Scarlatti, (Giuseppe) Domenico
Scarlatti, (Giuseppe) Domenico
Scarlatti, (Giuseppe) Domenico, famous Italian composer, harpsichordist, and teacher, son of (Pietro ) Alessandro (Gaspare ) Scarlatti and uncle of Giuseppe Scarlatti; b. Naples, Oct. 26, 1685; d. Madrid, July 23, 1757. Nothing is known about his musical training. On Sept. 13, 1701, he was appointed organist and composer at the Royal Chapel in Naples, where his father was maestro di cappella. The 2 were granted a leave of absence in June 1702, and they went to Florence; later that year Domenico returned to Naples without his father, and resumed his duties. His first opera, Ottavia ristitulta al irono, was performed in Naples in 1703. He was sent to Venice by his father in 1705, but nothing is known of his activities there, hi 1708 he went to Rome, where he entered the service of Queen Maria Casimira of Poland; he remained in her service until 1714, and composed a number of operas and several other works for her private palace theater. He became assistant to Bai, the maestro di cappella at the Vatican, in 1713; upon Bai’s death the next year, he was appointed his successor; he also became maestro di cappella to the Portuguese ambassador to the Holy See in 1714. During his years in Rome, he met such eminent musicians as Corelli and Handel. Mainwaring relates the unconfirmed story that Scarlatti and Handel engaged in a friendly contest, Scarlatti being judged the superior on the harpsichord and Handel on the organ. He resigned his positions in 1719; by 1724 he was in Lisbon, where he took up the post of mestre at the patriarchal chapel. His duties included teaching the Infanta Maria Barbara, daughter of King John V, and the King’s younger brother, Don Antonio. In 1728 Maria Barbara married the Spanish Crown Prince Fernando, and moved to Madrid. Scarlatti accompanied her, remaining in Madrid for the rest of his life. In 1724 he visited Rome, where he met Quantz; in 1725 he saw his father for the last time in Naples; in 1728 he was in Rome, where he married his first wife, Maria Caterina Gentili. In 1738 he was made a Knight of the Order of Santiago. When Maria Barbara became queen in 1746, he was appointed her maestro de camera. His last years were spent quietly in Madrid; from 1752 until 1756, Antonio Soler studied with him. So closely did he become associated with Spain that his name eventually appeared as Domingo Escarlatti.
Scarlatti composed over 500 single-movement sonatas for solo keyboard. Although these works were long believed to have been written for the harpsichord, the fact that Maria Barbara used pianos in her residences suggests that some of these works were written for that instrument as well; at least 3 were written for the organ. His sonatas reveal his gifts as one of the foremost composers in the “free style” (a homophonic style with graceful ornamentation, in contrast to the former contrapuntal style). He also obtained striking effects by the frequent crossing of hands, tones repeated by rapidly changing fingers, etc. During his lifetime the following collections of keyboard works were publ.: Essercizi per gravicembalo (London, 1738), XLII Suites de pièces pour le clavecin (London, 1739), and Pièces pour le clavecin (3 vols., Paris, 1742–46). The principal MS sources are found in the library of the Arrigo Boito Conservatorio in Parma and the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. Alessandro Longo, Ralph Kirkpatrick, and Giorgio Pestelli prepared chronological catalogues of his sonatas. The one by Kirkpatrick is the most widely accepted. The following editions of his sonatas should be consulted: A. Longo, ed., Opere complete per clavicembalo di D. S. (11 vols., Milan, 1906–08), R. Kirkpatrick, D. S.: Sixty Sonatas (N.Y., 1953), K. Gilbert, ed., D. S.: Sonates, in Le Pupitre (Paris, 1971–85), R. Kirkpatrick, ed., D. S.: Complete Keyboard Works in Facsimile (N.Y., 1971 et seq.), and E. Fadini, ed., D. S.: Sonate per clavicembalo (Milan, 1978 et seq.).
