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Dinesen, Isak

Isak Dinesen (ē´säk dē´nəsən), pseud. of Baroness Karen Blixen, 1885–1962, Danish author, who wrote primarily in English. In 1914 she married Baron Blixen and went to live in British East Africa, on a coffee plantation. She was divorced in 1921 and took over the management of the plantation where she lived until 1931, when falling coffee prices forced her to return to Denmark. From her experiences she wrote her autobiographical Out of Africa (1937), which became a successful film. Dinesen is best known for her tales, many of which have eerie, supernatural elements. Her works include Seven Gothic Tales (1934), Winter's Tales (1943), Last Tales (1957), and Anecdotes of Destiny (1958). Writing despite severe illness, Dinesen finished the African sketches Shadows on the Grass in 1960.

See her Letters from Africa, 1919–1931 (1981); biography by P. Migel (1967) and studies by E. O. Johannesson (1961), R. W. Langbaum (1964), F. Lasson and C. Svendson (1970), D. Hannah (1971), J. Thurman (1982), and B. Wamberg, ed. (1985).

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Dinesen, Isak

Dinesen, Isak (1885–1962) Danish writer. She described her life on a Kenyan coffee plantation in Out of Africa (1937). Her collections of short stories include Seven Gothic Tales (1934), Winter's Tales (1942) and Shadows on the Grass (1960).

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Dinesen, Isak

Isak Dinesen

BORN: 1885, Rungsted, Denmark

DIED: 1962, Rungsted, Denmark

NATIONALITY: Danish

GENRE: Fiction

MAJOR WORKS:
Seven Gothic Tales (1934)
Out of Africa (1937)
Winter's Tales (1942)
Babette's Feast (1950)

Overview

Isak Dinesen is best known for Seven Gothic Tales (1934) and the autobiographical novel Out of Africa (1937). Acclaimed for her poetic prose style, complex characters, and intricate plots, Dinesen was concerned with such themes as the lives and values of aristocrats, the nature of fate and destiny, God and the supernatural, the artist, and the place of women in society. Hailed as a protofeminist by some critics, scorned as a colonialist by others, Dinesen is chiefly regarded as a masterly storyteller. Ernest Hemingway once remarked that the Nobel Prize in Literature he received in 1954 should have been awarded to her.

Works in Biographical and Historical Context

Early Tragedy Born Karen Christenze Dinesen on April 17, 1885, in Rungsted, Denmark, Dinesen led a happy childhood until tragedy shattered her comfortable existence. In 1895 her father, Wilhelm, hung himself. Dinesen had always been very close to her father, and his suicide was a shock. Dinesen later reflected: “It was as if a part of oneself had also died.” Dinesen's brother

Thomas, with whom she remained close as an adult, later speculated that their father had suffered from syphilis, a disease that Dinesen herself would contract years later.

Literature for Fun Tutored at home by a series of governesses, Dinesen showed early artistic promise and as a teenager studied drawing, painting, and languages at a private school in France. In 1903 she was admitted into the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen. There she developed her affinity for painting, an interest that would later be reflected in the rich descriptive style of her writing. Dinesen dropped out of the academy after several year's study and soon thereafter took up writing. Mario Krohn, an art historian Dinesen had met at the academy, read her work and encouraged her to take writing seriously. Krohn also arranged to have some of her stories read by Valdemar Vedel, editor of one of Denmark's most distinguished literary magazines, Tilskueren.

During these years Dinesen spent much of her time in the company of her upper-class relatives and soon found herself deeply but unhappily involved with her second cousin, Hans Blixen-Finecke. The failed love affair had a great impact on Dinesen. Extremely depressed, she left Denmark in 1910 to attend a new art school in Paris. When Mario Krohn visited Dinesen in Paris and asked her about her literary ambitions she answered that she wanted “all things in life more than to be a writer—travel, dancing,

living, the freedom to paint.” When she returned to her family estate at Rungstedlund several months later, Dinesen turned to writing as a pleasant diversion.

When Blixen-Finecke abandoned her for a fiancée eight years younger, Dinesen decided to marry Hans's twin brother, Bror. Bror is said to have been competitive, the kind of man who would enjoy winning his brother's sweetheart. This rash determination to reach the object of her desire through a substitute would later be represented allegorically in many of Dinesen's stories, which deal with the theme of vicarious achievement.

