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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Serbia and Montenegro
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 10,677,290
Language(s): Serbian, Albanian
Literacy rate: 93.0%
Area: 102,350 sq km
GDP: 8,449 (US$ millions)
Number of Television Stations: 771
Number of Television Sets: 2,750,000
Television Sets per 1,000: 257.6
Number of Radio Stations: 309
Number of Radio Receivers: 3,150,000
Radio Receivers per 1,000: 295.0
Number of Individuals with Computers: 240,000
Computers per 1,000: 22.5
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: 400,000
Internet Access per 1,000: 37.5

Background & General Characteristics

Yugoslavia was born the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes on December 1, 1918. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disintegrated into the independent constituent republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Yugoslavia in 1991. On March 14, 2002, Yugoslavia ceased to exist. What remained of Yugoslavia emerged as the Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro. Within three years of that date, Montenegro will decide whether or not to seek complete independence. The Serbian province of Kosovo, with an Albanian majority, threatens to secede from Serbia. What remains of modern Serbia could be much less in territory than Serbia's pre-1914 boundaries.

Serbia's history dates to the early history of the Balkan Peninsula. From the eighth to the eleventh centuries, either the Bulgars or the Byzantine Empire controlled the Serbs.

Modern Serbia's sister republic, Montenegro, was incorporated into the first Serbian kingdom during the Middle Ages. Montenegro (or Black Mountain) successfully remained independent of the Ottoman Turks even though Serbia was conquered.

The Paris peace treaties ending World War I accepted the emergence of a south Slav state. Roman Catholic Slovenes and Croats were merged with Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Montenegrins, and Muslim Albanians. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was renamed Yugoslavia (South Slavs) in 1929. In the twentieth century three men, King Alexander II, Marshal Josip Tito, and Serbian Communist Party leader Slobodan Milosevic respectively gave birth to, shaped, and destroyed modern Yugoslavia.

The first Serbian newspapers were published in Kragujevac and in Novi Sad: they were Novine Serbske (1834) and Vestnik (1848) respectively. Serbia's first daily newspaper was published in Novi Sad, the Srbski Dvenik (1852). Montenegro's first newspaper was Crnogorac (1871). Prizren (1880) was Kosovo's first newspaper. The number of newspapers in Serbia increased after the promulgation of the 1889 Constitution granting freedom of the press. Obrenovic King Alexander suspended Serbi's press freedom in 1893. Under Peter I (1903-1921) the 1889 Constitution was replaced with the Constitution of 1903, which restored freedom of the press. In 1905, 20 daily were published in Belgrade, but by 1910 the number of print media numbered over 775 publications.

After World War I the newly created Yugoslavia was given a new constitution in 1920. The Constitution of 1920 was in essence the Serbian Constitution of 1903, expanded to include Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia but not in a federal union of states. Serbia remained the dominant power in the governmental structure and in the Parliament that centralized power in Belgrade. Parliamentary representation and religious freedom were written into the Constitution. In spite of the Constitution's failure to offer adequate protection for individual rights, speech, press, and public meetings, new print media quickly surfaced, spreading rumors about the rise of Communism and revolution. Yugoslavia's new Parliament responded by issuing a decree banning all print media published by the Communist press, including the newspapers Boda and Kommunist. Radical Party print media continued to publish. Other major Yugoslav political party newspapers included Rec for the Independent Democratic Party and the Croatian Republican Peasant Party's newspaper Slobodnidom. An estimate of the number of print media in Yugoslavia between the World Wars varies from over six hundred to over eleven hundred publications. Yugoslavi's first news agency Avila.

The political instability between Yugoslavia's competing political, religious, and ethnic groups forced King Alexander II to suspend the 1920 Constitution in 1929 and declare a royal dictatorship. The public accepted the political change with blame initially placed on the politicians and the press. The press was perceived as having abused its rights, and its members were placed under police control. Any newspaper expressing a distasteful opinion was confiscated. Editors had to confine themselves to reporting the news. All opinions were submitted to the government for review. Acts of terrorism, sedition, or the dissemination of Communist propaganda were punished with either the death penalty or a long prison sentence. Freedom of the press was eliminated. Political parties based on a regional or religious basis were declared illegal. The king assumed the power to remove judges. Yugoslavia became a virtually one-party state. The press was effectively muzzled.

The royal dictatorship ended when Alexander II was assassinated in Marseilles, France, during a state visit in 1934. The late king's cousin, Paul, governed Yugoslavia as regent until Alexander's eldest son, Peter II, came of age in 1941. During the regency Yugoslavia published 50 daily newspapers. Most had small circulations. The major Serbian dailies were Politika, Vreme, and Pravada. Many of Alexander's controversial policies continued, including the banning of political parties. Constitutional reform in Yugoslavia was stalemated over whether or not to give Croatia autonomy. When an agreement was reached on Croatian autonomy, the Slovenes and Serbs vigorously protested because they were still ruled from Belgrade. As the signs of another war grew larger, Yugoslavia found itself more financially dependent on a resurgent Germany. In an attempt to maintain Yugoslav neutrality, Prince Regent Paul signed an alliance with Hitler's Germany. A mutiny within the Yugoslav military against the German alliance forced the Regent from power, and 17-year-old Peter II was proclaimed of age. Peter II reigned less than two weeks before fleeing Yugoslavia to escape the advancing German military. Yugoslavia quickly surrendered and was reduced in size, with regions given to Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Italian-controlled Albania. Independent republics under Italian control were created in Montenegro and Croatia. What was left of Yugoslavia was divided between Italy and Germany.

During World War II King Peter II maintained a government-in-exile in Great Britain. Within Yugoslavia two antifascist organizations emerged fighting the Germans and Italians, the Chetniks under General Draza Mihailovic and the Partisans under Josif Tito. The Chetniks were anti-Communist and supported the king. The Partisans were pro-Communist and directed from Moscow. Borba, long suppressed under royal orders, emerged as the official newspaper for the Partisans. Belgrade's liberation in 1944 restored many of Yugoslavia's print media to active publication, among them Politika. The majority of publications were pro-Communist. Yugoslavia's future was determined by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who gave British support to Tito and the Communists, believing that Mihailovic's Chetniks had not been sufficiently antifascist during the war. In 1945 the monarchy was dissolved in a rigged vote. Yugoslavia became a Communist state.

Under Communist rule Yugoslavia was divided into six republics, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, and the Serbian autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Under the new Federal People's Republic Constitution, private ownership of the media and business was ended. Press organizations were nationalized along with printing houses, paper mills, and radio transmitters. The press was placed under the Ministry of Information and served as a propaganda tool of the Communist state. A 1946 press law limited the right of political parties to publish, but allowed the government to supply newsprint, equipment, and other materials to the print media. Any publication encouraging revolt, spreading false information, and the threat to harm the socialist state was to be closed and the authors punished. When Tito broke with Moscow in 1948, some of the harsher aspects of press restrictions were loosened. The Communist party in Yugoslavia oversaw the print and broadcast media, but after 1948 allowed more latitude in what was published and broadcast. During the Tito regime it was estimated that Yugoslavia published over 2,500 newspapers and 1,500 periodicals. Each republic and autonomous province was allowed the right to print its own newspapers and have its own broadcast stations. Yugoslavia's newspapers with the largest circulation during the Communist era were the Belgrade-published Vecernje Novosti, PolitikaPolitika Ekspres, and Sport. Major Croatian-published newspapers were Vecernjji List, Sportske Novosti, and Vjesnik. Other major Yugoslav newspapers included the Slovenian Delo, the Bosnian Oslobodenje, and the Dalmatian Slobodna Dalmatija.

In 1974 Yugoslavia adopted a new constitution, which guaranteed freedom and the rights of man and citizens, limited only by the equal freedom and rights of others and the community. The criminal code allowed the punishment of counterrevolutionary activity (Article 114), for hostile propaganda (Article 118), and association to promote hostile activity (Article 136). The 1974 Law on the Cinema banned films whose human, cultural, and educational aims were contrary to a socialist state. Some argue that freedom of expression was evident in Tito's Yugoslavia, as long as it did not enter print or was broadcast. In the 1970s student newspapers were the print media most often denied the right to publish by government decree. In the late 1980s the newspapers of Slovenia challenged Yugoslavia's conventional media norms about self-censorship and published discussions about the future of the Yugoslav and Slovenian republics, and interviews with former Communist official and exiled writer Milovan Djilas. By 1987 Yugoslavia had 2,825 newspapers with a circulation of 2.7 million. Only five newspapers had a circulation of over 100,000, among them, Borba, printed in both Latin and Cyrillic script, and Politika, printed in Cyrillic, but primarily a Belgrade newspaper. Yugoslavia's major newspapers published under the influence and guidance of the pro-Communist Socialist Alliance and the Association of Journalists. Self-censorship was the norm.

In 1987 changes were underway, as Serbia came under the increasing authoritarian nationalism of Serbia Communist Party chief Slobodan Milosevic, first as the president of Serbia (1989-1997) and later as the president of Yugoslavia (1997-2000). TV Belgrade installed its own news network in Kosovo rather than rely on Kosovo's television station. Newspaper editors for Duga, NIN, IntervjuPolitika, and Svet were replaced on Milosevic's orders. The increasing cost of print media forced Yugoslavs to turn to electronic media for information. Federal Yugoslav media by 1989 included only Borba and Tanjung (news agency). In 1990 Croatia established its own state media. In the same year a new press law abolished press censorship and permitted private ownership of the press and the right of foreign journalists to enter Yugoslavia. As each Yugoslav republic severed ties with Belgrade, new constitutions offered press and speech freedoms except in Serbia. With Tito's death in 1980, it was clear that the republics of Yugoslavia lacked sufficient reasons to stay united in a federal state. Centuries of cultural, ethnic, and religious differences were not resolved during the royal dictatorship of Alexander II or the Communist rule of Marshal Tito. The institution of monarchy might have served as a unifying force for Yugoslavia's diverse populations except for the fact that Tito had discredited it, and Yugoslavia's last king, Peter II, died in exile at 49 in less than dignified circumstances. Peter II's son, Crown Prince Alexander, resided in London and seemed undecided about his role in a rapidly changing Yugoslavia.

In Milosevic controlled Serbia, Belgrade denied frequency broadcast rights to television and radio stations. High licensing fees forced many broadcast media to close or forced new entrants to reconsider. The high cost of print media allowed the Milosevic controlled airwaves to spread propaganda by appealing to Serbian national interests. Attempts to close anti-Milosevic newspapers witnessed the emergence of new newspapers to counter government influence and regulation. The NATO intervention in Bosnia and Kosovo, and NATO's destructive bombing of Serbia ultimately contributed to Milosevic's downfall. Milosevic's election defeat to Vojislav Kostunica in 2000 was a shock to the president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This time Milosevic misunderstood the will of the Yugoslav people. Kostunica's assumption of the Federal Yugoslav presidency provided the opportunity to restructure the remaining Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces within the context of a multiparty democracy. The desire of Montenegro to declare its independence was discouraged by the United States and the European Union, once Milosevic was gone from power and transported to The Hague for trial as a war criminal.

Based on the March 14, 2002, accord signed by representatives of the Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro, the two republics are semi-independent states that share a common defense and foreign policy but maintain separate economies, currencies, and customs services. Serbia's population is over 10 million people, while Montenegro's population numbers only 650,000 citizens. Serbia and Montenegro will jointly share the United Nations seat of the former Yugoslavia with their United Nation's representative alternatively between a Serb and a Montenegrin. Serbia has two autonomous provinces, Kosovo in the southwest and Vojvodina in the north.

The Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro share a chief of state, prime minister, cabinet, and a court. Article 36 of Yugoslavia's Constitution guarantees freedom of the press and other forms of public information. Citizens have the right to express and publish their opinions in the mass media. The publication of newspapers and public dissemination of information by other media shall be accessible to all, without prior approval, after registration with the competent authorities. Radio and television stations shall be set up in accordance with the law. Under Article 37 the right to publish false information, which violates someone's rights or interests must be corrected with damage compensation and entitlement. The right to reply in the public media is guaranteed. Article 38 prohibits censorship of the press and other forms of public information. No one may prevent the distribution of the press or dissemination of other publications, unless it has been determined by a court decision that they call for the violent overthrow of the constitutional order or violation of the territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, violate the guaranteed rights and liberties of man and the citizen, or foment national, racial, or religious intolerance and hatred. Freedom of speech and public appearance is guaranteed in Article 39. A citizen's right to publicly criticize the work of the government and other agencies and officials, to submit representations, petitions, and proposals, and receive an answer is guaranteed in Article 44. Article 45 offers freedom of expression of national sentiments and culture, and the use of one's mother tongue.

The existing bicameral federal assembly (Savezna Skupstina ) consists of a Chamber of Republics with 40 seats evenly divided between Serbs and Montenegrins serving four-year terms. The lower house or Chamber of Deputies has 138 seats with 108 allocated to Serbs and 30 to Montenegrins. Under the 2002 arrangement the Savezna Skupstina will be replaced with a unicameral legislature. A president of Serbia and Montenegro will be chosen by the Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro who will propose a council of ministers of five: foreign affairs, defense, international economic affairs, internal economic affairs, and protection of human and minority rights. A Court of Serbia and Montenegro has constitutional and judicial functions reviewing the actions of the Council of Ministers and bringing the judicial systems into accord. In addition to the federal assembly, each republic has its own president, prime minister, and popularly elected legislature.

There are over 2,650 publications in the Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro2,511 in Serbia and 165 in Montenegro. Daily newspapers printed in Serbia (with 1995 circulations in parentheses) are the Federal/ Serbian daily Borba (85,000) and the Serbian morning dailies Narodne Novine (7,000), Politika (260,000), Politika Ekspres (130,000), and Privredni Pregled (7,000).Vcernje Novosti (300,000) is an evening daily published in Serbia. Koha is an Albanian language morning daily with a circulation of 4,000. The Hungarian language daily Magyar Szo has a circulation of 12,500. Four newspapers are associated with political parties, Srpska Rec (Serbian Renewal Movement), Velika Srbija and Istok (Serbian Radical Party), and Bujku (Democratic Alliance of Kosovo). Politika, Ekspres, and Novosti are considered close to the government but are frequent critics of it. During the Milosevic era the newspapers Borba, Jedinstvo, Dnevnik, and Pobjeda were considered to be under the direct influence of the Communist government. Montenegro's leading newspaper is Pobjeda with a circulation of 25,000.

Major general interest periodicals all published in Serbia (with 1995 circulations in parentheses) are the fortnightlies Duga (160,000) and Srpska Rec (19,000),and the weeklies Intervju (25,000), Nin (35,000), and Vreme (35,000). Montenegro's major general interest periodical is Monitor (7,000). Special interest periodicals are the fortnightly women's magazine Bazar (60,000), the weeklies Ekonomska Politika (8,000), Illustrovanna Politika (65,000), and the children's publication Politikin Zabavnik (40,000). The Journalists Federation publishes the fortnightly magazine Madjunarodna Politika (3,000). The International Economic Institute publishes the quarterly Medjunarodni Problemi (1,000). The labor publication Rad (10,000) is published monthly. The Tanjung News Agency publishes the monthly Yugoslav Life (30,000). The bimonthly illustrated Vojska has a circulation of 50,000, and the biweekly student published magazine Student has 10,000 readers. Additional weekly periodicals include Nedeljni Telegraf, IntervjuSvedok, Svet, ProfilStudentDT PecatPolisLiberalOnogost Standard, ArgumentNovi komunistNedeljni Dnevnik, Revija 92, and Stop. There are over 150 newspapers and magazines published in the minority languages of Albanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Ruthann, Turkish, Bulgarian, and Romani (Gypsy). Fifty-two are printed in Albanian. The Republic of Serbia and the autonomous province of Vojvodina fund 16 minority publications.

Article 35 of the Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of the press and public information. The media are free to provide uncensored information to the people without government consent. However, during the elections of 2000, the Montenegrin government forbade the state-run media from covering the elections.

In 1998 Serbia and Montenegro had 27 dailies with a circulation of 830,000. Six hundred and forty-three other newspapers published with a circulation of 3,880,000. The print media included 647 periodicals, and 4,777 book titles were published with 958 of them by foreign authors. In Serbia the print media does not have the same influence as the broadcast media. There are 13 major dailies printed in Serbia, 7 of which are privately owned, Blic, Nasa BoraDemocratijaDnevni Telegraf, Danas, 24 Casa, and Gradjanin. Three Serbian newspapers have strong ties to the government, Politika, Ekspres, and Novosti. Major Serbian weekly newspapers areVreme, Nin, and Nedeljni Telegraf. There are 7 daily newspapers publishing in the province of Kosovo. With the end of the Milosevic era the nation's leading 15 newspapers are Borba, PolitikaVecernje Novosti Ekspres, PobjedaDnevnikNasa BorbaBlicDemokratija, GradjaninDnevni Telegraf24 CasaDanasVijesti, and NT Plus. Magyar Szo and Magyarsag are the autonomous province of Vojvodina's Hungarian dailies. Kosovo's leading newspapers are Jedinstvo (Serbian) and the Albanian language's Bujku and Koha Ditore. Major regional newspapers are Narodne Novine, Lid, andPuls.

In Montenegro the print media were allowed greater freedom to publish as part of the Montenegrin government's overtures to the European Union and the United States in a strategic plan to become independent of Serbia (Yugoslavia). In 2000 Montenegro had 135 print publications. Montenegro has 3 major dailies, Probjeda, considered a pro-government newspaper, Vijesti, a privately owned publication, and the Socialist People's Party newspaper Dan. Two major weeklies in Montenegro are the Monitor and Grafiti. Foreign publications and foreign broadcasting are freely available to Montenegrins.

Economic Framework

The Republics of Serbia and Montenegro are comprised of Serbs (62.6 percent), Albanians (16.5 percent), Montenegrins (5 percent), Hungarians (3.3 percent), and a variety of ethnic groups comprise the remaining 12.6 percent of the population. Serbs and Montenegrins are practicing Christians of the Eastern Orthodox rite (65 percent). Albanians are members of the Muslim faith (19 percent), and Hungarians are usually practicing Roman Catholics (4 percent). One percent of the population is Protestant, and the remainder of the population (11 percent) either does not follow a religion or worships in another faith.

The death of President Tito in 1980 is regarded as a watershed event in Yugoslav history because he was perceived as the firm hand that could keep Yugoslavia's diverse ethnic and religious groups together. Instead Tito failed to create institutions that could adapt to the changing needs of Yugoslavia and Yugoslavia's changing place in the European and world contexts. By 1983 Tito's successors and the Yugoslav people discovered the huge financial debt the nation had acquired in maintaining its unique brand of Communism. With the increasing likelihood of Communism's collapse, Yugoslavia was no longer an important nation that the West offered financial credits. In the decade after Tito's death, Yugoslav living standards declined, state industry was highly inefficient, and unemployment kept rising. The failure of the federal government of Yugoslavia to resolve economic crises led to ethnic, religious, and regional disagreements. A Yugoslavia governed by its Serb politicians was unable to adjust to a rapidly changing world and the imminent breakup of the republic into its constituent members.

Slovenia prospered from manufacturing and food processing. Croatia drew large numbers of tourists and tourists' dollars to its medieval cities and Adriatic beaches. Serbia feared the loss of economic clout should the Yugoslav state be restructured financially and politically. Should ethnicity define the republics of Yugoslavia, Serbs living in Croatia and Bosnia would be seriously affected if not directly discriminated against. Slobodan Milosevic began the symbol of Serbian nationalism and Serbian political and economic supremacy. In 1991Yu-goslav military attacks to keep Slovenia within the Yugoslav federation were repulsed within two weeks. Slovenia declared its independence and suffered the least of the former Yugoslav republics. Protecting Serbs and Serb interests in Croatia and Bosnia led to war first between Croatia and Serbia, and when Croatia successfully became independent, between Bosnia and Serbia. Almost half of the territory and population in Bosnia was Serbian. A Serbian republic was created and still exists, but in union with the Bosnian state of Croats and Muslims. The war between the Yugoslav republics led to considerable devastation in Bosnia and parts of Croatia. The war eventually came to Serbia when the Yugoslav Army began to suppress the Albanian population of Serbia's former autonomous province of Kosovo, and NATO forces retaliated. Much of Serbia's infrastructure was destroyed in the war over Kosovo. Montenegro remained outside the conflict and refused to support repeated Yugoslav (Serbian) requests for assistance.

The collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 and a decade of war leading to the creation of the independent nations of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and civil war in Kosovo destroyed Yugoslavia's perceived economic prosperity of the previous three decades. The breakup of the Yugoslav republics resulted in significant losses for Serbia and Montenegro in mineral resources, technology support, industry, trade links, and markets. A decade of war further reduced the economic viability of Serbia. Before the devastation of war, Serbia and Montenegro manufactured aircraft, trucks and automobiles, tanks and weapons, electrical equipment, agricultural machinery, and steel. Serbia and Montenegro exported raw materials including coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, and limestone, and food and animals. Serbia sustained considerable destructive damage from NATO bombings of the capital Belgrade, the nation's factories, and transportation networks. Montenegro's increasing autonomy from Serbia was sanctioned by the European Union and NATO nations to weaken Serbia. Serbia continues to use the dinar as its currency, while Montenegro used first the German deutsche mark and now the Euro. Montenegro escaped the ravages of war and did not need its infrastructure rebuilt. With former President Milosevic on trial for war crimes, the West has offered a variety of economic packages to rebuild Serbia, provided suspected Serbian war criminals still-at-large are captured and turned over to NATO forces.

Press Laws & Censorship

The overthrow of the repressive Milosevic regime ended much of the press and media censorship that burdened the Yugoslav nation. Media closures, government takeovers, and the arrest of journalists and broadcast media personnel were drastically reduced. The 1998 Law on Public Information, restricting the type of information printed or broadcast, remains in effect and was approved while Yugoslavia was under attack by NATO forces. The law made it permissible for citizens and organizations to bring legal action against the media for printing or broadcasting material considered unpatriotic or against the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and independence of the country. All foreign broadcasts were banned in Yugoslavia. Under the Milosevic regime journalists were beaten, equipment destroyed, and foreign journalists detained. Under the Public Information Act, the Milosevic government frequently fined the independent media. The fines amounted to almost 2 million dollars. In 1999 the Yugoslav government issued new laws determining how the media could report the NATO attacks and the Albanian rebels fighting the Yugoslav army in Kosovo. Information about military movements and casualty reports could not be reported. All independent media were eventually shut down during the 1999 NATO bombings. After the war only 20 of the 33 independent radio and television stations went back on the air. The Yugoslav Minister of Telecommunications temporarily suspended the reallocation of broadcast frequencies and allocation of new ones until new regulations were approved. The many crises facing the republics of Serbia and Montenegro delayed a proper review of the existing media laws. It is assumed that the old laws are unlikely to be enforced.

The Ministry of Information for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has been dissolved. The Ministry of Justice and Local Government assumed responsibility for media registration. The Bureau of Communications is responsible for: informing the public of government policies and the work of individual ministries, communications support for events of consequence in Serbia, coordination of the public relations operations of individual ministries, organizing and conducting media campaigns for important governmental programs, and the preparation of reviews and analyses of domestic and foreign media reporting.

The print media in Serbia is regarded as less influential than the broadcast media and therefore has made a faster transition to more independent news reporting. Newspapers previously loyal to the Milosevic regime switched their loyalties and announced journalistic independence. Serbia's most reliable newspapers during the Milosevic era and after are the dailies Danas, Blic, and Glas Javnosti and the weekly newspapers Vreme and NIN. Beta News Agency remains the most respected private independent news agency.

With the end of the Milosevic era Yugoslavia has adopted very liberal regulations and simplified the procedure to allow the foreign press to enter the nation. Radio and television broadcasts from other nations are beamed to Yugoslavian receivers with short-wave broadcasts of foreign radio stations 24 hours a day. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has over 350 permanently accredited foreign correspondents from 40 countries working at 29 news agencies, 77 newspapers, and 59 radio and television stations.

On April 4, 2002, the Serbian government adopted a new draft law for broadcasting prepared by the Association of Serbian Journalists and the Independent Association of Lawmakers working with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Council of Europe to bring all Yugoslav media in line with European Union standards. The new law regulates the situation in the broadcasting field by creating a 15-member Broadcasting Agency to oversee all broadcast media for radio and television programming, issuing and revoking licenses, and levying fines. The state-run Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) becomes a public company to both serve and be financed by the people of Serbia. RTS will be operated outside any government controls and will not have a single Serb or foreign owner to avoid conflicts of interest. The Law of Telecommunications will allow RTS to keep at least two but no more than four national frequencies. The existing Law on Information is being reviewed for revision in the summer of 2002.

News Agencies

Tanjung is Serbia and Montenegro's federal government news agency, although there are plans to privatize it. There are four other news agencies serving Serbia, Beta, FonetBina, and Tiker. Montenegro's only news agency is the state-owned Montena Fax. There are an increasing number of major press associations serving Serbia and Montenegro, the International Press Centre (MPC), Journalists Federation (SNJ), Publishers and Booksellers Association, Independent Journalists' Association for Serbia and Montenegro, the Association of Private Owners of the Media, Media Center, and Right for Picture and Word.

Broadcast Media

In the Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro twenty-three television stations (19 in Serbia and 4 in Montenegro) are fully licensed. The other television stations and all the radio stations are in the process of applying for the right to broadcast. Jugoslovenksa RadioTelevizija is Yugoslavia's state information station. Major Serbian radio stations are Radio Belgrade, and Radio Novi Sad. Radio Podgorica is Montenegro's leading radio station, while Radio Pristina serves the province of Kosovo. State-run broadcast media include the Serbian Radio, the Serbian Television, and the Montenegrin Radio stations. Radio stations in Vojvodina broadcast in eight languages. In 1996, 2 independent radio stations were closed on orders of the Milosevic government.

Major television stations serving the Serb population are Belgrade TV, Radio-TV Srbije, and TV Novi Sad. Pristina TV broadcasts to Kosovo's Albanian population, while Podgorica TV serves the Montenegrin population. The largest opposition television station, Studio B, was closed by President Milosevic in 2000 but reopened after his overthrow. Prior to 2000, six private television stations broadcast, BK, TV Studio Spectrum Cacak, Kanal 9 Kragujevac, Pink, Palma, and Art Kanal. The Politika Publishing Company owns Politika, and the Municipal Government of Belgrade owns Studio B. The state-run Kosovar Radio and Kosovar Television broadcast a few hours a week in Albanian. TV Novi Sad broadcasts programs in five languages, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, and Ruthann.

The collapse of the Milosevic regime returned independent broadcast media to the airwaves with the pro-Milosevic broadcast media rapidly distancing itself from the government. Radio B92, broadcast via satellite and the Internet after repeated shutdowns during the 1990s, has resumed broadcasting within Serbia and is regarded as Serbia's most reliable independent news outlet. Radio Index and Radio Television Pancevo are increasingly regarded as reliable sources for news reporting. The majority of Serbia's radio stations were regarded as pro-Milosevic and currently attempt to be both neutral and supportive of the government. Unbiased broadcasting is compromised by the state's licensing of broadcast frequencies and the Serbian government's tendency to direct financial support toward traditionally pro-government stations. The federal government is reorganizing the state-run Radio Television Serbia (RTS), once regarded as a Milosevic propaganda tool. The European Institute for Media has recorded a sharp increase in the number of television viewers in Serbia to 75 percent of the population (2000). There are an estimated 120 television stations and 400 radio stations in Serbia with foreign broadcasts from the BBC and CNN now permissible. Foreign investment is influencing a number of former pro-Milosevic television stations including TV Pink.

Montenegro has 14 radio stations in addition to the state-run radio. Ten radio stations are privately owned and include Antena M, Gorica, Free Montenegro, Radio Elmag, and Mir, an Albanian language station. Besides the state-run television station, Montenegro had privately owned stations including NTO Montena, TV Blue Moon, TV Elmag, broadcast from Podgorica, and the Herceg Novi station TV Sky Sat. Because the Montenegrin government sought independence from Serbia, the republic's broadcast media were decidedly anti-Milosevic in tone but sought the support of the Montenegrin state government, which may compromise their objectivity. Independent Serbian broadcast media closed by Milosevic were able to broadcast over Montenegrin stations Montena, Mir, and Radio Kotor. During the war Montenegrin stations Montena, Antena M, Boje, and Free Montenegro broadcast news transmitted by Radio Free Europe, Deutsche Welle, BBC, and The Voice of America.

The Serbian province of Kosovo lacked broadcast media until the arrival of NATO troops. Radio Television Kosovo (RTK) went on the air in 1999 as a public service station, which now broadcasts at least four hours a day. There are an estimated 35 unlicensed broadcast stations on the air in Kosovo. The United Nations has established a temporary set of regulations governing broadcasting in Kosovo, requiring media professionals to follow the rules of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights. There are some restrictions on information involving military personnel. There are 5 radio stations and 3 television stations now licensed to broadcast in Kosovo.

Electronic Media

An increase in the number of computers will put more Serbians online. During the Milosevic era, filters were placed on computers at the universities to prevent students from accessing satellite transmissions. Ironically, the Internet contributed to keeping the media free and in bringing down the Milosevic regime. There are four Internet providers for the Serbian province of Kosovo: Pronet, Eunet, Co.yu, and PTT. Pronet is Albanian owned and operated. Anonymizer.com, part of the Kosovo Privacy Project, offers anonymous e-mail to both Serbs and Montenegrins. Internet Yugoslavia is under the Federal Public Institution Radio-Television Yugoslavia entrusted with the responsibility to create web presentations for the needs of the government and Parliament, monitor the Internet, and seek developing trends and other information of interest for the republic. Internet Yugoslavia works with government institutions to develop the Internet and serves in an advisory capacity in discussions about legal regulations pertaining to computer communications.

Education & Training

The University of Belgrade is Serbia's leading institution for the study of media and communications at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Founded in 1905 with 3 faculties (philosophy, law, and engineering) it grew to 7 colleges by 1941. The University of Belgrade currently consists of 30 colleges and 8 scientific institutes enrolling 65,000 undergraduate students and 2,500 students in graduate programs. Over 40 percent of the students are enrolled in the social sciences, with 28 percent in engineering, and 15 percent in medicine. There 5 branches of the University of Belgrade in Novi Sad (1960), Nis (1965), Pristina (1970), Podgorica in Montenegro (1974), and Kargujevac (1976).

Summary

The Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia. The NATO and European Union nations are reluctant to sanction another republic from the former Yugoslavia. Serbia's political and religious historic sites from the Middle Ages are located in Kosovo. Serbian desire to hold on to Kosovo risks conflict with the Albanian majority in the province. The Serbian and Albanian ethnic rivalry inside Serbia affects its relationships with the neighboring states of the Former Republic of Macedonia and Albania. In 2002 Crown Prince Alexander, his wife, and three sons were given Yugoslav passports and invited to return to live in Yugoslavia along with the extended Karadjordje family. Crown Prince Alexander was returned the keys to the royal palace located in downtown Belgrade and the White Palace in the suburbs. While there is renewed interest in the monarchy, it is not clear if the concept of monarchy will be used or can unite a fractious population of what is left of the former Yugoslavia. Since the downfall of Milosevic, Serbia has made dramatic changes in the laws and government policies affecting the media. The Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro has every intention of conforming to European Union standards for the communications industry. Redevelopment of an economy devastated by a decade of war will take time to rebuild, even with substantial foreign aid grants. Serbian banks have a combined debt of over $1.6 billion created by suspected Milosevic manipulations within the banking system.

