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Education

Jessie Carney Smith

Educational Opportunities in Colonial America

African American Educational Institutions in the Nineteenth Century

Philanthropy and Education

African American Education in the Twentieth Century

Current Educational Trends

Administrators, Educators, and Scholars

Historically and Predominantly African American Colleges and Universities

Research Institutions

African Americans Holding Endowed University Chairs, Chairs of Excellence, or Chaired Professorships (2007)

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN COLONIAL AMERICA

Historically, the attainment of education for African Americans has been a struggle. As far back as the late 1600s to the mid-1700s, there is some evidence of sporadic, systematic instruction of Africans in colonial America. Prior to 1830, some were even taught to read, write, and, in some instances, perform simple arithmetic. However, between 1830 and 1835, stringent laws were passed prohibiting whites from teaching African Americans to read and write. In spite of these laws though, many individuals struggled to provide informal and formal education to African Americans. In addition, churches and charitable organizations also played an important role in the creation of educational institutions for African Americans in the United States.

EARLY CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY ENDEAVORS

Early attempts to educate African Americans can be traced back to the missionary efforts of Christian churches in the early 1600s. French Catholics in Louisiana were probably the earliest group to provide instruction to African American laborers. Although the primary goal was to convert them to Christianity, the process often involved general education. In addition, the French code noir, a system of laws, made it incumbent upon masters to educate slaves.

Pennsylvania Quakers, who were opposed to the institution of slavery, organized monthly educational meetings for African Americans during the early 1700s, so that they might have the opportunity for improvement. One such Quaker, Anthony Benezet, established an evening school in his home in 1750 that was successful until 1760. In 1774 Quakers in Philadelphia joined together to open a school for African Americans.

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, organized by the Church of England in 1701 for the purpose of converting African slaves to Christianity, was another organization that provided educational opportunities to African Americans. In 1751 the Society sent Joseph Ottolenghi to convert and educate African Americans in Georgia. Ottolenghi “promised to spare no pains to improve the young children.”

AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

AFRICAN FREE SCHOOLS IN NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA

Similar to the churches, the anti-slavery movement played an important part in the creation of schools. In 1787 the Manumission Society founded the New York African Free School; by 1820 more than 500 African American children were enrolled. Support increased as other African Free Schools were established in New York until 1834 when the New York Common Council took over control of the schools.

In the North, there were opportunities for elementary education for African Americans in mostly segregated schools or in schools run in conjunction with African American churches. For example, in 1804 African Episcopalians in Philadelphia organized a school for African American children. In 1848 an African American industrial training school opened in Philadelphia at the House of Industry. Other schools in operation in Philadelphia included the Corn Street Unclassified School (1849), the Holmesburg Unclassified School (1854), and the Home for Colored Children (1859). By the mid-1860s, there were 1,031 pupils in the African American public schools of Philadelphia: 748 in the charity schools; 211 in the benevolent schools, and 331 in private schools. However, high schools in the North were almost inaccessible to African Americans in much of the nineteenth century.

FREEDMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS AND AGENCIES

At the close of the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of newly-freed African Americans were left without homes and adequate resources. As a means for providing temporary assistance to the former slaves, numerous organizations were formed. The American Missionary Association (AMA), established on September 3, 1846, had maintained an interest in African American education before and after the war. The AMA opened its first school for newly-freed slaves on September 17, 1861, at Fortress Monroe, Virginia. Mary S. Peake became the first teacher in an AMA school. The AMA also established a network of elementary schools, normal schools, and colleges throughout the South. In time, however, most of these schools were absorbed into local and state systems of education. Following the AMA’s early efforts, other voluntary and denominational groups responded to the need for freedmen’s aid and sent teachers into the Southern and border states, established elementary schools on plantations, in small towns, and in larger cities in the South. Although most of the schools were to be racially integrated, few whites attended.

The New England Freedmen’s Aid Society, organized in Boston on February 7, 1862, was founded to promote education among free African Americans. Supporters of the organization included Edward Everett Hale, Samuel Cabot, Charles Bernard, William Lloyd Garrison, and William Cullen Bryant. In New York, a similar organization was founded on February 20, 1862, the National Freedmens Relief Association. The Port Royal Relief Committee, later known as the Pennsylvania Freedmens Relief Association, founded in Philadelphia on March 3, 1862, followed this trend. In 1863 several of these organizations merged to form the United States Commission for the Relief of the National Freedmen, which, in 1865, became the American Freedman’s Aid Union.

The federal government responded to the needs of African Americans in the South. During the 1860s, Congress passed several Freedman’s Bureau Acts, creating and financing an agency designed to provide temporary assistance to newly freed slaves. Under the acts, the bureau’s chief functions were to provide food, clothing, and medical supplies. Working in conjunction with various benevolent organizations, Bureau Commissioner General Oliver Otis Howard established and maintained schools and managed to provide for teachers. By 1870 the Freedman’s Bureau operated over 2,600 schools in the South with 3,300 teachers educating 150,000 students; almost 4,000 schools were in operation prior to the abolition of the agency.

INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

The education of African Americans has been largely a function of independent schools, private institutions founded to meet the educational and employment needs of African Americans. In the second half of the century, these schools filled the gap until African American land grant colleges were founded in 1890. They also supplied many of the African American teachers in the South.

One of the earliest surviving African American independent schools, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), was established in 1881 by an act of the Alabama general assembly. Booker T. Washington, the school’s organizer and first principal, established a curriculum that provided African American students with the means to become economically self-supporting.

Similarly, other independent schools developed around the country. In a lecture room at the Christ Presbyterian Church, Lucy C. Laney opened what would become the Haines Normal and Industrial Institute in Savannah, Georgia in 1883. In 1901 Nannie Helen Burroughs founded the National Training School for Women and Girls in Washington, D.C. By the end of the first year the school had enrolled 31 students; 25 years later more than 2,000

women had trained at the school. In Sedalia, North Carolina, Charlotte Hawkins Brown founded the Palmer Memorial Institute in 1901.

With only $1.50 and five students, Mary McLeod Bethune founded Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Girls (now Bethune-Cookman College) in 1904 in Daytona Beach, Florida. Nineteen years later, the institute merged with the Cookman Institute of Jacksonville, Florida, founded in 1872 by D.S.B. Darnell. Over 2,000 students now study at Bethune-Cookman College.

EARLY AFRICAN AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Lincoln University in Pennsylvania (founded in 1854 as Ashmun Institute) and Wilberforce University (founded in 1856) are often regarded as the oldest of the historically African American institutions of higher education. Wilberforce College, as the latter school was first known, was founded in 1856 by the African Methodist Episcopal Church and named for the English abolitionist William Wilberforce. The school awarded its first degree in 1857. Wilberforce and Lincoln were the first African American colleges to remain in their original location and to develop into degree-granting institutions. The oldest institution in operation today, however, is Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (earlier known as the Institute for Colored Youth and, eventually, Cheyney State College), which was founded in 1837. The primary purpose of these institutions was to train African American youth for service as teachers and ministers.

