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National Anthems

National Anthems. Songs or hymns adopted by certain nations to be perf. on official occasions and to represent them at int. events, e.g. when a competitor is awarded a medal in the Olympic Games. They are the mus. equivalent of the flag. Among the best-known (with author and composer, where both are known) are: Australia (since 1974): Advance Australia Fair ( P. D. McCormick). Austria (since 1947): Land der Berge, Land am Strome ( Preradovi; mus. doubtfully attrib. Mozart); (before 1919): Gott erhalte unsern Kaiser ( Haschka; J. Haydn, 1797. In 1919 a new anthem, Deutsch-Österreich, du herrliches Land ( Renner; Kienzl, 1919) was chosen, but abandoned in 1929 when Haydn's tune was reinstated until 1947). Belgium: Après des Siècles d'esclavage, known as La Brabançonne ( Dechet, whose text was replaced 1860 by another by Rogier; F. van Campenhout, 1830). Chile: Dulce patria, recibe los votos ( Pintado, rev. 1847 by Lillo; Carnicer, 1828). China: March on, brave people of our nation (collective text; Nie Erh, 1932). Czechoslovakia: 1 (Czech): Kde domov müj? ‘Where is my home?’ (Tyl; Skroup); 2 (Slovak): Nad Tatrousa blýska ‘On Tatra mountains lightning strikes’ (Matúška; trad.). Denmark: Kong Kristian ( Ewald; ? Rogert, 1779). Finland: Oi maamme, Suomi synnyinmaa! ‘O our native land’ ( Runeberg; Pacius, 1848). France: Allons, enfants de la patrie, known as La Marseillaise ( R. de Lisle 1792, words and mus.). Germany (before 1945): Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles ( Fallersleben; J. Haydn); since 1950, Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit (to Haydn's tune). Great Britain: God Save the King (Queen). Greece: Segnorizo apo tin Kopsi ( Solomós; Mantzaros, 1828). Ireland: Sinne Fianna Faïl at' fé gheall ag Eirinn ‘Soldiers are we whose lives are pledges to Ireland’ ( Heaney; Kearney). Israel: Kol od balevav (known as Hatikvah ( N. H. Imber, 1878; mus. trad., arr. S. Cohen). Italy: Fratelli d'Italia ( Mameli; Novaro, 1847). Netherlands: Wilhelmus von Nassouwe ( Marnix, c.1570; mus. in A. Valerius, Gedenck-Clanck, 1626). Norway: Ja, vi elsker dette landet ( Bjørnson, 1864; Nordraak). Poland: Jeszcze Polska nie zgineta ( Wybicki; trad.). Russia: Patriotic Song ( Glinka, arr. A. Petrov). USA: The Star-spangled Banner ( F. Scott Key, 1814; mus. by John Stafford Smith comp. for To Anacreon in Heaven).

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national anthem

national anthem. First published in recognizable form in 1744 (ambiguously as ‘God save our Lord the King’) but performed at Drury Lane, September 1745, specifically naming King George in response to the Jacobite threat, it was essentially a compilation of loyal phrases set to a recast Tudor galliard, and merely a patriotic song. Rapidly gaining widespread popularity, it was known as the national anthem by 1819 despite its anti-Scots references (still balefully resented by some north of the border). Subsequent political parodies, ‘improvements’, church use, translations, and overseas adoptions have made it one of the world's best-known tunes.

A. S. Hargreaves

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national anthem

na·tion·al an·them • n. see anthem (sense 1).

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