Paul VI, Pope
PAUL VI, POPE
Pontificate, June 21, 1963, to Aug. 6, 1978; b. Giovanni Battista Montini, at Concesio, Lombardy, Italy, Sept. 26, 1897; d. Castel Gandolfo, Italy.
Born in Concesio, at the country home of the Montini family five miles from Brescia, Giovanni Battista was the second of three children. His brothers were Lodovico and Francesco. The family atmosphere was deeply religious with great interest in literary and political issues. His father, Giorgio (1860–1943), was a lawyer, landowner, editor of the daily newspaper, Il Cittadino di Brescia, and member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies (1919–26). His mother, Giuditta Alghisi (1874–1943), instilled a love of music, art, and languages in her sons that lasted throughout their lives. She was president of Women's Catholic Action in Brescia.
The young Montini was devout and intelligent, but plagued by medical problems that he never fully overcame. Educated in the Jesuit primary and secondary school, Cesare Arici Istitute (1903–14), he also attended the state school, Liceo Arnaldo da Brescia, where he received the license (1916). The Oratorians at the Church
of Santa Maria della Pace in Brescia were a major influence in his youth. He was especially close to the Oratorian priest, Giulio Bevilacqua, who broadened his cultural and intellectual interests. When he began studying for the priesthood, he attended lectures at Brescia's diocesan seminary, but studied and lived at home. Following his ordination at the age of 22 on May 29, 1920, he was sent to Rome to do graduate study in literature at the Sapienza University and philosophy and canon law at the Gregorian University. In 1922, he was selected to attend the Pontifical Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics, the school for training Vatican diplomats.
Secretariat of State. Montini began his thirty years of service in the Vatican Secretariat of State in October 1924 as an addetto (attaché); six months later he was promoted to the rank of minutante (secretary). During those years, he was also active as a chaplain to the Catholic students at the University of Rome. In 1925, he was appointed spiritual moderator to the Federation of Italian Catholic University Students (Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana known as FUCI) which faced the growing threat of the anti-clerical Fascist movement among university students. He and Igino Righetti, President of FUCI, founded Studium, a small publishing company, and La Sapienza, a weekly newspaper. Montini published three books that were collections of his conferences. He also translated two French books into Italian: Three Reformers by Jacques Maritain (1928) and Personal Religion by Léonce de Grandmaison (1934).
In addition to his work in the Secretariat of State, in 1931 Montini began teaching a course on the history of papal diplomacy at the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics. In December 1937, he was named sostituto (undersecretary or surrogate) for ordinary church affairs serving Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, the secretary of state. When Pacelli became Pope pius xii in 1939, Montini continued in the same post with the new secretary of state, Cardinal Luigi Maglione. When the latter died in 1944, Pius XII did not
appoint a secretary of state, and Montini worked directly with the Pope in charge of internal affairs of the Holy See. Msgr. Domenico Tardini handled external affairs. During World War II, Montini had many duties: to deal with the relief efforts of the Holy See, to oversee the tracing of prisoners of war, to protect political prisoners, especially Jews, and to assist displaced persons throughout Europe. After the war, he helped organize the Holy Year in 1950 and the Marian Year in 1954. In 1952, Pius XII asked both Montini and Tardini to accept the cardinalate, but they both declined the honor. In a gesture of appreciation for their work, the Pope gave both of them the title of Prosecretary of State.
Archbishop of Milan. Unexpectedly, Pius XII appointed Montini the Archbishop of Milan (Nov. 1,1954)—a decision that may have been prompted by some internal conflicts within the curia. He departed Rome with some anxiety, but he was determined to face the pastoral challenges in Milan with its three and a half million people, 1,000 churches, and 2,500 priests. He rebuilt churches that had been bombed during the war and revitalized the social apostolate in this highly industrialized city that had been inundated by immigrants from the poorer areas of Italy. One of his goals was to win back the working class from Communist influences. Calling himself, "the archbishop of the workers," he visited workers throughout the archdiocese and preached the social mission of the Gospel. Devoted to the disadvantaged, he was a frequent visitor to hospitals, orphanages, homes for the aged, and prisons. Using his excellent organizational skills, he planned an intense mission for three weeks in November of 1957. Priests, bishops, and hundreds of laypersons, delivered some 7,000 talks in parishes, cinemas, factories, and city streets to encourage lapsed Catholics to return to the Church. In his eight and a half years in Milan, he wrote eight pastoral letters to the faithful in the archdiocese, and each Holy Thursday he wrote a pastoral letter to his priests.
