CALABRIA , region in Southern Italy. Medieval Jewish chronicles attribute the beginnings of Jewish settlement in Calabria to Jewish captives exiled by Titus after the destruction of the Temple in 70 c.e. However there is no definite evidence of the presence of Jews there until the first half of the fourth century. The Calabrian community soon became prosperous, and was the object of envy and complaints during the reign of Emperor Honorius (398). The remains of a synagogue that appears to have been in use in the fourth and the fifth centuries were discovered in Bova Marina, on the southern coast of Calabria. The central hall has a niche with a bench and a mosaic floor where the designs of a menorah and a Salomon's knot can still be discerned. In the early 10th century Calabria was devastated by Arab raiders, the Jewish population being among the worst sufferers. Soon afterward, however, the position of the Jews improved both economically and culturally. Scholars of Calabria were in touch with *Hai b. Sherira (Gaon) in Mesopotamia in the 11th century. In the 13th century the silk industry and other state monopolies were in Jewish hands, mainly owing to the protection afforded by the emperor Frederick ii. After 1288, under Charles ii of Anjou, persecutions and attacks were fomented by Dominican friars in Calabria, as in the rest of the kingdom. About half of the 2,500 Jews were forcibly converted to Christianity. Later the Calabrian community recuperated and increased; in some towns the Jewish population is said to have outnumbered the Christian. Calabrian Jews enjoyed economic prosperity under the Aragonese dynasty, until 1494. The fairs of Calabria attracted large numbers of local and foreign Jews. In 1465 the Jews coming to the fair of Maddalena di Cosenza obtained the privilege of having to answer only to the king's official and to no other person in charge of the market. In 1481 King Ferrante i promulgated a series of laws regulating the status of the Jews in his kingdom, and the communities of Calabria were granted the following privileges: they were not to be subject to the jurisdiction of city officials; they could address themselves to any notary or judge they chose; they would be taxed only according to the actual number of households; no Jew would be exempted from taxation, except the king's physician. When in 1480–81 the Turks attacked Otranto and Jews throughout the kingdom were forced to pay substantial sums to the treasury, the Jews of Calabria alone were taxed 2,600 ducats. However, the heavy taxation of the 15th century caused some Jews of Calabria to migrate to Sicily.
Several Hebrew manuscripts are known to have been copied in the cities of Calabria during the 15th century. Rashi's commentary to the Pentateuch was printed in *Reggio di Calabria in 1475, the first dated Hebrew book to have been printed in the Kingdom of Naples. On the expulsion of the Jews from Sicily in 1492, many refugees arrived in Calabria, most of the Syracuse community coming to Reggio di Calabria. After the expulsion, the Jews of Calabria maintained commercial and personal relations with *New Christians in Sicily. Calabria also served as a refuge for New Christians from Sicily fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. After the region passed under Spanish rule, persecution of the Jews in Calabria was renewed, and in 1510 they were all expelled from the region, including New Christians. Some migrated to central and northern Italy, and others to Salonika, Constantinople, and Adrianople, where they founded their own congregations and synagogues.
Milano, Bibliotheca, index; Roth, Italy, index; Roth, Dark Ages, index; O. Dito, Storia calabrese e la dimora degli ebrei in Calabria dal secolo V alla seconda metà del secolo xvi… (1916); N. Ferorelli, Ebrei nell 'Italia meridionale dall'età Romana al secolo xviii (1915; repr. 1990), passim. add. bibliography: L. Costamagna, "La sinagoga di Bova Marina nel quadro degli insediamenti tardoantichi della costa ionica meridionale della Calabria," in: Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome, Moyen-Age, 103 (1991), 611–30; V. Bonazzoli, "Gli ebrei del regno di Napoli all'epoca della loro espulsione. Il periodo aragonese (1456–1499)," in: Archivio Storico Italiano, 137 (1979), 495–539; A. Silvestri, "Gli ebrei nel regno di Napoli durante la dominatione aragonese," in: Campania Sacra, 18 (1987), 21–77; C. Colafemmina, Per la storia degli ebrei in Calabria (1996); D. Noy, Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe, I (1993), 180; A.K. Offenberg, A Choice of Corals. Facets of Fifteenth-Century Hebrew Printing (1992); N. Zeldes, "The Former Jews of This Kingdom." Sicilian Converts after the Expulsion, 1492–1516 (2003); D. Abulafia, "Il mezzogiorno peninsulare dai bizantini all'espulsione," in: Storia d'Italia. Annali 11, Gli ebrei in Italia. Dall'alto Medioevo all'età dei ghetti, ed. Corrao Vivanti (1996), 5–44.
[Ariel Toaff /
Nadia Zeldes (2nd ed.)]
Calabria (kälä´brēä), region (1991 pop. 2,070,203), 5,822 sq mi (15,079 sq km), S Italy, a peninsula projecting between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Ionian Sea, separated from Sicily by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms the toe of the Italian "boot." Catanzaro is the capital of Calabria, which is divided into Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio di Calabria provs. (named after their capitals). The region is generally mountainous, with narrow coastal strips. Long one of the most depressed areas in Italy, the government has tried to stimulate the economy through land reform, the introduction of new crops, and the promotion of tourism. Farming is the main occupation; olives, plums, grapes, citrus fruit, and wheat are grown, and sheep and goats are raised. Fishing is well developed along the Strait of Messina. The region's few manufactures include processed food, wine, forest products, chemicals, and metal goods. There are several large hydroelectric plants. The ancient Bruttium, the region was named Calabria in the 8th cent.; before then Calabria referred to the present S Apulia. Taken in the 11th cent. by Robert Guiscard, Calabria was first part of the Norman kingdom of Sicily and after 1282 became part of the kingdom of Naples. The region was conquered by Garibaldi in 1860. Feudal landholding patterns prevailed in Calabria until the 20th cent. These, along with malaria, destructive earthquakes (particularly in 1905 and 1908), droughts, and poor transportation facilities, have hindered the economic development of the region and resulted in large-scale emigration (late 19th cent.–20th cent.) to foreign countries and to the industrial cities of N Italy. There is a relatively new university at Reggio di Calabria.