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Founded: 753 b.c.; Unified: 1870
Location: Lazio region in Italy, Europe, on a peninsula extending from southern Europe into the Mediterranean Sea, bordering France to the northwest, Switzerland and Austria to the north, Slovenia to the northeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south
Time Zone: 11 am = noon Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Flag: Vertical bands of orange (left) and yellow.
Ethnic Composition: Italian; German, French, Slovenes, Albanian-Italians, Greek-Italians
Elevation: 4,336 m (14,453 ft) above sea level
Latitude and Longitude: 41°54′N, 12°30′E
Climate : Temperate, mild winters and long, dry, hot summers
Annual Mean Temperature: 7.4°C (45.3°F) in January; 25.7°C (78.3°F) in July
Average Annual Rainfall: 890 mm (35 in)
Government: Multi-party republic, headed by a president and prime minister, legislative power held by bicameral Parliament: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
Weights and Measures: Metric
Monetary Units: The euro (EUR). As of January 1, 1999, the lira became a subdivision of the Euro (conversion rate: 1,936.27 lira to one Euro; one Euro equals 100 cents.)
Telephone Area Codes: Italy country code 39; Rome city code 6
Near the banks of the Tiber River, 2,700 years ago on seven hills, the foundation of Rome was laid. It is one of the most ancient cities in Europe. Since then, it has been continuously inhabited and has grown into a city of almost three million people, covering 1,502 square kilometers (580 square miles). Rome is in southern Italy, in southern Europe, and has a parallel latitude with New York state.
Located inland about 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the Tyrrhenian Sea, Rome is the capital city of Italy. Within Rome's enclave is Vatican City. The seat of the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church, Vatican City has been recognized as an independent state by the Italian government since 1929. The majestic dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City dominates the Roman skyline. Once the center of the Roman Empire, Rome has been the capital of united Italy since 1871. The economy remains strong—essentially based on tourism and government operations. After World War II (1939–45), the city developed a wide base of industries; thus, the Rome of today hosts the headquarters of many multinational corporations and agencies.
Divided into two regions, the sprawling outer city is changing with suburban growth. The historical center is a small area, located on the eastern bank of the Tiber River and contains many monuments of Rome's past greatness. The city is an unparalleled repository of monuments from all periods in European history. The legacy of the Roman Empire is extensive, witnessed from the preservation of the Pantheon, considered one of the finest surviving temples of antiquity, to the impressive Colosseum, an amphitheater that hosted gladiatorial combat and other spectacles. Ancient city walls, triumphal arches, public meeting places, churches, and palaces are scattered throughout Rome. With an extraordinary wealth of artwork, Rome is a major world center for creative study and performing arts.
Italy is bound to the north by Switzerland and Austria, to the east by Slovenia and the Adriatic Sea, to the south by the Mediterranean, Tyrrhenian, and Ligurian seas, and to the west by France. It covers 301,308 square kilometers (116,335 square miles), and Rome is located about halfway down Italy's western coast.
Driving to and around Rome can be challenging. The main road linking Rome to the north and south of Italy is the Autostrade del sole, which connects with the ring road circling the city. The 13-kilometer (8-mile) Mount Frejus highway tunnel, integrating France and Italy through the Alps, opened in 1980. The legal age for an auto rental is 21 years of age. There are several rental car agencies at both airports and a few at Termini Stazione.
Rome Population Profile
Area: 1502 sq km (580 sq mi)
World population rank 1: 115
Percentage of national population 2: 4.7%
Average yearly growth rate: 0.0%
- The Rome metropolitan area's rank among the world's urban areas.
- The percent of Italy's total population living in the Rome metropolitan area.
Bus and Railroad Service
Train is by far the most efficient means of transportation for any land journey within Italy, to or from Rome. The Italian State Railways have several levels of service, from local trains that stop at every station, to the Pendolino, a fast, luxurious first-class-only train. From the airport, the Stazione Termini direct train runs hourly. The Stazione Termini, Rome's main train station, is the hub of the urban transportation system. Beneath it is the only interchange between the city ' s two Metro lines, and directly outside, on Piazza dei Cinquecento, is the central bus terminal, a stunning twentieth-century building.
Buses run from 6:00 am to midnight, with some services running throughout the night. The city ' s Metro service has two lines, and both go through Termini. A bus ticket is also valid for the city's subway and train services.
Rome is serviced by two international airports. Leonardo da Vinci, commonly known as Fiumicino, handles most scheduled flights and is about 29 kilometers (18 miles) southwest of the city. Ciampino is about 14 kilometer (nine miles) southeast and is used for charter flights. The national airline carrier Alitalia is 89.3 percent owned by the state.
Navigating the streets of Rome can be tricky. Often it is easiest to take advantage of the city's public transportation. Tickets for city metros, buses, and trams must be purchased before boarding.
Bus and Commuter Rail Service
The Metro system is useful and simple to master. There are two lines, A and B, which cross at Termini. Metro trains run approximately every ten minutes, from 5:30 am until 11:30 pm, 12:30 am on Saturday. Tickets for metros are valid for one single journey only. Daily and weekly travel passes are also available. For sightseers, favorite metro stops include the Spanish Steps, Spagna, Vatican Museums, Ottaviano, Colosseo, Circus Maximus, Bath of Caracalls, Circo Massimo, the Catacombs, and Colli Albani.
The main bus terminal is outside Termini Stazione. Most day buses have only a driver while night buses usually have a conductor who issues tickets. Tickets are not sold on day buses, and passengers board from the rear. There are several bus lines that run from 5:30 am until midnight. Night buses run from 1:00 am until 5:30 am. Tickets are time stamped and are valid for 90 minutes of travel.
Rome's public orange buses and handful of trams cover much of the city, but they do not travel through the narrow streets of the historic center. Several routes, however, are within a short distance of most main attractions. Communal stops include the Vatican, Spanish Steps, and Trevi Fountain.
Official taxis in Rome are yellow and must bear the taxi sign on the roof. An expensive venture, taxis also charge extra for baggage, late night trips, Sunday travel, or public holiday travel. The fare may begin from the telephone request, not from the point of origin.
The center of Rome is compact, and wandering the ruins on foot is a great way to see the city. Street life is vibrant and constant. The architectural design is consuming, and close proximity of ancient sights make for a comfortable and convenient walk. For instance, the Colosseum is approximately one-and-a-half miles from the Spanish steps. One route travels by the Forum, Piazza Venezia, and several churches, passing through charming neighborhoods. A longer, more scenic route weaves from the Colosseum to the Vatican. Most major monuments are west of the train station. The Pantheon and Trevi Fountain are a short detour away. The Palatine Hill and the Forum are the center of ancient Rome. Via del Corso runs north from the Forum to Piazza del Popola, and Trevi Fountain is to the east. The Vatican is northwest of the Forum, across the Tiber River. Small patches of central Rome have sidewalks and streets closed to cars for use by cyclists and scooters.
Bike tours from the north to the south of the city are actually a popular way to see the sights of Villa Borghese, Piazza del Popolo, Piazza Venezia, and the Spanish Steps. Conversely, the narrow streets combined with steep hills can make cycling a bit of a challenge.
|City Fact Comparison|
|Population of urban area1||2,688,000||10,772,000||16,626,000||12,033,000|
|Date the city was founded||753 BC||AD 969||1613||723 BC|
|Daily costs to visit the city2|
|Hotel (single occupancy)||$172||$193||$198||$129|
|Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner)||$59||$56||$44||$62|
|Incidentals (laundry, dry cleaning, etc.)||$15||$14>||$26||$16|
|Total daily costs||$246||$173||$244||$207|
|Number of newspapers serving the city||20||13||10||11|
|Largest newspaper||La Repubblica||Akhbar El Yom/Al Akhbar||The Wall Street Journal||Renmin Ribao|
|Circulation of largest newspaper||754,930||1,159,339||1,740,450||3,000,000|
|Date largest newspaper was established||1976||1944||1889||1948|
|1United Nations population estimates for the year 2000.|
|2The maximum amount the U.S. Government reimburses its employees for business travel. The lodging portion of the allowance is based on the cost for a single room at a moderately-priced hotel. The meal portion is based on the costs of an average breakfast, lunch, and dinner including taxes, service charges, and customary tips. Incidental travel expenses include such things as laundry and dry cleaning.|
|3David Maddux, ed. Editor&Publisher International Year Book. New York: The Editor&Publisher Company, 1999.|
Mopeds and scooters, called Vespa or wasps in Italy because of the buzzing noise they make, are an efficient way to get around the narrow streets. Bikes and mopeds can be rented from Roma Rent and Scoot-a-Long, among others.
For a gentler tour of the historic center, sightseers can hire a horse-drawn carriage. Trips can be taken for a half-hour, an hour, half-day, or a day, for up to five people. Prices for longer rides are negotiable and can be hired from Piazza di Spagna, the Coliseum, Trevi Fountain, St. Peter's, Via Veneto, Villa Borghese, Piazza Venezia, and Piazza Navona.
Due to improved economic and social conditions in southern regions, and the influence of the media, differences between northern and southern Italians are diminishing. However, Italians still refer to one another by their city of origin (Milanese, Roman, Florentine), and some regional attitudes remain. Adopting practices of their German and Austrian neighbors, people in the industrialized north traditionally value punctuality, reliability, organization, and economic success. They view time as a precious resource not to be wasted. Communities take pride in maintaining a low tolerance for public corruption and escalating crime.
Southerners tend to be gracious and known for their warm character and friendliness. Neighborhoods and citizens of Rome value leisurely days and take their time conducting business. Family values prevail in the south and are often revered over economic success.
Regional economic differences have contributed to tensions within the country. Northern Italians feel they are too heavily taxed for subsidized projects in the south. Southerners resent the higher income and better employment opportunities offered only in the north. Political movements that call for regional autonomy in a federal system have gained momentum in the north, but most Romans oppose any political separation.
Social life and interaction is important to Romans. Citizens enjoy public events, parties, and celebrations. Humor, reliability, and success in business and social lives are all regarded more favorably than individual assertiveness.
The dominant language in Rome and throughout the country is Italian. However, German and Ladin, a dialect of the Rhaeto-Romanic, are spoken in the Alto Adige region on the Austrian border; French is spoken in the Valle d'Aosta region bordering France and Switzerland; and Greek and Albanian are spoken in southern Italy. English is a common second language.
According to tradition, Rome was founded in 753 b.c. on one of the Seven Hills, a term coined to describe the Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, and Palatine hills surrounding the old community. Archaeological evidence indicates, however, that human settlement dates from at least 1000 b.c. Capitoline Hill was long the seat of Rome's government, and Palantine Hill was the site of the epic Palace of the Flavins, built by the Roman emperor Domitian. As a result of construction throughout the centuries, today most of the Seven Hills are hardly distinguishable from the adjacent plain.
Rome is easily divided into two regions: the inner city, within the Aurealian Wall, built in the late third century to enclose the area around the Seven Hills; and the sprawling outer city, with its suburbs. The historical center is a small area, located almost entirely on the eastern bank of the Tiber River. Monuments of Rome's past eminence are located mostly within the historical center and are a stark contrast to the modern districts.
The street pattern of the city reflects its long and complex history. The Via del Corso traverses most of the historic center from Piazza Venezia, the geographic center of Rome, to the Piazza del Popolo at the foot of Pincio Hills. Its use dates from the Middle Ages when it was a horse-racing course.
Of all of Italy's historic cities, Rome summons the most compelling fascination. There is more to experience in Rome than almost any other city in the world, with relics of more than 2,700 years of continuous occupation packed into a sprawling urban area. As a contemporary European capital, Rome has a unique sense of leadership. The city features are classical, the Colosseum, the Forum, and Palantine Hill, while relics from the early Christian period decorate ancient basilicas. The Baroque and Romanesque fountains and churches are only part of the picture. First headquarters of the Roman Empire, and then of the Catholic Church, Rome has had an immense impact on social customs throughout the world. Several European languages are based on Latin; many political and legal systems follow the ancient roman model of civil service, and buildings all over the world demonstrate styles and techniques perfected in Rome. The ancient city spaces are filled with layers of buildings spanning two millennia.
Rome began as an Iron Age hut village founded in the mid-eighth century b.c. In 616 b.c. , the Romans' neighbors, the Etruscans, seized power but were ousted in 509 B. C. when Rome became a Republic. By the time Rome entered into the first of the three Punic wars in 264 b.c. , its power in Italy spanned the whole peninsula as far north as Ariminum. The driving motivation behind all three Punic wars was for Rome to defeat the African city of Carthage and gain Mediterranean dominance. In 241 b.c. the Romans won Sicily. In the Second Punic War (218–201 b.c. ), they defeated General Hannibal of Carthage (247–182 b.c. ), and in the Third Punic War (149–146 b.c. ) they seized the city of Carthage itself. Rome then went on to conquer Syria and Macedonia to gain dominance over the western Hellenistic world.
The expansion of the empire provided opportunity for individuals to gain power and rule. However, leaders became abusive of their power, and the clashing of egos led to the crashing of democracy. Julius Caesar (c. 100–44 b.c. ) ruled for a time as dictator, but the Roman Republic came to an end when he was assassinated in 44 b.c. Taking his place was the famous triumvirate: Mark Antony (c. 80–30 b.c. ), Aemilius Lepidus (d. 13 b.c. ), and Octavian Caesar (63 b.c.–a.d. 14). Octavian defeated Lepidus in 39 b.c. and Antony in 31 b.c. to become emperor of the Roman world. He then gave all his power to the Senate in an effort to create a "restored republic." The Senate placed him in control of nearly all Rome's military strength, and he was given the title Augustus. Upon Octavian's death in a.d. 14, his chosen heir, Tiberius (42 b.c.–a.d. 37), took the throne. It was during the reign of Tiberius that Jesus Christ was crucified. Within a few years, the followers of Christ became legendary in Rome, but their teachings were perceived as a threat to public order, and many Christians were executed. Even so, the new religion spread through all levels of Roman society. By the time the apostles Peter and Paul had arrived in Rome, a small Christian community had been established, and in spite of persecution by the state, Christianity flourished.
Having little success with the Senate, Tiberius withdrew himself from office and was succeeded by a medley of emperors, including Caligula (12–41), Claudius (10 b.c.–a.d. 54), and Nero (37–68). Nero's suicide in a.d. 68 ended the Augustus reign of emperors, and Rome entered into a state of constant civil war. Sulpicius Galba (3 b.c.–a.d. 69), governor of Spain, seized control, but the throne changed hands four more times. It wasn't until Diocletian (a.d. 245–313), a traditional militaristic Roman, took control in a.d. 284 that Rome was restored to order. He divided the empire in half and appointed two rulers for both east and west Rome. In a.d. 302, Diocletian banned Christians from the Roman Army, brought religion into the office of emperor, and made the position a "divine monarchy."
In a.d. 313, the Emperor Constantine (c. 274–337; r. 306–337), proclaimed ruler by Britiain, issued an edict granting Christians freedom of worship, and he founded the city of Constantinople as the new capital. Even after securing Rome's position as the center of Christianity, its political importance waned in the fifth century, and the city fell to Goths and other invaders. For a while, Rome was reduced to a few thousand residents and little power. But the next couple centuries uncovered a newfound strength. The growing importance of the papacy revived the city and rejuvenated its power. Conversely, ongoing conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor undermined the papacy. The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries were among the bleakest in Roman history: violent conflict with invaders left Rome poverty stricken, and constant warring tore apart the city. In 1309, the papacy moved to Avignon, leaving Rome to slide further into squalor and strife.
The city recovered spectacularly in the mid-fifteenth century. Pope Nicholas V (1397–1455; r. 1447–1455) came to power and groomed Rome to be a city worthy of the papacy and the center of Renaissance culture. Successors followed his lead, and the city's appearance was transformed. The Classical ideals of the Italian Renaissance (1450–1600) inspired artists, architects, and craftsmen, such as Michelangelo, Bramante, and Raphael. A newly confident Rome was nurturing a massive papal patronage of the arts.
By the sixteenth century, the Catholic Church had accumulated extensive wealth and was therefore criticized by other reformed religions. Displays of grandeur and extravagance by the papal court contrasted vividly with the poverty of the people. Galileo (1564–1642), a physicist/astronomer, was condemned to death for heresy (beliefs opposed to the traditionally accepted beliefs of the church). Rome was also discovering a new style of its own in Baroque (1600–1750).