Industrial production remains low, unemployment high, and there are large numbers of refugees to resettle and financially support. Success will depend on the skills of the politicians, the stability of a multiparty democracy, and how long the people of Serbia are willing to wait for the reforms to be made and become effective. The people of the former Yugoslavia once enjoyed one of the highest standards of living in Eastern Europe. They are not used to being perceived as international pariahs, but it is clear that the people of Serbia and Montenegro are working hard to get beyond the Milosevic era and becoming integrated into the Europe of the European Union.

Significant Dates

  • 1999: Kosovo crisis and NATO military intervention.
  • 2000: Milosevic defeated in a free election.
  • 2001: Milosevic taken to The Hague for trial as a war criminal.
  • 2002: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is replaced by the Federal Republics of Serbia and Montenegro.

Bibliography

Allcock, John B. Explaining Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Dragnich, Alex N. Serbia, Nikola Pasic, and Yugoslavia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Available from http://ww.gov.yu .

Glenny, Misha. The Balkans, Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, 1804-1999. New York: Viking, 1999.

Graham, Stephen. Alexander of Yugoslavia. Hamden, CT: Archon Press, 1972.

International Journalists' Network. Available from http://www.ijnet.org .

Judah, Tim. The Serbs, History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

Kaplan, Robert D. Balkan Ghosts. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

Martin, David. The Web of Disinformation, Churchill's Yugoslav Blunder. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990.

The Media in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Novi Beograd, Yugoslavia: Federal Secretariat of Information, 1997.

Own, David. Balkan Odyssey. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995.

Turner, Barry, ed. Statesman's Yearbook 2002. New York: Palgrave Press, 2001.

United States Institute of Peace. Special Report: Serbia Still at the Crossroads. March 15, 2002.

World Mass Media Handbook, 1995 Edition. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, 1995.

William A. Paquette

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Serbia and Montenegro

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Major City:
Belgrade

Other Cities:
Bar, Cetinje, Kotor, Nikšié, Niš, Novi Sad, Podgorica, Priština, Subotica

INTRODUCTION

On April 27, 1992, two of the former Yugoslav republics, SERBIA and MONTENEGRO , announced that they had joined together to form a new nation. This new nation, known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," replaces the old six-member "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" which splintered apart after Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina declared their independence in 1991 and early 1992. The new Yugoslavia, however, has not been formally recognized by the United States, the European Community, or the United Nations.

Serbia and Montenegro became international outcasts for their role in the civil wars that devastated Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Serbian nationalist militias and the Serbian-controlled Yugoslav Federal Army were accused of massive atrocities against civilians, creating large prison camps, and forcing many non-Serbs to leave homes and villages in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia through a policy of "ethnic cleansing." The United Nations, the European Community, and the United States considered Serbia and Montenegro as the main aggressors in the conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and tried to punish Serbia and Montenegro in an attempt to end the fighting. The United Nations imposed sweeping international sanctions against these republics from 1992 until 1995.

On November 21, 1995, the three presidents of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia finally agreed to terms that would end the fighting in Bosnia after four years and an estimated 250,000 casualties. In March 1996 the International War Crimes Tribunal filed its first prosecution charges against Serbian soldiers accused of atrocities.

Editor's Note: Much of the information in this entry reflects conditions in the cities of Serbia and Montenegro prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and the international sanctions imposed by the world community.

MAJOR CITY

Belgrade

Belgrade, capital of Serbia, is located at the confluence of the Sava and the Danube Rivers. Its altitude varies from 224 to 830 feet above sea level.

Belgrade has had a settlement since the time of the Celts in the fourth century B.C., although little evidence of that culture or of the subsequent Roman civilization remains. Few historical monuments before the late 18th century survive. Minimal evidence exists of the long period of Turkish domination, and only a few baroque buildings mark the pre-World War I Hapsburg influence. Belgrade thus lacks the atmosphere and Old World charm that is characteristic of Eastern European capitals such as Prague (Czech Republic) and Budapest (Hungary). Buildings in the central city are gray and somber, and contrast with a few modern concrete and glass high rises. Parks, tree-lined streets, and numerous sidewalk cafés lend color and charm, particularly in summer.

The fascinating contrast between old and new is evidenced by the young, fashionable Belgraders and the fur-hatted peasant men in Serbian trousers and upturned sandals, with their dirndl-skirted wives in babushkas. They are seen browsing together along the shopping districts in the city's center.

Economic activity centers around government, trade, commerce, industry, and services. Factories within Belgrade produce machine tools, textiles, chemicals, agricultural machinery, building materials, and electrical equipment. The adjacent agricultural area of the Vojvodina is one of Serbia and Montenegro's richest.

The climate in Belgrade is characteristically continental. The mean temperature in winter is 32°F (0°C), and in summer 70°F (21°C), with frequent highs in the 90s. Air pollution is particularly bad in Belgrade during the winter because of the low-grade coal used. Smog is heavy in low-lying areas near the main railway station.

Cultural life is active in this city of about 1.2 million (2000 est.), although less so than in major world capitals. Belgraders have a deep interest in art, and enjoy a long season of opera, ballet, concerts, and drama. The taste for popular music, especially American jazz, is particularly evident among the young. Belgraders are avid movie-goers, and many Western European and American films are shown in the original version with Serbo-Croatian subtitles. Numerous art exhibits of varying quality are presented by contemporary artists.

Education

The International School of Belgrade, a U.S. Government-supported institution, offers kindergarten through grades eight. The school was founded in 1947 and is accredited by both the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and the European Council of International Schools. A board of nine members, three appointed by the U.S. ambassador and six elected by parents from the international community, governs operations.

Located in a suburban area of Belgrade, the International School has 14 classrooms, a science lab, computer lab, and a 8,000-volume library. An American-style curriculum is offered with French taught as a foreign language. Extracurricular activities include field trips, school newspaper, computers, and an after-school activity and enrichment program.

The school year extends from late August to mid-June, with vacations in the fall, at Christmas, in late February, and in April.

The International School is located at Temisvarska 19, in a residential area about two miles from the U.S. Embassy. Information and applications for admission may be obtained by writing to: Director, International School of Belgrade, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520. The Belgrade telephone is (011)651-832.

International Nursery School conducts morning sessions for three-year olds and afternoon sessions for four-year olds. Expatriate children in grades nine through 12 attend boarding schools in Italy, Germany, France, England, and Greece.

Among the special educational opportunities available to Americans in Belgrade are the three-month courses offered by Belgrade's Institute and Center for Foreign Languages. Classes in Serbian are taught daily, and there are semi-weekly classes in French, German, Italian, and Russian. Most foreign residents have found the courses excellent.

Recreation

A number of excursions can be made in the vicinity of Belgrade. About 44 miles (71 kilometers) north of the city is Novi Sad, which has an interesting fortress overlooking the city. Inside the fortress is a hotel and a good restaurant, and a number of artists have workshops there. En route to Novi Sad is the village of Stara Pazova, where Slovak ladies wear colorful dress on Sundays. The wooded hill country known as Fruška Gora, a pleasant picnic area and site of more than a dozen monasteries (including the Hopovo), is also en route.

Avala, a 2,000-foot hill, 12 miles south of Belgrade, offers a good view on a clear day. The ruins of a 15th-century Serbian fort are on the Danube at Smederevo, 25 miles east of Belgrade. En route, it is pleasant to lunch at Grocka, where a good restaurant overlooks the surrounding vineyards.

A hydrofoil makes excursions down the Danube to Kladovo, where a dam was constructed jointly by Romania and Yugoslavia. The boat passes many interesting points, including some remains from Roman times and Smederevo Fort, and crosses the Iron Gate (Djerdap), which resembles an inland fjord.

Serbia also has some interesting monasteries dating from the 13th to 15th centuries. Visits to the monasteries of Manasija, Ravanica, Hopovo, and Krusedol make interesting outings from Belgrade; those in south Serbia, such as Sopoćani, Studenica, Peć, Gračanica, and Dečani can be visited over a long weekend. The frescoes in these monasteries are world famous.

Another fascinating day's outing is a visit to the villages of Serbia's primitive artists. Kovačica and Uzdin may be included on the same drive. Oparić is also a village of artists; they are gracious and hospitable and often invite visitors into their homes. En route to Oparić, at Svetozarevo, is a gallery of primitive art, which has one of the finest collections in the country.

Belgrade has beach areas, but health authorities warn against pollution. Boating is good on the Danube and Sava, although mooring facilities are limited. This area also has rivers suitable for kayaking.

Ice skating rinks are available locally, and skates of good quality can be bought inexpensively.

The hunter will find duck, geese, hare, partridge, pheasant, and fox in the immediate vicinity of Belgrade. Bear, wild boar, roebuck (European stag), wolf, and chamois are also in the area, but unless an invitation is extended for an official hunt, game fees are prohibitively high.

There is fishing in the Danube, Sava, and smaller rivers nearby, but catches appear to be "fisherman's luck." Regular spinning tackle will do, although fly is more useful. Seasonal licenses are inexpensive.

Soccer (European football) is the great spectator sport in Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade has two large stadiums. Basketball, also popular, is played at several locations in the city. A small track just outside the city has horse and harness racing during summer.

Some joggers have found acceptable routes within Belgrade, but the traffic and pollution, particularly during winter, have led most joggers to drive to Gypsy Island (commonly referred to by its Turkish name, Ada Ciganlija) about three miles away, where there is an excellent flat course relatively free of pollution.

Entertainment

Movies, opera, ballet, concerts, and drama are offered in Belgrade. The opera and ballet seasons run from October through May or June; repertoires include both European and Slavic works. The International Film Festival (Fest) in February, the Belgrade Theater Festival of Avant-garde Drama (Bitef) in September, the Belgrade Music Festival (Bemus) in October, and the Belgrade Jazz Festival in November are outstanding events of the season. Orchestras and chamber music groups are excellent, and frequently present guest conductors and soloists.

Legitimate theater is offered regularly in Belgrade, with a repertoire that includes contemporary plays, classical productions, and musical comedy. These presentations are in Serbo-Croatian, so only those with a knowledge of this language can profitably take advantage of them.

A professional folk song and dance group, the Kolo, performs regularly throughout the year in Belgrade, and other amateur and professional groups give performances frequently in major cities and, during the tourist season, in resort hotels.

Several museums in Belgrade are worth visiting. Among the best are the National Museum, which has a varied collection of French impressionist works; the Fresco Gallery, which contains copies of frescoes found in Serbia's early monasteries; and the Ethnographic Museum, with original examples of peasant costumes, implements, and musical instruments. Several 19th-century houses have been turned into fascinating smaller museums. The Military Museum in Kalemegdan Park is one of the finest in Europe.

The American Club, located in the U.S. Embassy staff housing area, has a restaurant, two-lane bowling alley, lounge bar, the Elbrick Room for parties and videotape shows, and an auditorium for movies and other community events. Special events frequently are scheduled. Membership is open to the staffs of other diplomatic missions and to the American business community in Belgrade. The club shows feature films several evenings a week and holds a Saturday morning screening for children.

Dining out in Belgrade restaurants is a popular social activity. The prices are reasonable and the food good, although variety is limited. Several nightclubs and discotheques are available. A number of casinos are open only during the tourist season.

The American Women's Association (AWA) is an active group open to all American women in Belgrade. It sponsors programs of interest to the membership, and organizes children's parties and fund-raising activities for charity.

OTHER CITIES

The city of BAR is one of Montenegro's major ports. Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Bar is linked by rail with Belgrade and serves as a transport source for Serbian imports and exports. The city offers a ferry service across the Adriatic Sea to Bari, Italy. Bar has a population over 33,000.

The Montenegrin city of CETINJE is situated at the foot of Mt. Lovćen. During Montenegro's brief period as an independent nation (1878-1918), Cetinje served as the capital city. The city has several attractions that are of interest to visitors. These attractions include a 16th-century monastery and a museum which houses the literary works and art collection of famous Montenegrin poet Petrović Njegoš. The city has several small industries which produce household appliances and foot-wear. Cetinje has a population over 20,000.

KOTOR is situated on Montenegro's Adriatic Sea coast. The city, founded by the ancient Romans, has been occupied at various periods in history by Venetians, Hungarians, Turks, French, and Austrians. It is the oldest city in Montenegro. Kotor has many historic treasures, the most impressive of which is the Cathedral of St. Tryphon. This cathedral, along with most buildings in Kotor, was heavily damaged by a severe earthquake in 1979. Some repairs have been made, although the cathedral has not been completely restored. Kotor has an excellent Maritime Museum which contains excellent exhibits of arms collections, uniforms, navigational charts and instruments, as well as models of famous ships. The city's population is over 21,000.

The city of NIKŠIÉ , also located in Montenegro, was settled by the ancient Romans. For over 400 years, from 1455 to 1877, Nikšiéwas controlled by the Turks. Today, it is an industrial center which produces iron, steel, distilled beverages, and wood products. One of Europe's largest bauxite mines is located near Nikšié. Following the end of World War II in 1945, Nikšié under-went massive renovations. Modern buildings, parks, and public works projects were constructed. The city is quite large and had a population of approximately 61,000 in 2002.

NIŠ has long been a geographically significant city. Situated on the Nišava River in Serbia, about 125 miles southeast of Belgrade, it is a road junction and industrial area. Because it lies at the convergence of several river systems, Niš is considered in a vital position between Central Europe and the Aegean Sea. The second-century Greek mathematician Ptolemy noted the importance of this area in his Guide to Geography. Constantine the Great (ca. 280-337) was born here. Niš withstood occupations by Bulgarians, Hungarians, and, especially, Turks. The Soviets assumed control in 1944. Despite its antiquity, this community has a modern look. Badly damaged in World War II, Niš underwent post-war construction. Most of the Turko-Byzantine style is gone; a fifth-century Byzantine crypt is among the landmarks. Activity here includes commerce, a university, and a spa just east of town for cardiovascular disease victims. Niš has a number of industrial enterprises which produce beer, household appliances, electronic materials, tobacco products, and textiles. The 2000 population of Niš was approximately 175,000. Near Niš is the thermal resort of Niska Banja. Brzi Brod has remains of a Roman town.

NOVI SAD , the chief town of the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina, lies on the Danube in northern Serbia. It was founded in the 17th century, and became a royal free city of Austria-Hungary. It was here, early in the 19th century, that a vigorous Serbian literary revival was established. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918, the transfer of Novi Sad to Yugoslavia was confirmed, under Hungarian protest, by the Treaty of Trainon. Novi Sad is a busy commercial city, making electrical equipment, porcelain, soap, and processed food, among other products. The Gallery of Matica Srpska contains 2,500 Serbian paintings. Nearby Fruska Gora is known for its wines. The city had a population of 180,000 in 2000. Current population figures are unavailable.

The city of PODGORICA is the capital of Montenegro and the republic's largest city. In 1946, the city's name was changed to Titograd in honor of the late Communist leader of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito. In March 1992, city residents voted to change the city's name back to Podgorica. Podgorica was founded in 1326 and has been occupied at various periods in history by Turks, Austrians, Italians, and Germans. The city was almost completely destroyed during World War II, but has been rebuilt into a modern city with parks, museums, and theaters. Podgorica had an estimated population of 118,000 in 2000.

PRIŠTINA is a market center located 150 miles southeast of Belgrade. Capital of the Kosovo autonomous region in Serbia, it also has local textile, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries, and nearby mining. Priština served as capital of Serbia until the Turk conquest of 1389. Extensive building after World War II has altered the city's oriental look. The Museum of Kosovo-Metohija contains an archaeology collection and ethnography division. Priština's Albanian population is served by its own college (Priština Fakultet), and some Albanian-language newspapers and radio shows. A main tourist attraction is the Gračanica Monastery, southeast of the city proper. This structure was built by King Milutin in 1321 and is today regarded as an excellent example of Serbian architecture. A highlight of a visit to the monastery is the array of superb frescoes. In 2002, Priština had a population of approximately 194,000.

The city of SUBOTICA , located less than 10 miles south of the Hungarian border, is the major city along the Serbian frontier. Situated nearly 100 miles north of Belgrade, Subotica seems as much Hungarian as Serbian. Many of its citizens are of Hungarian descent. The city is the market center for the Bačka, an important agricultural district specializing in paprika. Its position on the Belgrade-Budapest railroad accounts for much of its strong industrial base of fertilizer production, furniture manufacturing, and power generation. There are a number of educational institutions here, including advanced vocational schools. The area's history dates to at least 1381. Subotica became a part of the former Yugoslavia in 1918 and was occupied by the Hungarians in World War II. The city had a population of 100,000 in 2000.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

Serbia and Montenegro have a combined area of 51,955 square miles (134,563 square kilometers), which is slightly larger than Alaska. The two combined republics are bordered by Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina on the west, Hungary on the north, Romania and Bulgaria on the east, and Greece, Albania, and Macedonia on the south.

Serbia consists of rather mountainous terrain, particularly in northern regions of the republic. The northern autonomous province of Vojvodina, however, consists of rich fertile plains and is Serbia's major agricultural region. Southeastern Serbia is composed of mountains and hills. Limestone ranges and basins characterize the terrain of eastern Serbia. Serbia's northern region is watered by several rivers, including the Danube, Tisa, Sava, Drava, and Morava Rivers. The climate of Serbia is characterized by hot, humid summers and cold winters.

The topography of Montenegro is mountainous and extremely rugged. Some fertile valleys and coastal lowlands exist in southern Montenegro. Montenegro is the home of Lake Scutari, the largest lake in the former Yugoslavia. Montenegro's coastal region has an Adriatic climate with hot, dry summers and autumns. Further inland, Montenegro has relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall.

Population

The combined population of Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 10,677,000 in 2001. Ethnic Serbs and ethnic Montenegrins are the dominant groups in their respective republics. Serbs make up 63 percent of Serbia's population. Fourteen percent of the people are of Albanian origin. Most Albanians are concentrated in Serbia's Kosovo region. Hungarians comprise four percent of Serbia's population and are centered in the northern region of Vojvodina. Serbo-Croatian and Albanian are the most common languages used in Serbia. Serbian Orthodox is the predominant religion, although Roman Catholics and several Protestant denominations are represented. Muslims are one of Serbia's largest minorities and are concentrated in southern Serbia.

In Montenegro, 62 percent of the population is Montenegrin. Muslim Slavs and ethnic Albanians make up roughly 25 percent of Montenegro's population. Most Montenegrins speak Serbo-Croatian, although Albanian is also spoken. Serbian Orthodox is Montenegro's dominant religion. However, Muslims and Roman Catholics are well-represented.

In 1997, Serbians had a life expectancy at birth of 69 years for males and 75 years for females. Montenegrins had a life expectancy at birth of 71 years for males and 79 years for females.

Government

The Constitution of Serbia and Montenegro, adopted on April 27, 1992, calls for the creation of a bicameral Federal Assembly or Parliament (Savezna Skupština). The Chamber of Citizens (Vece Gradana) has 138 members, 60 members elected for a four year term in single seat-constituencies and 78 members by proportional representation. In the Chamber of Citizens 108 members are elected from Serbs and 30 members elected from Montenegro. The Council of the Republics (Vece Republika) has 40 popularly elected members, 20 from Serbia and 10 from Montenegro. Members of the Federal Assembly are responsible for electing a federal president. The federal president then chooses a prime minister who cannot be from the same republic as himself. The Federal Assembly must approve the president's choice for prime minister.

In March 2002, Serbia and Montenegro signed the agreement that established the loose federation between the two autonomous entities. The presidency, defense and foreign affairs will remain as a federal concerns, however, each region will retain separate currencies and customs.

There are over 20 different political parties in Serbia and Montenegro, but the top two are Demokratska Stranka Srbije (The Democratic Party of Serbia-moderate nationalist) and Socialisticka Partija Srbije (The Serb Socialist Party-authoritarian).

The flag of Serbia and Montenegro consists of three horizontal bands of blue, white, and red.

Commerce and Industry

On May 27, 1992, the European Community (EC) imposed a trade embargo on Serbia and Montenegro as punishment for the country's role in the ethnic conflicts in neighboring Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. All imports and exports were halted between EC member nations and Serbia and Montenegro. This embargo was particularly painful because over one-half of Serbia and Montenegro's commerce was with EC members. The United Nations launched its own trade embargo on May 30, 1992. The UN ban included the freezing of all of Serbia and Montenegro's foreign assets, an international embargo on all exports to Serbia and Montenegro except for food and medical supplies, a ban on imported goods made in Serbia and Montenegro, and a suspension of all foreign investment and commercial contact with Serbia and Montenegro. On November 16, the United Nations authorized a naval blockade of Serbia and Montenegro in an effort to prevent any violations of the trade embargo imposed on May 30. When peace returned to the region, the sanctions were lifted in 1995.

The economic sanctions by the European Community and the United Nations had a devastating effect on the economy of Serbia and Montenegro. The lack of imported raw materials and the loss of markets for exported goods forced many industries to shut down, causing massive unemployment for hundreds of thousands of workers. Medical supplies are also in short supply despite the embargo's exemption of these items. Hyperinflation caused the prices of most goods and services to soar in 1994, and formal economic activity came to a virtual halt.

Serbia's economy is heavily dependent on both agricultural and industrial production. The fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80 percent of the cereal production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory. Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production. Serbia proper, although hilly, has a long growing season and produces fruit, grapes, and cereals. Kosovo province produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals. The mountainous pastures of Kosovo support goat and sheep husbandry.

Serbia has a well-developed industrial base, with most heavy industry concentrated in and around Belgrade. Serbian industries produce wood products, steel, textiles, and cement. Serbia is rich in copper, chrome, antimony, coal, lead, and silver. However, Serbia's mining industry is underdeveloped. Montenegro is a very poor, underdeveloped republic. Most of the economy is dependent upon the raising of goats, pigs, and sheep. Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast, where olives, citrus fruits, grapes, and rice are grown. Montenegro had a burgeoning tourism industry, but it was halted due to the conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Transportation

Serbia and Montenegro have a total roadway network of 28,583 miles (46,019 kilometers). Of this total, 16,739 miles (26,949 kilometers) are paved. Highways connect Belgrade with Ljubljana (Slovenia), Zagreb (Croatia), Skopje (Macedonia), and the Serbian city of Niš, and Serbia's southern neighbor, Greece.

Belgrade's international airport is located 11 miles (19 kilometers) west of the city. Serbia and Montenegro's official airline, JAT, has been prohibited from landing in the United States and many international cities due to the United Nations sanctions.

Serbia and Montenegro has railway links with many cities in Europe and the former Yugoslav republics. Rail lines connect Belgrade with the cities of Vienna, Munich, London, Athens, Paris, Thessaloniki, and Zürich. Zagreb (Croatia), Sarajevo (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Skopje (Macedonia), and Ljubljana (Slovenia) have rail transportation links with Belgrade. One rail line offers a scenic trip through Montenegro. Most train transportation from Serbia and Montenegro has been suspended due to hostilities in the region.

Communications

Serbia and Montenegro has an adequate telecommunications system. Long-distance and international calls can be placed at hotels, railway stations, post offices, and airports.

Only one English-language newspaper, Newsday, is published in Belgrade. All other newspapers and periodicals are published in Serbo-Croatian or Albanian.

Several radio and television broadcasting services are located in Serbia. Radiotelevizija Beograd serves Belgrade and the surrounding area. Programs are broadcast in Serbo-Croatian. The northern province of Vojvodina is served by Radiotelevizija Novi Sad, which broadcasts programming in Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Hungarian, and Ruthenian. The city of Priština, located in Kosovo province, is the home of Radiotelevizija Priština. Radiotelevizija Priština broadcasts in Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, Romany, and Turkish. Montenegro has its own radio and television broadcasting network, Radiotelevizija Crne Gore. All programming on Radiotelevizija Crne Gore is broadcast in Serbo-Croatian.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

The Department of State warns U.S. citizens against travel to the Serbia and Kosovo regions of Serbia-Montenegro. Since the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade suspended operations as of March 23, 1999, U.S. citizens who plan on travelling to Serbia-Montenegro despite this Travel Warning are encouraged to register at the U.S. Embassy in Budapest, Hungary, which is located at Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest 1054; telephone [36] (1) 475-4400. U.S. citizens who plan on travelling to Kosovo should register at the U.S. office in Pristina by telephone (873-762-029-525). However, the U.S. office in Pristina cannot provide general consular services such as passport and visa issuance. Visas are not required for entry into Kosovo.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

Jan. 1 &2 New Year's Day

Jan. 7 Christmas (Orthodox)

March 28State Day (Observed in Serbia only)

Apr/MayEaster*

Apr/MayEaster Monday*

Apr. 27Constitution Day

May 1 & 2 May Day

July 7Serbian Uprising Day (Serbia only)

*variable

RECOMMENDED READING

The following titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country:

Boehm, Christopher. Blood Revenge: The Enactment & Management of Conflict in Montenegro & Other Tribal Societies. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Browning, C.R. Fateful Months. rev. ed. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1991.

Dragnich, Alex N., and Slavko Todorovich. The Saga of Kosovo: Focus on Serbian-Albanian Relationships. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College Press, 1985.

Laffan, R.G. The Serbs: Guardians of the Gate. New York: Dorset Press, 1990.

Treadway, John D. The Falcon & the Eagle: Montenegro & Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1983.

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

Official name: Serbia and Montenegro

Area: 102,350 square kilometers (39,518 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Mount Daravica (2,656 meters/8,714 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Western

Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 492 kilometers (306 miles) from north to south; 378 kilometers (235 miles) from east to west

Land boundaries: 2,246 kilometers (1,396 miles) total boundary length; Albania 287 kilometers (178 miles), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 kilometers (327 miles), Bulgaria 318 kilometers (198 miles), Croatia 266 kilometers (166 miles), Hungary 151 kilometers (94 miles), Macedonia 221 kilometers (137 miles), Romania 476 kilometers (296 miles)

Coastline: 199 kilometers (124 miles)

Territorial sea limits: Not available

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

Serbia and Montenegro is located in southeastern Europe, sharing borders with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a southwest coastline on the Adriatic Sea. With a total area of about 102,350 square kilometers (39,518 square miles), the country is slightly smaller than the state of Kentucky. Serbia and Montenegro has two nominally autonomous provinces (Kosovo and Vojvodina).

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Serbia and Montenegro has no outside territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

Serbia and Montenegro's climate varies greatly from one part of the country to another, due to the many mountain ranges. Most of Serbia's climate is continental, with cold, dry winters and warm, humid summers. The Pannonian Plains have cold winters with hot and dry summers. In Vojvodina, July temperatures average 21°C (70°F) while temperatures in January average about 0°C (32°F).

The Adriatic coast has a more temperate Mediterranean climate, but the Dinaric Mountains prevent the Mediterranean weather from penetrating to inland Montenegro. The average seaside July temperatures are between 23°C (74°F) and 25°C (78°F). Summers are usually long and dry while winters are short and mild. Intense summer heat penetrates the Bojana River Valley over the Lake Scutari basin and upstream along the Morača River. Podgorica, on the Morača River, is the warmest city in Serbia and Montenegro, with July temperatures averaging 26°C (80°F), with highs sometimes reaching 40°C (104°F). January temperatures average around 5°C (41°F), with lows reaching -10°C (14°F).

Annual precipitation in Serbia ranges from 56 to 190 centimeters (22 to 75 inches), depending on elevation and exposure. Heavy rains in spring and autumn frequently cause floods. Snow is rare along the Montenegrin coast and in the Lake Scutari basin. In the inland regions, however, near elevated limestone mountain ranges, the climate is typically sub-alpine, with cold, snowy winters and mild summers. In some of these areas, snow lingers into the summer months; the highest mountain peaks are covered with snow year-round.

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Serbia and Montenegro covers the middle of the Balkan Peninsula and extends westward to meet the Adriatic Sea. The southern half, made up of Montenegro and Kosovo, is rugged and mountainous; the northern half, Serbia, contains the Danube River basin and the southern extent of the Pannonian Plain.

Serbia and Montenegro was known as Yugoslavia from 1992 to March 2003, when it became Serbia and Montenegro. It consists of two republics: Serbia, comprising the eastern 86 percent of the country; and coastal Montenegro, which occupies the southwestern 14 percent. Within Serbia are two nominally autonomous provinces: Kosovo (10,887 square kilometers/4,203 square miles), in the south; and Vojvodina (21,506 square kilometers/ 8,303 square miles), in the north.

Located on the Eurasian Tectonic Plate, Serbia and Montenegro is seismically active. Two parallel fault lines extend from northwest to southeast Montenegro. Serbia has thrust fault lines on either side of the river basins surrounding the Velika Morava and Južna Morava Rivers. There is also a tectonic contact line along the eastern border with Romania. These structural seams in the earth's crust periodically shift, causing tremors and occasional destructive earthquakes.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

Seacoast and Undersea Features

Serbia and Montenegro has a short southwestern coastline on the Adriatic Sea, which is an extension of the Mediterranean Sea. The Adriatic Sea is at its widest between Serbia and Montenegro and southern Italy, with a width of about 200 kilometers (125 miles). This portion of the Adriatic is also the deepest, reaching some 1,330 meters (4,360 feet) at a point about 120 kilometers (75 miles) southwest of the Gulf of Kotor.

Sea Inlets and Straits

The coast is indented with numerous bays and coves. The largest and most impressive is the Gulf of Kotor, the world's southernmost fjord.

Coastal Features

The slopes of the Dinaric Alps rise very close to the water in most places. Only 52 kilometers (32 miles) of coast can be considered beach. Velika Plaza (Long Beach) at Ulcinj has the longest continuous stretch of sandy beach, at 13 kilometers (8 miles). Since the coastline is so rugged, access to the sea is limited. The port of Bar and the Gulf of Kotor are the main access points.

6 INLAND LAKES

Lake Scutari (Skadar) is only 7 kilometers (4 miles) from the Adriatic coast in Montenegro. One of forty lakes in Montenegro, it is by far the largest lake in Serbia and Montenegro (as well as in the entire Balkan region). Covering approximately 400 square kilometers (150 square miles), about two-thirds of the lake lies within Serbia and Montenegro's borders, with the rest extending into Albania. Although its surface area is large, its average depth is only 5 meters (16 feet).

High mountains rise to the southwest of the lake, while to the northeast is a wide swamp. Although Lake Scutari is adjacent to the Adriatic Sea, there are about thirty spots, known as oke (singular: oko ) where its bed is under sea level and groundwater springs forth from the bottom of the lake. The Morača River is the largest stream that flows into Lake Scutari.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

Most of Serbia and Montenegro's rivers travel eastward towards the Black Sea basin. Serbia and Montenegro's most important river is the Danube, which forms part of the country's border with Croatia, then flows across northern Serbia and along the border with Romania. The Danube rises in the southwestern part of Germany and follows a winding, generally eastern course, traversing over 2,850 kilometers (1,771 miles) through Austria, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro, and Romania before finally emptying into the Black Sea. Only 588 kilometers (365 miles) of the river's length is located in Serbia and Montenegro, however. As the second-longest river in Europe, the Danube serves as a vital commercial and transportation route.

Along Serbia and Montenegro's northeastern border with Romania, the Danube flows through the Iron Gate. This is a gorge with rapids where the Danube cuts through the Transylvanian Alps.