Between 1865 and 1871, several predominantly African American institutions of higher learning were founded, including Atlanta University (now Clark-Atlanta University), Shaw University and Virginia Union University (1865); Fisk University and Lincoln Institute in Missouri (now Lincoln University) (1866); Talladega College, Augusta Institute (now Morehouse College), Biddle University (now Johnson C. Smith University), Howard University and Scotia Seminary (now Barber-Scotia College) (1867); Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) (1868); Tougaloo College (1869); Alcorn College (now Alcorn State University) and Benedict College (1871). Religious organizations were instrumental in the founding and supporting of these early African American institutions. The Freedmen’s Bureau either founded or aided in the development of Howard University, St. Augustine’s College, Lincoln Institute in Missouri, and Storer College (now merged with Virginia Union University). The American Missionary Association founded seven African American colleges; the first of these was Hampton. Other AMA-founded institutions were Atlanta, Fisk, LeMoyne (now LeMoyne-Owen College), Straight (now merged with New Orleans University to become Dillard University), Talladega, Tillotson College (now Huston-Tillotson), and Tougaloo. Benedict College, Shaw University, and Virginia Union were founded and supported by the American Baptist Home Mission Society.

Alcorn College (now Alcorn State University), founded in 1871, was the first African American land grant college. This was made possible under the Morrill Act of 1862, which provided federal land grant funds for higher education. In 1890 Congress passed the second Morrill Act, also known as the Land Grant Act of 1890. The second act stipulated that no federal aid was to be provided for the creation or maintenance of any white agricultural and mechanical school unless that state also provided for a similar school for African Americans. As a result, a system of separate, African American land grant institutions developed and became the basis of publicly-supported higher education of African Americans in the South.

African American colleges offered diversity in history, purpose, and curriculums. For example, early in their history, some African American colleges prepared their students for careers in medicine and medical-related fields. Those that prepared students for degrees in dentistry and medicine included Howard University, Meharry Medical College, Shaw University, and New Orleans Medical School. The nation’s only degree program in veterinary medicine among historically African American colleges and universities is still offered at Tuskegee University. Bennett College (founded 1873) and Spelman College (founded 1881) are the only two African American women’s colleges. At first coeducational, Bennett became a women’s two-year college in 1926. Xavier (founded in 1925) is the nation’s only Catholic-supported college for African Americans.

By 1900 there were some 34 African American institutions in the United States for higher education and more than 2,000 African Americans with earned degrees.

PHILANTHROPY AND EDUCATION

Pre-Civil War efforts did not fully address the educational needs and desires of African Americans, especially concerning the freed slaves. Northern philanthropy took up some of the burden of improving African American education. Agencies of the antebellum period aided in educating African Americans through their support of private and sectarian schools before and after the Civil War. By the end of the war, however, the South—the region where African Americans were concentrated—still had not addressed the educational needs of African Americans. Neither the newly-freed slaves nor their children had access to free public education. In 1867, a new type of support for education began when Massachusetts merchant George Peabody established the first educational philanthropy in the country. In his concern for the desolate South, he created the Peabody Education Fund to benefit “elementary education to children of the common people.” The fund later was credited with stimulating states to develop systems of free schools for the races, “creating favorable public opinion to levy tax to support the schools, and stimulating the development of state teachers associations and normal schools.”

So successful was the Peabody effort that in 1882 Connecticut manufacturer John F. Slater, impressed with the developments, created the Slater Fund to uplift the “lately emancipated” people of the South, thus becoming the first philanthropy devoted to the education of African Americans. Through the fund’s efforts, private African American colleges and four-year high schools for African Americans were developed. The Fund stimulated vocational and industrial training and established the idea of county training schools. The Daniel Hand Fund, established in 1888, provided for the education of “needy and indigent” African Americans in the South; it was entrusted to the American Missionary Association. By 1914 the Peabody and Slater funds worked in similar areas; Peabody then transferred its assets to Slater.

Anna T. Jeanes further advanced the education of African Americans by giving $1 million to Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee Institute and Hollis B. Frissell of the Hampton Institute to strengthen rural schools for African Americans in the South in 1907. The gift established the Fund for Rudimentary Schools for Southern Negroes, known as the Jeanes Fund. Initially the Fund supported “industrial teachers” who moved from school to school in the South teaching industrial and utilitarian subjects. The concept was expanded to provide master teachers, known as “Jeanes teachers,” to supervise the African American schools. Later the program added new teaching methods, organized in-service training for teachers, and generally

improved instruction. The program lasted from 1908 until 1968, when counties took over the Jeanes teachers’ work and paid their salaries. Much of the credit for the program was due to Virginia E. Randolph, the first Jeanes teacher. In recognition of her work, the Jeanes teachers established the Virginia Randolph Fund to supplement the Jeanes Fund in 1936.

The Jeanes Fund and the Slater Fund, then working in similar areas, merged in 1937 to form the Southern Education Foundation (SEF). Later that year the Virginia Randolph Fund was incorporated into the SEF. The SEF extended the work of the predecessor funds and ensured that innovative approaches to the education of African Americans continued. From 1937 to 1950, the SEF concentrated on supporting the Jeanes teachers. It also worked with such agencies as the General Education Board (GEB), the Julius Rosenwald Fund, the Carnegie Corporation, and State Agents for Negro Schools. The GEB was a source of support for African American colleges, library collections, and, sometimes, library buildings. It also supported African American teachers and other aspects of education and welfare for African Americans. In its 31-year history, the Julius Rosenwald Fund, established in 1917, helped to build more than 5,000 rural schools for African Americans as a part of regular school systems in 15 Southern states. In various villages and counties, blacks and whites raised additional funds to support these schools. The fund also strengthened African American higher education. Early on, the Carnegie Corporation had provided grants to the Slater

and Jeanes programs. Later, the corporation built African American branches of public libraries in various cities in the South. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, several African American colleges received funds from the Carnegie Corporation and Andrew Carnegie himself to support the erection of library buildings. They included the institutions of Atlanta, Cheyney, Fisk, Howard, Tuskegee, and Wilberforce.

In addition, the SEF worked to prepare the South to resolve racial problems. When the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision was rendered in 1954, bringing about desegregation of public education, the SEF contributed to the decision by conducting studies of African American education in the South largely through support of the Ford Foundation. Its efforts to desegregate public education continued: those Southern states that failed to desegregate higher education were challenged by the lawsuit originally known as Adams v. Richardson. The SEF supported the Legal Defense Fund in litigation and helped dismantle the dual system of public education. It also supported conferences, studies, and publications dealing with desegregation of higher education. Its report Miles to Go, published in 1998, is an example of the SEF’s efforts. The study found that over two decades of efforts to desegregate higher education has left blacks in the South and elsewhere out of pace with whites in undergraduate and graduate school enrollment, rates of graduation, faculty diversity, among other areas.

Located in Atlanta since 1948, the SEF is now a public charity that has several interests including programs to increase the supply of minority teachers in the South and to strengthen African American colleges. The SEF, its predecessor agencies, and other private and public agencies, figure prominently in the history and progress of African American education.

AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

EARLY PROMOTERS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES

From its beginnings, the purpose of African American studies has been to disseminate knowledge about the social, cultural, political, and historical experiences of Africans.

