The Italian painter Titian (c. 1488-1576) was a great master of religious art, a portraitist in demand all over Europe, and the creator of mythological compositions which for inventiveness and decorative beauty have never been surpassed.
Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian, was born at Pieve di Cadore in the Alps north of Venice. Regarding the year of his birth, modern criticism tends to reject the traditional date of 1477. Although the evidence is conflicting, the statements of contemporaries such as Lodovico Dolce and Giorgio Vasari, plus the fact that Titian's earliest works date from 1508, make the birth date of about 1488/1490 more reasonable.
At the age of 9 Titian set out with his brother Francesco for Venice to enter the workshop of the mosaicist Sebastiano Zuccati. Not long thereafter Titian began to study painting with Giovanni Bellini. Soon Titian met Bellini's other pupil, Giorgione, with whom he collaborated on his first certain work (1507-1508), the frescoes on the exterior of the German Merchants' Exchange (Fondaco dei Tedeschi) in Venice, works now known only in 18th-century prints and a few fragments. The two young painters collaborated so closely at this time that their styles are virtually indistinguishable.
Early Works, ca. 1510-1525
Titian's first major independent commission was the three large frescoes in the Confraternity of St. Anthony (Scuola del Santo) in Padua. His early portraits in half length placed behind a horizontal parapet are very closely related to those of Giorgione, for example, two canvases signed with Titian's initials, T. V., the Gentleman in Blue and La Schiavona (London). The triple portrait, the Concert (Florence), is now assigned to Titian with the possibility that Giorgione began the figure at the left. Titian's early religious pictures, such as the Gypsy Madonna and the Madonna of the Cherries (Vienna), maintain similarities to Giovanni Bellini and are notable for their beauty of color and the detached reflective mood which is often characterized as Giorgionesque.
Soon came Titian's first great mythological works: Flora (Florence) and Sacred and Profane Love (ca. 1515; Rome). The complexity of the iconography in the latter painting may be summarized as contrasting the nude Celestial Venus with the clothed Terrestrial Venus. The beauty of the landscape setting and the classical allusions are notable here. Another work from this period is the famous Christ and the Tribute Money (ca. 1516; Dresden).
Titian's fame as an interpreter of classical mythology was firmly established by his three canvases (1518-1523) for the castle of Alfonso d'Este in Ferrara. The literary sources for these compositions are Philostratus's Imagines, Catullus's Carmina, and Ovid's Fastii and Ars amatoria. In the three paintings—the Andrians, the Worship of Venus (Madrid), and Bacchus and Ariadne (London)—Titian recreated the gaiety and abandon of classical legends, devising compositions of unprecedented beauty of color and design and establishing new canons of physical beauty.
An epoch-making work of Titian's early period is the Assumption of the Virgin (1516-1518; Venice). It marked the triumph of the High Renaissance in Venetian painting by virtue of the monumentality of the composition and the grandiose conception of the Virgin soaring with arms outstretched to heaven.
The Years 1525-1540
During the 1520s Titian produced masterpieces: the Madonna and Child with Saints Francis and Aloysius (1520; Ancona), the Resurrection altar (1522; Brescia), and the Pesaro Madonna (1519-1526; Venice). The diagonal composition of the last, set against a great portico with giant columns, and the luminosity of color, light, and atmosphere established a new formula for Venetian altars which continued into the following century. During this period the artist created the tragic Entombment (ca. 1526-1532; Paris).
The Martyrdom of St. Peter Martyr (ca. 1526-1530; destroyed 1867), once regarded as Titian's greatest masterpiece, involved a new feeling for heroic and dramatic action which is explained by Titian's acquaintance with the art of Michelangelo and the central Italians. Jacopo Sansovino and Sebastiano del Piombo came to Venice in 1527 after the sack of Rome, bringing to the Venetian more direct knowledge of artistic developments in the papal city.
Titian had formed a liaison with Cecilia, a young woman from Cadore with whom he had two sons, Pomponio in 1524 and Orazio in 1525. During her severe illness in 1525 the artist married her, and she lived another 5 years. They had two daughters, one of whom, Lavinia, survived. Titian was so prosperous that in 1531 he rented a luxurious palace, known as the Casa Grande, where he lived for the rest of his life.
An event of great importance in Titian's career was his trip to Bologna to attend the coronation of Charles V as Holy Roman emperor on Feb. 24, 1530. At this time the artist painted his first portrait of the Emperor in armor. The earliest surviving portrait, however, is Charles V with a Hound (Madrid), painted in February 1533 on Charles's second visit to Bologna. In May Charles V showed his appreciation of the artist's genius by making him a knight of the Golden Spur and Count Palatine.