Africa and Syphilis With the encouragement of relatives, Dinesen and Bror embarked on a grand plan to start a pioneer coffee farm in East Africa. Little is known about their courtship, except that Bror later gave Dinesen credit for the idea of going to Africa. They were married in 1914 in Mombasa, on the coast of British East Africa. They set up housekeeping on seven hundred acres of woodland, twelve miles southwest of Nairobi. The farm lay at an elevation of sixty-two hundred feet, near the Ngong Hills, a range of low mountains forming a barrier against the Rift Valley. Only a year after her marriage, sometime in the early months of 1915, Dinesen learned she had contracted syphilis, a venereal disease. Later she told her family that her husband had given her the illness; he had evidently been unfaithful to her. The couple separated for a time after this incident.

Her letters suggest that she made a suicide attempt in February of that year. Several weeks later she turned up in Paris, looking for a specialist in venereal diseases. She eventually made her way through war-torn Europe back to Denmark, where a venerealogist found her to be suffering from syphilis and poisoning from the treatment (mercury tablets, an earlier form of syphilis treatment) given to her in Nairobi. Through a series of injections of intravenous arsenic Dinesen grew better. Reexaminations in 1919 and 1925 revealed no further evidence of syphilis; however, despite the doctor's assurances, Dinesen continued to believe she would never recover from the illness. Syphilis appears time and again in Dinesen's writings and features prominently in the popular myth that gathered around her after she rose to literary prominence. She could not escape the irony that she had been victimized by the same illness that had led to her father's suicide. She spent much of her later life developing a philosophy to cope with the implications of the diagnosis. In 1926 she wrote to her brother Thomas: “If it did not sound so beastly I might say that, the world being as it is, it was worth having syphilis in order to become a Baroness.” Dinesen was later proved right: her disease flared up again later in her life.

After spending most of 1915 and 1916 in Denmark, Dinesen reconciled with her husband. They returned to their African farm with a new bankroll provided by her relatives. A series of droughts precluded any profits from the large capital input. Bror was frequently absent from home, chasing other investments. Toward the end of 1918 Dinesen found consolation in a new friendship, with Denys Finch Hatton, an Englishman recently returned from World War I. Shortly after the war ended, Dinesen separated permanently from Bror (they divorced in 1925). The immediate cause was not Finch Hatton, but Bror's continuing infidelities. After Bror left, she protected herself from loneliness by writing stories. Several notebooks filled with outlines and jottings survive from her years in Africa; many of these stories were later revised and published in Seven Gothic Tales.

In 1924 Finch Hatton began staying in her house while working in Nairobi—a few months out of every year. She miscarried his child in 1922 and another in 1926. He was not interested in marriage. In 1928 he entertained his friend, Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward V until he abdicated and became Duke of Windsor) at her house—an event described in Out of Africa. He also bought an airplane and flew Dinesen over her farm, which she describes as her “most transporting pleasure” in Africa.

By 1929 a cascade of events had begun that would bring an end to Dinesen's farming life. A loan promised by Finch Hatton never materialized. The collapse of major stock markets sent coffee and land prices spiraling downward. Locusts descended on the land, and drought exhausted Dinesen's last hopes for recovery. Finally, she had to sell the farm to a developer in Nairobi. A few weeks later, on May 14, 1931, Finch Hatton died in an airplane crash. Dinesen looked on Africa for the last time that month and returned to her homeland for good.

Literature for Profit Once home at Rungstedlund, Dinesen began to write almost immediately, working in her father's old office. Now, however, her motives were serious. “I could not see any kind of future before me. And I had no money; my dowry, so to say, had gone with the farm. I owed it to the people on whom I was dependent to try to make some kind of existence for myself. Those Gothic Tales began to demand to be written,” she later wrote in Daguerreotypes, and Other Essays. Two years later, at age forty-eight, Dinesen completed her first collection of stories, Seven Gothic Tales.

Although Seven Gothic Tales was written in English, Dinesen experienced some difficulty getting the book into print; few publishers were willing to bet on a debut work by an unknown Danish author. Several British publishers rejected the manuscript before it came across the desk of Dorothy Canfield Fisher, a friend of Thomas Dinesen and member of the Book-of-the-Month Club selection committee. Impressed with the collection, Fisher sent it to publisher Robert Haas, who was equally impressed and released Seven Gothic Tales the following year.