One of the forerunners in the field of African American studies, theologian and educator Reverend Alexander Crummell, along with a group of African American intellectuals, founded the American Negro Academy in Washington, D.C., in 1897. The purpose of the organization was to foster scholarship and promote literature, science, and art, among African Americans. The organization’s members hoped that through the academy, an educated African American elite would shape and direct society. Crummell first conceived the idea of an American Negro Academy while a student at Cambridge University in England. The organization’s founding members included Paul Laurence Dunbar, William Sanders Scarborough, and W.E.B. Du Bois, among other noted educators. Following Crummell’s death in 1908, Du Bois was elected president of the academy.

In September of 1915, Carter G. Woodson, a Harvard Ph.D. graduate, organized the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History). The association’s primary purpose was to promote research, encourage the study of African American history, and to publish material on African American history. In 1916, the organization began publishing the Journal of Negro History, for which Woodson served as editor until his death in 1950.

Other early scholars of African American studies include: sociologist E. Franklin Frazier (1894–1963); John Edward Bruce (1856–1924); Arthur Schomburg (1874–1938), founder of the Negro Society for Historical Research (1911); and Alain Locke (1885–1954), founder of the Associates in Negro Folk Education (1934).

THE END OF LEGAL SEGREGATION IN PUBLIC EDUCATION

In the years that followed the United States Supreme Court’s 1896 ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation in public education became the general practice. Prior to the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas African American children were often subjected to inferior educational facilities. However, by the 1930s, a string of school desegregation cases reached the Court.

When Lloyd Lionel Gaines, an African American, had been refused admission to the law school of the State University of Missouri in 1936, he applied to state courts for an order to compel admission on the grounds that refusal constituted a denial of his rights under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. At that time, the state of Missouri maintained a practice of providing funds for African Americans to attend graduate and professional schools outside of the state, rather than provide facilities itself. The university defended its action by maintaining that Lincoln University, a predominantly African American institution, would eventually establish its own law school, which Gaines could then attend. Until then the state would allow him to exercise the option of pursuing his studies outside the state on a scholarship. Ruling in the case Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada in 1938, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states were required to provide equal educational facilities for African Americans within its borders.

Taking an even greater step, in 1950 the United States Supreme Court ruled that a separate law school for African Americans provided by the state of Texas violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. According to the Court, Herman Marion Sweat’s rights were violated when he was refused admission to the law school of the University of Texas on the grounds that substantially equivalent facilities were already available to African Americans at another Texas school. Ruling in the case Sweatt v. Painter, the Court ruled that the petitioner be admitted to the University of Texas Law School since “in terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the

library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior.”

In 1952, five different cases, all dealing with segregation in public schools, reached the United States Supreme Court. Four of the cases Brown v. Board of Education (out of Kansas), Briggs v. Elliott (out of South Carolina), Davis v. Prince Edward County School Board (out of Virginia), and Gebhart v. Belton (out of Delaware) were considered together; the fifth case Bolling v. Sharpe, coming out of the District of Columbia, was considered separately since the District is not a state.

After hearing initial arguments, the Court found itself unable to reach a decision. In 1953, the Court heard re-argument. Thurgood Marshall, legal consul for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, presented arguments on behalf of the African American students. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that segregation in all public education deprived minority children of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. (In the Bolling case, the Court determined that segregation violated provisions of the Fifth Amendment, since the Fourteenth Amendment is expressly directed to the states.)

AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Many African American students choose to attend Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs); these schools continue to account for a significant number of African American graduates. According to reports from the U.S. Department of Education, fall enrollment at two-year and four-year HBCUs stood at 274,212 students in 1999. In 1964, over 51 percent of all African Americans in college were still enrolled in historically African American colleges and universities. By 1970 the proportion was 28 percent; 16.5 percent by the fall of 1978; and 6.2 percent by 1998. Yet despite the decline in percentages, as recently as 1999–2000, 24 percent of all African Americans

receiving baccalaureate degrees earned them at HBCUs. In 2000, Florida A&M University was the leading producer of African Americans receiving baccalaureate degrees. Between 1991 and 1995, Fisk University was grouped with such large institutions as the University of Michigan, Harvard University, and University of California, Berkeley in the number of African American undergraduates who went on to earn doctorates from the 13 most productive schools. Xavier University in New Orleans has led all colleges and universities in the number of African American students accepted into medical school each year since 1995. The academic and historical significance of HBCUs was honored in 2001 as President George W. Bush proclaimed September 24–30, 2001, National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week.

The racial composition of some African American colleges has changed dramatically; some of these colleges now have a predominantly white student body. Mandated by court order to raise its white population to 50 percent, the enrollment at Tennessee State University in 1998 was about 30 percent white. Those historically African American institutions with predominantly white enrollments by 1998 are Lincoln University in Missouri (72 percent white), Bluefield State College in West Virginia (89 percent white), and West Virginia State University (85 percent white).

INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS

For years independent schools have been founded in order to exert greater control, ensure quality in education, and to meet the needs of African American children.

In 1932, in order to promote religious growth in the African American Muslim community, the Nation of Islam founded the University of Islam, an elementary and secondary school to educate African American Muslim children in Detroit. Clara Muhammad, wife of Elijah Muhammad, served as the school’s first instructor. In 1934 a second school was opened in Chicago; by 1965 schools were operating in Atlanta and Washington, D.C. The current system of African American Muslim schools, named for Clara Muhammad, is an outgrowth of the earlier University of Islam. There are currently 38 Sister Clara Muhammad schools in the United States.

Gertrude Wilks and other African American community leaders in East Palo Alto, California, organized the Nairobi Day School, a Saturday school in 1966. In 1969 the school became a full-time school. It closed in 1984.

Also founded as a Saturday school program in 1972, the New Concept Development Center in Chicago set out to create an educational institution which promoted self-respect, cooperation, and an awareness of African American history and culture. In 1975 public school teacher and nurse, Marva Collins founded the Westside Preparatory School in Chicago.

In recent years, the educational and social needs of urban youth, particularly African American males, have been given increased attention. Studies show that nearly 40 percent of adult African American males are functionally illiterate, and that the number of African American males incarcerated far outnumbers the number of African American males in college. Addressing these issues, large urban school systems, including Baltimore, Detroit, and Milwaukee, have attempted to create programs that focus on the needs of African American males.

Although African American students have shown improved performance on achievement tests, gaps between black and white students still exist. Progress has been made in the quality of education for African American children, yet inadequacies remain in the provision of resources for the education of African Americans. In recent years, efforts at creating alternative schools designed to meet the needs of African American children and to reflect the culture and social experiences of African Americans have received increased attention. In 1999 the Institute for Independent Education, an organization providing technical assistance to independent neighborhood schools, reported that an estimated 60,000 African American children attended independent community-based schools in the United States.

CURRENT EDUCATIONAL TRENDS

AFROCENTRISM

An educational methodology that has sparked both widespread praise and criticism is Afrocentrism. Afrocentrism is based, in part, on the belief that the ancient Greeks stole most of their great philosophical and mathematical thought from the Egyptians, an African people, that the Greek philosopher Aristotle gleaned much of his philosophy from books plundered from the Egyptian city of Alexandria, and that the notable Greek philosopher Socrates was black. Afrocentrists claim that the current educational system in America is deeply flawed and promotes white supremacy. It teaches history, arts, science, and other disciplines from a purely traditional European point of view, while African contributions to these fields of endeavor are ignored entirely or given inadequate consideration. Proponents of Afrocentrism theorize that teaching African American children from an African-centered perspective through the championing of black culture, history, and achievement will increase their feelings of self-worth and give them a greater sense of identity and ethnic pride.