The Danube's main tributaries in Serbia and Montenegro are the Tisa, Sava, and Morava Rivers. The Tisa River is 966 kilometers (600 miles) long; 168 kilometers (103 miles) of the river's length flows through Serbia and Montenegro. It enters the country from Hungary and travels south across the Pannonian Plain to the Danube.

The Sava River is 945 kilometers (587 miles) long, entering the country from Bosnia and Herzegovina and flowing east for 206 kilometers (128 miles) before meeting the Danube at Belgrade (Beograd). The Drina is a major tributary of the Sava and makes up part of Serbia and Montenegro's border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Zapadna Morava (308 kilometers/ 191 miles), flowing eastward, and the Južna Morava (295 kilometers/183 miles), flowing towards the north, merge to form the Velika Morava (185 kilometers/115 miles) near the center of the country. The Morava Rivers and their tributary, the Ibar, drain the mountainous areas of central and southern Serbia and flow northward to join the Danube east of Belgrade.

8 DESERTS

There are no desert regions in Serbia and Montenegro.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Occupying northern Serbia is the Pannonian Plain and the low-lying plains of Vojvodina, where the Danube River is joined by two of its major tributaries, the Sava and Tisa Rivers. The region is mostly flat, with some low hills, and it contains fertile soils used for farmland and grazing. The Pannonian Plain is situated within an ancient dry seabed. It is filled with rich alluvial deposits, forming fertile farmland and rolling hills. Kosovo, at the southern end of the country, covers a montane basin with high plains.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

Mountains cover about half of Serbia. Serbia is ringed by the Dinaric Alps on the west, the Sar Mountains and the North Albanian Alps (or Prokletije) on the south, and the Balkan Mountains and the Transylvanian Alps on the east. Many peaks exceed 1,800 meters (6,000 feet) above sea level, including thirteen summits that top 2,400 meters (7,870 feet).

Nearly all of Montenegro is mountainous. The name Montenegro (which means Black Mountain) is believed to come from the thick "black" forests that once covered the area. The high Dinaric Alps of Montenegro rise steeply from the Adriatic coastline, framing a narrow ribbon of coastal plain only 2 to 10 kilometers (1 to 6 miles) wide.

The four highest peaks in Serbia and Montenegro are all in Serbia: Daravica, at 2,656 meters (8,714 feet); Crni Vrh, at 2,585 meters (8,481 feet); Gusan, at 2,539 meters (8,330 feet); and Bogdaš, at 2,533 meters (8,311 feet). Bobotov Kuk, which at an elevation of 2,522 meters (8,275 feet) is the fifth-highest mountain in the country, lies in Montenegro. This is the highest point in the Dinaric Alps.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

Tara Canyon follows the Tara River along Montenegro's northwestern border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. At a maximum depth of 1,300 meters (4,265 feet), Tara Canyon is Europe's deepest canyon. The Piva and Morača River Basins of Montenegro contain canyons that are about 1,200 meters (3,940 feet) deep.

The Zlotske Caves in eastern Serbia consist of two separate cave systems: the Vernjikica and the Lazareva. The Vernjikica has eleven large chambers. The largest in floor area is Vilingrad (about 29,950 square meters/322,379 square miles), which features a large number of stalagmites shaped like humans and animals. The Gothic Cathedral Hall chamber, also in the Vernjikica, has fine, lace-like carvings in its rock formations. The Coliseum Hall, the largest cavern in the Vernjikica, is so named for its circular shape and column-like formations. The Lazareva has an underground river flowing through the lower of its two levels.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

There are no major plateau regions in Serbia and Montenegro.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

In 1972, the joint Yugoslav-Romanian Iron Gate Dam, with its two hydroelectric plants, was completed at the gorge of the same name. Because of this dam and other engineering feats, the Danube River is now navigable throughout Serbia and Montenegro. The large reservoir also serves to supply irrigation waters and as a site for farm fishing.

14 FURTHER READING

Books and Periodicals

Brân, Zoë. After Yugoslavia. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet, 2001.

Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: HarperPerennial, 1999.

Radovanovic, Ivana. The Iron Gates Mesolithic. Ann Arbor, MI: International Monographs in Prehistory, 1996.

Web Site

The Government of Serbia, Office of Communications, Serbia Info: Online Encyclopedia of Serbia. http://www.serbia.sr.gov.yu/enc/ (accessed May 12, 2003).

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

Country statistics

area:

102,173sq km (39,449sq mi)

population:

10,633,000

capital (population):

Belgrade (1,168,454)

government:

Federal multi-party republic

ethnic groups:

Serb 63%, Kosovar-Albanian 18%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3%, Croat

languages:

Serbian 95%, Albanian 5% (both official)

religions:

Serbian Orthodox 80%, Muslim 10%, Roman Catholic 6%, Protestant 1%

currency:

Yugoslav new dinar = 100 paras

Balkan republic in se Europe, formerly known as Yugoslavia. In 1991, the Yugoslav federation began to disintegrate when Slovenia, Croatia, and Macedonia declared independence. In 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina followed suit. A narrow coastal strip on the Adriatic Sea includes Montenegro's capital, Podgorica. The interior of Montenegro consists largely of barren karst, including parts of the Dinaric Alps and the Balkan Mountains. Kosovo is a high plateau region. Serbia is dominated by the fertile lowland plains of the Danube, on whose banks lie the capital Belgrade and the n city of Novi Sad. (See individual country/republic articles for pre-1918 history and post-independence events.)

Climate and vegetation

The coastal Mediterranean climate gives way to the bitterly cold winters of the highlands. Forests cover c.25% of the republic, while farmland and pasture cover more than 50%.

History and politics

Serbian-led demands for the unification of South Slavic lands were a major contributing factor to the outbreak of World War I. In 1918, the ‘Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes’ formed under Peter I of Serbia. Alexander I succeeded Peter I in 1921. Alexander formed a dictatorship and renamed the country Yugoslavia in 1929. In 1941, Germany occupied Yugoslavia, abruptly halting Peter II's reign. In World War II, the communist partisans led by Tito and the royalist chetniks mounted stiff resistance to the fascist, puppet regime. In 1945, Tito formed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1948 the Soviet-dominated Cominform expelled Yugoslavia, and Tito adopted an independent foreign policy. In domestic affairs, agricultural collectivization was abandoned (1953) and new constitutions (1963, 1974) devolved power to the constituent republics in an effort to quell unrest. Following Tito's death in 1980, the country's underlying ethnic tensions began to re-surface.

In 1986, Slobodan Milošević became leader of the Serbian Communist Party. In 1989, he became president of Serbia and called for the creation of a ‘Greater Serbia’. Federal troops suppressed demands for autonomy in Albanian-dominated Kosovo. In 1990 elections, non-communist parties won majorities in every republic, except Serbia and Montenegro. In June 1991, Serbian attempts to dominate the federation led to the formal secession of Slovenia and Croatia. The Serb-dominated Federal army launched a campaign against the Croats, whose territory included a large Serbian minority. In January 1992, a cease-fire was agreed. The European Community (EC) recognized Slovenia and Croatia as separate states. In March 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina's declaration of independence led to a brutal civil war between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnian Muslims. In April 1992, Serbia and Montenegro announced the formation of a new Yugoslav federation and invited Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to join. Aid to the Bosnian-Serb campaign of ‘ethnic cleansing’ led the United Nations to impose economic sanctions on Serbia. Military setbacks prompted Milošević to sever support for the Bosnian Serbs.

In 1995, Milošević signed the Dayton Peace Accord, which ended the Bosnian War. In 1996 local elections, the Serbian Socialist (formerly Communist) Party was defeated in many areas. In 1997, mass demonstrations in Belgrade forced Milošević to acknowledge the poll results. Later that year, Milošević resigned the presidency of Serbia to become president of Yugoslavia. In 1998, fighting erupted in Kosovo between Albanian nationalists and Serbian forces. In 1999, after the forced expulsion of Albanians from Kosovo, NATO launched air attacks against Yugoslavia, forcing the Yugoslav army to withdraw. In 2000 elections, Vojislav Kostunica defeated Milošević, who reluctantly resigned after massive public protests. In 2001, Milošević was extradited to the international war crimes tribunal in The Hague. In 2002, a constitutional charter for a new union was agreed. In March 2003, Svetozvar Marovic became the first president of Serbia and Montenegro. In 2003, Serbian prime minister Zoran Djindji"c was assassinated.

Economy

Civil war and economic sanctions devastated Yugoslavia's lower-middle income economy (2002 GDP per capita, US$2370). In 2000, inflation was at 42% and unemployment at 30%. The war also led to a collapse in industrial production. Natural resources include bauxite, coal, and copper. Oil and natural gas are exploited from the n Pannonian plains and the Adriatic Sea. Under Tito, manufacturing greatly expanded, especially around Belgrade. Industries include aluminium, cars, machinery, plastics, steel, and textiles.

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

Culture Name

Serbian; Montenegrin; also Yugoslav or Yugoslavian

Alternative Names

The local name for the region is Srbija-Crna Gora

Orientation

Identification. The name Yugoslavia previously designated six republics (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzogovia, Croatia, and Slovenia), but now includes just Serbia and Montenegro. The word means "land of the southern Slavs." Montenegro, which means "black mountain," takes its name from its rugged terrain. Within Serbia there are several national cultures. In addition to the dominant Serb tradition, there is a large Hungarian population in the northern province of Vojvodina, where Hungarian is the common language and the culture is highly influenced by Hungary (which borders the province to the north). In southern Serbia, the province of Kosovo is primarily Albanian, and has an Islamic culture that bears many remnants of the earlier Turkish conquest.

Location and Geography. Serbia is a landlocked territory in the Balkan Peninsula of Eastern Europe, bordering Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Albania. Montenegro is to the west of Serbia, also bordering Bosnia and Herzogovina, Albania, and the Adriatic Sea. Serbia covers 34,136 square miles (88,412 square kilometers); Montenegro has an area of 5,299 square miles (13,724 square kilometers). Together they are slightly smaller than the state of Kentucky. The terrain varies widely. In the north there are fertile plains that produce most of Serbia's crops, as well as marshlands along the Sava and Danube Rivers. At the northern border, the Danube River runs along the Iron Gate Gorge. Central Serbia is hilly and forested and is the most densely populated region of the country. In the east, there are the Carpathian and Rhodope Mountains, as well as the Balkan range, which forms the border with Romania. The Dinaric Alps rise in the western central region. Kosovo, in the south, is considered the cradle of Serbian civilization. Its geographical formation is two basins surrounded by mountains, including the highest peak in Yugoslavia, Daravica, with an elevation of 8,714 feet (2,656 meters). Kosovo's rocky soil does not produce much, with the exception of corn and rye, but there are grazing fields for livestock, as well as mineral resources of lead, zinc, and silver. Montenegro, the smallest of the former Yugoslav republics, is largely forested. Its terrain is rough and mountainous, better suited for animal husbandry than for farming. Its coastal plain along the Adriatic is narrow, dropping off to sheer cliffs in the north.

Belgrade is the capital of Serbia and is the largest city in the country, with a population of 1.5 million. It takes its name, which translates as "white fortress," from the large stone walls that enclose the old part of the city. It is in the north of the country, on a cliff overlooking the meeting of the Danube and Sava Rivers.

Demography. Since the civil wars began in the early 1990s, the population has become more heavily Serbian. Many Croats have fled, particularly from Belgrade and Vojvodina, and many ethnic Serbs have fled from other former Yugoslav republics, Bosnia and Croatia in particular. The 2000 estimate for Serbia's population was 9,981,929, and for Montenegro 680,158. However, these numbers are uncertain due to forced dislocation and ethnic cleansing. Serbs constitute 62.6 percent of people in the area; 16.5 percent are Albanian; 5 percent Montenegrin; 3.4 percent Yugoslav; and 3.3 percent Hungarian. The remaining 9.2 percent are composed of other minorities, including Croats, Gypsies, and Magyars.

Linguistic Affiliation. Serbian, the official language, is spoken by 95 percent of the population. It is virtually identical to Croatian, except that Serbian is written in the Cyrillic, or Russian, alphabet, and Croatian uses Roman letters. Five percent of the people speak Albanian, most of these concentrated in the southern province of Kosovo. German, English, and French are commonly learned in school as second languages.

Symbolism. The national symbol of Serbia is a double-headed white eagle, a creature considered the king of animals. The new flag of Serbia and Montenegro is three vertical bars, blue, white, and red (from top to bottom). The flag of the former Yugoslavia was the same but with a red star outlined in yellow in the center.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. There is archaeological evidence that civilization in present-day Serbia dates to between 7000 and 6000 b.c.e. The first known inhabitants were the Illyrians, followed by the Celts in the fourth century, and the Romans a century after that. Slavic tribes, whose descendants today form most of the population of the region, arrived in the sixth century. The Byzantine Empire ruled the Balkans for centuries, until the 1150s, when Stefan Nemanja, a leader of a Serb clan, united many smaller clans to defeat the foreign power. Nemanja became king, and in 1220 passed the crown to his son Stefan II. The Nemanja Dynasty continued to rule for the next two hundred years, a period considered a golden age in Serbian history. During this period the Serb Empire expanded to include Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania, reaching as far as Greece in the south.

The Ottoman Turkish Empire to the south also was growing, however, and in 1389 arrived in Kosovo and demanded that Serbian forces surrender to them. The Turks ruled for nearly five hundred years. During their reign, many of the people were enslaved, and the cultural and economic development of the region was stifled.

Throughout the nineteenth century, however, the Serbs began to reassert their desire for self-rule, and in 1878, with the aid of Russian forces, Serbia defeated the Ottomans. In that same year, the Congress of Berlin declared Serbia independent, but it also partitioned the country so that Bosnia-Herzogovina, a region with a large Serb population, became part of Austria. Overall, the Congress's re-distribution of land decreased the domain of the Turks and the Russians and increased that of Austria-Hungary and Great Britain. This shift in the balance of powers exacerbated tensions among the various nations involved.

National borders in the Balkans shifted again with the First Balkan War of 1912, when Serbia, along with the other Greece and Bulgaria, took Macedonia back from Turkish rule. In 1913, in the Second Balkan War, Serbia took possession of Kosovo from Albania. They also attempted to take Macedonia from Bulgaria, which had claimed it the year before.

Tensions with Austria continued to build, and in 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a Serb nationalist, assassinated the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand. Austria declared war on Serbia, and within several months occupied the entire region. The assassination of the archduke is often named as the immediate act initiating World War I, which would in many ways reconfigure the European continent. When the war ended in 1918, a kingdom uniting Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzogovina, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia was formed. In 1929 this kingdom was named Yugoslavia. Despite strong disagreements among the different regions (particularly Serbia and Croatia) as to how to govern, Serbia prevailed, and Yugoslavia was declared a constitutional monarchy under the rule of the Serb king Aleksandar Karadjordjevic.

In 1941 Yugoslavia joined the Tripartite Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Spain, hoping that this would allow them to expand their borders into Greece. Later that same year, however, they decided to pull out of the alliance, and closed their borders to prevent Hitler from invading. The Germans ignored this move, and proceeded to bomb Belgrade. Hitler divided the Balkans among Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, and Hungary. In Croatia, the people greeted German troops as a way to escape the rule of the Serbs, and Croatia, aligned with the Axis powers, became a Fascist puppet state. The Croatian government waged a campaign to rid the territory of Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies, ultimately killing 750,000 people.

The end of World War II saw the rise to power of Josip Tito, who ruled Yugoslavia under a Communist dictatorship from 1945 until 1980. All businesses and institutions were owned and managed by the government. Tito declared himself president for life. He did away with the monarchy, and while he greatly consolidated the power of the central government in Yugoslavia, he also gave republic status to Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Macedonia. Tito managed to keep his nation unaligned with either the Soviet Union or Western countries. He refused to submit to the control of the Soviet Union, which held sway in many of the other Eastern European nations, and for this reason, in 1948 Joseph Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from the Communist Information Bureau.

When Tito died in 1980, the country established a collective presidency: each republic had a representative, and the body worked together to make decisions; the presidency of the country rotated among these different leaders. Slobodan Milosevic became president in 1989, advocating a vision of "Greater Serbia" free of ethnic minorities. Slovenia and Croatia disagreed with Milosevic's policies, and both regions declared independence in June 1991. Milosevic sent troops in, and thousands of people died before the 1992 cease-fire. The European Community granted recognition to the republics, and two other regions of the former Yugoslavia Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzogovinacalled for independence.

Milosevic refused to recognize the sovereignty of any of these states, and on 27 April 1992 declared Serbia and Montenegro the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. They officially withdrew troops from Bosnia, but many of these forces were Bosnian Serbs, who stayed on of their own accord and continued to perpetrate horrible violence against the Muslims in the area. In May 1992 the U.N. Security Council responded by passing economic sanctions against Yugoslavia.

In 1996 a peace treaty was negotiated between Yugoslavia and Croatia, and Bosnia was divided between Serbs and Croat Muslims.

In that same year, Milosevic was defeated in a presidential election but refused to accept the result. Protests and demonstrations ensued, which the government put down using violence. Elections were held again the following year, and Milosevic won.

In March 1998 the largely Albanian province of Kosovo began fighting for independence. Milosevic's government proceeded to destroy villages and kill thousands of Albanians in the region. An arms embargo by the European nations and the United States had no effect, and in early 1999 NATO intervened on the behalf Kosovo and bombed Yugoslavia. In June 1999 a peace treaty was worked out between Yugoslavia and NATO, but the underlying causes of the conflict were not resolved, and violence continues in the region, which remains under the temporary control of NATO and the U.N. Security Council.

A presidential election in September 2000 resulted in a victory for opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica, but Milosevic refused to admit that he had lost. Protests ensued; Milosevic's troops attempted to put them down, but eventually troops joined the crowds in agitating for the president's ouster. Milosevic was forced to admit defeat. The European Union responded by lifting certain sanctions against Yugoslavia, including bans on commercial flights and oil shipments. Kostunica supports a free-market economy and increased autonomy for Montenegro, and acknowledges the possibility of self-determination for Kosovo. While his stance is much more moderate than Milosevic's, Kostunica has refused to advocate the prosecution of his predecessor as a war criminal.

National Identity. The people of Yugoslavia identify primarily with their region. Serbs are more likely than other groups to subscribe to an identity as Yugoslav; many minorities see this identity as attempting to subsume significant regional, ethnic, and religious differences. Montenegrins also have a tradition of Pan-Slavism, which led them to remain with Serbia even as other republics were demanding independence. However, Montenegro has had differences with Serbia, particularly over policy in Bosnia, Croatia, and, most recently, Kosovo. Religion also plays an important role in national identity, in particular for Muslims, the largest religious minority (and the majority in certain areas, such as Kosovo and parts of Bosnia).

Ethnic Relations. The Balkan Peninsula is a hodgepodge of cultures and ethnicities. While most of the people are of Slavic origin, their histories diverged under the varying influences of different governments, religions, and cultures. For example, Slovenia and Croatia are primarily Roman Catholic, whereas most of Serbia is Eastern Orthodox; in Kosovo and Bosnia there is a large Islamic population. The north has a strong influence from Hungary, and the south displays more remnants of Turkish culture. The union of these different cultures under a repressive regime makes for a volatile situation; for this reason the entire region has been referred to as the "Balkan tinderbox." The virulent animosity among different groups has, in recent years, led to civil war. The Serb government has brutally suppressed virtually all minorities to consolidate Serb power. Under Milosevic, a policy of ethnic cleansing has attempted to rid the country of Croat Muslims in Bosnia and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo when these groups have agitated for self-rule; the results have been ongoing violence and the oppression of ethnic minorities.

Yugoslavia also has one of the world's largest Gypsy populations, who are also treated with intolerance. In the 1980s there was a movement among Yugoslav Gypsies for separate nationhood, but it never materialized and eventually lost steam.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Belgrade is home to the old royal palace of Yugoslavia, as well as current government buildings. Many of these are in an area called New Belgrade, on the outskirts of the city. Belgrade also boasts centuries-old churches, mosques, and several national museums. Due in part to its advantageous location at the junction of two rivers, the city has a history of possession by various foreign powers: It has been captured sixty times (by the Romans, Huns, Turks, and Germans, among others) and destroyed thirty-eight times. Many of the city's older structures were damaged by the Nazis during World War II. Some were later restored, but the recent civil war has again devastated the city.

The largest city in Montenegro is Titograd (known as Podgorica before Tito renamed it in 1946). It is an industrial center. Much of the architecture in Titograd reflects the Turkish influence of the Ottoman Empire.

Pristina, with a population of about 108,000, is the capital of the province of Kosovo. It served as capital of the Serbian Empire before the invasion of the Ottoman Turks in the fourteenth century. The city's architecture, exhibiting both Serbian and Turkish influence, testifies to its long history.

Novi Sad, a city with a population of 179,600, in the northern province of Vojvodina, boasts a fortress from the Roman era, as well as a university and the Serbian National Theater. It also is a manufacturing center.

Subotica, with a population of about 100,000, is Serbia's northernmost city and serves as an important center for commerce, agriculture, and intellectual activity.

In the cities, most people live in apartment buildings, although there are also older houses. In the countryside most houses are modest buildings of wood, brick, or stone. They are generally surrounded by courtyards enclosed by walls or fences for privacy. Even in rural areas, houses tend to be relatively close together. Some villages in Kosovo are laid out in a unique square pattern. The houses have watchtowers, and are surrounded by mud walls for protection from enemies.

Serbia is famous for its religious architecture: Huge, beautiful churches and monasteries are not just in the big cities, but also are scattered throughout the nation. Some date back centuries; others, such as the Church of Saint George in the town of Topola, were built in the twentieth century. They are awe-inspiring structures adorned with elaborate mosaics, frescoes, and marble carvings.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Staples of the Serbian diet are bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Breakfast generally consists of eggs, meat, and bread, with a dairy spread called kajmak. Lunch is the main meal of the day and usually is eaten at about three in the afternoon. A light supper is eaten at about 8:00 p.m.

Peppers are a common ingredient in many dishes. The national dish, called cevapcici, is small meat patties, highly spiced and prepared on a grill. Other Serbian specialties include proja, a type of cornbread; gibanica, a thin, crispy dough often served with cheese and eggs; sarma, cabbage leaves filled with meat; and djuvéc, a vegetable stew. Pita (a type of strudel) and palacinke (crepes) are popular desserts. Coffee is prepared in the Turkish style, boiled to a thick, potent liquid and served in small cups. A fruit concoction called sok is another favorite drink. For alcohol there is beer and a fruit brandy called rakija.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. The Christmas feast is an elaborate occasion. On Christmas Eve, people eat Lenten foods (no meat or dairy products) and drink hot toddies (warm brandy with honey). The following day, the meal generally consists of roast pork and a round bread called cesnica. On Krsna Slava, a family's patron saint's day, another round bread, called kolac, is served, as well as zito, a boiled, sweetened wheat dish. For Easter, boiled eggs are a traditional food. The shells are dyed and decorated in elaborate patterns.

Basic Economy. The collapse of the Yugoslav Republic in 1991 wreaked havoc on the economy of the region. Trade links were interrupted, and ongoing warfare has destroyed many physical assets. Economic sanctions further stunted the growth of the economy during these years. There is currently an unemployment rate of 30 percent.

Industry accounts for 50 percent of the GDP and employs a large number of people in the fabrication of machines, electronics, and consumer goods. Three-quarters of the workforce is in the business sector (either agriculture or industry). Agriculture accounts for 20 percent of the GDP. Before World War II, more than 75 percent of the population were farmers. Today, due mainly to advances in agricultural technology, this figure has shrunk to fewer than 30 percent; this includes a million people who support themselves through subsistence farming. Crops include wheat, corn, oil seeds, sugar beets, and fruit. Livestock also are raised for dairy products and meat. A quarter of the labor force is in education, government, or services. The tourist industry, which grew steadily throughout the 1980s, has been virtually extinguished by the civil war of the 1990s.

Land Tenure and Property. Under the Communist system, virtually everything was owned by the government. However, even under Tito, many farmers opposed collective farms, and while the government did run several such large-scale operations, small, privately owned farms were permitted as well. Since Tito's demise, the country has been moving toward a capitalist economy. More privatization has been allowed, and people have begun to open stores and businesses. However, this economic development has been hindered by sanctions and by the chaos of civil war.

Commercial Activities. Serbia produces agricultural products and manufactured goods (textiles, machinery, cars, household appliances, etc.) for sale. However, the civil war has slowed or halted production in many areas, and along with economic sanctions, has created a situation of shortages and rationing. Many goods are bought and sold on the black market; they are brought into the country illegally and sold for high prices. Many people, especially in rural areas, also rely on their own gardens and animals to supplement their diets.

Major Industries. Industries include machine-building (aircraft, trucks, tanks, other weapons, and agricultural equipment), metallurgy, mining, production of consumer goods, and electronics. Serbia has one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Europe, and supplies electricity not just to the former Yugoslav republics but to neighboring countries as well.

Trade. Trade has been restricted by sanctions imposed by many Western countries. Major partners include the former Yugoslav republics of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzogovina, as well as Italy, Germany, and Russia.

Division of Labor. It is traditional for children to continue in the trade or occupation of their parents. However, with more educational opportunities, this is not necessarily the case now. There are approximately two million people in the socialized sector, of which 75 percent are in business (agriculture or industry) and 25 percent are in education, government, and other services. There is also a significant unemployment rate (26 percent in 1996).

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Before World War II the base of society was the peasant class, with a small upper class composed of government workers, professionals, merchants, and artisans, and an even tinier middle class. Under communism, education, Party membership, and rapid industrialization offered possibilities for upward mobility. Since the fall of Tito's government and the rise of the free-market economy, people have been able to attempt to better their status through entrepreneurship. However, economic sanctions have had the effect of decreasing the overall standard of living; shortages and inflation make even necessary items unaffordable or unavailable. This situation has created more extreme differences between the rich and the poor, as those who have access to goods can hoard them and sell them for exorbitant rates.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Most young people and city-dwellers wear Western-style clothing. In the villages, women wear the traditional outfit of a plain blouse, long black skirt, and head scarf. For festive occasions, unmarried women wear small red felt caps adorned with gold braid, and married women don large white hats with starched wings. Albanian men in Kosovo wear small white caps, which reflect their Muslim heritage.

Political Life

Government. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia elects a president for a four-year term (although during his eleven-year tenure, Slobodan Milosevic refused to recognize the outcome of these elections if they were not to his advantage). The president appoints a prime minister. The legislative branch of the government, called the Federal Assembly, consists of two houses. The Chamber of Citizens, with 138 seats (108 from Serbia and 30 from Montenegro), is elected by popular vote. The Chamber of Republics, with 20 representatives from each republic, is chosen by republic assemblies. However, since 1998, Serbia has superseded Montenegro's right to have representatives in the Chamber of Republics.

Both Serbia and Montenegro also have their own governments, which are similar in structure to the federal one. Each has its own president, legislature, and court system. The voting age is sixteen if one is employed, or eighteen otherwise.

Leadership and Political Officials. Serbia has a history of powerful, demagogic leaders who have maintained control by manipulating the media and other forceful methods. This has created a certain distance between the highest government officials and the people, which can manifest itself in the populace as either fear, admiration, or a combination of the two.

Today, there are eleven political parties represented in the Yugoslav Federal Assembly, four from Montenegro and seven from Serbia. Until the September 2000 elections, Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia, and Milosevic himself, exercised ultimate power. Kostunica managed to unite eighteen opposition groups as the Democratic Opposition of Serbia, but this coalition is fraught with dissension.

Social Problems and Control. There are local court systems in each republic, as well as a Federal Court, which is the highest court of appeals and which also resolves property disputes among the republics. There is a high rate of corruption in government and in business. Refugees, economic strain, and social unrest have also been major social problems. Political dissidents have been dealt swift and harsh punishments.

Military Activity. The military consists of an army made up of ground forces with border troops, naval forces, and air defense forces. It is under the command of the Yugoslav president, in conjunction with the Supreme Defense Council, which includes the presidents of both Serbia and Montenegro. All men are required to serve one year in the armed forces. The police (both federal and republican) have the responsibility of maintaining order in the country, and in many cases are better armed than the military.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

The Communist regime instituted an extensive social welfare system, much of which is still intact. This system provides retirement and disability pensions as well as unemployment and family allowances. There is also a socialized health care system, and the government runs shelters and homes for orphans and the mentally and physically disabled. However, civil war and economic sanctions have left the government in many instances unable to pay its Social Security checks, and many older and disabled people have suffered as a result.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Western nongovernmental organizations, including Red Cross and USAID, have provided assistance in dealing with the sizable problems of food, housing, and medical needs. However, Yugoslavia is not recognized by the international community as a whole, and has been denied admission to the United Nations and other international organizations.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Traditionally, women perform only domestic work. Under communism, however, they began to take other types of jobs in large numbers. The number of women wage earners increased from 400,000 in 1948 to 2.4 million in 1985. The percentage of women who work outside the home varies greatly from region to region. Most women take positions in cultural and social welfare, public service and administration, and trade and catering. Almost all of the nation's elementary school teachers are women. However, even when women work outside the home, they are still expected to cook, clean, and take care of other domestic tasks.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Serbian culture is traditionally male-dominated. Men are considered the head of the household. While women have gained significant economic power since World War II, many vestiges of the patriarchal system are still evident in women's lower social status.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Wedding celebrations often last for days. Before a couple enters their new house for the first time, the bride stands in the doorway and lifts a baby boy three times. This is to ensure that the marriage will be blessed with children. Marriages are generally not arranged. Under Tito, women gained equal rights in marriage and divorce became easier and more common.

Domestic Unit. It is customary for several generations to live together under the same roof. Ethnic Albanians tend to have large families, of eight to ten children, and extended families often live together in a compound of houses enclosed by a stone wall. Even in Serbian families, which tend to be smaller, cousins, aunts, uncles, and other family members often live, if not in the same house, then in close proximity to one another. The Serbian language does not distinguish between cousins and siblings, which is an indication of the particular closeness of extended families.

Inheritance. Inheritance customs follow a system of male primogeniture: The firstborn son inherits the family's property.

Kin Groups. Until modern times, rural Montenegrins lived in clans. Feuding among the different clans was legendary and could go on for generations. In rural areas the land was traditionally worked under the administration of zadrugas, groups of a hundred or more people made up of extended families, which were overseen by male elders. The zadrugas were religious groups, each with its own patron saint, and served the social function of providing for orphans, the elderly, and the sick or disabled. In the 1970s the organizations began to evolve from the traditional patriarchal system to a more cooperative one. They also declined in prevalence as the population became more urban than rural.

Socialization

Infant Care. Infant care is largely the role of the mother. Godparents also play a significant part, and there is a fairly elaborate ceremony soon after birth that involves the godparent cutting the child's umbilical cord. Under the Communist regime, the government set up day nurseries to care for babies, allowing women to return to their jobs soon after childbirth.

Child Rearing and Education. The godfather (kum ) or godmother (kuma ) plays an important role in a child's upbringing. They are not related by blood, but are considered part of the spiritual family. He or she is responsible for the child if anything happens to the parents. The kum or kuma is in charge of naming the baby, and has a role of honor in the baptism and later in the child's wedding. Both boys and girls are expected to help with household chores.