Under Napoleon, Italy tasted unity but by 1815 was again divided into many small states, and papal rule was restored in Rome. The next 50 years experienced patriots struggling to create an independent, unified Italy, and Rome was briefly declared a Republic, but forces were driven out by French troops. The French continued to protect the Pope while the rest of Italy united as a kingdom under Vittorio Emanuel of Savor. In 1870, troops stormed the city, and Rome became the capital of the newly unified Italy.
Twentieth-century Rome endured the dictator Benito Mussolini (1883–1945; r. 1922–1945) and his dreams of recreating the immense order and power of the Roman Empire. In 1922, the fascist leader was appointed prime minister. In 1929, the Lateran Treaty brought over a century of tension between Church and State to an end by creating a separate Vatican State. During the World War II (1939–45), British forces captured much of Italy's colonial empire. From 1947 to the early 1990s, Italy had no less than 57 governments, and the first non-Italian pope since the sixteenth century, Pope John Paul II (b. 1920), was appointed in 1978.
Rome is in many ways the ideal capital of Italy. Each era in history added its own layer of culture to create a city unparalleled by any other in the world.
The Italian Republic is divided into 20 regions, five of which (Sicily, Sardinia, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and Valle d ' Aosta) enjoy a special status; there is a large degree of regional autonomy. Each locale has a council elected every five years by universal suffrage, and a Giunta regionale is responsible to the regional council. The regional council is a legislative assembly while the Giunta holds executive power. The regions are subdivided into a total of 95 provinces.
Officers of the government include the president, who is chief of state, and the prime minister, who is head of government. The prime minister is generally head of a majority party or a majority coalition of parties but can also be appointed from other parties. A proposed prime minister must be approved by a parliamentary vote of confidence and can be removed from office at any time if parliament passes a vote of no confidence.
In Rome, speed limits are fixed at 50 kilometers (31 miles) per hour in urban areas, 110 kilometers (68 miles) per hour on main roads outside urban areas, 90 kilometers (56 miles) per hour on secondary and local roads, and 130 kilometers (81 miles) per hour on motorways. The new highway code recently introduced in Italy also stipulates that one must not drive at a speed which is so slow as to hinder the flow of traffic. There are speed limits of 80 kilometers (50 miles) per hour on all roads outside urban areas and 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour on motorways for cars towing trailers or caravans. Drivers and passengers are required by law to wear seat belts in front and rear seats. Also, while driving, the use of portable telephones is prohibited if they require intervention by hand to function. Helmets are required by law for drivers on two-wheeled vehicles.
Emergency breakdown services in Italy are run by ACI (Automobile Club d'Italia). The service operates 24 hours a day throughout the road network. On the motorways, breakdown services can be summoned using the yellow emergency posts located approximately every two kilometers (one mile). Information about breakdown service is provided by the 18 ACI representatives at the frontier posts for entry to Italy.
Since World War II, Italy has evolved from an economy based on agriculture into an economy of industrial ranking, with approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the United Kingdom. Yet, the country remains partially divided by the private companies developing in the industrial north and the public enterprise that governs the agricultural south.
Rome is headquarters to many multinational corporations, including the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and several World Food programs. Service accounts for 48 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), industry for 35 percent, public administration for 13 percent, and agriculture for four percent. Most raw materials needed by Italian industry are imported, including over 75 percent of energy requirements.
In the early 1990s, Rome was unsettled at the prospect of not qualifying to participate in plans for European economic and monetary union; thus, the city's financial imbalance was addressed, and subsequently the government adopted stringent budgets, abandoned an inflationary wage index system, and scaled back social welfare programs, including pension and health care. Monetary officials were forced to withdraw the lira in September 1993 when it came under extreme pressure in currency markets; it was not re-engaged until in November 1996. On January 1, 1999, the euro (EUR) became the legal currency in Italy, and the lira became a subdivision of it, the irrevocable conversion rate being 1,936.27 lira to one euro. The euro, which consists of 100 (U.S.) cents, will not be in circulation until January 2002.
With the start of the new millennium, Rome's economy is strong, but familiar issues remain a concern: high unemployment figures, government deficit, tottering communications systems, and environmental concerns for the ongoing expansion and industrial integration of the European Union.
Italy has limited mineral resources but has consistently increased its production of mineral imports, like petroleum, lignite, iron ore, sulfur, mercury, and marble. The country is rich with deposits of natural gas; however, reserves are dwindling. Demanding energy requirements keep Italy dependent on oil. Cultivated hydroelectricity does generate some power, and there are several nuclear stations in the country.
Roman industrial groups and environmental organizations have made a joint declaration to reduce the environmental impact of energy use, signed in December 1998. The declaration aims to reduce emission of carbon dioxide, improve electrical sector efficiency, diversify energy sources, reduce energy consumption in both urban and transport, and double production of renewable energy.
Rome is a city full of treasures. The prime shopping area for fashion is along Via dei Condotti and Via Frattina, from Via del Corso to Piazza di Spagna, and all of the avenues in between. Shop windows are dressed with jewelry, foot-wear, and of course, Italian designer clothes. Moderately priced fashions coupled with quality workmanship make the area popular.
The elegant Ludovisi District is lined with famous cafes, divine restaurants, and exclusive shops. Radiating out from one of the world's most famous streets, Via Veneto, the surrounding area has a wealth and style all its own.
Between Via Del Tritone and Via Nazionale, the scaled-down boutiques are competitive and of classic quality. The Trevi Fountain area shops are plentiful and quite shoe savvy.
Antique shopping can be found between Via Margutta, Via Ripetta, Via dei Coronari, and Via Del Babuino. Across the Tiber River is the Via cola di Rienzo and the Via Ottaviano, and both avenues are lined with clever shops.
The department stores in Rome range from the Coin and Rinascente to Upim and Standa. The Coin is in Piazzale Appio at Porta San Giovanni, and La Rinascente is in Piazza Colonna and in Via del Corso. Both Upim and Standa are more accessible at various locations throughout the city.
Stores close on Sundays and for a half day during the week (Thursday afternoon for food stores, Monday morning for most others); however, some tourist area shops will remain open on Sundays. During the summer, the half-day closing schedule is on Saturday afternoon. Some shops and most department stores have opted for non-stop operating hours.
The markets are another facet of shopping in Rome, especially the flea markets. One of the most famous in Italy is the Porta Portese market, held every Sunday morning. Merchant wares that contain everything from antiques to the unlikely cover a three-kilometer (two-mile) stretch of streets, from the Porta Portese to the underpass that leads into Piazza della Radio.
School attendance is compulsory from ages six to 14 in Italy. Classes may be held six days a week, and education is a serious matter. There are many universities, educational centers, and degrees available in higher education. Italy's largest institution, the University of Rome, has an enrollment of 190,000 students. Founded in 1303, the university confers many degrees in international relations and communications. Due to an extraordinary wealth of art, Rome is a major center for studies in creative dance, dramatic arts, music, and art restoration.
The oldest university in Europe was founded in Bologna in the twelfth century. Present-day academic institutions and educational centers near Rome include Istituto Guglielmo Tagliacarne, Istituto Quasar Design school, John Cabot University, Pontifical Athanaeum Regina Apostolorum, Pontifical University of Saint Bonaventure, Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Universita Popolare di Roma, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Libera Universita degli Studi Maria SS Assunta, Libera Universita, Internazionale Studi Sociali Guido Carli, Libero Istituto Universitario Campus Bio medico, Pontifico Ateneo della Santa Croce, Pontifica Universita Gregoriana, Pontifica Universita Lateranense, Libero Istituto Universitario San Pio V, and the Osservatorio Astronomico.
13. Health Care
The problems that plague Italy's health care system are complex and deeply rooted in the nation's political history and economy. The withdrawal of the lira from the monetary system signaled the beginning of a period of economic austerity. In an attempt to control spending by Rome, social benefits, including health care, were cut back. Despite Italy being the world's fifth-largest economy, governmental intervention policy has strangled productive growth.
Generally, health care services are coordinated through government agencies, and 95 percent of Italians rely on the public system for health care. The system provisions offer cradle-to-grave medical and surgical care at public facilities throughout the nation. Of those 95 percent relying on public health care, about five percent have private insurance, which debuted about three years ago, and they tend to live in the northern region of Italy.
About one percent of the population pays privately for health services, and a small number of private hospitals and clinics exist to serve their needs. Italy spends about seven-and-a-half percent of its GDP on health care or, in terms of U.S. dollars, about $1500 per person.
Large public hospitals are the prominent features of the Italian health care landscape. Managed by the government, medical universities, or the Roman Catholic Church, the number of services available and the quality of service at public facilities correlates with each hospital's geographic location. Private urban hospitals that tout the best equipment are rivaled by large public facilities in big cities.
There are three types of hospitals in Italy: general care facilities, specialist centers, and psychiatric care hospitals. Facilities are further defined by the number of patients they intend to serve. Local or zone hospitals serve 25,000 to 30,000 people and are the most common facilities. Provincial hospitals serve about 400,000 people, and regional facilities, located in large urban areas, serve about one million and offer the most services. The Italian Ministry of Health's National Health Service, known as the SSN, oversees the operation of all government facilities, but each hospital is governed directly by an administrative council whose members are locally elected.
Overall, health care tends to be unevenly distributed in Italy; the north is equipped with a greater number of facilities and more professionals than the neighboring south.
Rome's two main newspapers are La Republica and Il Messaggero. British and American newspapers are readily available, and the International Herald Tribune is sold on the day of issue.
British Broadcast Communications (BBC) world service can be heard on radio 15.070 MHz (shortwave) in the morning and 648KHz (medium wave) at night. Listeners can tune in to Vatican Radio on 93.3 MHz, and 105 MHz broadcasts news in English.
The state television channels include RAI, Uno, Due, and Tre; all are politically aligned. Satellite dishes and cable TV allow for reception of various European channels, as well as channels for sports and news in English.
Romans are sports enthusiasts and play with passion. A peaceful afternoon may suddenly explode with the sounds of victory—cheers from excited crowds and honking car horns. Football, commonly known as soccer in North America, is the national sport. Playing for Rome in the Campionato Italiano (Italian championship league) are two teams, Roma and Lazio, and they take turns playing in Stadio Olimpico on Sundays at 3:00 pm.
Spring in Rome is synonymous with tennis. For tennis players, there are an abundance of clubs from which to choose. For tennis fans, the International Tennis Championship meets for two weeks every May at Foro Italico. The event draws the world's top tennis players to smash it out on clay courts. Spring also brings out golf enthusiasts. Golfers in Rome can play at several golf associations in and around the city. Some will accept a touring golfer with a home membership. Golf fans can also watch the National Championships in and around the city. The tournament play runs in October, and the Rome Masters is held in April.
Rome also hosts a plethora of racing venues. For horseracing fans, the trotters run at the Ippodromo di Tor di Valle. Steeple chase or flat races are run at Ippodromo delle Capannelle. Auto-racing enthusiasts head to Valle Lunga, where Formula-1 and Formula-3 cars vie for the lead position on Sundays. Dogs race at the Cinodromo Track, where greyhounds run Wednesday and Thursday evenings, as well as Sunday mornings. Finally, for the fans of rowing, a British Oxbridge team challenges the historic Aniene team to race, alternately on the Thames and the Tiber rivers, in mid June.
Rome's perfect climate and stunning scenery beckon many people into the plentiful city parks. People don't have to travel far to experience park settings and exquisite monuments. The Trevi Fountain, begun by Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680) in 1640, is a perfect example. The Roman Forum's archaeological area is a public garden in itself that is open from morning until sunset.
The largest park in Rome, Villa Doria Pamphilj, is located just south of the Vatacian. The park was designed in the mid-seventeenth century for Prince Camillo Pamphilj. A beautiful place to stroll, there is plenty of open space, a network of paths to explore, and three different tracks for walking dogs or jogging.
On a hillside above Piazza del Popolo is another lush and inviting park, Pincio Gardens. The streets are skillfully terraced with umbrella pines, palm trees, and evergreen oaks to hide the zig-zag road that climbs up to the gardens.
Villa Borghese, designed in 1605 for Cardinal Borghese, was the first park of its kind in Rome, with 400 planted pine trees and dramatic waterworks. The garden layout was often imitated by prominent Roman families. Honoring the eighteenth-century renovation, the intersections of paths and avenues are now marked by fountains and statues. Long avenues of trees are dotted with picturesque villas that double as museums and galleries. The woods, lakes, and grass cover a vast area. This park also offers a running track.
A beautiful villa and garden, Villa Torionia was once the Mussolini family residence. Its well-maintained commons area contains a variety of exotic plants and ample trees. Another small, serene park villa with a scenic view of the city is Rome's Villa Aldobrandini. The supreme Villa Celimontana is located between the Colosseum and the baths of Caracalla. Open dawn until sunset, only a part of another comely city park, Villa Ada, is open to the public.
If exercise is on the agenda, bicycles are available for rent from many places, including Porta Pinciana in Villa Borghese, Collalti, and Via del Corso. Organized bike tours are advertised in various publications.
For the indoor enthusiast, there are sport centers that offer swimming pools, gym facilities, and dance classes. Some health clubs do require membership.
17. Performing Arts
Italy is considered by many to be a birthplace of the arts. Today Romans still enjoy cultural events and are proud of their country's artistic heritage.
Throughout the year there are numerous musical and artistic venues to experience, both indoors and outdoors. For classical music, the city's churches host a range of choral, chamber, and organ recitals, many free of charge. For jazz and blues afficionados, the gardens at Villa Celimontana host premiere musicians for an evening of music under the stars. Throughout the year, the local Accademia di Santa Cecilia stages concerts, with either national artists or visiting orchestras, at Via dei Greci 18, and in the summer concerts are held at the Piazza del Campidoglio. Rome's opera scene concentrates on the Teatro dell' Opera. Winter season is conducted on the Via Firenze; for summer season, the ensemble moves outdoors to Villa Borghese park. Finally, for a colorful open-air theater, Janiculum Hill plays host to Teatro di Pulcinella Puppets on late afternoons and weekend mornings.
Reflecting diverse styles, the magnificence of Rome is preserved through arts and culture. The city is host to hundreds of theaters throughout the streets, in open spaces, and among ancient ruins.
Italy has more than 2,400 public libraries and 3,442 museums that store and specialize in information. Some institutions circulate only materials that cover a particular field of study—archaeology, ancient art, bio-medics, to name a few. With a history as rich as Rome's, it takes numerous institutions to house and display all the ancient treasures. The following is only a partial list of the many libraries: Accademia Dei Lincei, Accademia di Danimarca, Accademia di Ungheria, Accademia Spagnola di Storia, Biblioteca A. Sarti, Angelica, Casanatense, Comunale Rispoli, Belle Donne, Di Storia Moderna E Contemporaena, Raccolta Teatrale Del Burcardo, Nazionale Centrale, Universitaria Alessandrina, Vallicelliana, Vaticana, British Council, Centro Studi Americani, Fondazione Lelio Basso, Fondazione Luigi Einaudi, Goethe Institut, Istituto Austriaco Di Cultura, Istituto di Norvegia a Roma, and Istituto Svizzero Di Roma.
Rome also hosts more than 50 different visual art museums and galleries. Not all are inside structures; some museums operate within the very structure they represent, like the Catacombs.
The oldest art collection in Rome, housed in the Capitoline Museum, was established in 1471 and contains exceptional antiquities. Other Roman museums are the National Museum of the Villa Giulia, which has an outstanding collection of Etruscan and Roman art, and is located in the mid-sixteenth-century country house of Pope Julius II (1443–1513). The Borghese Gallery, a museum of paintings and sculpture is housed in an early seventeenth-century palace. The National Roman Museum, designed by Michelangelo (1475–1564), features exhibits of Greek and Roman sculpture, including the Ludovisi collection of antiquities. Important collections of art and decorative pieces can also be seen in the city's other palaces. Among these are the Farnese Palace, built between 1514 and 1589; the mid-fifteenth-century Venetian Palace, with a noted collection of small renaissance bronzes; and the Palazzo Barberini, a seventeenth-century Baroque palace with a remarkable picture gallery.
