Skip to main content
Select Source:

Montenegro

MONTENEGRO

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS MONTENEGRINS
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Republic of Montenegro

CAPITAL: Podgorica

FLAG: The flag, adopted in 2004, is a red banner with a gold border bearing the gold coat of arms of Montenegro.

ANTHEM: Oj svijetla majska zoro (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

MONETARY UNIT: The euro is the official currency. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of 26 May 2006, 1=$1.27213 (or $1=0.785927).

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in force.

HOLIDAYS: For the union of Serbia and Montenegro: New Year's Day, 1 and 2 January; Orthodox Christmas, 7 January; Orthodox New Year, 13 January; Unification of Serbia, 28 March; Yugoslavia Day, 27 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Victory Day, 9 May; St. Vitus Day, 28 June; Serbian Uprising, 7 July.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Montenegro is situated in southeastern Europe along the Adriatic Sea. The total area is 13,812 sq km (5,333 sq mi). Montenegro is bordered on the nw by Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the e by Serbia (the se border is with the UN-administered province of Kosovo, which is claimed by Serbia), on the s by Albania, and on the sw by the Adriatic Sea and a narrow strip of Croatia; total land boundary length is 614 km (302 mi) and the coastline is 294 km (183 mi). Montenegro's capital is Podgorica, located in the low-land plain region of the south.

TOPOGRAPHY

The shoreline of southwestern Montenegro is highly elevated, with no offshore islands. The limestone mountains of Rumija, Sutorman, Orjen, and Lovcen separate the narrow strip of land that is the coastline from the inland regions. Of the 294 km (183 mi) of coastline, 52 km (32 mi) are beaches. The largest bay is the Bay of Kotor, which is the world's southernmost fjord. In the limestone area bordering the coastline, plants and animals are scarce, and patches of fertile land can be found in karst depressions and crater-like hollows. Lake Scutari (Skadarsko Jezero) is the largest lake in the country, covering an are of about 400 sq km (150 sq mi). The Zeta plain and Zeta River valley region on which Lake Scutari (Skadarsko) is found is a lowland region. Northern Montenegro is composed of limestone mountains. The highest peak in Montenegro is Mt. Durmitor (Bobotov kuk), at 2,522 m (8,274 ft). Other high peaks are Bjelasica, Komovi, and Visitor. These mountain ranges are rich in pasturelands, forests, and mountain lakes. The Piva, Tara, Moraca, and Cehotina rivers and their tributaries have carved deep canyons: the Tara Canyon, at a depth of 1,300 m (4,265 ft), is the deepest canyon in Europe.

Located on the Eurasian Tectonic Plate, there are several fault lines running through the country which are seismically active. Earth tremors are fairly common and destructive earthquakes have occurred.

CLIMATE

The Adriatic climate along the south brings hot and dry summers and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland. Podgorica is the warmest city, with an average July temperature of 26°c (80°f) and an average January temperature of 5°c (41°f). In the mountainous regions, the climate is sub-alpine. Snow on Mt. Durmitor can reach up to 5 m (16 ft). Annual precipitation ranges from 56 to 190 cm (22 to 75 in).

FLORA AND FAUNA

About 80% of the territory is comprised of forests, natural pasturelands, and meadows. There are 2,833 plant species and subspecies, which comprise nearly one quarter of European flora. The animals found in Montenegro include types of hare, pheasant, deer, stag, wild boar, fox, chamois, mouflon, crane, duck, and goose.

ENVIRONMENT

Coastal waters are polluted from sewage outlets, especially in resort areas such as Kotor. Destructive earthquakes are a natural hazard.

According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species in the combined union of Serbia and Montenegro included 10 types of mammals, 10 species of birds, 1 type of reptile, 1 species of amphibian, 20 species of fish, 19 species of invertebrates, and 1 species of plants. Threatened species include Atlantic sturgeon, slender-billed curlew, black vultures, asps, bald ibis, several species of shark, the red wood ant, and beluga. At least one type of mollusk has become extinct.

National parks in Montenegro include Durmitor, Lovcen, Biogradska gora, and Lake Skadar. Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor are UNESCO World Heritage sites.

POPULATION

The population of Montenegro in 2006 was estimated at 678,000. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for the combined union of Serbia and Montenegro for 20052010 was expected to be 0.2%, due to a low fertility rate and high emigration rate. The population density for Serbia and Montenegro was 105 per sq km (272 per sq mi). The UN estimated that 52% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.47%. The estimated population of Podgorica in 2003 was 136,500 for the city proper and around 170,000 for the municipality.

MIGRATION

The following information on migration pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to the 2006 independence of Montenegro. During the 1960s and 1970s, many Serbs fled from the Yugoslav Socialist Federal Republic, seeking political and economic freedom. The breakup of the Yugoslav SFR in the early 1990s and the ethnic hostilities that came in its aftermath resulted in enormous migrations to and from its various former republics. During the first half of 1999, the situation of refugees and internally displaced people deteriorated even further. As of 30 June 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported 508,000 refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia; 770,000 returnees to Kosovo, as well as 500,000 affected remained; 220,000 Serb, Montenegrin, and Roma internally displaced persons from Kosovo in the rest of former Yugoslavia. The total number of migrants in 2000 was 626,000. By the end of 2004, these numbers were still rising; UNHCR reported a total of 627,476 persons of concern. There were 276,683 refugees, 180,117 Croatians, and over 95,000 from Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, in that same year there were 248,154 internally displaced persons, 85,000 local residents at risk, and 8,143 returned refugees (primarily to Croatia), and another 9,456 refugees returning to their place of origin during the year. In 2004, over 204,000 Serbs and Montenegrins were refugees in Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, France, and Australia. Also, in that same year over 29,000 Serbs and Montenegrins sought asylum in 18 countries primarily in Europe, and in the United Kingdom and the United States.

In 2005 the net migration rate was an estimated -1.3 migrants per 1,000 population, down from 3.9 migrants per 1,000 in 1990. The government views the migration levels as too high. Worker remittances in 2003 amounted to $2.7 billion.

ETHNIC GROUPS

According to a 2003 census, 43.16% of the population of Montenegro are Montenegrins, 32% Serbs, 7.77% Bosniaks, 5.03% ethnic Albanians, 4% other Muslim Slavs, 1.1% Croatians, 0.42% Roma, and 6.56% other population.

LANGUAGES

Serbian is the principal language of the population; Albanian accounts for a small minority. There is some disagreement regarding the Montenegrin dialect of Serbian: some Montenegrins claim it as a separate language.

RELIGIONS

The ancestors of the Serbs converted to Christianity in the 9th century and sided with Eastern Orthodoxy after the Great Schism of 1054 that split Christendom between the Eastern and Roman Churches. Islam came to the area from the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century.

About 74% of the total population are Serbian Orthodox; the Montenegrin Orthodox Church also exists but is canonically unrecognized. Muslims account for 17.74% of the population, with smaller numbers of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Protestant denominations include Baptists, Adventists, Reformed Christians, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Christ, Mormons, and Pentecostals. There is a small Jewish community in the country.

TRANSPORTATION

The Belgrade-Bar rail line links Serbia to Montenegro and terminates at the Adriatic Sea. Other major rail lines in Montenegro are Podgorica-Niksic and Podgorica-Skandar (Albania). Rail service is provided by locomotives manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s. The total length of standard-gauge tracks is 250 km (155.35 mi), most of which are electrified.

Two main roads in Montenegro are the Adriatic highway from Igalo to Ulcinj, and the system Petrovac to Podgorica-KolasinBijelo Polje near the Serbian border connecting northern and southern Montenegro. There are 5,227 km (3,248 mi) of roads in Montenegro, of which 1,729 km (1,074.4 mi) are highways and regional roads, while the rest are local.

Important ports are Bar, Kotor, and Zelenika. Montenegro has a fleet of more than 40 ships, with a total carrying capacity of 1,000,000 metric tons. The port of Bar is equipped to handle around 5 million metric tons of cargo per year.

There were five airports in Montenegro in 2004, the major two being Podgorica and Tivat. Montenegro Airlines provides domestic and international service..

HISTORY

Montenegro's early history is as part of the medieval development of Serbia, known as Duklja or Zeta, north of Lake Scutari (Skadarsko). The Serbs, one of the large family of Slavic nations, first began settling in the Balkans around the 7th century in the areas now known as Bosnia, Kosovo, and Montenegro, straddling the line that since ad 395 had divided the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire.

Tracing the origins of the Serbs (and Croats) has fueled many debates among historians, but there seems to be a consensus on their Sarmatian (Iranian) origin. Having assimilated into the Slavic tribes, the Serbs migrated with them west into central Europe (White Serbia) in the Saxony area and from there moved to the Balkans around ad 626 upon an invitation by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to assist him in repelling the Avar and Persian attack on Constantinople. Having settled in the Balkan area the Serbs organized several principalities of their own, made up of a number of clans headed by leaders known as zupans. Both the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgars tried to conquer them, but the Serbs were too decentralized to be conquered.

Between the 9th and 12th centuries, several Serbian principalities evolved, among them Raška in the mountainous north of Montenegro and southern Serbia, and Zeta (south Montenegro along the Adriatic coast), whose ruler Mihajlo (Michael) was anointed king by Pope Gregory VII in 1077.

In the late 10th century the Bulgarian khan (leader) Samuilo extended his control over Bosnia, Raška, and Zeta, north to the Sava River, and south over Macedonia. Raška became the area from where the medieval Serbian empire developed. Stephen Nemanja, grand zupan of Raška, fought against the Byzantines in ad 1169, and added Zeta to his domain in 1186. He built several Serbian monasteries, including Hilandar on Mount Athos. His son, Rastko, became a monk (Sava) and the first Serbian archbishop of the new Serbian Autocephalous Church in 1219. The second son, Stephen, received his crown from Pope Innocent IV in 1202. Stephen developed political alliances that, following his death in 1227, allowed Serbia to resist the pressure from Bulgaria and, internally, keep control over subordinate zupans. Archbishop Sava (later Saint Sava) preferred the Byzantine Church and utilized the Orthodox religion in his nation-building effort. He began by establishing numerous Serbian-Orthodox monasteries around Serbia. He also succeeded in turning Zeta from Catholicism to Serbian Orthodoxy.

The medieval Serbian empire, under Stephen Dušan the Mighty (133155) extended from the Aegean Sea to the Danube (Belgrade), along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts from the Neretva River to the Gulf of Corinth and controlled, aside from the central Serbian lands, Macedonia, Thessaly, the Epirus, and Albania. The Serbian Church obtained its own patriarchate, with its center in Peć. Serbia became an exporting land with abundant crops and minerals. Dušan, who was crowned tsar of "the Serbs and Greeks" in 1346, gave Serbia its first code of laws based on a combination of Serbian customs and Byzantine law. His attempt to conquer the throne of Byzantium failed, however, when the Byzantines called on the advancing Ottoman Turks for help in 1345. Even though Dušan withstood the attacks from the Turks twice (in 1345 and 1349), the gates to Europe had been opened, and the Ottoman Turks had initiated their campaign to subjugate the Balkans.

Dušan's heirs could not hold his empire together against the Turks and the Nemanja dynasty ended with the death of his son Stephen Uroš in 1371, the same year his brothers Vukašin and Ivan Ugleš were killed at the battle of Marica. The defeat of the Serbs at Kosovo Polje in 1389 in an epochal battle that took the lives of both Sultan Murad I and Serbian prince Lazar left Serbia open to further Turkish conquest. Following a series of wars, the Turks succeeded in overtaking Constantinople in 1453 and all of Serbia by 1459. For the next three-and-a-half centuries, Serbs and others had to learn how to survive under Ottoman rule.

The Turks did not make any distinctions based on ethnicity, but only on religion. Turkish Muslims were the dominant class while Christians and Jews were subordinated. While maintaining their religious and cultural autonomy, the non-Turks developed most of the nonmilitary administrative professions and carried on most of the economic activities, including internal trade and trade with other countries of the Christian world. There was no regular conscription of non-Turks into the sultan's armies, but non-Turks were taxed to pay for defense. Christian boys between the age of eight and twenty were forcibly taken from their families to be converted to Islam and trained as "Janissaries" or government administrators. Some these former Christians became administrators and even became grand viziers (advisers) to sultans.

Urban dwellers under Ottoman rule, involved in crafts, trade, and the professions, fared much better than the Christian peasantry, who were forced into serfdom. Heavy regular taxes were levied on the peasants, with corruption making the load so unbearable that the peasants rebelled.

Two distinct cultures lived side by sideTurkish Muslim in cities and towns as administrative centers and Christian Orthodox in the countryside. The numerous Serbian monasteries built around the country since the Nemanja dynasty became the supportive network for Serbian survival. The Serbian Church was subjected after 1459 to the Greek patriarchate for about a century until a Serbian patriarchate emerged again. The Serbian patriarchate covered a large area from north of Ohrid to the Hungarian lands north of the Danube and west through Bosnia.

Montenegro was subjected to continuous fighting for 400 years, from the mid-1400s to the mid-1800s. Living in a very harsh mountain territory, the Montenegrins were natural and fierce fighters, and not even the large Turkish armies could conquer them. Until 1851, Montenegro was ruled by bishops. The bishops' role strengthened the Montenegrins' loyalty to the Orthodox Church and prevented their conversion to Islam, except in the lowlands and coastal areas occupied by the Turks. In 1696, Danilo Petrović Njegoš (16961737) was elected Vladika (bishop), and his dynastic family ruled Montenegro until its unification with Serbia into the first Yugoslavia.

The Montenegro area was an almost impregnable mountain fortress with some limited access from the Adriatic coast where the Turks had taken hold. In 1714 the Turks were able to occupy the capital of Cetinje, but they could not sustain their hold because of difficulties in getting supplies and constant guerrilla attacks by the Montenegrins.

Meanwhile, Peter the Great of Russia had recognized Montenegro's independence in 1715, viewing it as an allied Orthodox country valuable in his struggle against the Ottoman Empire. Having gained a greatly supportive ally in Russia, Danilo was successful in opposing the Turks with occasional support from Venice until his death in 1737. His successors had to struggle with the blood feuds among key Montenegrin families. Peter I (17821830) was able to bring together the feuding factions, reorganize his administration, issue the first Montenegrin Code of Laws in 1798, and defeat the Turks in 1799. Peter also obtained from the Turks a formal recognition of Montenegro's independence. During the Napoleonic wars, Montenegro, Russia's ally, fought the French over Dubrovnik and, in 1806, occupied the Gulf of Kotor, thus gaining access to the Adriatic sea. But Montenegro had to relinquish Kotor to Austria following the Congress of Vienna decisions in 181415.

Peter I died in 1830, having repelled again Turkish attacks in 181921 and 182829. Peter II, considered by many to be the greatest Serbian poet, established a senate of 12 members and centralized his authority by abolishing the office of civil governor, which had existed since 1516. However, his successor, Danilo II (185160), effected a radical change by proclaiming himself hereditary prince in 1852. Danilo II introduced a new legal code in 1855 that guaranteed civil and religious freedoms based on the constitution of 1852. Danilo died in 1860 of a wound inflicted by an exiled Montenegrin rebel.

Danilo's nephew Nicholas took over as the last independent ruler of Montenegro from 1860 until the 1918 unification with Serbia and the first Yugoslavia. During his 58-year reign Nicholas gained the nickname of "Father-in-Law of Europe" by marrying six daughters into Italian, Russian, Serbian, and German royal families. Through a series of wars with Turkey (1862, 1876, 1912, and 1913), Nicholas succeeded in more than doubling Montenegro's territory. Following the 1913 Balkan War, Montenegro and Serbia divided the Sandžak area and became neighbor states, both primarily populated by Serbs. Montenegro also gained access to the Adriatic Sea south of Lake Scutari (Skadar), which was divided in 1913 between Montenegro and the newly formed Albanian state.

Between 1880 and 1912, Montenegro took advantage of an era of relative peace to develop roads, education, agriculture, postal services, and banks, mostly with foreign investment especially from Italy, whose queen was Nicholas's daughter Elena.

The first Montenegrin parliament met in 1905, with 62 elected and 14 ex officio members. Following the successful Balkan wars, Serbian-Montenegrin relations grew closer, and by 1914, the two Serbian kingdoms proposed a union in which they would share their armed forces, foreign policy, and customs while maintaining their separate royal dynasties. World War I (191318) interrupted this process. Montenegro's poor defense led to Austrian occupation for the better part of the war; thus Montenegro ceased to officially participate in the war.

A Montenegrin Committee for National Union was formed by exiles in Paris who supported the 20 July 1917 Corfu Declaration on the establishment of a Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The Montenegrin Committee felt the time had come to unite with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. King Nicholas opposed such a move and was deposed. On 24 November 1918, a resolution was passed in favor of Montenegro's union with the Kingdom of Serbia. Thus, Montenegro became part of the first Yugoslavia on 1 December 1918. Montenegrins participated very actively in political life, mostly supporting the centralist Serbian positions.

During World War II (193945), Italy controlled Montenegro and attempted unsuccessfully to revive the old kingdom. In the post-World War II Socialist Federative Yugoslavia, Tito reestablished Montenegro as a separate republic due to strong Montenegrin representation in the circle of his closest collaborators. Most Montenegrins took the side of the Serbian centralists against the liberal elements in the League of Communists and, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, supported Slobodan Milošević. With the demise of Yugoslavia, Montenegro joined Serbia in forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

On 14 March 2002, under mediation by the European Union (EU), Serbia and Montenegro agreed to form a new federal union, called Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro's prime minister, Milo Djukanovic, was reluctant to sign the agreement, being the leader of the drive for independence of Montenegro's population of 660,000. However, the union of Serbia and Montenegro came into existence in 2003. The constitution provided for either of the two constituent republics to vote for independence in three years (2006). In February 2005, officials from Montenegro asked their Serbian counterparts for an early secession of the two republics claiming the union was inefficient and squandered money. Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica refused the proposal and indicated that European integration and economic development should be the main focus of Serbia and Montenegro.

A referendum on full independence for Montenegro was held on 21 May 2006. To be accepted internationally, a 55% majority was required for a "yes" vote to the question: "Do you want the Republic of Montenegro to be an independent state with full international and legal subjectivity?" The Montenegrin diaspora had the right to vote, with the exception of Montenegrins living in Serbia, who were barred from voting in the referendum. The vote on independence was 55.5% in favor. Voter turnout was 86.3%. A demand by pro-Serbian unionist parties for a recount was rejected. Serb politicians, Orthodox church leaders, and Montenegrins from the mountainous inland regions bordering Serbia opposed secession. However, ethnic Montenegrins and Albanians from the coastal area favored independence. Serbian President Boris Tadic recognized the independence of Montenegro. Serbia became the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, inheriting its seat in the United Nations (UN) and seats in other international institutions: Montenegro will have to apply for UN and EU membership on its own once it has been granted recognition by other states. Serbia's ambition to join the EU has been hampered by its failure to arrest key war crimes suspects, including Ratko Mladic. Serbia inherits legal claim to the UN-administered province of Kosovo.

Montenegro's independence cuts Serbia off from the sea; therefore, the two nations will need to cooperate on sharing the former union's assets. Montenegrins may be given favorable treatment to use Serbia's hospitals, universities, and other public services. The substantial pro-union minority in Montenegro will also strengthen Serbia's hand in creating a smooth transition to independence. The pro-union bloc in the referendum was led by the Socialist People's Party (SNP), headed by Predrag Bulatovic. National elections were due to be held in autumn 2006.

GOVERNMENT

Prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006, a constitutional charter for the state of Serbia and Montenegro was ratified by both parliaments in January 2003, and the constitution for the unified state was approved on 4 February 2003. The constitution allowed the member republics to hold independence referendums in 2006, which Montenegro did. Following the yes vote on independence in mid-2006, Montenegro was engaged in forming a new government.

As a constituent state of the union of Serbia and Montenegro, Montenegro had a republican form of government. Representatives in Montenegro's Assembly (parliament) hold office for four years. The Assembly enacted laws, passed the budget, appointed the president and members of the cabinet, the president and justices of the Constitutional Court, and the judges of all courts of law. The Assembly may pass a vote of no-confidence on the government by a vote of its members.