An aura of mystery surrounded the book's publication. When it offered Seven Gothic Tales as its April 1934 selection, the Book-of-the-Month Club newsletter stated simply, “No clue is available as to the pseudonymic

author.” Dinesen herself confused matters by preceding her maiden name with a man's first name—Isak, Hebrew for “one who laughs.” Her true identity was not revealed until over fifty thousand copies of Seven Gothic Tales were in print. With this collection Dinesen began a long and rewarding relationship with American readers, as five of her books became Book-of-the-Month Club selections.

In spite of poor health and repeated hospitalizations, Dinesen continued to work on a book of memoirs titled Out of Africa. Considered by many to be the greatest pastoral romance of the twentieth century, Out of Africa enjoyed immediate and lasting critical acclaim, particularly from British and American critics. The book became a hit movie in 1985 and won seven Academy Awards.

Winter's Tales and Last Tales In 1940 Dinesen was commissioned by the Copenhagen daily newspaper Politiken to spend a month in Berlin, a month in Paris, and a month in London and to write a series of articles about each city. Although the advent of World War II caused the cancellations of the Paris and London visits, Dinesen's recollections of Hitler's Germany were later compiled in the posthumous collection Daguerreotypes, and Other Essays. About this time Dinesen also began work on her second set of stories, although completion of the volume was delayed by complications arising from tertiary syphilis, a late stage of the disease. Dinesen eventually finished this second collection, and, in 1942, Winter's Tales, a book that derives its title from one of Shakespeare's plays, was published in the United States, England, and Denmark.

Winter's Tales, along with Seven Gothic Tales and Out of Africa, are generally considered to be Dinesen's masterpieces. Between their publication and the 1957 publication of Last Tales, there was a fifteen-year hiatus during which she published only one book: The Angelic Avengers, a thriller novel released in 1946 under the pseudonym of Pierre Andrezel. Dinesen was never proud of The Angelic Avengers and for many years refused to acknowledge herself as the book's author. Even after such acknowledgment, Dinesen criticized the book, claiming that she wrote it solely for her own amusement as a diversion from the grim realities of Nazi-occupied Denmark.

Although she suffered from chronic spinal syphilis and emaciation, Dinesen continued to lecture and give interviews. She became a founding member of the Danish Academy in 1960 and died in Rungsted in 1962.

Works in Literary Context

Gothic Decadence In Seven Gothic Tales Dinesen introduced stylistic and thematic motifs that are to be found throughout much of her subsequent work. She derived these motifs largely from two nineteenth-century literary movements—the Gothic and the Decadent. As in the novels written in these genres, Dinesen's tales are often characterized by an emphasis on the emotional and spiritual, a nostalgia for the glory of past ages, a predilection for exotic characters, and an overriding sense of mystery, horror, and the supernatural. Eric O. Johannesson noted in The World of Isak Dinesen that “the spinechilling tale of terror, with its persecuted women, its ghosts, and its mysterious convents and castles, as well as the cruel tale, with its atmosphere of perversity and artificiality, have served as sources of inspiration for Dinesen.”

LITERARY AND HISTORICAL CONTEMPORARIES

Dinesen's famous contemporaries include:

Howard Hughes (1905–1976): One of the world's richest men, Hughes initially became famous for his work as an aviator and film producer, as well as his glamorous playboy lifestyle, but went on to become an infamous recluse and eccentric, eventually cutting himself off from the outside world altogether.

Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945): The thirty-second president of the United States, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to four terms, serving from 1933 to 1945. His presidency spanned two of America's darkest hours, the Great Depression and World War II, and his policies and leadership are widely credited by historians with successfully steering the country through both events.

Wallis Simpson (1895–1986): An American socialite, Simpson was divorced from one husband and in the process of divorcing another when she began a relationship in 1934 with Edward, Prince of Wales, causing a scandal. By 1936, with Edward crowned king of England, his plans to marry Simpson led to a constitutional crisis, and Edward abdicated rather than end his relationship. After Edward's abdication, Simpson continued to stir controversy thanks to rumors that she was a Nazi sympathizer.