The Vatican Museum, Viale Vaticano, is open from March through October and offers student pricing. Archaeological museums tend to be closed on Mondays. Several within the city include Antiquarium Comunale, Museo Barracco Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Capitoline Museums Piazza del Campidoglio, Museo Della Civilta' Romana Piazza Giovanni Angel, Museo Nazionale Romano, and Museo Preistorico ed Etnografico L. Pigorini.
For inspirational art, visitors should see Museo Gregoriano Profano, Museo Pio Clementino, Museo Chiaramonti, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, Museo Storico, Castel Sant'Angelo Museum, National Roman Museum of the Thermae, Museum of Roman Civilization, Natural History Museum, Napoleonic Museum, Palazzo delle Esposizioni Via Nazionale, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Galleria dell; Accademia, Galleria Colonna Via della Pilotta, and Galleria Doria Pamphili.
Museums and monuments to the deceased are also popular places to visit in Rome. One rather unusual place is an eclectic museum devoted to the dead souls trapped in purgatory who leave messages for the living. Admission is free at Museo delle Anime dei Defunti.
Near the Pantheon on Piazza della Minerva is Santa Maria Sopra Minerva. Here lies the body of St. Catherine. After her death in 1380, her body was severed from her head, which remained in Siena, the town of her birth.
The Saint Maria della Concezione's Cappuccini monk cemetery is elaborately decorated with the bones of 4,000 monks and a Barberini princess. Located on Via Vittorio Veneto, it is a place of startling spirituality.
A great number of tourists are attracted to Rome by its Alpine and Mediterranean scenery, sunny climate, archaeological remains, medieval and Baroque churches, Renaissance towns and palaces, painting, sculpture, and famous opera houses. Each province of Italy has a Board of Tourism; in addition, there are more than 300 supplemental listings for further information in Rome.
The latest figures indicate that close to 60 million people visit Italy every year. Tourist dollars spent in 1996 amounted to more than 46 million lira. City authorities estimate more than 40 million pilgrims traveled to Rome during the year 2000.
Ides of March
Easter (The Pope says mass on Holy Friday at the Colosseum.)
Natale di Roma (Rome's birthday is celebrated with fireworks.)
International Horse Show
Rome Masters Golf Tournament
Foro Italico (Roman International Tennis Championship)
Spanish Steps Azaleas Display
Derby Horse Racing
Anniversary of the Republic
St. Peter's Square papal benediction (Sundays)
Crew race between teams Oxbridge and Aniene
Expo Tevere (artisan fair)
Assumption of the Virgin Mary
National Golf Championship
All Saints Day
National Unity Day
Premio Roma horse race
Birth of the Virgin Mary
Feast of St. Stephen
21. Famous Citizens
Francisco Accorso Accursius (c. 1182–c. 1260), jurist and professor, compiled Glossa Magna on Roman law.
Alfieri (1749–1803), poet.
Saint Ambrose (340–397), patron saint.
Fra Angelico (1387–1455), renaissance painter.
Saint Augustine (354–430), bishop whom scholars call the greatest thinker in the Latin language.
Augustus Caesar (63 b.c.–a.d. 14), the first and perhaps greatest Roman emperor.
Dario Bellezza (1944–95), poet and novelist.
Saint Benedict (c. 480–c. 547), founder of the Benedictine monastic order, patron saint of engineers.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446), architect and sculptor.
Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), tenor.
Saint Clare of Assisi (1198–1253), revered female of the early Franciscan Order.
Federico Fellini (1920–93), film director.
Saint Francis of Assisi (1182–1223), religious figure, founder of the Franciscan Order (1209).
Augustus William Hare (1792–1824), author of guidebooks and travelogues of Italy and the Mediterranean.
Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani, 1912–1978), Catholic Pope.
Julius Caesar (c. 100–44 b.c. ), assassinated a month after being named imperial Roman dictator for life.
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527), author.
Angelo Mariani (1821–73), music director, collaborator of Verdi.
Giulietta Masina (1920–94), actress, wife of Federico Fellini.
Marcello Mastroianni (1924–96), actor, discovered by Fellini.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), painter, sculptor and architect, who rejected the restrictions of classical design theory and generated an imaginative approach to architectural composition.
Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer.
Niccolo Paganini (d. 1840), violin virtuoso.
Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Montini, 1897–1978), Catholic pope.
Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924), composer.
Raphael (1483–1520), artist.
Gioacchino Rossini (1792–1868), composer.
Tintoretto (1518–1594), Venetian painter.
Arturo Toscanini (1867–1957), conductor.
Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901), composer.
Gianni Versace (1946–97), fashion designer.
Virgil (70–19 b.c. ), Rome's champion epic poet, wrote literary masterpiece the Aeneid.
Enjoy Rome. [Online] Available http://www.enjoyrome.com (accessed February 7, 2000).
Northern Italy. [Online] Available http://www.northernitaly.com (accessed February 7, 2000).
Theodora. [Online] Available http://www.theodora.com (accessed February 7, 2000).
Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
Piazza dell' Indipendendza 6, 00185 Rome
Francesco Paolo Fulci
Ambassador to United Nations
Unione Italiana delle Camere di Commercio
Piazza Sallustio 21, 00187 Rome
Tel: (6) 47041
U. S. Embassy
Via Veneto 119A/121
Tel.: 467 41
Tourist and Convention Bureaus
Dipartimento del Turismo:
Via della Ferratella in Laterano 51, 00184
Ente Nazionale Italiano per il Turisom (ENIT)
Via Marghera 2, 00185
Absalom, R. Italy since 1880: A Nation in the Balance. Harlow, 1995.
Smith, D.M. Modern Italy: A Political History. Yale University Press, 1997.
"Rome." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome
"Rome." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Retrieved January 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome
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Rome (city, Italy)
Rome, Ital. Roma, city (1991 pop. 2,775,250), capital of Italy and see of the pope, whose residence, Vatican City, is a sovereign state within the city of Rome. Rome is also the capital of Latium, a region of central Italy, and of Rome prov. It lies on both banks of the Tiber and its affluent, the Aniene, in the Campagna di Roma, between the Apennine Mts. and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Called the Eternal City, it is one of the world's richest cities in history and art and one of its great cultural, religious, and intellectual centers.
The rise of Rome from an insignificant pastoral settlement to perhaps the world's most successful empire—supreme as a lawgiver and organizer, holding sway over virtually all the then-known world W of Persia, on which it left a permanent imprint of its material and cultural achievements—is one of the great epics of history. Whatever its fortunes throughout history, Rome has remained the symbol of European civilization. Because of the complexity of the subject matter, the following article is divided into several sections, and additional information will be found in the articles to which there are cross references. See also Roman art; Roman architecture; Latin literature; Roman religion.
The Modern City
In the past half century Rome has expanded well beyond the walls started in the 3d cent. by Emperor Aurelian, and it now extends north to the Aniene. Long sections of the ancient walls have been preserved, however, and archaeology remains an essential element of modern city-planning in Rome. Ancient marble columns and ruins rising beside modern apartments and offices, noisy boulevards, and luxurious villas and gardens characterize the modern city of Rome. As in ancient times, the larger section of Rome lies on the left bank of the Tiber, which intersects the city in three wide curves and is spanned by over 20 bridges.
As in ancient times Rome is a center of transportation. It is the focus of international traffic by road, rail, sea (at the port of Civitavecchia), and air (at Leonardo da Vinci international airport at Fiumicino) and is as well a cultural, religious, political, and commercial center of international importance. Public transportation in Rome is provided by an elaborate bus system. A subway, the Metropolitana, was opened in 1955. Rome's large number of automobiles has caused serious traffic congestion, and in the 1970s and 80s various attempts were made to deal with the problem, including the banning of traffic in certain parts of the city. The economy of Rome depends to a very large extent on the tourist trade. The city is also a center of banking, insurance, printing, publishing, and fashion. Italy's movie industry (founded in 1936) is located at nearby Cinecitta.
Landmarks and Institutions
Aside from modern residential quarters, the right-bank section of Rome contains Vatican City, including Saint Peter's Church, the Castel Sant' Angelo, and the ancient quarter of Trastevere. In describing the larger left-bank section one may use the Piazza Venezia, a central square, as a convenient point of departure. It lies at the foot of the old Capitol (see Capitoline Hill) and borders on the huge monument to King Victor Emmanuel II and on the Palazzo Venezia, a Renaissance palace from the balcony of which Mussolini used to address the crowds. A broad avenue, the Via dei Fori Imperiali, runs from the Piazza Venezia SE to the Colosseum, leaving the Emperors' Fora and at a distance the Church of St. Peter in Chains (San Pietro in Vincoli) to the left, and the Capitol and the ancient Forum to the right. From the Colosseum the Via di San Gregorio continues south past the Arch of Constantine and the Baths of Caracalla to the Appian Way. There, as in other places on the outskirts of Rome, are large catacombs. From the Piazza Venezia another modern thoroughfare, the Via del Mare, leads southwestward to the Tiber and then east past the Basilica of St. Paul's Outside the Walls (San Paolo fuori le Mure) to Ostia, Rome's ancient port now blocked by silt, to the sea at Lido di Roma.
The narrow and busy Via del Corso leads N from the Piazza Venezia past the Piazza Colonna (now the heart of Rome) to the Piazza del Popolo at the gate of the old Flaminian Way. East of the Piazza del Popolo are the Pincian Hill, commanding one of the finest views of Rome, and the famous Borghese Villa. In the widest westward bend of the Tiber, W of the Via del Corso, is the Campo Marzio quarter (anciently, Campus Martius), where most of the medieval buildings are located; there also are the Pantheon (now a church) and the parliament buildings. To the east of the Via del Corso the fashionable Via Condotti leads to the Piazza di Spagna; a flight of 132 steps ascends from that square to the Church of the Santa Trinità dei Monti and the Villa Medici. The Quirinal palace is NE of the Piazza Venezia. In the southeastern section, near the gate of San Giovanni, are the Lateran buildings.
As an educational center Rome possesses—aside from the Univ. of Rome (founded 1303)—the colleges of the church, several academies of fine arts, and the Accademia di Santa Cecilia (founded 1584), the world's oldest academy of music. The opera house is one of Europe's grandest. The various institutes of the Univ. of Rome were formerly scattered throughout the city but were transferred in 1935 to the northeastern section.
Among the countless churches of Rome there are five patriarchal basilicas—St. Peter's, St. John Lateran, St. Mary Major (Santa Maria Maggiore), St. Lawrence Outside the Walls, and St. Paul's Outside the Walls. With the exception of St. Mary Major, the basilicas and other ancient churches occupy the sites of martyrs' tombs. Characteristic of the old Roman churches are their fine mosaics (4th–12th cent.) and the use of colored marble for decoration, introduced in the 12th cent. by the workers in marble known as Cosmati. Rome's first mosque opened in 1995.
Among Rome's many palaces and villas the Farnese Palace (begun 1514) and the Farnesina (1508–11) are particularly famous; others, all dating from the 17th cent., are those of the great Roman families, the Colonna, Chigi, Torlonia, and Doria. Rome is celebrated for its beautiful Renaissance and baroque fountains, such as the ornate Fontana di Trevi (18th cent.). Its richest museums and libraries are in the Vatican. Others include the National (in the Villa Giulia), Capitoline, and Torlonia museums, notable for their antiquities; and the Borghese, Corsini, Doria, and Colonna collections of paintings.
Rome before Augustus
Ancient Rome was built on the east, or left, bank of the Tiber on elevations (now much less prominent) emerging from the marshy lowlands of the Campagna. The seven hills of the ancient city are the Palatine, roughly in the center, with the Capitoline to the northwest and the Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, and Aventine in an outlying north-southwest curve. The Pincian, N of the Quirinal, is not included among the seven. In the westward bend of the Tiber, W of the Quirinal, lies the Martian Field (Campus Martius), facing the Vatican across the Tiber. On the side of the Tiber opposite the Palatine is the Janiculum, a ridge running north and south, which was fortified in early times.
Early in the first millennium BC the Tiber divided the Italic peoples from the Etruscans in the north and west (see Etruscan civilization). Not far to the north were the borders between the Sabines and the Latins; the Sabines were closely related to Roman life from the very beginning. The hills of Rome, free from the malaria that had been the bane of the low-lying plains of Latium, were a healthful and relatively safe place to live and a meeting ground for Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans. In the 8th cent. BC, the fortified elevation of the Palatine was probably taken by Etruscans, who amalgamated the tiny hamlets about the Palatine into a city-state. Tradition tells of the founding of Rome by Romulus in 753 BC (hence the dating ab urbe condita, or AUC, i.e., from the founding of the city), and of the Tarquin family, the Etruscan royal house. It was probably Etruscan rule that civilized Rome and gave it the hegemony of Latium.
The Roman Republic
The Romans overthrew their foreign rulers c.500 BC and established the Roman republic, which lasted four centuries. The patrician class controlled the government, but the plebs (who comprised by far the major portion of the population) were allowed to elect the two patrician consuls, who held joint power. The vitality of the patricians was remarkable, and long after political power had been granted to the plebs, experienced patricians continued to govern Rome.
As the majority realized its power and the aristocracy continued its rule, the people demanded (and received) privilege after privilege; the greatest were the election of plebeian tribunes (see tribune) and the codification (c.450 BC) of the Twelve Tables. With the growth of the city, multiplication of consular duties called for new officials: quaestor, praetor, and censor. The three popular assemblies, or comitia, developed slowly, but they quietly abstracted legislative power from the patricians. The ancient senate, theoretically the supreme power of the state, became more and more powerful until in the 3d cent. BC it controlled the consuls completely.
Although the Roman republic was never a true democracy, historians have modified the traditional view that it was the tool of a powerful aristocracy and have acknowledged that the system had open aspects beyond the control of the ruling class. It remains true, however, that it was under senatorial administration that Rome began its march to world supremacy and that in the end the senate was crushed under the weight of the huge problems of empire.
The Subduing of Italy
In the 4th cent. BC, Rome extended its influence over W Latium and S Etruria; during the course of that century and the next, Rome came in full contact with Greek culture, which modified Roman life tremendously. The idea of the old Roman courage and morality, however, was kept alive by such staunch conservatives as Cato the Elder. The power of the city may be inferred from the tremendous impression the sack of Rome (390 BC) by the Gauls made in subsequent times.
The Samnites were subdued in the wars dated conventionally 343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC, and the inhabitants of Picenum, Umbria, Apulia, Lucania, and Etruria were pacified. The Roman policy in subduing Italy was that of a master toward slaves. Tarentum, besieged by the Romans, called for the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus; he won victories at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC), but after a dispute with his Italian allies he returned to Greece, leaving the Romans masters of central and S Italy.
Conquests Overseas and to the East
Rome, previously a continental power, began to look seaward in the 3d cent. BC Sicily, a granary of the ancient world, was an obvious goal, but Rome's rapid conquests could not continue there without meeting the like ambitions of Carthage, which ruled the W Mediterranean. The Punic Wars were thus inevitable, and in this titanic struggle the fate of Carthage and the destiny of Rome were decided. Although Carthage had the great general Hannibal, Rome fought with the resources of Italy behind it and had such leaders as Scipio Africanus Major. Rome gained from the Punic Wars dominion over Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the northern shores of Africa, indisputable hegemony in the Mediterranean, and an insatiable desire for conquest.
With Carthage humbled, the Roman republic turned its attention eastward. Philip V of Macedon was defeated after two campaigns (215–205 BC, 200–197 BC), and Antiochus III of Syria was conquered at Magnesia (190 BC); eventually the defeat of Perseus (171–168 BC) made Macedonia a Roman province. Greece did not become a Roman province, but the brief opposition of the Achaean League was disposed of, and the Greeks became subject to Rome. Egypt acknowledged vassalship to the republic in 168 BC
Effects of Expansion
The rapid expansion of Roman dominion, however, had terrible effects at home. The provinces were governed by the senate for the benefit not of Rome but of the senatorial class; enormous wealth (by graft and by trade) flowed into the hands of the senators, who used it exclusively to their own advantage. The equites (see knight), a class of financiers, came into its own through management of imperial trade. Class dissension was rife, and in spite of agrarian laws the masses were daily more dissatisfied. The slaves in Sicily rebelled twice (c.134–132 BC, c.104–101 BC), and the Gracchus brothers in a political victory tried to make the populace more powerful, but such defiance was to no avail. Massacres and incredible barbarities disposed of the slaves' restlessness, and the Gracchi were assassinated (133 and 121 BC).