DRAMATIC: Opera: Ottavia ristituita al trono, melodramma (Naples, Carnival 1703); Giustino, dramma per musica (Naples, Dec. 19, 1703; in collaboration with Legrenzi); Irene, dramma per musica (Naples, Carnival 1704; a complete revision of the opera by Pollarolo); Silvia, dramma pastorale (Rome, Jan. 27, 1710); Tolomeo e Alessandro, ovvero La corona disprezzata, dramma per musica (Rome, Jan. 19, 1711); Orlando, ovvero La gelosa pazzia, dramma (Rome, Carnival 1711); Tetide in Sciro, dramma per musica (Rome, Jan. 10, 1712); Ifigenia in Aulide, dramma per musica (Rome, Jan. 11, 1713); Ifigenia in Tauri, dramma per musica (Rome, Feb. 15, 1713); Amor d’ un ombra e gelosia d’ un aura, dramma per musica (Rome, Jan. 20, 1714; rev. version as Narciso, London, May 30, 1720); Ambleto, dramma per musica (Rome, Carnival 1715); La Dirindina, farsetta per musica (1715; intermezzo for the preceding work; not perf.); Intermedi pastorali, intermezzo in Ambleto (Rome, Carnival 1715); Berenice, regina d’Egitto, ovvero Le gare d’amore e di politica, dramma per musica (Rome, Carnival 1718; in collaboration with Porpora). other: Oratorios; cantatas; Stabat Mater; Salve Regina for Soprano and Strings; other sacred works.
A. Longo, D. S. e la sua figura nella storia della musica (Naples, 1913); W. Gerstenberg, Die Klavier-Kompositionen D. S.s (Regensburg, 1933); S. Sitwell, A Background for D. S. (London, 1935); C. Valabrega, Il Clavicembalista D. S., il suo secolo, la sua opera (Modena, 1937; second ed., rev., 1955); S. Luciani, D. S. (Turin, 1939); R. Kirkpatrick, D. S. (Princeton and London, 1953; third ed., rev., 1968); M. Bogianckino, L’arte clavicembalista di D. S. (Rome, 1956); A. Basso, La formazione storica ed estetica della storia di D. S. (diss., Univ. of Turin, 1957); H. Keller, D. S., ein Meister des Klaviers (Leipzig, 1957); G. Pestelli, Le sonate di D. S.: Proposta di un ordinamento cronologico (Turin, 1967); J. Sheveloff, The Keyboard Music of D. S.: A Reevaluation of the Present State of Knowledge in the Light of the Sources (diss., Brandeis Univ., 1970); S. Choi, Newly Pound 18th-century Manuscripts of D. S.’s Sonatas and Their Relationship to Other 18th and Early 19th-century Sources (diss., Univ. of Wise, Madison, 1974); B. Ife, D. S.(Sevenoaks, England, 1985); R. Pagano, S.: Alessandro e D.: Due vite in una (Milan, 1985); P. Williams, ed., Bach, Handel, and S.: Tercentenary Essays (Cambridge, 1985); M. Boyd, D. S.: Master of Music (London, 1986); C. Vidali, A. and D. S.: A Guide to Research (N.Y., 1993).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire
Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) was an Italian harpsichordist and composer. His harpsichord sonatas are highly distinctive and original.
Domenico Scarlatti was born in Naples on Oct. 26, 1685, the son of Alessandro Scarlatti, the most famous composer in Italy in the early 18th century. Other members of the Scarlatti family were active as professional musicians. This background may have helped Domenico, for it encouraged his musical gifts and provided contacts in the musical profession. On the other hand, it gave him the problem of developing in his own way while under the influence of his father. Alessandro was not only a composer of genius, but a man of strong personality who did not get along well with some of his pupils and colleagues.
It is natural to assume, though there is no actual proof, that Domenico studied first with his father. As early as 1701, Domenico was appointed organist in the royal chapel at Naples. The following year he went to Florence with his father and stayed there for 4 months. Domenico then returned to Naples, where several operas of his were produced in 1703 and 1704.