The president of Montenegro proposes candidates to the Assembly for prime minister, as well as for the president and justices of the Constitutional Court; grants pardons; proposes the holding of referenda; and represents the country at home and abroad.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Elections for Montenegro's parliament were held on 21 October 2002. Eleven parties were represented: the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), 30 seats; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), 5; Civic Party of Montenegro, 1; non-partisans, 2; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro, 19; Serbian People's Party of Montenegro, 6; People's Party of Montenegro, 5; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, 4; Democratic Union of Albanians, 1; and the Democratic League of Montenegro, 1. The government coalition was comprised of the DPS, SDP, Civic Party, and non-partisans.

On 11 May 2003, Filip Vujanović of the DPS was elected president with 63.3% of the vote. Voter turnout was 48.5%. As of 2006, Milo Dukanović was serving as prime minister.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Montenegro has 21 municipalities (opština).

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The republic of Montenegro followed the system of separation of powers: the judicial, legislative, and executive branches are independent of one another. The judiciary is autonomous and independent. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review. Appointments to the judiciary are for life.

ARMED FORCES

The following information on armed forces pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro and was reported prior to June 2006, when Montenegrins approved an independence referendum. Active armed forces numbered approximately 65,300 in 2005, supported by 250,000 reservists. The Army had 55,000 active personnel and was equipped with 962 main battle tanks, 525 armored infantry fighting vehicles, 288 armored personnel carriers and 2,729 artillery pieces. The Navy had 3,800 active personnel, including 900 Marines. Major naval units included eight tactical submarines, three frigates, 31 patrol/coastal vessels, 10 mine warfare ships, 23 amphibious landing craft, and seven logistical/support vessels. The Air Force had 6,500 active members, along with 101 combat capable aircraft, including 39 fighters, 51 fighter ground attack aircraft and 17 armed helicopters. There was also a paramilitary force that consisted of 45,100 personnel, of which an estimated 4,100 made up special police units, 35,000 were Ministry of Interior personnel and an estimated 6,000 were Montenegrin Ministry of Interior Personnel. Sixteen military personnel were stationed in four African countries under UN command. In addition, military contingents from 45 countries were stationed in Serbia and Montenegro as part of the Kosovo Peace Implementation Force. The defense budget in 2005 totaled $706 million.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original member of the United Nations (1945) until its dissolution and the establishment of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as new states. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted to the United Nations on 1 November 2000. Following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003, the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro participated in several nonregional specialized UN agencies, such as the FAO, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, the World Bank, IAEA, and the WHO.

Serbia and Montenegro was a member of the Council of Europe, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the OSCE. It had observer status in the OAS and the WTO. In environmental cooperation, the country was part of Basel Convention, Ramsar, the London Convention, the Montréal Protocol, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea and Climate Change.

Serbia is recognized as the successor state to the former union of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro will have to apply for membership in the UN and other international bodies.

ECONOMY

During the UN economic sanctions that lasted from 1992 to 1995, economic activity in the former Yugoslavia was extremely limited. By 1994, hyperinflation had brought formal economic activity to a virtual halt. By 1996, GDP had fallen to only 50.8% of 1990s total. Industry declined to just 46.6% of 1990s output; agriculture, 94.4%; construction, 37.5%; transportation, 29.3%; trade, 60.6%; and services, 81.1%. Formal lifting of these sanctions occurred in October 1996. However, the United States sponsored an "Outer Wall" of sanctions, which prevented Yugoslavia from joining international organizations and financial institutions. Taken together, the "Outer Wall," the Kosovo war, and continuing corruption continue to stifle Yugoslav economic development. In October 2000, the coalition government began implementation of stabilization and market-reform measures. Real growth in 2000 was reported as 5%. A donors' conference in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion in pledges for help in infrastructural rebuilding. Real GDP in 2001 was 5.5% and an estimated 4% in 2002.

Economic output was positive, but volatile after 2002, dropping to 2.1% in 2003 and jumping to 8% in 2004; in 2005 the GDP growth rate in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 4%.

In Montenegro, inflation fell from 7.5% in 2003 to 5% in 2004. The financial sector showed marked improvement. Economic reforms launched in 2003, driven by the goal of EU integration, had not yet led to markedly higher levels of growth or reduced unemployment by 2006. In 2003, the absolute poverty rate was recorded at 12.2%, with more than a third of the population classified as economically vulnerable.

INCOME

The following information on income pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. In 2005, the per capita GDP for Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at $2,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 16.6% of GDP, industry 25.5%, and services 57.9%.

According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $1.397 billion or about $172 per capita and accounted for approximately 6.8% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted to $1,317 million or about $163 per capita and accounted for approximately 6.4% of the gross national income (GNI).

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Serbia and Montenegro totaled $18.27 billion or about $2,246 per capita based on a GDP of $20.7 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings.

LABOR

The following information on labor pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The labor force in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 3.22 million in 2005. The unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 31.6%, with Kosovo's unemployment at around 50%. There was no data available as to the occupational breakdown of the country's workforce.

With the exception of the military, all workers are entitled to form unions. However, the majority of unions are government-sponsored or affiliated: independent unions are rare. Therefore, unions have not been effective in improving work conditions or wage structure increases. Virtually all of the workers in the formal economy are union members. Strikes are permitted and are utilized especially to collect unpaid wages. Collective bargaining is still at rudimentary level.

The minimum employment age is 16 although younger children frequently work on family farms. As of 2005, there was no national minimum wage rate. On average, the full-time monthly wage in the public sector that year was $181, while the average wage in the private sector was $250. Neither wage rate offered a decent living wage for a family. The official workweek was set at 40 hours, with required rest periods and overtime limited to 20 hours per week or 40 hours per month. Health and safety standards are not a priority due to harsh economic circumstances.

AGRICULTURE

In addition to honey and high-quality wines (Vranac, Krstac, among others), Montenegro produces many vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers) and fruits (plums, apples, grapes, citrus fruits, and olives). Other crops include blueberries, edible mushrooms, and wild sage.

Serbia and Montenegro had 3,717,000 hectares (9,160,000 acres) of arable land in 2003. Serbia historically accounted for 60% of agricultural production. Vojvodina is the major agricultural region.

In 2000, 20% of the labor force was engaged in agriculture. Between 1991 and 1996, total agricultural production in the former Yugoslavia declined by 10%. During that time, production of farm crops fell by 9%; cereals by 12%. Viticultural production, however, increased by 51%. However, by 1999, total agricultural output was at 92% of the average during 198991. During 200204, crop production was 10% higher than during 19992001.

Agriculture contributed an estimated 17% to GDP in 2002. Major crops produced in 2004 in Serbia and Montenegro included (in thousands of tons): corn, 6,287; wheat, 2,746; sugar beets, 2,643; potatoes, 1,098; and grapes, 490.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

The following information on animal husbandry pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. In 2005, the livestock population included 3,550,000 pigs and hogs, 1,796,600 sheep, 1,230,000 head of cattle, 182,000 goats, 40,000 horses, and 17,464,000 poultry. Total meat production that year was 848,240 tons; milk, 1,852,000 tons. Between 1990 and 1999, total livestock production increased by 1.8%, but during 200204 it fell by 5.4% from 19992001.

FISHING

In Serbia and Montenegro, the total catch in 2003 was 3,665 tons, 86% from inland waters. Common carp accounts for much of the inland catch.

FORESTRY

Forests and woodlands cover 720,000 ha (1,779,192 acres) in Montenegro, accounting for 54% of the total surface area of the republic. Of this figure, the major part (572,000 ha (1,413,469 acres) is in the northern region of the country. Total roundwood production in Serbia and Montenegro in 2004 was 3,520,000 cu m (124.3 billion cu ft), of which about 75% came from public forests. Sawnwood production amounted to 575,000 cu m (20.3 million cu ft); plywood and particle board, 59,000 cu m (2.1 million cu ft). In 2004, exports of forest products in Serbia and Montenegro amounted to nearly $139.1 million; imports, $352.9 million.

MINING

The following information on mining pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. In 2003 industrial production in Serbia and Montenegro fell by 3% compared to 2002, although mining and quarrying operations reported a 1% increase from 2002. Aggregated production from the metals mining sector in 2003 fell by 33% from the previous year, although the output of basic metals increased by 2%. The country also confronted continuing economic sanctions and the loss of control of Kosovo, with its ores and production facilities for nickel, lead, zinc, coal, lignite, ferronickel, and tin-plate. In light of this, Serbia and Montenegro's gross domestic product (GDP) was officially reported to have increased by 3% in 2003. The country had significant capacities to produce refined aluminum, lead, silver, and zinc. In 2003, the output of bauxite fell by about 12% from 2002, although aluminum output remained at around 2002 levels. Although exports of primary aluminum and aluminum alloys in 2002 grew by 18% over 2001, data for 2003 indicated a steep drop in those exports. Mining in Serbia dates back to the Middle Ages, when silver, gold, and lead were extracted. Yugoslavia's bauxite mining, alumina-refining, and aluminum-smelting industries were located primarily in Montenegro, which was accorded favorable treatment by the European Commission.

Mine output of metals in 2003 were: lead ore (gross weight), 183,000 metric tons, down from 733,000 metric tons in 2000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2002; bauxite (gross weight), 540,000 metric tons, down from 612,000 metric tons in 2002 and from 630,000 metric tons in 2000; agglomerate iron ore and concentrate saw no recorded production from 2001 through 2003; and copper ore (gross weight), 5,710,000 tons, down from 12.896,000 tons in 2000 and from 7,968,000 tons in 2002. Production of silver in 2003 totaled 2,028 kg, down from 6,838 kg in 2002. Output of refined gold in 2003 was estimated at 600 kg, down from 900 kg in 2002. In 2003, the country also produced alumina, magnesium, palladium, platinum, and selenium. Among the industrial minerals produced were asbestos, bentonite, ceramic clay, fire clay, feldspar, pumice, lime, magnesite, mica, kaolin, gypsum, quartz sand, salt, nitrogen, caustic soda, sodium sulfate, sand and gravel, and stone.

ENERGY AND POWER

According to Montenegrin government sources, three power plantsthe Perucica and Piva hydroelectric plants and the Pljevlja thermoelectric plantproduce approximately 3 billion kWh per year. Montenegro has the capacity to produce 2,700,000 metric tons of coal.

INDUSTRY

Industry was the primary engine of economic development in Montenegro in the second half of the 20th century. During that period, the growth of the power and energy sector, metallurgy (steel and aluminum), and transportation infrastructure formed the basis for overall economic growth and development. Approximately 90% of Montenegro's industrial products were marketed outside the republic.

By the early 2000s, Montenegro had facilities for producing 400,000 metric tons of crude steel; 1,000,000 metric tons of bauxite; 280,000 metric tons of alumina; 100,000 metric tons of aluminum; and 75,000 metric tons of sea salt.

Industries in Montenegro include metal processing, engineering, wood-processing, textile manufacture, chemicals, leather and footwear, apparel, household appliances, construction, and machinery.

Montenegro processes and finishes agricultural products. The country has fish-processing plants, flour mills, dairies, slaughterhouses, bakeries, breweries, juice factories, fruit processing factories, grape processing plants and wine cellars, medicinal herb processing plants, tobacco and cigarette factories, and confectioners, among other industries.

By 2006, the industrial sector was in poor shape due to the lingering effects of war and isolation in the former Yugoslavia. Montenegro was expected to seek foreign investment to modernize its industries to enable it to become competitive in world markets.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Scientific and technological policies are developed and implemented by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Montenegro. There are 13 registered research institutions in Montenegro and one university (the University of Montenegro, located in Podgorica).

DOMESTIC TRADE

Podgorica serves as the economic and commercial center of the country. The domestic economy has been held back for the past few years due to the lack of major privatization reforms and trouble in the general European economy. Hours of business are usually 8 am to 4 pm, Monday to Friday.

FOREIGN TRADE

The following information on foreign trade pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The UN imposed sanctions on international trade with Yugoslavia in May 1992 and lifted them in December 1995. During the war, when sanctions were in force, dozens of Cypriot companies, set up by senior Serbian officials and businessmen, trafficked millions of dollars in illegal trade.

Trade started to catch up in subsequent years, and in 2004 exports reached $3.2 billion (FOBFree on Board). In the same year, imports were almost triple, at $9.5 billion (FOB), indicating that the economy in the two republics was in disarray, but that it was trying to redress itself through a renewal of its industrial base. Most of the import commodities included machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, and raw materials. The imports mainly came from Germany (18.5%), Italy (16.5%), Austria (8.3%), Slovenia (6.7%), Bulgaria (4.7%), and France (4.5%). Exports included manufactured goods, food and live animals, and raw materials, and largely went to Italy (which receive 29% of total exports), Germany (16.6%), Austria (7%), Greece (6.7%), France (4.9%), and Slovenia (4.1%).

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Montenegro, both as its own republic and as a constituent republic of Serbia and Montenegro until mid-2006, maintained a relatively high current account deficit. For Serbia and Montenegro, exports of goods and services totaled $5.9 billion in 2004, up from $4.2 billion in 2003. Imports grew from $8.7 billion in 2003, to $12.8 billion in 2004. Consequently, the resource balance was on a negative upsurge, growing from -$4.5 billion in 2003, to -$7.1 billion in 2004. A similar trend was registered for the current account balance, which deteriorated from -$2.0 billion in 2003, to -$3.1 billion in 2004. The national reserves of Serbia and Montenegro (including gold) were $3.6 billion in 2003, covering less than 6 months of imports; by 2004, they increased to $4.3 billion.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

Montenegro has its own independent central bank. There were 10 licensed banks in Montenegro in 2005. Montenegro's last bank with direct government majority ownership was being privatized in 2006.

INSURANCE

Insurance of public transport passengers, motor vehicle insurance, aircraft insurance, and insurance on bank deposits are compulsory. In 2003, the value of all direct insurance premiums written in Serbia and Montenegro totaled $436 million, of which nonlife premiums accounted for $420 million. In that same year, the top nonlife insurer was Dunav, which had gross written nonlife premiums of $138.6 million, while the country's leading life insurer was Zepter, which had gross written life insurance premiums of $7.1 million.

PUBLIC FINANCE

As of mid-2006, Montenegro had voted to become an independent nation; statistics on the new country's revenue and expenditures were not available.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Serbia and Montenegro's central government took in revenues of approximately $11.4 billion and had expenditures of $11.1 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately $330 million. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 53.1% of GDP. Total external debt was $15.43 billion.

TAXATION

Montenegro's top income tax rate is 22%. It has a flat corporate tax rate of 9%.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Montenegro has an average customs rate of 35%, with a 20% rate applied to seasonal fruits and vegetables. Montenegro applies a 17% value-added tax (VAT) on all products, with water, bread, milk, fat, oil, sugar and medicines exempt. Montenegro imposes excise taxes on certain luxury goods.

Montenegro has only one authorized free trade zone (FTZ) that has yet to become operational.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Foreign investment was severely restricted during the years of the economic embargo. Since the sanctions were lifted, foreign investors from neighboring countries, Russia, and Asia have expressed an interest in capital investment. The main sectors attracting the interest of foreign investors are metal manufacturing and machinery, infrastructure improvement, agriculture and food processing, and chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Foreign investors may hold majority shares in companies.

In 1997, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the former Yugoslavia reached $740 million, but dried up with the onset of the conflict in Kosovo. FDI inflows averaged $122.5 million in 1998 and 1999, then fell to $25 million in 2000. In 2001, FDI inflow reached $125 million.

In the following years, Serbia and Montenegro undertook an aggressive program of reforms aimed at both reestablishing the area as a major transportation hub, and at attracting foreign investment. These policies seem to have paid off as in 2004, capital inflows jumped to $3.4 billion. While Serbia and Montenegro was considered to be a risky place for doing business, the political and economic climate was steadily improving as of 2005. Montenegro both before and after independence placed a great deal of importance upon attracting new foreign investment; such economic development will help make the case for Montenegro's possible entry into the European Union (EU).

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Officials in general see revitalization of the infrastructure (roads, rail and air transport, telecommunications, and power production) as one step toward economic recovery. Another important aspect of economic reconstruction will be the revival of former export industry, such as agriculture, textiles, furniture, pharmaceuticals, and nonferrous metallic ores.

In 2002, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a three-year $829 million Extended Arrangement to support economic programs in Serbia and Montenegro (which was known as Yugoslavia at the time) 200205.

While politically and economically Montenegro is much more stable than in previous years, the economy is still in a quasi-state of disarray, with high unemployment, a large gray market, and a relapsing industrial base. Foreign investors, as well as several international financial institutions (EBRD, IMF, and the World Bank), appreciated recent economic developments in Montenegro as being positive, and in 2004 increased their capital transfers to the region.

The economy is expected to grow moderately in 2006, as a result of a boom in several sectors: trade, financial services and transport and communications. The growth is to be sustained by continued investment in newly privatized companies, by strong local demand, and by an expansion of the services sector. Montenegro has privatized most major industries other than electricity. By 2005, approximately 65% of state-owned companies had been sold off and only 25% of banking assets remained in state or social ownership.

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) remains the primary foreign aid donor in Montenegro. The European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR), Germany, and the United Kingdom have smaller budgets and, like USAID, work in the areas of economic policy reform and enterprise development, among other programs such as civil society, independent media development, and the rule of law. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) focuses on small and medium enterprise development. The World Bank and EBRD focus on economic growth and infrastructure investments. The UN Development Program (UNDP), with funding from EAR, Germany, Canada, and the Netherlands, works in the environment, enterprise development, and civil society development areas. Montenegro has implemented an Economic Reform Agenda.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A social insurance system for Serbia and Montenegro, updated in 2003, provides old age, disability, and survivorship benefits. The pension plan is funded by contributions from both employers and employees. The retirement varies depending on years of insurance; retirement from insured employment is necessary. Montenegro provides its own system for sickness and maternity benefits. Medical services are provided directly to patients through government facilities. Workers' compensation, unemployment benefits, and family allowances are also available. Family allowances vary according to the number of children in the family are adjusted periodically for cost of living changes.

Traditional gender roles keep women from enjoying equal status with men and few occupy positions of leadership in the private sector. However, women are active in human rights and political organizations. High levels of domestic abuse persist and social pressures prevent women from obtaining protection against abusers.

HEALTH

The government provides obligatory health care to citizens for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services. In the union of Serbia and Montenegro, there were approximately 228 health institutions and about 3,000 other clinics, mostly private, in 2005. As of 2004, there were an estimated 20 physicians per 100,000 people.

In 2005 infant mortality in Serbia and Montenegro was reported at 15.53 per 1,000 live births. Overall mortality was 7.4 per 1,000 people in Montenegro. Average life expectancy in 2005 for Serbia and Montenegro was 74.73 years.

The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.20 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 10,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Serbia and Montenegro. There were an estimated 100 deaths from AIDS in 2003.

HOUSING

At the beginning of 1996, there were 3,124,000 dwellings in Serbia and Montenegro, with an average of 3.4 persons per dwelling. Housing area at that time averaged 20 sq m (215 sq ft) per person. New housing completions during 1995 totaled 14,337 units, of which 11,847 were in the public sector, and 2,490 were in the private sector. In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro counted about 2,790,411 households with an average of 2.89 people per household.

EDUCATION

As of 2005/06, education is compulsory for nine years of primary school. This may be followed by three years of secondary school, with students having the option to attend general, vocational, or art schools. The academic year runs from October to July. In 2001, about 43% of children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in some type of preschool program in the union of Serbia and Montenegro. Primary school enrollment in 2001 was estimated at about 96% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 82% of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 96% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 20:1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was about 14:1. In Montenegro, elementary and secondary schools are managed by school boards, while principals are responsible for day-to-day administration. School boards and principals are appointed by the Ministry of Education and Science for four-year terms. Teachers must have a university degree and pass a professional (state) examination.

Montenegro has one university with 15 faculties. In 2001, it was estimated that about 36% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in tertiary education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 96.4%.

As of 2003, public expenditure on education for the union of Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 3.3% of GDP.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The Central National Library of Montenegro has 1.5 million volumes.

Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence had over 2,500 cultural monuments, including about 100 museums and 37 historical archives libraries.

Culturally, Montenegro has been shaped by Mediterranean, middle European, Eastern European, and Asian civilizations. Archaeological treasures include Crvena Stijena (Red Rock), Bioce okapine (shelters) in the Moraca Canyon, and Malisina pecina (cave) and Medena stijena (rock) in the Cehotina Canyon.

Pre-Roman, Roman, Gothic, and Baroque architectural styles may be found. The city of Kotor is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The region of Lake Scutari (Skadarsko) has many monasteries built on goricas (small islands), including Beska, Moracnik, Starcevo, Kom, and Vranjina, along with the fortresses of Zabljak and Lesendro.

