tier." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Northern Tier." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/northern-tier

"Northern Tier." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/northern-tier

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.