The future pope was born Giovanni Battista Montini at Concesio (Lombardy), Italy, on September 26, 1897. His father was Giorgio Montini, a well-to-do landowner, editor of the daily Il Cittadino di Brescia, and representative for Brescia in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. He was a vigorous defender of Catholic ideals against the anticlericalism of the day. Giovanni's mother, Giuditta Alghisi Montini, was a member of the lesser nobility and a leader among the Catholic women of Brescia. There were two other sons, Ludovico (born 1896) and Francesco (born 1899).
Giovanni Montini received his primary and secondary education at Brescia's Arici Institute under the direction of the Jesuits. By temperament he was rather shy and retiring, intelligent and ascetic; physically he was somewhat frail. He was accepted at the diocesan seminary but permitted to live at home. Montini was ordained to the priesthood on May 29, 1920. During the following summer he served as a parish curate, but that fall he was sent to Rome for graduate studies at the Gregorian University. He then entered the papal school for foreign-service training. On the completion of his studies he was sent to Warsaw as a minor official at the nunciature but, for reasons of health, was recalled to Rome later in the year and assigned duties in the Vatican Secretariat of State. This was to be his place of work, in positions of ever-increasing importance and responsibility, for the next 31 years.
During his early years in Rome, Montini served as assistant chaplain to Catholic students at the University of Rome and, in 1925, was named national moderator of the Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana (FUCI). His intellectual interests and knowledge of modern philosophy and literature admirably equipped him to work with college students. After the Fascist suppression of all Catholic youth organizations in 1931, he helped found the Movimento Laureati Cattolici to continue this apostolate among university graduates.
These activities, however, were extracurricular as far as Montini's Vatican responsibilities were concerned. In October 1924 he was made an assistant secretary in the office of the Secretariat of State; the following April he was promoted to the rank of minutante (secretary, with clearance to work on confidential papers). These duties were relatively routine, but in February 1930, when Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli became papal secretary of state, Montini's life changed abruptly. From the beginning Pacelli singled him out for special training; and when, in 1933, a young American priest in the Secretariat, Monsignor Spellman (later Cardinal Spellman, Archbishop of New York), was returned to his own country as auxiliary bishop of Boston, Pacelli filled the vacancy by naming Montini to his own personal staff.
In February 1939 Pius XI died, and on March 2 Pacelli was elected pope on the first ballot of the conclave, taking the name Pius XII. The new pontiff retained Montini in his regular duties under the secretary of state, and in 1944 he became undersecretary for ordinary affairs, dealing with the Church's internal administration.
World War II was a period of intense diplomatic as well as humanitarian activity for the Vatican—activity rendered exceptionally difficult by the fact that the Holy See was completely hemmed in by one of the belligerent powers.
Montini directed the Vatican's extensive war relief services. He did much to rescue and hide political refugees, especially Jews, and prevent their falling into the hands of the German and Italian forces. Toward the war's end he acted as liaison between the Vatican and the Americans sent to Italy to establish the War Relief Services, and he engaged the Secretariat of State in intensive efforts to resettle displaced persons.
After the war Montini continued his regular duties at the Vatican, being named prosecretary of state in 1953. On him fell the chief responsibility for organizing the Holy Year in 1950 and the Marian Year in 1954.
Archbishop of Milan
In November 1954 Montini was appointed archbishop of Milan and was soon deeply involved in the active pastoral ministry. He mingled with workers in Milan streets—often being greeted by jeers—toured factories, went down into mines, and visited communist districts. He engaged in dialogue with the communists, acknowledging the legitimacy of many of their complaints about labor conditions, but insisting that a solution to these problems could be found in proper implementation of the Church's traditional social teachings.
During his 8 years in Milan, Montini blessed or consecrated 72 churches and left another 19 under construction at his departure. He made the staggering total of 694 visitations to parishes of the diocese and regularly addressed pastoral letters to both clergy and laity. He established an Office of Charity to provide free medical and legal advice for the poor and devoted special attention to the problems arising from constant and increasing immigration into the area. In education, he established schools for the social formation of laity and clergy and founded, at the University of the Sacred Heart, the Overseas College for Catholic students from underdeveloped countries. In December 1958 Pius's successor, John XXIII, elevated Montini to cardinal.