Marius defeated Jugurtha (106 BC) and the Cimbri and the Teutons (101 BC), and he heralded a new era by definitively introducing Roman arms into Transalpine Gaul. Rome was forced by the Social War (90–88 BC) to extend citizenship widely in Italy, but the republic was nevertheless doomed. A slave revolt led by Spartacus was put down mercilessly. Marius, the idol of the populace, used proscription to rid himself of his foes, but Sulla, a conservative, destroyed Marius' party by the same method.
After Sulla's retirement his lieutenant Pompey emerged as a popular champion. He abolished some of Sulla's reactionary measures, suppressed Mediterranean piracy, and made himself master of Rome. His defeat of Mithradates VI brought Pontus, Syria, and Phoenicia under Roman dominion.
On Pompey's return from the East, he found an ally for his ambitions in Julius Caesar, a popular democratic leader of the best patrician blood. With Marcus Licinius Crassus to furnish the funds, Pompey and Caesar formed the First Triumvirate (60 BC), and Caesar departed to make himself immortal in the Gallic Wars. Within ten years Caesar and Pompey fell out; Pompey joined the senatorial party, and Caesar (as the champion of the people and of republican legality) led his devoted army against Pompey. Pharsalus was the result (48 BC), and Caesar was master of Rome.
He governed through the old institutions, with wisdom and vigor. His territorial additions were the most important ever made, for his conquest and organization of Gaul placed Rome in the role of civilizer of barbarians as well as ruler of the older world. The age of Caesar was a great period in Roman culture, and the cosmopolitan Roman was considered the ideal. Greek was the language of much of the empire, and Greek literature became fashionable. Even more influential was Greek thought, which served to destroy Roman religion and to open the Romans to the Eastern cults, which were enormously popular for years. Cicero, an urbane lawyer and philosopher of broad culture, was typical of the period.
At the death (44 BC) of Caesar, the territories ruled by Rome included Spain (except part of the northwest), Gaul, Italy, part of Illyria, Macedonia, Greece, W Asia Minor, Bithynia, Pontus, Cilicia, Syria, Cyrenaica, Numidia, and the islands of the sea, and Rome completely controlled Egypt and Palestine. The rule of Caesar marked an epoch, for it completed the destruction of the republic and laid the foundations of the empire.
The Roman Empire
Augustus and the Pax Romana
Caesar's assassination brought anarchy, out of which the Second Triumvirate emerged with the rule of Octavian (later Augustus), Antony, and Lepidus. Octavian was Caesar's nephew, ward, and heir, and his true successor. At Actium (31 BC) he defeated Antony and Cleopatra and made the empire one. No change was made in the government, but Octavian received from the senate the title Augustus and from the people life tribuneship; this, with the governorship of all the provinces conferred by the senate, made him the real ruler. He was called imperator [commander] and princeps [leader] and is usually considered the first Roman emperor. (For a list of the Roman Emperors from Augustus to the fall of Rome and the years they reigned, see the table entitled Rulers of the Roman Empire.)
Augustus organized provincial government and the army, rebuilt Rome, and patronized the arts and letters. His rule began a long period (200 years) of peace, called the Pax Romana. During this time the Roman Empire was the largest it would ever be; its boundaries included Armenia, middle Mesopotamia, the Arabian desert, the Red Sea, Nubia, the Sahara, the Moroccan mountain mass, the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea, Scotland, the North Sea, the Rhine, the Danube, the Black Sea, and the Caucasus. Augustus' chief additions to the empire were a strip along the North Sea W of the Elbe and part of the Danubian area.
The blessings of peace were great for the empire. The extensive system of Roman roads made transportation easier than it was again to be until the development of railroads. A postal service was developed closely tied in with the organization of the army. Commerce and industry were greatly developed, particularly by sea, over which grain ships carried food for Rome and the West from the ports of northern Africa. The Roman Empire became under Augustus one great nation. The enlarged view of the world made a great impression on Rome, where literary and artistic interests were of importance, although nearly always tending to imitation of Greece and of the East.
Augustus died AD 14 and was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius; his general Germanicus Caesar fought fruitlessly in Germany. Caligula, who followed, was a cruel tyrant (AD 37–AD 41); he was succeeded by Claudius I (AD 41–AD 54), who was dominated by his wives, but during his rule half of Britain was conquered (AD 43). In his time Thrace, Lydia, and Judaea were made Roman provinces. His stepson Nero (AD 54–AD 68) was an unparalleled tyrant. In his reign occurred the great fire of Rome (AD 64), attributed (probably falsely) to Nero; it burnt everything between the Caelian, the Palatine, and the Esquiline, but it was a boon to the city, for Nero moved the population to the right bank of the Tiber, then very thinly populated, and rebuilt the region with broader streets and great buildings.
At that time an entirely new element, Christianity, made itself felt in Rome. On Nero's orders a barbarous persecution took place in which many Christians died, among them St. Peter and St. Paul. Throughout the Roman Empire the Christians expanded steadily for the next centuries. Their conflict with the empire, which brought on them continual persecution, was chiefly a result of the Christian refusal to offer divine honors to the emperors. But Christianity penetrated the army and the royal household in spite of the constant danger of detection and persecution. There were many periods in the first three centuries when Christians worshiped openly, even in Rome, where the catacombs housed not only graves but also churches.
With Nero the Julio-Claudian line ended. There was a brief struggle (see Galba; Otho; Vitellius) before Vespasian (AD 69–AD 79) became emperor. Under him his son Titus destroyed Jerusalem (AD 70); Titus then briefly succeeded his father. After his mild, rather benign rule, his brother Domitian (AD 81–AD 96), a despot and persecutor of Christians, gained the empire. In Domitian's reign Agricola conquered Britain almost entirely. Domitian was unsuccessful in his dealings with the Daci and finally bought them off. After Nerva came Trajan (AD 98–AD 117), one of the greatest of emperors. Trajan undertook great public works, defeated the Daci and established Roman colonies there (in what is now modern Romania), and pushed the eastern borders past Armenia and Mesopotamia.
Trajan's successor, Hadrian, withdrew Roman rule to the Euphrates and in Britain built his wall (Hadrian's Wall) to hold back the barbarians who constantly threatened that fast-developing province. He also reorganized the senate and the army. Roman armies were then seldom seen far from the boundaries of the empire, and life continued throughout the Roman world in peace and quiet. Italy was sinking into a purely provincial state, although many emperors made attempts to make it a special country. The successors of Hadrian were Antoninus Pius (138–161) and Marcus Aurelius (161–180), who ruled in what is commonly called the Golden Age of the empire.
The Empire Declines
With Commodus (180–192) the decline of the empire is usually said to have begun. The age of the Praetorians was then at hand, when the rise and fall of emperors was determined by this elite corps of soldiers. Septimius Severus (193–211) was unusually able for his period; he campaigned with success against the Parthians and against the Picts of N Britain. His son Caracalla is noteworthy for extending Roman citizenship to all free men of the empire and for the famous baths named after him.
Emperors succeeded one another rapidly in the 3d cent.: Heliogabalus, Alexander Severus, Philip (Philip the Arabian), and Decius among them. Decius was one of the most violent persecutors of Christians; he fell fighting the Goths, first of the Germans, who were eventually to overwhelm the empire. In 260 the emperor Valerian was captured by the Persians, and the empire fell into anarchy. The provinces suffered from increasingly bad government as well as from a pestilence that carried off half the population. Claudius II (268–70) revived Roman fortunes somewhat, while Aurelian (270–75) overthrew the Palmyrene kingdom of Zenobia.
In 284, Diocletian was made emperor by the army. He was a reformer of government and of the social order, but only one of his efforts was successful. This was the division of the empire into four political sections, two eastern and two western. There were to be two Augusti and two Caesars.
The division of East and West was resumed after the death (337) of Constantine I, who moved the capital to Byzantium, renamed Constantinople. By the Edict of Milan (313), Constantine granted universal religious tolerance, thus placing Christianity on the same footing as the other religions. He divided the empire administratively into prefectures, dioceses, and provinces; the bishops thus gained great influence and shared in the authority of the civil administration. There was a brief resurgence of paganism under Julian the Apostate, but Christianity was securely established.
On the death of Jovian, Julian's successor, Valentinian I (364–75) ruled the Western Empire; Valentinian II (375–92) succeeded him. After the death (395) of Theodosius I the empire was permanently divided into Eastern (see Byzantine Empire) and Western, and Rome rapidly lost its political importance.
Under the emperors, Rome had been the center of the world. It must have presented a splendid, although heterogeneous, appearance. Little remained of the original city, for the emperors had replanned it to glorify themselves as well as the city. Parts of the Aurelian Wall still stand. On the Capitoline were the citadel (the arx) and the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; the Palatine was the site of the palaces of Augustus and Tiberius (the word palace derives from the hill); the palace of Nero and Trajan's baths were on the southern slopes of the Esquiline. South of the Palatine was the Circus Maximus, where the famous chariot races were held. The old Roman Forum (see forum), extending from the Palatine almost to the Colosseum, remained the center of the city; northwest of it were the Emperors' Fora, with many fine public buildings, and the Temple of Peace. On the Martian Field were Pompey's theater, the Circus Flaminius, the Pantheon (see under pantheon), and the baths of Agrippa and Nero. Across the Tiber was Nero's circus, where St. Peter's now stands; Hadrian's tomb, now known as the Castel Sant' Angelo, has survived as a major landmark. The largest of the many public baths were those of Caracalla, near the Appian Way.
At its height, imperial Rome counted well over a million inhabitants. It was well policed, sanitation was excellent, and a fire-fighting force of seven brigades was maintained. Nineteen imposing aqueducts, of which many remains are extant, supplied the city with water. Among the rich such luxuries as central heating and running water were not unknown. The indigent (c.200,000) were cared for at public expense. Not until the 18th cent. were luxury and technical proficiency on a comparable scale to return to any European city.
Decline, once it began, came quickly, however. Honorius (395–423) made Ravenna the capital of the West; other emperors chose Milan and Trier (Treves), where they were nearer the border to check Germanic attacks. The West sank into anarchy, and Italy was ravaged by invaders. Alaric I took Rome in 410, and Gaiseric conquered it in 455. Attila was kept from sacking it, supposedly through the efforts of the pope, Leo I (St. Leo the Great). In this general disintegration the popes, originally the bishops of Rome, greatly increased their power and prestige, thus restoring to Rome in the religious field the importance it had lost in the political.
In 476 the last emperor of the West, appropriately called Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Goths under Odoacer; this date is commonly accepted as the end of the West Roman Empire, or Western Empire. The so-called Dark Ages (now usually called the Early Middle Ages; see Middle Ages) that followed in Western Europe could not eradicate the profound imprint left by the Roman civilization. Roman law is still alive; the Romance languages are but modifications of Roman speech. Roman Catholicism for nearly 12 centuries was the only religion and the main cultural force of Western Europe.
The fall of Rome marked no abrupt ending of an era, for the barbarians that filled the gap left by the disappearance of the old order were quick in accepting and adapting what vital elements remained of it. The survival of the East Roman Empire, or Eastern Empire, and the creation of the Holy Roman Empire showed how much vitality was left in the imperial ideal. Italy itself, however, did not recover from the fall of Rome until the 19th cent.
The history of Rome in the Middle Ages, bewildering in its detail, is essentially that of two institutions, the papacy and the commune of Rome. In the 5th cent. the Goths ruled Italy from Ravenna, their capital. Odoacer and Theodoric the Great kept the old administration of Rome under Roman law, with Roman officials. The city, whose population was to remain less than 50,000 throughout the Middle Ages, suffered severely from the wars between the Goths and Byzantines. In 552, Narses conquered Rome for Byzantium and became the first of the exarchs (viceroys) who ruled Italy from Ravenna. Under Byzantine rule commerce declined, and the senate and consuls disappeared.
Pope Gregory I (590–604), one of the greatest Roman leaders of all time, began to emancipate Rome from the exarchs. Sustained by the people, the popes soon exercised greater power in Rome than did the imperial governors, and many secular buildings were converted into churches. The papal elections were, for the next 12 centuries, the main events in Roman history. Two other far-reaching developments (7th–8th cent.) were the division of the people into four classes (clergy, nobility, soldiers, and the lowest class) and the emergence of the Papal States.
The coronation (800) at Rome of Charlemagne as emperor of the West ended all question of Byzantine suzerainty over Rome, but it also inaugurated an era characterized by the ambiguous relationship between the emperors and the popes. That era was punctuated by visits to the city by the German kings, to be crowned emperor or to secure the election of a pope to their liking or to impose their will on the pope. In 846, Rome was sacked by the Arabs; the Leonine walls were built to protect the city, but they did not prevent the frequent occupations and plunderings of the city by Christian powers.
By the 10th cent., Rome and the papacy had reached their lowest point. Papal elections, originally exercised by the citizens of Rome, had come under the control of the great noble families, among whom the Frangipani and Pierleone families and later the Orsini and the Colonna were the most powerful. Each of these would rather have torn Rome apart than allowed the other families to gain undue influence. They built fortresses in the city (often improvised transformations of the ancient palaces and theaters) and ruled Rome from them.
From 932 to 954, Alberic, a very able man, governed Rome firmly and restored its self-respect, but after his death and after the proceedings that accompanied the coronation of Otto I as emperor, Rome relapsed into chaos, and the papal dignity once more became the pawn of the emperors and of local feudatories. Contending factions often elected several popes at once. Gregory VII reformed these abuses and strongly claimed the supremacy of the church over the municipality, but he himself ended as an exile, Emperor Henry IV having taken Rome in 1084. The Normans under Robert Guiscard came to rescue Gregory and thoroughly sacked the city on the same occasion (1084).
Papal authority was challenged in the 12th cent. by the communal movement. A commune was set up (1144–55), led by Arnold of Brescia, but it was subdued by the intervention of Emperor Frederick I. Finally, a republic under papal patronage was established, headed by an elected senator. However, civil strife continued between popular and aristocratic factions and between Guelphs and Ghibellines. The commune made war to subdue neighboring cities, for it pretended to rule over the Papal States, particularly the duchy of Rome, which included Latium and parts of Tuscany. Innocent III controlled the government of the city, but it regained its autonomy after the accession of Emperor Frederick II. Later in the 13th cent. foreign senators began to be chosen; among them were Brancaleone degli Andalò (1252–58) and Charles I of Naples.
During the "Babylonian captivity" of the popes at Avignon (1309–78) Rome was desolate, economically ruined, and in constant turmoil. Cola di Rienzi became the champion of the people and tried to revive the ancient Roman institutions, as envisaged also by Petrarch and Dante; in 1347 he was made tribune, but his dreams were doomed. Cardinal Albornoz temporarily restored the papal authority over Rome, but the Great Schism (1378–1417) intervened. Once more a republic was set up. In 1420, Martin V returned to Rome, and with him began the true and effective dominion of the popes in Rome.
Renaissance and Modern Rome
A last effort at restoring the Roman republic failed utterly in 1453. The history of Rome became more than ever that of the papacy. The successors of Martin V in the 15th cent. and the first half of the 16th cent. were chiefly interested in increasing the temporal power of the papacy, in patronizing the arts and letters, in beautifying the city, and in raising the fortunes of themselves and their relatives. The moral tone of the papal court was a scandal to Christendom and contributed to the success of the Reformation.
Rome during the Renaissance
The period of the great popes of the Renaissance—Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, and Paul III—was one of sensuous splendor. Among the countless artists and architects who served the papal court, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Domenico Fontana were the chief creators of Rome as it is today. Saint Peter's Church and the frescoed Sistine Chapel in the Vatican are outstanding examples of the artistic resources of Renaissance Rome. The popes also played a leading part in the Italian Wars of the 16th cent. As a result of Clement VII's alliance with Francis I of France, Rome was stormed (1527) by the army of Emperor Charles V and subjected to a thorough plundering.
The triumph of the Counter Reformation in the late 16th cent. restored dignity and moral power to the papal court and gave the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) great influence. Although the power of the pope was established as absolute, more religious tolerance (particularly toward the Jews) could be found at Rome than in many other capitals of Europe. The city continued to prosper and to benefit by the influx of hundreds of thousands of pilgrims (see jubilee). The great creative wave of the Renaissance was largely spent, but the noble baroque monuments—notably those of Bernini—that were erected in the 17th and early 18th cent. added to the grandiose harmony of the city. The splendor of religious ceremonies, as well as the encouragement given by the popes to art, music, classical and archaeological studies, and the restoration of ancient monuments, continued to make Rome a center of world culture.