Education is free and compulsory between ages seven and fourteen. Primary school lasts for eight years, after which students choose the vocation or field they will study in secondary school. This lasts three or four years, depending on the area of study. Seventy-one percent of children attend primary school. This number drops to 64 percent at the secondary level. Albanians, and Albanian girls in particular, are much less likely to receive an education. In 1990, all Albanian schools in Kosovo were closed down because the Serbian government did not approve of their curriculum, which emphasized Albanian culture. Some underground schools have been started, but many children continue to go without schooling.

Higher Education. The largest university, in Belgrade, was founded in 1863. There are other universities, in the cities of Novi Sad, Nis, and Podgorica. Kosovo's only university, in Pristina, was closed in 1990, when all ethnic Albanian faculty were fired and the Albanian students were either expelled or resigned in protest. Albanian faculty and students are now attempting to run an underground university. In 1998 the government took control of all the universities in the country, curtailing all academic freedom.

Etiquette

Kissing is a common form of greeting, for both men and women. Three kisses, alternating cheeks, are customary. Serbs are a hospitable people and love to visit and chat. When entering a home as a guest for the first time, one generally brings a small present of flowers, food, or wine. It also is customary to remove one's shoes and put on a pair of slippers before going into the house. Hosts are expected to serve their guests; slatko, a sweet strawberry preserve, often is provided.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. Sixty-five percent of the population belongs to the Eastern Orthodox Church. Nineteen percent are Muslim (most of these people live in Kosovo, and the majority are Sunni, although there are some Shi'ite as well); 4 percent are Roman Catholic; 1 percent are Protestant; and the remaining 11 percent practice other religions. Before World War II there was a sizable Jewish population. It shrunk from 64,405 in 1931 to 6,835 in 1948. Many of those who were not killed in the Holocaust emigrated to Israel. Today the Jewish population is about 5,000, organized into 29 communes under the Federation of Jewish Communities in Yugoslavia. The Eastern Orthodox Church split off from the Roman Catholic Church in 1054, in what became known as the Great Schism. Many of the fundamental beliefs of the two churches remain the same, the fundamental difference being that the Eastern Orthodox religion does not recognize the authority of the pope. Instead they have a group of patriarchs who have equal status. The Serbian Orthodox Church was founded in 1219, and its rise was tied to the rise of the Serbian state at that time. A central figure in the church is Saint Sava, the brother of Stefan Nemanja, Serbia's first king. Since its founding, the church has promoted Serbian nationalism, and has struggled against the dominance of the central authority of the Greek Orthodox Church in Constantinople.

Religious Practitioners. The patriarchs hold the highest position in the Eastern Orthodox Church and are responsible for most official decisions. Priests are the primary religious figures in the community and are responsible for conducting services and counseling their parishioners. Unlike in Roman Catholicism, they are permitted to marry. There also are monks, who are celibate. Only monks, not priests, can obtain the position of bishop.

Rituals and Holy Places. Religious ceremonies are held in churcheselaborate, beautifully designed buildings, many of which date back hundreds of years. Each family has a patron saint, who is honored once a year in a large celebration called Krsna Slava. A candle is lit in the saint's honor, and special foods are consumed, including the round bread kolac. A priest comes to the house to bless it with holy water and incense. The family and priest stand in a circle around the kolac and sing a special song.

Christmas (observed on 6 and 7 January in the Eastern Orthodox Church) is a major holiday. Christmas Eve, called Badnje Vece, is feted with a large bonfire in the churchyard and the singing of hymns. On Christmas morning a selected young person knocks on the door and "brings Christmas into the house," poking a stick into the fireplace. The number of sparks that are released predicts how much luck the family will have in the year to come. Easter also is a big holiday. In addition to church services, it is celebrated by dying eggs and performing traditional kolo dances.

Death and the Afterlife. Funerals are large, elaborate occasions. In the cemetery, a spread of salads and roasted meats is presented in honor of the deceased; this is repeated a year after the death, at which point the gravestone is placed in the ground. Gravestones often bear photographs as well as inscriptions. Eastern Orthodox Christians believe in heaven, hell, and purgatory, a concept of an afterlife in which one is rewarded or punished according to one's actions in this life.

Medicine and Health Care

Comprehensive health care is provided for pregnant women, infants, children up to age fifteen, students up to age twenty-six, and people over age sixty-five. All people are ensured treatment for infectious diseases and mental illness. However, at least one-fifth of the population does not receive health care. The post-World War II Communist government did a good job of eliminating many of the country's health problems, including typhus, typhoid, dysentery, and tuberculosis. Infectious diseases are problems in the less developed regions, such as Kosovo. The leading causes of death are circulatory diseases and cancer, due in part to the increase in environmental pollution and cigarette smoking since the 1970s. Traffic accidents and suicide also are significant health issues.

Secular Celebrations

The principal secular celebrations are New Year's Day, 1 January; International Labor Day, 1 May; Day of Uprising in Serbia, 7 July; and Republic Day, 29 November.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. The communist government had a policy of fairly strict censorship but state-approved artists did receive funding. Today there are virtually no funds (public or private) for the support of the arts. The National Theater in Belgrade hosts ballet performances. There are also traveling folklore groups that perform around the country.

Literature. Serbian literature traces its roots to the thirteenth-century epic poetry of Kosovo. The nineteenth-century Serbian poets Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj and Djura Jaksic gained prominence beyond the nation's borders. Contemporary Serbian writers include Milorad Pavic, Vladimir Arsenijevic, and Ivo Andric, who won the 1961 Nobel Prize for literature for his novel Bridge Over the River Drina. The Montenegrin Milovan Djilas was a prominent critic of the Communist system, and composed works in a number of genres, including fiction, nonfiction, memoir, and history.

Graphic Arts. Serbia is known for its textiles made of wool, flax, and hemp. These materials are also woven into carpets of complex geometric patterns. The decoration of Easter eggs is another traditional art form. They are colored with natural dyes and adorned with intricate patterns and designs.

Many churches and monasteries are decorated with frescoes and mosaics. Contemporary painting often incorporates religious and historic concepts as well as modern aesthetic principles. Serbia has produced several nationally recognized painters, including Milic Stankovic and Olja Ivanicki. Ivan Generalic is well known for his primitive-style depictions (some of them fairly political) of Yugoslav life.

Artists have not been deterred by the economic or political situation, and have begun displaying installations in bombed-out buildings in Belgrade, shows they call "Phobjects." Contemporary art also can be seen on the street in popular surrealistic political posters that are hung in towns and cities.

Performance Arts. One type of traditional Serbian music is performed on a guslari, a single-stringed instrument played with a bow, which the musician accompanies by singing ballads that relay both news and historical events. Another kind of folk music is called tamburitza. It is played by groups of musicians on stringed instruments similar to mandolins and banjos. The gadje, a bagpipe like instrument, also is common. Albanian music in Kosovo has a more Arabic sound, echoing the influence of the Turks, and Gypsies dance to a type of music called blehmuzika, using a brass band.

Serbian folk dances are called kolos, and are performed by professional troupes, or by guests at weddings and other special occasions. They involve a group of people holding hands and moving in a circle. A specific kolo music accompanies the dance. During the Turkish rule, when people were forbidden to hold large celebrations, they often transmitted news through the lyrics and movements of the kolo tradition. Traditional accompaniment to the dance is a violin, and occasionally an accordion or a flute. Costumes also are important parts of dance; even today, traditional regional dress is worn for the performances.

Western rock music is extremely popular with younger audiences, and Yugoslavia has produced some homegrown stars. Many of them use the form to convey political messages.

There also is a long tradition of filmmaking in the entire former Yugoslavia. The first film recordings date to 1905, and the first full-length film was made in 1910. After World War II the industry grew considerably, thanks to government funding for productions. In 1939, the director Mihail Popovic gained acclaim for his historical film Battle of Kosovo. In the 1980s, director Emir Kusturica, from Sarajevo, won first place at the Cannes Film Festival for When Father Was Away on Business. His films depicted the terror that the Communist government inspired in the people. The 1990s saw decreased production in the film industry, but some of the movies that were produced took on the difficult subject of the civil war, including Pretty Village, Pretty Flame, directed by Srdjan Dragojevic. Goran Paskaljevic, another Serbian director, produced the widely acclaimed film Powder Keg in 1998.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

Serbia has produced several well-known scientists, including Mileva Maric Einstein (the first wife of Albert Einstein), Mihajlo Pupin, and Nikola Tesla. The civil wars that began in the early 1990s took a severe toll on the economy, and today there is little money available for the study of either the physical or social sciences.

Bibliography

Allcock, John B. et al., eds. Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia: An Encyclopedia, 1998.

Anzulovic, Branimir. Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide, 1999.

Campbell, Greg. Road to Kosovo: A Balkan Diary, 1999.

"Country Report: Yugoslavia (Serbia-Montenegro)." In The Economist Intelligence Unit, 1998.

Erlanger, Steven. "Yugoslavs Bicker over Army and Secret Police." New York Times, 8 November 2000.

"Former Yugoslavia." U.N. Chronicle, 1 March 1999.

Gall, Carlotta. "Bosnians Vote with a Hope: To Break Ethnic Parties' Rule." New York Times, 12 November 2000.

Gojkovic, Drinka. The Road to War in Serbia: Trauma and Catharsis, 2000.

Greenberg, Susan. "The Great Yugoslav Failure." New Statesman, 9 August 1999.

Hawkesworth, Celia. Voices in the Shadows: Women and Verbal Art in Serbia and Bosnia, 2000.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country, 2000.

McGeary, Johanna. "The End of Milosevic." Time, 16 October 2000.

Milivojevic, JoAnn. Serbia, 1999.

"More Trouble in the Balkans." The Economist, 15 July 1999.

Muravchik, Joshua. "The Road to Kosovo." Commentary, June 1999.

Nelan, Bruce, et al. "Into the Fire." Time, 5 April 1999.

Ramet, Sabrina P. Gender Politics in the Western Balkans, 1999.

Ranesar, Romesh. "Man of the Hour." Time, 16 October 2000.

Sopova, Jasmina. "Talking to Serbian Filmmaker Goran Paskaljevic." UNESCO Courier, February 2000.

"Still Pretty Nasty." The Economist, 23 September 2000.

U.S. Department of State. Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo, 1999.

Wachtel, Andrew. Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia, 1998.

Web Sites

U.S. Department of State, Central Intelligence Agency. "Serbia and Montenegro." In CIA World Factbook 2000, http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sr

Eleanor Stanford

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (sûr´bēə, mŏn´tənē´grō), Serbian Srbija i Crna Gora, former country of SE Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula, a short-lived union (2003–6) of the republics of Serbia and the much smaller Montenegro that was also a successor state to the former Yugoslavia. Belgrade was the federal capital and largest city. See Yugoslavia.

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Serbia and Montenegro

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Compiled from the December 2005 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Serbia and Montenegro


PROFILE

Geography

Area:

Montenegro (13,938 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Connecticut; Serbia (88,412 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Maine. Combined, they are slightly smaller than Kentucky (102,350 sq. km.).

Cities:

Capital of Serbia and Montenegro and Capital of Serbia—Belgrade; Capital of Montenegro—Podgorica. Other cities—Pristina, Pancevo, Novi Pazar, Uzice, Novi Sad, Subotica, Bor, Nis, Tivat, Kotor.

Terrain:

Varied; in the north, rich fertile plains; in the east, limestone ranges and basins; in the southeast, mountains and hills; in the southwest, high shoreline with no islands off the coast.

Climate:

In the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland.

People (2004 est.)

Nationality:

Noun—Montenegrin(s) and Serb(s); adjective—Montenegrin and Serbian.

Population:

8,029,345, (Montenegro 650,575); Serbia (not including Kosovo) 7,478,820 (2002 Republic census).

Population growth rate:

−0.07%.

Ethnic groups:

Serbian 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6%.

Religion:

Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%.

Language:

Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%.

Health:

Infant mortality rate—14.2 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy—72.8 yrs., female 76.7 yrs.

Government

Type:

Republic.

Constitution:

Adopted April 27, 1992.

Independence:

April 11, 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament adopted a new Constitutional Charter establishing the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

Branches:

Executive—president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative—Serbia and Montenegro union parliament. Judicial—Federal Court (Savezni Sud) and Constitutional Court.

Political parties:

Serbia—Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (SVM), Christian Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS), Civic Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Democratic Alternative (DA), Democratic Center (DC), Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Democratic Party (DS), Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), League for Sumadija (LS), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV), New Serbia (NS), Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina (LSV), Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS—former Communist Party), Yugoslav United Left (JUL); Montenegro—Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), Party of Democratic Action (SDA), People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP).

Suffrage:

16 years of age if employed; universal at 18.

Economy

GDP (2004):

$24 billion.

GDP growth rate (2004):

7.2%.

Per capita income (2004):

$2,620.

Inflation rate (2004 est.):

17%.

Natural resources:

Petroleum, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, timber, bauxite, gold, silver, navigable rivers.

Agriculture:

15% of GDP.

Industry:

28% of GDP.

Services:

56% of GDP.

Trade (2004 est.):

Exports—$3.7 billion. Major markets—Russia, Italy, Germany. Imports—$11.4 billion. Major suppliers—Germany, Italy, Russia.


PEOPLE AND HISTORY

Serbia

The Serbian state as known today was created in 1170 A.D. by Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjic dynasty. Serbia's religious foundation came several years later when Stefan's son, canonized as St. Sava, became the first archbishop of a newly autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church (1219). Thus, at this time, the Serbs enjoyed both temporal and religious independence. After a series of successions, Serbia fell under the rule of King Milutin, who improved Serbia's position among other European countries. Milutin also was responsible for many of the brightest examples of Medieval Serbian architecture. Moreover, Serbia began to expand under Milutin's reign, seizing territory in nearby Macedonia from the Byzantines. Under Milutin's son, Stefan Dusan (1331-55), the Nemanjic dynasty reached its peak, ruling from the Danube to central Greece. However, Serbian power waned after Stefan's death in 1355, and in the Battle of Kosovo (June 15, 1389) the Serbs were catastrophically defeated by the Turks. By 1459, the Turks exerted complete control over all Serb lands.

For more than 3 centuries—nearly 370 years—the Serbs lived under the yoke of the Ottoman sultans. As a result of this oppression, Serbs began to migrate out of their native land (present-day Kosovo and southern Serbia) into other areas within the Balkan Peninsula, including what is now Vojvodina and Croatia. When the Austrian Hapsburg armies pushed the Ottoman Turks south of the Danube in 1699, many Serbs were "liberated," but their native land was still under Ottoman rule.

Movements for Serbian independence began more than 100 years later with uprisings under the Serbian patriots Karageorge (1804-13) and Milos Obrenovic (1815-17). After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, Serbia became an internationally recognized principality under Turkish suzerainty and Russian protection, and the state expanded steadily southward. After an insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, Serbia and Montenegro went to war against Turkey in 1876-78 in support of the Bosnian rebels. With Russian assistance, Serbs gained more territory as well as formal independence in 1878, though Bosnia was placed under Austrian administration.

In 1908, Austria-Hungary directly annexed Bosnia, inciting the Serbs to seek the aid of Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece in seizing the last Ottoman-ruled lands in Europe. In the ensuing Balkan Wars of 1912-13, Serbia obtained northern and central Macedonia, but Austria compelled it to yield Albanian lands that would have given it access to the sea. Serb animosity against the Habsburgs reached a climax on June 28, 1914, when the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip, setting off a series of diplomatic and military initiatives among the great powers that culminated in World War I.

Soon after the war began, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces occupied Serbia. Upon the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the war's end in 1918, Vojvodina and Montenegro united with Serbia, and former south Slav subjects of the Habsburgs sought the protection of the Serbian crown within a kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Serbia was the dominant partner in this state, which in 1929 adopted the name Yugoslavia.

The kingdom soon encountered resistance when Croatians began to resent control from Belgrade. This pressure prompted King Alexander I to split the traditional regions into nine administrative provinces. During World War II, Yugoslavia was divided between the Axis powers and their allies. Royal army soldiers, calling themselves Cetnici (Chetniks), formed a Serbian resistance movement, but a more determined communist resistance under the Partisans, with Soviet and Anglo-American help, liberated all of Yugoslavia by 1944. In an effort to avoid Serbian domination during the postwar years, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro were given separate and equal republican status within the new socialist federation of Yugoslavia; Kosovo and Vojvodina were made autonomous provinces within Yugoslavia.

Despite the attempts at a federal system of government for Yugoslavia, Serbian communists played the leading role in Yugoslavia's political life for the next 4 decades. As the Germans were defeated at the end of World War II, Josip Broz Tito, a former Bolshevik and committed communist, began to garner support from both within Yugoslavia as well as from the Allies. Yugoslavia remained independent of the U.S.S.R., as Tito broke with Stalin and asserted Yugoslav independence. Tito went on to control Yugoslavia for 35 years. Under communist rule, Serbia was transformed from an agrarian to an industrial society. In the 1980s, however, Yugoslavia's economy began to fail. With the death of Tito in 1980, separatist and nationalist tensions emerged in Yugoslavia.

In 1989, riding a wave of nationalist sentiment, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic reimposed direct rule over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, prompting Albanians in Kosovo to agitate for separation from the Republic of Serbia. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia all seceded from Yugoslavia. On April 27, 1992 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro joined in passing the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 2002, the Belgrade Agreement was signed by

the heads of the federal and republican governments, setting forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.

Montenegro

Montenegro's history is almost inextricably tied to Serbia's. Similarly to Serbia, Montenegro was under the rule of the Ottoman Turks for the duration of their reign in the Balkans. When the Turks were removed from the area, Montenegro became an independent principality within the Austro-Hungarian Empire but did not become an independent, sovereign state until 1878.

During World War I, Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies but was defeated and occupied by Austria. Upon Austrian occupation, the Montenegrin king, King Nikola I, and his family fled to Italy. Consequently, the Serbian king, Petar Karadjordjevic, was able to exploit the chaotic conditions in Montenegro at the war's end, paving the way for the violent and unwanted Serbian annexation of Montenegro.

Montenegro was the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country at the end of the war. The majority of the Montenegrin population opposed the annexation and on January 7, 1919, staged a national uprising—known to history as the Christmas Uprising—against the Serbian annexation. The uprising became a war between Serbia and the Montenegrins that lasted until 1926. Many Montenegrins lost their lives, and though many hoped for an intervention by the Great Powers to protect their sovereignty, none came and Montenegro was effectively absorbed into the new kingdom of Yugoslavia.

When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. This caused a great divide within the Montenegrin population. Many nationalists who had been frustrated with the experience of Yugoslav unification supported the Italian administration. But there were advocates of the union with Serbia who began armed resistance movements as well as many communists who, by nature of their political beliefs, were opposed to the Italian presence. As war progressed, the local strength of the communists grew and Montenegro served as an effective base for communism in the region; it was an important refuge for Tito's Partisan forces during the most difficult points in the struggle. After the war, the communist strategy of attempting to unify Yugoslavia through a federal structure elevated Montenegro to the status of a republic, thus securing Montenegrin loyalty to the federation.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in a precarious position. The first multiparty elections in 1990 showed much public support for the League of Communists, confirming Montenegrin support for the federation. Montenegro joined Serbian efforts to preserve the federation in the form of a "Third Yugoslavia" in 1992. Though Montenegro reaffirmed its political attachment to Serbia, a sense of a distinct Montenegrin identity continued to thrive. Outspoken criticism of Serbian conduct of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina boosted the continuing strength of Montenegrin distinctiveness. Both the people and the government of Montenegro were critical of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's 1998-99 campaign in Kosovo, and the ruling coalition parties boycotted the September 2000 federal elections, which led to the eventual overthrow of Milosevic's regime. The Belgrade Agreement of March 2002, signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, set forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter which established a new state union and changed the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.

Kosovo

Before the conflicts of the 1990s, Kosovo was best known as the site of a famous 14th-century battle in which invading Ottoman Turks defeated a Serbian army led by Tsar Lazar. During this medieval period, Kosovo also was home to many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries.

The Ottomans ruled Kosovo for more than four centuries, until Serbia reconquered the territory during the First Balkans War in 1912-13. First partitioned in 1913 between Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo was then incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later named Yugoslavia) after World War I. During World War II, parts of Kosovo were absorbed into Italian-occupied Albania. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany assumed control until Tito's Yugoslav communists reentered Kosovo at the end of the war.

After World War II, Kosovo became a province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave Kosovo (along with Vojvodina) the status of an autonomous province with nearly equal voting rights as the six constituent Republics of Yugoslavia. Although the Albanian-majority province enjoyed significant autonomy, riots broke out in 1981 led by Kosovar Albanians who demanded that Kosovo be granted full Republic status.

In the late 1980s, Slobodan Milosevic propelled himself to power in Belgrade by exploiting the fears of the small Serbian minority in Kosovo. In 1989, he arranged the elimination of Kosovo's autonomy in favor of more direct rule from Belgrade. Belgrade ordered the firing of large numbers of Albanian state employees, whose jobs were then taken by Serbs.

As a result of this oppression, Kosovo Albanian leaders led a peaceful resistance movement in the early 1990s and established a parallel government funded mainly by the Albanian diaspora. When this movement failed to yield results, an armed resistance emerged in 1997 in the form of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The KLA's main goal was to secure the independence of Kosovo.

In late 1998, Milosevic unleashed a brutal police and military campaign against the separatist KLA, which included atrocities against civilian noncombatants. For the duration of Milosevic's campaign, large numbers of ethnic Albanians were either displaced from their homes in Kosovo or killed by Serbian troops or police. These acts, and Serbia's refusal to sign the Rambouillet Accords, provoked a military response from NATO, which consisted primarily of aerial bombing. The campaign continued from March through June 1999. After 79 days of bombing, Milosevic capitulated and international forces, led by NATO, moved into Kosovo. The international security presence, which is known as Kosovo Force (KFOR), works closely with the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to ensure protection for all of Kosovo's communities.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

State Union of Serbia and Montenegro

In February 2003, the Constitutional Charter was ratified by the Republic of Serbia, Republic of Montenegro, and the Yugoslav Parliament. The Constitutional Charter changed the name of the country from Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to "Serbia and Montenegro." Under the new Constitutional Charter, most federal functions and authorities devolved to the republic level. The office of President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, held by Vojislav Kostunica, ceased to exist once Svetozar Marovic was elected President of Serbia and Montenegro in March of 2003.

Republic of Serbia

Even as opposition to his regime grew in the late 1990s, Yugoslav President Milosevic continued to dominate the organs of the F.R.Y. Government. Although his political party, the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), did not enjoy a majority in either the federal or Serbian parliaments, it dominated the governing coalitions and held all the key administrative posts. An essential element of Milosevic's grasp on power was his control of the Serbian police, a heavily armed force of some 100,000 that was responsible for internal security and which committed serious human rights abuses. Routine federal elections in September 2000 resulted in a narrow official victory for Milosevic and his coalition. Immediately, street protests and rallies filled cities across the country as Serbs rallied around Vojislav Kostunica, the recently formed Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS, a broad coalition of anti-Milosevic parties) candidate for F.R.Y. president. Cries of fraud and calls for Milosevic's removal echoed across city squares from Subotica to Nis.

On October 5, 2000, Slobodan Milosevic was forced to concede defeat after days of mass protests all across Serbia. New F.R.Y. President Vojislav Kostunica was soon joined at the top of the domestic Serbian political scene by the Democratic Party's (DS) Zoran Djindjic, who was elected Prime Minister of Serbia at the head of the DOS ticket in December's republican elections. After an initial honeymoon period in the wake of October 5, DSS and the rest of DOS, led by Djindjic and his DS, found themselves increasingly at odds over the nature and pace of the governments' reform programs. Although initial reform efforts were highly successful, especially in the economic and fiscal sectors, by the middle of 2002, the nationalist Kostunica and the pragmatic Djindjic were openly at odds. Kostunica's party, having informally withdrawn from all DOS decision making bodies, was agitating for early elections to the Serbian Parliament in an effort to force Djindjic from the scene.

After the initial euphoria of replacing Milosevic's autocratic regime, the Serbian population, in reaction to this political maneuvering, was sliding into apathy and disillusionment with its leading politicians by mid-2002. This political stalemate continued for much of 2002, and reform initiatives stalled. Two rounds of elections for the republic presidency in late 2002 failed because of insufficient voter turnout (Serbian law required participation by more than 50% of registered voters).

On March 12, 2003, Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic was assassinated. The Serbian government and the newly formed union government of Serbia and Montenegro reacted swiftly by calling a state of emergency and undertaking an unprecedented crackdown on organized crime which led to the arrest of more than 4,000 people. Zoran Zivkovic, a vicepresident of Djindjic's DS party, was elected Prime Minister in March 2003. A series of scandals plagued the Zivkovic government through the second half of 2003, ultimately leading the Prime Minister to call early elections.

Republic of Serbia presidential elections were again held on November 16, 2003. These elections were also declared invalid because of insufficient voter turnout. Following the December 2003 parliamentary elections, a new minority government was formed with the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), G17+, and the Serbian Renewal Movement/New Serbia (SPO/NS) coalition and the tacit support of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and former FRY president Vojislav Kostunica was named Prime Minister. On June 27, after changes to the election law to allow for a valid election with turnout of less than 50% of registered voters, Boris Tadic (DS) was elected President of Serbia. President Tadic's Democratic Party (DS) did not join the governing coalition but has been working with Serbia's democratic forces to advance the reform agenda.

Republic of Montenegro

In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro's President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic's campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the pro-independence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment of the post-October 5, 2000 Balkans. In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The President of Montenegro is Filip Vujanovic elected in May of 2003 after two previous elections were declared void due to not meeting voter turnout requirements.

Kosovo (under UN administration)

While legally still part of Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo remains an international protectorate of the United Nations as outlined in UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (passed June 10, 1999). Under UNSCR 1244, UNMIK assumes the supreme legal authority in Kosovo, while working to create "substantial autonomy and self-governance" in Kosovo and, eventually, facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status. The senior international official in Kosovo is the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG), who has sweeping legal authority to govern Kosovo. He presides over four "pillars" comprising various aspects of UNMIK's administration of Kosovo: Police and Justice (Pillar I, led by the UN), Civil Administration (Pillar II, led by the UN); Democratization and Institution-Building (Pillar III, led by the OSCE), and Economic Development (Pillar IV, led by the EU). In July 2004, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan selected Danish diplomat Soren Jessen-Peterson to be the SRSG.

Resolution 1244 also authorizes a NATO-led force (KFOR) to provide for a safe and secure environment in Kosovo. Over the course of 2004, KFOR's strength has remained steady at around 17,500 international troops, including approximately 1,700 U.S. troops (mostly U.S. National Guard). KFOR numbers are expected to steadily decline as the security situation improves and as local security structures, such as the newly created Kosovo Police Service, increase their capacity to operate effectively.

In 2001, the SRSG promulgated a "Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self-Government in Kosovo." This document established a Kosovo Assembly and new Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). In November 2001, Kosovo held its first elections for the three-year term of the Kosovo Assembly. The elections were administered and supervised by the OSCE under Pillar III of UNMIK. The main political parties included the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), led by Ibrahim Rugova; Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), led by former KLA political chief Hashim Thaci; the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK), led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj; and the Serb coalition party Povratak. The LDK won the elections with 46% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 26%. They were followed by Povratak at 11% and the AAK at 8%. OSCE judged the elections free and fair.

After significant political wrangling, Kosovo's politicians agreed to establish Kosovo's first coalition government in March 2002, with Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister and Ibrahim Rugova (LDK) as President. The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were formed, with ministries allocated to the parties according to the March 2002 power-sharing agreement, and in the same year, the Kosovo Assembly began to function and pass its first laws. Beginning in 2003, UNMIK has transferred a significant number of governing competencies to these ministries and continues to work to build their capacity. UNMIK will retain many powers associated with state sovereignty, including foreign affairs and some security functions, until Kosovo's final status is decided. In November 2004, UNMIK approved the creation of three new PISG ministries: Energy, Returns and Communities, and Local Self-Government; new Ministers of Interior and Justice were planned to be operational in early 2006.

On October 23, 2004, Kosovo held elections for the second three-year term of the Kosovo Assembly. For the first time, Kosovo's own Central Election Commission administered these elections, under OSCE guidance. The main political parties were the same as in the 2001 elections, but for the addition of the new party ORA, led by Veton Surroi, and two new Kosovo Serb parties: the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohia (SLKM) led by Oliver Ivanovic, and the Citizens Initiative of Serbia led by Slavisa Petkovic. The LDK won the elections with 45.4% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 28.9%. They were followed by AAK at 8.4% and the ORA at 6.2%. Kosovo Serbs boycotted the elections, with less than one percent voting. However, Kosovo Serbs still received ten Assembly seats that are reserved to them as a minority community under the Constitutional Framework. Eight were allocated to the Serb List for Kosovo and Metohia, and two to the Serbian Citizens Initiative.

In contrast to the previous Kosovo government, this election produced a "narrow" coalition of two parties, the LDK and AAK. The December 3 inaugural session of the Kosovo Assembly re-elected Ibrahim Rugova as President and Ramush Haradinaj as Prime Minister. Eight of the ten Serbs boycotted the session, and, as a result, the issues of the two ministries reserved for minorities—Health and Agriculture—will be addressed in a future Assembly session.

In March 2005, Haradinaj resigned as prime minister after he was indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY); Haradinaj voluntarily surrendered to authorities and traveled to The Hague to face charges; he is now in Kosovo on provisional release awaiting his trial. The Kosovo Assembly subsequently elected Bajram Kosumi (AAK) as prime minister.

Resolution of Kosovo's future political status remains one of the key issues in the region. Kosovo Albanians continue to advocate independence, which Belgrade rejects. In early 2002, former SRSG Michael Steiner first articulated a policy of "standards before status," whereby Kosovo's final status will not be addressed until and unless Kosovo meets certain internationally endorsed standards for the establishment of rule of law, functioning democratic institutions, minority rights, and economic development. In 2003, the United Nations Security Council endorsed a plan to evaluate Kosovo's progress on these standards in mid-2005.

The United Nations appointed Kai Eide, Norwegian permanent representative to NATO, to conduct this evaluation in the summer of 2005. In October 2005, Eide reported disappointing progress on many key Standards, but said that there was no advantage to be gained by further delaying a future status process. The United Nations Security Council endorsed Eide's recommendation that such a process should begin. In November 2005, United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan appointed Martti Ahtisaari, former president of Finland, to lead a future status process. That process is ongoing.

A major focus of this process will be the status of Kosovo's minority communities, especially the Serbs. Following three days of widespread inter-ethnic violence in March 2004, the UN, NATO and the international community enhanced their efforts to ensure a Kosovo that is safe for all communities. Currently, Kosovo's Serb community suffers restricted freedom of movement and sporadic acts of inter-ethnic violence. After the war, more than 100,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian ethnic minorities fled Kosovo and many remain displaced. The international community has encouraged their return, although results have been minimal to date. The international community has also supported the decentralization of government as a measure to enhance Kosovo's governance while addressing concerns of non-Albanian communities.

