Henry VI (1421-1471) was king of England from 1422 to 1461 and in 1470-1471. He was known for his piety and charity, but his reign was marred by the rivalries of his uncles and ministers and by the loss of the achievements of his Lancastrian predecessors.
The only son of Henry V and Catherine of France, Henry was born on Dec. 6, 1421, at Windsor. At less than 9 months of age he succeeded to the throne on Sept. 1, 1422, and he was proclaimed king of both England and France. During his minority he ruled through a council consisting of his uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, as protector; Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, as master; and another uncle, John, Duke of Bedford, as governor of his French possessions. Things went well at first, and at the Battle of Verneuil (August 1424) Bedford was able to check the Dauphin (later Charles VII), who had hoped to take advantage of the minority. But soon the advantage was lost as Gloucester drove the dukes of Burgundy and of Brittany to the French side.
After his coronations in London in 1429 and in Paris the following year, Henry tried to take an active part in government. He mediated in the feud between his uncles in 1434 and sided with the peace policy of Cardinal Beaufort. When Joan of Arc rallied the French, English interest in continuing the war declined for the next decade. Henry reached legal majority in 1442 and concluded a 2-year truce with France the next year.
In 1445 Henry married Margaret of Anjou, the daughter of René, Duke of Anjou and Lorraine and titular king of Sicily, Naples, and Jerusalem. She persuaded him to cede to Charles VII many of the possessions that England held in France. This resulted in her unpopularity with the English and was eventually to lead to her downfall, for she was to be imprisoned for 4 years after Henry's death. From this point on, interest in foreign matters depended mainly on their effect upon public feeling in England and the rivalries that later led to civil war. In 1448 Henry surrendered Maine in order to prolong the truce with France. To please public opinion, in 1450 Henry was forced to exile one of his ministers, John, Duke of Suffolk, who had been instrumental in the downfall of the popular Duke of Gloucester, and in the same year he faced his first major internal crisis in the rebellion of Jack Cade.
This period saw the loss of more English holdings in France (Normandy in 1450 and Guienne by 1453) and the rise of a popular leader, Richard, Duke of York (Suffolk's father-in-law), as the head of the prowar party that had been led by Gloucester. Henry, deeply in debt, tried to calm the parties and granted a general pardon in 1452. In August 1453 he suffered temporary mental illness, and in April 1454 the Duke of York was appointed protector. Henry's only son, Edward, was born in October 1453. While the King was insane, the two rival parties for power, one side led by the Queen and the Duke of Somerset and the other by the Duke of York, started to prepare for civil war. When Henry recovered in January 1455, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, was restored to favor, and the Duke of York was excluded from the Council. After Henry went to the north to gain support, the two sides met at the first Battle of St. Albans in May, where the King was slightly wounded, Somerset was killed, and the fighting of the Wars of the Roses commenced. (The house of York was associated with the white rose, the house of Lancaster with the red rose.)
The next year Henry again became ill, and York was made protector until the King's recovery. York was removed from office when the king's health returned but was allowed to remain on the Council. The war broke out again 4 years later, and in the Battle of Blore Heath on Sept. 23, 1459, the royal forces were defeated. On the approach of the King, however, the Yorkists fled, and 2 months later at the Parliament at Coventry the Duke of York and his followers were dishonored. But by July 1460 the Yorkists had been able to recover and gain London, and in the Battle of Northampton (July 10) Henry was taken prisoner. While the Queen fled to the north to gather allies, the Duke of York claimed the throne, and the two forces met at the Battle of Wakefield (December 30), where the Duke of York was killed. The Queen was unable to follow up the victory, even after a second battle at St. Albans (Feb. 17, 1461), where the King was rescued.
Early in March, Edward, Duke of York, declared himself King Edward IV with the support of London as Henry fled. Henry's followers continued to battle on his behalf unsuccessfully, at the Battle of Towton (March 29, 1461) and at Hexham (May 15, 1464). After hiding first with the Scots and then on the Lancashire-Yorkshire border, Henry was finally captured in 1465 and put in the Tower of London for 5 years. He was briefly restored to the throne after his release (Oct. 3, 1470) due to the support of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick ("Kingmaker"). Warwick, however, was slain at the Battle of Barnet (April 14, 1471), and Henry's son, Edward, was killed a month later at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was recommitted to the Tower, where he was murdered, possibly by Edward IV's brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later Richard III). On May 22 Henry's body was placed on display at St. Paul's Cathedral and then buried with little ceremony at Chertsey Abbey.
