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LJUBLJANA (Ger. Laibach ), capital of Slovenia; until 1918 in Krain, Austria. Individual Jews are mentioned in Ljubljana during the 12th century, and the repair of a synagogue is attested in 1217. A "Jewish Road" and a "Jewish Street" are remains of the former Jewish quarter. The Jews of Ljubljana were merchants, moneylenders, and artisans, and were allowed to own real estate. During the Middle Ages they were from time to time accused of child murder, well poisoning, etc. They were not expelled together with the rest of the Jews from Carinthia and Styria in 1496; in 1513, however, Emperor Maximilian gave in to the burghers' claims and forbade the Jews to engage in commerce, and in 1515 expelled them from Ljubljana. Under Leopold ii in 1672 the whole of Krain was forbidden to Jews. Later Joseph ii allowed them to visit the fairs.

During the Napoleonic Kingdom of Illyria, Abraham Heimann from Bavaria settled in Ljubljana with two relatives under protection of the French governor and opened an official money changer's office. When Ljubljana reverted to Austria in 1814, the emperor confirmed Heimann's right of residence, but he had to fight with the municipal authorities until the 1848 Revolution. After the *emancipation in 1867 Jews again settled in Ljubljana, and by 1910 there were 116 of them, but without an organized community. They were attached to the community of Graz in Austria until 1918, and after Slovenia became a part of the new Yugoslav kingdom, they were attached to the Zagreb community. Only one extended Jewish family remained there when the Germans took the town and handed it over to the Italians in 1941. A memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust was erected after World War ii. The Ljubljana community, founded after World War ii, had 84 members in 1969. In the 1990s the renewed community took on the name "Judovska skupnost," availing itself of the services of a visiting rabbi from Trieste. Members used prayer books in the Slovenian language and even the Haggadah could be read in a Slovenian version.


L. Šik, in: Źidov (April 29, 1919); I. Vrhovec, in: Jevrejski Glas (May 20, 1938). add. bibliography: A. Vivian, "Iscripzioni masocritti ebraici di Ljubljana," in: Egitto e Vicino Oriente, 5 (1982), 93–140.

[Zvi Loker (2nd ed.)]

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Ljubljana (lyōō´blyänä), Ger. Laibach, city (1991 pop. 267,008), capital of Slovenia, on the Sava River. An industrial and transportation center, it has industries that manufacture textiles, paper, chemicals, and electronics. It is a Roman Catholic archiepiscopal see and is the seat of the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences and a university (founded 1919). Known as Emona in Roman times, Ljubljana passed in 1277 to the Hapsburgs and became the chief city of the Austrian province of Carniola. The city was held briefly by the French during the Napoleonic Wars; it passed to Yugoslavia in 1919 and was made the capital of Slovenia in 1946. In 1991, Ljubljana continued as the capital of the newly independent republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana was the center of the Slovene national movement in the 19th cent. It has a medieval fortress and several fine palaces and churches. For the international congress held there in 1821, see Laibach, Congress of.

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Ljubljana (Laibach) Capital and largest city of Slovenia, at the confluence of the rivers Sava and Ljubljanica. In 34 bc Roman Emperor Augustus founded Ljubljana as Emona. From 1244 it was the capital of Carniola, an Austrian province of the Habsburg Empire. During the 19th century, it was the centre of the Slovene nationalist movement. The city remained under Austrian rule until 1918, when it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). When Slovenia achieved independence in 1991, Ljubljana became capital. Industries: textiles, paper and printing. Pop. (2000) 270,500.