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Ariana or Aryana (both: ârēā´nə, –ă´nə), general name for the eastern provinces of the ancient Persian Empire. It was used to mean the regions S of the Oxus (modern Amu Darya) River; the regions to the north were called Transoxiana (see Sogdiana). Ariana is included in present E Iran, N and E Afghanistan, and India NE of the Indus River.