Cardinal. It had been expected that Pius XII would name Montini a cardinal soon after his appointment to Milan, but it did not happen, and the Pope died in 1958. At the papal election, Montini's name appeared on several of the ballots, thus becoming the first non-cardinal in centuries to receive votes in an election. The conclave chose Cardinal Angelo Roncalli, Patriarch of Venice, who became john xxiii on Oct. 28, l958. In his first consistory (Dec. 15, 1958), he created 23 new cardinals. The name of Archbishop Montini led the list of names that included his former fellow-worker in the secretariat of state, Msgr. Tardini. When John XXIII announced his intention to convene the Second vatican council on January 25, 1959, he appointed Montini to both the Central Preparatory Commission and the Technical-Organizational Commission. Between 1959 and 1962, Montini delivered several important lectures on the nature of the forthcoming Council and devoted a 1962 pastoral letter to the faithful of Milan on that subject. He enthusiastically welcomed the Council, which he perceived to be a kairos, an exceptional opportunity for the Church to respond to the grace of God.
Although he was convinced that that Council would benefit the Church, he realized that it would not create a Church without imperfections. During the first session, he wrote weekly articles from Rome on the Council for L'Italia, the Catholic daily newspaper in Milan. He spoke twice at the first session: once on the schema on the liturgy (Oct. 22, 1962) and a second time on the schema on the Church (Dec. 5, 1962) in which he supported the views of Cardinal Léon-Joseph suenens on collegiality.
At the death of John XXIII (June 3, 1963), Montini was favored as his successor by those who felt that he would continue the aggiornamento of Pope John. Not all the electors were of the same mind, however. It took six ballots on June 21 before he gained the two-thirds of the votes necessary for election. Elected at the age of 65, he appeared as a slim and austere figure who, at the time of his election, was 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighed 154 pounds. Taking the name Paul, he was determined that, like Paul the Apostle, his pontificate would spread the Gospel to the entire world. In his first message as Pope, the day after his election, he set forth his agenda: to continue Vatican II, to revise Canon Law, to work for peace and justice at all levels, and to seek Christian unity. Paul VI was crowned on June 30, 1963, giving his address in nine languages. He later sold his tiara to Cardinal Francis Spellman of New York and gave the money to the poor. Subsequently, he used the miter customarily worn by bishops.
Vatican II. As he had promised, Paul VI convened the second session of the Council, September 29, 1963. In his opening address he spoke of the purposes of the Council: to seek a fuller definition of the Church using proper images and to have a deeper understanding of the episcopate; to renew the Catholic Church; to restore the unity of all Christians and to ask forgiveness for the faults of the Catholic Church; and to initiate a positive dialogue with contemporary society that conveys the truth of the Gospel.
Paul VI was well equipped to deal with the Council because of long administrative experience in the secretariat of state and in Milan. He knew the Curia thoroughly. Their actions may not have always pleased him, but they rarely surprised him. He was actively involved in the three sessions of the Council over which he presided. He decided that the Council would not discuss birth control, since the Pontifical Study Commission on Family, Population, and Birth Problems that was established by John XXIII in 1963 had not completed its work. Some of the Fathers wanted the Council to discuss clerical celibacy, but the Pope did not agree. He explained his reasons in a letter (Oct. 10, 1965) to the Council: "It is not opportune to debate publicly this topic. Our intention is not only to preserve this ancient law, but to strengthen its observance." His hope during the Council was that the final documents would be supported by the entire body and not just a slight majority. He was reluctant to stop debate on critical issues. At the end of the third session, for example, Cardinal Tisserant, speaking for the Council Presidency, announced that the preliminary vote on the hotly debated issue of religious liberty would be postponed to the next session. In response to that decision, some 1,000 Council Fathers signed a petition that was brought to the Pope requesting "urgently, very urgently, most urgently" that the schema be voted on in that session. Paul VI did not change the ruling of Tisserant.