Islamic culture is evidenced in the Mosque of Husein-pasha Boljanic in Pljevlja, as well as in residential architecture (such as the Redzepagics' Manor in Plav).

Montenegro has a long literary and printing history, beginning in the 12th century. The town of Cetinje, which features a monastery of Cetinje and museum complex and Biljarda, built by Njegos as a residence in 1838, is recognized as a cultural capital. Other buildings in Cetinje include King Nikola's Palace, numerous embassies, Prince Heir's Palace, the Zetski dom theater, and the house of parliament.

Montenegro has a rich heritage of theater, film, poetry, prose, and painting.

MEDIA

In 2003, there were an estimated 243 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people in Serbia and Montenegro; about 313,500 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 338 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

Television stations included TV Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks and a satellite channel; TV IN; Montenegrin Broadcasting Company (MBC), private; ntv Montena, private; TV Elmag, private; and TV Pink MMontenegrin offshoot of Belgrade-based network. The following radio stations were operating: Radio Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks; Radio Elmag, private; Antena M, private; and Radio D, private. The news agency MNNews-Mina is private.

The ownership and editorial positions of television and radio stations usually reflects regional politics. In 2004, Serbia and Montenegro had about 297 radios and 282 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 27.1 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 79 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were nine secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.

In 1791, the first Serbian-language newspaper was published in Vienna, Austria. Privately owned newspapers are sometimes critical of the government. The dailies with the largest circulation in Serbia and Montenegro (as of 2002) were Politika (Politics, 300,000) and Vecernje Novosti (Evening News, 169,000). Other newspapers that are essentially controlled by the government, included (with 2002 circulation) Borba (85,000), Jedinstvo (6,090), Dnevnik (61,000), and Pobjeda (19,400). There are several minority language newspapers.

While the government provides for freedom of speech and of the press, libel suits have been fairly prevalent and some media sources have practiced self-censorship in order to avoid problems with government officials. In Montenegro press freedom is guaranteed and media laws passed in 2002 provide for the transformation of state-funded broadcasting company into a public broadcaster. But some media watchdogs have pointed to ongoing political influence over editorial policies. In 2004, the killing of Dusko Jovanovic, the editor of the opposition daily newspaper Dan, sparked an outcry. Demonstrators accused the authorities of complicity.

Overseas donors and organizations have encouraged the growth of independent media outlets. But commercial operators compete for a small pool of advertising revenue. The marketwith dozens of private radio and TV stationswas said to be saturated. The Montenegrin media enjoyed greater freedom than their Serbian counterparts in the last years of Slobodan Milošević's rule. Many private outlets managed to break the former state monopoly.

In Montenegro, the following media were publishing in 2005: Vijesti, private daily; Pobjeda, daily; Dan, daily; Republika, daily; and Monitor, private weekly.

ORGANIZATIONS

The Montenegrin P.E.N. Center was founded in 1990. There are several organizations for professional journalists in Serbia and Montenegro, including the Journalists' Federation of Yugoslavia, the Journalists' Association of Serbia, Independent Journalists' Association, and the Association of Private Owners of the Media. National youth organizations include the Union of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia, Junior Chamber, and the Youth Council of Montenegro. Scouting organizations are also active. The Child Rights Center and Child to Child are national groups working to promote the rights of children and youth. There are a variety of sports associations available promoting amateur competition among athletes of all ages. There are active chapters of the Paralympic Committee, as well as a national Olympic Committee.

There is a national chapter of the Red Cross Society.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Rich architecture, museums, galleries, cathedrals, parks, rivers, and the many beaches are just some of the attractions that bring visitors to Montenegro. Montenegro has four national parks; the largest are the Lake of Skadar (Skadarsko) Basin (40,000 hectares/98,800 acres) and Durmitor (39,000 hectares/96,300 acres). Montenegro has two UNESCO natural area and heritage sites: Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor. Popular sports in Montenegro are tennis, football, volleyball, water sports, bocanje (a kind of bowling), skiing, and rafting. The Ministry of Sports of the Montenegrin government was founded in 1993. There are numerous sand and pebble beaches on the Montenegrin coastline. It is one of the warmest and sunniest tourist regions in Europe. Although classified as a Mediterranean country, Montenegro is a mountainous region in which areas of 1,000 m (3,280.8 ft) or higher comprise 60.5% of the nation's territory.

Prior to Montenegro's independence, all visitors needed a valid passport to enter Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia requires an onward/return ticket, sufficient funds for the stay, and a certificate showing funds for health care. Visas are required for all nationals except those of 41 countries including the United State, Australia, and Canada. According to 2005 US Department of State estimates, the cost of staying in the country averaged $157.

In 2003, there were 599,430 visitors to Montenegro (10.7% more than in 2002), of whom 141,787 were foreign tourists. There were 3,976,266 hotel rooms booked (7.8% more than in 2002), of which foreign visitors accounted for 915,738.

FAMOUS MONTENEGRINS

Prince Danilo II of Montenegro (r.185160) introduced a new legal code in 1855 that guaranteed civil and religious freedoms. King Nikola I Petrović Njegoš (18411921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and as a prince from 1860 to 1910. He was also a poet who wrote "Onamo, 'namo," the popular anthem of Montenegro. King Alexander of Yugoslavia (18881934) was assassinated in Marseille, France. Prince Paul of Yugoslavia (18931976) ruled as a regent for Peter II (192370) from 1934 to 1941 and was forced into exile after signing a secret pact with the Nazi government.

Important Montenegrin poets of the 20th century include Risto Ratkovic and Radovan Ziogovic. Important prose writers include Mihailo Lalic, whose realistic novels portray Montenegro's place in World War II. Painters include Petar Lubarda, Milo Milunovic, Dado Djuric, Branko Filipovic-Filo, Vojo Stanic, and Uros Toskovic.

DEPENDENCIES

Montenegro has no dependencies or territories.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennett, Christopher. Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences. London: Hurst and Company, 1995.

Boehm, Christopher. Blood Revenge: The Enactment and Management of Conflict in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

Bokovoy, Melissa, Jill A. Irvine, and Carol S. Lilly, (ed.). State-Society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945-1992. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

Cohen, Lenard J. Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia's Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.

Denitch, Bogdan Denis. Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Dyker, David A., and Ivan Vejvoda, (ed.). Yugoslavia and After: A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth. New York: Longman, 1996.

Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2002.

Frucht, Richard (ed.). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2005.

Houston, Marco. Nikola and Milena, King and Queen of the Black Mountain: The Rise and Fall of Montenegro's Royal Family. London: Leppi Publications, 2003.

International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Judah, Tim. The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.

Klemencic, Matjaz. The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Oxford, Eng.: ABC-Clio, 2003.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Maleševic, Siniša. Ideology, Legitimacy, and the New State: Yugoslavia, Serbia, and Croatia. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2002.

Pavkovic, Aleksandar. The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

Ramet, Sabrina P. Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

Schuman, Michael. Serbia and Montenegro. 2nd ed. New York: Facts On File, 2004.

Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2002.

Terterov, Marat (ed.). Doing Business with Serbia and Montenegro. Sterling, Va.: Kogan Page, 2004.

Treadway, John D. The Falcon and the Eagle: Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press, 1983.

West, Richard. Tito: And the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1995.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

"Montenegro." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Montenegro
Region: Europe
Population: 680,158
Language(s): Serbian, Albanian
Literacy Rate: NA
Academic Year: September-June
Compulsory Schooling: 9 years
Libraries: 51
Educational Enrollment Rate: Primary: 72%
  Secondary: 63%
  Higher: 22%
Student-Teacher Ratio: Primary: 22:1
  Secondary: 15:1



History & Background

The Republic of Montenegro (Crna Gora or "Black Mountain") is located on the Adriatic Sea in southeastern Europe. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, the autonomous province of Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, and the Adriatic to the southwest, Montenegro in early 2001 belonged to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), along with Serbia. A referendum was anticipated for the second half of 2001 or early 2002 to decide Montenegro's future status as either an independent republic or a republic within the FRY. Montenegro's roughly diamond-shaped territory measures 13,938 square kilometers, which is slightly less than the U.S. state of Connecticut, and constitutes about 13.5 percent of the FRY's total territory.

Montenegro was settled by Slavic tribes and belonged to the Serbian kingdom as part of the Zeta province during the Middle Ages. With the incursion of the Ottoman Turks into southeastern Europe and Albanian families settling in the Kosovo region that separates Montenegro from Serbia, Montenegro became more separate from Serbia and developed a distinct variation of Orthodox Christian practice and a somewhat different version of the Serbian language, although the Cyrillic alphabet continued to be used. The Montenegrin version of Serbo-Croatian is more similar to Croatian than it is to Serbian. Fighting the Ottoman Turks from the mountains, Montenegro maintained its independence until 1516 when a Greek Catholic Bishop named Vladika assumed civil authority of the territory. Rule of Montenegro was transferred to other prince-bishops for three and a half centuries, until Nicholas I gave Montenegro its first constitution in 1868. During the World War I, Austria occupied Montenegro in 1916. When Austria-Hungary lost the war, Montenegro joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and the Slovenes in 1918, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. With the advent of World War II and the invasion of the Balkans in 1941 by the Axis powers, Montenegro was declared independent and became a protectorate of Italy. In 1945, following the war, Montenegro became one of the republics of socialist Yugoslavia.

The population of Montenegro in the year 2000 was estimated to be 680,158 people, including 46,631 refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Due to extensive population movements in the Balkan peninsula during the 1990s resulting from ethnic violence and warfare and the very difficult economic circumstances and living conditions of this politically troubled region, population measures during the 1990s were either not taken or relatively unreliable for the most part. In the year 2000, about 230,000 displaced persons from Kosovo were living in other parts of the FRY (such as Montenegro), as were 500,000 refugees from Bosnia and Croatia. Population statistics and education-related counts for the 1990s and the early-2000 decade thus should be interpreted with care. A new census scheduled for March 2001 in the FRY should yield updated statistics toward the end of 2001.

In 1991 the ethnic composition of Montenegro was 61.9 percent Montenegrin, 14.6 percent Bosniac, 9.3 percent Serb, 6.6 percent Albanian, 0.5 percent Roma, and 7.1 percent other. In terms of religious affiliation, approximately 65 percent of the combined population of Serbia and Montenegro was Orthodox, 19 percent was Muslim, 4 percent was Roman Catholic, 1 percent was Protestant, and 11 percent was other. About 95 percent of this same population spoke Serbian, though the Montenegrin version of the language differs slightly from the language principally spoken in Serbia and 5 percent spoke Albanian. Approximately 70 percent of Montenegrins lived in urban areas in 1991. With a population density of 47 persons per square kilometer, Montenegro is rather sparsely populated, especially in the north, although greater concentrations of Montenegrins live along the coast and inland around the capital, Podgorica, near northwestern Albania. In 1911 just 18,907 Montenegrins (8.9 percent of the country's total population) had lived in towns of 2,000 inhabitants or more. In 2000 a significant proportion of Montenegrins still resided in villages.

In 2000 the total fertility rate in Montenegro was about two children per woman. An estimated 22 percent of the country's population was 14 years old or younger while nearly two-thirds of the population was between 15 and 64 and about 12 percent were 65 years of age or older. (Again, this assumes an age balance in 2000 equivalent to that in 1991, when the last census was taken. Due to population shifts, this may not be the case.) In 2000 Montenegro had an infant-mortality rate of 11 per 1,000 live births. The average life expectancy at birth in the year 2000 was 75.5 years (71.5 for men and 79.8 for womena significant gender difference).

The Montenegrin workforce in 1999 was composed as follows: 30.5 percent of the labor force was employed in industry and mining, and just 4.3 percent was employed in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry; 65.2 percent was employed in service jobs. In 1999 the FRY had an annual economic growth rate of -20 percent of the GDP. Economic outputs were declining substantially, and the area stood in great need of international economic assistance, although international aid, especially to Serbia, was limited because of Serbia and Montenegro's lack of favor in the world's eye due to the FRY's reluctance to cooperate with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia before late June 2001. In 1999 Montenegro's real GDP was only 58 percent of the 1990 real GDP. However, significant black-market activity and gray-market activity also existed in the FRY, making it difficult to state with much accuracy the actual economic output of the FRY in the 1990s. GDP per capita in Montenegro in 1998 was estimated at US$1709. Unemployment in Montenegro in July 2000 ranged from 0.2 to nearly 32 percent, depending on the skill level and educational attainment of the worker. Unskilled laborers, persons with intermediate specialist training, and skilled workers had the highest unemployment rates (31.0 percent, 29.4 percent, and 26.9 percent, respectively). Earlier, as part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Montenegro had been one of the poorest of the six republics, with its economy, based mainly on industry and large state-owned enterprises, reaching only 75 to 80 percent of the average level of development for the socialist federation. During the late 1990s, Montenegro increased its revenues from tourism and the marine trade, profiting from its favorable location on the Adriatic in contrast to landlocked Serbia.

Montenegro required substantial international development assistance during the 1990s and early twenty-first century to recover from the economic disruptions caused by a decade of war in the Balkans, sanctions imposed by the international community on the FRY in 1993, and sanctions Serbia itself imposed on Montenegro in 1999 for Montenegro's attempts to politically distance itself from Serbia. Until the international donors conference met on June 29, 2001, to discuss assistance to the FRY, Montenegro's aid packages from abroad were somewhat limited. At the June 2001 conference representatives from about 40 countries, UN agencies, and the World Bank met in Brussels, Belgium, and pledged about US$1.2 billion to assist the FRY primarily with rebuilding infrastructure and paying the salaries of teachers and doctors.


Constitutional & Legal Foundations

As noted above, Montenegro is one of the two republics of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, self-declared on 11 April 1992 as the successor state to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and formally established by the Constitution of April 27, 1992. The new federal government formed in November 2000 dropped its previous claim of being the sole successor to the SFRY and was recognized by the international community. Montenegrin law is based on a civil law system. All Montenegrins, women and men, are eligible to vote at age 18; 16- and 17-year-olds can also vote if they are employed. Besides participating in the election of the president of the federation, Montenegrins elect their own republican president to a four-year term of service as head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. Milo Djukanovic, an advocate of greater autonomy for Montenegro in the federation with Serbia, was elected president of Montenegro on December 21, 1997. At the federal level, the president of the FRY was Slobodan Miloševic from 1987 until October 2000; he lost the September 2000 presidential election to Vojislav Kostunica, who had advocated for democratic reforms, economic improvements, and an end to corruption. The executive branch at the federal level also includes a prime minister, several deputy ministers, and a cabinet known as the Federal Executive Council.

At the federal level the legislative branch of the FRY is a bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina ) composed of a Chamber of Republics (Vece Republika ) of 40 members, 20 of them Serbian representatives and 20 Montenegrin representatives, elected to 4-year terms and distributed according to the party distributions in the republican assemblies of Serbia and Montenegro, and a Chamber of Citizens (Vece Gradjana ) of 138 members, 108 of them Serbian representatives (half of whom are elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation) and 30 of them Montenegrin representatives (6 elected by constituency majorities and 24 by proportional representation), all of whom serve 4-year terms. Decision-making in the republican government of Montenegro increased in importance in 1999 and later as Montenegro's nationalist movement gained further strength and Montenegrins attempted to regulate their internal affairs more to their own liking with less interference from Serbia. The third branch of the federal government is the judicial branch, consisting of the Federal Court (Savezni Sud ) and the Constitutional Court, both of whose judges are elected to nine-year terms by the Federal Assembly, the federal legislative body.

During the 1990s the human rights situation in Montenegro markedly worsened as ethnic violence spread in the Balkans. Large flows of refugees and IDPs sought shelter from the violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Kosovo and from the 1999 NATO bombing campaign aimed at halting Miloševic's alleged mass expulsions and murders of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Indictments against Montenegrins for war crimes associated with the ethnic violence in the region had yet to produce arrests by early 2001. With the arrest and extradition of Miloševic to The Hague on June 28, 2001, however, other arrests were expected in both Serbia and Montenegro, as well as a potentially more cooperative stance with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia by the republican governments and eventually by the federal government. The promise of substantial international donations to reconstruct the economies and infrastructure of the FRY following Miloševic's extradition in late June 2001 was viewed as a spur likely to produce a more positive climate within both Montenegro and Serbia for international cooperation that could positively impact the social and economic situations of the local Montenegrin population.

Within the FRY in 2000, serious human rights problems had existed, including violence and discrimination against women, trafficking in women and girls for forced prostitution, and police repression, as well as official and societal discrimination against Muslims, Roma, and other minorities in various parts of the FRY. Severe repression of political critics, student activists, the media, and political dissidents under the Miloševic regime also was a serious problem up through the first part of 2000. Hopes within the FRY and among international actors ran high by mid-2001 that the human rights climate would turn in a more positive direction with Miloševic out of the country.


Educational SystemOverview

The education system in Montenegro has been strongly influenced by the former education system of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as well as by laws passed in the 1990s when Montenegro was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Educational policy is determined by the federal government and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Montenegro, with significant input from international partners, such as the European Union and several national governments and nongovernmental organizations who have provided financial and technical support for education reforms. Key educational reforms at the turn of the millennium included efforts to improve vocational education and training in Montenegro and to upgrade the curriculum at various educational levels.

Compulsory education in Montenegro includes the 8 grades of primary school, attended by students typically aged 7 through 14. Serbian is the official language of instruction in Montenegrin schools, almost all of which are public. In some areas, Albanian is also offered as a language of instruction at the elementary and secondary levels. About 95.8 percent of primary students in Montenegro were taught in Serbian in the year 2000, while 4.2 percent of primary students were taught in Albanian. At the secondary level, 97.6 percent of students were taught in Serbian, and 2.4 percent were taught in Albanian. The official language of instruction at the university level was Serbian.

In 1997 about 32.2 percent of the population in the FRY was of school age or between 3 and 24 years of age. In 1999-2000, approximately 118,000 Montenegrin pupils and students were enrolled in primary, secondary, and university institutions out of the country's total population of about 680,000. The gross enrollment ratio that year for the basic education grades (the free, compulsory 8 years of primary schooling) was 98.5 percent.

Participation in preschool programming is optional, with infants and children up to three years of age sometimes cared for in childcare settings and preprimary schooling available for children between the ages of three and seven. Basic education includes the 8 years of compulsory schooling and is divided into two stages: lower primary, covering grades 1 through 4 for children generally 7 through 10 years of age; and upper primary, covering grades 5 through 8 for children aged 11 through 14. In 2000 about 84 percent of Montenegrin students were completing their compulsory education in 8 years.

Upper secondary schooling includes either 4 years of general education for students 15 through 18 years of age or 2, 3, or 4 years of vocational education for students starting at age 15. Specialized secondary schools also exist to provide four years of education in the arts, music, or ballet. Tertiary education is provided at the University of Montenegro and its 15 associated faculties. No nonuniversity higher education existed in Montenegro as of the 2000-2001 academic year, although university programs could be relatively long (lasting 4 through 6 years, beginning at age 19) or short (lasting 2 years). Postgraduate studies leading to the Master of Art or Master of Science degree also existed, although no special doctoral programs were to be found. Students interested in preparing a doctoral thesis could do so upon successful completion of a Master's degree program.


Preprimary & Primary Education


As noted above, preprimary education in Montenegro is optional. However, nearly 12,500 childrenabout 24 percent of all children ages 0 to 7were enrolled in childcare or preprimary educational programs in the 1999-2000 school year. Starting in 1994, the Open Society Institute, a private foundation based in the United States and funded by philanthropist George Soros, introduced the "Step by Step" program into Montenegrin preschools with strong cooperation from the Ministry of Education and Science. Established in 2000 as an independent program, "Step by Step" in Montenegro also started primary level programming in eight model primary schools. "Step by Step" has emphasized reforming teacher training programs to prepare early childhood educators who are better versed in child-centered methodologies and democratic principles of classroom and school management. Across the transitional countries of Eastern and Central Europe, "Step by Step" has developed a positive reputation for building democratic partnerships among school staff, parents, and local community members and for fostering creativity and programs designed to support the educational needs of minority children. In Montenegro, children with disabilities, Roma, refugees, and the impoverished have especially benefited from "Step by Step" programs.