Henry was worshiped as a martyr by people in the north of England, and Henry VII had his remains reburied at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, giving up an attempt to have Henry VI canonized as being too costly. Henry VI was the first monarch to establish the royal motto Dieu et Mon Droit, and as a patron of learning he founded Eton (1440) and King's College, Cambridge (1441), as well as suggesting to his queen the foundation of Queen's College, Cambridge (1448).
There is no standard biography of Henry VI, although much of the source material is in print. Detailed studies of the period include Sir Charles W. C. Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker (1891); Cora L. Scofield, The Life and Reign of Edward the Fourth (1923); and Jack R. Lander, The Wars of the Roses (1966). General histories of the period are Alec Reginald Myers, England in the Later Middle Ages (1952), and Ernest Fraser Jacob, The Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485 (1961).
Alexander, Peter, Shakespeare's Henry VI and Richard III, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1975; Philadelphia: R. West, 1977.
Crown, Mr. (John), Henry the Sixth, the first part, 168, London, Cornmarket P., 1969.
Crown, Mr. (John), The misery of civil war, 168, London, Cornmarket P., 1969.
Dicks, Samuel E., Medieval and Renaissance studies: Henry VI and the daughters of Armagnac; a problem in medieval diploma, Emporia, Kansas State Teachers College, Graduate Division, 1967.
Dombrowa, Regina., Strukturen in Shakespeares King Henry the Sixth, Amsterdam: B.R. Grèuner, 1985. Doran, Madeleine, Henry VI, parts II and III: their relation to the Contention and the True tragedy, Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1977; Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1978.
Gaw, Allison, The origin and development of 1 Henry VI: in relation to Shakespeare, Marlowe, Peele, and Greene, Philadelphia: R. West, 1978 c1926; Folcroft, Pa. Folcroft Library Editions, 1974 c1926.
Goy-Blanquet, Dominique., Le roi mis áa nu: l'histoire d'Henri VI, de Hall áa Shakespeare, Paris: Didier âerudition, 1986.
Griffiths, Ralph Alan., The reign of King Henry VI: the exercise of royal authority, 1422-1461, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
Henke, James T., The Ego-King: an archetype approach to Elizabethan political thought and Shakespeare's Henry VI plays, Salzburg: Inst. f. Engl. Sprache u. Literatur, Univ. Salzburg, 1977.
Hinchcliffe, Judith, King Henry VI, parts 1, 2, and 3: an annotated bibliography, New York: Garland Pub., 1984.
Kleine, Peter., Zur Figurencharakteristik in Shakespeares "HenryVI": e. Vergleich mit d. Quellen unter Berèucksichtigung d. Textèuberlieferung u. d. Konzeption moderner Historik, Mèunchen: Minerva-Publikation, 1980.
Long, Freda Margaret., The coveted cro, London, Hale, 1966.
Mescal, John, Henry VI, London: Catholic Truth Society, 1980.
Plaidy, Jean, Red rose of Anjou, New York: Putnam, 1983, 1982;London: Hale, 1982.
Ricks, Don M., Shakespeare's emergent form; a study of the structures of the Henry VI play, Logan, Utah State University Press, 1968.
Riggs, David, Shakespeare's heroical histories; Henry VI and its literary traditio, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1971.
Ruvigny et Raineval, Melville Henry Massue, marquis de, The blood royal of Britain: being a roll of the living descendants of Edward IV and Henry VII, Kings of England, and James III, King of Scotland, Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1994.
Saltmarsh, John, King Henry VI and the royal foundations: a commemorative oration delivered at Eton Colleg, Cambridge, Printed for the Provost and Fellows of Eton College and King's College Cambridge, 1972.
Tull, George Francis., Henry of Windsor, the scholarly King: a public lecture given in Caxton Hall, Westminster on 27th January 196, Tonbridge (Kent), Henry VI Society 1969.