A more important trip for Domenico occurred in 1708, when he went to Venice. There he became acquainted with Francesco Gasparini, a leading composer and the author of an excellent treatise on thorough-bass. It has been assumed, though again not proved, that Domenico studied with Gasparini in Venice. Also while he was in Venice, Domenico met and struck up a friendship with a young man, his exact contemporary, who was to become even more celebrated a composer: George Frederick Handel. It is from this period in Venice that we have our first report of Domenico's harpsichord playing. It describes how he played at a private musical gathering and astonished his audience by his brilliant virtuoso performance.
For the next 10 years Scarlatti worked in Rome. From 1709 to 1714 he was in the service of Maria Casimira, Queen of Poland, and for her private theater he wrote a number of operas. When Maria Casimira left Rome in 1714, Scarlatti became chapelmaster of the Portuguese ambassador. Then, from 1715 to 1719, he served as chapelmaster of the Cappella Giulia in the Vatican.
In 1720, or shortly before, Scarlatti left Italy; although he later returned to his native country, it seems that he never again took up a permanent post there. Probably in 1720 he was appointed chapelmaster of the royal chapel in Lisbon. This proved to be a most consequential appointment for Scarlatti. One of his duties was to teach members of the royal Portuguese family, and one of these members, the Infanta Maria Barbara, was a gifted and enthusiastic pupil. Her devotion to music was no passing fancy: she practiced and played the harpsichord apparently all her life. She also remained devoted to her teacher.
After Maria Barbara married Fernando, Prince of Asturias, in 1729, she moved to the Spanish court at Madrid, and Scarlatti went with her. He remained in her service for the rest of his life. He was knighted in Madrid in 1738; he married a Spanish woman, after the death of his first (Italian) wife; and he died in Madrid on July 23, 1757.
Scarlatti wrote 12 operas (2 of which were written in collaboration with other composers), chamber cantatas, sacred music, and over 550 sonatas for harpsichord. He composed much of his vocal music, both sacred and secular, before he settled in Spain. Most of it is characteristic music of the period: well composed but not particularly individual. A few of his vocal works are outstanding. But by and large Scarlatti was not at his best in writing for the voice. His true genius is revealed rather in his sonatas for harpsichord.
These sonatas are so individual, so varied in their forms and styles, that it is difficult to give a general description of them. One can say that the majority of the sonatas are built of two sections: they move from the tonic to the dominant key or to the relative major or minor and then back again to the tonic key. But within this basic form there are numerous substructures. And some of the sonatas are composed in forms altogether different.
The chronology of Scarlatti's sonatas has been much discussed and is still problematic. Most of his sonatas are preserved in copies made late in his life; but this does not necessarily mean that they were composed so late. Probably Scarlatti improvised his pieces, and perhaps wrote them down partially, during the course of his life. Then, at a later date, he had them written down in fair copies.
It seems that the earliest harpsichord pieces by Scarlatti are those in dance forms, or in forms similar to the toccatas of his father. Somewhat later Scarlatti began to compose those sonatas on which his fame rests: the brilliant virtuoso pieces with striking harmonies, bold dissonances, and sudden contrasts of texture. His sonatas are remarkable for the way they exploit the resources of the harpsichord—to musical advantage. They call for a large, two-manual harpsichord and for a highly proficient harpsichordist.
But brilliance and virtuosity do not account for the greatness of Scarlatti's sonatas. The best ones are perfectly realized works of art. Each one carries through its own, distinctive musical ideas, and each one is different from the others. This individuality is a central feature of Scarlatti's sonatas.
The characteristic, unique style of the sonatas seems to be original with Scarlatti himself. Although elements of his style can be traced to earlier keyboard music in Italy, Portugal, or Spain, there is nothing quite like the total effect. On the basis of his harpsichord sonatas, Scarlatti must rank as one of the most original creative minds in the history of music.
The standard work on the life and works of Scarlatti is Ralph Kirkpatrick, Domenico Scarlatti (1953). Scarlatti's sonatas are discussed by Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era (1947), and William S. Newman, The Sonata in the Classic Era (1963).
Kirkpatrick, Ralph, Domenico Scarlatti, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983, 1953.
Sitwell, Sacheverell, A background for Domenico Scarlatti, 1685-1757; written for his two hundred and fiftieth anniversar, Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press 1970. □