In 1999-2000, approximately 38,198 students were enrolled in lower primary schooling (grades 1 through 4) and 39,839 students were enrolled in the upper primary grades (grades 5 through 8) at 167 central schools and 303 branch (i.e., village) schools in Montenegro. All of the schools were publicly funded except for one private music school at the primary level. With an average of 22.5 pupils per class, about 4,888 teachers taught primary school in Montenegro that year. Significant differences in class size existed between village schools and town schools. In the villages, the pupil to teacher ratio was 11.8:1 for the first 4 primary grades, whereas in towns the comparable ratio was 24.5:1. In Montenegro's upper primary grades, classes averaged 24.4 pupils, although the pupil to teacher ratio was actually only 12.7:1 due to the high number of part-time teachers employed. In comparison, the pupil to teacher ratio for the FRY as a whole was 16.9:1 for basic education in 1997.

Educational innovations in the late 1990s included reductions of 10 to 30 percent in the subject contents and reductions in the number of classes taught weekly in specific subjects in the first three grades of basic education. Additionally, instruction in a first foreign language was added in grade 3 of the lower primary level for two 45-minute class periods each week.


Secondary Education


In 1999-2000, a reported 31,817 students were enrolled in secondary schools covering 4 grades of general education in Montenegro (9,109 students in general education programs and 22,708 students taking 2-, 3-, or 4-year vocational programs, including part-time students). Art schools, apprentice schools, and teacher training institutes also exist at the secondary level in Montenegro. The balance of general versus vocational secondary education in the FRY as a whole has been somewhat different than in Montenegro. In 1996 nearly 56 percent of upper secondary students in FRY followed general courses of study while 44.3 percent were enrolled in vocational and technical programs. In the 1999-2000 academic year, secondary schools in Montenegro numbered 44 central schools and 1 branch school, all of them public. Twenty of the central schools provided general education and 24, plus the 1 branch school, offered vocational instruction at the secondary level in Montenegro. With 2,321 teachers providing secondary instruction, class sizes ranged from fewer than 10 students per class in some villages to an average of 30 to 40 students per class in towns. Vocational schools also had significantly smaller student to teacher ratios because of the fairly common practice in Montenegro of hiring a variety of teachers with special expertise in various vocational subjects, even when relatively few students sought training in particular vocational areas.

In the 1999-2000 academic year, 52.5 percent of secondary students in the FRY were female. Gender-related educational statistics for Montenegro were not readily available. Gross enrollment ratios at the secondary level in Montenegro were also rather difficult to estimate, as different information sources provide widely varying estimates. This is perhaps due to diverse methods of categorizing general and vocational secondary school programs.

At the general secondary level, curricular changes in Montenegro in the mid-1990s included new mathematics and philology gymnasium courses. The need to revise history textbooks was highlighted at the start of the new millennium by certain reform-minded individuals who found history instruction in Montenegro to be overly biased in a Serbian nationalist direction. Apparently history texts in use in Montenegro gave interpretations of historical events such as the war in Bosnia and the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with a decidedly Serbian ethnonationalist slant; thus, they stood in dire need of revision so as to promote a more accurate depiction of Balkan history. In 1999 a new art curriculum was adopted in Montenegro for vocational education at the secondary level, and curricular changes were introduced in the secondary communications school with new subjects added. Changes also were made in the content of computer courses.


Higher Education


Participation rates at the tertiary level in Montenegro have increased steadily since 1991, although significant numbers of Montenegrin students continue to go outside of Montenegro to obtain their higher education. Montenegro has only one publicly funded university with 15 associated faculties, the University of Montenegro. Gross tertiary enrollment ratios in the mid-1990s for the FRY were reported as roughly 16.5 percent to 21 percent, with somewhat higher participation rates by females than by males. In 1999-2000 a total of 7,082 students were enrolled at the University of Montenegro and its 15 faculties. No private tertiary institutions existed in Montenegro. University-level teaching staff numbered 667, and the student to teacher ratio was reported to be about 12:1 (the slight numerical discrepancy perhaps due to the inclusion of some part-time faculty). In 1997 tertiary students in the FRY specialized in various disciplines according to the following proportions: 7.7 percent of students concentrated in the humanities, 20.8 percent in the social and behavioral sciences, 7.4 percent in the natural sciences, 11.1 percent in medicine, 17.9 percent in engineering, and 35.2 percent in other subject areas.

Administration, Finance, & Educational Research

The Ministry of Education and Science has primary administrative responsibility for Montenegro's basic education system and for the secondary and tertiary levels of instruction as well. At the federal level, the Rectors' Conference of Yugoslavia seated in Belgrade also formulates and administers education policy and practices. Costs of primary and secondary education are covered by the government in Montenegro, and mid-day meals are provided at state expense. In the year 2000 public expenditures on education and training in Montenegro amounted to about 7.1 percent of the GDP. Most of the government expenditures went to salaries of education-related personnel (91 percent) with much smaller portions of the public budget going to investments (5.6 percent) and school equipment (3.2 percent). Subsidies to student residence halls, student loans, textbook production, commuting expenses of educational staff, maintenance costs, and pupil and student fees also are included in the state budget for education. Parents and other individuals provide relatively modest amounts of additional funds for education-related expenses.

Significantly, international donors provided substantial grants and loans for education in Montenegro beginning in the 1990s, even before the sizable injection of international funds that followed the June 2001 international donors conference for the former Yugoslavia held in Brussels. For example, the EC "Obnova" Programme provided 500,000 euro for elementary education in 1998, and UNICEF gave US$1 million for basic education, school furniture, and teaching training in active-learning methodology in 1999. In the year 2000 UNICEF provided US$1.4 million to further support teacher training, education for peace and tolerance, and strategizing in early childcare programming. In 1999 the Open Society Institute (OSI) gave US$500,000 for the "Step by Step" program in preprimary and primary schools and to support educational reform and capacity building; in 2000 OSI gave US$647,000 for similar measures and to support higher education. WUS Austria provided funding in the amount of 450,000 DEM for each semester of the 1998-1999 academic year for the reconstruction of schools and other infrastructure, including Internet access and a University Internet Centre, and for other educational purposes, such as the introduction of language and computing courses for students and staff. International donors active in Montenegro's education sector also have included nongovernmental organizations and government-related agencies such as Save the Children, Catholic Relief Services, World Vision, the British Council, the Danish Council, Cooperacione Italiana, COOPI, HELP, Swiss Disaster Relief, and JEN.


Nonformal Education


A limited number of adult education programs existed in Montenegro at the turn of the millennium through part-time studies and evening schools, although in 1999 no special training courses for adults were provided on a regular basis. Fifty programs for training adults in some of the 3,952 state-recognized occupations had been approved by the state, though most were designed for the employees of specific employers; just a few of these were open to the general labor market. Training programs for adults generally lasted between 2 to 3 months and 6 months; some lasted 12 months for occupations with more specialized requirements. Additionally, in 1999-2000, a total of 153 adult learners were enrolled in basic education courses in Montenegro (i.e., covering the 8 grades of primary schooling) in 2 institutions with a total of 12 teachers and a student to teacher ratio of about 12.8:1.


Teaching Profession


Teacher preparation in Montenegro is provided through the university faculties. Preprimary teachers receive two years of postsecondary training at the faculty in Nik, whereas primary and secondary educators receive four years of higher education. Educators at the tertiary levelassistants, docents, faculty professors, regular professors, and extraordinary professorsobtain their higher education (and research training, depending on the level of education and area of expertise) in university undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Those interested in promotion to the highest positions must obtain the Doktor Nauka (Doctor of Science) degree in the appropriate fields of higher education and research. All teachers at the tertiary level must receive some form of specialized training.

New efforts in the late 1990s to increase the skills of teachers in service included training in student-centered methodology for about 2,000 basic education teachers, provided by UNICEF's Active Learning Project, the Open Society Institute's "Step by Step" program, seminars offered by the Ministry of Education and Science and the British Council, and seminars run by Longman Publishing Company for teachers using their published texts. Some training in evaluation and testing was also provided to basic education teachers through the above programs. About 150 teachers at the upper secondary level (both general and vocational) received further training through seminars offered by the Ministry and through language and methodology seminars taught through the British Council. Other secondary teachers received civic education training through such projects as Education for Tolerance, Peace, and Humane Development and Education for Democratic Citizenship.

Summary

At the beginning of the new millennium, Montenegro was poised for significant political and societal changes. After experiencing an economic decline during the 1980s and 1990s, changing its political status from one of the former six republics of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia to one of two republics in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, participating to some extent in the ethnic violence that swept the Balkan region in the 1990s, and witnessing the movement of thousands of IDPs and refugees through its territory, Montenegro had an educational system that was ripe for revision by the year 2001. Efforts to improve the quality of instruction in the vocational area and to upgrade adult education offerings appeared to be among the most needed reforms, along with democratization of school management and the conduct of classes and the reformation of course content to more accurately depict historical events and to reflect the multicultural, multilinguistic nature of Montenegro and the other Balkan states. By June 2001 a large conference of international donors was meeting in Brussels to discuss an international package of financial assistance to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including Montenegro. Much of the US$1.2 billion in funds pledged at the conference would be directed to the educational sector to address such problems as teacher salaries being so low that qualified persons often declined the opportunity to teach and school facilities so in need of upgrading and sometimes outright reconstruction that few laboratories or technological equipment were available to serve the basic educational needs of Montenegro's upcoming generations of students.

At mid-year 2001 Montenegro itself was considering holding a referendum to determine its own status as an independent republic or a continuing member of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. No matter how the referendum would turn out, it was clear that significant reformspolitical, economic, and social, including in the education sectorwould need to be made to satisfy the Montenegrin public, many of whom had grown weary of state-centered direction and overbearing governance from Belgrade with a Serbian flavor. The possibilities for significant, publicly responsive educational reforms appeared promising for the second half of 2001, with former Yugoslav president Slobodan Miloševic out of power and new, more democratically minded government officials at the helm both at the federal level and in Serbia, the long-dominant republic in Yugoslav affairs. Montenegro's own president, Milo Djukanovic, appeared increasingly willing to resist Serbian attempts to exert control over Montenegro's internal affairs and eager to address the needs, interests, and sentiments of Montenegrins. This included the desire of many Montenegrins to improve their educational system so that graduates of all levels of instruction would be better prepared to meet the demands of a rapidly changing labor market, to contribute to their country's economic development, and to take their part in a more locally responsive, democratic society where greater decision-making authority would rest in the hands of the Montenegrin people.


Bibliography

Amnesty International. "Europe" and "Yugoslavia (Federal Republic of)" in Amnesty International Report 2001. Available from http://web.amnesty.org/.

Berryman, Sue E. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies. Washington, DC: The World Bank, Europe and Central Asia Region, Human Development Sector, 2000.

Britannica.com. YugoslaviaThe People: Montenegro and BalkansThe People. Available from http://www.britannica.com/.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. "Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of" in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices2000. U.S. Department of State, February 2001. Available from http://www.state.gov/.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Fact-book 2000. Directorate of Intelligence, 1 January 2001. Available from http://www.cia.gov/.

Gianaris, Nicholas V. Geopolitical and Economic Changes in the Balkan Countries. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

Human Rights Watch. Federal Republic of YugoslaviaSerbia and Montenegro: Human Rights Developments. Available from http://www.hrw.org/.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. YugoslaviaEducation System. World Higher Education Database, 2000. Available from http://www.unesco.org/.

Profile of Montenegro: MontenegroCulture and Education. Available from http://www.medijaklub.cg.yu/.

MonteNet. Education in Montenegro. Available from http://www.montenet.org/.

Palairet, Michael. The Balkan Economies c. 1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Nikolic, Predrag. Reform of the Montenegrin Education: History as a Perishable Good. AIM Podgorica. Available from http://www.aimpress.org/.

South East European Educational Cooperation Network. Step by Step in Montenegro (OSI [Open Society Institute], since 1994). Available from http://www.seeeducoop.net/.

Van Praag, Nick. Press Release: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Joins World Bank, 8 May 2001. Available from http://wbln0018.worldbank.org.

World Bank Group. Yugoslavia, FR (Serb./Mont.) at a Glance, 13 September 2000. Available from http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/.

. Yugoslavia, FR (Serbia/Montenegro) Data Profile. World Development Indicators database, July 2000. Available from http://devdata.worldbank.org/.

World Bank, Human Development Network. Education Sector Strategy. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1999.

World Bank, The Task Force on Higher Education and Society. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2000.

Zivkovic, Natasa of Ministry of Education and Science, Podgorica, Montenegro. Statistical Data for Background Purposes of OECD ReviewCountry: Montenegro. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education, Centre for Educational Policy Studies, December 2000.


Barbara Lakeberg Dridi

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." World Education Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." World Education Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

"Montenegro." World Education Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro (mŏn´tənē´grō), Serbo-Croatian Crna Gora, officially Republic of Montenegro, republic (2011 pop. (2011 pop. 185,937), 5,332 sq mi (13,810 sq km), W Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Croatia in the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northwest, Serbia in northeast, Kosovo and Albania in the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea in the southwest. Podgorica is the capital and largest city.

Land, People, and Economy

Situated at the southern end of the Dinaric Alps, Montenegro is almost entirely mountainous, with a small coastline along the Adriatic. It consists of two regions: the barren karst of Montenegro proper, on the west, is separated by the Zeta River and its plain from the higher Brda region, on the east, which has forests and pastures. Lake Scutari, the nation's largest lake, is at the southern end of the karst and forms part of the Albanian border. In addition to the capital, principal cities are Cetinje, Nikšić, and Kotor, the only Adriatic port.

The Montenegrin people, who make up less than half of the population, share a language, many customs, and an Orthodox faith with the Serbs; nevertheless, they are a separate ethnic nationality with a distinct history. Serbs make up about a third of the population. Of the roughly 70% of the population that is Orthodox, 70% are members of the Serbian Orthodox Church and the rest members of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church (a newly established body that is not recognized by other Orthodox churches). Other minorities include Bosniaks, who are largely Muslim and live mainly in the Sanjak, or Sankžak, region (which straddles the border with Serbia), and Albanians, also largely Muslim. The official language under the constitution adopted in 2007 was defined as Montenegrin (formerly considered the Ijekavian dialect of Serbian). Standard Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian are also spoken and are officially recognized languages.

Historically, the raising of sheep and goats have been important occupations in Montenegro. Agriculture, mainly in the Zeta valley and near Lake Scutari, is poorly developed, with only about 6% of the country cultivated. Grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus, olives, and grapes are grown. Industry is also relatively underdeveloped, except for agricultural processing and steel and aluminum mills. Montenegro has significant deposits of bauxite, iron, and petroleum. There is also significant tourism along the coast. In the 1990s, smuggling is said to have supplied about a third of the government's revenues. There is high unemployment, and the country has a severe trade deficit. Italy, Slovenia, Greece, Hungary, and Germany are the main trading partners.

Government

Montenegro is governed under the constitution of adopted in 2007. The president, who is the head of state, is popularly elected for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is proposed by the president with the approval of the legislature. Members of the unicameral legislature, the 81-seat Assembly, are popularly elected to serve four-year terms. Administratively, Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities.

History

From the 14th to the 19th cent. the principal activity of the fiercely independent Montenegrin people was fighting the Turks, who never entirely conquered their mountain stronghold. In the 14th cent. the region constituting present Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire. After Serbia was defeated by the Turks in the battle of Kosovo Field (1389), Montenegro continued to resist and became a refuge for Serbian nobles who fled Turkish rule. The sultans did not recognize Montenegrin independence, but, although they thrice destroyed Cetinje, they never succeeded in making Montenegro tributary. However, the princes of Montenegro ruled only a small part of the present republic, the rest being governed by Turkey after 1499 and by Venice, which held Kotor.

From 1515 until 1851 the rule of Montenegro was vested in the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje; these were assisted by civil governors. Social organization, geared almost exclusively to the needs of war, was largely military and patriarchal. With Danilo I, who ruled from 1696 to 1735, the episcopal succession was made hereditary in the Niegosh family, the office passing ordinarily from uncle to nephew, because the bishops could not marry. Danilo I also inaugurated (1715) the traditional alliance of Montenegro with Russia; the emperors of Russia were henceforth considered as at least the spiritual suzerains of the vladikas.

Peter I, who reigned from 1782 to 1830, defied both France and Austria when the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797) transferred the Venetian possession of Kotor to Austria, but he failed to obtain the coveted port. However, in 1799, Sultan Selim III recognized the independence of Montenegro. Peter I instituted internal reforms and sought to end the blood feuds and lawlessness that had become a traditional way of life. He was canonized as a saint after his death. Peter II (reigned 1830–51), a gifted poet, continued his predecessor's work of reform and fostered a revival of learning and culture; aside from occasional border warfare, he lived in relative peace with his neighbors, Turkey and Austria. Danilo II, who succeeded him, secularized his principality in 1852 and transferred his ecclesiastic functions to an archbishop.

Under Nicholas I (reigned 1860–1918) Montenegro was formally recognized as an independent state at the Congress of Berlin (1878), which increased its territory and gave it a narrow outlet on the Adriatic. In 1910, Nicholas proclaimed himself king. He fought Turkey in the Balkan Wars and took Shkodër in 1913, but was forced by the pressure of the European powers to evacuate the city. Montenegro did, however, receive part of the territory claimed by newly independent Albania.

When World War I broke out (1914), the Montenegrins invaded Albania. Montenegro declared war on Austria in Aug., 1914, but late in 1915 it was overrun by Austro-German forces. In Nov., 1918, a national assembly declared Nicholas deposed and effected the union of Montenegro with Serbia. Under the centralized, Serbian-dominated government of what became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Montenegro largely ceased to exist. In 1922 the Serbian Orthodox Church was declared the official church and the Montenegrin branch was outlawed. After World War II, Montenegro was reestablished as (1946) one of the six republics of Yugoslavia, and its territory was enlarged with the addition of part of the Dalmatian coast.

As Yugoslavia began to disintegrate in the early 1990s, Montenegro and Serbia were the only republics in which the electorate kept the Communists in power and voted to remain in the Yugoslavian federation. Although Montenegro backed the Serbs militarily early in the civil war, it moved away from armed engagement and vigorously protested being grouped with Serbia when UN trade sanctions were imposed in 1992. The sanctions crippled shipping and tourism and caused economic hardship. When they were temporarily lifted in 1995, Montenegro privatized businesses and pursued a market economy.

Milo Djukanović, a supporter of increased sovereignty or independence for the republic, was elected president of Montenegro in 1997. Although many Montenegrins desired independence from Serbia, many others opposed it. Montenegro was not heavily attacked by NATO during the Kosovo crisis of 1999, but many Montenegrins sympathized with Serbia. Relations with Serbia, which grew increasingly strained in 1999 and 2000, eased after Vojislav Koštunica became (Oct., 2000) Yugoslav president, but Djukanović did not waver in his support for a looser Yugoslav federation or independence. In Nov., 1999, Montenegro adopted the German mark as legal tender along with the dinar; the mark (the euro, after Mar., 2001) became the sole currency in Nov., 2000. Djukanović's Democratic party of Socialists (DPS) won the largest bloc of seats in the Apr., 2001, elections, but failed to win a parliamentary majority.

After failed talks later in the year on the future of the Yugoslav federation, the Montenegrin and Yugoslavian presidents agreed that Montenegro would hold a referendum on independence in May, 2002. That referendum was postponed, however, by the signing in Mar., 2002, of a pact that called for restructuring the federal government. The accord led to a constitution establishing the "state union" of Serbia and Montenegro in Feb., 2003. Both republics gained increased autonomy under the new constitution; the federal government was responsible primarily for foreign policy and defense.

In Nov., 2002, Djukanović resigned as president to become prime minister. The December and February presidential elections were legally inconclusive due to low turnout. After the election law was amended to require only a majority of those voting to win the presidency, Filip Vujanović, an ally of the prime minister's, was elected in May, 2003. A proposal (Feb., 2005) by the president and prime minister that Montenegro and Serbia each recognize the other as an independent nation was rejected by Serbia as a violation of of the 2002 accord, which postponed any such move until 2006. In May, 2006, however, Montenegrin voters approved (by slightly more than 55%) independence, with ethnic Serbs strongly opposing the move.

In June, 2006, Montenegro formally declared its independence, and in the September elections following independence, Djukanović's DPS-led coalition won a majority of the seats in parliament. Djukanović resigned as prime minister the following month; Željko Šturanović, the justice minister, was chosen as his successor. A new constitution was adopted in Oct., 2007, but the Serb and Albanian opposition parties did not vote for it. Šturanović resigned in Jan., 2008, for health reasons, and Djukanović succeeded him as prime minister the following month. President Vujanović was reelected in Apr., 2008.