John XXIII died on June 3, 1963. On June 19 Cardinal Montini entered the Sistine Chapel with 79 other cardinals (the largest conclave in history); two days later he was elected pope, taking the name Paul VI. He was crowned on June 30 in an outdoor ceremony held in St. Peter's Square.
The Second Vatican Council, which John XXIII had opened on Oct. 11, 1962, had ushered in an era of profound and sometimes disconcerting change for the Catholic Church. By Church law an ecumenical council ceases immediately upon the death of the pope who convoked it, and its continuation rests solely upon the wishes and judgment of his successor. As if to remove all doubts instantly and fully, Pope Paul announced that the council would go on, and just five days later (June 27) he convoked the second session for September 29.
During the next three years Pope Paul's vital interest in and cooperation with the work of the council were marked in virtually all that he said and did. He relaxed secrecy requirements and set up a press committee to make the council's work continuously known to news media. An additional number of non-Catholic observers were invited, and some laymen admitted as auditors; in 1964, just before the third session, some women were invited to attend. One of his chief concerns was to assure that the council fathers could work in an atmosphere of freedom, and many of the procedures instituted were designed with this in mind.
As the council developed, a major issue for debate was "collegiality," or the shared authority of the bishops with the Roman pontiff. Pope Paul showed his belief in and full accord with this concept in a number of ways. He agreed to establish the Synod of Bishops, a representative body of bishops selected from all over the world to advise and assist the pope in governing the Church.
After four sessions and the publication of 16 vital documents (four constitutions, nine decrees, and three declarations), the council came to its solemn close on December 8, 1965. In the months and years that followed, Pope Paul worked tirelessly to implement its pronouncements. The first Synod of Bishops, held in Rome from September 29 to October 29, 1967, was attended by some 200 bishops from all parts of the world. Other notable actions were: the reform of the Curia; the revision of the Code of Canon Law; the renewal of the sacred liturgy, with emphasis on the use of the vernacular together with the preservation of Latin; the liberalization of the rules governing mixed marriages; the creation of the Council of the Laity to promote the lay apostolate; and the formation of the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace. Despite reform and implementation, Pope Paul repeatedly cautioned that renewal must proceed deliberately and without sacrificing any of the Church's sacred deposit of faith. He issued admonitions against unfounded theological speculations, unauthorized experimentation in the liturgy, and any attempts to weaken the authority of the Roman pontiff and the hierarchy.
Pope Paul and Ecumenism
From the beginning of his pontificate Paul VI showed an especial concern for the relations of the Catholic Church with other religious bodies and for eventual Christian unity. During Vatican II he extended special courtesy and consideration to non-Catholic observers. His ecumenical concern was particularly notable in the case of the Orthodox Church. During his 1964 trip to the Holy Land he had two cordial conversations with Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople, and at the solemn closing of the Second Vatican Council there took place the historic occasion when he and the Patriarch removed and consigned "to oblivion" the mutual excommunications which in 1054 had resulted in the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.
Pope Paul's relations with Protestantism were also cordial. In 1965 the World Council of Churches proposed the creation of a mixed commission to explore the possibilities of dialogue between the council and the Catholic Church, and he promptly sent Cardinal Bea to Geneva to accept the proposal. In March 1966 he welcomed to the Vatican the Most Reverend Arthur M. Ramsey, Archbishop of Canterbury, and discussed relations between Catholicism and the Anglican Church. In 1968 Pope Paul sent greetings to the Tenth Lambeth Conference of Anglican Bishops and to the Fourth General Assembly of the World Council of Churches. Both of these meetings were attended by Catholic observers. On his June 1969 trip to Geneva he was warmly received at the headquarters of the World Council of Churches. In these ecumenical endeavors, however, the Pope frequently cautioned against any attempt to modify or gloss over essential Catholic teachings. He insisted that unity cannot be brought about at the expense of doctrine.