At the same period Titian found time to provide a variety of works for several of his princely patrons: the Madonna and Child with St. Catherine for Ferrara (London), the Madonna with the Rabbit for the Gonzagas (Paris), and 11 portraits of Roman emperors (destroyed) for the Gonzagas. For the Duke of Urbino he painted the portraits Duke Francesco Maria I della Rovere and Duchess Eleanora and the famous Venus of Urbino (1538-1539; Florence). In Venice he supplied the large processional composition of the Presentation of the Virgin (1534-1538) with its array of portraits of contemporaries.
The Years 1540-1555
The next decade carried Titian even farther afield geographically and artistically. His Christ before Pilate (1543; Vienna) involves a new complexity of design in which the flight of steps rises obliquely and the figures in their variety of gestures and poses create a stir and excitement, denoting a change in style, charged with drama, which goes beyond Renaissance balance and repose toward the excitement of mannerist art. The Old Testament series of ceiling paintings (1543-1544) in S. Maria della Salute, Venice, planned to be seen from below, reflects Titian's interest in spatial illusionism introduced by Giulio Romano in his decorative works in the Palazzo del Te, Mantua.
A great event in Titian's life at this time was his sojourn in Rome from September 1545 until June 1546, at the invitation of Pope Paul III. For the first time Titian saw the glories of ancient Rome as well as the Renaissance masterpieces of Raphael and Michelangelo. He himself produced masterpieces during this stay in Rome: Paul III and His Grandsons (Naples), a presentation of a dramatic encounter between the aged pope and his scheming grandsons, one of the most psychologically revealing works in the history of portraiture; and the official state portrait, Paul III without Berretta (Naples).
Back in Venice, Titian painted the Christ Crowned with Thorns (ca. 1545-1550; Paris), an interpretation in which the violent action and muscular physiques seem to reflect his familiarity with Hellenistic sculpture and Michelangelo's paintings, which he had seen in Rome. Titian's Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1548-1557; Venice) was also in the new heroic vein, but even more epoch-making in the originality of its new diagonal structure of composition and the mood-evoking atmosphere.
In January 1548 Titian set forth for Augsburg, called there by Charles V. In his celebrated equestrian portrait, Charles V at Mühlberg (Madrid), which commemorates the victory over the German Protestants, Titian established a type of equestrian state portrait that presents the ruler as a symbol of power. Charles V Seated (Munich) is an intimate record of the sickly monarch. In October 1548 Titian returned to Venice, but Charles V recalled him to Augsburg in October 1550. Of the several portraits he executed of members of the Emperor's court, the most important is that of the youthful Prince Philip (later Philip II) in armor, a work which set a standard for state portraits. During the 1550s the Hapsburgs continued to be Titian's most important patrons. For Charles V he painted three superb devotional panels: two of the Mater Dolorosa and the Trinity (generally known as La Gloria; Madrid).
Late Works, 1555-1576
Philip II soon ordered religious pictures from Titian for the monastery of the Escorial: the magnificent Crucifixion (ca. 1555), the Entombment (1559; now Madrid), and the Adoration of the Kings (1559). Philip II's numerous commissions for the Escorial in the 1560s included two versions of the Agony in the Garden, two of Christ Carrying the Cross (now in Madrid), and the Last Supper (1557-1564). During the same period Titian also executed mythological works for Philip II that are among the supreme products of his genius in the pathbreaking methods of design and sheer beauty of form and color: Diana and Callisto, Diana and Actaeon (both Edinburgh), Perseus and Andromeda (London, Wallace Collection), and the Rape of Europa (Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum).
Titian's late style is notable for new developments in the oblique organization of compositions which point the way to later baroque designs. His brushwork is free and illusionistic, suggesting the forms rather than precisely describing them, and the tones are fused, often blended with the fingers rather than the brush. This style can be seen in the late pictures already cited, as well as in single figures of saints: the St. Margaret (Madrid) with its superb landscape, St. Sebastian, the Magdalen (Leningrad), and St. Jerome (Escorial).
To the end Titian continued to plumb the depths of human character in masterpieces of portraiture, such as Jacopo Strada (1567-1568; Vienna), his self-portraits (ca. 1550, Berlin; ca. 1570, Madrid), and the triple portrait with Orazio and Marco (ca. 1570; London). Titian's late religious pictures convey a mood of universal tragedy, as in the majestic Annunciation (ca. 1565; Venice), the very late Christ Crowned with Thorns (Munich), and the Pietà (Venice), unfinished at his death and intended for his own sepulchral chapel.
On Aug. 27, 1576, Titian died in his spacious palace in Venice, universally recognized as one of the greatest masters of all time. He was interred in the church of S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari.