The Mar., 2009, elections again gave the DPS-led coalition a parliamentary majority. Djukanović resigned as prime minister in Dec., 2010, possibly as a result of European Union pressure (he had been accused of criminal activities); the finance minister, Igor Lukšić, succeeded him. The DPS-led coalition fell short of a majority in the Oct., 2012, elections, forcing it into a coalition with small ethnic minority parties; Djukanović was confirmed as prime minister in December. In the Apr., 2013, presidential election, Vujanović was narrowly reelected, but the opposition disputed the results and alleged that there were irregularities in the vote. The narrow victory was seen as a blow to the government.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

"Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro (Crna Gora) Constituent republic of Serbia and Montenegro; the capital is Podgorica (formerly Titograd). The region was part of the Serbian Empire until the Turkish invasion of 1355. Ottoman Turks decisively defeated Serbia in 1389, while Montenegro successfully resisted the Sultan's rule. By 1500, most of the territory surrendered to the Ottomans. In 1799, Turkey recognized Montenegro's independence. In 1851, a monarchy was established, and in 1878 the sovereignty of the state was formally recognized. In 1910, Nicholas I assumed the title of King and sought to expel the Turks. In 1914, he declared war on Austria, and Austro-German armies quickly overran Montenegro. Nicholas was deposed in 1918, and Montenegro united with Serbia. In 1946, Montenegro became a republic of Yugoslavia. In 1989, the local communist leadership resigned, but they were returned to power in 1990 elections. Montenegro supported Serbia in the establishment of a new, Serb-dominated federation, but four of the six Yugoslav republics voted to secede from the union. In a 1992 referendum, Montenegro voted to remain part of the rump Yugoslav federation with Serbia. In 1999, many ethnic Albanians fled to Montenegro to escape Serb oppression in Kosovo. It is a mountainous region that remains industrially underdeveloped. Much of the land is barren, and agriculture is concentrated in the Zeta Valley. Industries: tobacco, grain, stock raising, bauxite mining. Area: 13,812sq km (5331sq mi). Pop. (1998) 647,000.

http://www.montenet.org

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

"Montenegro." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (sûr´bēə, mŏn´tənē´grō), Serbian Srbija i Crna Gora, former country of SE Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula, a short-lived union (2003–6) of the republics of Serbia and the much smaller Montenegro that was also a successor state to the former Yugoslavia. Belgrade was the federal capital and largest city. See Yugoslavia.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Serbia and Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Serbia and Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/serbia-and-montenegro

"Serbia and Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/serbia-and-montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegroarrow, barrow, farrow, harrow, Jarrow, marrow, narrow, sparrow, taro, tarot, Varro, yarrow •gabbro • Avogadro • Afro • aggro •macro • cilantro • Castro •wheelbarrow •Faro, Kilimanjaro, Pissarro, Pizarro, Tupamaro •Pedro • allegro • hedgerow • velcro •escrow •metro, retro •electro • Jethro •bolero, caballero, dinero, Faeroe, pharaoh, ranchero, sombrero, torero •scarecrow • Ebro •Montenegro, Negro •repro • in vitroPyrrho • synchro •windrow • impro • intro • bistro •Babygro • McEnroe •biro, Cairo, giro, gyro, tyro •fibro • micro • maestro •borrow, Corot, morrow, sorrow, tomorrow •cockcrow • cointreau •Moro, Sapporo, Thoreau •Mindoro • Yamoussoukro •Woodrow •burro, burrow, furrow •upthrow •De Niro, hero, Nero, Pierrot, Pinero, Rio de Janeiro, sub-zero, zero •bureau, chiaroscuro, Douro, enduro, euro, Ishiguro, Oruro, Truro •Politburo • guacharo • Diderot •vigoro • Prospero • Cicero • in utero •Devereux • Jivaro • overthrow

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/montenegro

"Montenegro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro ★★★½ Montenegro—Or Pigs and Pearls 1981

Offbeat, bawdy comedy details experiences of bored, possibly mad housewife who lands in a coarse, uninhibited ethnic community. To its credit,this film remains unpredictable to the end. And Anspach, an intriguing, resourceful—and attractive—actress, delivers what is perhaps her greatest performance. 97m/C VHS, DVD . SW Susan Anspach, Erland Josephson; D: Dusan Makavejev; W: Dusan Makavejev; C: Tomislav Pinter; M: Kornell Kovac.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/montenegro

"Montenegro." VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro

PROFILE
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
DEFENSE
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-MONTENEGRO RELATIONS
TRAVEL

Compiled from the July 2007 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:

Republic of Montenegro

PROFILE

Geography

Area: Montenegro (13,938 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Connecticut.

Cities: Capital—Podgorica. Other cities—Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Herceg Novi, Kotor, Niksic, Pljevlja, Tivat, Ulcinj.

Terrain: Varied; mountainous regions with thick forests; central plains; southwestern Adriatic coast with high shoreline with very few islands off the coast.

Climate: Generally continental; Mediterranean along the coast.

People

Nationality: Noun—Montenegrin(s); adjective—Montenegrin.

Population: 630,548 (2004 Republic census).

Population growth rate: (2004) 3.5%.

Ethnic groups: (2004 census) Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 31%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, Muslim 5%, Croatian 1%, Roma 0.5%.

Religions: 2004 census) Orthodox 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4%.

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—14.2 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy—male 72.8 yrs., female 76.7 yrs.

Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: Adopted October 12, 1992.

Independence: June 3, 2006 (declared by parliament after referendum in favor of independence from state union of Serbia and Montenegro).

Government branches: Executive—president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government). Legislative—Montenegrin parliament. Judicial—Constitutional Court and Supreme Court.

Political parties: Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS), Democratic Union of Albanians (DUA), Democratic League in Montenegro (DSCG), Democratic Serbian Party (DSS), Liberal Party (LP), People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Serbian People's Party (SNS), Social Democratic Party (SDP), Socialist People's Party (SNP), Movement for Change (PZP), Albanian Alternataive (AA), Croatian Civic Initiative (HGI), Bos-niak Party (BS), Party of Serbian Unity (SSJ), People's Socialist Party (NSS), and Party of Serbian Radicals (SSR).

Suffrage: Universal at 18.

Economy

GDP: (2006) $2.230 billion ($1,778).

Real GDP growth rate: (2006/ 2005) 6.5%.

Per capita income: (2006) $3,500 ($2,790).

Inflation rate: (2006) 2.5%.

Natural resources: Bauxite.

Agriculture: 15% of GDP.

Industry: 28% of GDP.

Services: 56% of GDP.

Trade: (2006) Exports—$619.3 million ($493.6 million). Major markets—Serbia ($211.1 million; $168.2 million), Italy ($178.4 million; $142.2 million), Hungary ($55 million; $43.9 million) Greece ($52.3 million; $41.7 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($34.9 million; $27.8 million). Imports—$1.763 billion ($1.405 billion). Major suppliers—Serbia ($502.4 million; $400.4 million), Germany ($194.8 million; $155.3 million), Italy ($174.1 million; $138.7 million), Greece ($75.1 million; $59.9 million), Croatia ($72.6 million; $57.9 million).

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

Montenegro resisted the rule of the Ottoman Turks, maintaining its independence and playing off its powerful neighbors against each other. Montenegro was recognized as an independent and sovereign principality by the Great Powers of Europe assembled at the Congress of Berlin on July 13, 1878.

During World War I, Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies but was defeated and occupied by Austria. Upon Austrian occupation, the Montenegrin king, King Nikola I, and his government went into exile. In late 1918, an Assembly met in Podgorica, and under the eyes of the Serbian army, deposed King Nikola and declared unification with Serbia. The government of Montenegro in exile denounced the Assembly's action, to no avail. From 1919 to 1941, Montenegro was part of what became known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, despite armed resistance in the early 1920s to rule from Belgrade.

When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. While some Montenegrins sided with Italy, motivated by antipathy against past rule from Belgrade, the Partisan Revolt in Montenegro began early, on July 13, 1941, and initially scored impressive successes against the Italian occupiers. Throughout World War II, Montenegro served as an effective base and refuge for Tito's Partisans. After the war, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within Yugoslavia.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in a precarious position. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia all seceded from Yugoslavia. On April 27, 1992 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro joined in passing the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Though Montenegro reaffirmed its political attachment to Serbia, a sense of a distinct Montenegrgrin identity continued to thrive. The government of Montenegro was critical of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's 1998-99 campaign in Kosovo, and the ruling coalition parties boycotted the September 2000 federal elections, which led to the eventual removal of Milosevic's regime. In March 2002, the Belgrade Agreement was signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, setting forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3.

Serbia, the European Union (EU), and all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have recognized the Republic of Montenegro's independence. Montenegro joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on June 22, 2006, the United Nations (UN) on June 28, 2006, and the Council of Europe on May 11, 2007.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro's President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic's campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the pro-independence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bombing campaign in Kosovo.

In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The President of Montenegro is Filip Vujan-ovic, elected in May 2003 after two previous elections were declared void after failing to meet voter turnou requirements. Parliamentary elections were held on September 10, 2006. Both domestic and international observers assessed the elections as being generally in line with international standards. Zeljko Sturanovic became Prime Minister.

Legislature

The Montenegrin Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Montenegro.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 2/1/2008

Pres.: Filip VUJANOVIC

Prime Min.: Zeljko STURANOVIC

Dep. Prime Min. for Economic Policy: Vujica LAZOVIC

Dep. Prime Min. for European Integration: Gordana DJUROVIC

Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Milutin SIMOVIC

Min. of Culture, Sports, & Media: Predrag SEKULIC

Min. of Defense: Boro VUCINIC

Min. for Economic Development: Branimir GVOZDENOVIC

Min. of Education & Science: Slobodan BACKOVIC

Min. of Finance: Igor LUKSIC

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Milan ROCEN

Min. of Health, Labor, & Social Insurance: Miodrag RADUNOVIC

Min. for Human & Minority Rights: Fuad NIMANI

Min. of Internal Affairs & Public Admin.: Jusuf KALAMPEROVIC

Min. of Justice: Miras RADOVIC

Min. of Transport, Maritime Affairs, & Telecommunications: Andrija LOMPAR

Min. of Tourism & Environmental Protection: Predrag NENEZIC

Min. Without Portfolio: Suad NUMANOVIC

Ambassador to the US: Miodrag VLAHOVIC

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Nebojsa KALUDJEROVIC

DEFENSE

The Montenegrin Government has established a military and a Ministry

of Defense. Further reform and transformation of both institutions is underway.

ECONOMY

Montenegro has natural resources, primarily bauxite, adequate water supplies, and a climate conducive to agriculture and tourism. The establishment of the bauxite-alumina-aluminum industry after World War II provided Montenegro with a core strategic industry, which has suffered from high production costs since the first energy crisis in 1973. In the 1960s, tourism began its initial growth, largely attracting visitors from Eastern Europe. War and sanctions in the early 1990s hit Montenegro hard, and recovery only really began after the end of the Kosovo crisis in 1999 and the adoption of the deutschmark (DM) in November 1999, which largely disconnected Montenegro's economy from Serbia and the Serbian dinar.

During the last few years, Montenegro has created a business-friendly investment climate. The Euro replaced the DM on March 31, 2002. The country established the lowest corporate tax rate in the region (9%) and Standard & Poors has given Montenegro a credit rating of BB+. In 2006 inflation was 2.5%, and, according to the cost of the living index, the inflation rate in the first half of 2007 was only 1.1%. Around 85% of capital value in Montenegrin companies had been privatized by December 2006. The banking sector, telecommunications, and oil import and distribution in Montenegro are 100% privately owned. Capital structure analyses show that the state still has shares in 65 companies, and in 53.8% of those the state has more than 50% ownership.

The biggest improvement Montenegro has made has been in the area of tax policy. Montenegro introduced value added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and, as of January 2006, introduced the tax rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism). The lower VAT rate for tourism is to encourage growth in this strategic industry. Montenegro also decreased the personal income tax (PIT), and a 15% flat rate has been implemented since January 2007. Net foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2006 reached $680 million, which was six times higher than in 2004, and investments per capita are $1,100—one of the highest in Europe. In the first half of 2007 there was a 78% increase in direct foreign investments in Montenegro. According to preliminary data from the Montenegrin central bank, the amount of foreign investments from January to July 2007 was $650 million.

Tourism and tourism investments, particularly along the Adriatic coast, are booming. The independent World Travel and Tourism Council repeatedly has ranked Montenegro as the top-growing tourism destination in the world, with growth estimated at 10% annually through 2016.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Since the June 3, 2006 declaration of independence, the European Union, Serbia, and all permanent members of the UN Security Council have recognized Montenegro. The UN General Assembly voted on June 28, 2006 to admit Montenegro as a new member state, and Montenegro has indicated its desire to join the EU and NATO. Montenegro is applying for membership in various international organizations, since the union's seats in such bodies were retained by Serbia. Serbia and Montenegro dissolved their union peacefully, and both countries have stated intentions to maintain close political, economic, and cultural ties.

U.S.-MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

The United States recognized Montenegro on June 12, 2006 and formally established diplomatic relations on August 15. The U.S. maintains an Embassy in Podgorica. There are currently a variety of U.S. assistance programs in place in Montenegro to help improve the economic climate and strengthen democracy. These include initiatives to prepare the country for World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and to promote local economic growth and business development.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Last Updated: 2/19/2008

PODGORICA (E) Ljubljanska bb, 81000 POdgorica, Montenegro, +382-81-225-417, Fax +382-81-241-358, Workweek: Monday to Friday (0830-1700), Website: http://Podgorica.usembassy.gov

AMB OMS:Megan E. Gallardo
MGT:David A.Korponai
POL ECO:Marcus R. Micheli
AMB:Roderick W. Moore
CON:Gina M. Werth
DCM:Arlene Ferrill
PAO:Judith Jones
AID:Joseph Taggart
CLO:Ketevan Taggart
DAO:MAJ David M. Knych
EEO:Megan E. Gallardo
ISO:Momcilo Vukovic
ISSO:David Korponai

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

August 14, 2007

Country Description: Montenegro declared its independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on June 3, 2006, following a peaceful referendum process. Montenegro is a small Balkan country currently undergoing significant political and economic change. Tourist facilities are widely available but vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards.

Entry Requirements: U.S. citizens with tourist, official, or diplomatic passports do not require a visa for entry and stay in Montenegro for up to 90 days. If U.S. citizens decide to stay longer than 90 days they must apply for a temporary residence permit one week before the 90 day period expires. This applies to bearers of all types of U.S. passports—tourist, official, and diplomatic. The Government of Montenegro has established its Embassy in Washington and a Consulate in New York.

Travelers are required to declare currency in excess of 2,000 Euros upon entry and must obtain from customs officials a declaration form that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in confiscation of funds and criminal proceedings.

Registration with Local Authorities: Visitors staying in private accommodations other than hotels must register with the police station responsible for the area in which they are staying within 24 hours of arrival. Failure to comply may result in a fine, incarceration, and/or expulsion. Persons who fail to register may face difficulties in departing the country. Visitors staying in hotels or tourist facilities are automatically registered with the police by the hotel.

Safety and Security: Threats to American interests are rare. Any demonstrations due to work conditions or sports events have been peaceful or have experienced low levels of violence.

Montenegrin nightclubs and tourist centers are popular with foreign tourists. Patrons should be aware that these establishments can be crowded and may not comply with western standards for occupancy control and fire safety.

On January 23, 2006, a passenger train derailment in Montenegro resulted in 48 deaths and numerous casualties. Travelers in the region may wish to consider the safety of train travel in light of this accident. Initial reports indicated that the accident resulted from brake failure. The court proceeding to determine the exact cause of the accident is still ongoing.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.

Crime: Street crime is at a level similar to other large European cities. Violent crime is rare, and most commonly associated with organized crime activities. In case of emergency, the police telephone number is 92, or toll-free 112 if called from a mobile phone of any mobile provider.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Although many physicians in Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped or maintained to Western standards. Medicines and basic medical supplies are largely obtainable in privately owned pharmacies. Hospitals and private clinics usually require payment in cash for all services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Montenegro is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in Montenegro are often poorly maintained, especially in rural areas. Dangerous areas for road travel include a road called “Moraca Canyon.” This is a twisting, two-lane road that is especially overcrowded in the summer. In the winter, the “Moraca Canyon” and northern parts of Montenegro are covered with snow, which may slow down traffic. Roads that lead to the Montenegro coastal areas are in better condition, but are overcrowded during summer season. Montenegrin drivers are often reckless and aggressive, and accidents are frequent.

The use of seat belts is mandatory and cell phone usage while driving is prohibited. The new traffic law states that vehicle lights must be switched on at all times while driving. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.5 g/kg (US equivalent of 0.05) is considered intoxicated. Roadside assistance is available by dialing 9807 or +382 81 234-467 or by visiting www.amscg.cg.yu. Other emergency numbers are police: 92, fire department: 93, and ambulance: 94.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. It is advisable to negotiate a price in advance of travel by taxi between cities. Visit the website of Montenegro's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at www.visit-montenegro.org.

Aviation Safety Oversight: Since Montenegro's recent independence, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not separately assessed the Government of Montenegro's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. However, the FAA earlier assessed the Government of Serbia and Montenegro's Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with ICAO standards for oversight of Serbia and Montenegro's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's website at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Dual U.S./ Montenegrin nationals may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Montenegrin citizens. As of August 30, 2006, Montenegrin men are no longer required by Montenegrin law to perform military service.

There are occasional water and electricity outages during peak summer season due to high demand.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Montenegrin law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Montenegro are strict and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Registration and Embassy Locations: Americans living or traveling in Montenegro are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Montenegro. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Podgorica is located at Ljubljanska bb, tel: +382-81-225-417, fax: +382-81-241-358. For after hour emergencies, please call +382 (0)67 283 584. You may also visit the embassy's website at http://podgorica.usembassy.gov.

International Adoption

August 2006

The information in this section has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Please Note: The United States recognized Montenegro as an independent state on June 12, 2006, following the June 3 declaration of independence by the Montenegrin Parliament. This flyer is based primarily on current Serbian law for intercountry adoption and will be updated if Montenegro changes its laws or procedures on intercountry adoption.

The United States has an Embassy in Belgrade, Serbia and a presence in Podgorica, Montenegro. Podgorica provides only limited consular services to American citizens. The U.S. Embassy in Belgrade provides all visa services, including immigrant visa services, to Montenegrin citizens at this time.

Patterns of Immigration: Please review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/family.

Adoption Authority:
Ministry of Social Affairs
Attn: Svjetlana Sovilj
Rimski trg BB
81000 Podgorica
Phone: +381 81 482-451
Fax: +381 81 234-256 www.minrada.vlada.cg.yu

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Montenegrin adoption law requires at least one of the prospective adoptive parents to be between 30 and 60 years of age. Prospective parents must have been married for at least three years when beginning the adoption process. Unmarried persons and same-sex couples are not permitted to adopt. Prospective adoptive parents will be disqualified from adopting they have been diagnosed with are mental disorders infectious diseases. Adoptive parents with other serious health conditions must demonstrate to the Ministry of Social Affairs their ability to raise the child.

Residency Requirements: There are no residency requirements for adoption. However, current law gives priority to prospective parents who are of Montenegrin origin.

Time Frame: The length of the adoption process varies greatly. If prospective adoptive parents have located a child prior to their arrival to Montenegro, the whole process may be finished within four weeks.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: There are no adoption agencies in Montenegro. Adoptive parents must work directly with the Ministry of Social Affairs. However, U.S. citizens considering adopting from Serbia may still choose to work with an adoption agency to assist them with the U.S. portions of the process.

Adoption Fees: There are no government fees for adoption. The only fee to be paid is for the issuance of the passport for the adopted child. Currently, both Serbia and Montenegro still use passports issued by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The passport fee is around $15 depending on the exchange rate.

Adoption Procedures: Adoptive parents must first contact Ministry of Social Affairs of Montenegro. They must then submit the required documentation listed below.

If determined eligible by the Ministry of Social Affairs, prospective adoptive parents will be instructed to contact the appropriate local authority. Each municipality in Montenegro has its own authority called Center for Social Work (Centar za socijalni rad) which is part of the Ministry of Social Affairs. The Ministry will guide prospective parents to a local authority depending on the number of children awaiting adoption in that area.