As a member of the Council as well as its head, he suggested amendments to several of the documents: ecumenism, missionary activity, revelation, Eastern Catholic Churches, and religious liberty. Yet not all of his interventions were accepted. His suggestion that the Constitution on the Church (Lumen gentium ) state that the Bishop of Rome is responsible to the Lord alone was not approved by the Theological Commission. Nor was another request, made in the first session before he was pope, that the Council declare "Mary Mother of the Church," accepted. Nonetheless Paul VI used this title of Mary in his allocution closing the third session in November 1964. He invited a certain number of laymen, lay and religious women, and priests to attend the Council as auditors. Forty Orthodox and Protestant observers were present in the first session of the Council. With the support of Paul VI, their number grew to 100 by the end of the Council.
Implementation. Vatican II ended Dec. 8, 1965, and the Pope proceeded to implement its 16 documents. He soon discovered that it was a daunting task as he faced unrealistic expectations of the Council, curial opposition, and a crisis in culture in the 1960s that questioned the very existence of authority and tradition. One of the first tasks of Paul VI was the reform of the Curia, a move which many older prelates resented. The apostolic letter Ecclesiae sanctae (Aug. 6, 1966) decreed that bishops are to submit their resignations to the Pope no later than their seventy-fifth birthday. The apostolic constitution Regimini ecclesiae universae (August 15, 1967) urged greater consultation and cooperation among the curial offices and set a five-year term for heads and members of Roman congregations which may be extended by the Pope. Finally, the motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem (Nov. 21, 1970) ruled that cardinals in charge of departments in the Roman Curia are to submit their resignation at the completion of their seventy-fifth year, and that on completion of eighty years of age cardinals cease to be members of the departments of the Roman Curia and lose the right to elect the Pope and to enter the conclave. Several cardinals, Eugène Tisserant and Alfredo Ottaviani among them, were bitterly opposed to this ruling. In addition, the Pope internationalized and expanded the College of Cardinals by adding new members from the Third World. In all he created 144 cardinals. The number of cardinals eligble to vote in papal elections was set at 120 (Apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo, October 1, 1975).
The Pope established three permanent offices to carry out the major directives of the Council: the secretariat for non-christians, the secretariat for non-believers, and the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity. A day before the end of the Council, he issued a decree reforming the Holy Office which was to be called the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith (Motu proprio Integrae servandae, Dec. 7, 1965) and abolished the four-century old Index of Forbidden Books. The Pope also decided to continue the Commission for the Revision of Canon Law, which John XXIII had established in 1959, but appointed its first members only in March 1963. John Paul II finally approved the revised Code of Canon Law in 1983.
Collegiality—the cooperation between the Pope and the bishops—was an important part of the postconciliar efforts of Paul VI. For him, the episcopate was not in opposition to the Pope, "but working with him and under him for the common good and supreme end of the Church itself." In 1966, the Pope in Ecclesiae sanctae mandated that each nation or territory establish a permanent conference of bishops, if one did not already exist. The Synod of Bishops is another important organ of collegiality that was formally established by Paul VI on Sept. 15, 1965, by the motu proprio Apostolica sollicitudo. The purpose of this consultative body is to foster a close relationship between the Pope and the bishops and to facilitate agreement on essential points of doctrine and policy. The five synods he convoked were all held in Rome and dealt with the following issues: 1967—the relationship between the primacy and the episcopacy; 1969—dangers to the faith, revision of canon law, seminaries, mixed marriages, and liturgy; 1971—the ministerial priesthood and justice in the world; 1974—evangelization (see evangelii nuntiandi); and 1977—catechetics.
Liturgical rites were extensively revised after the Council. The Pope approved the use of the vernacular in the liturgy and new translations of liturgical texts. After a long process, approval was given for a new Order of the Mass and a revised breviary. By the apostolic letter Sacrum diaconatus ordinem (June 19, 1967), Paul VI authorized the restoration of the permanent diaconate in the Latin rite that allowed married men to be ordained to that office. The apostolic letter Ministeria quaedam (August 15, 1972) decreed that laymen could be installed in the ministries of lector and acolyte. Laws of fasting and abstinence were modified; the Eucharist fast was reduced to one hour before reception.
Archbishop Marcel lefebvre, a leader in the traditionalist movement, who vehemently opposed most of these liturgical changes, founded the Society of St. Pius X, which attracted a large number of followers. Efforts by Rome at reconciliation failed. In June 1976, Paul VI withdrew canonical approval of the Society of St. Pius X and prohibited Archbishop Lefebvre from exercising his priestly powers. When Lefebvre ordained four bishops in 1988 without Roman approval, he and the four bishops he ordained were automatically excommunicated.
