Skip to main content
Select Source:

Farnese

Farnese (färnā´zā), Italian noble family that ruled Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1731. In the 12th cent. the Farnese held several fiefs in Latium. They became one of the most prominent families in Rome and were Guelph supporters of the papacy. In 1534, Alessandro Farnese became pope as Paul III. He used his office to aggrandize his family and in 1545 he detached lands from the papal dominions to create the duchy of Parma and Piacenza for his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, 1503–47. Pier Luigi attacked fiscal and judicial abuses; he thereby gained the hatred of the nobility and was assassinated. His son, Ottavio Farnese, 1520–86, who succeeded him, married Margaret of Austria (see Margaret of Parma), illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Ottavio's brother, Alessandro Farnese, 1520–89, was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. A patron of men of letters such as Pietro Bembo and of artists such as Giorgio Vasari, he oversaw the completion of the Farnese Palace in Rome. Ottavio's son and successor was Alessandro Farnese, 1545–92, one of the great generals of his time (see Farnese, Alessandro). Alessandro's son, Ranuccio I, 1569–1622, reformed the duchy's administration and judicial system and was a benefactor of education and the arts. The four dukes who succeeded Ranuccio I were less distinguished rulers, although they continued the family's patronage of the arts despite increasing economic and political troubles. The last duke of the line, Antonio, died in 1731. His niece, Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Philip V of Spain, secured (1748) the succession to the duchy for her son Philip, founder of the line of Bourbon-Parma (see Bourbon, European royal family).

See R. Solari, The House of Farnese (1968).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Farnese." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Farnese." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

"Farnese." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Farnese

Farnese Italian family who ruled (1545–1731) the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza. In 1534, Alessandro Farnese (1468–1549) became pope as Paul III. His grandson, Alessandro Farnese (1545–92), was a general in the service of Philip II of Spain. In 1578, he was appointed governor general of the Spanish Netherlands. He captured Antwerp (1585), and secured possession of the s Netherlands.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Farnese." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Farnese." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

"Farnese." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Farnese

Farnese the Italian family ruling the duchy of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1731. The Farnese Hercules, a copy (by Glycon of Athens) of the statue of Hercules by Lysippus, Greek sculptor of the 4th century bc, excavated in 1540 from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, was initially in the possession of the family.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Farnese." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Farnese." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/farnese

"Farnese." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/farnese

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Farnese

Farnesejazzy, snazzy •palsy-walsy • Ramsay •pansy, tansy •Anasazi, Ashkenazi, Ashkenazy, Benghazi, Ghazi, kamikaze, khazi, Stasi, Swazi •prezzie •frenzy, Mackenzie •Bel Paese, Buthelezi, crazy, daisy, Farnese, glazy, hazy, lazy, Maisie, mazy, oops-a-daisy, Piranesi, upsy-daisy, Veronese •stir-crazy •breezy, cheesy, easy, easy-peasy, Kesey, Parcheesi, queasy, sleazy, wheezy, Zambezi •teensy • speakeasy •busy, dizzy, fizzy, frizzy, Izzy, Lizzie, tizzy •flimsy, whimsy •Kinsey, Lindsay, Lynsey •poesy •Aussie, cossie, mossie •Swansea • gauzy • causey •ballsy, palsy •blowsy, Dalhousie, drowsy, frowzy, housey-housey, lousy •cosy (US cozy), dozy, Josie, mafiosi, mosey, nosy, posey, posy, prosy, Rosie, rosy •Boise, noisy

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Farnese." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Farnese." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/farnese-0

"Farnese." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/farnese-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Farnese

FARNESE

Important Italian family, which, from the late 12th century until 1731 when it became extinct, included Pope Paul III, five cardinals, and the dukes of Parma and Piacenza, notably Alessandro. This family, which became the ducal family of Parma, was neither rich nor important until the early 15th century. Before that the Farnese served Viterbo, Orvieto, and other towns as generals and were always loyal to the papacy. Pietro II fought for the guelfs against Emperor Henry VI, Pietro III against Henry VII. Guido was bishop of Orvieto from 1302 to 1328.