Local authorities will attempt to match prospective parents with a child. When a match is made and the parents inform the local authorities to that affect, local authorities will schedule “Solemn Ceremony of Adoption (usually within few days). Local authorities will then erase the names of the biological parents from the registry books and make a new entry with the names of the adopting parents. This is also the time when the child's name can be formally changed, including the child's first name. Authorities will also issues an Adoption Decree (Resenje o usvojenju) which includes child's history and details on the adoption process, Birth certificate and passport.

Required Documents:

  • Written request signed by both prospective adoptive parents;
  • Parents’ Birth Certificates;
  • Marriage Certificate;
  • Proof of Citizenship (passport);
  • Passport copies;
  • Evidence of employment and income;
  • Evidence of assets;
  • Medical certificate including a psychiatrist's report on the parents’ suitability for the adoption process;
  • Criminal records/Police certificates.

Montenegro has not yet established an embassy or consulate in the United States. The Serbian Embassy is located at:

2134 Kalorama Rd, NW
Washington, DC 20008
Tel: (202) 332-0333
Fax: (202) 332-3933
Fax (Consular): (202) 332-5974
http://www.yuembusa.org
Serbia also has a Consulate Generalin Chicago.

U.S.Immigration Requirements: Prospective adoptive parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adoptive Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at http://travel.state.gov/famil

U.S. Consulate
Ljubljanska bb
81000 Podgorica
Montenegro
Switchboard: +381 81 225 417
Fax: +381 81 241 358
E-mail: [email protected]
http://podgorica.usconsulate.gov

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in Montenegro may be addressed to the U.S. Government Office in Podgorica. General questions regarding intercountry adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children's Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2009. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2009. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/legal-and-political-magazines/montenegro-0

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2009. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/legal-and-political-magazines/montenegro-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environment

6 Population

7 Migration

8 Ethnic Groups

9 Languages

10 Religions

11 Transportation

12 History

13 Government

14 Political Parties

15 Judicial System

16 Armed Forces

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Foreign Trade

27 Energy and Power

28 Social Development

29 Health

30 Housing

31 Education

32 Media

33 Tourism and Recreation

34 Famous Montenegrins

35 Bibliography

CAPITAL: Podgorica

FLAG: The flag, adopted in 2004, is a red banner with a gold border bearing the gold coat of arms of Montenegro.

ANTHEM: Oj svijetla majska zoro (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

MONETARY UNIT: The euro is the official currency. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of 26 May 2006, ⋹1=$1.27213 (or $1=⋹0.785927).

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in force.

HOLIDAYS: For the union of Serbia and Montenegro: New Year’s Day, 1 and 2 January; Orthodox Christmas, 7 January; Orthodox New Year, 13 January; Unification of Serbia, 28 March; Yugoslavia Day, 27 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Victory Day, 9 May; St. Vitus Day, 28 June; Serbian Uprising, 7 July.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Montenegro is located in southeastern Europe along the Adriatic Sea. The total area is 14,026 square kilometers (5,415 square miles). Total land boundary length is 614 kilometers (302 miles) and the coastline is 294 kilometers (183 miles).

Montenegro’s capital, Podgorica, is located in the lowland plain region of the south.

2 Topography

The shoreline of southwestern Montenegro is highly elevated, with no offshore islands. Limestone mountains separate the narrow strip of land that is the coastline from the inland regions. Fifty-two kilometers (32 miles) of the coastline are beaches. The largest bay is the Bay of Kotor, which is the world’s southernmost fjord. In the limestone area bordering the coastline, plants and animals are scarce. Lake Scutari (Skadarsko Jezeroi) is the largest lake in the country; it lies in a lowland region. Northern Montenegro is composed of limestone mountains. The highest peak in Montenegro is Mt. Durmitor (Bobotov Kuk), at 2,522 meters (8,274 feet). The mountain

GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Geographic Features

Area: 14,026 sq km (5,415 sq mi)

Size ranking: 155 of 194

Highest elevation: 2,522 meters (8,274 feet) at Bobotov Kuk

Lowest elevation: Sea level at the Adriatic Sea

Land Use*

Arable land: 14%

Permanent crops: 1%

Other: 85%

Weather**

Average annual precipitation: 70.1 centimeters (27.6 inches)

Average temperature in January: -0.2°c (31.6°f)

Average temperature in July: 22.6°c (72.7°f)

* Arable Land: Land used for temporary crops, like meadows for mowing or pasture, gardens, and greenhouses.

Permanent crops: Land cultivated with crops that occupy its use for long periods, such as cocoa, coffee, rubber, fruit and nut orchards, and vineyards.

Other: Any land not specified, including built-on areas, roads, and barren land.

** The measurements for precipitation and average temperatures were taken at weather stations closest to the country’s largest city.

Precipitation and average temperature can vary significantly within a country, due to factors such as latitude, altitude, coastal proximity, and wind patterns.

ranges are rich in pasturelands, forests, and mountain lakes. The Piva (Komarnica), Tara, Moraca, and Cehotina rivers and their tributaries have carved deep canyons: the Tara Canyon, which at a depth of 1,300 meters (4,265 feet) is the deepest canyon in Europe.

There are several fault lines running through the country. Earth tremors are fairly common and destructive earthquakes have occurred.

3 Climate

The Adriatic climate along the south brings hot and dry summers and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland. Podgorica is the warmest city, with an average July temperature of 26°c (80°f) and an average January temperature of 5°c (41°f). In the mountainous regions, the climate is sub-alpine. Snow on Mt. Durmitor can reach up to 5 meters (16 feet). Annual precipitation ranges from 56 to 190 centimeters (22 to 75 inches).

4 Plants and Animals

About 80% of the territory is comprised of forests, natural pasturelands, and meadows. There are 2,833 plant species and subspecies, which comprise nearly one-quarter of European plants. The animals found in Montenegro include types of hare, pheasant, deer, stag, wild boar, fox, chamois, mouflon, crane, duck, and goose.

5 Environment

Coastal waters are polluted from sewage outlets, especially in resort areas such as Kotor. Destructive earthquakes are a natural hazard.

Threatened species include Atlantic sturgeon, slender-billed curlew, black vultures, asps, bald ibis, several species of shark, the red wood ant, and beluga. At least one type of mollusk has become extinct.

National parks in Montenegro include Durmitor, Lovcen, Biogradska gora, and Lake

Skadar. Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor are UNESCO World Heritage sites.

6 Population

The population of Montenegro in 2006 was estimated at 678,000. The estimated population of Podgorica in 2003 was 136,500 for the city proper and around 170,000 for the metropolitan area.

7 Migration

Information on migration is not available for Montenegro. Prior to June 2006, Montenegro was united with Serbia to form a country called Serbia and Montenegro. During the 1960s and 1970s, Serbia and Montenegro were part of Yugoslavia. Many Serbs fled from region, seeking political and economic freedom. Yugoslavia broke apart in the early 1990s and the ethnic hostilities erupted. Thousands of people moved around from one new country to another. In 2004, nearly 250,000 Serbs and Montenegrins were refugees in Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, France, and Australia. By 2005 the net migration rate was an estimated -1.3 migrants per 1,000 population, down from 3.9 migrants per 1,000 in 1990.

8 Ethnic Groups

According to a 2003 census, 43.16% of the population of Montenegro are Montenegrins, 32% Serbs, 7.77% Bosniaks, 5.03% ethnic Albanians, 4% other Muslim Slavs, 1.1% Croatians, 0.42% Roma, and 6.56% other population.

9 Languages

Serbian is the principal language of the population; Albanian accounts for a small minority. Most people speak a Montenegrin dialect of Serbian. Some Montenegrins claim it as a separate language.

10 Religions

The ancestors of the Serbs converted to Christianity in the ninth century. They sided with Eastern Orthodoxy after the Great Schism of 1054 that split Christendom between the Eastern and Roman Churches. Islam came to the area from the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century.

About 74% of the population is Serbian Orthodox. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church also exists. Muslims account for 17.74% of the population, with smaller numbers of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Protestant denominations include Baptists, Adventists, Reformed Christians, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Methodists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Church of Christ, Mormons, and Pentecostals. There is a small Jewish community in the country.

11 Transportation

The Belgrade-Bar rail line links Serbia to Montenegro and terminates at the Adriatic Sea. Other major rail lines in Montenegro are Podgorica-Niksic and Podgorica-Skandar (Albania). The total length of railroad tracks is 250 kilometers (155.35 miles).

Two main roads in Montenegro are the Adriatic highway, which runs along the coast from Igalo to Ulcinj, and the Petrovac to Podgorica road, which runs near the Serbian border connecting northern and southern Montenegro. There are 5,227 kilometers (3,248 miles) of roads in Montenegro.

Important ports are Bar, Kotor, and Zelenika. There were five airports in Montenegro in 2004, the major one being at Podgorica. Montenegro Airlines provides domestic and international airline service.

12 History

Montenegro’s early history is as part of the medieval development of Serbia, known as Duklja or Zeta, north of Lake Scutari (Skadarsko). The Serbs, one of the large family of Slavic nations, first began settling in the Balkans around the seventh century in the areas now known as Bosnia, Kosovo, and Montenegro. Serbs have a Sarmatian (Iranian) origin. The Serbs organized several principalities, made up of a number of clans headed by leaders known as zupans. Both

the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgars tried to conquer them, but without success.

The medieval Serbian empire was ruled by Stephen Dušan the Mighty (1331–55). It extended from the Aegean Sea to the Danube (Belgrade). It controlled Macedonia, Thessaly, the Epirus, and Albania. The Serbian Church obtained its own patriarchate, with its center in Peć. Serbia became an exporting land with abundant crops and minerals. Dušan was crowned tsar of “the Serbs and Greeks” in 1346. He gave Serbia its first code of laws. His attempt to conquer the throne of Byzantium failed, however, when the Byzantines called on the Ottoman Turks for help in 1345. Even though Dušan withstood the attacks from the Turks twice, the gates to Europe had been opened. The Ottoman Turks had started their campaign to conquer the Balkans.

Resistance to the Turks Montenegro was subjected to continuous fighting for 400 years, from the mid-1400s to the mid-1800s. Living in a very harsh mountain territory, the Montenegrins were natural and fierce fighters. Not even the large Turkish armies could conquer them. Until 1851, Montenegro was ruled by bishops. The bishops’ role strengthened the Montenegrins’ loyalty to the Orthodox Church and prevented their conversion to Islam. In 1696, Danilo Petrović Njegoš (1696–1737) was elected Vladika (bishop), and his family ruled Montenegro until its unification with Serbia into the first Yugoslavia.

The Montenegro area was like a mountain fortress with some limited access from the Adriatic coast where the Turks had taken hold. In 1714 the Turks were able to occupy the capital of Cetinje, but they could not sustain their hold because of difficulties in getting supplies and constant guerrilla attacks by the Montenegrins.

Meanwhile, Peter the Great of Russia had recognized Montenegro’s independence in 1715. He viewed it as an allied Orthodox country valuable in his struggle against the Ottoman Empire. Danilo was successful in opposing the Turks until his death in 1737. His successors had to struggle with the blood feuds among key Montenegrin families. Peter I (1782–1830) was able to bring together the feuding factions and defeat the Turks in 1799. Peter also obtained from the Turks a formal recognition of Montenegro’s independence. During the Napoleonic wars, Montenegro, Russia’s ally, fought the French over Dubrovnik. In 1806, Montenegro occupied the Gulf of Kotor, thus gaining access to the Adriatic sea. But Montenegro had to relinquish Kotor to Austria following the Congress of Vienna decisions in 1814–15.

The 19th Century Peter I died in 1830. Peter II, considered by many to be the greatest Serbian poet, established a senate of 12 members and centralized his authority. However, his successor, Danilo II (1851–60), effected a radical change by proclaiming himself hereditary prince. Danilo died in 1860 of a wound inflicted by an exiled Montenegrin rebel.

Danilo’s nephew Nicholas took over as the last independent ruler of Montenegro from 1860 until the 1918 unification with Serbia and the first Yugoslavia. During his 58-year reign Nicholas gained the nickname of “Father-in-Law of Europe” by marrying six daughters into Italian, Russian, Serbian, and German royal families. Through a series of wars with Turkey (1862, 1876, 1912, and 1913), Nicholas succeeded in more than doubling Montenegro’s territory. Following the 1913 Balkan War, Montenegro and Serbia divided the Sandžak area and became neighbor states, both primarily populated by Serbs.

The first Montenegrin parliament met in 1905. Following the successful Balkan wars, Serbian-Montenegrin relations grew closer. By 1914, the two Serbian kingdoms proposed a union in which they would share their armed forces, foreign policy, and customs while maintaining their separate royal dynasties. World War I (1913–18) interrupted this process. Montenegro’s poor defense led to Austrian occupation for the better part of the war.

Montenegro as Part of Yugoslavia A Montenegrin Committee for National Union was formed by exiles in Paris who supported the 20 July 1917 Corfu Declaration on the establishment of a Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The Montenegrin Committee felt the time had come to unite with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. King Nicholas opposed such a move and was deposed. On 24 November 1918, a resolution was passed in favor of Montenegro’s union with the Kingdom of Serbia. Thus, Montenegro became part of the first Yugoslavia on 1 December 1918.

During World War II (1939–45), Italy controlled Montenegro and attempted unsuccessfully to revive the old kingdom. In the post-World War II Socialist Federative Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito reestablished Montenegro as a separate republic due to strong Montenegrin representation in the circle of his closest collaborators. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, most Montenegrins supported Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević. With the demise of Yugoslavia, Montenegro joined Serbia in forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Independence On 14 March 2002, Serbia and Montenegro agreed to form a new federal union, called Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro’s prime minister, Milo Djukanović, was reluctant to sign the agreement. He had been the leader of the drive for independence for Montenegro. However, the country of Serbia and Montenegro came into existence in 2003. The constitution provided for either of the two member republics to vote for independence in three years (2006).

A referendum on full independence for Montenegro was held on 21 May 2006. To be accepted internationally, a 55% majority was required for a “yes” vote. The vote on independence was 55.5% in favor. Voter turnout was 86.3%. Serbia became the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, inheriting its seat in the United Nations (UN) and seats in other international institutions. Montenegro had to apply for UN and European Union (EU) membership on its own. Serbia inherited legal claim to the UN-administered province of Kosovo.

Montenegro’s independence cuts Serbia off from the sea; therefore, the two nations need to cooperate on sharing the former union’s assets.

Montenegrins may be given favorable treatment to use Serbia’s hospitals, universities, and other public services. National elections in Montenegro were held in September 2006.

13 Government

The constitution for the former union of Serbia and Montenegro allowed the member republics to hold independence referendums in 2006, which Montenegro did. Following the yes vote on independence in May 2006, Montenegro began the process of forming a government.

Representatives in Montenegro’s assembly (parliament) hold office for four years. The president of Montenegro presents candidates for prime minister and justices of the Constitutional Court to the assembly. The president also grants pardons; proposes the holding of referenda; and represents the country at home and abroad.

There are 21 municipalities (opština) in Montenegro.

14 Political Parties

Elections for Montenegro’s parliament were held on 21 October 2002. Eleven parties were represented: the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), 30 seats; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), 5; Civic Party of Montenegro, 1; non-partisans, 2; Socialist People’s Party of Montenegro, 19; Serbian People’s Party of Montenegro (SNS), 6; People’s Party of Montenegro, 5; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, 4; Democratic Union of Albanians, 1; and the Democratic League of Montenegro (SPP), 1. Following independence, elections were held in September 2006. Seats in the parliament were

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Name: Filip Vujanovic

Position: First president of newly independent republic

Took Office: May 2006

Birthdate: 1 September 1954

Education: University of Belgrade

Spouse: Married

Children: Two daughters and one son

Of interest: Travels freely in Podgorica with friends but without security guards.

distributed as follows: Coalition for a European Montenegro 41, SNS 12, a coalition (SPP/NS/Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro— DSS) 11, Movement for Changes (PZP) 11, and others, 6.

On 11 May 2003, Filip Vujanovic of the DPS was elected president. As of 2006, Milo Djukanović was serving as prime minister.

15 Judicial System

The republic of Montenegro followed the system of separation of powers: the judicial, legislative, and executive branches are independent of one another. The judiciary is autonomous and independent. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review. Appointments to the judiciary are for life.

16 Armed Forces

The following information on armed forces pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro and was reported prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. Active armed forces numbered approximately 65,300 in 2005, supported by 250,000 reservists. The army had 55,000 active personnel. The navy had 3,800 active personnel, including 900 Marines. The air force had 6,500 active members. The defense budget in 2005 totaled $706 million.

17 Economy

During the UN economic sanctions (1992–95), economic activity in the former Yugoslavia was extremely limited. Formal lifting of these sanctions occurred in October 1996. In 2005 the GDP growth rate in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 5%.

In Montenegro, inflation fell from 7.5% in 2003 to 5% in 2004. Economic reforms were launched in 2003. They were driven by the goal of EU integration. By 2006, the reforms had not yet led to higher levels of growth or reduced unemployment. In 2003, the poverty rate was recorded at 12.2%, but more than a third of the population was considered poor, living just above the poverty level.

18 Income

The following information on income pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. In 2005, the per capita GDP for Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at $2,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 17% of GDP, industry 25%, and services 58%.

19 Industry

Industry was the primary engine of economic development in Montenegro in the second half of the 20th century. During that period, the growth of the power and energy sector, metallurgy (steel and aluminum), and transportation infrastructure formed the basis for overall economic growth and development.

Components of the Economy

This pie chart shows how much of the country’s economy is devoted to agriculture (including forestry, hunting, and fishing), industry, or services.

Industries in Montenegro include metal processing, engineering, wood processing, textile manufacturing, chemicals, leather and footwear, apparel, household appliances, construction, and machinery.

Montenegro processes and finishes agricultural products. The country has fish-processing plants, flour mills, dairies, slaughterhouses, bakeries, breweries, juice factories, fruit processing factories, grape processing plants and wine cellars, medicinal herb processing plants, tobacco and cigarette factories, and confectioners, among other industries.

20 Labor

The following information on labor pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. The labor force in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 3.22 million in 2005. The unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 31.6%.

The minimum employment age is 16 although younger children frequently work on family farms. As of 2005, there was no national

minimum wage rate. On average, the full-time monthly wage in the public sector that year was $181, while the average wage in the private sector was $250.

21 Agriculture

Two of Montenegro’s main agricultural products are honey and high-quality wines (Vranac, Krstac, among others). Montenegro also produces many vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers) and fruits (plums, apples, grapes, citrus fruits, and olives). Other crops include blueberries, edible mushrooms, and wild sage.

About 15% of Montenegro’s land area is arable. In 2000, 20% of the labor force was engaged in agriculture. During 2002–04, crop production was 10% higher than during 1999–2001.

Agriculture contributed an estimated 17% to GDP in 2005. Major crops produced in 2004 in Serbia and Montenegro included (in thousands of tons): corn, 6,287; wheat, 2,746; sugar beets, 2,643; potatoes, 1,098; and grapes, 490.

22 Domesticated Animals

The following information on animal husbandry pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. In 2005, the livestock population included 3,550,000 pigs and hogs, 1,796,600 sheep, 1,230,000 head of cattle, 182,000 goats, 40,000 horses, and 17,464,000 poultry. Total meat production that year was 848,240 tons; milk, 1,852,000 tons.

23 Fishing

Statistics recorded for Serbia and Montenegro note that the total catch in 2003 was 3,665 tons, 86% from inland waters. Common carp accounts for much of the inland catch.

24 Forestry

Forests and woodlands cover 720,000 hectares (1,779,192 acres) in Montenegro, accounting for 54% of the total surface area of the republic. Of this figure, the major part (572,000 hectares; 1,413,469 acres) is in the northern region of the country. Total roundwood production in Serbia and Montenegro in 2004 was 3,520,000 cubic meters (124.3 billion cubic feet). In 2004, exports of forest products in Serbia and Montenegro amounted to nearly $139.1 million. Imports amounted to $352.9 million.

25 Mining

Mining in Serbia dates back to the Middle Ages, when silver, gold, and lead were extracted.

The following information on mining pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. Serbia and Montenegro mined lead ore, bauxite, copper ore, silver, gold, alumina, magnesium, palladium, platinum, and selenium. Bauxite mining, alumina-refining, and aluminum-smelting industries were located primarily in Montenegro. Among the industrial minerals produced were asbestos, bentonite, ceramic clay, fire clay, feldspar, pumice, lime, magnesite, mica, kaolin, gypsum, quartz sand, salt, nitrogen, caustic soda, sodium sulfate, sand and gravel, and stone.