International Travel. Like the Apostle Paul, Paul VI was an itinerant preacher of the Gospel. He was the first Pope to travel outside of Italy since Napoleon took Pius VII into captivity in 1809. He was also the first reigning Pope to travel by air, as well as the first to visit the United States, India, Africa, and the Holy Land. During his pontificate he travelled some 70,000 miles. He had planned to join the celebration of the 1,000th anniversary of Christianity in Poland in 1966, but the Polish government did not allow it.
In all Paul VI made nine pastoral pilgrimages. 1) In January 1964, in Jerusalem he embraced and exchanged the kiss of peace with Athenagoras, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, and together they recited the Lord's Prayer. 2) In December 1964, he stopped in Lebanon on his way to Bombay, India for the International Eucharistic Congress. 3) In a moving address in French to the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965, he said that the Church is "an expert in humanity," and he pleaded for world peace: "No more war. War never again." He concluded his one day visit to New York by celebrating Mass at Yankee Stadium before 90,000. 4) The occasion for his visit to Portugal in 1967 was the fiftieth anniversary of the appearances of Our Lady at Fatima. 5) In July 1967, meeting with Patriarch Athenagoras in Istanbul, Paul VI said that Rome and Constantinople regard each other as sister Churches. 6) The occasion of his visit to Colombia, August 1968, was the Eucharistic Congress at Bogotá and the meeting of the Latin American Bishops' Conference (CELAM) at Medellín. 7) In Geneva, Switzerland, June 1969, the Pope attended ceremonies celebrating the 50th anniversary of the International Labor Organization. He also visited the headquarters of the World Council of Churches and introduced himself with the words: "We are here among you. Our name is Peter." 8) Uganda July 1969. In Kampala he prayed at the shrine of the 22 Ugandan martyrs that he had canonized in 1964. He encouraged the African bishops to develop a genuine African Christianity. 9) Far East, November 1970. This ten-day visit was his longest. He stopped at Tehran, Karachi, Manila, Samoa, Australia, Jakarta, and Sri Lanka. At the Manila airport, he narrowly escaped an assasination attempt by a knife-wielding Bolivian painter. The Pope forgave him on the spot.
Ecumenism. Paul VI had an unswerving commitment to the unity of all Christians, but he was realistic about the difficulty his own office posed. In an address to the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity (April 29, 1967), he said: "The Pope, as we well know, is undoubtedly the greatest obstacle in the path of ecumenism." His relationship with Athenagoras, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, is legendary. They met three times. At their first meeting during the Pope's trip to the Holy Land in January of 1964, they exchanged gifts of special significance, and later in September of 1964, Paul VI returned the head of St. Andrew the Apostle, the brother of Simon Peter, to the Orthodox Church in Patras, Greece. This relic, taken by the Crusaders, had been in the possession of the Vatican since 1462. Before the Council Mass on December 7, 1965, a joint statement from the Pope and the Patriarch was read, lifting the mutual anathemas that were made by representatives of the two Churches in Constantinople in 1054. In his visit to Turkey in July 1967, Paul visited Athenagoras a second time in Istanbul. The Pope spoke of "the dialogue of charity" between the two Churches, and the Patriarch welcomed the Pope as "the very holy successor of Peter who has Paul's name and his conduct as a messenger of charity, union, and love." A third meeting took place in Oct. 1967, when Athenagoras visited the Pope in Vatican City. It was the first time a reigning Ecumenical Patriarch had ever been to Rome. Athenagoras called the Pope the "Bishop of Rome, bearer of apostolic grace," and described the See of Rome as "the first in honor and order in the living body of the Christian Churches scattered throughout the world."
The Pope also received visits from two Anglican Archbishops of Canterbury: Michael Ramsey and Donald Cognan. He gave a warm fraternal embrace to Archbishop Ramsey when they met in March 1966 and said to him: "By your coming here you rebuild a bridge which for centuries has lain fallen between the Church of Rome and Canterbury." The Pope gave his own episcopal ring to the Archbishop who in turn gave the Pope a pectoral cross. This meeting led to the establishment of the anglican-roman catholic international commission (ARCIC). In 1966, the Pope had a lengthy conversation with the Reformed theologian Karl barth. In 1973, he met with the Buddhist Patriarch and with the Dalai Lama. Paul VI's deep desire for Christian unity is reflected in his will published shortly after his death: "The work of drawing closer to our separated brethren should continue with great understanding, with great patience, and with great love, but without deviating from the true Catholic understanding."