Legislature

The union Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. The Republic of Serbia and Republic of Montenegro are governed by their respective republic parliaments.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 12/28/2005

President: Svetozar MAROVIC
Chmn., Council of Ministers: Svetozar MAROVIC
Min. of Defense: Zoran STANKOVIC
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Vuk DRASKOVIC
Min. of Foreign Economic Relations: Predrag IVANOVIC
Min. of Internal Economic Relations: Amir NURKOVIC
Min. of Minority & Human Rights: Rasim LJAJIC
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Nebojsa KALUDJEROVIC
Ambassador to the United States: Ivan VUJACIC

Serbia
President: Boris TADIC
Prime Minister: Vojislav KOSTUNICA
Dep. Prime Min.: Miroljub LABUS
Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Ivana DULICMARKOVIC
Min. of Capital Investment: Velimir ILIC
Min. of Culture: Dragan KOJADINOVIC
Min. of Diaspora: Vojislav VUKCEVIC
Min. of Economy: Predrag BUBALO
Min. of Education & Sport: Slobodan VUKSANOVIC
Min. of Energy & Mining: Radomir NAUMOV
Min. of Finance: Mladjan DINKIC
Min. of Health: Tomica MILOSAVLJEVIC
Min. of Interior: Dragan JOCIC
Min. of International Economic Relations: Milan PARIVODIC
Min. of Justice: Zoran STOJKOVIC
Min. of Labor, Employment, & Social Affairs: Slobodan LALOVIC
Min. of Public Administration & Local Self-Government: Zoran LONCAR
Min. of Religion: Milan RADULOVIC
Min. of Science & Environmental Protection: Aleksandar POPOVIC
Min. of Trade, Tourism, & Services: Bojan DIMITRIJEVIC

Montenegro
President: Filip VUJANOVIC
Prime Minister: Milo DJUKANOVIC
Dep. Prime Min.: Jusuf KALAMPEROVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Economic Policy & Development: Branimir GVOZDENOVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Financial Systems: Miroslav IVANISEVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Politics & Internal Policy: Dragan DJUROVIC
Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Milutin SIMOVIC
Min. of Culture: Vesna KILIBARDA
Min. of Economy: Predrag BOSKOVIC
Min. of Education & Science: Slobodan BACKOVIC
Min. of Environmental Protection & Urban Planning: Boro VUCINIC
Min. of Finance: Igor LUKSIC
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Miodrag VLAHOVIC
Min. of Foreign Economic Relations & European Integration: Gordana DJUROVIC
Min. of Health: Miodrag PAVLICIC
Min. of Interior: Jusuf KALAMPEROVIC
Min. of Justice: Zeljko STURANOVIC
Min. of Labor & Social Welfare: Slavoljub STJEPOVIC
Min. of Maritime Affairs &Transportation: Andrija LOMPAR
Min. of Minority Protection: Gezim HAJDINAGA
Min. of Tourism: Predrag NENEZIC
Min. Without Portfolio: Suad NUMANOVIC
Min. Without Portfolio: Mico ORLANDIC

Serbia and Montenegro maintains an embassy in the United States at 2134 Kalorama Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-0333).


DEFENSE

Military branches include the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, and air and air defense forces, and Civil Defense. Civilians fit for military service are estimated at about 2,088,595 (2001 est.). The 2002 estimate for military expenditures as percent of GDP is 3.6%. The Ministry of Defense has undertaken significant reform initiatives, which if continued, will help move Serbia and Montenegro closer to full Euro-Atlantic integration.


ECONOMY

The economy of Yugoslavia entered a prolonged decline in 1998. Exacerbated by international sanctions imposed in response to President Slobodan Milosevic's actions in Kosovo, the F.R.Y. economy's downward spiral showed no real sign of recovery until 2001. A vigorous team of economic reformers has worked to tame inflation and rationalize the Serbia and Montenegro economy.

The F.R.Y.'s monetary unit, the dinar, remained volatile throughout the Milosevic regime. Alarmed F.R.Y. officials took several steps to tighten monetary policy in 1998, including ruling out a devaluation in the near term, increasing reserve requirements, and issuing bonds. During this period, Montenegro rejected the dinar and adopted the German mark (now the Euro) as its official currency. As 1999 began, the damage control operations had succeeded in returning the exchange rate to reasonable levels. However, it was not until 2002, after intense macroeconomic reform measures, that the dinar became convertible—a first since the Bretton Woods agreements laid out the post-World War II international exchange rate regime.

Privatization efforts have not succeeded as well as macroeconomic reform. The process of privatization is not popular among workers of large socially owned companies, and many citizens appear to believe the tendering process is overly centralized and controlled from Belgrade. Furthermore, international investment is still lagging in Serbia and Montenegro, as a result of both domestic and international investment climates. Managers tend to blame the dearth of interest on the current negative business climate in Serbia and Montenegro.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

From the breakup of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989, the foreign policy of the F.R.Y. was characterized primarily by a desire to secure its political and geopolitical position and the solidarity of ethnic Serbs in the Balkan region through a strong nationalist campaign. The F.R.Y. supported and exploited the expansion of violent conflicts—in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and its own province, Kosovo—in order to advance its policies. Since October 2000, the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has all but eliminated its nationalist rhetoric and has worked to stabilize and strengthen its bilateral relationships with neighboring countries. In 2002, F.R.Y. resolved its longstanding border dispute with Macedonia and established full diplomatic relations with its neighbor and former adversary Croatia.

Also in 2002, the F.R.Y. Government established a commission to coordinate cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and began serving warrants for the arrest of persons indicted for war crimes who sought refuge in the country. The crackdown on organized crime following the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic also resulted in the apprehension and transfer to The Hague of several persons indicted for war crimes. In 2004 and 2005, a significant number of ICTY indictees surrendered to the Tribunal, but six persons indicted for war crimes remain at large and most are believed to be in Serbia and/or the Republika Srpska and until they are all in The Hague, Serbia met all of its ICTY obligations.

Immediately preceding the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R.Y. in spring 1999, the U.S. and most European countries severed relations with the F.R.Y., and the U.S. Embassy was closed. Since October 5, 2000, foreign embassies, including that of the U.S., have reopened, and the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has regained its seat in such international organizations as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the UN and is actively participating in International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank projects. In 2003, Serbia and Montenegro was admitted to the Council of Europe and has indicated its desire to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Foreign Aid

Prior to 1999, Belgrade received no foreign aid from the United States or western European countries. Since the fall of Milosevic in October 2000, however, European Union aid has steadily increased, and the U.S. also gives aid to Serbia and Montenegro, though there are Congressional restrictions based on Serbia's need to meet its international obligations to the International Criminal Tribunal of the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Most recently, after Secretary of State Colin L. Powell made the policy decision in January 2005 to suspend $10 million of aid in fiscal year 2005 due to Serbia's non-cooperation with the ICTY, the subsequent transfer of twelve indictees to The Hague prompted Secretary Rice to certify that Serbia and Montenegro was cooperating with the ICTY, clearing the way for the restoration of the previously suspended aid.


U.S.-SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

At the outset of hostilities between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, the United States and the F.R.Y. severed diplomatic relations. In response to the events of October 2000, the following month the United States reestablished a diplomatic presence with the U.S. Embassy reopened in May 2001. The Serbia and Montenegro embassy in Washington and the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade have reestablished bilateral relations and provide a full range of consular services. Serbia and Montenegro currently enjoys good diplomatic relations with all of its neighbors.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

BELGRADE (E) Address: Kneza Milosa 50; Phone: 381-11-361-9344; Fax: 381-11-361-8230; Workweek: 8:30 to 5:00 GMT+1; Website: belgrade.usembassy.gov.

AMB:Michael C. Polt
DCM:Roderick W. Moore
DCM OMS:Megan Gallardo
CG:Karen E. Martin
POL:Gustavo Delgado
COM:Maria Andrews
MGT:Kathleen D. Hanson
AFSA:Rebecca Ross
AGR:Hassan Ahmed
CLO:Susan Green
CUS:Wilbur Smith
DAO:Col. Mark Easton
ECO:Mark Bocchetti
EEO:Megan Gallardo
FCS:Maria Andrews
FMO:Jonathan Post
GSO:Valeria Kayatin
ICASS Chair:Ian Campbell
IMO:Calvin M. McQueen
IPO:Amy Canon
ISO:Timothy DeMerse
ISSO:Timothy DeMerse
PAO:Susan M. Elbow
RSO:Neil MacNeil
State ICASS:Ian Campbell
Last Updated: 12/27/2005

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

July 1, 2005

Country Description:

Serbia and Montenegro is the current name of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Serbia and Montenegro is a moderately developed European country undergoing profound political and economic change. Tourist facilities are widely available but vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards.

The security environment, travel situation and entry requirements for Kosovo, which is currently administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), may differ from the rest of Serbia and Montenegro. Please see additional specific information on Kosovo that follows the information on Serbia and Montenegro.

Entry Requirements:

U.S. citizens with tourist, official, or diplomatic passports do not require a visa for entry and stay in Serbia and Montenegro for up to 90 days. Individuals planning to stay longer than 90 days should obtain a visa prior to arrival. This applies to bearers of all types of U.S. passports–tourist, official and diplomatic. To obtain a visa, travelers should contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington at telephone (202) 332-0333 or fax (202) 332-3933. The address of the Embassy is 2134 Kalorama Road, Washington, DC 20008 and the website is http://www.mfa.gov.yu. Alternatively, travelers may also contact the Consulate General in Chicago at telephone (312) 670-6707 or fax (312) 670-6787 or by email at [email protected] The address of the Chicago Consulate is 201 East Ohio St., Suite 200, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

Travelers are required to declare all currency upon entry and must obtain from customs officials a declaration that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds.

Registration with Local Authorities: Visitors staying in private homes must register with the police station responsible for the area in which they are staying within 24 hours of arrival. Failure to comply may result in a fine, incarceration, and/or expulsion. Persons who fail to register may face difficulties in departing the country. Visitors staying in hotels are automatically registered with the police by the hotel. Additional information about visa requirements and the obligation of foreigners to register their location is available from the Government of Serbia and Montenegro at the following web address: http://www.mup.sr.gov.yu/domino/mup.nsf/index1-e.html.

Safety and Security:

While threats to American interests are rare, a March 2004 violent demonstration resulted in damage to and temporary closure of the U.S. Embassy. Anti-American sentiment tends to be highest surrounding the anniversary dates of the 1999 NATO bombing campaign or during times of unusually high tension in Kosovo (as was the case in March 2004).

There are yearly (though sporadic) reports of automobiles with foreign license plates being targeted for armed robbery along the administrative boundary between Serbia and Kosovo. U.S. Government employees traveling on official business in that region travel with fully armored vehicles. In addition, travelers should be aware that the situation in Southern Serbia may change quickly. Persons contemplating travel in Southern Serbia near the Kosovo administrative boundary should register and check in with the U.S. Embassy for the latest information.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.

Up to date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays.

Crime:

Street crime is at a level similar to other large European cities. Difficult economic conditions have led to the growth of an organized criminal class. Violent crime is most commonly associated with organized crime activities. While confrontational and gratuitously violent crimes rarely target tourists, Mafia-style reprisals have sometimes occurred, including in hotels, restaurants and shops. Theft and carjacking, especially of "Volkswagen" brand cars, four-wheel drive vehicles and luxury cars, occur at all times of day or night and in all sections of Belgrade and other parts of the country. As in other parts of the world, travelers should be especially on guard walking in city centers. In case of emergency, the police telephone number is 92.

Information for Victims of Crime:

The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy or Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Medical Facilities and Health Information:

Although many physicians in Serbia and Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped and maintained to Western standards. Medicines and basic medical supplies are largely obtainable in privately owned pharmacies. Hospitals usually require payment in cash for all services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRTP (1-877-394-8747); or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance:

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Serbia and Montenegro is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Roads in Serbia and Montenegro are often poorly maintained, especially in rural areas. Dangerous areas for road travel include "Ibarska Magistrala" and a road called "Moraca Canyon." "Ibarska Magistrala" is the main road from Serbia to Montenegro, a two-lane road running through central Serbia, in bad condition and usually overcrowded. Moraca Canyon in Montenegro is a twisting, two-lane road that is especially overcrowded in summer.

Road tolls for foreign-registered vehicles remain high. The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered intoxicated. Roadside assistance is available by dialing 987. Other emergency numbers are police: 92, fire department: 93, and ambulance: 94.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. Buses and trams are overcrowded in Belgrade and in other areas of Serbia and Montenegro and are poorly maintained.

More specific information concerning Serbia and Montenegro driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance in the Serbian language from Serbia and Montenegro Automotive Association can be found at http://www.amsj.co.yu. Some general information about driving conditions is available in English at the Belgrade Tourism Organization's
Website: http://www.tob.co.yu/english/index.html.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Serbia and Montenegro as not being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of Serbia and Montenegro's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Special Circumstances:

Travelers entering Serbia and Montenegro with more than 2000 Euros in cash are required to declare all currency upon entry and obtain from customs officials a declaration form that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds. The U.S. Embassy has been contacted by many American citizens who have failed to comply with this requirement and consequently had thousands of dollars seized by the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Dual U.S./Serbia-Montenegro nationals need to be aware that they may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Serbian and Montenegrin citizens. Serbia-Montenegro males between the ages of 18 and 27 are required by law to perform military service. This applies to any individual whom the authorities consider to be Serbian-Montenegrin, -regardless of whether or not the individual considers himself Serbian-Montenegrin, has a foreign citizenship and passport, or was born or lives outside of Serbia-Montenegro. If remaining in Serbia and Montenegro for more than the 90 day period permitted for tourism or business, men of Serbia-Montenegrin descent may be prevented from leaving until they complete their military obligations or receive a waiver. Generally, obligatory non-voluntary military service in Serbia-Montenegro will not affect U.S. citizenship. Specific questions on this subject should be addressed the to the citizenship section of the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade. For additional general information, see the Citizenship and Nationality section of the Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.

Additional information is available from the Government of Serbia and Montenegro at http://www.vi.yu/English/en_odredbevojna_obaveza.htm.

Criminal Penalties:

While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Serbia and Montenegro laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Serbia and Montenegro are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues:

For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/family_1732.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations:

Americans living in or traveling in Serbia and Montenegro are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy of Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, http://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security with Serbia and Montenegro. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Belgrade is located at 50 Kneza Milosa Street. The Embassy telephone number is 381-11-3619-344. The Consular Section telephone is 381-11-3619-344 ext. 4650, and the fax number is 381-11-3615-497. For after hour emergencies, the number is 381-11-306-4679. The U.S. Consulate in Podgorica is located at Krusevac BB. The consulate telephone number is 381-81-225-417. Please use the same number for after hours emergencies. The fax number is 381-81-241-358.

Kosovo

Kosovo is a region administered under the civil authority of the U.N. Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) pursuant to U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244, pending future resolution of its status. At this time, some civilian institutions, including the criminal justice system, are not functioning at a level consistent with Western standards. Kosovo is a cash economy. The currency used throughout Kosovo is the euro.

Security Information:

The NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) troops along with international and local police are responsible for security and stability in Kosovo. Although the overall security situation has improved, inter-ethnic tensions and sporadic incidents of violence continue to occur.

In March 2004, Kosovo experienced three days of widespread inter-ethnic violence, including several incidents in the capital of Pristina. This outbreak resulted in 20 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and displaced approximately 4,000 individuals. Since those riots, there has been no resumption of serious violence, although the atmosphere remains tense. As Kosovo begins a process in late 2005 to determine its future political status, it is possible that tensions will again rise.

Americans should avoid demonstrations and other sites, such as roadblocks, where large crowds are gathered, particularly those involving political/ethnic causes or striking workers.

High unemployment and other economic factors have encouraged criminal activity. While de-mining programs have proven effective, unexploded ordnance and mines remain in some areas. The reliability of telecommunications, electric and water systems remains unpredictable. Travel by U.S. Government officials to some areas of Kosovo that have experienced recent ethnic violence is subject to restrictions.

Entry and Exit Requirements:

U.S. citizens need a passport to enter Kosovo. No visa is required by UNMIK, but visitors may be required to produce documentation to demonstrate the purpose of their visit. Generally, visitors allowed to enter Kosovo will be permitted to stay for up to 90 days. Persons who wish to prolong their stay beyond 90 days will need to request an extension at the Office for Registration of Foreigners, located in the Main Police Headquarters in Pristina.

Entry to Serbia from Kosovo should not be attempted without a valid Serbia and Montenegro entry stamp from a Serbia and Montenegro administrative boundary crossing post. Serbia does not recognize entry stamps from UNMIK administrative boundary sites, including Pristina Airport, to be valid. For more information on UNMIK regulations on the movement of people, see http://www.unmikonline.org/.

Medical Facilities:

Health facilities are limited, and medications are in short supply. As a general policy, military field hospitals in Kosovo will treat only emergency medical cases (those involving immediate threat to life, limb or eyesight) on a space available basis. KFOR cannot provide basic health care to non-military personnel, nor can they provide medical evacuation out of Kosovo.

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Crime:

Street crimes, in particular theft and purse snatchings, are serious problems in Kosovo, especially Pristina. Foreigners are targets for crime, as they are assumed to carry cash. Likewise, foreigners' homes, vehicles and international non-governmental organization (NGO) offices have been subject to burglaries. The loss or theft of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Office in Pristina. While the U.S. Office cannot directly issue new passports, it will assist with arrangements for applying for a new passport in Skopje, Macedonia.

In case of emergency, the UNMIK police telephone number in the Pristina area is 038-500-092. Emergency numbers in Pristina are Police: 92; Fire Department: 93; and Ambulance: 94. For information on other areas contact the U.S. Office in Pristina.

The UNMIK police force is a contingent of international officers who are working alongside local officers to carry out most normal police functions. The judicial system is still developing under the oversight of UNMIK.

Aviation Safety Oversight:

As there is no direct commercial air service between the Untied States and Kosovo, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Kosovo's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. Fro more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions:

Road conditions can be extremely hazardous because roads are narrow, crowded, and used by a variety of vehicles, from KFOR armored personnel carriers to horse drawn carts. Many vehicles are old and lack standard front or rear lights. Mountain roads can be narrow, poorly marked, and lack guardrails. They quickly become dangerous in inclement weather.

It is strongly recommended that Americans in Kosovo have vehicles that are registered outside of Kosovo, to prevent problems in the event of an evacuation, as Kosovo license plates may not be accepted in neighboring countries.

The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered to be intoxicated. Travelers entering Kosovo by road should be aware that the purchase of local third-party insurance is required.

Special Circumstances:

Banking services are available in Pristina and other major towns, although they are not fully developed. There are now a number of banks with international ties that offer limited banking services, including Automated Teller Machines, in Pristina and other major towns. If it becomes necessary to receive emergency funds from abroad, Western Union has offices throughout Kosovo.

Registration/Embassy Location:

Americans living in or traveling in Kosovo are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security with Kosovo. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.

By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. U.S. citizens are encouraged to register at the U.S. Office in Pristina and obtain updated information on travel and security in Kosovo. At this time the U.S. Office in Pristina provides only emergency services to American citizens. All routine consular services, such as passport and visa processing, are provided by the U.S.Embassy in Skopje, Macedonia. The U.S. Office is located at 30 Nazim Hikmet St. in the Dragodan area of Pristina. The telephone number is (381) 38-549-516, e-mail: [email protected]

International Adoption

January 2006

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer:

The information in this flyer relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is based on public sources and our current understanding. Questions involving foreign and U.S. immigration laws and legal interpretation should be addressed respectively to qualified foreign or U.S. legal counsel.

Please Note:

The Department of State shares your humanitarian concern for the children of the former Yugoslavia and applauds your desire to assist them in their time of need. However, at this point in time, adopting children from this region is not a feasible way to assist them. In particular, Bosnian children are not adoptable. There are a number of reasons for this. In general, adoptions are private legal matters governed by the rules of the nation where the child resides.

The laws in the former Yugoslavia gave priority to adoptions by Yugoslavians, and made the adoption of Yugoslavian children by foreigners very difficult. This has not changed. All of the republics of the former Yugoslavia permit foreigners to adopt children only in exceptional and compelling circumstances. In practice, such circumstances are limited to cases involving either step-parent/step-child relationships or handicapped children. We are not aware of any indications at present that the new states plan to liberalize their laws on adoptions to make it easier for foreigners to adopt.

Also, in a country which is in turmoil, it can be difficult to determine whether children whose parents are missing are truly orphans according to adoption and immigration regulations. It is not uncommon in a war situation for parents and children to become separated when parents place their children in institutions or send them out of the area in an effort to ensure their safety.

In such instances, the children are not orphans. Even when children have been truly orphaned or abandoned by their parents, they are often taken in by relatives. It is our understanding that efforts are being made to avoid uprooting the children.

Availability of Children for Adoption:

Recent U.S. immigrant visa statistics reflect the following pattern for visa issuance to orphans:

Number of Immigrant Visas Issued for Yugoslav Orphans for Selected Years Fiscal Year: IR-3 Immigrant Visas Issued to Yugoslav Orphans Adopted Abroad; IR-4 Immigrant Visas Issued to Yugoslav Orphans Adopted in the U.S.

1988: 3; 0
1989: 8; 1
1990: 9; 0
1991: 9; 3
1992: 7; 0
1993: 9; 3

Please see the International Adoption section of this book for more details and review current reports online at travel.state.gov/family, For further information on international intercountry adoption, contact the Office of Children's Issues at 202-736-7000, visit the State Department home page on the Internet at http://travel.state.gov, or send a nine-by-twelve-inch, self-addressed envelope to: Office of Children's Issues, 2401 E Street, N.W., Room L127, Washington, D.C. 20037; Phone: (202) 736-7000; Fax: (202) 312-9743.

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Serbia and Montenegro

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Compiled from the January 2004 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.


Official Name:
Serbia and Montenegro
(Formerly Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or F.R.Y.)


PROFILE
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
DEFENSE
ECONOMY
FOREIGN RELATIONS
U.S.-SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO RELATIONS
TRAVEL


PROFILE


Geography

Area: Montenegro (13,938 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Connecticut; Serbia (88,412 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Maine. Combined, they are slightly smaller than Kentucky (102,350 sq. km.).

Cities: Capital of Serbia and Montenegro and Capital of Serbia—Belgrade; Capital of Montenegro — Podgorica. Other cities—Pristina, Pancevo, Novi Pazar, Uzice, Novi Sad, Subotica, Bor, Nis, Tivat, Kotor.

Terrain: Varied; in the north, rich fertile plains; in the east, limestone ranges and basins; in the southeast, mountains and hills; in the southwest, high shoreline with no islands off the coast.

Climate: In the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland.


People (2001 est.)

Nationality: Noun—Montenegrin(s) and Serb(s); adjective—Montenegrin and Serbian.

Population: 8,029,345, (Montenegro 650,575); Serbia (not including Kosovo) 7,478,820 (2002 Republic census).

Population growth rate: -0.27%.

Ethnic groups: Serbian 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6%.

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%.

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—17.42 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy—70.6 yrs., female 76.7 yrs.


Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: Adopted April 27, 1992.

Independence: April 11, 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament adopted a new Constitutional Charter establishing the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

Branches: Executive—president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative—Serbia and Montenegro union parliament. Judicial—Federal Court (Savezni Sud) and Constitutional Court.

Political parties: Serbia—Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (SVM), Christian Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS), Civic Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Democratic Alternative (DA), Democratic Center (DC), Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Democratic Party (DS), Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), League for Sumadija (LS), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV), New Serbia (NS), Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina (LSV), Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS—former Communist Party), Yugoslav United Left (JUL); Montenegro—Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), Party of Democratic Action (SDA), People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP).

Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; universal at 18.


Economy

GDP: (2002 est.) $12.84 billion.

GDP growth rate: (2002 est.) 4%.

Per capita income: (2002 est.) $1,200.

Inflation rate: (2002 est.) 20%.

Natural resources: Oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, navigable rivers.

Agriculture: 25% of GDP.

Industry: 50% of GDP.

Trade: (2002 est.) Exports—$2.2 billion. Major markets—Russia, Italy, Germany. Imports—$5.6 billion. Major suppliers—Germany, Italy, Russia.



PEOPLE AND HISTORY


Serbia

The Serbian state as known today was created in 1170 A.D. by Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjic dynasty. Serbia's religious foundation came several years later when Stefan's son, canonized as St. Sava, became the first archbishop of a newly autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church (1219). Thus, at this time, the Serbs enjoyed both temporal and religious independence. After a series of successions, Serbia fell under the rule of King Milutin, who improved Serbia's position among other European countries. Milutin also was responsible for many of the brightest examples of Medieval Serbian architecture. Moreover, Serbia began to expand under Milutin's reign, seizing territory in nearby Macedonia from the Byzantines. Under Milutin's son, Stefan Dusan (1331-55), the Nemanjic dynasty reached its peak, ruling from the Danube to central Greece. However, Serbian power waned after Stefan's death in 1355, and in the Battle of Kosovo (June 15, 1389) the Serbs were catastrophically defeated by the Turks. By 1459, the Turks exerted complete control over all Serb lands.


For more than 3 centuries—nearly 370 years—the Serbs lived as virtual slaves of the Ottoman sultans. As a result of this oppression, Serbs began to migrate out of their native and (present-day Kosovo and southern Serbia) into other areas within the Balkan Peninsula, including what is now Vojvodina and Croatia. When the Austrian Hapsburg armies pushed the Ottoman Turks south of the Danube in 699, many Serbs were "liberated," but their native land was still under Ottoman rule.

Movements for Serbian independence began more than 100 years later with uprisings under the Serbian patriots Karageorge (1804-13) and Milos Obrenovic (1815-17). After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, Serbia became an internationally recognized principality under Turkish suzerainty and Russian protection, and the state expanded steadily southward. After an insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, Serbia and Montenegro went to war against Turkey in 1876-78 in support of the Bosnian rebels. With Russian assistance, Serbs gained more territory as well as formal independence in 1878, though Bosnia was placed under Austrian administration.


In 1908, Austria-Hungary directly annexed Bosnia, inciting the Serbs to seek the aid of Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece in seizing the last Ottoman-ruled lands in Europe. In the ensuing Balkan Wars of 1912-13, Serbia obtained northern and central Macedonia, but Austria compelled it to yield Albanian lands that would have given it access to the sea. Serb animosity against the Habsburgs reached a climax on June 28, 1914, when the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip, setting off a series of diplomatic and military initiatives among the great powers that culminated in World War I.


Soon after the war began, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces occupied Serbia. Upon the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the war's end in 1918, Vojvodina and Montenegro united with Serbia, and former south Slav subjects of the Habsburgs sought the protection of the Serbian crown within a kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Serbia was the dominant partner in this state, which in 1929 adopted the name Yugoslavia.


The kingdom soon encountered resistance when Croatians began to resent control from Belgrade. This pressure prompted King Alexander I to split the traditional regions into nine administrative provinces. During World War II, Yugoslavia was divided between the Axis powers and their allies. Royal army soldiers, calling themselves Cetnici (Chetniks), formed a Serbian resistance movement, but a more determined communist resistance under the Partisans, with Soviet and Anglo-American help, liberated all of Yugoslavia by 1944. In an effort to avoid Serbian domination during the postwar years, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro were given separate and equal republican status within the new socialist federation of Yugoslavia; Kosovo and Vojvodina were made autonomous provinces within Yugoslavia.

Despite the attempts at a federal system of government for Yugoslavia, Serbian communists played the leading role in Yugoslavia's political life for the next 4 decades. As the Germans were defeated at the end of World War II, Josip Broz Tito, a former Bolshevik and devout communist, began to garner support from both within Yugoslavia as well as from the Allies. Yugoslavia remained independent of the U.S.S.R., as Tito broke with Stalin and asserted Yugoslav independence. Tito went on to control Yugoslavia for 35 years. Under communist rule, Serbia was transformed from an agrarian to an industrial society. In the 1980s, however, Yugoslavia's economy began to fail. With the death of Tito, separatist and nationalist tensions emerged in Yugoslavia.


In 1989, riding a wave of nationalist sentiment, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic reimposed direct rule over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, prompting Albanians in Kosovo to agitate for separation from the Republic of Serbia. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia all seceded from Yugoslavia. On April 27, 1992 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro joined in passing the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 2002, the
Belgrade Agreement was signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, setting forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.


Montenegro

Montenegro's history is almost inextricably tied to Serbia's. Similarly to Serbia, Montenegro was under the rule of the Ottoman Turks for the duration of their reign in the Balkans. When the Turks were removed from the area, Montenegro became an independent principality within the Austro-Hungarian Empire but did not become an independent, sovereign state until 1878.


During World War I, Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies but was defeated and occupied by Austria. Upon Austrian occupation, the Montenegrin king, King Nikola I, and his family fled to Italy. Consequently, the Serbian king, Petar Karadjordjevic, was able to exploit the chaotic conditions in Montenegro at the war's end, paving the way for the violent and unwanted Serbian annexation of Montenegro.


Montenegro was the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country at the end of the war. The majority of the Montenegrin population opposed the annexation and on January 7, 1919, staged a national uprising —known to history as the Christmas Uprising—against the Serbian annexation. The uprising became a war between Serbia and the Montenegrins that lasted until 1926. Many Montenegrins lost their lives, and though many hoped for an intervention by the Great Powers to protect their sovereignty, none came and Montenegro was effectively absorbed into the new kingdom of Yugoslavia.


When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. This caused a great divide within the Montenegrin population. Many nationalists who had been frustrated with the experience of Yugoslav unification supported the Italian administration. But there were advocates of the union with Serbia who began armed resistance movements as well as many communists who, by nature of their political beliefs, were opposed to the Italian presence. As war progressed, the local strength of the communists grew and Montenegro served as an effective base for communism in the region; it was an important refuge for Tito's Partisan forces during the most difficult points in the struggle. After the war, the communist strategy of attempting to unify Yugoslavia through a federal structure elevated Montenegro to the status of a republic, thus securing Montenegrin loyalty to the federation.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in a precarious position. The first multiparty elections in 1990 showed much public support for the League of Communists, confirming Montenegrin support for the federation. Montenegro joined Serbian efforts to preserve the federation in the form of a "Third Yugoslavia" in 1992. Though Montenegro reaffirmed its political attachment to Serbia, a sense of a distinct Montenegrin identity continued to thrive. Outspoken criticism of Serbian conduct of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina boosted the continuing strength of Montenegrin distinctiveness. Both the people and the government of Montenegro were critical of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's 1998-99 campaign in Kosovo, and the ruling coalition parties boycotted the September 2000 federal elections, which led to the eventual overthrow of Milosevic's regime. The Belgrade Agreement of March 2002, signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, set forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter which established a new state union and changed the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.


Kosovo

Before the conflicts of the 1990s, Kosovo was best known as the site of a famous 14th-century battle in which invading Ottoman Turks defeated a Serbian army led by Tsar Lazar. During this medieval period, Kosovo also was home to many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries.


The Ottomans ruled Kosovo for more than four centuries, until Serbia reconquered the territory during the First Balkans War in 1912-13. First partitioned in 1913 between Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo was then incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later named Yugoslavia) after World War I. During World War II, parts of Kosovo were absorbed into Italian-occupied Albania. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany assumed control until Tito's Yugoslav communists reentered Kosovo at the end of the war.

After World War II, Kosovo became a province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave Kosovo (along with Vojvodina) the status of an autonomous province with nearly equal voting rights as the six constituent Republics of Yugoslavia. Although the Albanian-majority province enjoyed significant autonomy, riots broke out in 1981 by Kosovar Albanians who demanded that Kosovo be granted full Republic status.


In the late 1980s, Slobodan Milosevic propelled himself to power in Belgrade by exploiting the fears of the small Serbian minority in Kosovo. In 1989, he arranged the elimination of Kosovo's autonomy in favor of more direct rule from Belgrade. Belgrade ordered the firing of large numbers of Albanian state employees, whose jobs were then taken by Serbs.