The first major work on Titian, and the first attempt to separate the artist's originals from copies, was Joseph A. Crowe and Giovanni B. Cavalcaselle, Life and Times of Titian (1877). Hans Tietze, Tizian (2 vols., 1936; published in an abbreviated volume in English in two editions, 1937 and 1950), includes only a selection of major works. After a dearth of monographs for more than 3 decades, several important books have appeared: Erwin Panofsky, Problems in Titian, Mostly Iconographic (1970), dealing with thematic material; and Harold E. Wethey's comprehensive catalogue raisonné, Titian, vol. 1: The Religious Paintings (1969), vol. 2: Titian's Portraits (1971), and vol. 3: Titian's Mythological and Historical Paintings (1973). □
Titian (tĬsh´ən), c.1490–1576, Venetian painter, whose name was Tiziano Vecellio, b. Pieve di Cadore in the Dolomites. Of the very first rank among the artists of the Renaissance, Titian was extraordinarily versatile, painting portraits, landscapes, and sacred and historical subjects with equal skill and a superb pictorial technique. He had an immense influence on succeeding generations of painters, especially in his use of color. A charming and pioneering businessman as well as an artist, Titian introduced his works to an international audience of patrons and viewers and was an important participant in the burgeoning global cultural trade of the 16th cent.
Life and Works
Titian studied painting in the shop of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini. He also worked with Giorgione in 1508 on frescoes (now nearly obliterated) for the facade of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venice. In 1511 he executed frescoes of the miracles of St. Anthony for the Scuola del Santo, Padua. After the deaths of Giorgione and of Giovanni Bellini, Titian was established as the finest painter in Venice. In 1518 he completed the celebrated altarpiece of the Assumption of the Virgin (Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice). During the rest of his career rulers throughout Europe showered him with commissions and honors. His work was eagerly sought by the ducal families of Ferrara, Mantua, and Urbino. Emperor Charles V made him a Count Palatine. Philip II of Spain was also an enthusiastic patron.
In 1545 Titian went to Rome, where he was quartered in the Belvedere of the Vatican. He painted the striking, though unfinished, portrait of Pope Paul III with his grandsons Ottavio (the second Duke of Parma) and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (Pinacoteca, Naples). For Cardinal Farnese he painted a Danaë (Naples), of which he was later to make several versions. In Rome Titian came into contact with Michelangelo and shared his interest in ancient monuments. Returning to Venice, he was invited in 1548 to Augsburg by Charles V. There he executed many portraits of dignitaries and probably, during the course of his conversations with the emperor, conceived the idea of the magnificent La Gloria (1554; Prado), in which Charles and his deceased wife are presented to the Holy Trinity.
In 1553 Titian began work on a cycle of mythological pictures for Philip II which included Diana and Callisto and Diana Surprised by Acteon (both 1559; National Gall., Edinburgh); the Rape of Europa (1559; Gardner Mus., Boston); and Perseus and Andromeda (c.1555; Wallace Coll., London). Also for Philip II he executed a large number of religious works intended for the Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial. Among these were Adam and Eve (c.1570; Prado) and the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1564–67; Escorial). After 1552, Titian remained in Venice, living in princely splendor and surrounded by friends who included the writer Pietro Aretino and the architect Jacopo Sansovino.
Titian's work may be divided into three phases. The first is marked by the strong influence of Giovanni Bellini and Giorgione, exemplified in the so-called Sacred and Profane Love (c.1513; Borghese Gall., Rome) and in the Madonna of the Cherries (c.1515; Vienna). The attribution of certain works such as the Fête Champêtre (Louvre) is still a matter of controversy; some historians attribute the work to Giorgione.
During his second phase (c.1518–1550) there is a full development of the dramatic monumentality characteristic of High Renaissance painting. Typical of this phase are the Pesaro Altarpiece (1519–26; Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice), the Presentation of the Virgin (1534–38; Academy, Venice), and the Christ Crowned with Thorns (c.1542; Louvre). Titian also achieved a greater sumptuousness of color and an evocation of sensuous joy in such pictures as the Worship of Venus (1519; Prado), Bacchus and Ariadne (1523; National Gall., London), and the Venus of Urbino (1537; Uffizi). Many of Titian's most famous portraits were painted during this period, including La Bella (1537), Ippolito Rinaldo (c.1545; both: Pitti Palace), and the equestrian portrait of Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg (1548; Prado).
In Titian's last phase there is an intensification of emotional expression and an emphasis on harsh subject matter, as in one of his final works, the brutal Flaying of Marsyas (1576). A deeply personal and mystical spirit becomes visible in a new looseness of brushstroke and subtlety of color. A climactic example is his last painting, the Pietà (Academy, Venice), intended for the artist's own tomb and finished by Palma Giovane.