J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973): An Oxford professor and academic specializing in Anglo-Saxon studies, Tolkien was also interested in mythology and fantasy. To this end he began imagining a mythical world incorporating elements of ancient Saxon folklore and his own invented languages. The resulting works, notably The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, were directly responsible for popularizing high fantasy as a literary genre.

Interdependence Seven Gothic Tales also introduces Dinesen's preoccupation with the principle of interdependence, which she further develops in later works. In Seven Gothic Tales there are interrelationships among individual stories in the volume as well as the existence of stories within stories. Comparing such constructions to

“a complex kaleidoscope,” Elizabeth Ely Fuller wrote in the New Boston Review that “each character and each event works as a little bit of mirror reflecting another character or event, and then turning slightly to catch some other reflection. To reinforce this overall plot structure, Dinesen uses mirror images and similes repeatedly as the characters muse on their own nature and on their relation to others. To any one of them, the story makes no sense, but taken as a whole, the stories, like a piece of music or a minuet, form a complete pattern of movement.” The principle of interdependence works on a thematic level in Seven Gothic Tales as well, as such disparate concepts as good and evil, comedy and tragedy, and art and life are intricately linked.

Destiny Destiny, more specifically one's control over it, is one of Dinesen's major themes. In her view, such a coming to terms involves an acceptance of one's fate as determined by God. “Dinesen's tales, like the stories in the Arabian Nights, proclaim the belief in the all but magic power of the story to provide man with a new vision and a renewed faith in life,” Johannesson wrote. “Her figures are often Hamlet figures, melancholy men and women who wait for fate to lend them a helping hand, who wait for the storyteller to provide them with a destiny by placing them in a story.”

Works in Critical Context

Dinesen's writings have been widely praised and enthusiastically received. Critics applaud her prose style, her facility with complicated plots and characters, and her “natural” gift for storytelling. While many scholars have claimed that her picture of Africa in Out of Africa is romanticized, they note that the story is engaging and well-structured, and presents a detailed picture of life among British expatriates.

Out of Africa In a Chicago Tribune review, Richard Stern called the work “perhaps the finest book ever written about Africa,” claiming that “it casts over landscape, animals, and people the kind of transfixing spell [James Joyce's] ‘Ulysses’ casts over Dublin.” Katherine Woods, writing in the New York Times, praised the book's absence of “sentimentality” and “elaboration” and averred, “Like the Ngong hills—‘which are amongst the most beautiful in the world'—this writing is without redundancies, bared to its lines of strength and beauty.” Even those critics who found fault with the book's structure commended Dinesen's style. “The tale of increasing tragedy which fills the latter half of the book seems not quite so successful as her earlier chapters,” noted Hassoldt Davis in the Saturday Review of Literature. “But,” he added, “her book has a solid core of beauty in it, and a style as cadenced, constrained, and graceful as we have today.” Hudson Strode seemed to capture the sentiments of many critics when he wrote in Books: “The author casts enchantment over her landscape with the most casual phrases…. Backward, forward, she goes, a spark here, a flare there, until she has the landscape fairly lit up before you with all its inhabitants and customs in place. The result is a great naturalness.”

COMMON HUMAN EXPERIENCE

Other works that examine the theme of destiny, and characters' struggles against it, include:

The Golden Compass (1995), a novel by Philip Pullman. The first book in the His Dark Materials trilogy, this work of fantasy examines destiny, and the struggle to eliminate it in favor of free will, as a central theme.

Silas Marner (1861), a novel by George Eliot. A central theme of this tale of love and redemption is the just reward and punishment of characters according to their place in a strictly delineated moralistic order.

Oedipus the King (429 bce), a play by Sophocles. Perhaps the archetypal tale of a character attempting to alter his destiny—and in so doing fulfilling his preordained fate—this classic Greek drama tells the story of a man prophesied to murder his father and marry his mother, which is exactly what he ends up doing without realizing it.