As a result of this oppression, Kosovo Albanian leaders led a peaceful resistance movement in the early 1990s and established a parallel government funded mainly by the Albanian diaspora. When this movement failed to yield results, an armed resistance emerged in the form of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The KLA's main goal was to secure the independence of Kosovo.


In late 1998, Milosevic unleashed a brutal police and military campaign against the separatist KLA, which included atrocities against civilian noncombatants. For the duration of Milosevic's campaign, large numbers of ethnic Albanians were either displaced from their homes in Kosovo or killed by Serbian troops or police. These acts and Serbia's refusal to sign the Rambouillet Accords provoked a military response from NATO which consisted primarily of aerial bombing and lasted from March through June 1999. After 79 days of bombing, Milosevic capitulated and international forces moved into Kosovo.


After June 1999, Kosovo was made a UN protectorate, under the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) based in Pristina. Under UNMIK aegis and with NATO's Kosovo Force (KFOR) providing security, efforts to build a multiethnic and democratic Kosovo commenced immediately. From early 2001, UNMIK has been working with representatives of the Serbian and union governments to reestablish stable relations in the region. Kosovars elected a new assembly in November 2001, which formed a government and chose a president in early 2002. In spring 2002, UNMIK announced its plan to repatriate ethnic Serb internally displaced persons (IDPs). In 2003, UNMIK transferred certain governing competencies to ministries formed as part of the region's provisional institutions for self-government.



GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS


State Union of Serbia and Montenegro

In February 2003, the Constitutional Charter was ratified by the Republic of Serbia, Republic of Montenegro, and the Yugoslav Parliament. The Constitutional Charter changed the name of the country from Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to "Serbia and Montenegro." Under the new Constitutional Charter, most federal functions and authorities devolved to the republic level. The office of President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, held by Vojislav Kostunica, ceased to exist once Svetozar Marovic was elected President of Serbia and Montenegro.

Republic of Serbia

Even as opposition to the his regime grew in the late 1990s, Yugoslav President Milosevic continued to dominate the organs of the F.R.Y. Government. Although his political party, the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), did not enjoy a majority in either the federal or Serbian parliaments, it dominated the governing coalitions and held all the key administrative posts. An essential element of Milosevic's grasp on power was his control of the Serbian police, a heavily armed force of some 100,000 that was responsible for internal security and which committed serious human rights abuses. Routine federal elections in September 2000 resulted in a narrow official victory for Milosevic and his coalition. Immediately, street protests and rallies filled cities across the country as Serbs rallied around Vojislav Kostunica, the recently formed Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS, a broad coalition of anti-Milosevic parties) candidate for F.R.Y. president. Cries of fraud and calls for Milosevic's removal echoed across city squares from Subotica to Nis.


On October 5, 2000, Slobodan Milosevic was forced to concede defeat after days of mass protests all across Serbia. New F.R.Y. President Vojislav Kostunica was soon joined at the top of the domestic Serbian political scene by the Democratic Party's (DS) Zoran Djindjic, who was elected Prime Minister of Serbia at the head of the DOS ticket in December's republican elections. After an initial honeymoon period in the wake of October 5, DSS and the rest of DOS, led by Djindjic and his DS, found themselves increasingly at odds over the nature and pace of the governments' reform programs. Although initial reform efforts were highly successful, especially in the economic and fiscal sectors, by the middle of 2002, the nationalist Kostunica and the pragmatic Djindjic were openly at odds. Kostunica's party, having informally withdrawn from all DOS decision making bodies, was agitating for early elections to the Serbian Parliament in an effort to force Djindjic from the scene.

After the initial euphoria of replacing Milosevic's autocratic regime, the Serbian population, in reaction to this political maneuvering, was sliding into apathy and disillusionment with its leading politicians by mid-2002. This political stalemate continued for much of 2002, and reform initiatives stalled. Two rounds of elections for the republic presidency in late 2002 failed because of insufficient voter turnout (Serbian law requires participation by more than 50% of registered voters).


On March 12, 2003, Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic was assassinated. The Serbian government and the newly formed union government of Serbia and Montenegro reacted swiftly by calling a state of emergency and undertaking an unprecedented crackdown on organized crime which led to the arrest of more than 4,000 people. Zoran Zivkovic, a vice-president of Djindjic's DS party, was elected Prime Minister in March 2003. A series of scandals plagued the Zivkovic government through the second half of 2003, ultimately leading the Prime Minister to call early elections.


The Republic of Serbia presidential elections were held on November 16, 2003. These elections were also declared invalid because of insufficient voter turnout.


Four democratically-oriented parties (DSS, G17+, DS, and SPO/NS) are now negotiating the creation of a coalition government, which is expected to form sometime in early 2004.


Republic of Montenegro

Although threatened by Milosevic throughout the last years of his rule, Montenegro's democratization efforts have continued. In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro's President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic's campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the pro-independence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment of the post-October 5, 2000 Balkans. In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The new President of Montenegro is Filip Vujanovic.


Kosovo

Kosovo is an international protectorate administered by the United Nations. While technically still a part of Serbia and Montenegro, the supreme legal authority in Kosovo is the UN Interim Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (passed June 10, 1999) authorizes UNMIK to establish "substantial autonomy and self-governance" in Kosovo and, eventually, to facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status. The senior international official in Kosovo is the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG), who has sweeping legal authority to govern Kosovo. In August 2003, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan selected former Finish Prime Minister Harri Holkeri to be SRSG.


Resolution 1244 also authorizes a NATO-led force (Kosovo Force, KFOR) to provide for a safe and secure environment in Kosovo. Over the course of 2003, KFOR was gradually reduced to 17,500 international troops in KFOR, including approximately 2,250 U.S troops (down from over 50,000 international troops in 1999). KFOR numbers are expected to steadily decline as the security situation improves.


In 2001, the SRSG promulgated a "Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self-Government in Kosovo." This document established a Kosovo Assembly and new Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). In November 2001, Kosovars held their first free and fair elections for the Kosovo Assembly. The main political parties included the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), led by Ibrahim Rugova; Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), led by former KLA political chief Hashim Thaci; the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK), led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj; and the Serb coalition party Povratak. The LDK won the elections with 46% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 26%. They were followed by Povratak at 11% and the AAK at 8%.

After significant political wrangling, Kosovo's politicians agreed to establish a coalition government in March 2002. As part of the agreement, the Assembly elected Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister and Ibrahim Rugova (LDK) as President. In 2002, the Kosovo Assembly began to function and pass its first laws. Also in 2002, the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government were formed, with ministries allocated to the parties according to the March 2002 power-sharing agreement. During 2003, UNMIK transferred a significant number of governing competencies to these ministries. UNMIK will retain many powers associated with state sovereignty, including foreign affairs and security, until Kosovo's final status is decided.


Kosovo's uncertain final status is the key political dynamic in Kosovo. Virtually all Kosovo's Albanians continue to advocate independence, which Serbia finds unacceptable. The international community believes that neither Kosovo nor the region is ready to address the status issue. In early 2002, former SRSG Michael Steiner first articulated a policy of "standards before status," whereby Kosovo's final status will not be addressed until and unless Kosovo meets certain internationally endorsed standards for the establishment of rule of law, functioning democratic institutions, minority rights, and economic development.


A major political focus in Kosovo is the status of Kosovo's minority communities, especially the Serbs. Kosovo's small Serb community suffers restricted freedom of movement and sporadic acts of inter-ethnic violence. After the war, more than 100,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian ethnic minorities fled Kosovo. As a matter of principle, the international community has encouraged their return, although results have been disappointing.

Relations between Kosovo Albanians and Serb authorities remain frosty, and there is little contact between them. In 2003, the international community pressed leaders in Belgrade and Pristina to begin a dialogue on practical issues of mutual concern, such as transportation, electricity, and the return of displaced persons.


Legislature

The union Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. The Republic of Serbia and Republic of Montenegro are governed by their respective republic parliaments.


Principal Government Officials
Last Updated: 8/21/03


The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia transformed itself into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003, when the former federal parliament adopted a new constitutional charter that renamed the country and reduced the size of the central government, devolving more authority to the two constituent republics.


President: Marovic, Svetozar

Chmn., Council of Ministers: Marovic, Svetozar

Min. of Defense: Tadic, Boris

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Svilanovic, Goran

Min. of Foreign Economic Relations: Lukovac, Branko

Min. of Internal Economic Relations: Nurkovic, Amir

Min. of Minority & Human Rights: Ljajic, Rasim

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Sahovic, Dejan

Ambassador to the United States: Vujacic, Ivan


Serbia, Republic of


President (Acting): Micic, Natasa

Prime Minister: Zivkovic, Zoran

Dep. Prime Min.: Covic, Nebojsa

Dep. Prime Min.: Isakov, Miodrag

Dep. Prime Min.: Jovanovic, Cedomir Dep. Prime Min.: Kasza, Josef

Dep. Prime Min.: Korac, Zarko

Dep. Prime Min.: Mihajlovic, Dusan

Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Jevtic, Stojan

Min. of Construction & Urban Planning: Sumarac, Dragoslav

Min. of Culture & Public Information: Lecic, Branislav

Min. of Economics & Privatization: Vlahovic, Aleksandar

Min. of Education & Sports: Knezevic, Gaso

Min. of Energy & Mining (Acting): Ruzic, Slobodan

Min. of Finance & Economics: Djelic, Bozidar

Min. of Health: Min. of Internal Affairs: Mihajlovic, Dusan

Min. of Intl. Economic Relations: Pitic, Goran

Min. of Justice & Local Administration: Batic, Vladan

Min. of Labor & Employment: Milovanovic, Dragan

Min. of Natural Resources & Environmental Protection: Mihajlov, Andjelka

Min. of Public Admin. & Local Self-Govt.:

Min. of Religion: Milovanovic, Vojislav

Min. of Science, Technology, & Development: Domazet, Dragan

Min. of Social Affairs: Matkovic, Gordana

Min. of Trade, Tourism, & Services: Milosavljevic, Slobodan

Min. of Transport & Telecommunications: Raseta-Vukosavljevic, Marija


Montenegro, Republic of


President: Vujanovic, Filip

Prime Minister: Djukanovic, Milo

Dep. Prime Min.: Kalamperovic, Jusuf

Dep. Prime Min. for Economic Policy & Economic Systems: Gvozdenovic, Branimir

Dep. Prime Min. for Financial Systems & Public Spending:

Dep. Prime Min. for the Political System & Domestic Policy: Djurovic, Dragan

Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Waterworks: Simovic, Milutin

Min. of Culture: Kilibarda, Vesna

Min. of Economics: Uskokovic, Darko

Min. of Education & Science: Backovic, Slobodan

Min. of Environmental Protection: Radovic, Ranko

Min. of Finance: Ivanisevic, Miroslav

Min. of Foreign Affairs: Burzan, Dragisa

Min. of Foreign Economic Relations & European Integration: Milacic, Slavica

Min. of Health: Pavlicic, Miodrag

Min. of the Interior: Filipovic, Milan

Min. of Justice: Sturanovic, Zeljko

Min. of Labor & Social Care: Stjepovic, Slavoljub

Min. of Protection of Rights of Members of National & Ethnic Groups: Hajdinaga, Gezim

Min. of Tourism: Min. of Transportation & Maritime Economics: Lompar, Andrija

Min. Without Portfolio: Nimanovic, Suad



Serbia and Montenegro maintains an embassy in the United States at 2134 Kalorama Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-0333).



DEFENSE

Military branches include the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, and air and air defense forces, and Civil Defense. Civilians fit for military service are estimated at about 2,088,595 (2001 est.). The 2002 estimate for military expenditures as percent of GDP is 3.6%. Following the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic in March 2003, the Ministry of Defense has undertaken significant reform initiatives, which have been successful in moving Serbia and Montenegro closer to Euro-Atlantic integration.



ECONOMY

The economy of Yugoslavia entered a prolonged decline in 1998. Exacerbated by international sanctions imposed in response to President Slobodan Milosevic's actions in Kosovo, the F.R.Y. economy's downward spiral showed no real sign of recovery until 2001. A vigorous team of economic reformers has worked to tame inflation (non-energy inflation is less than 9% in 2002, down from over 45% 3 years earlier) and rationalize the Serbia and Montenegro economy. GDP, although only half of its 1997 level, is projected to increase steadily in the near future.

The F.R.Y.'s monetary unit, the dinar, remained volatile throughout the Milosevic regime. Alarmed F.R.Y. officials took several steps to tighten monetary policy in 1998, including ruling out a devaluation in the near term, increasing reserve requirements, and issuing bonds. During this period, Montenegro rejected the dinar and adopted the German mark (now the Euro) as its official currency. As 1999 began, the damage control operations had succeeded in returning the exchange rate to reasonable levels. However, it was not until 2002, after intense macroeconomic reform measures, that the dinar became convertible—a first since the Bretton Woods agreements laid out the post-World War II international exchange rate regime.


Privatization efforts have not succeeded as well as macroeconomic reform. The process of privatization is not popular among workers of large socially owned companies, and many citizens appear to believe the tendering process is overly centralized and controlled from Belgrade. Furthermore, international investment is still lagging in Serbia and Montenegro, as a result of both domestic and international investment climates. Managers tend to blame the dearth of interest on the current negative business climate in Serbia and Montenegro. The Kragujevac-based automobile plant—heavily damaged during the 1999 NATO bombing—remains the most publicly discussed large privatization candidate, but efforts to sell the plant for as little as $1 have failed.



FOREIGN RELATIONS

From the breakup of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989, the foreign policy of the F.R.Y. was characterized primarily by a desire to secure its political and geopolitical position and the solidarity of ethic Serbs in the Balkan region through a strong nationalist campaign. The F.R.Y. supported and exploited the expansion of violent conflicts—in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and its own province, Kosovo—in order to advance its policies. Since October 2000, the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has all but eliminated its nationalist rhetoric and has worked to stabilize and strengthen its bilateral relationships with neighboring countries. In spring and summer 2002, F.R.Y. resolved its longstanding border dispute with Macedonia and established full diplomatic relations with its neighbor and former adversary Croatia. Although a difficult political issue domestically, Serbia and Montenegro has established a solid working relationship with UNMIK and has released all disputed ethnic Albanian prisoners from Kosovo to the competent UN bodies.


In 2002, the F. R.Y. Government established a commission to coordinate cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and began serving warrants for the arrest of indicted war criminals who have sought refuge in the country. The crackdown on organized crime following the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic also resulted in the apprehension and transfer to The Hague of several persons indicted for war crimes.


Immediately preceding the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R.Y. in spring 1999, the U.S. and most European countries severed relations with the F.R.Y., and the U.S. Embassy was closed. Since October 5, 2000, foreign embassies, including that of the U.S., have reopened, and the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has regained its seat in such international organizations as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the UN and is actively participating in International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank projects. As of summer 2003, Serbia and Montenegro has been admitted to the Council of Europe and has indicated that it wishes to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Foreign Aid

Subsequent to the outbreak of hostilities between NATO and the F.R.Y. in 1999, Belgrade received no foreign aid from the United States and other west European countries. Since October 2000, however, European Union aid has steadily increased, and U.S. restrictions on aid have fallen away as the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro stepped forward to meet its international obligations. In June 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell was able to certify that Serbia and Montenegro's relationship with the Republika Srpska was consistent with the Dayton Accords, had released all political prisoners, and was cooperating with ICTY. As a result, the United States is now free to release aid money and support Serbia and Montenegro in international financial institutions, such as the IMF and World Bank. Total U.S. aid to Serbia and Montenegro, including debt forgiveness, exceeded $180 million in fiscal year 2002. The U.S. is the single largest donor of aid to Serbia and Montenegro.



U.S.-SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

Since the outbreak of war between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, the United States and the F.R.Y. severed diplomatic relations. In response to the events of October 2000, the United States reestablished a diplomatic presence the following month. The U.S. Embassy reopened in May 2001, and Ambassador William Montgomery presented his credentials to F.R.Y. President Kostunica on January 4, 2002. The Serbia and Montenegro embassy in Washington and the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade have reestablished bilateral relations and provide a full range of consular services. Serbia and Montenegro currently enjoys good diplomatic relations with all of its neighbors.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Belgrade (E), Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade • 5070 Belgrade Pl., Wash., D.C. 20521-5070, Tel [381] (11) 361-9344, after-hours Tel 646-481, tie line (8) 754-0000, Fax [381] (11) 361-8230; ADM Fax 361-5489; CON Fax 361-5497; POL/ECO Fax 361-3962; GSO Fax 361-5916; DAO Fax 645-332. E-mail: [email protected]

AMB: William Montgomery
AMB OMS: Anna Thomas
DCM: Robert Norman
POL/ECO: Bertram Braun
CON: Ann Sides
MGT: Duane Butcher
GSO: Pat Perrin
RSO: Marian Cotter
PAO: Allen Docal
FMO: Frank Acs
IPO: Warren Gilsdorf
AID: James Stephenson
DAO: COL Michael Martinez
FCS: Patrick Hughes
FAS: Holly Higgins (res. Sofia)

Pristina [USOP], 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Pristina, Kosovo Province • Pouch: 9520 Pristina Pl., Wash., DC 20521-9520, Tel [381](38)549-516, Satellite Tel 873-761-912-435, Satellite Fax 873-761-912-436, Duty Officer 377-044-153-594. AID:Dragodan – Nazim Hikmet, 38000 Pristina, Kosovo Province, Tel [381](38) 590-174, Fax 590-438, Satellite Tel 873-761-393-321.

CM: John K. Menzies
CM OMS: Judith A. Franco
DPO: Fletcher M. Burton
POL: Karen T. Levine
ECO/COM: Jenet Shannon
MGT: Arlene Ferrill
GSO: Gyorgy Vajay
RSO: Kevin Durnell
FMO: [Vacant]
IPO: Wendell Reeves
DAO: COL Jory Cromwell
AID DIR: Craig Buck
INL: Henry Wilkins
JUS/OPDAT: David G. Hackney
PRM: Jennifer Johnson


Last Modified: Wednesday, September 24, 2003


TRAVEL


Consular Information Sheet
March 20, 2003


Country Description: On February 4, 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia country adopted the name Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro is a moderately developed European country undergoing profound political and economic change. Tourist facilities are widely available but vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards.


The situation in Kosovo remains unsettled and potentially dangerous. The Department of State urges American citizens to consider carefully the necessity of their visit and monitor closely the current security situation before planning travel to Kosovo. Because of the federal structure of Serbia and Montenegro and the presence of United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the travel situation and requirements in Kosovo differ from the rest of Serbia and Montenegro in certain ways. Despite the deployment of Kosovo Force (KFOR) peacekeeping troops throughout the province, and UNMIK attempts to re-establish civil authority, some civil institutions in Kosovo, including the criminal justice system, are not fully functioning. Incidents of violence in Kosovo continue to be reported, and unexploded ordnance and landmines remain in some areas. Please see additional specific information on Kosovo which follows the information on Serbia and Montenegro.


Entry Requirements: U.S. citizens require a passport and visa. The Department of State strongly advises American citizens not to attempt to enter Serbia or Montenegro without a valid visa or tourist border pass. While border passes in lieu of visas have been available at border crossings in the past, this procedure is currently under review and may be discontinued or changed without notice. Persons intending to enter Serbia and Montenegro on the border pass system should consult the Serbia and Montenegro Embassy or Consulate General to verify that the border pass procedure will be available at the time they intend to visit. Although Montenegrin local authorities do not enforce the visa requirement, persons who arrive in Montenegro without a visa and do not obtain a border pass may encounter trouble if they enter Serbia.

To obtain a visa or for other entry requirements, travelers should contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington or the Consulate General of Serbia and Montenegro in Chicago. The address of the Embassy is 2134 Kalorama Road, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-0333 or fax (202) 332-3933; website http://www.mfa.gov.yu. The address of the Consulate General is 201 East Ohio St., Suite 200, Chicago, Illinois 60611; telephone (312) 670-6707 or fax (312) 670-6787; e-mail [email protected]


Travelers are required to declare all currency upon entry if carrying more than $2000 in cash, and obtain from customs officials a declaration that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds. See "Customs Regulations" below.


Registration with Local Authorities: Visitors staying in private homes must register with police officials upon arrival. Failure to comply may result in a fine, incarceration, and/or expulsion. Visitors staying in hotels are automatically registered with the police by the hotel.


In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Dual Nationality: In addition to being subject to all Serbia and Montenegro laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Serbia and Montenegro citizens. For additional information, see the Consular Affairs home page on the Internet at http://travel.state.gov for our Dual Nationality flyer.


Safety and Security: No specific threats or acts of violence involving American citizens have been reported since the new democratic government took office in October, 2000. Nonetheless, travelers should always review their security practices and be alert to their surroundings. Americans are encouraged to check the Consular Affairs home page for updated travel and security information.


Crime: While confrontational and gratuitously violent crimes rarely target tourists, difficult economic conditions have led to the growth of an organized criminal class. Violent crime is most commonly associated with organized crime activities. Mafia-style reprisals have occurred with some regularity, including in hotels, restaurants and shops. Theft and carjacking, especially of "Volkswagen" brand cars, four-wheel drive vehicles and luxury cars, occur at all times of day or night and in all sections of Belgrade and other parts of the country. As in other parts of the world, travelers should be especially on guard walking in city centers. The usual safety precautions practiced in any urban or tourist area ought to be practiced during a visit to Serbia and Montenegro. In case of emergency, the police telephone number is 92.


The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy or Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.


U.S. citizens may refer to the Department of State's pamphlet, "A Safe Trip Abroad," for ways to promote a trouble-free journey. The pamphlet is available by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, via the Internet at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html, or via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.


Medical Facilities: Although many physicians in Serbia and Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped and maintained to Western standards. Medicines and basic medical supplies are largely obtainable in privately owned pharmacies. Hospitals usually require payment in cash for all services.


Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. U.S. medical insurance plans seldom cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased. Further U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. However, many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas including emergency services such as medical evacuations.


When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the U.S. may cost well in excess of $50,000. Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties. When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or whether you will be reimbursed later for expenses you incur. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.

Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided in the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure, "Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad," available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs home page or autofax: (202) 647-3000.


Other Health Information: Information on vaccinations and other health precautions may be obtained form the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-trip (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-faxx (1-888-232-3299), or via CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/iht.


Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions which differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Serbia and Montenegro is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.


Safety of Public Transportation: Fair
Urban Road Condition/Maintenance: Fair
Rural Road Condition/Maintenance: Poor
Availability of Roadside Assistance: Poor


Dangerous areas for road travel are "Ibarska Magistrala" and a road called "Moraca Canyon." "Ibarska Magistrala" is the main road from Serbia to Montenegro, a two-lane road running through central Serbia, in bad condition and usually overcrowded. Moraca Canyon in Montenegro is a twisting, two-lane road that is especially overcrowded in summer. Travelers entering the country by road should know that since March 1, 2002, the purchase of local third-party insurance has not been required. However, road tolls for foreign-registered vehicles remain high. The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered intoxicated. Roadside assistance is available by dialing 987. Other emergency numbers are police: 92, fire department: 93, and ambulance: 94.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. Buses and trams are overcrowded in Belgrade and in other areas of Serbia and Montenegro and are poorly maintained.


For additional general information about road safety, including links to foreign government sites, see the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov/road_safety.html. For specific information concerning Serbia and Montenegro driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, see the National Tourism Organization of Serbia Internet home page at www.serbia-info.com/NTOS. See also road safety information from the Serbia and Montenegro Automotive Association at http://www.amsj.co.yu/eng/eindex.html.


Aviation Safety Oversight: There are no direct flights from Serbia and Montenegro to the United States. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Serbia and Montenegro's Civil Aviation Authority as Category 2 - not in compliance with international safety standards for the oversight of Serbia and Montenegro's air carrier operations. While consultations to correct the deficiencies are ongoing, no new service to the United States by Serbia and Montenegro's air carriers will be permitted unless they arrange to have the flights conducted by an air carrier from a country meeting international safety standards. For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the United States at tel. 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA's Internet website at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa.


The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. In addition, the DOD does not permit its personnel to use air carriers from Category 2 countries for official business except for flights originating from or terminating in the United States. Local exceptions may apply. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact the DOD at tel. (618) 229-4801.


Customs Regulations: Travelers entering Serbia and Montenegro with more than $2000 in cash are required to declare all currency upon entry and obtain from customs officials a declaration form that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds. In the past American travelers have had thousands of dollars of such unclaimed funds confiscated by customs authorities. Travelers should obtain the necessary forms at ports of entry. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington for specific information regarding customs requirements. Customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes. ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States. For additional information call (212) 354-4480, send an e-mail to [email protected] or visit www.uscib.org for details.


Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Serbia and Montenegro laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Serbia and Montenegro are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Special Circumstances: Travelers should carry sufficient cash for their stay. Personal checks and travelers' checks generally are not accepted. Although a limited number of hotels and restaurants now accept credit cards, their use is still not widespread. Travelers expecting to pay bills with a credit card should check in advance whether the hotel or restaurant accepts a particular credit card.


Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, please refer to our Internet site at http://travel.state.gov/children's_issues.html or telephone 1-888-407-4747.


Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living in or visiting Serbia and Montenegro are encouraged to register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade and obtain updated information on travel and security within Serbia and Montenegro. The U.S. Embassy is located at 50 Kneza Milosa Street. The Embassy telephone number is 381-11-3619-344. The Consular Section telephone is 381-11-3619-344 ext. 467, and the fax number is 381-11-3615-497. For after hours emergencies, the number is 381-63-485-674.


Kosovo

Security Information: At present, Kosovo is administered by the United Nations, and the situation, though improved, remains unsettled and potentially dangerous. As a result, the Department of State urges American citizens to consider carefully the necessity of their visit and monitor closely the current security situation before planning travel to Kosovo. U.S. Government personnel in Kosovo are subject to periodic travel restrictions as the security situation may warrant. American citizens may contact the U.S. Office in Pristina for updated information. United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and Kosovo Force (KFOR) provide daily security bulletins via the Internet. In the event of a crisis, information will be provided on KFOR radio (96.6 FM) and at http://www.kforonline.com.

Despite the deployment of KFOR troops throughout the province, and UNMIK attempts to re-establish civil authority, some civil institutions in Kosovo, including the criminal justice system, are not fully functioning. Incidents of violence in Kosovo continue to be reported, and unexploded ordnance and landmines remain in some areas. The reliability of telecommunications, electric and water systems remains a problem.


Taking photographs of anything that could be perceived as being of military or security interest may result in problems with authorities.


Entry and Exit Requirements: U.S. citizens need a passport to enter Kosovo. No visa is required by UNMIK. However, entry to Serbia or Montenegro from Kosovo should not be attempted without a valid Serbia and Montenegro visa and a valid entry stamp from a Serbia and Montenegro border crossing post. There is no requirement for Americans in Kosovo to register with the local police.


Medical Facilities: Health facilities are limited, and medications are in short supply. As a general policy, military field hospitals in Kosovo will treat only emergency medical cases (those involving immediate threat to life, limb or eyesight) on a space available basis. KFOR cannot provide basic health care to non-military personnel, nor can they provide medical evacuation out of Kosovo. Within Kosovo, KFOR will assist with transportation and initial medical care in the event of accident or serious injury. Requests should be made to the brigade headquarters in Pristina, Prizren, Mitrovica, Gjilan and Peja. UNMIK CIVPOL, the UN international police force, can assist in making contact with KFOR in medical emergencies


Crime Information: Petty as well as violent crimes are serious problems in Kosovo. Foreigners are targets for crime, as they are assumed to carry cash. Likewise, international non-governmental organization (NGO) offices have been subject to burglaries. The loss or theft of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Office in Pristina. While the U.S. Office cannot directly issue new passports, it will assist with arrangements for applying for a new passport in Skopje, Macedonia.


In case of emergency, the UNMIK police telephone number in the Pristina area is 038-500-092. Emergency numbers in Pristina are Police: 92; Fire Department: 93; and Ambulance: 94. For information on other areas contact the U.S. Office in Pristina.


The UNMIK police force is largely a contingent of international officers who are working with and training local officers to carry out most normal police functions. The judicial system is still under the process of reconstruction. Courts are conducting trials in all cities in Kosovo, though they often cannot hold suspects for more than a few days due to space limitation.

Road Safety/Conditions: Road conditions can be extremely hazardous because roads are narrow, crowded, and used by a variety of vehicles, from KFOR armored personnel carriers to horse drawn carts. Many vehicles are old and lack standard front or rear lights. Mountain roads can be narrow, poorly marked, and lack guardrails. They quickly become dangerous in inclement weather.


It is strongly recommended that Americans in Kosovo have vehicles that are registered outside of Kosovo, to prevent problems in the event of an evacuation, as Kosovo license plates may not be accepted in neighboring countries.


The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered to be intoxicated. Travelers entering Kosovo by road should be aware that the purchase of local third-party insurance is required.


Aviation Safety Oversight: Civil aviation safety oversight in Kosovo is currently under the administration of the United Nations. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has not assessed aviation safety oversight in Kosovo for compliance with international aviation safety standards. For further information, travelers may contact the Department of Transportation within the United States at telephone 1-800-322-7873, or visit the FAA's Internet website at http://www.faa.gov/avr/iasa.

The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) separately assesses some foreign air carriers for suitability as official providers of air services. For information regarding the DOD policy on specific carriers, travelers may contact the DOD at telephone (618) 229-4801.


Special Circumstances: Banking services are available in Pristina and other major towns, although they are not fully developed. Some services that exist in other parts of Europe are not available. American citizens should keep in mind the limitations on banking services and make appropriate arrangements when particular services are not available. There are now a number of banks with international ties that offer limited banking services in Pristina and other major towns. UNMIK agencies and many NGOs are more frequently using local banks to receive currency from abroad and to pay hard currency salaries. If it becomes necessary to receive emergency funds from abroad, Western Union has offices throughout Kosovo.


Registration/Embassy Location: U.S. citizens are encouraged to register at the U.S. Office in Pristina and obtain updated information on travel and security in Kosovo. However, the U.S. Office in Pristina can provide only limited consular services. The U.S. Office is located at 30 Nazim Hikmet St. in the Dragodan area of Pristina. The telephone number is (381) 38-549-516, e-mail: [email protected]

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

POPULATION 10,656,929
SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH 68 percent
MUSLIM 20 percent
ROMAN CATHOLIC 5 percent
PROTESTANT 2 percent
OTHER 5 percent

Country Overview

INTRODUCTION

Serbia and Montenegro, a country in southeastern Europe, was created in 2003 from the eastern part of the former Yugoslavia. At the country's southwestern tip is the Adriatic Sea, while surrounding the remaining border are seven other countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Croatia, to the west; Hungary to the north; Romania to the northeast; Bulgaria to the east; and Macedonia and Albania to the south.

In a relatively short period of time, from 1918 to 2003, the region was politically transformed several times. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was established in 1918, and its successor, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, existed from 1929 until its collapse in 1941. The socialist state of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was formed in 1943 and was officially proclaimed with a constitution in 1946. This state was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963 and existed until just after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which consisted of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, lasted from 1992 until 2003, when it was renamed Serbia and Montenegro. Within this union Serbians accounted for a larger percentage of the population than Montenegrins. Although a census of all the territory of Serbia and Montenegro had not been conducted as of 2003, the population was estimated to be 10,656,929.

