Ariadne

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Ariadne

Nationality/Culture

Greek/Roman

Pronunciation

ar-ee-AD-nee

Alternate Names

None

Appears In

Hesiod's Theogony

Lineage

Daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë

Character Overview

In Greek mythology , Ariadne (pronounced ar-ee-AD-nee) was the daughter of King Minos (pronounced MYE-nuhs) and Queen Pasiphaë (pronounced pa-SIF-ah-ee) of Crete. She fell in love with the Athenian hero Theseus (pronounced THEE-see-uhs) when he came to Crete. Theseus was one of a group of youths and maidens who were sent from Athens to be fed to the Minotaur. Half bull and half man, the Minotaur was kept in a maze called the Labyrinth. Before Theseus entered it, Ariadne helped him by giving him a ball of yarn. He used the yarn to leave a trail by which he could find his way out. Theseus succeeded in killing the Minotaur and escaping the Labyrinth. Ariadne then fled with Theseus when he sailed back to Athens.

There are different versions of the rest of Ariadne's story. In one, she was abandoned by Theseus on the island of Naxos (pronounced NAK-suhs) while she slept on the shore. Another suggests that Theseus did not abandon her, but was swept out to sea by a storm. Afterward, Dionysus (pronounced dye-uh-NYE-suhs) found Ariadne on the shore and decided to make her his wife. In yet another variation, after arriving on Naxos, Ariadne was killed by Artemis (pronounced AHR-tuh-miss), and then found by Dionysus, who asked Zeus (pronounced ZOOS) to make her immortal (able to live forever), so he could marry her. Dionysus and Ariadne were married on Naxos. Two festivals were held in honor of Ariadne: one celebrating her marriage and one mourning her death. The couple had three sons.

Ariadne in Context

Ariadne's parents were the rulers of Crete, the largest of the Greek islands. The Minoan civilization of Crete flourished from approximately 2600 bce until 1400 bce, making it the oldest known civilization in Europe. Excavations at Knossos have revealed a large, complex building that may have served as a palace or ruling center for Minos and other leaders of Crete. In addition, archaeologists have found some human remains that support the idea that the Minoans may have performed human sacrifices like those mentioned in Ariadne's story. The Athenian Greeks viewed the Minoan culture as older and, in some ways, more powerful than their own. The tale of Ariadne's family and their Minotaur explained why the Minoans were able to secure tribute from Athenian Greeks.

Key Themes and Symbols

One item often associated with Ariadne is a ball of yarn or fleece, like the one she gave to Theseus so he could find his way out of the Labyrinth. In art, Ariadne is often portrayed sleeping near the seashore, as Dionysus is said to have discovered her. She has also been associated with the Corona Borealis constellation of stars.

Ariadne in Art, Literature, and Everyday Life

Ariadne was popularized in many ancient sculptures, usually with her husband Dionysus. The pair also appeared in paintings by artists such as Titian and Guido Reni. More recently, Ariadne has served as the subject for numerous operas, including the 1912 opera Ariadne on Naxos by Richard Strauss. In studies of logic, the term “Ariadne's thread” refers to a method of problem-solving that results in multiple possible solutions, such as one used to determine the correct path through a maze.

Read, Write, Think, Discuss

In the myth of Ariadne, Theseus, and the Minotaur, who do you think is the greater hero, Theseus or Ariadne? Think of at least two reasons that support your choice.

SEE ALSO Dionysus; Minotaur; Theseus

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Ariadne (ărēăd´nē), in Greek mythology, Cretan princess, daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë. She loved Theseus, and gave him the skein of thread that enabled him to make his way out of the labyrinth after killing the Minotaur. When Theseus left Crete, Ariadne went with him, but before they reached Greece, he abandoned her at Naxos. There the god Dionysus consoled and later married her. She bore him several children, including Oenopion, whom Dionysus first taught the art of winemaking. It was said that Zeus granted Ariadne immortality and that Dionysus set her bridal crown, the Corona Borealis, among the stars. Subsequent treatments include nearly 50 operas by Monteverdi, Handel, Massenet, Richard Strauss, Milhaud, Martiṇ, and others.

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Ariadne In Greek mythology, Cretan princess (daughter of Minos) who fell in love with Theseus but was abandoned by him after saving him from the Minotaur. She was consoled by the god Dionysus whom she later married.

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Ariadne in Greek mythology, the daughter of King Minos of Crete and Pasiphaë. She helped Theseus to escape from the Minotaur's labyrinth by giving him a ball of thread, which he unravelled as he went in and used to trace his way out again after killing the Minotaur. They fled together but he deserted her on the island of Naxos.

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Ariadne.
1. Setting of poem by C. Day Lewis for sop. and orch. (1970) by Maconchy (f.p. King's Lynn Fest. 1971).

2. Concertante for ob. and 12 instrumentalists by Crosse (f.p. Cheltenham Fest. 1972).