Encyclicals and Travels
Characteristic of the pontificate of Paul VI were his encyclicals. Besides two brief ones urging devotion and prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary, there were (through September 1969) five major encyclicals. Ecclesiam suam (August 6, 1964; On the Church) dealt with the awareness that the Church has of its nature and on the fact that this awareness must be constantly increased and deepened. This can be done only by constant internal renewal. The Church must engage in dialogue not only among its own members but with all men, including those whose views and beliefs are opposed to its own. Mysterium fidei (September 3, 1965; The Mystery of Faith) restated the Church's traditional teaching on the Eucharist, especially the doctrine of the Real Presence and of transubstantiation, or the change effected by the words of consecration in the Mass. Populorum progressio (March 6, 1967; On the Development of Peoples) was one of Pope Paul's most important pronouncements, an encyclical in the tradition of Leo XIII's Rerum novarum, Pius XI's Quadragesimo anno, and John XXIII's Mater et Magistra and Pacem in terris. It extended and deepened, in the light of modern conditions, the social teachings of his predecessors. Sacerdotalis caelibatus (June 24, 1967; On Priestly Celibacy) was a response to widespread urgings for some relaxation of the Latin Church's traditional rule of celibacy for the priesthood and religious. The Pope, admitting that celibacy was difficult, nevertheless upheld it by appeals to Scripture and tradition and declined to modify the law in any way. Humanae vitae (July 25, 1968; On Human Life) was one of the best-known and most widely discussed papal documents in history. It upheld the Church's traditional teaching on contraception—a teaching already stated with clarity by Pius XI and Pius XII.
A unique feature of Pope Paul's reign, breaking with long-standing tradition, was his travels to so many parts of the world. These journeys—to the Holy Land, to India, to the UN headquarters in New York, and to Portugal, Turkey, Colombia, Switzerland, and Uganda—seemed not only to indicate his eagerness for personal knowledge of and contact with all parts of the Universal Church over which he presided, but also a desire to relate the Church to the modern world and to contribute to a solution for the world's problems.
The greatest of these problems was, of course, that of lasting peace. Pope Paul's pontificate took place in a time of ever-increasing international tension and dangers. No pope ever worked harder to achieve world peace. It was the subject of many written documents and a constantly recurring theme of his discourses. Much effort turned on the war in Vietnam. He repeatedly addressed letters to the heads of the warring nations and met with such world figures as U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson and UN secretary general U Thant to discuss means of ending the war. Simultaneously he sought to bring peace to other parts of the world: in the Middle East, in the Dominican Republic, in the Congo, and in Nigeria. He continued the policy initiated by John XXIII of entering when possible into negotiations with communist nations. Both Soviet president Nikolai Podgorny and foreign minister Andrei Gromyko met with Pope Paul. At various times agreements were reached with Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia that resulted in a lifting of some of the restrictions on religious activities in those countries and in the Holy See's being permitted to name bishops to vacant dioceses.
The Pope Speaks: Dialogues of Paul VI with Jean Guitton (trans. 1968) provides informal and delightful insights into the Pope's thoughts on many subjects. Guitton, a French lay theologian and a close personal friend of the Pontiff, compiled these dialogues from actual conversations with him and published them with Pope Paul's permission. A number of biographies and studies of Paul VI appeared after his accession to the pontificate. All have their merits, but soon became dated. The best and most readable are John G. Clancy, Apostle for Our Time: Pope Paul VI (1963), and William E. Barrett, Shepherd of Mankind (1964). Xavier Rynne (pseudonym), Vatican Council II (1968), offers a vivid if occasionally sensational day-by-day account of the four years of Vatican II; the portion "The Second Session" contains a good biographical sketch of Pope Paul. His obituary was found in the Catholic Encyclopedia. □
PAUL VI (Giovanni Battista Montini, 1897–1978), was pope of the Roman Catholic Church during most of the Second Vatican Council and the years immediately after it. Born to influential and prosperous parents in Concesio, near Brescia, Italy, the sickly young Giovanni was nurtured in an encompassing church environment and groomed for leadership beginning with his seminary career. By the time he was ordained in 1920 he had already begun making friends and adopting styles that were to be conducive to a diplomatic career in the church.