The doctrine of Afrocentrism is not a new phenomenon. Such notable early twentieth century African Americans as activist Marcus Garvey and scholar Carter G. Woodson were among its most ardent supporters. Today, Afrocentrism is championed by African American scholars including, most prominently, Molefi K. Asante. Others include Leonard Jeffries, Asa Hillard, and, until his death, John Henrik Clark. Some public school systems with predominantly African American enrollment, such as Atlanta, New Orleans, Cleveland, Indianapolis, New York, Oakland, and Philadelphia have introduced African-centered principles into their curriculums.

Afrocentrism is not without its critics, however. Among them is Mary Lefkowitz, a professor of humanities at Wellesley College. In her book Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (1996), Lefkowitz disagrees with the assertions of Afrocentrists that the Greeks stole their philosophical and mathematical thought from the Egyptians or that Socrates was black. She argues that Afrocentrist beliefs are based on myth and conjecture, not historical fact, and are designed to promote a political agenda. This criticism is echoed by Arthur Schlesinger, author of The Disuniting of America (1991). Schlesinger remarks that African-centered education is divisive, un-American, and promotes the teaching of inaccuracy and distorted history.

Whether one is a supporter or critic, it is clear that Afrocentrism will continue to inspire heated debate for many years to come.

EBONICS VS. STANDARD ENGLISH

Black English, considered by most linguists to be a dialectal form of English (that is, a dialect like, to pick just one example, Appalachian English), came to the forefront of discussion in 1996. The African languages that slaves brought to the United States influenced their learning and use of English. While Black English has been studied since the first half of the twentieth century, in 1996 some scholars renamed it Ebonics—a combination of the words “ebony” and “phonics.” In the 1960s and 1970s it was called Black Vernacular English (BVE); in the 1980s and 1990s it was known as African American Vernacular English (AAVE). It shares many basic characteristics with other dialects, the most important being distinct grammar and syntax patterns (dialects are learnable precisely because they are “rule based” in this sense). When the Oakland, California, school board passed a resolution in 1996 to make Ebonics “a second language” and declared that all of the teachers in the system should be trained in its grammar (and to respect it as the native form of speech spoken by many of their African American students), a storm of criticism followed nationally. Opponents contended that Black English was simply substandard grammar and, if regarded as a legitimate language, would be detrimental to African American students. As national attention spotlighted the controversy, in May 1997 the school board reaffirmed what it called its original intention: “to improve the English language acquisition and application skills of African-American students” and, as much as possible, to help students master Standard English. According to John and Russell Rickford in The Spoken Soul, the board never intended to replace Standard or mainstream English with Ebonics or any other “language” or dialect peculiar to any racial or ethnic group. In 1997 the U.S. Congress supported Oakland’s efforts by awarding the district $1 million to continue research on the linguistic and cultural resources of African American students. The perspective that The Spoken Soul embraces is that Black English is not only “the language of jazz, funk, hip-hop, and rap,” all currently popular in American culture, but is also the home dialect of many African Americans. Educators need to be aware of how and what their students actually speak in order to teach them additional, standard forms.

ABANDONING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

National debate, lawsuits, and voter reaction over the issue of affirmative action has impacted the education of African American students. Since the U.S. Supreme Court’s validation of the use of race as a factor in college and university admissions programs in the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), many race-conscious admissions policies have come under attack in courts of law. Recent decisions in federal courts cloud the issue, and may lead to another Supreme Court review of affirmative action policies at institutions of higher learning. In 2001, a decision by the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Johnson v. Board of Regents of the University of Georgia struck down the race-conscious admissions policy for freshmen at the University of Georgia. The decision mirrored a 1996 Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that invalidated a similar policy at the University of Texas Law School. On the other hand, the affirmative action admissions policy at the University of Michigan Law School was upheld by a Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in May 2002.

In a number of states, voter initiatives and executive action have dealt race-conscious admissions policies more setbacks. Voters in California passed Proposition 209 in 1996. The law banned the use of race as a consideration for acceptance to the state’s universities. Washington voters passed a similar measure, Initiative 200, in 1998, and Jeb Bush, governor of Florida, instituted the “One Florida Initiative” in 2000. The effects of such measures can be severe in the drop in enrollment of African American students at state institutions of higher learning. A 2002 NAACP Education Department report, “NAACP Call for Action in Education,” points out that following the passage of California’s Proposition 209, only one African American student enrolled in a class of more than 300 at the University of California, Berkeley’s school of law in 1999. The same year, only two black students were among the entering law school class at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Advocates of race-conscious admission policies, Derek Bok and William G. Bowen, completed a major study that challenges much of the conservative thinking about affirmative action. In their findings, published in the book The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions (1998), the two scholars studied race-conscious admissions in elite higher education and confirmed that such practices “create the backbone of the black middle class.”

Some mainstream institutions have seen a decrease in the number of black students enrolled and responded by developing plans to rebuild that enrollment. That was seen, for example, in Kentucky, where over a third of college-bound African American students chose the University of Louisville over the University of Kentucky. This caused some state lawmakers and faculty at the University of Kentucky to question the university’s commitment to diversity. The university responded by adding a scholarship program to increase diversity on campus. The City University of New York (CUNY) launched a systemwide African American Male Initiative aimed “to improve the success and retention of the Black men on its 11 senior-college campuses.” Similar initiatives followed in the University System of Georgia and elsewhere. Although affirmative action organizations stifle such programs, the initiatives are viewed many leaders as well-intentioned.

VOUCHER SYSTEMS AND CHARTER SCHOOLS

Some educators regard voucher programs and charter schools as “logical parts of a broad educational mix.” The voucher idea originated 40 years ago; it aimed to permit students to transfer from failing public schools to successful private schools. Critics feared, however, that the brightest students, both black and white, would be drawn away, leaving the inner-city schools, in terms of characteristics, African American and poor. They also raised questions about the use of public funds in private institutions, particularly those maintained and operated by churches or religious organizations. Voucher systems have been initiated in a handful of cities, including Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Detroit, and are being considered in about half of the 50 states. The voucher programs that are operational serve low-income, largely African American and Hispanic American children. In July 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court validated the constitutionality of Ohio’s voucher program, opening the door for the wider use of school voucher programs throughout the nation.

Charter schools, or independent public schools, may be established by parents, community groups, local or state school boards, colleges and universities, or other individuals or groups. Some charter schools were once private schools, others were converted from existing public schools, and still others are newly established educational institutions. Generally, the schools report directly to the state and bypass local unions or other traditional bureaucracy. They are schools of choice for students and teachers; therefore, they must operate with the highest regard for equity and academic excellence. Supporters have little faith in traditional education systems and look to the charter schools as a viable solution to the problems of public school education. They see charter schools as a means of providing inner-city children the kind of education that students receive in the affluent suburbs. Some educators and parents see the charter school movement as another threat to public school education. By 2001, however, 37 states and the District of Columbia had passed charter school laws.