Napoleon to the Present
When, in 1796, French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Papal States, a truce was bought by Pope Pius VI, and many art treasures passed into French possession. In 1798 the French occupied Rome, deported the pope, and proclaimed Rome a republic. Pius VII reentered Rome in 1800, but in 1808 Napoleon reoccupied the city and in 1809 annexed it to France. Papal rule was restored in 1814.
Pope Pius IX, who ruled during a crucial period (1846–78), yielded to liberal demands and granted a constitution. However, disorders in 1848 caused his flight to Gaeta, and once more Rome became a republic, under the leadership of Giuseppe Mazzini. French troops intervened, defeated the republican forces under Giuseppe Garibaldi, and restored Pius IX, who made no further attempts at liberalism.
The Italian kingdom, proclaimed in 1862, included most of the former Papal States but not Rome, which remained under papal rule as a virtual protectorate of Napoleon III. Napoleon's fall in 1870 made possible the occupation of Rome by Italian troops, and, in 1871, Rome became the capital of Italy. Pius IX and his successors, however, did not recognize their loss of temporal sovereignty. The conflict between pope and king—or Vatican and Quirinal, as the antagonists were designated because of the location of their palaces—was not solved until the conclusion (1929) of the Lateran Treaty, which gave the pope sovereignty over Vatican City.
With the Fascist march on Rome (1922) Benito Mussolini came to power. In World War II, Rome fell to the Allies on June 4, 1944. The postwar years were marked by a vigorous economic, artistic, and intellectual revival. The year 1950 was designated a holy year by Pope Pius XII, and Rome, more than ever the spiritual capital of Catholicism, was host to many thousands of pilgrims. In 1960 the Olympics were held in Rome.
General histories of ancient Rome are countless. Among the ancient histories, that of Livy is the only comprehensive work. Other great Roman historians were Julius Caesar, Tacitus, Suetonius, Polybius, Dio Cassius, and Josephus. The works of Mommsen and Edward Gibbon are monumental. General works on ancient Rome include those of J. B. Bury, Guglielmo Ferrero, Tenney Frank, and Michael Rostovtzeff.
See F. F. Abbott, History and Description of Roman Political Institutions (3d ed. 1911, repr. 1963); J. Carcopino, Daily Life in Ancient Rome (tr. 1940, repr. 1962); R. H. Barrow, The Romans (1949, repr. 1964); C. G. Starr, Civilization and the Caesars (1954, repr. 1965); E. T. Salmon, A History of the Roman World (6th ed. 1968); F. W. Wallbank, Awful Revolution: The Decline of the Roman Empire in the West (2d ed. 1969); J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Rome: The Study of an Empire (1970); P. A. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic (1970); D. Dudley, The Romans (1970); J. Heurgon, The Rise of Rome to 264 BC (1973); G. Masson, A Concise History of Republican Rome (1973); A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines (1974); M. Cary and H. H. Scullard, A History of Rome Down to the Reign of Constantine (3d ed. 1975); H. H. Scullard, A History of the Roman World (4th ed. 1980); A. Massie, The Caesars (1984); P. Garnsey and R. Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society, and Culture (1987); E. Nash, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome (2 vol., 1989); T. J. Cornell, Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (1995); S. L. Dyson, Rome: A Living Portrait of an Ancient City (2010); A. Carandini, Rome: Day One (2011); R. Hughes, Rome: A Cultural, Visual, and Personal History (2011); R. C. Knapp, Invisible Romans (2011); G. Wills, Rome and Rhetoric (2011); B. Campbell, The Romans and Their World (2012); G. Woolf, Rome: An Empire's Story (2012).Medieval Rome
See Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages (8 vol. in 13, 1903–12; repr. 1968); Alain de Boüard, Le Régime politique et les institutions de Rome au moyen âge (1920); Peter Llewellyn, Rome in the Dark Ages (1970); Ferdinand Gregorovius, Rome and Medieval Culture (1973).Renaissance and Modern Rome
"Rome (city, Italy)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome-city-italy
"Rome (city, Italy)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome-city-italy
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Rome and The Roman Empire
ROME AND THE ROMAN EMPIRE
ROME AND THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Roman gastronomy, or gluttony, impresses all who read the Latin and Greek literature composed under the great Mediterranean empire of the first four centuries C.E. Feasting was a central feature of Roman society. The cuisine of Rome, much influenced by ancient Greece and the Near East, is the direct ancestor of the national cuisines of most of western Europe.
Ancient texts form one of the source materials for reconstructing Roman food behavior. These texts include scientific and technical writings (such as the earliest surviving recipe book, Apicius, probably compiled in the fourth century C.E.) as well as lively depictions of food, wine, and banquets in classical Latin prose and poetry. Archaeology is is an equally important source of information on this topic. Notable in this context are the finds at Pompeii, the Italian city buried in 79 C.E. by the disastrous eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
Rome was said to have been founded by Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E. on the banks of the Tiber in central Italy. It was a country town whose power gradually grew until it was the center of a world empire. In the third and second centuries B.C.E., Rome fought and defeated the Carthaginians of north Africa, a victory that opened the way to Roman domination of the whole western Mediterranean; in the second and first centuries B.C.E., successive victories in Greece, Anatolia (Turkey), Syria, and Egypt extended Rome's power and wealth eastward.
The rule of the first Roman emperor, Augustus (27 B.C.E.–14 C.E.), marks the beginning of a four-hundred-year period, unique in history, during which a single political power governed the whole Mediterranean. Travel and trade were relatively free throughout the region and there was intensive cultural interaction. Travel was slow, however: it was a five-month voyage from the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar) to Antioch at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. Only foods that were dried, pickled, or salted, and only special wines (see below), would withstand the rigors of such a journey.
Crises in the third and fourth centuries C.E. led to the division of the empire into two parts, which had quite different fates. The Eastern Roman Empire was directly continued in the Byzantine Empire. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, finally disappearing in 476 C.E. However, the "barbarian" kingdoms that took its place inherited Roman dietary ideas and developed a way of life that had many Roman features.
Even before those eastern conquests, Romans had become rich enough to spend their wealth enthusiastically on imported luxuries. Lavish banquets became fashionable, and the price of slave cooks rose steeply. Moralists inveighed against these developments, but they did so in vain. Meanwhile, other changes had affected the Roman diet. The acquisition of new territories provided the opportunity for experimentation in agriculture and food production. Romanization in the provinces encouraged people to demand that what was available in the capital should also be available more widely, especially to Roman legionaries and provincial administrators. The province of Britain, whose conquest began in 43 C.E., provides an example: vines, peaches, walnuts, celery, coriander (cilantro), carrots, and several other important foods were first transplanted to that province in Roman times. Wine, olive oil, olives, figs, lentils, chickpeas, and rice were among the commodities that Roman traders first exported to Britain in response to the popularity of Roman fashions in that region.
Many special features of Roman administrative and economic life left their marks on the food and cuisine of the vast region that was once the Roman Empire. Great frontier armies, whose zones of recruitment ensured movement and mixture of populations, required the delivery of reliable, standardized supplies on well-built roads. Inscriptions show that periodic markets existed: they were held every eight days in Italian towns, twice a month in North Africa, and three times a month in Asia Minor.
The Literature of Food
The oldest Latin prose text, written about 175 B.C.E., is De Agri Cultura (On farming) by the statesman Cato. This work focuses on the two great cash crops of Italy—wine and olive oil—and also includes recipes for cakes and flavored and medicinal wines suitable for farmhouse production. The tradition of Roman agricultural texts culminated in Columella's detailed manual On Agriculture, written about 50 C.E. Columella provides much information on food throughout the manual, as well as a long section (Book 12) full of recipes for household preserves and other food products. Written at about the same date, the Latin encyclopaedia Historia Naturalis (Natural history) by Pliny the Elder contains eight books (12–19) on plants and their uses, with special attention to fruits and vegetables. Book 14 is devoted entirely to grapes and wine. Although Latin was the native language of Rome, many medical and scientific texts of the Roman Empire were written in Greek: examples are a dietary manual, On the Properties of Foods, by the imperial physician Galen (129–199 C.E.), and a medical and dietary textbook by one of his successors, Oribasius (c. 325–400 C.E.). These dietary manuals list foods in great detail, which allowed the reader to work out suitable diets. The manuals also make allowances for seasonal factors and each individual's constitution, lifestyle, and current state of health, in accordance with ancient medical theories. (For English translations of all the texts named in this paragraph see the bibliography.)
Poetry and literary prose give a different perspective on food from that of the technical texts. The personal poetry from the period of Augustus is full of insights on food and dining among the elite, demonstrating the growth of gastronomy and the ways in which food articulated social relations. Authors of this period include Propertius, Horace, and Ovid. Written about one hundred years after the time of Augustus, the picaresque novel Satyrica by Petronius mocks the luxurious lifestyle of the new rich. The series of biographies of emperors by the imperial archivist Suetonius (Lives of the Twelve Caesars, written about 115 C.E.) provides a glimpse into palace lifestyles, in which feasts sometimes turned into Roman orgies. Lives of poorer people are depicted in the fictional Metamorphoses (often translated under the title The Golden Ass ) by Apuleius (born 125 C.E.), and later in the biographies of Christian hermits and saints.
It was common in Roman writing to despise complicated dishes designed for show rather than for taste. Yet, in practice, Romans reveled in the spices and delicacies of the whole ancient world: the pepper of south India and even the cloves of the Spice Islands were prized luxuries. In the recipes of Apicius, the flavor of the main ingredient is often enhanced with ten or fifteen spices and herbs. Rich households must have spent much money and slave labor on the finding of rare ingredients and the elaboration of showpiece dishes. The parrot wrasse (a type of fish) and the dormouse fetched high prices not because of their flavor but because of the way they looked on the table. Peacocks, and peahens' eggs, were in demand among gourmets for their rarity more than their quality.
It was also a commonplace to boast of the freshness and simplicity of the farm produce that one was offering to one's guests. There is a tradition of poetic "invitations to dinner" that demonstrate changes in style as well as individual responses to food fashion, extending from about 50 B.C.E. to 110 C.E.: authors of this genre include Catullus (Poems 13), Horace (Epistles 1.5; Odes 3.29, 4.12), Martial (Epigrams 5.78, 10.48, 11.52), Juvenal (Satires 11), and Pliny the Younger (Letters 1.15).
Staple Foods and Major Flavorings
Rome's status as an overgrown city-state was signaled in one of the special privileges enjoyed by inhabitants of the city: the free bread ration. Interruptions in the wheat supply led to riots. Rome's annexation of Egypt, after Cleopatra's suicide in 30 B.C.E., ensured the continuity of the supply. Thereafter, huge grain ships left Alexandria regularly throughout the sailing season, bringing wheat to Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. It was on such a ship that St. Paul reached Italy after having been shipwrecked on Malta. Roman bakers baked leavened bread, both white and wholemeal. Small-scale baking required a dome-shaped baking-crock (testum and clibanus ). Archaeologists often find fragments of these. A commercial bakery, complete with fossilized loaves, has been excavated at Pompeii.
The traditional staple food of early Italy had been not wheat bread but puls (porridge made from emmer wheat). The staple diet of the Roman provinces varied considerably, depending on climate and local custom. Barley, although widely considered a respectable, even desirable, staple food in ancient Greece and Italy, was viewed by Roman soldiers as punishment rations. This increased the demand for wheat wherever Roman armies were stationed.
Always in use in the Roman kitchen were olive oil, fish sauce, and wine. All three were manufactured and distributed on a large scale. Garum was the major source of dietary salt: scarcely any Apicius recipes call for pure salt. Grape syrup was also much used in flavoring, as were honey and dates. Many recipes begin with the instruction, "Pound pepper and lovage," a reminder that both exotic spices and local herbs were appreciated (lovage, native to Liguria in northern Italy, is a bitter culinary herb resembling parsley). Other commonly used flavorings were onion, mustard, dill, fennel, rue, savory, thyme, mint, pine kernels, caraway, cumin, ginger, and asafoetida, the central Asian substitute for the silphium that the Greeks had appreciated so much.
Pliny the Elder and Galen—both of whom were wine enthusiasts, judging from their writings—provide full information on the wines that Romans drank with their meals. Italy had many fine wines to boast of. The famous Caecuban vineyards in Latium (modern Lazio) succumbed to urbanization, but Falernian wine, from hillsides in northern Campania, maintained its reputation throughout the empire. In the world's oldest recorded tradition of wine vintage years, fine wines were labelled with the name of one of the consuls elected for the year. The Opimian vintage (121 B.C.E.) was legendary: Opimian wines were served, already 160 years old, at a banquet given for the emperor Caligula in 39 C.E. Horace addressed an amusing poem to a jar of wine: "born, as I was, when Manlius was consul," (that year was 65 B.C.E.). It was in Roman times that the wine-growing regions of Spain and southern Gaul (France) first came to real economic importance. Long-distance transport of wines was less risky if they were "cooked" and sweetened with honey or grape syrup; it was in this form that Greek wines were enjoyed in Rome. Roman territory eventually extended northward far beyond the latitude at which grapes ripen to full sweetness. In these regions, including northern Gaul and Britain, Roman legionaries developed a taste for local beer, which was usually brewed from malted barley.
Food in Roman Society
City dwellers in imperial Rome, many of whom lived in apartment blocks, had little opportunity to cook: cooking required an open fire, often an unacceptable risk. However. street food was always available to the city dweller. Street stalls and cookshops sold cakes and sweets, mulled wine, hot sausages, hot chickpea soup, and porridge. "In the tavern all are equally free," wrote Juvenal (born 67 C.E.) with an undertone of disapproval. He continues, "all drink from a common cup, the couch is barred to no man, the table is no closer to one than it is to another," (Satires 8.177-8). The philosopher Seneca the Younger (died 65 C.E.) gives us the sounds of the busy street just outside his apartment window: "pancakesellers and a sausage-vendor and a confectioner and all the proprietors of cookshops selling their wares, each in his distinctive accent" (Letters to Lucilius, 56).
Poor countryfolk had to depend largely on food from their own fields and gardens, supplemented by herbs and fruits gathered from the wild. Meat and fish were uncommon in their diets. For a sense of the flavors of a Roman peasant diet, see the poem "Moretum" (c. first century b.c.e.).
For the peasant population of the ancient countryside, food preparation was a shared task, but in general it was the special responsibility of women. Large house-holds had kitchens staffed with slaves, the skilled cook himself often being an expensive and carefully-chosen acquisition.
Romans tended to eat little during the first part of the day: a breakfast (ientaculum ) was a snack that many did not trouble to take at all, and only the greedy wanted a heavy lunch (prandium ). There was no better preparation for a full evening meal, (cena ) the one big meal of the day, than a couple of hours at the baths. These were fashionable meeting places, ideal locations for informal business discussions. One could easily spend a whole evening there, for food and wine were available at bars and restaurants.
Typical larger Roman houses had a special dining room, the triclinium. Three couches arranged in a U-shape, each large enough for three diners, surrounded a central table. A house with a big enough garden might have had a garden dining area, as well, which was shaded by vines and creepers, with three stone couches sloping gently upwards to the middle (cushions and pillows made these comfortable). The open side of the square was for waiters to come and go.
Servants took off guests' sandals as they reclined and brought water to wash their hands. A sequence of dishes began with the appetizer or hors d'oeuvre (gustus ), followed by an aperitif such as honeyed wine (mulsum ) or spiced wine (conditum ). The appetizers were generally more varied and more costly than the main course, though not as bulky. At one religious dinner attended by Julius Caesar, sixteen hors d'oeuvres awaited the priestly celebrants. The appetizers ranged from sea urchin and clams to slices of venison and wild boar.
The main courses were accompanied by bread and wine. Diners ate with their hands, with the occasional help of a knife. Waiters were constantly coming and going, bringing new courses, clearing away dishes, and supplying perfumed water for finger-rinsing. Music and dance from hired performers, usually slaves, often accompanied the drinking, which tended to continue long after the meal itself was over. The emperor Augustus preferred to entertain his guests by employing traditional storytellers.