Pius XII wanted to name Montini a cardinal in 1953, but he declined this honor until 1958, when John XXIII endowed him with the title. Pius had earlier appointed the scholarly, diplomatic-minded cleric archbishop of Milan, a key post. Yet it was his years in the Vatican Secretariat of State, to which he had been related through various positions for three decades, that best prepared Montini for the papal vocation to which his colleagues in the cardinalite named him on June 21, 1963.
The first and generally disappointing session of the Second Vatican Council, called by John XXIII to effect reform and renewal in the church, had occurred in autumn of 1962. It now fell to Paul VI to authorize its continuation and to preside over it through three more sessions. Montini's previous reputation would have seen him acting far more in continuity with the conservative, cautious ways of Pius XII than with the bold and disruptive styles of John XXIII. Yet, though he always remained conservative and cautious, he did help create a climate in which the bishops undertook actions that promoted aggiornamento, the creative shaking up and rearrangement that John had hoped for from the council.
Through the three remaining sessions, council decrees supported ecumenism, a more open attitude toward other religions (Nostra aetate ), a collegiality of a sort that implied a sharing of papal power with the bishops, and many internal reforms. Paul seemed to sense more than did many of the reformers that it would not be easy to administer and lead a church in transition to the modern world. While Paul shared a passion to make the church at home in this world, he also felt distanced from secular life and warned against an easy embrace for contemporary value.
Though Paul VI was instinctively reluctant to be an iconoclast, his papacy did initiate many practices that assured continuance of conciliar styles. He worked continuously to reform the Curia, the network of Vatican congregations and offices that surrounds the pope. He changed the often repressive Congregation of the Holy Office to a somewhat more judicious Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith. He gave it more positive assignments than the old Holy Office, which had been associated chiefly with prohibiting suspicious books through the Index of Forbidden Books (Index prohibitorum librorum ).
More important, Paul continued renewal by establishing a Synod of Bishops, whose second meeting in 1969 was as successful as its first one in 1967 had been fumbling and inauspicious. Subsequent meetings of this synod occurred in 1971, 1974, and 1977. At each of these the pope found means to exert pressure for more change and then to counterbalance it, by example and injunction, to hold to tradition where possible.
Reform of the Curia and promotion of synods, his most important works inside the Vatican, were less visible to the church or to the public than other activities for which Paul VI is remembered and through which he left an indelible stamp on the papacy. Most visible was his personal manner. The second regularly televised pope, he was the first to be televised throughout his entire papal career, and he was the first pope to ride in an airplane. He was the subject of extensive media coverage because of the way Vatican II had projected the papacy into the center of religious and political affairs. The pope's image was that of a studious academic, a sober and often mournful figure who bore the weight of many burdens, a leader who cautioned against reckless change.
Of change there was plenty. Priests by the thousands were leaving the priesthood to go into secular work and often to marry. Their move depleted the work force and symbolized decline in the older-style clerical church. Paul took these losses personally and warned remaining priests not to have romantic notions that the church could live without faithful priests or that those who left the priesthood—or the convent, for that matter, since many members of religious orders of women were also leaving them—could accomplish as much for Christ outside their office as in them. Yet he was not able to slow the exodus from the priesthood and the orders.
Paul compensated for some of these losses by giving the church a far more positive image in the eyes of those who had once regarded it, and especially its papal leadership, as alien and self-enclosed. He became the "pilgrim pope," who in a sequence of travels deftly displayed the best his church and he as pope had to offer. In 1964 Paul broke precedent by embracing Patriarch Athenagoras during a trip to Israel, a pilgrimage rich in symbolism for both Judaism and Orthodox Christianity. The papacy had long symbolized to Jews the focus of anti-Jewish thought and action. Paul VI made efforts to enlarge upon the Vatican Council's new spirit toward Jews. Meanwhile, Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, having been severed from each other for nine hundred years, in symbol and in spirit came closer together through the papal and patriarchal embrace in Israel than they had at any previous time during those centuries.