SINGLE-GENDER SCHOOLS AND RACE-BASED ENROLLMENT

The nation has seen a number of single-gender schools opened in recent years. One such school opened in the fall of 1996, when the Young Women’s Leadership School, an experimental public school for girls, opened in East Harlem. It emphasizes mathematics and science, subjects in which girls often lag behind boys in performance. The school originally provided for 56 seventh-grade girls, and had expanded to 360 students in grades 7–12 by the year 2000. Advocates of the school based the need on studies that showed that girls, particularly from poor communities, performed better when boys were not present. Some groups, such as the New York Civil Liberties Union, challenged the school, however, arguing that it would violate the U.S. Constitution, as well as the Federal statutory law. The group has challenged plans for other single-gender, single-race schools for young African American men in New York, Detroit, and Milwaukee.

Nearly a half-century after Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, segregated public schools continue. Evidence of racial isolation in urban schools, as seen in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1997, led the state’s highest court to issue a mandate to desegregate the schools. Under the order, racially isolated students in urban schools are able to enroll in predominantly white suburban schools on a space-available plan. The Connecticut decision seems to be running counter to the current trend to abandon racial “quotas” in schools, where predominance of one race is not necessarily grounds for legal relief unless the cause lies in segregation patterns of the past. The concern over affirmative action, however, is shifting from colleges and universities to public school districts. Districts that adopted voluntary desegregation plans, such as those in Montgomery County, Maryland, and Arlington, Virginia, wonder if they can continue race-conscious policies.

Desegregation orders imposed by the courts decades earlier are being lifted. In such cities as Nashville, Tennessee; Oklahoma City; Denver; Wilmington, Delaware; Cleveland; and in 2007 in Little Rock, courts have declared that past segregation practices have been remedied and judicial monitoring is no longer needed. A U.S. Supreme Court decision on June 28, 2007, struck down school integration plans in Louisville and Seattle, halting enrollment in public schools based on race.

AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADERSHIP INITIATIVES

A growing trend in education is a focus on leadership programs, whether or not they are gender-based. The North Carolina Community College System recently held a Conference on African American Males in Education as the community’s response to the African-American male’s success in post-secondary education. Historically Black Colleges and Universities have become more concerned about leadership training for their administrators. One HBCU, Hampton University, has offered leadership training for seven years by sponsoring an executive leadership summit called “On the Road to the Presidency.” That program is designed for newly-appointed college presidents and chancellors, provosts, vice presidents, deans, and others in executive posts. Other leadership training programs have been held or are operational at such HBCUs as Bennett College for Women, Fisk University, and Morehouse College.

ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATORS, AND SCHOLARS

(To locate biographical profiles more readily, please consult the index at the back of the book.)

MOLEFI K. ASANTE (1942– ) Scholar

Molefi Kete Asante was born Arthur Lee Smith Jr. on August 14, 1942, in Valdosta, Georgia. His name was legally changed to Molefi Kete Asante in 1973. In 1962, Asante graduated with an associate’s degree from Southwestern Christian College. He graduated cum laude with a B.A. from Oklahoma Christian College in 1964, received an M.A. from Pepperdine University in 1965, and a Ph.D. from UCLA in 1968.

Asante has taught speech and communications at many universities in the United States. He was an instructor at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona (1966– 1967) and California State University at Northridge (1967). In 1968 he accepted an assistant professorship at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana, where he remained until 1969 when he began teaching at UCLA. There he advanced from assistant to associate professor of speech and also served as the director of the Center for Afro-American Studies (1970–1973). In 1973 he accepted the position of professor of communications at the State University of New York. He soon became department chairman, a position he held until 1979 when he became a visiting professor at Howard University in Washington, D.C. (1979–1980). In 1981 and 1982, he was a Fulbright professor at the Zimbabwe Institute of Mass Communications. Since 1980, he has been a professor at Temple University in Philadelphia in the Department of African American Studies.

Asante is a prolific author with over 33 books dealing with both communication theory and the African American experience. Some of his titles include: Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change (1980); African Culture: The Rhythms of Unity (1985); The Afrocentric Idea (1987); Afrocentricity (1987); Kemet, Afrocentricity and Knowledge (1990); The Historical and Cultural Atlas of African-Americans (1991); Colored, on White Campus: The Education of a Racial World (1992); Fury in the Wilderness (1993); African American History: A Journey of Liberation (1995); African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources (1996); The African-American Atlas: Black History and Culture (1998); The African American Book of Names and Their Meanings (1999); The Painful Demise of Eurocentrism: An Afrocentric Response to Critics (1999); The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten (2000); and (co-editor with Eungjun Min) Socio-Cultural Conflict Between African American and Korean American (2000); Erasing Racism (2003), Race, Rhetoric, & Identity (2005), The History of Africa (2007).

Asante is also a founding editor of the Journal of Black Studies and has been a member of the advisory board of the Black Law Journal (1971–1973) and Race Relations Abstract (1973–1977). Asante has also served as the vice president for the National Council of Black Studies and the African Heritage Studies Association.

HOUSTON BAKER. SEELITERATURE CHAPTER.

MARIA LOUISE BALDWIN (1856–1922) Educator

Born on September 13, 1856, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Maria Louise Baldwin was one of the most distinguished educators in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. She was the principal of the Agassiz school in Cambridge, where children of affluent and established white families attended—a rarity for a woman and an African American.

Educated in Cambridge, Baldwin taught first in Chestertown, Maryland, and then was appointed teacher in Agassiz Grammar School. Eventually she taught all grades in the school—from first to the seventh—and in 1889 was promoted to school principal. In 1916, a new school was erected with more grades added and Baldwin’s position was changed to master. She strengthened her credentials by enrolling in courses at nearby Harvard University. She remained at Agassiz until 1922.

Baldwin lectured throughout the country on such luminaries as Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson and on women’s suffrage, poetry, and history. During one of her lectures, she collapsed at Boston’s Copley Plaza Hotel on January 9, 1922, and died suddenly. The entire nation mourned her death. About a year later, Aggasiz school recognized her by unveiling a tablet created in her memory. Other memorials followed, including the naming in her honor of the Aggasiz school auditorium and a women’s residence center at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

LERONE BENNETT JR. (1928– ) Scholar

Born on October 17, 1928, in Clarksdale, Mississippi, Lerone Bennett Jr. was educated at Morehouse College, receiving an A.B. in 1949. Bennett worked for the Atlanta Daily World, and Jet magazine before joining Ebony magazine in 1954. He was named executive editor in 1987. Beyond these positions though, Bennett has achieved fame for his essays and other writings.