A napkin, which lay in front of the diners as they reclined, might serve as a knapsack to take home the little gifts (apophoreta ) with which a host would regale his friends as they departed. Similar gifts were given to dependents not lucky enough to be invited to a real dinner. Martial (c. 100 C.E.) wrote a collection of short poems intended to accompany such gifts. They are the most obvious sign that hospitality helped to articulate the patron/client relations that permeated Roman society. The Greek satirist Lucian (second century C.E.) wrote a convincing sketch of daily life in a rich Roman household and addressed it to a friend who had been offered a post as private tutor. Placed at the lowest table, Lucian warned, the friend would be sneered at by slaves and would taste little of the fine cuisine except the mallow leaves that garnished the serving dishes (On Salaried Posts in Great Houses, 26).
Among upper-class Romans, unlike Greeks, the sexes were not segregated at meals. It was said that Roman women once sat demurely at the feet of their husbands' dining couches, but by imperial times the women also reclined. It was said, too, that in the old days women did not drink wine, and that the kiss a Roman husband gave his wife when returning home was a way of assuring himself that this rule had been kept.
See also Ancient Kitchen, The ; Ancient Mediterranean Religions ; Apicius ; Feasts, Festivals, and Fasts ; Greece, Ancient ; Greece and Crete ; Italy ; Luxury ; Petronius ; Wine in the Ancient World .
The standard modern survey of Roman food and the most detailed study of Roman wine are both in French: André, Jacques. L'alimentation et la cuisine à Rome [Food and cuisine in Rome]. 2d ed. (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1981. Tchernia, André. Le Vin de l'Italie romaine [The wine of Roman Italy]. (Rome: Ecole Française de Rome, 1986). Plenty of useful information in English will be found in: Alcock, Joan P. Food in Roman Britain. (Brimscombe Port, Gloucestershire, U.K.: Tempus, 2001); Fleming, Stuart J. Vinum: the Story of Roman Wine. (Glen Mills, Pa.: Art Flair, 2001); Garnsey, Peter. Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Slater, William J., ed. Dining in a Classical Context. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991); White, K. D. Roman Farming. (London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1970); Wilkins, John, David Harvey, and Mike Dobson, eds. Food in Antiquity. (Exeter, U.K.: Exeter University Press, 1995).
Modern translations of most of the Roman literary texts cited in this article are easily found in libraries. For examples of Christian biographies see Russell, Norman, trans. The Lives of the Desert Fathers. (Oxford: Mowbray; Kalamazoo, Mich.: Cistercian Publications, 1981). The following is a list of specialized Roman sources on food that are available in English: Dalby, Andrew, trans. Cato, On farming. (Totnes, Devon, U.K.: Prospect Books, 1998); Ash, Harrison Boyd, E. S. Forster, and Edward H. Heffner, trans. Columella, On Agriculture. 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1941–1955); Rackham, H., et al., trans. Pliny, Natural History. 10 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938–1963); Grant, Mark. Galen on Food and Diet. (London and New York: Routledge, 2000); Grant, Mark. Dieting for an Emperor: A Translation of Books 1 and 4 of Oribasius' Medical Compilations. (Leiden: Brill, 1997).
For Roman recipes with modern adaptations see: Grant, Mark. Roman Cookery: Ancient Recipes for Modern Kitchens. (London: Serif, 1999); Dalby, Andrew, and Sally Grainger. The Classical Cookbook. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum; London: British Museum Press, 1996. See also under Apicius).
For information on the spice trade see: Miller, J. Innes. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969); Dalby, Andrew. Dangerous Tastes: the Story of Spices. (London: British Museum Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). For works on country people and their food see: Frayn, Joan M. Subsistence Farming in Roman Italy. (London: Centaur Press, 1979); Kenny. E. J., ed. Moretum: the Ploughman's Lunch, A Poem Ascribed to Virgil (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1986). For information on markets see: Frayn, Joan M. Markets and Fairs in Roman Italy. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993); de Ligt, L. Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire. (Amsterdam: Gieben, 1993).
Emily Gowers, in The Loaded Table (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993) explores the hidden meanings of food in Latin poetry: she makes a special study of the poetic invitations to dinner. Andrew Dalby's Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman Empire (London and New York: Routledge, 2000) is a survey of the empire's foods and other luxuries, showing their use in constructing Roman imperial identity. The best outline of Roman daily life, dated in some ways, but well documented and not superseded, is: Carcopino, Jérôme. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940; London: Routledge, 1941).
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Rome (Ancient Religion & Magic)
Rome (Ancient Religion & Magic)
Magical practice was widespread among the ancient Romans. Magic was integral to their worship and operated as an organized system of magical rites for communal ends. Magic formed a foundation for thought and outlook upon the world, entered daily life, and directly affected many laws and customs. This ingrained tendency eventually developed into a broad polytheistic system, which led during bad times, especially in the later years of the Empire, to a frenzied search for new gods, borrowed from various countries Rome had conquered. In times of misfortune and disaster, the Romans were always ready to utilize a non-Roman deity if his or her favors promised more than those of their own deities.
Although there was a strong conservative element in the populous, and the "custom of the elders" was strongly upheld by the priestly fraternity, this usually gave way before the momentary impulses of the people. Thus, as a rock shows its geological history by its differing strata, so the theogony of the Roman gods tells its tale of the race that conceived it. There are prehistoric nature deities, borrowed from indigenous tribes; gods of the Sabines, from whom the young colony stole its wives; gods of the Etruscans, and of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Persians. The temple of Jupiter on the capitol contained the altar of an ancient deity, a stone-god, Terminus, the spirit of boundaries. In the temple of Diana of the Grove, a fountain nymph was worshiped. Additional instances of this kind abound.
Belief in Spirits
In addition to the gods, the spirits needed to be propitiated. Indeed the objects offered to the Roman for veneration were seemingly numberless. Apuleius gave a description of popular supernaturalism when he told of a country road where one might meet an altar wreathed with flowers, a cave hung with garlands, an oak tree laden with horns of cattle, a hill marked by fences as sacred, a log rough-hewn into shape, an altar of turf smoking with libations, or a stone anointed with oil.
Every single action of man's daily life had a presiding spirit, as did commerce and husbandry. Ednea was concerned with eating and Potina with drinking. Other spirits oversaw departures, travel, approaching, and homecoming. In commerce Mercurius reigned as the spirit of gain and Pecunia of money. Farmers had to pay attention to the spirits of cutting, grinding, sowing, and bee-keeping. A deity presided over streets and highways; Cloacina served as goddess of the sewers, while the lowly Mephitis was the spirit of bad smells. Spirits of evil, such as Robigo, the spirit of mildew, also had to be propitiated by pacificatory rites. In Rome there was an altar to fever and bad fortune.
From the country came Silvanus, god of farms and woods, and his fauns and nymphs with Picus, the woodpecker god who fed the twins Romulus and Remus with berries. Each deity or spirit possessed some influence, and had to be approached with proper rites. The names of these spirits were inscribed on tablets, indigitamenta, which were in the charge of the pontiffs (priests), who thus knew which spirit to evoke according to need. Most of these spirits were animistic in origin.
Rites and Worship
Worship in ancient Rome consisted largely of magical rites destined to propitiate the powers controlling human beings, to bring people into touch with those powers, to renew life and the land that supported it, and to stop that process of degeneration constantly set in motion by evil influences. Everything connected with worship typified this restoration. The priests, who represented the life of the community, were therefore bound by strict observances from endangering it in any way. Rules as to attire, eating, and touch were numerous. Sacrifices were systematized according to the end desired and the deity invoked.
Worship instructions designated the age and gender of all animal sacrifices; oxen were to be offered to Jupiter and Mars, and swine to Juno, Ceres the corn-goddess, and Silvanus. At one shrine, a pregnant cow was sacrificed and the ashes of the unborn young were considered to be of special magical efficacy. Even human sacrifice existed within historical times. After the battle of Cannæ, the Romans sought to divert misfortune by burying two Greeks alive in the cattle-market, while in the time of Julius Cæsar, two men were put to death with sacrificial solemnities by the pontiff and flamen of Mars. Again, in the time of Cicero and Horace, boys were killed for magical purposes.
Fire possessed great virtue and was held sacred in the worship of Vesta, in early belief Vesta being the fire itself; it presided over the family hearth; it restored purity and conferred protection.
Blood had the same quality and, smeared on the face of the god, symbolized and brought about the oneness of the deity with the community. On great occasions the statue of Jupiter was treated thus: the priests of Bellona made incisions in their shoulders and sprinkled the blood upon the image. The face of a triumphant general was painted with vermilion to represent blood.
Kneeling and prostration brought one into direct contact with the earth of the sacred place.
Music was also used as a species of incantation, probably deriving its origin in sounds made to drive away evil spirits. Dancing too was of magical efficacy. In Rome there were colleges of dancers for the purposes of religion, youths who danced in solemn measure about the altars, who, in the sacred month of Mars, took part in the festivals and were sent throughout the city dancing and singing. One authority stated that there were four kinds of "holy solemnity"—sacrifice, sacred banquets, public festivals, and games. Theatrical performances also belonged to this category, in one instance being used as a means of diverting a pestilence.
Sacred banquets were often decreed by the Senate as thanksgiving to the gods. Tables were spread with a sumptuous repast in the public places and were first offered to the statues of the deities seated around.
The festivals were numerous, all of a magical and symbolic nature. In the spring there was the Parilia, when fires of straw were lighted, through which persons passed to be purified, and the Cerealia, celebrated with sacrifice and offerings to Ceres, the corn-goddess, and followed by banquets. The Lupercalia, the festival of Faunus, was held in February and symbolized the wakening of spring and growth. Goats were slain as sacrifice and with their blood the Luperci, youths clad in skins, smeared their faces. They took thongs made of the goatskin and, laughing wildly, rushed through the city striking the crowd, Roman matrons believing that the blows thus received rendered them prolific.
Juno, the goddess of marriage and childbirth, also had her festival, the Matronalia, celebrated by the women of Rome. During festivals of the dead, the door leading to the other world was opened, the stone removed from its entrance in the Comitium, and the dark spirits who came forth were appeased with offerings. On these days, three times in the year, when the gods of gloom were abroad, complete cessation from all work was decreed. No battle could be fought nor ship set sail, neither could a man and woman marry.
To the sacred games were taken the statues of the gods in gorgeous procession, chariots of silver, companies of priests, and youths singing and dancing. The gods viewed the games reclining on couches.
The chariot races also partook of the nature of rites. After the races, in the Field of Mars, came one of the most important Roman rites, the sacrifice of the October Horse. The righthand horse of the victorious team was sacrificed to Mars, and the tail of the animal, running with blood, carried to the Altar of the Regia. The blood was stored in the temple of Vesta until the following spring and used in the sacrifice of the festival of Parilia. The sacrifice was essentially magical, all citizens present being purified by the blood-sprinkling and bonfire.
The Roman outlook upon life was largely colored by magic. Bodily foes had their counterpart in the unseen world— wandering spirits of the dead, spirits of evil, the anger of innocently offended deities, and the menace of the evil eye. Portents and prodigies were everywhere. In the heavens, strange things might be seen. The sun had been known to double, even treble itself, its light turn to blood, or a magical halo to appear round the orb. Thunder and lightning were always fraught with presage. Jove was angered when he opened the heavens and hurled his bolts to earth.
Phantoms, too, hovered amid the clouds. Upon the Campagna, the gods were observed in conflict, and afterward tracks of the combatants were visible across the plain. Unearthly voices were heard amid the mountains and groves and cries of portent sounded within the temples.
Blood haunted the Roman imagination. Sometimes it was said to have covered the land as a mantle, the standing corn dyed with blood, the rivers and fountains flowing with it, while walls and statues were covered with a bloody sweat.
The flight and song of birds might foretell the decrees of Fate; unappeased spirits of the dead were known to lurk near and steal away the souls of men, who then died. All these happenings were attributable to the gods and spirits, who, if the portent was one of menace, must be propitiated, if one of good fortune, thanked with offerings.
Down to later times, this deep belief in the occurrence of prodigies persisted. When Otho set out for Italy in 69 C.E. , Rome rang with reports of a gigantic phantom rushing forth from the Temple of Juno and of the statue of Julius turning from east to west.
Divination and Augury
Divination was connected with Roman worship. There was a spot on the Capitol from which the augur, with veiled head, read the auspices in the flight of birds. Augurs also accompanied armies and fleets and read the omens before an engagement was entered upon. Divination was also practiced by reading the intestines of animals, by dreams, by divine possession, as in the case of the Oracles, when prophecies were uttered. These had been gathered together in the Sibylline Books and were consulted as oracles by the state. With the worship of fortune were connected the Lots of Praœneste. The questions put to the goddess were answered by means of oaken lots a boy drew from a case made of sacred wood. The fortune-tellers also used a narrow-necked urn that, filled with water, only allowed one lot at a time to rise. Astrologers from Chaldea were also much sought after and were attached to the kingly and noble houses.
Familiar things of everyday life took on magical import. Words and numbers, especially odd ones, were of special significance. The Kalends, Nones, and Ides were so arranged as to fall upon odd days. Touch was binding, and so recognized in the law of Rome, as the grasp of a thing sold, from a slave to a turf of distant estate. Knotting and twisting of thread was injurious, so that women must never pass by cornfields twisting their spindles.
A strange sympathy existed between the trees and humankind, and great honor was paid to the sacred trees of Rome. On the oak tree of Jupiter, the triumphant general hung the shield and arms of his fallen foe, while the hedges about the Temple of Diana at Nemi were covered with votive offerings. The trees also harbored the spirits of the dead, who came forth as dreams to the souls of men. Pliny the Elder stated in this matter:
"Trees have a soul since nothing on earth lives without one. They are the temples of spirits and the simple countryside dedicates still a noble tree to some god. The various kinds of trees are sacred to their protecting spirits: the oak to Jupiter, the laurel to Apollo, olive to Minerva, myrtle to Venus, white poplar to Hercules."
These trees therefore partook of the nature of their presiding spirits and it was desirable to bring about communion with their magical influence, as in the spring, when laurel boughs were hung at the doors of the flamens and pontiffs, and in the temple of Vesta, where they remained hanging until the following year. Trees and their leaves were also possessed of healing and purifying value. Laurel was used for the latter quality after triumphs, when the spears and javelins of legionaries were wreathed with its branches to purify them from the blood of the enemy.
Man himself had a presiding spirit, his genius, each woman her "Juno" and the Saturnalia was really a holiday for this "other self." The Roman kept his birthday in honor of his genius. He would offer frankincense, cakes, and unmixed wine on an altar garlanded with flowers while making solemn prayers for the coming year. Cities and villages had their genii.
Beliefs About Death
Death was believed to be the life and soul enticed away by revengeful ghosts, hence death would never occur save by such agencies. The dead therefore must be appeased with offerings or else they wandered abroad working evil among the living.
One manifestation of this belief appeared in Ovid's lines, "Once upon a time the great feast of the dead was not observed and the manes failed to receive the customary gifts, the fruit, the salt, the corn steeped in unmixed wine, the violets. The injured spirits revenged themselves on the living and the city was encircled with the funeral fires of their victims. The townsfolk heard their grandsires complaining in the quiet hours of the night, and told each other how the unsubstantial troop of monstrous specters rising from their tombs, shrieked along the city streets and up and down the fields."
Beans were used in the funeral feasts. They were supposed to harbor the souls of the dead, and the bean-blossom to be inscribed with characters of mourning.
Dreams were considered of great importance by the Romans and many historical instances of prophetic dreams may be found. They were thought to be like birds, the "bronze-colored" hawks; they were also thought to be the souls of human beings visiting others in their sleep or the souls of the dead returning to earth. In Virgil much may be found on this subject. Lucretius tried to find a scientific reason for dreams; Cicero, although writing in a slighting manner of the prevalent belief in these manifestations of sleep, recorded dreams of his own.
Sorcery & Witchcraft
Sorcery in all its forms, from love-magic to death-magic, was rife among all classes, as were necromantic practices. There were charms and spells for everything under the sun. The rain-charm of the pontiffs consisted of the throwing of puppets into the Tiber. The charm against thunderbolts was compounded of onions, hair, and sprats. The charm against an epidemic required the matrons of Rome to sweep the temple-floors with their hair. There were many more charms, including the simple love-charm strung around the neck of the country maiden.