26 Foreign Trade

The following information on foreign trade pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro’s independence in 2006. In 2004 exports reached $3.2 billion. In the same year, imports were almost triple, at $9.5 billion. Most of the import commodities included machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, and raw materials. The imports mainly came from Germany (18.5%), Italy (16.5%), Austria (8.3%), Slovenia (6.7%), Bulgaria (4.7%), and France (4.5%). Exports included manufactured goods, food and live animals, and raw materials, and largely went to Italy (which received 29% of total exports), Germany (16.6%), Austria (7%), Greece (6.7%), France (4.9%), and Slovenia (4.1%).

27 Energy and Power

According to Montenegrin government sources, three power plants—the Perucica and Piva hydroelectric plants and the Pljevlja thermoelectric plant—produce approximately 3.0 billion kilowatt hours per year. Montenegro has the capacity to produce 2.7 million metric tons of coal.

28 Social Development

A social insurance system for Serbia and Montenegro provided old age, disability, and survivorship benefits. Montenegro provides its own system for sickness and maternity benefits.

Workers’ compensation, unemployment benefits, and family allowances are also available.

Traditional gender roles keep women from enjoying equal status with men and few occupy positions of leadership in private business. However, women are active in human rights and political organizations.

29 Health

The government provides health care to its citizens. In the union of Serbia and Montenegro, there were approximately 228 health institutions and about 3,000 other clinics, mostly private, in 2005. As of 2004, there were an estimated 20 physicians per 100,000 people.

Average life expectancy in 2005 for Serbia and Montenegro was 74.73 years. As of 2004, there were approximately 10,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Serbia and Montenegro. There were an estimated 100 deaths from AIDS in 2003.

At the beginning of 1996, there were 3,124,000 dwellings in Serbia and Montenegro, with an average of 3.4 persons per dwelling. Housing area at that time averaged 20 square meters (215 square feet) per person. In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro counted about 2,790,411 households with an average of 2.89 people per household.

31 Education

Education is compulsory for nine years of primary school. This may be followed by three years of secondary school, with students having the option to attend general, vocational, or art schools. In 2001, about 43% of children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in some type of preschool program in the union of Serbia and Montenegro. Primary school enrollment in 2001 was estimated at about 96%. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 82%. It is estimated that about 96% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 20 to 1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was about 14 to 1.

Montenegro has one university with 15 faculties. In 2001, it was estimated that about 36% of the post-secondary-age population was enrolled in higher education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 96.4%.

32 Media

In 2003, there were an estimated 243 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people in Serbia and Montenegro. About 313,500 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 338 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

Television stations included TV Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks and a satellite channel; TV IN; Montenegrin Broadcasting Company (MBC), private; ntv Montena, private; TV Elmag, private; and TV Pink M—Montenegrin offshoot of Belgrade-based network. The following radio stations were operating: Radio Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks; Radio Elmag, private; Antena M, private; and Radio D, private.

In 2004, Serbia and Montenegro had about 297 radios and 282 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 27.1 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 79 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet.

In 1791, the first Serbian-language newspaper was published in Vienna, Austria. The dailies with the largest circulation in Serbia and Montenegro (as of 2002) were Politika (Politics, 300,000) and Vecernje Novosti (Evening News, 169,000). Other newspapers that are essentially controlled by the government, included (with 2002 circulation) Borba (85,000), Jedinstvo (6,090), Dnevnik (61,000), and Pobjeda (19,400). There are several minority language newspapers.

The Montenegrin media enjoyed greater freedom than their Serbian counterparts. Many private outlets managed to break the former state monopoly. In Montenegro, the following media were publishing in 2005: Vijesti, private daily; Pobjeda, daily; Dan, daily; Republika, daily; and Monitor, private weekly.

33 Tourism and Recreation

Rich architecture, museums, galleries, cathedrals, parks, rivers, and the many beaches are just some of the attractions that bring visitors to Montenegro. Montenegro has four national parks; the largest are the Lake of Skadar (Skadarsko) Basin and Durmitor. Montenegro has two UNESCO world heritage sites: Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor. Popular sports in Montenegro are tennis, football, volleyball, water sports, bocanje (a kind of bowling), skiing, and rafting. There are numerous sand and pebble beaches on the Montenegrin coastline. It is one of the warmest and sunniest tourist regions in Europe. Although classified as a Mediterranean country, Montenegro is a mountainous region. Areas with elevations of 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) or higher comprise 60.5% of the nation’s territory.

In 2003, there were 599,430 visitors to Montenegro, of whom 141,787 were foreign tourists. There were 3,976,266 hotel rooms booked, of which foreign visitors accounted for 915,738.

34 Famous Montenegrins

Prince Danilo II of Montenegro (reigned 1851–60) introduced a new legal code in 1855 that guaranteed civil and religious freedoms. King Nikola I Petrović Njegoš (1841–1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and as a prince from 1860 to 1910. He was also a poet who wrote Onamo, ‘namo, the popular anthem of Montenegro. King Alexander of Yugoslavia (1888–1934) was assassinated in Marseille, France. Prince Paul of Yugoslavia (1893–1976) ruled as a regent for Peter II (1923–1970) from 1934 to 1941 and was forced into exile after signing a secret pact with the Nazi government.

Important Montenegrin poets of the 20th century include Risto Ratkovic and Radovan Ziogovic. Important prose writers include Mihailo Lalic, whose realistic novels portray Montenegro’s place in World War II. Painters include Petar Lubarda, Milo Milunovic, Dado Djuric, Branko Filipovic-Filo, Vojo Stanic, and Uros Toskovic.

35 Bibliography

BOOKS

Behnke, Alison. Serbia and Montenegro in Pictures. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2007.

Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land.San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2002.

Frucht, Richard (ed.). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005.

Houston, Marco. Nikola and Milena, King and Queen of the Black Mountain: The Rise and Fall of Montenegro’s Royal Family. London: Leppi Publications, 2003.

King, David C. Serbia and Montenegro. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2005.

Klemencic, Matjaz. The Former Yugoslavia’s Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Oxford, Eng.: ABC-Clio, 2003.

Schuman, Michael. Serbia and Montenegro. 2nd ed. New York: Facts On File, 2004.

Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2002.

WEBSITES

Government Home Page. www.vlada.cg.yu/eng/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

World Heritage List. whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/. (accessed on January 15, 2007).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

"Montenegro." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro

Compiled from the September 2006 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Republic of Montenegro

PROFILE

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

DEFENSE

ECONOMY

FOREIGN RELATIONS

U.S.-MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

TRAVEL

PROFILE

Geography

Area: Montenegro (13,938 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Connecticut.

Cities: Capital—Podgorica. Other cities—Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Herceg Novi, Kotor, Niksic, Pljevlja, Tivat, Ulcinj.

Terrain: Varied; mountainous regions with thick forests; central plains; southwestern Adriatic coast with high shoreline with very few islands off the coast.

Climate: Generally continental; Mediterranean along the coast.

People

Nationality: Noun—Montenegrin(s); adjective—Montenegrin. Population: 630,548 (2004 Republic census).

Population growth rate: (2004) 3.5%.

Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 31%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, Muslim 5%, Croatian 1%, Roma 0.5% (2003 census).

Religions: Orthodox 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4% (2003 census).

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—14.2 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy—male 72.8 yrs., female 76.7 yrs.

Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: Adopted October 12, 1992.

Independence: June 3, 2006 (Declared by parliament after referendum in favor of independence from state union of Serbia and Montenegro).

Government branches: Executive—president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government). Legislative—Montenegrin parliament. Judicial—Constitutional Court and Supreme Court.

Political parties: Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS), Democratic Union of Albanians (DUA), Democratic League in Montenegro (DSCG), Democratic Serbian Party (DSS), Liberal Party (LP), Liberal Alliance in Montenegro (LSCG), People’s Party of Montenegro (NS), Serbian People’s Party (SNS), Social Democratic Party (SDP), Socialist People’s Party (SNP).

Suffrage: Universal at 18.

Economy

GDP: (2005) $2.046 billion (1,644).

GDP growth rate: (2005/2004) 4.1%.

Per capita income: (2005) $3,284 (2,638).

Inflation rate: (2005) 1.8%

Natural resources: Bauxite.

Agriculture: 15% of GDP.

Industry: 28% of GDP.

Services: 56% of GDP.

Trade: (2005) Exports—$453.17 million (408 million). Major markets—Serbia ($193.47 million; 155.4 million), Italy ($139.1 million; 111.7 million), Greece ($45.5 million; 36.6 million), Slovenia ($29.25 million; 23.5 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($24.2 million; 19.6 million). Imports—$1.273 billion (1.023 billion). Major suppliers—Serbia ($363.54 million; 292 million), Germany ($122.4 million; 98.3 million), Italy ($116.5 million; 93.6 million), Greece ($64.74 million; 52 million).

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

Montenegro resisted the rule of the Ottoman Turks, maintaining its independence and playing off its powerful neighbors against each other. Montenegro was recognized as an independent and sovereign principality by the Great Powers of Europe assembled at the Congress of Berlin on July 13, 1878.

During World War I, Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies but was defeated and occupied by Austria. Upon Austrian occupation, the Montenegrin king, King Nikola I, and his government went into exile. In late 1918, an Assembly met in Podgorica, and under the eyes of the Serbian army, deposed King Nikola and declared unification with Serbia. The government of Montenegro in exile denounced the Assembly’s action, to no avail. From 1919 to 1941, Montenegro was part of what became known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, despite armed resistance in the early 1920s to rule from Belgrade.

When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. While some Montenegrins sided with Italy, motivated by antipathy against past rule from Belgrade, the Partisan Revolt in Montenegro began early, on July 13, 1941, and initially scored impressive successes against the Italian occupiers. Throughout World War II, Montenegro served as an effective base and refuge for Tito’s Partisans. After the war, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within Yugoslavia.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in a precarious position. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia all seceded from Yugoslavia. On April 27, 1992 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro joined in passing the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Though Montenegro reaffirmed its political attachment to Serbia, a sense of a distinct Montenegrin identity continued to thrive. Outspoken criticism of Serbian conduct of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina boosted the continuing strength of Montenegrin distinctiveness. The government of Montenegro was critical of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic’s 1998-99 campaign in Kosovo, and the ruling coalition parties boycotted the September 2000 federal elections, which led to the eventual removal of Milosevic’s regime. In March 2002, the Belgrade Agreement was signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, setting forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro’s relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3.

Serbia, the European Union (EU), and all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have recognized the Republic of Montenegro’s independence. Montenegro joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on June 22, 2006 and the United Nations (UN) on June 28, 2006.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro’s President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic’s campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the pro-independence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bombing campaign in Kosovo. In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The President of Montenegro is Filip Vujanovic, elected in May 2003 after two previous elections were declared void after failing to meet voter turnout requirements. Parliamentary elections are to be held on September 10, 2006.

Legislature

The Montenegrin Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Montenegro.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 12/11/2006

President: Filip VUJANOVIC

Prime Minister: Zeljko STURANOVIC

Dep. Prime Min. for Economic Policy: Vujica LAZOVIC

Dep. Prime Min. for European Integration: Gordana DJUROVIC

Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Milutin SIMOVIC

Min. of Culture, Sports, & Media: Predrag SEKULIC

Min. of Defense: Boro VUCINIC

Min. for Economic Development: Branimir GVOZDENOVIC

Min. of Education & Science: Slobodan BACKOVIC

Min. of Finance: Igor LUKSIC

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Milan ROCEN

Min. of Health, Labor, & Social Insurance: Miodrag RADUNOVIC

Min. for Human & Minority Rights: Fuad NIMANI

Min. of Internal Affairs & Public Administration: Jusuf KALAMPEROVIC

Min. of Justice: Miras RADOVIC

Min. of Transport, Maritime Affairs, &Telecommunications: Andrija LOMPAR

Min. of Tourism & Environmental Protection: Predrag NENEZIC

Min. Without Portfolio: Suad NUMANOVIC

Ambassador to the US: Miodrag VLAHOVIC

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Nebojsa KALUDJEROVIC

DEFENSE

The Montenegrin Government has established a military and a Ministry of Defense. Further reform and transformation of both institutions is underway.

ECONOMY

Montenegro has natural resources, primarily bauxite, adequate water supplies, and a climate conducive to agriculture and tourism. The establishment of the bauxite-alumina-aluminum industry after World War II provided Montenegro with a core strategic industry, which has suffered from high production costs since the first energy crisis in 1973.

In the 1960s, tourism began its initial growth, largely attracting visitors from eastern Europe. War and sanctions in the early 1990s hit Montenegro hard, and recovery only really began after the end of the Kosovo crisis in 1999 and the adoption of the deutschmark (DM) in November 1999, which largely disconnected Montenegro’s economy from Serbia and the Serbian dinar. During the last few years, Montenegro has created a business-friendly investment climate.

The Euro replaced the DM on March 31, 2002. Standard & Poors rates the republic’s credit at BB+, and inflation in 2005 was only 1.8%. Almost all banks are privatized, as are 87% of the formerly state-owned businesses and property. Net foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2005 reached $450 million or four times higher than in 2004; investments per capita are $772, the highest in Europe.

Tourism and tourism investments, particularly along the Adriatic coast, are booming. The independent World Travel and Tourism Council has repeatedly ranked Montenegro as the top-growing tourism destination in the world, with growth estimated at 10% annually through 2016.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Since the June 3, 2006 declaration of independence, the European Union, Serbia, and all permanent members of the UN Security Council have recognized Montenegro. The United States recognized Montenegro on June 12 and formally established diplomatic relations on August 15. The UN General Assembly voted on June 28, 2006 to admit Montenegro as a new member state, and Montenegro has indicated its desire to join the EU and NATO. Montenegro is applying for membership in various international organizations, since the union’s seats in such bodies were retained by Serbia.

Serbia and Montenegro dissolved their union peacefully, and both countries have stated intentions to maintain close political, economic, and cultural ties.

Foreign Aid

There are currently a variety of U.S. assistance programs in place in Montenegro to help improve the economic climate and strengthen democracy. These include initiatives to prepare the country for World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and to promote local economic growth and business development.

U.S.-MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

PODGORICA (E) Address: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro; Phone: +381-81-225-417; Fax: +381-81-241-358; Workweek: Monday to Friday (0830-1700); Website: www.podgorica.usconsulate.gov.

PO: Arlene Ferrill
POL:Alan Carlson
CON:Miriam Lacho
MGT:Miriam Lacho
AID:Joseph Taggart
CLO:Ketevan Taggart
EEO:Miriam Lacho
ISO:Momcilo Vukovic
ISSO:David Korponai
PAO:Judith Jones

Last Updated: 9/17/2006

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet : January 18, 2007

Country Description: Montenegro declared its independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on June 3, 2006. Montenegro is a small Balkan country currently undergoing significant political and economic change. Tourist facilities are widely available but vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards.

Entry Requirements: U.S. citizens with tourist, official, or diplomatic passports do not require a visa for entry and stay in Montenegro for up to 90 days. If U.S. citizens decide to stay longer than 90 days they must apply for temporary residence permit one week before the 90 day period expires. This applies to bearers of all types of U.S. passports – tourist, official, and diplomatic. The Government of Montenegro is in the process of establishing its Embassy in Washington. Travelers are required to declare currency in excess of 2,000 Euros upon entry and must obtain from customs officials a declaration form that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in confiscation of funds and criminal proceedings.

Registration with Local Authorities: Visitors staying in private accommodations must register with the police station responsible for the area in which they are staying within 24 hours of arrival. Failure to comply may result in a fine, incarceration, and/or expulsion. Persons who fail to register may face difficulties in departing the country. Visitors staying in hotels or tourist facilities are automatically registered with the police by the hotel.

Safety and Security: Threats to American interests are rare. Any demonstrations due to work conditions or sports events have been peaceful or have experienced low levels of violence. Montenegro nightclubs and tourist centers are popular with foreign tourists. Patrons should be aware that these establishments can be crowded and may not comply with western standards for occupancy control and fire safety. On January 23, 2006, a passenger train derailment in Montenegro resulted in 48 deaths and numerous casualties. Travelers in the region may wish to consider the safety of train travel in light of this recent accident. Initial reports indicated that the accident resulted from brake failure.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Crime: Street crime is at a level similar to other large European cities. Violent crime is rare, and most commonly associated with organized crime activities. Car theft occurs. In case of emergency, the police telephone number is 92.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.

Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Although many physicians in Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped and maintained to Western standards. Medicines and basic medical supplies are largely obtainable in privately owned pharmacies. Hospitals and private clinics usually require payment in cash for all services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.

For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en/.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Montenegro is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in Montenegro are often poorly maintained, especially in rural areas. Dangerous areas for road travel include a road called “Moraca Canyon.” Moraca Canyon in Montenegro is a twisting, two-lane road that is especially overcrowded in the summer. In the winter, the “Moraca Canyon” and northern parts of Montenegro are covered with snow, which may slow down traffic. All roads that lead to the Montenegro coastal areas are in a better condition, but overcrowded during summer season. Montenegrin drivers are often reckless and aggressive.

The use of seat belts is mandatory and cell phone usage while driving is prohibited. The new traffic law states that vehicle lights must be switched on at all times while driving. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.5 g/kg (U.S. equivalent of 0.05) is considered intoxicated. Roadside assistance is available by dialing 987. Other emergency numbers are police: 92, fire department: 93, and ambulance: 94.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. It is advisable to negotiate a price in advance of travel by taxi between cities. Visit the website of Montenegro’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at www.visit-montenegro.org.

Aviation Safety Oversight: Since Montenegro’s recent independence, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not separately assessed the Government of Montenegro’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. However, the FAA earlier assessed the Government of Serbia and Montenegro’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with ICAO standards for oversight of Serbia and Montenegro’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s website at http://www.faa.gov.

Special Circumstances: Dual U.S./Montenegro nationals may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Montenegrin citizens.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.

Persons violating Montenegrin law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Montenegro are strict and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children’s Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Consulate Location: Americans living or traveling in Montenegro are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Montenegro. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.

By registering, American citizens make it easier for the embassy or consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Podgorica is located at Ljubljanska bb. The embassy telephone number is 381-81-225-417. Please use the same number for after hour emergencies. The fax number is 381-81-241-358. The website is http://podgorica.usembassy.gov.

International Adoption : July 2006

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Please Note: The United States recognized Montenegro as an independent state on June 12, 2006, following the June 3 declaration of independence by the Montenegrin Parliament. This flyer is based primarily on current Serbian law for intercountry adoption and will be updated if Montenegro changes its laws or procedures on intercountry adoption.

The United States has an Embassy in Belgrade, Serbia and a presence in Podgorica, Montenegro. Podgorica provides only limited consular services to American citizens. The U.S. Embassy in Belgrade provides all visa services, including immigrant visa services, to Montenegrin citizens at this time.

Patterns of Immigration: Please review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Adoption Authority:
Ministry Of Social Affairs
Attn: Svjetlana Sovilj
Rimski trg BB
81000 Podgorica
Phone: +381 81 482-451
Fax: +381 81 234-256
www.minrada.vlada.cg.yu

Eligibility Requirements for Adoptive Parents: Montenegrin adoption law requires at least one of the prospective adoptive parents to be between 30 and 60 years of age. Prospective parents must have been married for at least three years when beginning the adoption process. Unmarried persons and same-sex couples are not permitted to adopt. Prospective adoptive parents will be disqualified from adopting they have been diagnosed with are mental disorders infectious diseases. Adoptive parents with other serious health conditions must demonstrate to the Ministry of Social Affairs their ability to raise the child.

Residency Requirements: There are no residency requirements for adoption. However, current law gives priority to prospective parents who are of Montenegrin origin.

Time Frame: The length of the adoption process varies greatly. If prospective adoptive parents have located a child prior to their arrival to Montenegro, the whole process may be finished within four weeks.

Adoption Agencies and Attorneys: There are no adoption agencies in Montenegro. Adoptive parents must work directly with the Ministry of Social Affairs. However, U.S. citizens considering adopting from Serbia may still choose to work with an adoption agency to assist them with the U.S. portions of the process.

Adoption Fees: There are no government fees for adoption. The only fee to be paid is for the issuance of the passport for the adopted child. Currently, both Serbia and Montenegro still use passports issued by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The passport fee is around $15 depending on the exchange rate.

Adoption Procedures: Adoptive parents must first contact Ministry of Social Affairs of Montenegro. They must then submit the required documentation listed below.