Achievements and Influences
Throughout his long and prolific career, Titian explored many pictorial problems. The artist was particularly famous for his innovations in the handling of color, a major preoccupation of the Venetian School. His composition and brushwork, as well, were tremendously influential on later artists. Painters from Velázquez to Balthus have studied and valued his work; he has served as an excellent role model for many painters. His influence was felt more strongly in the 20th cent. than that of any other Renaissance artist.
Although most of Titian's paintings are in Europe, examples may be seen in American collections, including the Gardner Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Metropolitan Museum and the Frick Collection, New York City; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; and the Detroit and Kansas City museums.
See biography by S. Hale (2012); studies by H. E. Wethey (2 vol., 1970–72), C. Hope (1980), F. Lanzi (1986), R. Goffen (1998), and M. Hudson (2009).
Painter of Venice who is regarded by many as one of the finest artists of the late Renaissance, and whose works display a mastery of color, design, and painting technique. Born as Tiziano Vecellio in the village of Pieve di Cadore in northern Italy, he left at the age of nine to make his way in Venice, where he first joined the workshop of a mosaic artist, Sebastiano Zuccati. Titian next apprenticed in the Venetian workshop of Gentile Bellini. He became a close friend of Giorgione, whose works had an important influence on Titian's own. One of his early commissions was a fresco painting for the walls of the German Merchant's Foundation, where he collaborated with Giorgione. At the age of twenty-one Titian decorated the Scuola del Santo of the Confraternity of Saint Anthony in Padua with frescoes of Saint Anthony. Titian's most famous early work is an altarpiece, entitled Assumption of the Virgin, a monumental painting completed in the Santa Maria Gloriosa church of Venice.
Other famous early works include Flora, Madonna of the Cherries, Presentation of the Virgin, Christ and the Tribute Money, Christ Crowned with Thorns, and Sacred and Profane Love, in which the artist contrasts clothed and nude figures of the goddess Venus. These paintings made the artist's reputation in Venice, and word of Titian's mastery was soon spreading throughout Europe. His work was in demand by popes, by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, by King Philip II of Spain, and by the Dukes of Ferrara and Urbino, important art patrons of Italy. For Alfonso d'Este, the Duke of Ferrara, Titian completed three famous mythological paintings, Andrians, Worship of Venus, and Bacchus and Ariadne. For the Gonzaga ruler of Mantua, he painted a Madonna with a Rabbit and a series of portraits of Roman emperors, which were eventually destroyed.
Titian's deep colors, rich textures, and complex, carefully balanced designs give his paintings an air of elegance and serenity. Art historians consider his paintings Worship of Venus, Bacchus and Ariadne, and the Venus of Urbino as among the finest masterpieces of the late Renaissance, and among the best examples of the “Venetian school” of painting. The many commissions he received made him a wealthy man, and by the 1530s Titian had settled himself into the Casa Grande, one of the finest mansions of Venice, where he entertained a devoted following of students, writers, and nobles.
In 1545, the artist moved to Rome at the invitation of Pope Paul III. In Rome he met Michelangelo and was deeply influenced by the ruins of the ancient city as well as the art of Michelangelo and Raphael. He was offered commissions for works by prelates of the church and also executed portraits of the popes, including a profound portrait known as Paul III and His Grandsons, that explores the complex and mistrustful relationship between the members of a privileged and powerful family. Michelangelo's strong, sculptural figures influenced the figures in Titian's Christ Crowned with Thorns and Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
Charles V, who had met the artist in Bologna in 1530 on the occasion of his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor, invited Titian to Germany in 1548. Charles made Titian an honorary count of the Palatine, and Titian repaid the compliment by painting the emperor into La Gloria, completed in 1554. An equestrian portrait of the emperor as he rode to victory at the Battle of Mühlberg became one of the most famous royal portraits of the Renaissance. For King Philip II of Spain, he completed several works on mythological themes, including Perseus and Andromeda, Diana and Callisto, and The Rape of Europa. Several major works, including Adam and Eve and the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, were painted for the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid; in the royal palace of the Escorial Titian painted Christ Carrying the Cross, The Last Supper, and Agony in the Garden. Titian's last painting is the Pietà, a work he intended to decorate his tomb. The painter's original use of perspective, foreshortening, and his technique of blending colors to mask outlines of figures and objects were taken up by painters of the Mannerist and Baroque styles who would dominate art after the end of the Renaissance.
See Also: Bellini, Gentile; Giorgione; Michelangelo Buonarroti; Tintoretto, Jacopo; Venice
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