Witches were prevalent. The poets often chose these sinister figures for their subjects, as when Horace described the ghastly rites of two witches in the cemetery of the Esquiline. Under the light of the new moon they crawled about looking for poisonous herbs and bones. They called the specters to a banquet consisting of a black lamb torn to pieces with their teeth, and afterward these phantoms had to answer the questions of the sorceresses.
Witches made images of their victims and prayed to the infernal powers for help; hounds and snakes glided over the ground, the moon turned to blood, and as the images were melted so the lives of the victims ebbed away.
Virgil gives a picture of a sorceress performing love-magic by means of a waxen image of the youth whose love she desired. Lucan, in his Pharsalia, discusses Thessaly, notorious in all ages for sorcery, and drew a terrific figure of Erichtho, a sorceress of illimitable powers, one whom even the gods obeyed, and to whom the forces of earth and heaven were bond-slaves.
The attitude of the cultured class towards magic is illustrated by an illuminating passage to be found in the writings of Pliny the Elder. He states,
"The art of magic has prevailed in most ages and in most parts of the globe. Let no one wonder that it has wielded very great authority inasmuch as it embraces three other sources of influence. No one doubts that it took its rise in medicine and sought to cloak itself in the garb of a science more profound and holy than the common run. It added to its tempting promises the force of religion, after which the human race is groping, especially at this time. Further it has brought in the arts of astrology and divination. For everyone desires to know what is to come to him and believes that certainty can be gained by consulting the stars. Having in this way taken captive the feelings of man by a triple chain, it has reached such a pitch that it rules over all the world and in the East, governs the King of Kings."
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ROME. From 1500 to 1789, Rome's population grew from about 50,000 to over 160,000. A small civic government maintained some autonomy well into the seventeenth century, but the papacy increasingly controlled local and regional administration, even as its own role in European politics declined. As the center of Catholic Christendom, Rome remained the focal point for the church hierarchy, for numerous religious orders, and for pilgrims. From the 1540s on, concern for doctrinal orthodoxy circumscribed written and artistic expression, but for another two centuries the city of the popes remained a site of cultural creativity and accomplishment, particularly in architecture.
ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT
In 1500, papal revenues still came primarily from dioceses and church landholdings throughout Europe. After the Protestant Reformation diminished that source, the popes relied more upon heavy taxation of their territories in central Italy, known as the Papal States. A funded debt established in 1526 helped rationalize the curial economy. By 1600, Rome's administration of its territories was arguably as sophisticated as that of any other European state, but its failure to develop new sources of wealth meant reliance upon deficit spending and foreign patronage. The economy of the city beyond the Curia, built largely around the annual influx of pilgrims, perennially lacked a strong industrial or agricultural base. Bad harvests could readily lead to famines, as happened in 1763–1764.
Whereas sixteenth-century popes such as Julius II (reigned 1503–1513) and Paul III (reigned 1534–1549) engaged in wars with powerful Roman families such as the Colonna, over time the local nobles were subsumed into the church hierarchy. A civic government, the Senate and People of Rome, retained some judicial powers and provided a forum for rallying public opinion. It had influence particularly during periods of vacant see (i.e., between popes). But by 1600 all top state officials were churchmen: a cardinal-chamberlain (camerlengo) headed administration of the papacy's temporal domain, with cardinal-legates governing different regions and a cardinal serving as secretary of state. Thereafter, Roman nobles played an essentially ceremonial role, except to the extent that family members obtained high curial offices.
By 1500, Italian politics were being transformed by the presence of French and Spanish armies. Pope Julius II played the two against each other while strengthening his economic and political hold on the Papal States. By the mid-1520s, however, the might of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, united in the person of Charles V (ruled 1519–1556), became decisive. Clement VII (reigned 1523–1534) sought intermittently to form alliances to contain imperial power on the peninsula, but the League of Cognac (formed 22 May 1526), in which the pope joined forces with Venice and France, was too disunified in purpose to prevent an imperial army from sacking Rome on 6 May 1527. Clement VII ultimately made peace with Charles V, and he officially crowned Charles emperor in Bologna in February 1530.
Thereafter, Spanish sovereigns often proved critical in defending Rome and in furthering papal goals beyond Italy. Paul IV (reigned 1555–1559) bucked this trend, forming with France an alliance designed to drive the Spaniards from Italy, but the strategy backfired when an imperial army under the duke of Alba encamped near Rome in 1557, forcing the pope to make peace. French defeats soon led to the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), following which Spain enjoyed a uniquely privileged relationship with Rome: Spanish kings exerted influence in the papal court and gained control over substantial church revenues in Spain. In turn, the kings generously endowed religious institutions in Rome and provided military support to the papacy. Meanwhile, the Vatican diplomatic service grew more complex and systematic, especially under Gregory XIII (reigned 1572–1585) and Clement VIII (reigned 1592–1605), and it came under official control of cardinals.
By the 1620s, the balance of power between Spain and France shifted temporarily in the direction of the latter, and Urban VIII (reigned 1623–1644) was elected pope with strong support of French cardinals. Spain remained influential throughout the century, particularly during the pontificate of Alexander VII (reigned 1655–1667). But following the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which ended the Thirty Years' War, religion became sharply less important in European politics, and so Rome ceased to be as critical to dynastic strategies.
THE URBAN LANDSCAPE
Although the building of Renaissance Rome was well under way by 1500, Pope Julius II gave it added impetus. Seeking to make the city suitably dignified for his ambitions, he sponsored construction projects including the Via Giulia and St. Peter's Basilica (begun 1506). Paul III enhanced the fortifications of the Vatican, employed Michelangelo to restore the city capitol (the Campidoglio), and saw to the construction of major urban thoroughfares. Subsequent pontiffs, notably Sixtus V (1585–1590), further edified and embellished the city. Classical models inspired both urban design and the building of suburban villas with gardens.
The seventeenth century saw the addition of massive baroque structures, many designed by Francesco Borromini (1599–1667) and Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680). Commissioned in 1638 to build the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Borromini later designed its imposing curved facade. Bernini's projects included overseeing the completion of St. Peter's and designing the colonnade that surrounds its square (completed 1667).
In the eighteenth century, elaborate new facades for churches and other buildings transformed the appearance of existing squares and streets. Wealthy families such as the Corsini and the Doria Pamphili commissioned private palaces whose facades vied for attention in the public theater of the city. There was more practical construction, as well: some structures were divided into private apartments of varying size to house the burgeoning ranks of mid-level papal officials, and new buildings were erected for oratories, monasteries, convents, and charitable institutions. By the later eighteenth century, construction was curtailed amidst economic crises, but there was by then a dense core of buildings in central Rome, surrounded on the outskirts by the villas of the wealthy.
RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL LEADERSHIP
Although the Protestant Reformation cut into the papacy's prestige and revenues, Rome remained the world center of the Catholic faith. Starting in the pontificate of Paul III, it was also a center of reform. When the papacy convened the Council of Trent (1545–1563), which enacted extensive doctrinal and institutional reforms, new religious groups had already emerged, including the Capuchins (1528) and the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits (1540). The latter's zealous and at times controversial promotion of the faith, which could threaten secular rulers' prerogatives, led in 1773 to its temporary suppression by Pope Clement XIV (reigned 1769–1774). Beginning in the mid-sixteenth century, the Roman Inquisition and the Index of Prohibited Books (first promulgated in 1559) limited the scope of acceptable theological expression but did not entirely stifle other forms of intellectual creativity. The University of Rome, strong before the Sack of 1527, had to shut down for eight years. After reopening, it had mainly regional importance, educating lawyers, mid-level papal and civil officials, and some doctors. Bologna remained the premier university in papal territories. Within Rome, religious orders' schools, especially the Jesuits' Collegio Romano (established 1551), dominated theological education. Literary, scientific, and archaeological culture flourished in the later sixteenth century and beyond, when private collections of manuscripts and antiquities became increasingly fashionable. The constraints of orthodoxy limited radical religious expression, at times forcefully, as in the case of Giordano Bruno, who was burned at the stake in Rome in 1600. Philosophical, scientific, and literary pursuits that did not directly contravene church dogma flourished, especially in academies such as that of the Lincei (1603–1630) and the Arcadia, founded in 1690 by scholars who had enjoyed the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden (d. 1689), who had converted to Catholicism.
The early sixteenth century, a peak period for artistic creativity in Rome, encompassed Michelangelo's painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling (1508–1512) and Raphael's work in the Vatican stanze (begun 1509). Later influential contributions included Michelangelo's Last Judgment (completed 1541), and around 1600 Rome still drew major painters like Annibale Carracci (1560–1609) and Caravaggio (1571–1610). Achievements in architecture reached new heights the following century in the works of Borromini and Bernini, the latter of whom also made enduring contributions to baroque statuary, notably his Ecstasy of St. Theresa (1652) in the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, and the Fountain of the Four Rivers (1651) in the Piazza Navona. In the eighteenth century, public spaces were redesigned with an eye to theatricality. Major projects included the Spanish Steps (1723–1726), the Piazza Sant' Ignazio (1727–1735), and Nicola Salvi's design for the Trevi fountain (mid-1730s), which still today dominates its piazza.
By 1789, Rome had ceased to be a center even of architectural innovation. Still, prints designed and compiled by the architect and engraver Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720–1778) helped disseminate abroad an appreciation for the city's cultural riches, as did its distinction as the final stop on European aristocrats' grand tour. Although Rome's cultural role had waned, the Renaissance, Reformation, and baroque ages would bequeath a rich legacy to future generations, much as the culture of antiquity had done for them.
See also Art: The Conception and Status of the Artist ; Catholicism ; Christina (Sweden) ; Jesuits ; Papacy and Papal States ; Rome, Architecture in ; Rome, Art in ; Rome, Sack of ; Trent, Council of .
Partner, Peter. Renaissance Rome, 1500–1559: A Portrait of a Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1976.
Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Maria Antonietta Visceglia, eds. Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492–1700. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 2002.
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The most powerful of the ancient empires, the civilization that became the Roman Empire rose from humble origins as a city in central Italy. At the height of its power, the Roman Empire stretched from Spain in the west to present-day Syria in the east, and from Egypt in the south to Britain in the north. The story of the rise and fall of the Roman Empire, including what the Romans wore during this fascinating era, has captivated historians for two thousand years.
From city to empire
Legend has it that the city of Rome was founded in 753 b.c.e. by Romulus and Remus, the twin sons of the god Mars, who had been raised by wolves. They established a small town that grew, over time, into a small city that controlled the surrounding region. Rome was one of many small city-states on the Italian peninsula. The most powerful of these city-states was inhabited by the Etruscans, who dominated most of Italy from about 800 b.c.e. until they finally were defeated by the Romans in 250 b.c.e. These small cities, and especially the Etruscans, had a great influence on the developing Roman civilization. Many of the cultural and costume traditions of the Romans were borrowed from the Etruscans.
Initially ruled by a king, in 509 b.c.e. the powerful families of Rome took control of the city-state and established it as a republic, with representatives of the citizens of the city choosing people to form a ruling senate. This began a long period of Roman history known as the Roman Republic (509–27 b.c.e.). At first only the wealthiest members of Roman society could join the government, but over time more of the poorer citizens, called plebeians, gained access to power. It was not a perfect democracy, but many people had the right to vote and thus to call themselves citizens. During the republic the Romans grew more powerful, and slowly they extended their rule. First they took control of much of the Italian peninsula, and then they extended their control into present-day Greece, Spain, and northern Africa. But the rise of powerful armies and the problems with managing an expanding society brought the republic many troubles that were soon addressed by a change in government.
In 27 b.c.e. a new era in Roman history began when a powerful general established himself as the first Roman emperor, thus beginning a period known as the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.–476 c.e.). This emperor, Augustus (63 b.c.e.–14 c.e.), took full control of the empire, and he ruled over an era known as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. For nearly two hundred years the empire flourished. New cities were created and trade with other societies expanded. The empire as a whole grew very rich. Conflict between the rulers of different cities, each with their own armies, soon began to tear the empire apart in a long civil war. The emperor Diocletian (c. 245–c. 316) reorganized the empire in 293 c.e., creating a Western Roman Empire centered in Rome and an Eastern Roman Empire centered in modern-day Turkey. These were united in 324 c.e. under an emperor known as Constantine the Great (c. 285–337 c.e.), yet even Constantine could not hold the empire together. The Western Empire slowly crumbled, attacked by armies from outside and beset by economic trouble from within, and ended in 476 c.e. The Eastern Roman Empire survived, however, as the Byzantine Empire, which lasted until 1453 c.e.
Triumphs and excesses of the empire
The great power that the Roman Empire held in the ancient world led to many accomplishments. Romans build a vast system of roadways and waterways that connected Europe and parts of the Middle East. They created a system of republican government, in which power lies with a group of citizens versus a supreme ruler, which lasted for several hundred years. And they established trade networks that stretched throughout the world, including a thriving trade with China and the Far East. Yet the great successes of Rome also brought troubling changes. The once sparing and simple Romans became lovers of luxury. The rulers had such great power and wealth that they felt anything was possible. The legend that the third-century-b.c.e. emperor Nero played his fiddle while the city of Rome burned has become a symbol for an uncaring ruler. The vicious combat that occurred in the arenas of Rome among gladiators—soldiers who fought to the death as public entertainment for ancient Romans—also showed a lack of concern for human life. Rome's leaders lost the support of their citizens, and eventually the empire could not hold together.
These larger historical changes can be seen in the way that Romans dressed and decorated themselves. Over the entire history of Roman civilization, a few garments provided the basis for the Roman wardrobe. Yet as Rome grew wealthier, these garments became more highly decorated and were made from richer fabrics. Romans became great lovers of jewelry and did not hesitate to display their wealth by wearing numerous jewels. As more and more Romans earned enough money to buy expensive fabrics and adornments, Roman politicians began to limit access to various clothing styles by passing sumptuary laws, which regulated what people could wear and how much money they could spend. Roman clothing also shows the influence of territorial expansion, as the Romans adopted the clothing styles of those they conquered in northern Europe and the fabrics of the Orient. Today we remember Roman clothing through the popular image of the toga, but the Roman clothing tradition offers many other fascinating insights into this amazing ancient society.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Batterberry, Michael, and Ariane Batterberry. Fashion: The Mirror of History. New York: Greenwich House, 1977.
Hart, Avery. Ancient Rome!: Exploring the Culture, People, and Ideas of This Powerful Empire. Charlotte, VT: Williamson, 2002.
Hunt, Alan. Governance of the Consuming Passions: A History of Sumptuary Law. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
Nardo, Don. The Ancient Romans. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2001.
The Roman Empire. http://www.roman-empire.net (accessed on July 11, 2003).
Simpson, Judith. Ancient Rome. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1997.
Steele, Philip. Clothes and Crafts in Roman Times. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2000.
Symons, David J. Costume of Ancient Rome. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury
Roman Body Decorations
"Ancient Rome." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ancient-rome
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Ancient capital of the Roman Empire, later the headquarters of the Papacy and an important center of patronage and artistic innovation during the Renaissance. At the fall of the western empire in the fifth century, Rome entered a chaotic period when the city was subject to invasion by barbarian tribes and civil war among its most powerful families, the Colonna and the Orsini. The emergence of the Papacy gave the city prominence in the late Middle Ages. After the schisms within the church were settled in the early fifteenth century, the Papacy was established permanently in the city. The city attracted artists from all over Italy with its ancient ruins and monuments that inspired them to emulate the architectural styles of antiquity.
Pope Nicholas V, whose reign began in 1447, invited scholars and artists to the city and commissioned Leon Battista Alberti to design a new basilica. The new Saint Peter's Basilica was constructed over the next century from the plans of Alberti, Donato Bramante, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, and several other renowned artists and architects. Pope Sixtus IV established the Vatican Library in 1475, began construction on the Sistine Chapel, and ordered new roads to clear away the city's dark and sinister medieval alleys.