Diplomatic Relations. Paul VI's willingness to negotiate with countries behind the Iron Curtain was his most controversial diplomatic initiative. This policy of Ostpolitik continued the "opening to the left" of John XXIII. The Pope condemned atheistic materialism and all violations against social justice, but he felt that accommodation was more productive than confrontation in improving relations between the Church and Communist countries. Cardinals József Mindszenty of Hungary and Josef Slipyj from Ukraine, both of whom had been imprisoned by the Communists, severely criticized the Vatican's negotiations with the East. Yet the policy of détente produced some favorable results and led to the restoration of the hierarchy and greater freedom for Church activities. Hungary and Czechoslovakia, for example, made significant concessions that allowed the Church greater freedom. The Pope met with several Communist leaders: President Nikolai Podgorny and Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko of the Soviet Union, Premier Nicolas Ceausescu of Romania, Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia, and other high-ranking officials from Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Many Western leaders also visited the Pope, including Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford. Paul VI established diplomatic relations with more than 40 countries. In 1964, the Holy See established an office of permanent observer at the United Nations.
Writings and Other Activities. Paul VI wrote seven encyclicals. 1) Ecclesiam Suam (August 6, 1964) anticipated some of the themes that were to appear in Lumen Gentium of Vatican II. The Pope urged the Church to have a greater awareness of itself, to undertake necessary reforms, and to establish a dialogue with the world. 2) Mense maio (April 29, 1965) called for Christians to pray for the success of the Council and for world peace. 3) Mysterium fidei (Sept. 3, 1965) presented thhe traditional teaching of th Church on the mystery of the Holy Eucharist. 4) Christi matri (Sept. 15, 1966) appealed for prayers for peace and explained the value of devotion to the rosary. 5) Populorum progressio (March 26, 1967) discussed the development of peoples. It warned that the disparity between nations jeopardizes peace and that wealthier nations should help poorer ones. All nations have the duty to promote human solidarity. "Development." he said "is another name for peace." 6) Sacerdotalis caelibatus (June 24, 1967) reaffirmed the role of celibacy for clerics in the Latin Church. He described priestly celibacy as "a heavy and sweet burden" and a "total gift" of the priest to God and to the Church. 7) humanae vitae (July 25, 1968) condemned abortion, sterilization, and artificial birth control. It taught that "each and every marriage act must remain open to the transmission of life" (No. 11). This last encyclical created a crisis in the Church, especially in the Western world. Some had expected change in the traditional teaching, especially since the majority of the papal commission on birth control recommended some modification. Others argued that Paul VI did not follow the principle of collegiality, since he failed to consult adequately with the episcopal conferences. Large numbers of Catholics ignored the teaching of the encyclical and many priests resigned over it. On the tenth anniversary of Humanae vitae in 1978, Paul VI referred to it as "a painful document of our pontificate," but he remained convinced that its teaching was correct.
Two of the most significant documents written by Paul VI were not encyclicals. The apostolic letter Octagesima adveniens (May 14, 1971), issued on the 80th anniversary of the encyclical Rerum novarum (1891) of Leo XIII, recognized that the world faced new social challenges and that Christians, relying on their faith, have a personal responsibility to promote justice in their particular situations. The apostolic exhortation evangelii nuntiandi (Dec. 8, 1975) taught that the proclamation of the Gospel, evangelization, is linked to social justice and must oppose all forms of cultural, political, or economic domination. In other addresses, Paul VI emphasized the essential unity of the human race and pleaded for peace in Vietnam, Northern Ireland, and the Middle East. He condemned all forms of oppression, but opposed violence or terrorism as acceptable ways to promote justice. In January 1967, he established the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace, and in 1968 he instituted the World Day of Peace to be observed annually on January 1. With good reason, he called himself an "apostle of peace."
The pope named St. teresa of avila and St. catherine of siena as Doctors of the Church in 1970, the first women to be so honored. He canonized 84 saints including the 22 Ugandan martyrs, the 40 martyrs of England and Wales, and two Americans: Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton and John Nepomucene Neumann. Throughout his pontificate he created 144 cardinals with a great number coming from the Third World. He had appointed 100 of the 111 cardinals who were eligible to vote for his successor. Paul VI held more than 700 general audiences.