His 1962 book Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America made him one of the best-known and most influential African American historians of the twentieth century. Before the Mayflower was revised in 1982 and has been reprinted several times. Bennett’s 1964 biography of Morehouse College classmate Martin Luther King Jr., What Manner of Man, was welcomed as an evenhanded analysis of the African American leader’s life and his role in fundamentally changing the nature of racial dynamics in the United States. Also in 1964, Bennett published The Negro Mood and Other Essays, a collection of essays that demonstrated a sharper editorial bite than his previous works. Probing such issues as the failed integration of African Americans into American life and the ways in which African Americans are denied the fruits of society, Bennett takes aim at the white liberal establishment for ignoring the accomplishments of African Americans and for just mouthing the words of racial justice rather acting on that creed. Bennett has also produced a number of other works including Pioneers in Protest (1968), The Shaping of Black America (1974), and Wade in the Water: Great Moments in Black History (1979).

Bennett served as a visiting professor at Northwestern University in 1968–1969. In addition, he was a senior fellow of the Institute of the Black World in 1969. In 2002 Bennett won an American Book Award for lifetime achievement from the American Book Association.

MARY MCLEOD BETHUNE (1875–1955) Founder, Educator

Born on July 10, 1875, near Mayesville, South Carolina, Mary McLeod received a sporadic education in local schools. She eventually received a scholarship and studied for seven years at the Scotia Seminary in Concord, North Carolina. In 1893 she went on to study at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago in lieu of a missionary position in Africa. In 1895 she began teaching at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia. Between 1900 and 1904, she taught in Sumter, Georgia, and Palatka, Florida.

In 1904 she founded her own school in Daytona Beach, Florida—the Daytona Educational and Industrial School for Negro Girls. John D. Rockefeller became an early admirer and supporter of the school after hearing a performance by its choir. Bethune went on to found the Tomoka Missions and, in 1911, the McLeod Hospital. In 1922 her school merged with the Cookman Institute to become Bethune-Cookman College.

Bethune’s work received national attention, and she served on two conferences under President Herbert Hoover. In 1936 President Franklin Roosevelt appointed her director of the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration. During World War II, she served as special assistant to the Secretary of War, responsible for selecting WAC officer candidates of African American descent.

Bethune also served on the executive board of the National Urban League and was a vice president of the NAACP. She received the Spingarn Award in 1935, the Frances A. Drexel Award in 1936, and the Thomas Jefferson Medal in 1942. Bethune was also instrumental in the founding of the National Council of Negro Women. She retired from public life in 1950 on her 75th birthday and died five years later on May 18, 1955.

Much of Bethune’s philosophy concerned ennobling labor and empowering African Americans to achieve economic independence. Although a tireless fighter for equality, she eschewed rhetorical militancy in favor of a doctrine of universal love.

CHARLOTTE HAWKINS BROWN (1883–1961) School Founder, Educator, Civic Leader

Charlotte Hawkins Brown was a pioneer in quality preparatory education for African American youth. She set her ideas and experiments in place at the Palmer Memorial Institute, which she founded in Sedalia, North Carolina, and headed for more than half a century.

Born Lottie Hawkins on June 11, 1883, in Henderson, North Carolina, Hawkins was the granddaughter of slaves. She and 18 members of her family moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1888 in search of better social and educational opportunities. By the time of her graduation from Cambridge English School, she had changed her name to Charlotte Eugenia Hawkins. In 1900 she enrolled in State Normal School in Salem, Massachusetts, and left in October 1901, to teach at the American Missionary Association’s Bethany Institute near McLeansville, North Carolina. The school closed at the end of the year. Hawkins returned to Cambridge in 1902 and discussed with benefactor Alice Freeman Palmer, whom she met at the end of her high school studies, her plan to start a school in Sedalia, North Carolina. Palmer and other Northern philanthropists provided Hawkins funds for the school and on October 10, 1902, Hawkins founded a school, the Alice Freeman Palmer Institute, which she named in honor of her friend. After Palmer died that fall, the school was renamed Palmer Memorial Institute and was incorporated on November 23, 1907. By then Hawkins had a diploma from Salem Normal School, had studied at Harvard University and Wellesley and Simmons colleges, and married Edward Sumner Brown.

By 1916, the school was housed in four buildings. Fires in 1917 and 1922 destroyed two buildings; one of these, Memorial Hall, was replaced in 1922 with the Alice Freeman Palmer Building. By 1922 the school had built a fine reputation as one of the country’s leading preparatory schools for African Americans. The junior college academic program that focused on agricultural and vocational training that Brown introduced in the mid-1920s gave way to secondary and post-secondary education. Later on the school also emphasized good manners and social graces as it prepared youth to assume positions in

society. The school’s presence, already felt strongly in the South, was now known across the country and students responded by enrolling in the institute in greater numbers. In 1922, Palmer graduated its first high school class.

Brown emerged as a national leader and was recognized for her work in directing the institute as well as her strong resolve in advancing the life of African Americans and African American women in particular. She was a staunch public opponent of lynching. She was an organizer of the North Carolina State Federation of Negro Women’s Clubs and was also active in the National African American Women’s Club Movement. She persuaded the state to establish homes for African American young women who were in legal difficulty, such as the Efland Home for Wayward Girls. As president of the North Carolina Teachers Association from 1935 to 1937, she helped effect change in the education of the state’s African American residents. She was a key figure in the Southern interracial women’s movement and also was the first African American member in the Twentieth Century Club of Boston.

Brown became known for her writings as well. Her works included Mammy: An Appeal to the Heart of the South (1919) and The Correct Thing to Do, to Say, and to Wear (1940). The latter work, originally used as a guide for Palmer’s students, attracted the attention of young people across the country and was reprinted five times.

After 50 years of service, Brown retired as president of Palmer on October 5, 1952, but remained on campus until 1955 as vice-chairman of the board of trustees and director of finances. Wilhelmina Marguerite Crosson replaced

Brown as president. By the end of the decade, the school enrolled annually about 200 junior and senior students who came from across the country, the Caribbean, and Africa.

Brown died in Greensboro on January 11, 1961, and was buried at the front of the Palmer campus. Although Brown’s spirit and ideals continued for a while, the school began to suffer from declining enrollment, the rising cost of maintenance, and reduced support from benefactors. Another fire in 1971 destroyed the Alice Freeman Palmer Building. In November of that year, Bennett College in nearby Greensboro assumed the institute’s debts and took over the site. The home that Brown had built on campus, Canary Cottage, has been preserved and, in 1983, was declared a state historic site. It was declared a national historic landmark in 1988. The institute’s campus was designated a state historic site in the previous year.

NANNIE HELEN BURROUGHS (1879–1961) Educator

Born in Orange Springs, Virginia, on May 2, 1879, Nannie Helen Burroughs was one of the most significant Baptist lay leaders of the twentieth century, a lifelong booster of women’s education, and a tireless civic organizer. She addressed the National Baptist Convention in Virginia in 1900 on the subject “How the Sisters are Hindered from Helping” and, from that time until her death more than 60 years later, she exercised pivotal leadership. She was elected corresponding secretary for the Woman’s Convention, Auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc., and in 1948 she became president of the Women’s Convention.

In 1901 Burroughs founded and presided over the National Training School for Women and Girls, which emphasized industrial arts and proficiency in African American history. After only one year, she had recruited 31 students. In honor of her efforts, the school’s curriculum was changed to accommodate elementary education, and its name was changed to the Nannie Helen Burroughs School.