Rome became a major political center as the popes expanded their authority to the Papal States in central Italy and contended for power in northern Italy. The city was occupied by the French in 1494 and in 1527 sacked by the mutinous troops of the Emperor Charles V. In the meantime, several popes gained a reputation for nepotism and corruption, and the city remained a lawless place where murder and riots were frequent occurrences. Under Pope Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII, Rome became a thriving artistic center of the Renaissance, the home of new churches, palaces, and masterpieces created by Michelangelo, Bramante, and Raphael. At the same time, the popes and the Catholic Church were being directly challenged by the Protestant Reformation sweeping northern Europe. By convening the Council of Trent, Pope Paul III attempted to reform the church and return Protestant territories to the religious authority of Rome. The Catholic Reformation that followed discouraged new scholarship and placed new restrictions on the style and subject of art and literature, with an Index banning certain works entirely and an Inquisition accusing and trying many for religious heresy. The popes ended the lavish feasts and festivals that had entertained the city, and adopted new costumes and regalia meant to display the church's more devout, somber, and modest character. Under Pope Sixtus V, the Papacy established a large police force and banned all manner of unruly behavior, from prostitution to public assembly to dueling. Pope Sixtus cleared away many old neighborhoods in order to make Rome a more welcoming center for religious pilgrims. By the end of the Renaissance the city had been completely transformed, with new churches and palaces raised in the new style largely inspired by the city's ancient ruins.
"Rome." The Renaissance. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/arts-construction-medicine-science-and-technology-magazines/rome
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Rome (cities, United States)
Rome:1 City (1990 pop. 30,326), seat of Floyd co., NW Ga., where the Etowah and Oostanaula rivers meet to form the Coosa, in a farm, timber, and quarry area; inc. 1847. The city was first established as cotton market and an industrial center, with textile and lumber mills, clothing factories, and foundries, and has become a manufacturing center that produces concrete and crushed stone, transportation and electrical equipment, plastics, tires, and metal and food products. Rome was settled (1834) on the site of a Cherokee village. It was captured by Union forces in the Civil War; Sherman burned the city in Nov., 1864. Shorter College is there, and Berry College is nearby. The tall clock tower (1871) atop one of the city's hills is Rome's famous landmark.
2 Industrial city (1990 pop. 44,350), Oneida co., central N.Y., on the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal; laid out c.1786 on the site of Fort Stanwix, inc. as a city 1870. It became recognized for its copper and brass manufactures and was dubbed the "Copper City." Cooking utensils, machine tools, and strip steel are some of the products now manufactured. Nearby is the Rome Development Center as well as state parks. Rome is situated on Wood Creek, .5 mi (.8 km) from the Mohawk River. Because of its location, the city was a busy portage point, and it had great strategic importance during the French and Indian Wars and in the American Revolution. The Six Nation Treaty of 1768 was concluded at Fort Stanwix there. The unsuccessful British siege of the fort in the American Revolution led to the battle of Oriskany (see Saratoga campaign). Construction on the Erie Canal began (1817) in Rome.
"Rome (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome-cities-united-states
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By the time of the empire's fall the city was overshadowed politically by Constantinople, but emerged as the seat of the papacy and as the spiritual capital of Western Christianity. In the 14th and 15th centuries Rome became a centre of the Renaissance. It remained under papal control, forming part of the Papal States, until 1871, when it was made the capital of a unified Italy.
In allusive use, Rome is traditionally seen as standing for the Roman Empire or the Roman Catholic Church: the heart and emblem of a major power.
Rome was not built in a day proverbial saying, mid 16th century, used to warn against trying to achieve too much at once.
Treaty of Rome a treaty setting up and defining the aims of the European Economic Community. It was signed at Rome on 25 March 1957 by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
when in Rome, do as the Romans do proverbial saying, late 15th century, meaning that you should conform to the customs of the society you find yourself in; St Ambrose, the 4th-century bishop of Milan, wrote in a letter, ‘When I go to Rome, I fast on Saturday, but here [Milan] I do not. Do you also follow the custom of whatever church you attend.’
See also Roman, Romans.
"Rome." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/rome
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"Rome." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome
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"Rome, ancient." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rome-ancient
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"Rome." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/rome
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"Rome." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/rome-0
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The sexual activities of the Romans and their bawdy depictions in art and literature have for centuries embarrassed scholars who studied Roman society. In fact, the subject of sex was so little explored that it was only in the late 1970s that scholars attempted to define precisely the "naughty" words that had been so scrupulously avoided by the nineteenth-century compilers of the Greek and Latin lexicons. Before the 1970s, when scholars discussed sexual attitudes and practices at all, they did so by unproblematically equating modern conceptions of sexuality to ancient ones. Michel Foucault's 1979 claim that sexuality is constructed and therefore specific to a particular time and place caused scholars to question whether their basic assumptions concerning sexuality and, by extension, gender roles were accurate or useful in understanding the Romans. Since Foucault, a flood of scholarship has explored the constructed nature of Roman sexuality and gender through examinations of literary and material culture. At the same time, however, other scholars found sexual behaviors among the Romans that looked similar to modern ones, especially in reference to modern homosexuality, which led them to take an essentialist stance. John Boswell was chief among those who asserted that sexuality was a stable enough category to justify its study through the centuries (1980). Most scholars now walk a line between the two schools by rejecting the modern homosexuality/heterosexuality dichotomy in favor of an active/passive paradigm in which Roman male citizens exerted their political and social dominance over their partners by playing the active, penetrating role in sexual acts. These same scholars make a nod to the essentialists by acknowledging that while sexuality seems to be constructed, the biological desire for a particular sex is not.
LITERARY EVIDENCE FOR ROMAN SEXUAL PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES
The active/passive paradigm is most clearly seen in evidence from literary sources composed almost exclusively by and for elite Roman citizens. These legal and medical texts, and poetry and public political discourse, display attitudes toward sexual practices that varied considerably based upon the political and social status of the participants. In general, a Roman male citizen could penetrate anyone under his power of a lower social or political status without incurring societal disapproval. This category included slaves, freedmen, foreigners, and prostitutes of both sexes. In this context, the sex of the penetrated partner was not nearly as important as his or her social standing. Indeed, literary sources from as early as the third century bce attach no stigma to a male desiring to penetrate another male be he a boy or fully grown man. So long as the Roman male citizen was the penetrator, he need not worry about a perceived lost of masculinity regardless of the sex of his partner.
Sexual access to Roman citizens was more complicated. Citizens of both sexes were born with pudicitia, a state of inviolability which was destroyed if he or she were sexually penetrated in any orifice. A man was expected to maintain pudicitia throughout his life and indeed this seems to have been a necessary quality if the man wished to become prominent in politics; a woman could maintain her pudicitia so long as she was penetrated only by her husband and only vaginally. The pudicitia of an individual was considered a familial possession since stuprum, the term for the violation of pudicitia, endangered legitimate inheritance in the case of unmarried women and in the case of boys and men, the quality of masculinity so necessary for political life. Stuprum was punished by the paterfamilias, the guardian of the violated party, and punishments could entail the rape or even death of the offender. Roman male citizens who submitted to penetration in any orifice and at any age were mocked as effeminate and sometimes socially shunned as being polluted. The mere accusation of a young man submitting to or desiring stuprum could prevent him from a successful political or military career. Though boys were seen as sexual objects, they were off-limits unless they were of a lower social and political class than the penetrator, and in this the Romans differ from the Greeks and their institutionalized pedophilia.
According to literary sources, female Roman citizens were ideally to limit their sexual experiences to their husbands. Even within marriage, sexual practices were socially prescribed. Though sources suggest that it was unmanly for a male to concern himself with the pleasure of his partner, a woman's orgasm was thought by medical writers either to aid in or be essential for conception. It therefore seems likely that social prescriptions were sometimes disregarded for practical reasons. Yet even when a husband turned his attention to his wife's pleasure, certain practices were still frowned upon: because the mouth was a revered part of the body, fellatio and cunnilingus were thought to be unworthy of a citizen.
In reality, women may well have had sexual relations outside their marriages. Certain social conditions may have facilitated such relationships. In the first centuries bce and ce, women could achieve a degree of financial independence that was unheard of in the ancient world. The traditional form of marriage, which placed the bride financially and legally under the control of her husband and his family, was increasingly displaced by the sine manu form that allowed her to stay under the control of her own father or a guardian. The sine manu arrangement gave the bride financial leverage and helped to balance an essentially unbalanced power relationship (girls could be married as early as twelve while men often waited until their thirties to marry). Under the emperor Augustus, elite Roman women who produced three children, common Roman or Italian women who produced four, and provincial women who produced five were legally allowed to manage their own finances. Some scholars believe that this financial independence allowed for greater sexual freedom. It was also under Augustus that marriage legislation was enacted, forcing men to divorce adulterous wives and forbidding others from marrying these women.
There is little evidence either in literature or in art for sexual encounters between females and modern notions of lesbians; that is, women whose identities are shaped by their sexual preference for women seem to be without Roman parallel. The Greek poetess Sappho and her love of women was well known by Roman authors, though the practice named after her homeland, lesbianism, had little to do with sex between women. Instead, lesbianism was another term for fellatio. When literary sources do mention women having sex with other women, cunnilingus is less prominent than tribadism, in which dildos were employed to please their partners.
Finally, it was common for slaves and some freeborn women to work as prostitutes or pimps. Prostitution was a legalized and socially accepted institution and was even taxed under the emperor Vespasian. Sources attach no stigma to men visiting prostitutes of either sex unless they became emotionally attached to the prostitute or visited too often. On the other hand, prostitutes were marked out from other women by their costume: They were to wear togas, curiously, the garment usually worn only by Roman male citizens. Freeborn prostitutes were seen as social pariahs and under the Empire, elite classes were forbidden to marry them.
The regulation of birth was a regular topic of discussion in medical treatises and poetry. Medical writers were more concerned with methods to aid in conception than prevent it, but the Romans practiced multiple forms of birth control including exposure, barrier methods and chemical treatments. Exposure occurred when, for whatever reason, the father refused to acknowledge a child as his own. Shortly after birth, the baby would then be placed in a trash heap outside the city where she or he would either die of exposure or be rescued and raised as a slave. Predictably, exposure earned the fiery censure of early Christians.
Women were the chief practitioners of other types of birth control. Barrier methods consisted of a wad of wool soaked in olive oil and placed at the mouth of the cervix. Some medical writers prescribed sponges soaked in vinegar or cedar resin used in the same fashion. Chemical treatments came from plants and were ingested or used as pessaries: Silphium, a stalky plant that grew only on the shores of Cyrene, was thought to be particularly effective and by the Imperial period was worth its weight in silver. Queen Anne's Lace seeds were ingested the day after sexual intercourse and seem to have served as an early abortificant.
MATERIAL EVIDENCE FOR ROMAN SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES
Evidence from art and material culture presents a far broader range of sexual attitudes and practices than those found in literature, perhaps because material culture addressed a more diverse audience. No more than ten percent of Roman society might be expected to read literature, but art touched society from the grandest to the humblest in both public and private spheres. The quality of Roman art reflects the social standing of its owners; pieces depicting sexual themes range from life-size marble statues to modest clay lamps. Placed in plain view and without embarrassment, wall paintings, statuary, tableware and lamps depict examples of the very acts that literature labeled unworthy of Roman citizens. For example, the famous silver Warren Cup and various high priced cameos present seemingly sympathetic depictions of male homoerotic acts, apparently between men of equal ages and political status, just the sort of arrangement so frowned upon in literature. Likewise, cunnilingus and fellatio are prominently displayed in public and private contexts. Depictions on clay lamps boast sexual orgies consisting of three or even four participants at a time. Images of erect phalluses and the god Priapus, a guardian god whose primary feature is a two-foot-long phallus, were ubiquitous, appearing in such diverse contexts as the entrances to wealthy homes, on street pavers, or shrines painted on the exteriors of house walls. Public bathhouses were often decorated with comic depictions, such as black men, apparently slaves, who sported enormous erect phalluses.
Who created these works, under whose commission and who were the intended audiences are questions currently occupying art historians. Since the 1990s scholars have taken some important steps in unraveling these issues, but there are considerable difficulties in studying sexual life through material culture. Because of the moral scruples of the excavators and collectors, a substantial amount of evidence was destroyed or removed from its context, an act that makes interpretation far more difficult. Early excavators of Pompeii, for example, tore "obscene" images from walls, wrenched statuary from gardens, and thrust moveable objects with sexual themes into secret collections. Until recently, these were kept under lock and key, safely away from the eyes of the impressionable.
Art historians are busily engaged in recontextualizing this art, and their findings have underlined conclusions of Foucault as well as those of Boswell. That is, some art celebrates love between men seemingly of equal ages and classes; the media of this art testifies to an upper class context in which homosexual men were mocked. In this, Boswell's thesis that homosexuality is a useful category of analysis, finds some merit. Yet one need not look far to find depictions that underline the specificity of Roman notions of sexuality. For instance, the Suburban baths at Pompeii feature wall paintings depicting a number of sexual encounters frowned upon in literature. But these seem to be mnemonic devices for remembering where one put one's toga, or by the interpretation of another scholar, in order to cause bathers to laugh and thus avert the evil eye. Likewise the bronze flying phalluses with dangling bells, mosaics of black men sporting enormous phalluses, and images of Priapus are thought to defuse the power of the evil eye by laughter.
GENDER IN LITERARY SOURCES
Though the demand that a Roman male citizen penetrate rather than be penetrated was clearly an important part in achieving masculinity, it seems to have been only one of several requirements. Early Roman literature points to a definition of virtus, rather weakly translated as "masculinity," which seems to mean aggressive courage in military engagements. The late third century bce and the infusion of Hellenistic culture and philosophy into Rome saw the broadening of this concept to include a number of other traits involving the physical and emotional control of oneself and others. By the second century bce, martial virtus took on a component of restraint, especially in reference to ruling others by keeping the peace in the provinces or at home, or by controlling others through the medium of rhetoric and oratory. Control of one's own body was also a high priority since it allowed others to judge visibly the virtus of a man. Thus literary sources dwell upon cultural codes such as the length of one's tunic and sleeves (the shorter, the manlier), the ability to withstand cold and hunger, and the careful balance struck between grooming the body and effeminately preening. Men who did not control themselves and others were often depicted as effeminate and occasionally accused of playing the passive role in sexual encounters with other men. Curiously, it was these same men, cneidi or pathici, who were accused of blatant and uncontrolled adultery, that is, of violating the pudicitia of married women. These adulterers were not seen as hypermasculine for their ability to seduce married women; rather they were considered effeminate because they were unable to control their passions.
The expanded meanings of virtus sometimes extended to descriptions of women as well as men. In the Republican period there are only a handful of instances when this quality is ascribed to women, and it most often means courage. Under the Empire, however, funerary inscriptions attribute virtus to non-noble women. In these cases, the word seems to indicate the later ethical qualities of the word, especially in terms of restraint. Literary references seem to indicate that women could share masculine qualities with men, but the line between a woman being admirable for such qualities and being presumptuous for stepping out of line was indeed a fine one that could be portrayed positively by friends or negatively by enemies.
In general, the Romans constructed their world in such a way that elite women were expected to stay at home and care for their homes and families. As funerary inscriptions attest, lower class women could and did practice professions, very often those of their husbands. Though the dominant rhetoric envisioned women's intellectual ability or moral fortitude as weaker than men's and thus not fit for political life, the Romans seemed also to recognize that individual women in extraordinary circumstances could carry themselves well in public life. Thus, a fitting closure to this entry seems a selection from the Laudatio Turiae, a funeral inscription for a first-century bce woman erected by her husband:
You became an orphan suddenly before the day of our wedding, when both your parents were murdered together in the solitude of the countryside. It was mainly due to your efforts that the death of your parents was not left unavenged … So strenuously did you perform your filial duty by your insistent demands and your pursuit of justice that I could not have done more if I had been present … How you reacted to this, with what presence of mind you offered resistance, I know full well, although I was absent…. You have innumerable other merits in common with all married women who care for their good name. It is your very own virtues that I am asserting, and very few women have encountered comparable circumstances to make them endure such sufferings and perform such deeds. Providentially Fate has made such hard tests rare for women.
Not only does this inscription underline that some Roman women could navigate through the dangers of dominant gender definitions which marginalized them, it also hints at very real dangers women faced in everyday life: seeing to family businesses, managing finances and raising children alone while men were at war, surviving the dangers of childbirth, and seeing to their own personal safety.
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"Ancient Rome." Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Culture Society History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ancient-rome
"Ancient Rome." Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Culture Society History. . Retrieved January 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ancient-rome