Watts, John Lovett., Henry VI and the politics of kingship, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Wolffe, B. P. (Bertram Percy), Henry VI, London: Eyre Methuen, 1981, 1980. □
It was a cruel trick of fate to provide Henry V with a son who was the very antithesis of the martial and regal traditions of the house of Lancaster. Henry VI proved to be improvident, malleable, vacillating, partisan, uninterested in the arts of government, and, above all, antipathetic to the chivalric world his ancestors had adorned. As soon as he came of age he turned his back on the war in France. The defining moment came in 1440 when at 18 he had the opportunity to take the field in Normandy. Instead he sent his cousin the duke of York as his lieutenant, devoting himself to the foundation of Eton College. Within ten years the government of the kingdom had fallen into the hands of an unscrupulous court faction led by William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, royal debts were mounting, and Normandy was lost. In 1450 the regime was shaken by Cade's revolt, the most widespread and sustained popular rising since 1381. It says much for the residual strength of the dynasty that it survived these shocks. Indeed when Henry suffered his devastating mental collapse in 1453, the reign appeared to be set on a more stable course.
Henry VI fell into a coma in August 1453. He recovered his senses just before Christmas 1454, but was permanently impaired. In some respects his recovery was politically more destabilizing than his collapse. While comatose Henry could be treated as a child again, a protectorate was established, and government entrusted to a council; after his partial recovery, he became a puppet tossed this way and that by faction. By 1459 royal government was almost totally powerless, the administration of the law had virtually collapsed, and the crown was bankrupt. In the civil war that erupted Henry was but a passive onlooker. In 1461 he became the victim when he was deposed by the victorious Edward IV. But his life was spared. There was no sentiment in this. Throughout the 1460s the hope of his cause was carried by his only son and heir Edward, in exile in France; killing Henry would only have promoted a more plausible Lancastrian claimant. In 1470 he was restored to the throne for six months. Coming out of the Tower for rare public appearances, he was a pitiful sight. But the death of the prince of Wales at Tewkesbury in 1471 sealed his own fate, and a few days later he was done to death.
Henry was a more effective force after his death than ever he was in his life. There soon developed a cult surrounding his saintliness, miracles were reported, and Edward IV was obliged to repress it. Richard III moved his body from Waltham, which had become a place of pilgrimage, to Windsor, the better to control the phenomenon. After 1485 Henry VII endeavoured, unsuccessfully, to secure his canonization. It was at this time that John Blacman was commissioned to produce his Recollections, which have fixed the image of the saintly king. But Blacman's portrait of a prudish, unworldly man inhabiting a court more like a convent drew upon memories of Henry after 1453. Before then he had been a man of the world, maintaining a court as splendid as any in Europe. The sad truth is that between 1437 and 1453, between the ages of 16 and 32, Henry had been, as king in deed and as well as name, one of the most incompetent ever to rule England. In another age, and another society, a man who turned his back on vainglorious war, and whose greatest achievements were in the promotion of education (through the foundations of Eton and King's College, Cambridge), might have been more highly regarded. But in 15th-cent. England a king like Henry VI was a public disaster.
Anthony James Pollard
Griffiths, R. A. , The Reign of Henry VI (1981);
Storey, R. L. , The End of the House of Lancaster (1966);
Wolffe, B. P. , Henry VI (1981).
Henry VI (king of England)
Henry VI, 1421–71, king of England (1422–61, 1470–71).
The only son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, he became king of England when he was not yet nine months old. When his grandfather, Charles VI of France, died, Henry was proclaimed king of France by the English, in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Troyes (1420). The French, however, recognized the son of Charles VI as Charles VII.
During Henry's early years, England was under the protectorate of his uncles, John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford, who was regent in France, and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. Gloucester did not wield full authority, however, for much of the actual power resided in a council dominated by Henry Beaufort. After the English defeat by Joan of Arc at Orléans in 1429 and Charles VII's coronation at Reims shortly thereafter, the council attempted to protect English interests in France by crowning Henry king of France at Paris in 1431. After the death of Bedford in 1435 and the defection of Burgundy from the Anglo-Burgundian alliance, however, the English cause in France became hopeless.
From c.1435, Henry fell under the dominance of a faction headed first by Henry Beaufort and later by William de la Pole, 4th earl of Suffolk (see Pole, family), both of whom opposed continuing the war in France. Suffolk negotiated a marriage for Henry with Margaret of Anjou in 1445. This marriage was at first favorably received in England, but when Henry, now under the influence of his wife, surrendered Maine to Charles VII, Suffolk and the queen lost their popularity.