Burroughs was active in the anti-lynching campaign and a life member of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. She helped organize the Women’s Industrial Club of Louisville and was responsible for organizing Washington, D.C.’s first African American self-help program. She also edited such periodicals as the Christian Banner and was the author of Roll Call of Bible Women. She died on May 20, 1961.

JOE CLARK (1939– ) Former Educator, Lecturer, Executive Director

Best known as the feisty, dedicated, baseball bat-wielding school principal portrayed by actor Morgan Freeman in the film Lean on Me, Clark has served as an exemplar of school discipline and boasts a distinguished record of achievements and laurels. A 14-year member of the New Jersey Board of Education and an elementary and secondary school principal until 1989, he has been honored by the White House, the NAACP, his alma mater Seton Hall University, and various newspapers and magazines.

Born in Rochelle, Georgia, in 1939, Clark served in the United States Army Reserve from 1958 to 1966. He received a B.A. from New Jersey’s William Paterson College in 1960 and his master’s degree from Seton Hall in 1974. From 1960 to 1974, Clark served on the board of education in Paterson, New Jersey. He was a coordinator of language arts from 1976 until 1979. Clark became a school principal for the first time in 1979 and quickly earned the admiration and respect of educators for his somewhat controversial, no-nonsense managerial style. In 1983, Clark received the NAACP Community Service Award and was named New Jerseyan of the Year by the Newark Star Ledger. The following year, New Jersey Monthly honored Clark as outstanding educator. In 1985, Clark appeared in Washington, D.C., to receive honors at a presidential conference on academic and disciplinary excellence and also gained awards from Seton

Hall and Farleigh Dickinson University. The National School Safety Center gave Clark the Principal of Leadership award in 1986, and the National Black Policemen’s Association bestowed their Humanitarian Award upon him in 1988.

In 1989, Clark ended his tenure as principal of East-side High School in Paterson, New Jersey, and traveled the country as a lecturer. He accepted a job as the director of the Essex County, New Jersey, Youth House, a juvenile detention center in Newark, in August of 1995.

KENNETH CLARK (1914–2005 ) Psychologist, Educator, Writer

Born on July 24, 1914, in the Panama Canal Zone, Clark was brought to the United States as a youth by his mother so that he could be educated. He was educated in Harlem and then attended Howard University. He was awarded a B.A. in 1935 and an M.S. in 1936 in psychology. In 1940 he became the first African American awarded a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University. He then taught at the Hampton Institute, but left due to its conservative views, moving to City College of New York in 1942, an institution he was to remain at for the rest of his academic career.

Clark was deeply troubled by school segregation and studied its effects with his wife, the former Mamie Phipps. Clark came to the attention of the NAACP during its post-war campaign to overturn legalized segregation. Clark was intimately involved in the long legal struggle which culminated in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. He testified as an expert witness at three of the four cases leading up to the Supreme Court’s review of Brown v. Board of Education and his report on the psychology of segregation was read carefully by the justices. Brown v. Board of Education was not only a milestone in the modern Civil Rights movement, it also made Kenneth Clark into something of an academic superstar. Clark went on to become the most influential African American social scientist of his generation.

In the 1960s Clark was involved with the Great Society’s unsuccessful HARYOU program in New York and the MARC Corp.’s program in Washington, D.C. Both were efforts to improve integration of public schools and to set test score-based standards for schools and teachers. Both projects, however, were terminated by politics.

In 1975 Clark retired from CCNY and formed his own advisory company to counsel companies on integrating their workforces. Clark continued to write vehemently on the subject of integration, until he died on May 1, 2005.

SEPTIMA CLARK (1898–1987) Educator, Civil Rights Activist

In her unassuming, workmanlike way, Septima Clark made a major impact on the voting rights of thousands of African American Southerners, though many Americans have never heard of her. Clark dedicated her life to education and drove home through her actions a simple concept in which she believed, namely, that before one could get people to register and vote, one had to teach them to read and write. Born on May 3, 1898, in Charleston, South Carolina, Clark was a schoolteacher for most of her life. She dedicated her entire career to educating her community.

In 1937 Clark studied under W. E. B. Du Bois at Atlanta University. She later went on to receive her B.A. at Benedict College in 1942, and her M.A. from Hampton Institute four years later. After teaching for nearly ten years in the Charleston school system, Clark began the “citizenship schools” program, through her position at Tennessee’s Highlander Folk School, a center for civil organizing and dialogue in 1956. These citizenship schools taught people to write their names, balance check books, fill out a voting ballot, and understand their rights and duties as U.S. citizens. The schools were a success, and by 1961, had grown too big for Highlander to handle. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) expressed an interest in taking over, so Clark went to work for the SCLC as director of education.

After retiring from the SCLC in 1970, Clark stayed active in civil rights struggles. In 1974, at the age of 76, Clark was elected to serve on the Charleston school board—the same school board that had fired her 20 years earlier for her active involvement with the NAACP. She died in Charleston on December 15, 1987.

JOHNNETTA B. COLE (1936– ) College President

A distinguished scholar, Johnnetta Cole has served on the faculties of Washington State University, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Hunter College, and Spelman College, the historically African American women’s institution in Atlanta. Born in Jacksonville, Florida, on October 19, 1936, Cole attended Oberlin College, which awarded her a B.A. in 1957. She went on to earn her master’s and doctorate degrees at Northwestern in 1959 and 1967, respectively.

In 1967, Cole began her first teaching assignment at Washington State University, where she taught anthropology and served as director of black studies. The university honored her as Outstanding Faculty Member of the Year for 1969–1970. From 1970 until 1983, Cole was professor of anthropology and African American studies at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. She left the University of Massachusetts-Amherst in 1983 for a position as professor of anthropology at Hunter College of the City of New York. Cole also served as director of Latin American and Caribbean studies at Hunter College from 1984 until 1987. In 1987, Cole was named president of Spelman College and became known as America’s Sister President. She retired in 1997 and took a professorship at Emory University in Atlanta. In 2002 she again became president of an historically black college, Bennett College for Women in Greensboro, North Carolina. She announced her retirement from the presidency of Bennett effective June 2007.

As an anthropologist, Cole has done field work in Liberia, Cuba, and in the African American community. A prolific writer, she has published in many mainstream periodicals as well as scholarly journals. Since 1979 she has been a contributor and advising editor to The Black Scholar. She is the author of Conversations: Straight Talk with America’s Sister President (1993) and Dream the Boldest Dreams: And Other Lessons of Life (1997). She is a member of the National Council of Negro Women and a fellow of the American Anthropological Association.

Cole has received numerous awards and over 40 honorary degrees. She was presented with the Elizabeth Boyer Award in 1988 and the Essence Award in Education in 1989. In 1990, Cole won the American Women Award, the Jessie Bernard Wise Woman Award, and was inducted into the Working Woman Hall of Fame. In 1994, she received the Jewish National Fund’s highest honor, the Tree of Life Award, which is named for the efforts of the Jewish National Fund to reclaim and develop barren land in Israel. She received the Smithsonian’s McGovern Behavioral Science Award in 1999. In 2001 she received the Alex de Tocqueville Award for community service from United Way of America. Cole received the Independent Sector’s 2006 John W. Gardner Leadership Award for her long commitment to advancing social justice nationally and globally.