The last ten years of his pontificate (1968–78) were difficult for Paul VI. He was more withdrawn and troubled by the negative reaction to Humanae vitae, the polarity between conservatives and liberals, the massive departure from priestly and religious life, and the lack of vocations. The Pope told Jean Guitton that Archbishop Lefebvre, who defiantly opposed the reform of the liturrgy, was "the greatest cross of my pontificate." Rumors that Paul VI would resign on his 70th birthday or later on his 80th were unfounded. In fact, he remained quite active during that decade in writing, travelling, and caring for his flock. His increasing lament over international terrorism and the "renaissance of barbarism" touched him personally when his close friend, Aldo Moro, former premier of Italy, was kindnapped and murdered by the Red Brigades in May 1978.
Debilitating arthritis and acute cystitis weakened him in the summer of 1978. On August 6, he died of a heart attack at Castel Gandolfo. The Pope requested a simple funeral: "I would like to be in real earth with a humble sign indicating the place and inviting Christian mercy. No monument for me." He was buried in a simple wooden coffin in the crypt of St. Peter's. His cause for beatification was introduced on May 11, 1993.
Some observers have compared Paul VI to Hamlet—vacilating, weak, and indecisive. Certainly by nature he was cautious and circumspect. His 30 years experience in the Curia taught him to favor an orderly administrative process and to avoid rash decisions. His style was to move slowly, to examine all aspects of an issue before taking action. Paul VI was aware that some saw him as timid and apprehensive. Toward the end of his pontificate in 1975, when he was 78 years old, the Pope reflected on his life. He noted: "What is my state of mind? Am I Hamlet or Don Quixote? On the left? On the right? I do not feel I have been properly understood. My feelings are 'Superabundo gaudio.' I am filled with comfort, overcome with joy, throughout every affliction."
Paul VI was a man of the Church devoted to God's people. Labels do not easily apply to him. As he noted: "A Pope must be neither a reactionary nor a progressive. He must be a Pope—that's all." He tried to be evenhanded and not vindictive or petty. Although he felt criticism deeply and was given to occasional moments of isolation and self-doubt, he never personally condemned those who disagreed with him. He showed extradordinary patience in dealing with those who dissented from Humanae Vitae, with priests who left the active ministry and sought laicization, with problems in the Dutch Church, and with theologians such as Hans Küng and Ivan Illich. The only condemnation he made was his suspension of Archbishop Lefebvre whose continued defiance of Vatican directives left the Pope no other choice.
Paul VI's two greatest achievements were the continuance of Vatican II and its implementation. In both instances, he showed by his remarkable resolve and decisiveness that he was far removed from the attitude of Hamlet. In his decision to continue Vatican II, he manifested his acceptance of the Council and its importance in the life of the Church. His active engagement in the conciliar proceedings and interventions at difficult moments enabled the Council to complete its work successfully. The implementation of the Council, which occupied the remaining years of his pontificate, was often a continuing and painful struggle for the Pope. Yet in the turmoil of the postconcilar period, he avoided schism within the Roman Catholic Church. Through skillful oversight, he was able to affirm the value of the world without diminishing the uniquenss of the Church; to encourage collegiality and still preserve papal prerogatives; to reform the Curia without losing its support; to support ecumenism without sacrificing Catholic identity; and to revise the liturgy without jettisoning its traditional richness. In a word, the Pope accomplished his greatest challenge: to balance tradition and reform without compromising either.
Bibliography: p. aratÓ and p. vian, Paulus PP. VI, 1963–1978. Elenchus Bibliographicus (Brescia 1981). Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, 1963–1978, 16 v. (Vatican City 1965–1979). The Teachings of Pope Paul VI 1968–1975, 9 v. (Vatican City 1968–1975). The Istituto Paolo VI in Brescia regularly publishes: Quaderni, Notiziario, and reports of conferences. j. g. clancy, Apostle for Our Time: Pope Paul VI (New York 1963). j. guitton, The Pope Speaks: Dialogues of Paul VI with Jean Guitton (New York, 1968). p. hebblethwaite, Paul VI: The First Modern Pope (New York 1993). Paul VI et la modernité dans l'Église: Actes du colloque organisé par l'École française de Rome (Rome and Brescia 1984). n. vian, ed. Anni e opere di Paolo VI (Rome 1978).