Winter's Tales With Winter's Tales Dinesen broke from the relative realism of Out of Africa and returned to the highly imaginative style that characterizes Seven Gothic Tales. “Suffused with vague aspirations toward some cloudy ideal,” noted Clifton Fadiman in the New Yorker, “with a longing for the impossible, with a brooding delight in magnificent and absurd gestures, with a quality of sleepwalking, they are as far removed from 1943 as anything can well be.” Some critics, however, found fault with Dinesen's unique writing style: In a Commonweal review J. E. Tobin claimed, “The characters lack even the vague shape of ghosts; the atmosphere is that of stale perfume; the writing, called quaint by some, is downright awkward.” The general consensus, however, was one of commendation for both the form and content of Winter's Tales. Struthers Brut, writing in the Saturday Review of Literature, summed up such a reaction when he maintained: “Often as you read the tales you wonder why you are so interested, so constantly excited, for the tales themselves, all of them symbolic, are not especially exciting in their plots, and the characters are frequently as remote as those in fairy tales, and a great deal of the time you are wandering in a fourth dimension where nothing is clear. But the final effect is unforgettable, just as the moments of reading are unforgettable.”

Responses to Literature

  1. Dinesen's novella Babette's Feast became an award-winning film in 1986. Read the book and watch the film. The feast Babette creates is, indeed, spectacular. What does the feast mean for the various characters? What is different after the feast? Do you think all the effort that went into it was worthwhile?
  2. What are Dinesen's views of love and marriage? Based on these, would you consider Dinesen a feminist?
  3. Dinesen is often accused of classism. How does she represent both aristocrats and the lower classes in her novels and stories? For example, what is Dinesen's attitude toward her Kenyan servants and workers in Out of Africa? How does race influence her concept of class?
  4. Discuss the theme of destiny in Dinesen's fiction and nonfiction. Can you relate her concept of destiny to a modern work of art with a similar theme?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Aiken, Susan Hardy. Isak Dinesen and the Engendering of Narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Donelson, Linda. Out of Isak Dinesen in Africa: The Untold Story. Iowa City, Iowa: Coulsong List, 1995.

Henriksen, Aage. Isak Dinesen; Karen Blixen: The Work and the Life. Translated by William Mishler. New York: St. Martin's, 1988.

Stambaugh, Sara. The Witch and the Goddess in the Stories of Isak Dinesen: A Feminist Reading. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1988.

Thurman, Judith. Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller. New York: St. Martin's, 1982.

Whissen, Thomas R. Isak Dinesen's Aesthetics. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat, 1973.

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Dinesen, Isak

DINESEN, Isak

Pseudonym for Karen Christentze Blixen, née Dinesen. Nationality: Danish. Born: Rungsted, 17 April 1885. Education: Educated privately; studied art at Academy of Art, Copenhagen, 1902-06, in Paris, 1910, and in Rome. Family: Married Baron Bror Blixen-Finecke in 1914 (divorced 1921). Career: Managed a coffee plantation near Nairobi, Kenya, with her husband, 1913-21, and alone, 1921-31; lived in Rungsted after 1931. Awards: Holberg medal, 1949; Ingenio e Arti medal, 1950; Nathansen Memorial Fund award, 1951; Golden Laurels, 1952; Hans Christian Andersen prize, 1955; Danish Critics prize, 1957. Founding Member, Danish Academy, 1960; Honorary Member, American Academy 1957; Corresponding Member, Bavarian Accademy of Fine Arts. Wrote in English and translated her own works into Danish. Died: 7 September 1962.

Publications

Collections

Mindeudgave [Memorial Edition]. 7 vols., 1964.

Short Stories

Seven Gothic Tales. 1934; as Syv fantastiske Fortaellinger, 1935.

Winter's Tales. 1942; as Vinter Eventyr, 1942.

Kardinalens Tredie Historie [The Cardinal's Third Tale]. 1952.

Babettes Gaestebud. 1955; as "Babette's Feast," in Anecdotes of Destiny, 1958.

Last Tales. 1957; as Sidste Fortaellinger, 1957.

Skaebne-Anekdoter. 1958; as Anecdotes of Destiny, 1958; as Babette's Feast and Other Anecdotes of Destiny, 1988.

Ehrengard. 1963; translated as Ehrengard, 1963.

Efterladte Fortaellinger, edited by Frans Lasson. 1975; as Carnival: Entertainments and Posthumous Tales, 1977.

The Dreaming Child and Other Stories. 1995.

Novel

Gengaeldelsens Veje (as Pierre Andrézel). 1944; as The Angelic Avengers, 1946.

Play

Sandhedens Haevn: En Marionetkomedie (produced 1936). 1960; as The Revenge of Truth: A Marionette Comedy, in "Isak Dinesen" and Karen Blixen, by Donald Hannah, 1971.