Suffolk was impeached in 1450 and mysteriously murdered at sea while on his way to France. The rebellion of Jack Cade, which broke out after Suffolk's death, was but one of many riots and uprisings indicating popular dissatisfaction with the government. The faction headed by Queen Margaret and Edmund Beaufort, 2d duke of Somerset, which dominated the king after Suffolk's death, was opposed by Richard, duke of York, the most powerful noble in the kingdom and heir presumptive to the throne. The struggle between these two factions developed into the dynastic battle between the Lancasters and the Yorks known as the Wars of the Roses.
Insanity and War
In 1453, shortly before the birth of his son, Edward, the king became insane. The duke of York was made protector (1454) in spite of the protests of Margaret, but when the king recovered, York was excluded from the council. In 1455, York met the Lancastrians at St. Albans in a conflict generally regarded as the first battle of the Wars of the Roses; Somerset was killed, and the Yorkists gained control of the council. York was again protector (1455–56), but thereafter Margaret was in control until 1460 when the Yorkist party won another victory at Northampton. Henry was made a prisoner, and York was named protector and heir apparent to the throne to the exclusion of Henry's own son.
York was killed at Wakefield in 1460, but his son Edward defeated the Lancastrian forces at Mortimer's Cross, entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV in Feb., 1461. Henry, who had been rescued from Yorkist captivity at the second battle of St. Albans a few days earlier, now fled to Scotland. He remained there during most of the subsequent fighting until 1465, when he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
When Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, allied himself with Queen Margaret and invaded England in 1470, Henry was restored to the throne, but his second reign was short-lived. The unfortunate king was captured at the battle of Barnet and returned to the Tower. He was murdered there only days after Edward IV's final victory at Tewkesbury in May, 1471.
Henry was a mild, honest, and pious man, a patron of literature and the arts and the founder of Eton College (1440). He was, however, unstable, weak-willed, and politically naive. It was his complete inability to cope with the pressures and responsibilities of kingship that probably drove him to insanity.
See biography by K. H. Vickers, England in the Later Middle Ages (7th ed. 1950); E. F. Jacob, The Fifteenth Century (1961).
Henry VI (Holy Roman emperor and German king)
Henry VI, 1165–97, Holy Roman emperor (1191–97) and German king (1190–97), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa). He was crowned German king at Aachen in 1169 and king of Italy at Milan in 1186 after his marriage to Constance, heiress presumptive to the throne of Sicily. Henry remained in Italy as his father's representative, ravaging central Italy and forcing it to submit to imperial domination. He became regent at his father's departure (1189) for the Third Crusade and succeeded Frederick, who died in 1190. In 1191, Henry entered Italy on an expedition to secure Constance's Sicilian inheritance from Tancred of Lecce, who had illegally assumed the crown. Stopping at Rome he was crowned Holy Roman emperor by Pope Celestine III. He continued southward, but failed in the initial attempt to take Sicily. He returned to Germany, where he faced a rebellion fomented by the Guelphs and the nobles of the Lower Rhine, who opposed his attempt to absorb Thuringia into the royal demesne. Henry secured a powerful bargaining weapon when he obtained custody (1193) of King Richard I of England, brother-in-law and ally of the Guelph leader, Henry the Lion. Soon after Richard had paid a ransom, sworn fealty to Henry, and been released (Feb., 1194), peace was made. In Sicily, the death of Tancred favored the success of Henry's second expedition (May, 1194). Palermo fell in November, and on Christmas Day Henry was crowned king of Sicily. Insatiable, Henry dreamed of further expansion in the Mediterranean. He began to promote (1195) a new crusade and intimidated the Byzantine emperor, Alexius III, into paying him tribute. At the Diet of Würzburg (1196) Henry proposed that the empire be made hereditary in his family, the Hohenstaufen, and in return offered unrestricted rights of inheritance to those who held fiefs from him. The proposal was defeated, though it found many supporters, and Henry contented himself with securing the election of his infant son (later Emperor Frederick II) as king. Henry died of a fever at Messina just as he was preparing to invade the Holy Land. He was succeeded in Sicily by Frederick II and in the rest of the empire by Philip of Swabia.
Henry VI, English king; b. Windsor, Dec. 6, 1421; d. London, May 21, 1471. He reigned from 1422 to 1471. For a long time, he was regarded as the “Roy Henry” who was the author of a Gloria and a Sanctus in the Old Hall MS; however, research by M. Bukofzer tends to indicate that the works may actually be by Henry V.
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire