Skip to main content
Select Source:

Gregory XIII

Gregory XIII

Gregory XIII (1502-1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. He was one of the more original and constructive popes of the 16th century, and his influence on religious life Europe and missionary activity overseas was impressive.

Ugo Boncompagni was born on Jan. 1, 1502, in Bologna. At the university there he acquired his doctorate in canon and civil law and then taught between 1531 and 1539. In 1539 he went to Rome. For 33 years before his election as pope he had wide experience in the papal service. Pope Paul al used his legal expertise widely. When about 40 years old, Boncompagni was ordained priest. Pope Paul IV employed him on several diplomatic missions and in 1558 appointed him bishop of Viesti. Pope Pius IV sent him to the last and most tumultuous period of the Council of Trent (1562-1563) and in 1565 created him a cardinal. Charles Borromeo, a paragon of the Tridentine reform, deeply influenced his religious attitudes. On May 14, 1572, he was elected pope and took the name Gregory XIII.

Simple in his style of life and sincerely pious, Gregory energetically advanced the Catholic Reformation. He insisted that bishops reside in their sees and fulfill their episcopal obligations. Convinced of the value of education, he founded at Rome several national colleges for the training of priests, the English, the Greek, the Maronite, the Armenian, and the Hungarian, joining the last to the already established German College. For the Roman College, which eventually became known as the Gregorian University in his honor, Gregory had a special predilection. He approved the Oratory of Philip Neri and the reform of the Carmelites by Theresa of Á vila. He charged Palestrina to revise the books of liturgical chant, and he supported the historical work of Baronius.

Gregory was most active in the fields of science and art. In 1582 he promulgated the revision of the calendar, supplanting the Julian with the Gregorian. He constructed the Quirinal Palace and the chapel named after him in St. Peter's Basilica. In diplomacy he took the initiative, giving permanent establishment to the system of resident papal nuncios. He tried, unsuccessfully, to bring about church union with Russia and Sweden. With the Maronites he renewed the old medieval ties.

In the fluid political life of Europe, Gregory supported the League in France, championed the cause of Mary Stuart in England, and recognized Stephen Báthory as king of Poland. The greatest weakness of his pontificate was his failure to eradicate the rash of brigandage in the Papal States. As a consequence, commerce and finance suffered seriously. Gregory died on April 10, 1585.

Further Reading

Even though recent research calls for some modifications, the best modern comprehensive study of Gregory XIII is Ludwig Pastor, History of the Popes, vols. 19 and 20, translated by Ralph F. Kerr (1930). It includes a full bibliography and list of sources. □

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gregory XIII." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gregory XIII." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

"Gregory XIII." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved August 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gregory XIII

Gregory XIII, 1502–85, pope (1572–85), an Italian named Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Bologna; successor of St. Pius V. He is best known for his work on the calendar, and the reformed calendar, the Gregorian, is named for him. He was prominent at the Council of Trent (1545, 1559–63; see Trent, Council of) and in the work of reform thereafter. He was created (1564) cardinal and later was legate to Spain. As pope, Gregory's absorbing interests were the education of the clergy and the conversion of Protestants. He especially patronized the Jesuits, whom he encouraged on their many missions, particularly in N Europe and in Japan. He proposed the deposition of Queen Elizabeth of England, and he advocated no compromise with German Protestants. He has been much criticized for a public thanksgiving at Rome for the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day, but he had been told that it was the suppression of a rebellion. He issued a new edition of the canon law. He was succeeded by Sixtus V.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gregory XIII." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gregory XIII." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

"Gregory XIII." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Gregory XIII

Gregory XIII (1502–85) Pope (1572–85), b. Ugo Buoncompagni. He supported education, training for the clergy, and missionary activity, especially the Jesuits. He promoted Church reform and sought to carry out the decrees of the Council of Trent. He is best known for reforming the Julian calendar.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gregory XIII." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gregory XIII." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

"Gregory XIII." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gregory-xiii

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.