Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
24,900sq km (9,600sq mi) 2,095,800
Macedonian 65%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 5%, Romanian 3%, Serb 2%
Macedonian Orthodox 66%, Muslim 30%, Protestant 3%, Roman Catholic 1%
Denar = 100 paras
Climate and VegetationMacedonia's climate is mainly continental, with hot summers, cold winters, and often heavy snowfall. Rainfall is slightly heavier in early summer and autumn. Mountain forests of beech and oak are common, but farmland covers c.30% of Macedonia.
History and Politics(for history pre-1913, see Macedon)
The Balkan Wars (1912–13) ended with the flight of thousands of Macedonians into Bulgaria, and the division of Macedonia into Greek Macedonia, Bulgarian Macedonia, and Serbian Macedonia (the largest portion, in the n and centre). At the end of World War 1, Serbian Macedonia became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). Macedonian nationalists waged an armed struggle against Serbian domination. Between 1941 and 1944, Bulgaria occupied all Macedonia, but a peace treaty restored the 1913 settlement. In 1946, President Tito built a federal Yugoslavia, and Macedonia became one of its constituent republics. Regional tension between Greece, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia remained strong. In 1990, multi-party elections produced the first post-war, non-communist regional government. The break-up of the Yugoslav Federation led to Macedonia's declaration of independence in September 1991. It renounced all territorial claims to Greek and Bulgarian Macedonia, but (under pressure from Greece) the EC refused to recognize its sovereignty, on the grounds that its name, flag, and currency were signs of its territorial intentions. A compromise was reached, and the country became known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYRM). In 1993, the UN accepted the new republic as a member and all the EU members, except Greece, established diplomatic relations with the FYRM. In 1994, Greece banned Macedonian trade through its territory. In 1995, it lifted the ban after Macedonia agreed to redesign its flag and remove any claims to Greek Macedonia from its constitution. In 1999, war in the neighbouring Serbian province of Kosovo led to an influx of c.245,000 ethnic Albanian refugees. In 2001, conflict between government forces and Albanian rebels displaced 100,000 people. In 2001, the government and rebels signed a peace treaty and parliament approved a new constitution that gave greater recognition to the rights of ethnic Albanians. In February 2004, president Trajkovski was killed in a plane crash.
EconomyMacedonia is a developing country (2000 GDP per capita, US$44000). The poorest of the six former republics of Yugoslavia, UN sanctions against the rump Yugoslav federation and the Greek embargo devastated its economy. In 2000, unemployment stood at 32% and inflation at 11%. The extent of national debt is also a major problem. Manufactures, especially metals, dominate exports. Macedonia mines coal, but imports oil and natural gas. Agriculture employs nearly 17% of the workforce, and Macedonia is nearly self-sufficient in food. Major crops include cotton, fruits, maize, tobacco and wheat.
Ohrid (ō´khrēd), Ochrida, or Okhrida (both: ŏ´krĬdə), town (1981 est. pop, 64,200), in Macedonia, on a rock above Lake Ohrid, on the Albanian border. Macedonia's chief resort, it is a tourist and commercial center, as well as a railroad terminus. Fishing and farming are the chief occupations. Ohrid stands on or near the site of the Greek colony of Lychnidos, founded in the 3d cent. BC It was captured by the Romans in AD 168 and became a major trade center and an early episcopal see. In the 9th cent. Ohrid was incorporated into the first Bulgarian empire, and in the 10th cent. it became the seat of the Bulgarian patriarchate and flourished as the political and cultural center of Bulgaria. Traditionally a Slavic cultural center, Ohrid served as a conduit of Christianity into other Slav-inhabited areas. After Ohrid's reconquest in 1018 by the Byzantine Empire, the patriarchate was abolished; but the town remained a metropolitan see. Ohrid was captured by the Serbs in 1334 and fell to the Turks in 1394. It was briefly reconquered by the Albanian hero Scanderbeg in the 15th cent. During World War I, Ohrid was taken by Serbian troops; after the war, it was joined to Yugoslavia. Bulgarian forces held the town during World War II, but it was then restored to Yugoslavia and incorporated into the constituent republic of Macedonia. Ohrid's numerous ancient churches and other historical relics include the cathedrals of St. Sophia (9th cent.) and St. Clement (1299), both with medieval frescoes; two 14th-century churches; and the walls and towers of the former Turkish citadel. The town is also noted for its museums, galleries, fishing institute, and other educational facilities.
Lake Ohrid, Albanian Ohrit, deepest lake of the Balkans, c.130 sq mi (340 sq km), on the Macedonia-Albania border. It is connected with Lake Prespa by underground channels and is drained to the north by the Black Drin River. On its shores stand several monasteries, notably that of St. Naum (10th cent.).