Paul's early travels, during which he reached out to Judaism and, more, to Orthodoxy, showed the thrust of his papacy: For all his cautions, he is remembered as an ecumenical pioneer. First, he encouraged "secular ecumenism" by inaugurating a Vatican Secretariat for Nonbelievers and reached to other faiths in 1964 by appointing a Secretariat for Relations with Non-Christian Religions. He followed up his approach to Orthodoxy with a stop in Turkey in 1967, again to see Athenagoras. He also visited the headquarters of the Orthodox and Protestant World Council of Churches in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1969. His words and actions showed that he saw great differences between Roman Catholic and other Christians, yet he would not let these hinder his efforts to improve relations.
Second, the pilgrim pope's travels let him indicate other directions he would take the church. At the council he clearly wanted to be known as the pope of the poor and, after it, a pope of peace. To this end, in another trip without precedent, he traveled to New York to address the United Nations in 1965. Diplomats were constantly welcomed at the Vatican, always with an interest in seeing whether Paul VI's interventions might promote justice, distribution of resources, and peace. To anyone who observed, it was clear that the papacy henceforth would not be perceived as participating in world affairs only to advance its own ends. His letter Populorum progressio in 1967 revealed his lifelong interest in social justice and seemed to be such a departure from Vatican conservatism that in America the Wall Street Journal called it "warmed-over Marxism." Needless to say, Paul was radically removed from the religious or antireligious ideology of Marxism, against which he constantly cautioned.
Third, his travels allowed Paul to combine ecumenical and internationalist issues by showing his interest in church and society in developing nations. His trips were to take him to Asia in 1964, to Colombia in 1968, to Uganda in 1969, and to a number of nations (including the Philippines, where an assassin threatened him) in 1970. His efforts to deal with the poor in these nations and elsewhere were compromised in the eyes of his critics by his resistance to birth control and population planning as means of limiting hunger and misery.
Birth control was a controversial issue also within the church. In 1968 Paul went against the advice of the majority of his chosen counselors on the subject and in his letter Humanae vitae upheld the tradition of his predecessors, who had condemned what they called "artificial" birth control. Theologians in many nations subsequently spoke out in open revolt. Many bishops and priests had difficulties administering the church in congruence with Humanae vitae. Polls showed that in several nations the large marjority of Roman Cathoic couples did practice such birth control—a sign, to the pope, of a disobedience that became as great a burden as did the defection of priests.
Humanae vitae symbolized the efforts of Paul VI to slow change in the church. In 1967 his Sacerdotalis caelibatus emphatically insisted on celibacy for Latin-rite priests and dashed the hopes of those who desired some change in this concept. It was clear through these letters that the pope wanted to balance his ecumenical and diplomatic image as a flexible leader with an internal or churchly posture that would resist many kinds of compromise with the modern world. In a disciplined way, however, he also set the church on a fresh course, making it impossible for his successors to return it to its sequestered and self-defensive pre–Vatican II styles.
The collected writings and addresses of Paul VI to the midway point in his papacy are to be found in The Teachings of Pope Paul VI, 11 vols. (New York, 1968–1979), but a more condensed version of these is The Mind of Paul VI on the Church and the World, edited by James Walsh (Milwaukee, 1964), with emphasis on Montini's religious ideas prior to his election as pontiff. The most readable of the early biographies is Corrado Pallenberg's The Making of a Pope (New York, 1964), which avoids hagiographical tendencies if not uncritical enthusiasms; Michael Serafian's The Pilgrim (New York, 1964) avoids neither but provides ample detail for an understanding of Paul's 1964 embrace of Eastern Orthodoxy and the "third world" of developing nations. Insight into the pope's character, personality, and theological thought is provided by a series of interviews entitled The Pope Speaks: Dialogues of Paul VI with Jean Guitton, translated by Anne Fremantle and Christopher Fremantle (London, 1968). An interesting and informative study of the administrative aspect of Paul's papacy and its link with previous administrations is Peter Nichols's The Politics of the Vatican (London, 1968). The best English-language source compiling contemporary evaluations of Paul's major contributions and/or missteps is Paul VI: Critical Appraisals, edited by James F. Andrews (New York, 1970). After the pontiff's trip to New York and the United Nations, a number of pictorial essays and journalistic accounts of the event appeared. None is outstanding, but Bill Adler's Pope Paul in the United States: His Mission for Peace on Earth, October 4, 1965 (New York, 1965) is as good as any.
Martin E. Marty (1987)