Other

Out of Africa. 1937; as Den afrikanske Farm, 1937.

Om retskrivning: Politiken 23-24 marts 1938 [About Spelling: Politiken 23-24 March 1938]. 1949.

Farah [name]. 1950.

Daguerrotypier (radio talks). 1951.

Omkring den nye Lov on Dyreforsøg [The New Law on Vivisection]. 1952.

En Baaetale med 14 Aars Forsinkelse [A Bonfire Speech 14 Years Later]. 1953.

Spøgelseshestene [The Ghost Horses]. 1955.

Skygger paa Graesset. 1960; as Shadows on the Grass, 1960.

On Mottoes of My Life. 1960.

Osceola, edited by Clara Svendsen. 1962.

Essays. 1965.

Breve fra Afrika 1914-31, edited by Frans Lasson. 2 vols., 1978; as Letters from Africa, 1981.

Daguerrotypes and Other Essays. 1979.

On Modern Marriage and Other Observations. 1986.

*

Bibliography:

Dinesen: A Bibliography by Liselotte Henriksen, 1977; supplement in Blixeniana 1979, 1979; Karen Blixen/Isak Dinesen: A Select Bibliography by Nage Jørgensen, 1985.

Critical Studies:

The World of Dinesen by Eric O. Johannesson, 1961; Dinesen: A Memorial edited by Clara Svendsen, 1964; The Gayety of Vision: A Study of Dinesen's Art by Robert Langbaum, 1965; Titania: The Biography of Dinesen by Parmenia Migel, 1967; The Life and Destiny of Blixen by Clara Svendsen and Frans Lasson, 1970; "Isak Dinesen" and Karen Blixen: The Mask and the Reality by Donald Hannah, 1971; Dinesen's Aesthetics by Thomas R. Whissen, 1973; My Sister, Isak Dinesen by Thomas Dinesen, 1975; Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller by Judith Thurman, 1982, as Dinesen: The Life of Karen Blixen, 1982; The Pact: My Friendship with Dinesen by Thorkild Bjørning, 1984; Karen Blixen: Isak Dinesen: A Chronology by Frans Lasson, 1985; The Witch and the Goddess in the Stories of Dinesen by Sarah Stambaugh, 1988; Dinesen and the Engendering of Narrative by Susan Hardy Aiken, 1990; Dinesen: The Life and Imagination of a Seducer by Olga Anastasia Pelensky, 1991; Essays on Isak Dinesen and A. E. Housman by Sylvia Bruce, 1994; Difficult Women, Artful Lives: Olive Schreiner and Isak Dinesen, In and Out of Africa by Susan Horton, 1995; Out of Isak Dinesen in Africa: The Untold Story by Linda Donelson, 1995; Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller by Judith Thurman, 1995.

* * *

Among short story writers of renown, Isak Dinesen is unique, sui generis, a category in and of herself. Although writing in a European tradition at variance with most American literature, she achieved in the United States wide popularity, which revived with the movie of Out of Africa. Dinesen bears similarities to some American authors, notably Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe, though her models are usually not specific writers but legends, myths, and fairy tales, a debt she subtly acknowledges when Hans Christian Anderson appears as a character in "The Pearls."

A romantic, Dinesen believed in fiction as pure and absolute art, obligated to no standards other than those dictated by the logic the story creates. She deemed herself a teller of tales, charming her audience like Scherezade, and believed that the artist, in serving humanity, parallels the priest or aristocrat. By creating and controlling their own cosmos, writers mimic God's creation of the universe, a concept similar to Coleridge's theory of the imagination. This parallel is pointed up in "The Young Man with the Carnation" when a writer says to God that just "as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are thy short stories higher than our short stories." He then imagines a dialogue in which God informs him that it is God who wants stories written, not humans.

For Dinesen fiction is superior to actuality, the far away in time and place, with strange characters involved in fantastic events, more desirable than the present. Like Henry Adams, she dramatizes the antagonism between the modern world of what Adams called "multiplicity" in which humans are overly sophisticated, and the simpler, more elemental and unified past from which we are separated. That antagonism manifests itself as well in her portrayals of country and city life, the so-called civilized and the primitive. Only through art can a requisite unity be established and opposites (life and art, dreams and reality; good and evil; tragedy and comedy; humility and pride) be reconciled. The artist can make us aware of the necessity of fate and patterns, the inevitability of both the sweet and bitter elements of life, and effect a synthesis.