If determined eligible by the Ministry of Social Affairs, prospective adoptive parents will be instructed to contact the appropriate local authority.

Each municipality in Montenegro has its own authority called Center for Social Work (Centar za socijalni rad) which is part of the Ministry of Social Affairs. The Ministry will guide prospective parents to a local authority depending on the number of children awaiting adoption in that area. Local authorities will attempt to match prospective parents with a child.

When a match is made and the parents inform the local authorities to that affect, local authorities will schedule “Solemn Ceremony of Adoption (usually within few days).

Local authorities will then erase the names of the biological parents from the registry books and make a new entry with the names of the adopting parents.

This is also the time when the child’s name can be formally changed, including the child’s first name. Authorities will also issues an Adoption Decree (Resenje o usvojenju) which includes child’s history and details on the adoption process, Birth certificate and passport.

Documentary Requirements:

  • Written request signed by both prospective adoptive parents;
  • Parents’ Birth Certificates;
  • Marriage Certificate;
  • Proof of Citizenship (passport);
  • Passport copies;
  • Evidence of employment and income;
  • Evidence of assets;
  • Medical certificate including a psychiatrist’s report on the parents’ suitability for the adoption process;
  • Criminal records/Police certificates.

Montenegrin Government Offices in the United States: Montenegro has not yet established an embassy or consulate in the United States. The Serbian Embassy is located at:

2134 Kalorama Rd, NW
Washington, DC 20008
Tel: (202) 332-0333
Fax: (202) 332-3933
Fax (Consular): (202) 332-5974
http://www.yuembusa.org/

U.S. Immigration Requirements: Prospective adoptive parents are strongly encouraged to consult USCIS publication M-249, The Immigration of Adopted and Prospective Adopting Children, as well as the Department of State publication, International Adoptions. Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Additional Information: Specific questions about adoption in Montenegro may be addressed to the U.S. Government Office in Podgorica. General questions regarding intercountry adoption may be addressed to the Office of Children’s Issues, U.S. Department of State, CA/OCS/CI, SA-29, 4th Floor, 2201 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818, toll-free Tel: 1-888-407-4747.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2008. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2008. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/legal-and-political-magazines/montenegro

"Montenegro." Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2008. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/legal-and-political-magazines/montenegro

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

Montenegro

Type of Government

Montenegro is a republic with a parliamentary form of government. It has a unicameral parliament with eighty-one members; a prime minister and cabinet with executive authority; a largely ceremonial presidency; and an independent judiciary.

Background

Montenegro is one of the smallest countries in Europe, with a population of approximately 680,000 (about the same size as Memphis, Tennessee). The Montenegrin people are closely related to the Serbs, their neighbors to the northeast. Montenegrin territory became part of the first Serbian nation late in the twelfth century, when Stefan Nemanja (ruled 1167–1196), the founder of Serbia, conquered Montenegro and other surrounding lands and declared Serbia’ independence from the Byzantine Empire.

Montenegro emerged as an independent country in the second half of the fourteenth century, as the Serbian empire was crumbling in the face of the invading Ottoman Turks. The rugged mountains and dense forests of Montenegro made the area an ideal refuge for Serbs who were fleeing from the Turks, and a group of Serbian refugees set up their own small state there. Although Montenegro fought an almost continuous war with the Ottoman Turks, the Turks never succeeded in conquering Montenegro.

Montenegro remained an independent country until 1918, when it joined with Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia, Vojvodina, and Bosnia and Herzegovina to form the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The country changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.

Montenegro was an integral part of Yugoslavia until the 1990s. Even when Yugoslavia began to collapse in the late 1980s, and when Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina each declared independence in 1991 and 1992, Montenegro remained loyal to Serbia and to what remained of Yugoslavia.

Montenegrins’ attachment to Serbia began to fade during the late 1990s. In 2002 Serbia and Montenegro signed a new agreement dissolving Yugoslavia and creating the Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation in which both countries had a great deal of independence. The Montenegrin government agreed to this new union reluctantly, and only on the condition that it could hold a referendum on complete independence in three years. This referendum was held on May 21, 2006, and in it just over 55 percent of Montenegrins voted to sever all remaining ties with Serbia and become an independent state.

Government Structure

Montenegro is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral parliament containing eighty-one seats. Representatives are elected to parliament for four-year terms based on a party list proportional representation system. In this type of election voters endorse a list of candidates prepared by a political party or coalition, rather than individual candidates. Seats in the parliament are divided among the parties and coalitions based on the number of votes received by each list. All of Montenegro is considered to be a single election district, so every voter in the country chooses from the same lists of candidates. Seventy-six of the eighty-one seats in the parliament are allocated based on the results of this nationwide voting. The remaining five representatives are elected under a different set of rules by voters in parts of Montenegro where the population is primarily Albanian.

Once the parliament has been elected its membership selects a prime minister and cabinet. Together the prime minister and cabinet hold executive power, including the authority to conduct the country’s foreign policy. The president, who is elected by the people to a five-year term, has little practical power; his position as head of state is largely ceremonial.

The Montenegrin court system is separate from the political process. There are two top-level courts in the country: the Constitutional Court, which determines whether the laws and other actions of the government are constitutional; and the Supreme Court, which is the highest appeals court in the country. Judges on the Constitutional Court have nine-year terms, while the judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life.

Political Parties and Factions

A number of political parties are represented in the Montenegrin parliament. As of the 2006 elections the largest group in parliament was the Coalition for a European Montenegro, which includes the Democratic Party of Socialists and the left-wing Social Democratic Party. The Democratic Party of Socialists is directly descended from the League of Communists of Montenegro, which ruled the country from 1945 until 1991. The leader of the Democratic Party of Socialists, Milo Djukanovic (1962–), ruled Montenegro for fifteen years, first as its prime minister (a position that he assumed on his twenty-ninth birthday), then as its president from 1998 to 2002, and then as prime minister again from 2002 to 2006. Although the membership of the Democratic Party of Socialists is largely made up of former communists, it is now a relatively liberal, center-left party that favored independence from Serbia and that favors closer integration with the European Union.

The major opposition to the Democratic Party of Socialists has come from parties dominated by ethnic Serbians, including the Socialist Peoples Party, the Peoples Party, the Democratic Serbian Party, and the Serbian List coalition, which includes the Serbian Peoples Party and some other, smaller parties. Prior to the 2006 referendum on Montenegrin independence these parties campaigned primarily on their desire to maintain Montenegro’s union with Serbia; it is unclear as yet whether the parties will disband or transform now that the issue of Montenegrin independence is settled.

The other major opposition party in Montenegro is the Movement for Change. This group was founded in 2002 by several economists and university professors as a nonpartisan civic organization. The Group for Change, as it was then called, was designed to encourage economic and political reform. In 2006 the organization transformed itself into a full-fledged political party. Competing in its first parliamentary elections, it won eleven seats that year.

Major Events

Djukanovic surprised many Montenegrins when he announced that he was stepping down as prime minister and retiring from politics in October 2006. However, as of 2007 he continued to head the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists and maintained a great deal of influence with high-level politicians from that party.

Twenty-First Century

Political and judicial corruption have continued to plague Montenegro, but the country is well on its way to becoming a full member of the European community. Montenegro joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the United Nations in June 2006, and entered negotiations with the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization about joining those bodies.

BBC News. “Q & A: Montenegro Votes.” (accessed September 12, 2007).

Benson, Leslie. Yugoslavia: A Concise History . New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Country Updates: Montenegro . Amsterdam, Netherlands: European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity, 2006.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: Governments. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: Governments. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-2

"Montenegro." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: Governments. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-2

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

MONTENEGRO

social structure and economic life
internal political life
foreign policy
bibliography

Montenegro, meaning "black mountain," has been shaped by its rugged mountainous terrain, which facilitated the existence of its tribal social structure, long impeded the development of centralized political authority, shaped its economy, and enabled it to evade foreign domination. In the nineteenth century, Montenegro was a small province on the border of the Ottoman and Habsburg empires. Population statistics vary, but estimate 60,000 to 80,000 inhabitants in midcentury, climbing to 185,000 in 1900.

social structure and economic life

Montenegrin society was largely patriarchal and militaristic. It was divided into family-based clans that warred against each other and engaged in ritual blood feuds. If one member of a clan killed a member of another, this murder had to be avenged by taking the life of one of the murderer's fellow clansmen, often spurring a chain reaction of revenge deaths and creating lawlessness. This lack of cooperation among clans also inhibited the development of trade, contributing to the generally poor economic situation. Other problems included a paucity of arable land that created a persistent problem of hunger and the lack of adequate infrastructure. The principal source of national income was animal husbandry, and people used pack animals for travel and communication. These poor conditions led to the raiding of neighboring territories and cattle rustling. Many Montenegrins also emigrated to Serbia, Russia, or Austria-Hungary. As education was not readily available, Montenegrin leaders encouraged working and studying abroad. They also moderately improved economic and cultural conditions by developing a trading class and schools.

internal political life

Political life was dominated by the attempt of its leaders to establish a centralized state, to which Montenegro's social structure posed a substantial obstacle. Only two central authorities existed: the office of civil governor, held by the Radonjić family, and the bishopric of Cetinje, held by the Petrović family and passed from uncle to nephew. The power of both was limited by the lack of an army, administration, justice system, and ability to collect taxes. Their quest to establish central authority and institutions met with resistance from clan leaders, whose only motivation to accept a single authority stemmed from the constant threats of invasion and domination by the Ottoman Empire. The tribal leaders, who enjoyed the loyalty of the people, successfully evaded centralization for much of the century.

The first steps toward centralization were taken in the eighteenth century by Bishop Peter I (1782–1830), who tried to create peace among the clans, establish a judiciary, and gather taxes. In 1798 he convened an assembly of tribal chiefs in Cetinje, which adopted Montenegro's first code of laws (written by Peter I) and established a central court to carry out administrative and judicial functions. However, the tribes refused to pay the taxes necessary to support these measures. Thus, centralization was not achieved, and tribal warfare, raiding, and looting continued. When Peter I died in 1830 a power struggle erupted between the Petrović and Radonjić families over the successor of the bishopric. Arguing that Peter I's nephew, Rade (1813–1851), was not a suitable heir as he was a minor, was not a monk, and had no formal education, the Radonjićs tried to establish superiority of the governorship to the bishopric. However, they were unable to win the support of clan chiefs, who preferred an


ecclesiastical leader to a governor. The Petrović family ultimately prevailed and abolished the office of the governor, killing or banishing the members of the Radonjić family. The bishop thus became the undisputed secular and religious leader of Montenegro. Rade eventually became a monk and adopted the name Peter II Petrović Njegoš. He took steps to establish a regular administrative apparatus and to limit the power of the tribes by creating a senate and a guard to serve police and judicial functions. However, he too lacked a military to enforce these measures. Clans continued to revolt, sometimes even forming alliances with foreign leaders in neighboring territories. Peter II kept the country together, but did not succeed in establishing the supremacy of the central government. He is perhaps better remembered as a poet and for his most famous work, The Mountain Wreath (1874).

Peter II died in 1851 and was succeeded by his nephew Danilo. Danilo II (1826–1860) secularized the office of bishop and proclaimed himself prince in 1852. After enduring an attack from local Ottoman authorities, Danilo overcame opposition from his senate to build a stronger, unified military. In 1855 he promulgated a law code based on principles of equality before the law and protection of rights of private property. When Danilo was assassinated in 1860 Nicholas I (1841–1921) assumed the throne. He proclaimed himself king in 1910 and ruled until the end of World War I. Under his reign, Montenegro doubled in size and gained access to the Adriatic Sea. Even though each successive Montenegrin ruler succeeded in securing greater central authority, the tribes remained a strong, even dominant, force in the land.

foreign policy

While struggling to establish authority at home, Montenegrin leaders concurrently contended with securing the province's borders, which were not formally recognized. The Porte (as the Ottoman Empire was known in diplomatic circles) claimed that Montenegro was an integral part of its empire, but was not able to collect taxes or to influence internal administration. Montenegro's mountainous terrain helped it to defy foreign occupation. The province enjoyed quasi independence and an ambiguous status with relation to the Ottoman Empire, which persistently battled to subjugate the territory. Peter I fought against Ali Pasha of Janina (1819–1821) during the Ottoman campaign and continued to battle the Porte during the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829. Peter II battled Ottoman troops in 1832; Danilo II did in 1852 and 1858; and Nicholas I constantly entered into conflicts with the Porte. Montenegro also actively pursued its own foreign policy ambitions of securing an outlet to the Adriatic Sea and expanding its territory to the neighboring Herzegovinian and Albanian lands, where it often encouraged uprisings.

Both Montenegro's foreign and internal policies were inextricably linked to the interests and actions of the Great Powers. Montenegro's role in great-power politics was disproportionate to its size and economic weight. Especially important was its close and advantageous relationship with Russia, dating to 1715. Russia supported Montenegrin leaders in their battles against the Ottomans and their quest to centralize power at home. Russian financial subsidies were one of the leaders' few resources in the absence of tax collection. Russian wheat often fed the starving Montenegrin population. Russian envoys also assisted in the establishment of stronger centralized institutions. During Peter II's reign, Russia's influence in Montenegrin affairs became particularly significant. Peter II visited the Russian tsar several times during the 1830s, where he was even named bishop. Russia's support allowed Montenegrin rulers to take strides toward centralizing their authority.

Danilo II shifted orientation to Austria after a Habsburg ultimatum to Constantinople resulted in the return of Montenegrin territory captured during an 1852 attack by the Bosnian governor Ömer Pasha Latas (1806–1871). However, during the Crimean War (1853–1856), Austria-Hungary thwarted an opportunity to capture Ottoman territory. Montenegro made territorial gains during an uprising in Herzegovina in 1858, which it retained with the support of France and Russia. It also won the Porte's recognition of the boundary between the principality and the empire. During the Bosnian uprising of 1875 Nicholas I and the Serbian Prince Milan (1854–1901) were under pressure from the public and Pan Slav circles to take advantage of Ottoman weakness for further territorial gains. Montenegro and Serbia both desired liberation from the Ottoman Empire and territorial expansion. The countries were natural partners due to their shared Serbian nationality and Orthodox religion. Peter I encouraged Montenegrin tribes to aid the Serbian leader Karadjordjević during the Serbian national uprising. Peter II Njegoš advanced a sense of wider Serbian identity, drawing on the legend of the Battle of Kosovo (1389) and the common mission of expelling local Turks, expressed in The Mountain Wreath. Likewise, Serbia's national objectives aimed at union with Montenegro. However, despite their common political objectives and cultural identity, an undercurrent of rivalry existed between the two for control of South Slav affairs.

In 1876 Serbia and Montenegro waged war against the Porte. When their defeat became imminent, Russia came to their aid, leading to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. As a result of this conflict, Montenegro's territory more than tripled with the Treaty of San Stefano. Fearing the upset of balance of power and opposing strong Russian influence in the Balkans, Great Britain and Austria-Hungary called for the revision of the treaty at the Congress of Berlin (1878). Although it did not receive as much territory as it had wanted and its coastline was placed under Habsburg super-vision, Montenegro's independence was formally recognized and it obtained a port on the Adriatic. In 1912 Montenegro commenced hostilities against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the First Balkan War. Allied with Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece, it defeated the empire, permanently eliminating it from Balkan affairs. Montenegro then joined Serbia and Greece against Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War, as a result of which it gained part of the Sandžak of Novi Pazar, previously an Austrian possession, and thus acquired a common frontier with Serbia. Persistently the object of great-power interest and intrigue, Montenegro managed to maneuver among the European powers until its defeat and occupation by Austria-Hungary during World War I.

See alsoBalkan Wars; Crimean War; Ottoman Empire; Russo-Turkish War; Serbia.

bibliography

Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. Vols. 1 and 2. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1983.

Jelavich, Barbara, and Charles Jelavich. The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804–1920. Seattle, Wash., 1977.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996.

Palairet, Michael R. The Balkan Economies c. 1800–1914: Evolution without Development. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1997.

Stavrianos, L. S. The Balkans since 1453. 1958. London: Hurst, 2000.

Jovana L. KneŽeviĆ

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-1

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Montenegro

MONTENEGRO.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Historically Montenegro ("Black Mountain") represents one of the most turbulent spots in the Balkans; at first a semi-independent territory, it became a part of the Serbian medieval state in the twelfth century, and finally fell to the Ottomans in 1499. With a land-mass of only 5,333 square miles and a population of some 650,000, early-twenty-first-century Montenegro could soon become the smallest independent country yet to emerge from the ruins of what used to be Yugoslavia. This might come as part of the continuing political recomposition of southeastern Europe, following the unification of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, the process would require the dissolution of Montenegro's union with Serbia, which may be difficult to accomplish because of the sharp division that splits the country into two equal political camps. This conflict echoes the dilemma that has plagued the Montenegrins since the beginning of the twentieth century: is their country a nation-state, a geographical territory, or a historical bastion of Serbdom? Meanwhile, the Montenegrin economy is largely dependent on foreign aid and the country is vulnerable to all kinds of outside pressures. These factors will probably decide Montenegro's political future in the same way they have shaped its past during the twentieth century.

As Serbia's staunch ally at the beginning of World War I, Montenegro fully coordinated its military operations with the Serbs in 1914 and 1915. However, when Nikola Petrović (1860–1918), the king of Montenegro—unable to hold out against superior Austrians—disbanded his army and left for France, his opponents, the pro-Serbian "Whites," pushed for the unification with Serbia. Despite some opposition by the king's supporters, the so-called Greens, the Great National Assembly voted in favor of the unification in November 1918, declaring that "the Serbian people in Montenegro are of one blood, one language, and one aspiration, one religion and custom with the people that live in Serbia and in other Serbian regions." After forty years of formal independence from the Ottoman Empire, Montenegro thus united with Serbia—soon to become a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929) under the Serbian Karadjordjević dynasty.

After King Alexander Karadjordjević (1888–1934) introduced new internal borders in 1931 Montenegro became known as Zetska Banovina. A new player appeared on its political scene: Communists carried off 40 percent of the votes for the National Assembly in the election of 1920. The popularity of the new, "Russian" ideology was not entirely unexpected. From the first half of the eighteenth century to World War I Russia had supported Montenegro politically as well as financially, paying for its army, administration, infrastructure, and even food. Many Montenegrins traditionally claimed that they and the Russians were "one hundred million strong."

At the beginning of World War II, backed by the Italians who occupied Montenegro, the separatist Greens declared independence on 12 July 1941. The very next day, however, a popular uprising took place and most of Montenegro was temporarily liberated. Due to the disunity among the insurgents—the "internationalist" (communist) partisans were pitted against the "nationalist" Chetniks—the two-pronged, liberation/civil war was extremely bloody, and Montenegro lost almost 14 percent of its prewar population of four hundred thousand.

After 1945 Montenegro became one of Yugoslavia's six constituent republics. The victorious Communists supported the Greens' idea of the Montenegrin non-Serbian identity, and officially developed the concept of the Montenegrin nation. In economic terms, Montenegro remained poor, second only to the province of Kosovo, despite a number of Potemkin village projects, including two international airports built only sixty miles apart. In 1948—when the Yugoslav leadership split with Joseph Stalin—it again became clear how strong Soviet influence was in Montenegro: 20 percent of all pro-Soviet political prisoners in Yugoslavia were Montenegrins, although they made up less than 2.5 percent of the population.

After Yugoslavia's violent breakup in 1991 Montenegro joined Serbia in the "rump" Yugoslavia. However, in 1997 President Milo Djukanović (b. 1962) distanced himself from his political mentor Slobodan Milošević (1941–2006) of Serbia and became a factor in the U.S. and European attempts to depose Milošević.AfterMilošević's fall in 2000 Serbia and Montenegro once again changed the nature of their relationship and formed a virtual confederation in 2002. Montenegro remains a sharply divided land: the traditional White/Green political conflict has multiplied in a number of various formal divisions (Serbian Orthodox Church versus noncanonical Montenegrin Orthodox Church; Montenegrin Academy of Arts and Sciences versus Doclean Academy).

See alsoMilošević, Slobodan; Serbia; World War I; World War II; Yugoslavia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dedijer, Vladimir, et al . History of Yugoslavia. Translated by Kordja Kveder. New York, 1974.

Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land. Rockford, Ill., 2002.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K, and New York, 2000.

Bogdan RakiĆ

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 26, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-0

"Montenegro." Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. . Retrieved October 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.