Ranuccio (d. 1460?) moved to Rome and became senator in 1417 and later general of Pope Eugene IV. The family gained prestige through the fiefs he acquired and through the marriages of his children into the oldest families of Rome. His eldest son, Pierluigi, married into the gaetani family, and his son Alessandro was the first cardinal in the family (1493), later becoming Pope paul iii (153449). Paul gave his natural but legitimatized son Pierluigi (d. 1547) and his family properties and offices. Pierluigi became duke of Castro and flagbearer of the Church. Two of Pierluigi's sons were created cardinals; Ottavio, another son, received Camerino, and his brother

Orazio was prefect of Rome. Ottavio's marriage with Margaret, the natural daughter of Emperor charles v, was the first international marriage of the Farnese. The family's greatest honor came in 1545 when the pope, after the approval of a consistory, bestowed Parma and Piacenza on Pierluigi with the rank of duke and with right of succession. This marked the end of the old Farnese loyalty to the papacy; Farnese dynastic considerations henceforth came first. From 1545 to 1547, when Duke Pierluigi restricted his nobles, Don Ferrante Gonzaga, Charles V's governor in Milan, encouraged them to rebel. The nobles assassinated Pierluigi, and Don Ferrante occupied Piacenza. Hence Pierluigi's son Ottavio (d. 1586) did not succeed immediately when the duke died in 1547. Instead, the pope, his grandfather, sent Camillo Orsini to govern Parma; Piacenza stayed in the imperialists' hands. In 1550 the new pope julius iii restored Parma to Ottavio, but when Ottavio joined with King Henry II of France against the emperor (and the pope), the pope once more deprived him of the duchy. However, French military successes forced Julius to recognize Ottavio as ruler of Parma in 1552. Piacenza was restored to him in 1557; the influence of his wife, Margaret of Parma, and that of her half-brother, King philip ii of Spain, was of assistance. Ottavio began the building of the huge Farnese palaces in Piacenza and in Parma. Ottavio's son and successor, Alessandro (d. 1592), was the most able member of the ducal family. He had already won a name for himself as a general and governor of the Netherlands for his uncle, Philip II, when he became duke of Parma and Piacenza. He remained in the Spanish Netherlands and never ruled personally in Parma.

His son, Duke Ranuccio I (d. 1622), contracted such large debts that his duchy began to decline. Odoardo (d.1646) was ten when his father died, and so his uncle, Cardinal Odoardo, served as regent. In time Duke Odoardo proved ambitious. He wished to add Lombardy to his possessions but failed in the attempt. As proud as he was ambitious, he treated the barberini, the nephews of Pope urban viii, with disdain when he visited Rome, and the war for Castro followed. Although he won the war and kept Castro, his debts added a burden to his duchy. Ranuccio II (d. 1694) was 16 when he succeeded his father. His uncle, Cardinal Francesco Maria, and his mother were regents. In Mazarin's quarrel with Pope innocent x the duke supported France and lost Castro, which became a part of the States of the Church. Duke Francesco Maria (d. 1727) succeeded Ranuccio. His brother Antonio (d. 1731) was the last duke.

There were five Farnese cardinals (the first date given being that of their cardinalate): Alessandro (153489), the son of Duke Pierluigi, held several offices; he was vice chancellor in 1535, legate to both Emperor Charles V and King Francis I (153941), and to Charles V (1543). He resembled his grandfather, Paul III, in being a great builder. The cardinal completed the Farnese palace, built the Gesù, purchased and completed the Chigi villa, which was renamed the Farnesina, and built the palace at Caprarola. He made the Farnese palace a meeting place in Rome for persons interested in art and literature. Ranuccio (154565), another son of Duke Pierluigi, was noted for his interest in learning and served as legate in the Marches. Odoardo (15911626), the son of Duke Alessandro, served as legate in Parma for 20 years and as a member of the first Congregation for the propagation of the faith (1622). He built the sacristy of the Gesù. Ludwig von pastor described him as one of the outstanding cardinals in 1622 (see gregory xv). Francesco Maria was cardinal from 1645 to 1647. Girolamo (165768) was nuncio in Switzerland, governor of Rome, and majordomo of Pope alexander vii before he became a cardinal.

Bibliography: g. moroni, Dizionario de erudizione storicoecclesastica, 103 v. in 53 (Venice 184061) 23:193215. p. litta et al., Famiglie celebri italiane, 14 v. (Milan 18191923), v.5. l. callari, I palazzi di Roma (3d ed. Rome 1944) 212229. j. wodka, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 195765) 4:2728.

[m. l. shay]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Farnese." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Farnese." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

"Farnese." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/farnese

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.