Serbia and Montenegro bears three main religious traditions: Orthodox Christianity, prevalent throughout the country; Islam, concentrated in the southern regions; and Roman Catholicism, concentrated in the northern regions. The Serbian Orthodox Church has significantly influenced the development of Serbian and Montenegrin national identity and the history of the country.

Islam arrived in Serbia as a result of Ottoman conquest in the fourteenth century. Following the introduction of Islam into the region, intense antagonism developed between Christians and Muslims, which has marked the country, especially the predominantly Muslim Kosovo region, in modern times. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, population growth among Muslims has been high, while Christian populations have diminished, especially after World War II. Between 1990 and 1995 separatist tendencies grew stronger, pushing Yugoslavia into civil war. During the conflict, it is estimated that nearly 800 Serbian Orthodox parishes, monasteries, churches, and chapels were damaged or destroyed. Additionally, 300 mosques and other Islamic sacred buildings were destroyed or damaged in Kosovo alone during 1998 and 1999.

RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE

Officially Serbia and Montenegro is a secular state that guarantees freedom of worship and prohibits any religious discrimination. In the 1990s, as Serbia and Montenegro moved away from a state bias toward atheism, allowing religion to become more prominent, disparate religious communities have been challenged to remain tolerant of one another. Further, although individual freedom is respected, people are expected to remain faithful to their birth religion. Converting to another religion is considered treason. As an extension of the Orthodox Church, the Serbian Orthodox Church maintains that unity among various Christian groups can be established if all return to the Orthodox tradition.

Major Religion

SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH

DATE OF ORIGIN 1219 c.e.
NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS 7.2 million

HISTORY

The conversion of Serbians from the Old Slavic religion to Christianity took place between the seventh and eighth centuries, following the influences of Rome and Constantinople. This conversion was accelerated by brothers Saint Cyril (c. 827–69 c.e.) and Saint Methodius (c. 825–84 c.e.), and their disciples, who translated Christian religious services from Greek into the Old Slavic language. During the early ninth century, Serbs marked the border zone between the Byzantine and Roman spheres of influence.

The Serbian Orthodox Church was established in 1219 when Saint Sava (c. 1176–c. 1236) was consecrated the first archbishop (1219–35). From that period until the Turkish conquest in 1389 and the collapse of Serbia in 1459, the Serbian Orthodox Church flourished within the Byzantine cultural circle, influencing every aspect of life and serving to uphold Serbian cultural and spiritual heritage. At the same time, an independent branch of the Serbian Orthodox Church existed in the Austrian Empire. Following Turkish rule in 1459, the Serbian patriarch was abolished, though in 1557 it was reestablished in Peć, only to be abolished again in 1766 when the church came under the control of the patriarch of Constantinople. In 1879, after the creation of an independent Serbian state, an autocephalous (ecclesiastically independent) Serbian Orthodox Church was created in the kingdom of Serbia. The title of patriarch was renewed in 1920, uniting the church under one head (with residence in Belgrade) and embracing all Orthodox Christians in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The new patriarch was Dimitrije Pavlović (reigned 1920–30).

Between World War I and World War II, the Serbian Orthodox Church was the state church. During the Second World War hundreds of thousands of Orthodox Serbs were killed in concentration camps. Among those imprisoned were Orthodox clergy, including Partriarch Gavrilo Dožić. Following Allied and Soviet liberation in 1944, the country came under atheistic Communist rule, and efforts were made to destroy religion. Serbian Patriarch Pavle, the former bishop of Raška and Prizren, was elected at the end of 1990 and presided over the Serbian Orthodox Church throughout the disintegration of Yugoslavia and during the civil war and its aftermath. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Serbian Orthodox Church had 39 dioceses in Serbia and in the diaspora.

EARLY AND MODERN LEADERS

In 1219 Rastko Nemanjić, known as Saint Sava, became the first archbishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church, and he is considered to be its greatest leader. In addition to establishing the national Serbian Orthodox Church, Saint Sava instituted the so-called Serbian slava, a custom honoring a family patron saint. This tradition served as a reminder of Serbian national identity throughout the five centuries of Turkish rule, and it helped to preserve faith throughout a half century of atheistic Communist rule. Saint Sava is also highly regarded for his writings, which many consider to be seminal works of medieval Serbian literature.

Patriarch Macarius (reigned 1557–70) is celebrated as the reorganizer of the Serbian patriarchate under the Turks. Metropolitan Mihajlo Jovanović (1859–98) of Belgrade initiated liturgical unification. Patriarch Dimitrije Pavlović, who served as metropolitan from 1905 to 1920, became the first patriarch of the united Serbian Orthodox Church, presiding from 1920 to 1930. Patriarch Pavle Stojčević became patriarch in 1990. Pavle's special concern has been peace and reconciliation among the people of Serbia and Montenegro.

MAJOR THEOLOGIANS AND AUTHORS

Saint Sava initiated the development of a Serbian national literature and was the author of The Life of Saint Simeon. At the Resava Monastery secular ruler Stefan Lazarević (1377–1427) established the Resava school for translating and copying texts into Serbian. In 1791 Stefan Stratimirović (1757–1836) founded a theological seminary in Sremski Karlovci. Serbian theologians of the nineteenth century include Metropolitan Mihailo, who wrote The History of the Serbian Church, and Bishop Nikodim Milaš (1845–1955), author of books on church canon law. Twentieth-century theologians include Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović, who is noted for his sermons and poetry, and Archimandrite Justin Popović, who is recognized for his dogmatics and theological philosophy. The most influential contemporary theologians are Serb bishops and metropolitans who have tried to restore the power of the Serbian Orthodox Church in society.

HOUSES OF WORSHIP AND HOLY PLACES

Serbian Orthodox churches are highly ornamental and are decorated with gold, silver, precious stones, and polished marble in multiple colors, as well as icons and crosses. Like other Eastern Orthodox churches, the iconostasis, or partition that separates the altar from the nave of the church, has three doors.

Studenica Monastery, built in the twelfth century (1183–91), is an important monastery in Serbia. Chilandar Monastery, which was built in 1198, is located in Mount Athos, an independent Orthodox Christian territory situated in what is modern Greece. Chilander Monastery has served as a center of Serbian literary, cultural, and educational work for centuries. Monastery Manasija, known originally as Resava, was built from 1406 to 1418; it is covered in frescoes and is an important church in the Moravian school of architecture. Ostrog, a seventeenth-century monastery built in a stone cave in Montenegro, is a pilgrimage site. Saint George's Church in Oplenac, which was built in 1912, is decorated with elaborate mosaics.

WHAT IS SACRED?

In the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Serbian Orthodox Church established its own cult of saints and canonization dates. One of the earliest Serbian saints was the father of Saint Sava, Stefan Nemanja (reigned c. 1167–96), who organized the first Serbian state in the beginning of the twelfth century and founded Chilandar Monastery at Mount Athos.

Throughout its history the holy Council of Bishops has established a list of 54 Serbian saints whose liturgical services are contained in the book Serbicon. Orthodox adherents demonstrate their commitment to the saints by worshiping their images or relics.

HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

Significant Christian holidays are celebrated in the Serbian Orthodox Church. Most of the dates of observance are different, because the Serbian Church observes the Julian calendar. Each day in the Serbian Church is dedicated to a saint or a holy event, and, thus, there is a religious service for every day of the year. Additionally, each month has a liturgical book that contains specific services for every day of that month. All local churches in Serbia and Montenegro have their own special feast day called Church Patron's Day (crkvena slava). Each Serbian Orthodox family celebrates its holy protector, such as Archangel Michael, Saint Nicholas, Saint John the Baptist, or Saint George. Since time immemorial family members and relatives have come together to attend the cutting of the slava bread and to enjoy the festive meal.

MODE OF DRESS

The Serbian Orthodox Church has preserved the style and form of the old liturgical vestments of Orthodox Christianity that date back to Byzantine times. Priest's vestments differ according to rank, and they reflect the hierarchical structure of the church. When the Turks occupied Serbian and Montenegrin areas in the fifteenth century, bishops served as lay Orthodox Christian rulers and dressed accordingly, wearing a sakos, or ruler's robe, and a mitre, or ruler's crown.

Contemporary practitioners are expected to dress with proper solemnity for church. Men go bareheaded, and women cover their heads and refrain from wearing makeup. It is not suitable to wear jeans, slippers, short skirts, or trousers or to have bare arms.

DIETARY PRACTICES

Fasting in conjunction with some feast days is important in the Serbian Orthodox Church. Usually limited to water, vegetable oil, and fish, the fast involves abstention from such foods as meat, milk, and eggs. The church prescribes four seasons of fast per year (lasting several days or weeks): Lent, Mary's fast, Advent, and Peter's fast. Strict followers also are expected to fast every Wednesday and Friday. Traditionally, prior to taking Holy Communion, an adherent was expected to fast on water for seven days and prepare all food for the fast with water and no fat.

RITUALS

Slava, a day devoted to worshiping the guardians and helpers of Serbian homes, churches, families, and towns, is the greatest annual holiday among Serbs and a specific feature of Serbian Orthodoxy. The rituals associated with this holiday date back to pre-Christian times, originating from family cults in the Old Slavic religion. As Serbia became Christianized, Saint Sava reformed the ritual, replacing the Serb's pagan gods with Christian saints.

During the slava ceremony, the parish priest, or the host of the household in special circumstances, performs the rite of cutting the slava bread and consecrating corn, which is a symbol of resurrection. After the priest cuts the bread crosswise and pours wine over it, all members of the household participate in turning the bread around and singing. Then the priest, along with the host, breaks the bread. Traditionally slava has been connected with rituals honoring the souls of departed family members.

As is common with other Eastern Orthodox churches, eucharistic rites are an essential part of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Celebrated on Sunday and on certain holidays, the Eucharist helps bind the community of followers.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Before Communist rule, birth, marriage, and death records were kept by religious communities. In 1945 record books were taken away from the churches and given to the city councils. Since 1990, however, a great number of adults have been baptized in church, and couples have been increasingly married in church.

In Serbia and Montenegro the funeral rite is almost always performed by a priest. The memory rite, which is the service for the departed, takes place in a church or at a cemetery forty days after death, a half a year later, and a year later. Funeral rituals differ substantially from village to village and represent local traditions.

MEMBERSHIP

The Serbian Orthodox Church is a national church to which membership is conferred by birth. The missionary purpose of the church has been to return Serbs to the faith and traditions of their ancestors, as well as to strengthen the faith of its nominal adherents. Most monasteries and churches maintain websites. The greatest missionary accomplishment of the Serbian Orthodox Church has been the reinstatement of catechism in public schools in 2001.

SOCIAL JUSTICE

Traditionally the Serbian Orthodox Church has viewed poverty and suffering as a means toward reaching salvation. Through the centuries, monasteries, which were built by Serbian rulers and princes, have served as refuges in which monks, who have taken a vow of poverty, could follow a Christian ascetic life dedicated to learning and social work. In the past monasteries have had hospitals, orphanages, and schools for the poor, although no such social institutions existed in monasteries at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

SOCIAL ASPECTS

The Serbian Orthodox Church aligns itself with the greater Eastern Orthodox Church on issues of marriage and family. The formation of a family through the sacrament of marriage is seen as an event influencing the destiny of both the couple and the church as an institution. Although the church encourages marriage as God's command, it also recommends monastic life as a particular path to serve God. A priest is allowed to marry but cannot marry a widow or a divorced woman, nor can a priest marry a second time. Bishops never marry, but widowers may become bishops or even patriarchs. Serbian Orthodox women serve traditional roles. Although women can study theology, they are not allowed to become priests, and they are forbidden to go behind the iconostasis in churches or to visit Mount Athos.

POLITICAL IMPACT

While the government of Serbia and Montenegro is ostensibly secular, in practice the Serbian Orthodox Church has an overwhelming presence in national politics, and the church has acted to preserve Serbian national identity through its language and cultural heritage. As some Serbs embraced Islam between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries, they essentially lost their Serbian national identity and became Bosniacs.

CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

The Serbian Orthodox Church forbids premarital sex. Abortion and contraception are frowned upon; however, in practice the church does not forbid abortions or punish those who have them. Homosexuality is considered a sin, and marriage between a homosexual couple or adoption by a homo-sexual couple is taboo.

CULTURAL IMPACT

The impact of the Serbian Ortho-dox Church on Serbian culture began in the ninth century with the translations of Greek texts by the brothers Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, who invented the Old Slavic alphabet Glagoljica and the Cyrillic alphabet. The most famous example of Serbian literature is the twelfth-century work Miroslavljev's Gospel, which includes the gospel readings for Sundays and holidays. Miroslavljev's Gospel was preserved in the Chilandar Monastery until 1896, when King Aleksandar Obrenovic received the work as a gift from Serbian monks, and it was later moved to the National Museum in Belgrade.

Serbian architecture can be classified according to three main styles: Rascian (twelfth century), Serbian-Byzantine (late thirteenth to fourteenth century), and Moravian (late fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century). Medieval Serbian monasteries and churches represent the greatest feats of Serbian architecture. The Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade, which was finished in 2004, is the most impressive contemporary church building.

The music of the Serbian Orthodox Church developed through the centuries and is entirely vocal, differentiating it from secular music. Prominent Serbian Orthodox Church composers include Kornelije Stanković (1831–65) and Stevan Mokranjac (1856–1914).

Other Religions

Like the former Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro is a state union of many nations and many religions. Within Serbia and Montenegro more than fifty religious communities are registered, reflecting the influences of both Western and Eastern traditions.

Having defeated the Serbian army on the Marica River in 1371, the Turks increased their presence in Serbia. Serbia was defeated in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and at Smederovo in 1459, after which the country succumbed to Turkish occupation. During Ottoman rule part of the Serbian Orthodox population converted to Islam. This conversion was, in principle, voluntary but not without various forms of pressure, as the Turks gave special privileges to Muslims. Between Serbia's independence from the Turks in the nineteenth century and the First World War, Islam was accepted in Serbia but held inferior status to Orthodoxy. During the twentieth century social changes, ethnic divisions, and wars divided the religious communities. With the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, religious communities were divided further by the newly formed borders of Serbia and Montenegro.

At the start of the twenty-first century, the total number of Muslims in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at more than two million. Except for those in Sandžak, the majority are of Albanian descent. Religious practices among Muslims in Serbia and Montenegro are similar to those in neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In the pre-Ottoman period there was significant correspondence between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. Stefan Nemanja, the founder of Serbia's Nemanjic dynasty, and his son Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church, were baptized Roman Catholics. Until the time of Emperor Stephen Dusan (Dušan Silni; reigned 1331–55), Serbian rulers were crowned in Rome and maintained communication with the Vatican. Cultural relations flourished between Orthodox and Catholic denominations during this time, as both groups used the same Slavic liturgical language, as well as the Glagoljica and Cyrillic alphabets. Not until the fall of the Ottoman Empire did significant regional differences arise between Orthodox and Catholic churches in what became Serbia and Montenegro.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were approximately 500,000 Roman Catholics in Serbia and Montenegro and about 65,000 Catholics in Kosovo, most of whom were Albanians. Catechization takes place at the church in the form of Sunday schools and sacraments.

Protestant Christianity began to spread into the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina in the 1550s. Lutherans and Reformed Protestants were the first Protestant groups to appear as colonists in the late eighteenth century. They were organized among the ethnic Germans, Hungarians, and Slovaks and gained only occasional ethnic Serbian members. The largest Protestant congregations in modern Serbia and Montenegro still include the Slovak Lutheran Evangelical Church, with 40,000 members, and the Reformed Church, whose 16,000 members are mostly of Hungarian, Slovakian, and, to a much lesser extent, German ancestry. Although Lutherans and Reformed were the first Protestant groups in the area, the Christian Nazarene Community was the first Protestant organization to spread among the ethnic Serbian population. This congregation, how-ever, began to decline in membership after World War I. The largest Protestant community in Serbia and Montenegro not organized according to ethnicity is the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which first arrived in Vojvodina in 1890. It has built over 200 churches, and by the twenty-first century the Seventh-day Adventist Church reported 20,000 members. Followers of other smaller churches and communities include Baptists, Pentecostals, and Brethren.

Zorica Kuburić

See Also Vol. 1: Christianity, Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam, Roman Catholicism

Bibliography

Birviš, Aleksandar. "Obstacles to Dialogue from a Protestant Perspective." In God in Russia, the Challenge of Freedom. Edited by Aharon Linzey and Ken Kaisch. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1999.

Bjelajac, Branko. Protestantism u Srbiji. Belgrade: Alfa and Omega, 2003.

Bremer, Tomas. "Role of the Church in a Pluralist Society." In Democracy and Religion. Edited by Goran Bašić and Silvo Devetak. Belgrade: ERC/ISCOMET, 2003.

Hussey, Joan. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

"Savremena administracija." In Enciklopedija pravoslavlja. Edited by Dimitrije Kalezić. Belgrade: Savremena administracija, 2002.

Slijepčevic, Djoko. Istorija Srpske Pravoslavne Crkve. Belgrade: Beogradski izdavačko-grafički zavod, 1991.

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Serbia and Montenegro

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Compiled from the December 2004 Background Note and supplemented with additional information from the State Department and the editors of this volume. See the introduction to this set for explanatory notes.

Official Name:
Serbia and Montenegro

(Formerly Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or F.R.Y.)


PROFILE

Geography

Area: Montenegro (13,938 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Connecticut; Serbia (88,412 sq. km.) is slightly smaller than Maine. Combined, they are slightly smaller than Kentucky (102,350 sq. km.).

Cities: Capital of Serbia and Montenegro and Capital of Serbia—Belgrade; Capital of Montenegro—Podgorica. Other cities—Pristina, Pancevo, Novi Pazar, Uzice, Novi Sad, Subotica, Bor, Nis, Tivat, Kotor.

Terrain: Varied; in the north, rich fertile plains; in the east, limestone ranges and basins; in the southeast, mountains and hills; in the southwest, high shoreline with no islands off the coast.

Climate: In the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland.

People (2001 est.)

Nationality: Noun—Montenegrin(s) and Serb(s); adjective—Montenegrin and Serbian.

Population: 8,029,345, (Montenegro 650,575); Serbia (not including Kosovo) 7,478,820 (2002 Republic census).

Population growth rate: −0.27%.

Ethnic groups: Serbian 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6%.

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%.

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%.

Health: Infant mortality rate—17.42 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy—70.6 yrs., female 76.7 yrs.

Government

Type: Republic.

Constitution: Adopted April 27, 1992.

Independence: April 11, 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament adopted a new Constitutional Charter establishing the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

Branches: Executive—president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative—Serbia and Montenegro union parliament. Judicial—Federal Court (Savezni Sud) and Constitutional Court.

Political parties: Serbia—Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (SVM), Christian Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS), Civic Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Democratic Alternative (DA), Democratic Center (DC), Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Democratic Party (DS), Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), League for Sumadija (LS), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV), New Serbia (NS), Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina (LSV), Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS—former Communist Party), Yugoslav United Left (JUL); Montenegro—Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), Party of Democratic Action (SDA), People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP).

Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; universal at 18.

Economy

GDP: (2003) $19.2 billion.

GDP growth rate: (2003) 3.4%.

Per capita income: (2003) $2,370.

Inflation rate: (2003 est.) 11.2%.

Natural resources: Oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, navigable rivers.

Agriculture: 15% of GDP.

Industry: 28% of GDP.

Services: 56% of GDP.

Trade: (2003 est.) Exports—$2.7 billion. Major markets—Russia, Italy, Germany. Imports—$7.1 billion. Major suppliers—Germany, Italy, Russia.


PEOPLE AND HISTORY

Serbia

The Serbian state as known today was created in 1170 A.D. by Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjic dynasty. Serbia's religious foundation came several years later when Stefan's son, canonized as St. Sava, became the first archbishop of a newly autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church (1219). Thus, at this time, the Serbs enjoyed both temporal and religious independence. After a series of successions, Serbia fell under the rule of King Milutin, who improved Serbia's position among other European countries. Milutin also was responsible for many of the brightest examples of Medieval Serbian architecture. Moreover, Serbia began to expand under Milutin's reign, seizing territory in nearby Macedonia from the Byzantines. Under Milutin's son, Stefan Dusan (1331-55), the Nemanjic dynasty reached its peak, ruling from the Danube to central Greece. However, Serbian power waned after Stefan's death in 1355, and in the Battle of Kosovo (June 15, 1389) the Serbs were catastrophically defeated by the Turks. By 1459, the Turks exerted complete control over all Serb lands.

For more than 3 centuries—nearly 370 years—the Serbs lived under the yoke of the Ottoman sultans. As a result of this oppression, Serbs began to migrate out of their native land (present-day Kosovo and southern Serbia) into other areas within the Balkan Peninsula, including what is now Vojvodina and Croatia. When the Austrian Hapsburg armies pushed the Ottoman Turks south of the Danube in 1699, many Serbs were "liberated," but their native land was still under Ottoman rule.

Movements for Serbian independence began more than 100 years later with uprisings under the Serbian patriots Karageorge (1804-13) and Milos Obrenovic (1815-17). After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, Serbia became an internationally recognized principality under Turkish suzerainty and Russian protection, and the state expanded steadily southward. After an insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, Serbia and Montenegro went to war against Turkey in 1876-78 in support of the Bosnian rebels. With Russian assistance, Serbs gained more territory as well as formal independence in 1878, though Bosnia was placed under Austrian administration.

In 1908, Austria-Hungary directly annexed Bosnia, inciting the Serbs to seek the aid of Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece in seizing the last Ottoman-ruled lands in Europe. In the ensuing Balkan Wars of 1912-13, Serbia obtained northern and central Macedonia, but Austria compelled it to yield Albanian lands that would have given it access to the sea. Serb animosity against the Habsburgs reached a climax on June 28, 1914, when the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip, setting off a series of diplomatic and military initiatives among the great powers that culminated in World War I.

Soon after the war began, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces occupied Serbia. Upon the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the war's end in 1918, Vojvodina and Montenegro united with Serbia, and former south Slav subjects of the Habsburgs sought the protection of the Serbian crown within a kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Serbia was the dominant partner in this state, which in 1929 adopted the name Yugoslavia.

The kingdom soon encountered resistance when Croatians began to resent control from Belgrade. This pressure prompted King Alexander I to split the traditional regions into nine administrative provinces. During World War II, Yugoslavia was divided between the Axis powers and their allies. Royal army soldiers, calling themselves Cetnici (Chetniks), formed a Serbian resistance movement, but a more determined communist resistance under the Partisans, with Soviet and Anglo-American help, liberated all of Yugoslavia by 1944. In an effort to avoid Serbian domination during the postwar years, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro were given separate and equal republican status within the new socialist federation of Yugoslavia; Kosovo and Vojvodina were made autonomous provinces within Yugoslavia.

Despite the attempts at a federal system of government for Yugoslavia, Serbian communists played the leading role in Yugoslavia's political life for the next 4 decades. As the Germans were defeated at the end of World War II, Josip Broz Tito, a former Bolshevik and committed communist, began to garner support from both within Yugoslavia as well as from the Allies. Yugoslavia remained independent of the U.S.S.R., as Tito broke with Stalin and asserted Yugoslav independence. Tito went on to control Yugoslavia for 35 years. Under communist rule, Serbia was transformed from an agrarian to an industrial society. In the 1980s, however, Yugoslavia's economy began to fail. With the death of Tito in 1980, separatist and nationalist tensions emerged in Yugoslavia.

In 1989, riding a wave of nationalist sentiment, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic reimposed direct rule over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, prompting Albanians in Kosovo to agitate for separation from the Republic of Serbia. Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia all seceded from Yugoslavia. On April 27, 1992 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro joined in passing the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 2002, the Belgrade Agreement was signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, setting forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia

within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter, establishing a new state union and changing the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.

Montenegro

Montenegro's history is almost inextricably tied to Serbia's. Similarly to Serbia, Montenegro was under the rule of the Ottoman Turks for the duration of their reign in the Balkans. When the Turks were removed from the area, Montenegro became an independent principality within the Austro-Hungarian Empire but did not become an independent, sovereign state until 1878. During World War I, Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies but was defeated and occupied by Austria. Upon Austrian occupation, the Montenegrin king, King Nikola I, and his family fled to Italy. Consequently, the Serbian king, Petar Karadjordjevic, was able to exploit the chaotic conditions in Montenegro at the war's end, paving the way for the violent and unwanted Serbian annexation of Montenegro.

Montenegro was the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country at the end of the war. The majority of the Montenegrin population opposed the annexation and on January 7, 1919, staged a national uprising—known to history as the Christmas Uprising—against the Serbian annexation. The uprising became a war between Serbia and the Montenegrins that lasted until 1926. Many Montenegrins lost their lives, and though many hoped for an intervention by the Great Powers to protect their sovereignty, none came and Montenegro was effectively absorbed into the new kingdom of Yugoslavia.

When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. This caused a great divide within the Montenegrin population. Many nationalists who had been frustrated with the experience of Yugoslav unification supported the Italian administration. But there were advocates of the union with Serbia who began armed resistance movements as well as many communists who, by nature of their political beliefs, were opposed to the Italian presence. As war progressed, the local strength of the communists grew and Montenegro served as an effective base for communism in the region; it was an important refuge for Tito's Partisan forces during the most difficult points in the struggle. After the war, the communist strategy of attempting to unify Yugoslavia through a federal structure elevated Montenegro to the status of a republic, thus securing Montenegrin loyalty to the federation.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in a precarious position. The first multi-party elections in 1990 showed much public support for the League of Communists, confirming Montenegrin support for the federation. Montenegro joined Serbian efforts to preserve the federation in the form of a "Third Yugoslavia" in 1992. Though Montenegro reaffirmed its political attachment to Serbia, a sense of a distinct Montenegrin identity continued to thrive. Outspoken criticism of Serbian conduct of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina boosted the continuing strength of Montenegrin distinctiveness. Both the people and the government of Montenegro were critical of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's 1998-99 campaign in Kosovo, and the ruling coalition parties boycotted the September 2000 federal elections, which led to the eventual overthrow of Milosevic's regime. The Belgrade Agreement of March 2002, signed by the heads of the federal and republican governments, set forth the parameters for a redefinition of Montenegro's relationship with Serbia within a joint state. On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament ratified the Constitutional Charter which established a new state union and changed the name of the country from Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.

Kosovo

Before the conflicts of the 1990s, Kosovo was best known as the site of a famous 14th-century battle in which invading Ottoman Turks defeated a Serbian army led by Tsar Lazar. During this medieval period, Kosovo also was home to many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries.

The Ottomans ruled Kosovo for more than four centuries, until Serbia reconquered the territory during the First Balkans War in 1912-13. First partitioned in 1913 between Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo was then incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later named Yugoslavia) after World War I. During World War II, parts of Kosovo were absorbed into Italian-occupied Albania. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany assumed control until Tito's Yugoslav communists reentered Kosovo at the end of the war.

After World War II, Kosovo became a province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave Kosovo (along with Vojvodina) the status of an autonomous province with nearly equal voting rights as the six constituent Republics of Yugoslavia. Although the Albanian-majority province enjoyed significant autonomy, riots broke out in 1981 led by Kosovar Albanians who demanded that Kosovo be granted full Republic status.

In the late 1980s, Slobodan Milosevic propelled himself to power in Belgrade by exploiting the fears of the small Serbian minority in Kosovo. In 1989, he arranged the elimination of Kosovo's autonomy in favor of more direct rule from Belgrade. Belgrade ordered the firing of large numbers of Albanian state employees, whose jobs were then taken by Serbs.

As a result of this oppression, Kosovo Albanian leaders led a peaceful resistance movement in the early 1990s and established a parallel government funded mainly by the Albanian diaspora. When this movement failed to yield results, an armed resistance emerged in 1997 in the form of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The KLA's main goal was to secure the independence of Kosovo.

In late 1998, Milosevic unleashed a brutal police and military campaign against the separatist KLA, which included atrocities against civilian noncombatants. For the duration of Milosevic's campaign, large numbers of ethnic Albanians were either displaced from their homes in Kosovo or killed by Serbian troops or police. These acts, and Serbia's refusal to sign the Rambouillet Accords, provoked a military response from NATO, which consisted primarily of aerial bombing. The campaign continued from March through June 1999. After 79 days of bombing, Milosevic capitulated and international forces, led by NATO, moved into Kosovo. The international security presence, which is known as Kosovo Force (KFOR), works closely with the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to ensure protection for all of Kosovo's communities.


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

State Union of Serbia and Montenegro

In February 2003, the Constitutional Charter was ratified by the Republic of Serbia, Republic of Montenegro, and the Yugoslav Parliament. The Constitutional Charter changed the name of the country from Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to "Serbia and Montenegro." Under the new Constitutional Charter, most federal functions and authorities devolved to the republic level. The office of President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, held by Vojislav Kostunica, ceased to exist once Svetozar Marovic was elected President of Serbia and Montenegro.

Republic of Serbia

Even as opposition to the his regime grew in the late 1990s, Yugoslav President Milosevic continued to dominate the organs of the F.R.Y. Government. Although his political party, the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), did not enjoy a majority in either the federal or Serbian parliaments, it dominated the governing coalitions and held all the key administrative posts. An essential element of Milosevic's grasp on power was his control of the Serbian police, a heavily armed force of some 100,000 that was responsible for internal security and which committed serious human rights abuses. Routine federal elections in September 2000 resulted in a narrow official victory for Milosevic and his coalition. Immediately, street protests and rallies filled cities across the country as Serbs rallied around Vojislav Kostunica, the recently formed Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS, a broad coalition of anti-Milosevic parties) candidate for F.R.Y. president. Cries of fraud and calls for Milosevic's removal echoed across city squares from Subotica to Nis.

On October 5, 2000, Slobodan Milosevic was forced to concede defeat after days of mass protests all across Serbia. New F.R.Y. President Vojislav Kostunica was soon joined at the top of the domestic Serbian political scene by the Democratic Party's (DS) Zoran Djindjic, who was elected Prime Minister of Serbia at the head of the DOS ticket in December's republican elections. After an initial honeymoon period in the wake of October 5, DSS and the rest of DOS, led by Djindjic and his DS, found themselves increasingly at odds over the nature and pace of the governments' reform programs. Although initial reform efforts were highly successful, especially in the economic and fiscal sectors, by the middle of 2002, the nationalist Kostunica and the pragmatic Djindjic were openly at odds. Kostunica's party, having informally withdrawn from all DOS decisionmaking bodies, was agitating for early elections to the Serbian Parliament in an effort to force Djindjic from the scene.

After the initial euphoria of replacing Milosevic's autocratic regime, the Serbian population, in reaction to this political maneuvering, was sliding into apathy and disillusionment with its leading politicians by mid-2002. This political stalemate continued for much of 2002, and reform initiatives stalled. Two rounds of elections for the republic presidency in late 2002 failed because of insufficient voter turnout (Serbian law required participation by more than 50% of registered voters).

On March 12, 2003, Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic was assassinated. The Serbian government and the newly formed union government of Serbia and Montenegro reacted swiftly by calling a state of emergency and undertaking an unprecedented crackdown on organized crime which led to the arrest of more than 4,000 people. Zoran Zivkovic, a vice-president of Djindjic's DS party, was elected Prime Minister in March 2003. A series of scandals plagued the Zivkovic government through the second half of 2003, ultimately leading the Prime Minister to call early elections.

Republic of Serbia presidential elections were again held on November 16, 2003. These elections were also declared invalid because of insufficient voter turnout.