Dinesen's romanticism also embraces the Gothic and exhibits the same fascination with the mysterious and the supernatural as Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (1840). In quaintly perverse, deeply symbolic narratives, elemental and unforgettable as the myths and legends of childhood, she creates archaic and exotic settings (castles, mills, ships, woodlands); motifs such as dreams ("The Dreaming Child"), obsessive love ("The Cloak"), incest ("The Caryatids"), doubling and mirror images ("The Young Man with the Carnation"); bizarre characters such as the gypsy seer ("The Caryatids"), the bird changed into an old woman ("The Sailor-Boy's Tale"), Pellegrina Leoni, "the diva who had lost her voice" ("Echoes"), and the giantess Lady Flora ("The Cardinal's Third Tale"). Her cast of larger-than-life figures, often ghostly, melancholy, remote, contradictory, obsessive, are drawn in psychological depth despite their other-worldly qualities. The result is, in totality, rather like a medieval tapestry, attractive, colorful, yet depicting a scene strangely different from our own world, or as if a familiar scene were viewed, reversed, in an old and cloudy mirror.

Dinesen created her own microcosm, not governed by rules of reality or of other literature, possessed of its own order, sense of morality, and definitions of the abstractions by which humans live, a world as distinctive as Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County, though less realistic. The hierarchy of her cosmos, with aristocrats divinely ordained, has led to Dinesen's being criticized as an elitist, a patrician, even a snob. A medieval acceptance of the position fate has assigned one is dramatized in several intricately constructed stories, including "A Country Tale" and "Alkmene." Many tales reveal a god who created aristocrats who, as caretakers of the peasants and servants of the king, fulfill a major role in a universal pattern. Dinesen seems to find the medieval stratified society more functional, even more realistic, than modern democracies. Her belief in fate is related to her theory of tragedy, in which the human being fights destiny, and comedy, in which characters accept appointed roles. Some stories illustrate her paradoxical notion that tragedy can be a source of human happiness.

For all her belief that it is the job of the teller of tales to delight readers, divert them from sorrows, make them live in the present, Dinesen repeatedly dramatizes moral and philosophical concepts that often run counter to those traditionally accepted in Western culture. For example, although it is an essential part of her view of an ordered world, her concept of justice admits the aristocrat's total authority over the peasant, as in "Sorrow-Acre," and the belief that morality imposes order on human society is questioned repeatedly, as in "Of Secret Thoughts and of Heaven" and "The Poet."

In style and pattern Dinesen's stories—categorized by her as either "Gothic," tales of art with dreamlike plots, characters, and settings ("The Dreamers"), or "Winter's" tales, tales of nature, usually set in Denmark ("The Fish")—are uniquely her own. The language is deliberately quaint and archaic, possessed of remarkable clarity despite the stylized syntax quite unlike that of Out of Africa with its fine command of English. Structurally, they often involve a tale within a tale, a carefully framed interior narrative that serves as a parable or fable to shed light on the main story.

Her characters often seem by some simple, unconscious act to move through a veil separating reality from a world without any recognizable coordinates of time or place. A dreamlike, decidedly nonrealistic quality of plots, settings, and characters in Dinesen's haunted and haunting stories results from her belief that dreams and art are similar, a concept that shapes her narrative method. As in dreams her tales create their own logic; time is foreshortened or lengthened; the subconscious emerges; and actions are sometimes surreal, even absurd. However, there emerges a sense of the inevitability and credibility of characters and actions.

Dinesen's most incisive statement about the art of writing appears in the story "The Blank Page," in which an ancient teller of tales relates how the morning after the wedding of a princess of Portugal, the bridal bed sheet was displayed before the palace as testament to her virginity, then returned to the convent where it had been woven. There the center of the sheet was framed and displayed in a gallery with those from other princesses. Only one sheet differed, because it was unstained, and the old story teller compares this to the blank page, upon which the deepest, sweetest, merriest, and most cruel tale is to be found, if the author has been loyal to the story. Within the mystery of the silence signified by the blank page, the strange uniqueness of Dinesen's talent is to be found.

—W. Kenneth Holditch

See the essays on "The Blue Jar," "The Monkey," and "Sorrow-Acre."

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