Following the December 2003 parliamentary elections, a new minority government was formed which includes Prime Minister Kostunica's Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), G17+, and the Serbian Renewal Movement/New Serbia (SPO/NS) coalition with the support of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS). On June 27, after changes to the election law to allow for a valid election with turnout of less than 50% of registered voters, Boris Tadic (DS) was elected President of Serbia. President Tadic's Democratic Party (DS) did not join the governing coalition but has been working with Serbia's democratic forces to advance the reform agenda.

Republic of Montenegro

Although threatened by Milosevic throughout the last years of his rule, Montenegro's democratization efforts have continued. In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro's President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic's campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the proindependence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment of the post-October 5, 2000 Balkans. In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The President of Montenegro is Filip Vujanovic.

Kosovo

While legally still part of Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo remains an international protectorate of the United Nations as outlined in UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (passed June 10, 1999). Under UNSCR 1244, UNMIK assumes the supreme legal authority in Kosovo, while working to create "substantial autonomy and self-governance" in Kosovo and, eventually, facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status. The senior international official in Kosovo is the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG), who has sweeping legal authority to govern Kosovo. He presides over four "pillars" comprising various aspects of UNMIK's administration of Kosovo: Police and Justice (Pillar I, led by the UN), Civil Administration (Pillar II, led by the UN); Democratization and Institution-Building (Pillar III, led by the OSCE), and Economic Development (Pillar IV, led by the EU). In July 2004, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan selected Danish diplomat Soren Jessen-Peterson to be the SRSG.

Resolution 1244 also authorizes a NATO-led force (KFOR) to provide for a safe and secure environment in Kosovo. Over the course of 2004, KFOR's strength has remained steady at around 17,500 international troops, including approximately 1,700 U.S. troops (mostly National Guard). KFOR numbers are expected to steadily decline as the security situation improves and as local security structures, such as the newly created Kosovo Police Service, increase their capacity to operate effectively.

In 2001, the SRSG promulgated a "Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self-Government in Kosovo." This document established a Kosovo Assembly and new Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). In November 2001, Kosovo held its first elections for the three-year term of the Kosovo Assembly. The elections were administered and supervised by the OSCE under Pillar III of UNMIK. The main political parties included the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), led by Ibrahim Rugova; Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), led by former KLA political chief Hashim Thaci; the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK), led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj; and the Serb coalition party Povratak. The LDK won the elections with 46% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 26%. They were followed by Povratak at 11% and the AAK at 8%. OSCE judged the elections free and fair.

After significant political wrangling, Kosovo's politicians agreed to establish Kosovo's first coalition government in March 2002, with Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister and Ibrahim Rugova (LDK) as President. The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were formed, with ministries allocated to the parties according to the March 2002 power-sharing agreement, and in the same year, the Kosovo Assembly began to function and pass its first laws. During 2003, UNMIK transferred a significant number of governing competencies to these ministries and continues to work to build their capacity to govern. UNMIK will retain many powers associated with state sovereignty, including foreign affairs and security, until Kosovo's final status is decided. In November 2004, UNMIK approved the creation of three new PISG ministries: Energy, Returns and Communities, and Local Self-Government.

Kosovo's undefined final status remains one of the key political issues in the region. Virtually all Kosovo Albanians continue to advocate independence, which Serbia finds unacceptable. In early 2002, former SRSG Michael Steiner first articulated a policy of "standards before status," whereby Kosovo's final status will not be addressed until and unless Kosovo meets certain internationally endorsed standards for the establishment of rule of law, functioning democratic institutions, minority rights, and economic development. In 2003, the UN Security Council endorsed a plan to evaluate Kosovo's progress on these standards in mid-2005. If sufficient progress has been made by that time, a political process will begin shortly thereafter to determine Kosovo's future status.

A major political focus in Kosovo continues to be the status of Kosovo's minority communities, especially the Serbs. Following three days of widespread inter-ethnic violence in March 2004, the UN, NATO and the international community enhanced their efforts to ensure a Kosovo that is safe for all communities. Currently, Kosovo's small Serb community suffers restricted freedom of movement and sporadic acts of inter-ethnic violence. After the war, more than 100,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian ethnic minorities fled Kosovo and many remain displaced. As a matter of principle, the international community has encouraged their return, although results have been minimal to date.

Relations between Kosovo Albanians and Serbian authorities remain tenuous, but enhancing dialogue remains a key U.S. priority. In 2003, under the auspices of UNMIK and the international community, leaders from both Belgrade and Pristina met in Vienna and began a dialogue on practical issues of mutual concern, such as transportation, electricity, missing persons, and the return of displaced persons. That dialogue was interrupted by the violence in March of 2004 and has not resumed.

On October 23, 2004, Kosovo held elections for the second three-year term of the Kosovo Assembly. For the first time, Kosovo's own Central Election Commission administered these elections, under OSCE guidance. The main political parties were the same as in the 2001 elections, but for the addition of the new party ORA, led by Veton Surroi, and two new Kosovo Serb parties: the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohia led by Oliver Ivanovic, and the Citizens Initiative of Serbia led by Slavisa Petkovic. The LDK won the elections with 45.4% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 28.9%. They were followed by AAK at 8.4% and the ORA at 6.2%. Kosovo Serbs boycotted the elections, with less than one percent voting. However, Kosovo Serbs still received ten Assembly seats that are reserved to them as a minority community under the Constitutional Framework. Eight were allocated to the Serb List for Kosovo and Metohia, and two to the Serbian Citizens Initiative.

In contrast to the previous Kosovo government, this election produced a "narrow" coalition of two parties, the LDK and AAK. The December 3 inaugural session of the Kosovo Assembly re-elected Ibrahim Rugova as President and Ramush Haradinaj as Prime Minister. Eight of the ten Serbs boycotted the session, and, as a result, the issues of the two ministries reserved for minorities—Health and Agriculture—will be addressed in a future Assembly session.

Legislature

The union Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. The Republic of Serbia and Republic of Montenegro are governed by their respective republic parliaments.

Principal Government Officials

Last Updated: 1/28/05

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia transformed itself into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003, when the former federal parliament adopted a new constitutional charter that renamed the country and reduced the size of the central government, devolving more authority to the two constituent republics.

President: Svetozar MAROVIC
Chmn., Council of Ministers: Svetozar MAROVIC
Min. of Defense: Prvoslav DAVINIC
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Vuk DRASKOVIC
Min. of Foreign Economic Relations: Predrag IVANOVIC
Min. of Internal Economic Relations: Amir NURKOVIC
Min. of Minority & Human Rights: Rasim LJAJIC
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York: Nebojsa KALUDJEROVIC
Ambassador to the United States: Ivan VUJACIC
:Serbia, Republic of:

President: Boris TADIC
Prime Minister: Vojislav KOSTUNICA
Dep. Prime Min.: Miroljub LABUS
Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Ivana DULICMARKOVIC
Min. of Capital Investment: Velimir ILIC
Min. of Culture: Dragan KOJADINOVIC
Min. of Diaspora: Vojislav VUKCEVIC
Min. of Economy: Predrag BUBALO
Min. of Education & Sport: Slobodan VUKSANOVIC
Min. of Energy & Mining: Radomir NAUMOV
Min. of Finance: Mladjan DINKIC
Min. of Health: Tomica MILOSAVLJEVIC
Min. of Interior: Dragan JOCIC
Min. of International Economic Relations: Milan PARIVODIC
Min. of Justice: Zoran STOJKOVIC
Min. of Labor, Employment, & Social Affairs: Slobodan LALOVIC
Min. of Public Administration & Local Self-Government: Zoran LONCAR
Min. of Religion: Milan RADULOVIC
Min. of Science & Environmental Protection: Aleksandar POPOVIC
Min. of Trade, Tourism, & Services: Bojan DIMITRIJEVIC

Montenegro, Republic of:

President: Filip VUJANOVIC
Prime Minister: Milo DJUKANOVIC
Dep. Prime Min.: Jusuf KALAMPEROVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Economic Policy & Development: Branimir GVOZDENOVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Financial Systems: Miroslav IVANISEVIC
Dep. Prime Min. for Politics & Internal Policy: Dragan DJUROVIC
Min. of Agriculture, Forestry, & Water Management: Milutin SIMOVIC
Min. of Culture: Vesna KILIBARDA
Min. of Economy: Darko USKOKOVIC
Min. of Education & Science: Slobodan BACKOVIC
Min. of Environmental Protection & Urban Planning: Boro VUCINIC
Min. of Finance: Igor LUKSIC
Min. of Foreign Affairs: Dragisa BURZAN
Min. of Foreign Economic Relations & European Integration: Gordana DJUROVIC
Min. of Health: Miodrag PAVLICIC
Min. of Interior: Dragan DJUROVIC
Min. of Justice: Zeljko STURANOVIC
Min. of Labor & Social Welfare: Slavoljub STJEPOVIC
Min. of Maritime Affairs &Transportation: Andrija LOMPAR
Min. of Minority Protection: Gezim HAJDINAGA
Min. of Tourism: Predrag NENEZIC
Min. Without Portfolio: Suad NUMANOVIC

:Serbia and Montenegro maintains an embassy in the United States at 2134 Kalorama Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-0333).


DEFENSE

Military branches include the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, and air and air defense forces, and Civil Defense. Civilians fit for military service are estimated at about 2,088,595 (2001 est.). The 2002 estimate for military expenditures as percent of GDP is 3.6%. Following the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic in March 2003, the Ministry of Defense has undertaken significant reform initiatives, which have been successful in moving Serbia and Montenegro closer to Euro-Atlantic integration.


ECONOMY

The economy of Yugoslavia entered a prolonged decline in 1998. Exacerbated by international sanctions imposed in response to President Slobodan Milosevic's actions in Kosovo, the F.R.Y. economy's downward spiral showed no real sign of recovery until 2001. A vigorous team of economic reformers has worked to tame inflation and rationalize the Serbia and Montenegro economy.

The F.R.Y.'s monetary unit, the dinar, remained volatile throughout the Milosevic regime. Alarmed F.R.Y. officials took several steps to tighten monetary policy in 1998, including ruling out a devaluation in the near term, increasing reserve requirements, and issuing bonds. During this period, Montenegro rejected the dinar and adopted the German mark (now the Euro) as its official currency. As 1999 began, the damage control operations had succeeded in returning the exchange rate to reasonable levels. However, it was not until 2002, after intense macroeconomic reform measures, that the dinar became convertible—a first since the Bretton Woods agreements laid out the post-World War II international exchange rate regime. Privatization efforts have not succeeded as well as macro-economic reform. The process of privatization is not popular among workers of large socially owned companies, and many citizens appear to believe the tendering process is overly centralized and controlled from Belgrade. Furthermore, international investment is still lagging in Serbia and Montenegro, as a result of both domestic and international investment climates. Managers tend to blame the dearth of interest on the current negative business climate in Serbia and Montenegro.


FOREIGN RELATIONS

From the breakup of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989, the foreign policy of the F.R.Y. was characterized primarily by a desire to secure its political and geopolitical position and the solidarity of ethic Serbs in the Balkan region through a strong nationalist campaign. The F.R.Y. supported and exploited the expansion of violent conflicts—in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and its own province, Kosovo—in order to advance its policies. Since October 2000, the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has all but eliminated its nationalist rhetoric and has worked to stabilize and strengthen its bilateral relationships with neighboring countries. In 2002, F.R.Y. resolved its longstanding border dispute with Macedonia and established full diplomatic relations with its neighbor and former adversary Croatia.

Also in 2002, the F.R.Y. Government established a commission to coordinate cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and began serving warrants for the arrest of indicted war criminals who sought refuge in the country. The crackdown on organized crime following the assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic also resulted in the apprehension and transfer to The Hague of several persons indicted for war crimes.

A number of persons indicted for war crimes remain at large, and Serbia has not yet met all of its ICTY obligations.

Immediately preceding the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R.Y. in spring 1999, the U.S. and most European countries severed relations with the F.R.Y., and the U.S. Embassy was closed. Since October 5, 2000, foreign embassies, including that of the U.S., have reopened, and the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro has regained its seat in such international organizations as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the UN and is actively participating in International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank projects. In 2003, Serbia and Montenegro was admitted to the Council of Europe and indicated its wish to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Foreign Aid

Subsequent to the outbreak of hostilities between NATO and the F.R.Y. in 1999, Belgrade received no foreign aid from the United States and other west European countries. Since October 2000, however, European Union aid has steadily increased, and U.S. restrictions on aid fell away as the F.R.Y./Serbia and Montenegro stepped forward to meet its international obligations. In June 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell was able to certify that Serbia and Montenegro's relationship with the Republika Srpska was consistent with the Dayton Accords, had released all political prisoners, and was cooperating with ICTY. On March 31, 2004, Secretary Powell declined to certify to Congress that Serbia and Montenegro are fully cooperating with the ICTY, thus halting new assistance in fiscal year 2004 to Serbia, but not to Montenegro.


U.S.-SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

Since the outbreak of war between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, the United States and the F.R.Y. severed diplomatic relations. In response to the events of October 2000, the United States reestablished a diplomatic presence the following month. The U.S. Embassy reopened in May 2001. The Serbia and Montenegro embassy in Washington and the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade have reestablished bilateral relations and provide a full range of consular services. Serbia and Montenegro currently enjoys good diplomatic relations with all of its neighbors.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

BELGRADE (E) Address: Kneza Milosa 50; Phone: 381-11-361-9344; Fax: 381-11-361-8230; Workweek: 8:30 to 5:00 GMT+1; Website: belgrade.usembassy.gov

AMB:Michael C. Polt
AMB OMS:Augustine Peterson-Becker
DCM:Roderick W. Moore
DCM OMS:Megan Gallardo
CG:Karen E. Martin
POL:Gustavo Delgado
COM:Maria Andrews
MGT:Kathleen D. Hanson
AFSA:Neil MacNeal
AGR:Hassan Ahmed
CLO:Mihaela Docal
CUS:Wilbur Smith
DAO:Col. Gordon Drake
ECO:Chris Dunnett
EEO:Patricia Perrin
FMO:Jonathan Post
GSO:Patricia Perrin
ICASS Chair:David Salazar
IMO:Warren Gilsdorf
IPO:John Miller
ISO:Timothy DeMerse
ISSO:Peter Thiede
PAO:Abelardo (Allen) Docal
RSO:Neil Macneil
State ICASS:Cris Dunnett
Last Updated: 2/3/2005

PODGORICA (C) Address: Krusevac 66 81000 Podgorica, Serbia-Montenegro; Phone: +381-81-225-417; Fax: +381-81-241-358; Workweek: Monday to Friday (0830-1700); Website: www.podgorica.usconsulate.gov

PO:Hoyt Yee
POL:Alan Carlson
CON:Aaron Olsa
MGT:Aaron Olsa
AID:Howard Handler
CLO:Victoria Ryabova
EEO:Aaron Olsa
ISO:Momcilo Vukovic
ISSO:Max Walton
PAO:T.J. Grubisha
Last Updated: 12/14/2004

PRISTINA (M) Address: Nazim Hikmet St. No. 30; Phone: 381-38-549516; Fax: 381-38-549890; INMARSAT Tel: 873-762-029-495; Workweek: M–F, 8:00-17:00; Website: www.usofficpristina.usia.co.at

AMB:Philip S. Goldberg
AMB OMS:Penelope A. Tavernier
DCM:Marilynn Gurian
POL:Thomas K. McBride
CON:Donald E. Locke
MGT:Christopher E. Wittmann
AFSA:Penelope A. Tavernier
AID:Ken Yamashita
CLO:Viviana Yamashita
DAO:Barbara J. Kuennecke
ECO:Bradley R. Evans
EEO:James A. Marek
FMO:John W. Mcintyre
GSO:Theresa A. Renner Smith
ICASS Chair:David A. Holmes
IMO:Leigh A. Kidd
ISO:Jack D. West
ISSO:James A. Marek
PAO:Lawrence N. Corwin
RSO:James A. Marek
State ICASS:David A. Holmes
Last Updated: 10/25/2004

TRAVEL

Consular Information Sheet

December 6, 2004

Country Description: Serbia and Montenegro is the new name for the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Serbia and Montenegro is a moderately developed European country undergoing profound political and economic change. Tourist facilities are widely available but vary in quality and some may not be up to Western standards.

The security environment, travel situation and entry requirements for Kosovo, which is currently administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), may differ from the rest of Serbia and Montenegro. Please see additional specific information on Kosovo that follows the information on Serbia and Montenegro.

Entry/Exit Requirements: As of June 1, 2003, U.S. citizens no longer require a visa for entry and stay in Serbia and Montenegro for up to 90 days. Individuals planning to stay longer than 90 days must still obtain a visa prior to arrival. This applies to bearers of all types of U.S. passports – tourist, official and diplomatic. In addition, no initial visas are required for the holders of diplomatic and official passports assigned to the Mission or international organizations in Serbia and Montenegro. Diplomatic Missions and international organizations are expected to notify the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Serbia and Montenegro of the arrival of the holders of the said passports within a reasonable timeframe. To obtain a visa, travelers should contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington at telephone (202) 332-0333 or fax (202) 332-3933. The address of the Embassy is 2134 Kalorama Road, Washington, DC 20008 and the website is http://www.mfa.gov.yu. Alternatively, travelers may also contact the Consulate General in Chicago at telephone (312) 670-6707 or fax (312) 670-6787 or by email at [email protected] The address of the Chicago Consulate is 201 East Ohio St., Suite 200, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

Travelers are required to declare all currency upon entry and must obtain from customs officials a declaration that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds.

Registration with Local Authorities: Visitors staying in private homes must register with police officials upon arrival. Failure to comply may result in a fine, incarceration, and/or expulsion. Visitors staying in hotels are automatically registered with the police by the hotel.

Safety and Security: While threats to American interests are rare, a March 2004 violent demonstration resulted in damage to and temporary closure of the U.S. Embassy. Anti-American sentiment tends to be highest surrounding the anniversary dates of the 1999 NATO bombing campaign or during times of unusually high tension in Kosovo (as was the case in March 2004).

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found. Up to date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-317-472-2328. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays.

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet "A Safe Trip Abroad."

Crime: Street crime is at a level similar to other large European cities. Difficult economic conditions have led to the growth of an organized criminal class. Violent crime is most commonly associated with organized crime activities. While confrontational and gratuitously violent crimes rarely target tourists, Mafia-style reprisals have occurred with some regularity, including in hotels, restaurants and shops. Theft and carjacking, especially of "Volkswagen" brand cars, four-wheel drive vehicles and luxury cars, occur at all times of day or night and in all sections of Belgrade and other parts of the country. As in other parts of the world, travelers should be especially on guard walking in city centers. In case of emergency, the police telephone number is 92.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy or Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. See our information on Victim's of Crime at http://travel.state.gov/travel/brochure_victim_assistance.html.

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Although many physicians in Serbia and Montenegro are highly trained, hospitals and clinics are generally not equipped and maintained to Western standards. Medicines and basic medical supplies are largely obtainable in privately owned pharmacies. Hospitals usually require payment in cash for all services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRTP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Serbia and Montenegro is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Dangerous areas for road travel are "Ibarska Magistrala" and a road called "Moraca Canyon." "Ibarska Magistrala" is the main road from Serbia to Montenegro, a two-lane road running through central Serbia, in bad condition and usually overcrowded. Moraca Canyon in Montenegro is a twisting, two-lane road that is especially overcrowded in summer.

Travelers entering the country by road should know that since March 1, 2002, the purchase of local third-party insurance has not been required. However, road tolls for foreign-registered vehicles remain high. The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered intoxicated. Roadside assistance is available by dialing 987. Other emergency numbers are police: 92, fire department: 93, and ambulance: 94.

Metered taxi service is safe and reasonably priced, although foreigners are sometimes charged higher rates. Buses and trams are overcrowded in Belgrade and in other areas of Serbia and Montenegro and are poorly maintained.

For specific information concerning Serbia and Montenegro driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, see the National Tourism Organization of Serbia Internet home page at www.serbia-info.com/NTOS. See also road safety information from the Serbia and Montenegro Automotive Association at www.amsj.co.yu/eng/eindex.html.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Serbia and Montenegro as not being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of Serbia and Montenegro's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/index.cfm.

Special Circumstances: Travelers entering Serbia and Montenegro with more than $2000 in cash are required to declare all currency upon entry and obtain from customs officials a declaration form that must be presented at departure. Failure to comply may result in the confiscation of all funds. In the past American travelers have had thousands of dollars of such unclaimed funds confiscated by customs authorities. Travelers should obtain the necessary forms at ports of entry. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro in Washington for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Dual U.S./Serbia-Montenegro nationals need to be aware that they may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Serbian and Montenegrin citizens. Serbia-Montenegro males between the ages of 18 and 27 are required by law to perform military service. This applies to any individual whom the authorities consider to be Serbian and Montenegrin, regardless of whether or not the individual considers himself Serbian-Montenegrin, has a foreign citizenship and passport, or was born or lives outside of Serbia-Montenegro. If remaining in Serbia and Montenegro for more than the 90 day period permitted for tourism or business, men of Serbia-Montenegrin descent may be prevented from leaving until they complete their military obligations or receive a waiver. Generally, obligatory non-voluntary military service in Serbia-Montenegro will not affect U.S. citizenship. Specific questions on this subject should be addressed the to the citizenship section of the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade.

For additional general information, see the Citizenship and Nationality section of the Consular Affairs home page at http://travel.state.gov.

Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Serbia and Montenegro laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Serbia and Montenegro are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Children's Issues: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website at http://travel.state.gov/family/index.html.

Registration/Embassy and Consulate Locations: Americans living in or traveling in Serbia and Montenegro are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy of Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, http://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security with Serbia and Montenegro. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Belgrade is located at 50 Kneza Milosa Street. The Embassy telephone number is 381-11-3619-344. The Consular Section telephone is 381-11-3619-344 ext. 4650, and the fax number is 381-11-3615-497. For after hours emergencies, the number is 381-11-306-4679.

Kosovo

Kosovo is a region administered under the civil authority of the U.N. Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) pursuant to U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244, pending future resolution of its status. At this time, some civilian institutions, including the criminal justice system, are not functioning at a level consistent with Western standards. Kosovo is a cash economy. The currency used throughout Kosovo is the euro.

Security Information: The NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) troops along with international and local police are responsible for security and stability in Kosovo. Although the overall security situation has improved, inter-ethnic tensions and sporadic incidents of violence continue to occur.

In March 2004, Kosovo experienced three days of widespread inter-ethnic violence, including several incidents in the capital of Pristina. This outbreak resulted in 20 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and displaced approximately 4,000 individuals.

High unemployment and other economic factors have encouraged criminal activity. While de-mining programs have proven effective, unexploded ordnance and mines remain in some areas. The reliability of telecommunications, electric and water systems remains unpredictable. Travel by U.S. Government officials to some areas of Kosovo that have experienced recent ethnic violence is subject to restrictions.

Entry/Exit Requirements: U.S. citizens need a passport to enter Kosovo. No visa is required by UNMIK. However, entry to Serbia or Montenegro from Kosovo should not be attempted without a valid Serbia and Montenegro entry stamp from a Serbia and Montenegro border crossing post. The entry stamp for Serbia must be less than 90 days old or it is considered expired. There is no requirement for Americans in Kosovo to register with the local police.

Medical Facilities: Health facilities are limited, and medications are in short supply. As a general policy, military field hospitals in Kosovo will treat only emergency medical cases (those involving immediate threat to life, limb or eyesight) on a space available basis. KFOR cannot provide basic health care to non-military personnel, nor can they provide medical evacuation out of Kosovo.

Crime: Petty street crimes, in particular theft and purse snatchings, are serious problems in Kosovo, especially Pristina. Foreigners are targets for crime, as they are assumed to carry cash. Likewise, international non-governmental organization (NGO) offices have been subject to burglaries. The loss or theft of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Office in Pristina. While the U.S. Office cannot directly issue new passports, it will assist with arrangements for applying for a new passport in Skopje, Macedonia.

In case of emergency, the UNMIK police telephone number in the Pristina area is 038-500-092. Emergency numbers in Pristina are Police: 92; Fire Department: 93; and Ambulance: 94. For information on other areas contact the U.S. Office in Pristina.

The UNMIK police force (381-38-501-541) is largely a contingent of international officers who are working alongside with local officers to carry out most normal police functions. The judicial system is still developing under the oversight of UNMIK.

Aviation Safety Oversight: As there is no direct commercial air service between the Untied States and Kosovo, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Kosovo's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at www.faa.go/avr/iasa/index.cfm

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: Road conditions can be extremely hazardous because roads are narrow, crowded, and used by a variety of vehicles, from KFOR armored personnel carriers to horse drawn carts. Many vehicles are old and lack standard front or rear lights. Mountain roads can be narrow, poorly marked, and lack guardrails. They quickly become dangerous in inclement weather.

It is strongly recommended that Americans in Kosovo have vehicles that are registered outside of Kosovo, to prevent problems in the event of an evacuation, as Kosovo license plates may not be accepted in neighboring countries.

The use of seat belts is mandatory. A driver with a blood alcohol level higher than 0.05 is considered to be intoxicated. Travelers entering Kosovo by road should be aware that the purchase of local third-party insurance is required.

Special Circumstances: Banking services are available in Pristina and other major towns, although they are not fully developed. There are now a number of banks with international ties that offer limited banking services in Pristina and other major towns. If it becomes necessary to receive emergency funds from abroad, Western Union has offices throughout Kosovo.

Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living in or traveling in Kosovo are encouraged to register with the U. S. Office in Pristina through the State Department's travel registration website, http://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security with Kosovo. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U. S. Office in Pristina. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. At this time the U.S. Office in Pristina provides only emergency services to American citizens. All routine consular services such as passport and visa processing are provided by the U.S. Embassy in Skopje, Macedonia. The U.S. Office is located at 30 Nazim Hikmet St. in the Dragodan area of Pristina. The telephone number is (381) 38-549-516, e-mail: [email protected]

International Adoption

January 2005

The information below has been edited from a report of the State Department Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Overseas Citizens Services. For more information, please read the International Adoption section of this book and review current reports online at www.travel.state.gov/family.

Disclaimer: The information in this circular relating to the legal requirements of specific foreign countries is provided for general information only. Questions involving interpretation of specific foreign law should be addressed to foreign counsel.

Please Note: The Department of State shares your humanitarian concern for the children of the former Yugoslavia and applauds your desire to assist them in their time of need. However, at this point in time, adopting children from this region is not a feasible way to assist them. In particular, Bosnian children are not adoptable. There are a number of reasons for this. In general, adoptions are private legal matters governed by the rules of the nation where the child resides. The laws in the former Yugoslavia gave priority to adoptions by Yugoslavians, and made the adoption of Yugoslavian children by foreigners very difficult. This has not changed. All of the republics of the former Yugoslavia permit foreigners to adopt children only in exceptional and compelling circumstances. In practice, such circumstances are limited to cases involving either step-parent/step-child relationships or handicapped children. We are not aware of any indications at present that the new states plan to liberalize their laws on adoptions to make it easier for foreigners to adopt.

Also, in a country which is in turmoil, it can be difficult to determine whether children whose parents are missing are truly orphans according to adoption and immigration regulations. It is not uncommon in a war situation for parents and children to become separated when parents place their children in institutions or send them out of the area in an effort to ensure their safety. In such instances, the children are not orphans. Even when children have been truly orphaned or abandoned by their parents, they are often taken in by relatives. It is our understanding that efforts are being made to avoid uprooting the children.

Availability of Children for Adoption: Recent U.S. immigrant visa statistics reflect the following pattern for visa issuance to orphans:

Fiscal Year: IR-3 Immigrant Visas Issued to Yugoslav Orphans Adopted Abroad, IR-4 Immigrant Visas Issued to Yugoslav Orphans Adopted in the U.S.
1988: 3, 0
1989: 8, 1
1990: 9, 0
1991: 9, 3
1992: 7. 0
1993: 9, 3

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro is located in southeastern Europe, bordering Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. Its landmass is approximately 102,136 square kilometers (39,435 square miles). The capital of Serbia is Belgrade, and that of Montenegro is Podgorica. Common government institutions are situated in Belgrade. The population was estimated at 10,825,900 in July 2004. Estimated per capita income in 2003 was $2,300.

In 2001 the United Nations (UN) admitted Serbia and Montenegro under the name Yugoslavia. In February 2003 Serbia and Montenegro created a loose confederation under their constitutional charter and abandoned that name. Each constituent republic is entitled to independence subject to a voter referendum that was scheduled to be held no earlier then May 2005. Serbia and Montenegro is also a member of the Council of Europe (CoE).

After liberation from Ottoman rule in the early twentieth century and a short period of independence as a constitutional monarchy, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was created in 1918. After a period of political instability during the dictatorship of King Alexander I (1888–1934), who changed its name to Yugoslavia, the country broke up under Nazi occupation in 1941. The Serbian government, with the support of "Chetnik" troops, collaborated with the Nazis. Communist Party leader Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980) led the fight against the Nazis and Chetniks. Upon their defeat Tito became leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on November 29, 1943. Tito ruled as an absolutist , serving as president of the republic, commander in chief of the military forces, and president of the Communist Party until his death.

In 1987 Slobodan Milosevic (b. 1941) assumed leadership of the Serbian Communist Party and in four years came to dominate Serbian political life. His attempt to seize control of Yugoslavia was frustrated by effective declarations of independence by Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia in 1992. Declaring Serbia and Montenegro to be the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Milosevic led an extended but ultimately unsuccessful effort to invade the neighboring republics of the former Yugoslavia to establish a unified Serb republic. In 1999 attempts by his military and Serb paramilitary forces to expel ethnic Albanians from Kosovo drew international opposition and the stationing of a UN peacekeeping force in Kosovo. Milosevic was defeated in the general elections in the autumn of 2000 and then arrested and handed over in 2001 to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity.

Major political leaders following Milosevic were the pro-Western reformist Zoran Dindic, Serbian prime minister until his assassination in March 2003, and

Vojislav Kostunica of the nationalist Center-Right Democratic Serbian Party, the prime minister as of late 2004. Political life in Montenegro at that time was characterized by an even split between supporters of independence and supporters of a union with Serbia.

Serbia and Montenegro has a common assembly elected indirectly by the assemblies of its constituent states. The number of representatives is proportionate to state populations (ninety-one from Serbia and thirty-five from Montenegro). The president of the state is elected by the assembly for a period of four years. Other institutions include a five-member Council of Ministers with its seat in Belgrade and the Court of Serbia and Montenegro in Podgorica. Each constituent state has its own parliament, government, and president. Despite the country's turbulent history in the 1990s, respect for human rights in Serbia and Montenegro improved in the early twenty-first century, with citizens free to exercise them.

See also: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Kosovo; Slovenia; United Nations.

bibliography

Benson, Leslie. Yugoslavia: A Concise History, rev. ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Commission of the European Communities. Serbia and Montenegro, Stabilization and Association Report 2004. COM(2004) 206 final, SEC(2004) 376.

Freedom House. "Serbia and Montenegro." Freedom in the World 2003: Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. New York: Freedom House, 2003. <http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2003/countryratings/yugoslavia.html>.

"The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee: A Second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples." European Journal of International Law 3, no. 1 (1992): Appendix. <http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol3/No1/art13.html>.

"Serbia and Montenegro." CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2005. <http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/yi.html>.

Siniša Rodin

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