MARVA DELORES NETTLES COLLINS (1936– ) Educator

Marva Delores Nettles Collins was born in Monroeville, Alabama, on August 31, 1936. She received a bachelor’s degree from Clark College in 1957 and pursued graduate studies at Chicago Teachers College and Columbia University from 1965 until 1967.

Collins’ teaching career began at the Monroe County Training School in her hometown in 1958. She taught at Chicago’s Delano Elementary School from 1960 until 1975. In 1975, Collins founded the Westside Preparatory School in Chicago and currently serves as its director.

Collins has conducted educational workshops throughout the United States and Europe, and has appeared on several television programs including 60 Minutes, Good Morning America, and The Phil Donahue Show. She has served as director of the Right to Read Foundation and has been a member of the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships since 1981. Collins has also been a consultant to the National Department of Children, Youth, and Family Services and a council member of the National Institute of Health.

A number of organizations have honored Collins for her distinguished career including the NAACP, the Reading Reform Foundation, the Fred Hampton Foundation,

the Chicago Urban League, the United Negro College Fund, Phi Delta Kappa, and the American Institute for Public Service. Among the institutions that have given her honorary degrees are Washington University, Amherst College, Dartmouth University, Chicago State University, Howard University, and Central State University.

ANNA JULIA COOPER (1858/59–1964) Educator, Writer, Activist

Anna Julia Cooper was a strong proponent of justice, equality for women, and racial uplift. She was born on August 10, 1858 or 1859, in Raleigh, North Carolina, to a slave mother; her father was possibly the slave owner. Cooper attended Saint Augustine’s Normal School and Collegiate Institute (now Saint Augustine’s College) in Raleigh and became a teacher at the school when she graduated. She was married briefly to George A. C. Cooper, who died in 1879.

Cooper graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1884, then taught modern languages at Wilberforce University in 1884–1885. The next year she returned to Saint Augustine’s and taught mathematics, Latin, and German. In 1888 she received an M.A. degree in mathematics from Oberlin and moved to Washington, D.C., where she taught at the Preparatory High School for Colored Youth and was school principal from 1902 to 1906. The school later became the M Street High School, then the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School. She protested the board of education’s plan to dilute the school’s curriculum and was removed from the principalship. She chaired the languages department at Lincoln University in Missouri from 1906 to 1910, then returned to the M Street School as Latin teacher. On March 23, 1925, at age 66, she successfully defended her doctoral dissertation at the Sorbonne and became the fourth African American woman to earn a doctorate and the first woman to do so in France.

Cooper also became established as a lecturer and writer. As early as 1890, while teaching full-time, she lectured to groups of educators and African American women’s groups. In 1900 she lectured on “The Negro Problem in America” at the first Pan-African Conference, then toured Europe. As a writer, she is best known for A Voice from the South (1892); the work marked her as a dedicated feminist and advocate for the African American race. Anna Cooper died on February 27, 1964, when she was 105 years old.

FANNY COPPIN (1837–1913) Educator

Fanny Coppin was born into slavery in 1837 and rose to prominence in the field of education. After her aunt purchased her freedom, Coppin went on to become the second African American woman to receive a degree from Oberlin College.

In 1865, Coppin was appointed principal of the women’s department of the Institute for Colored Youth, a high school established by Quakers in 1837, and later principal of the entire school. In 1894 Coppin founded the Women’s Exchange and Girls’ Home. She served as president of the local Women’s Mite Missionary Society and the Women’s Home and Foreign Missionary Society and as a vice president of the National Association of Colored Women.

Coppin, an active member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, served as president of the AME Home Missionary Society and accompanied her husband, Levi J. Coppin, on a missionary venture to South Africa.

Before her death at her Philadelphia home on January 21, 1913, Coppin began writing an autobiography Reminiscences of School Life, and Hints on Teaching.

HOWARD DODSON JR. (1939– ) Historian, Educator, Curator

Born in Chester, Pennsylvania, on June 1, 1939, Howard Dodson Jr. was always at or near the top of his class throughout junior high and high school. Out of 89 students at Chester High School, Dodson was one of nine who graduated from college. In 1961, he received a bachelor’s of science from West Chester State College and, in 1964, he received a master’s degree in history and political science from Villanova University. In 1964, driven by an interest in African people transplanted in the Western Hemisphere, Dodson worked in Ecuador as a member of the U.S. Peace Corps.

In 1969, Dodson entered the doctoral program in Black History and Race Relations at the University of California at Berkeley after spending one year in Puerto Rico. During that time, Dodson studied the socio-political factors behind the Civil Rights and Black Power movements of the time. As part of his doctoral studies, Dodson earned a position at the Institute of the Black World, a research branch of the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta. Dodson served as director of the Institute from 1974 to 1979.

Dodson’s doctoral dissertation “The Political Economy in South Carolina: 1780–1830” demonstrates that African American slave workers were not victims of their circumstances but rather contributors to a complex socioeconomic system. In addition to his dissertation, Dodson has written widely on the subject of African American history. He served as editor-in-chief of Black World View magazine in 1977, and he has published books including Thinking and Rethinking U.S. History (1988), a book for children written with Madelon Bedell, and Black Photographers Bear Witness: 100 Years of Social Protest (1989), a book published by Williams College Museum of Art on which he collaborated with Deborah Willis.

In 1984, Dodson took a post as the head of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library. In 1991, due to his ministrations and fund-raising, the Schomburg Center opened an expanded complex. Dodson has served as consultant to the National Endowment for the Humanities, the African American Museums Association, the Library of Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, the Congressional Black Caucus, and the National Council of Churches. He won the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History Service Award in 1976 and a Governor’s Award for African Americans of Distinction in 1982.

SARAH MAPPS DOUGLASS (1806–1882) Educator

The free-born Sarah Mapps Douglass was an outspoken anti-slavery activist and accomplished educator. She attended the Ladies Institute of the Pennsylvania Medical University. In the 1820s she organized a school for African American children in Philadelphia.

Douglass was an active member of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, which also provided support to Douglass’s school. Moreover, she served as vice chairman of the Freedman’s Aid Society and was a member of the New York Anti-Slavery Women.

In 1853 Douglass was appointed head of the girls’ department at the Institute of Colored Youth (forerunner of Cheney State College). She remained there until her retirement in 1877. Douglass died in Philadelphia on September 8, 1882.

MICHAEL ERIC DYSON (1958– ) Educator and Writer

Michael Eric Dyson was born into a middle-class family in Detroit, Michigan, in 1958. He was ordained as a Baptist minister and attended divinity school at Tennessee’s Knoxville College, ultimately earning a bachelor’s degree in 1982 from Carson-Newman College. Three years later, he accepted a graduate fellowship at Princeton University, obtaining his master’s and doctorate degrees by 1993. Dyson went on to become an assistant professor at Brown University. A non-traditional scholar, he chose to target his interests to a larger audience. Dyson reviewed books and films for newspapers, contributed record reviews to Rolling Stone, and became a columnist for Christian Century and The Nation. Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism, Dyson’s first book-length collection of essays, addressed African American pop culture icons.

In 1994 Dyson published Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. The book was written in response to a confrontation with some of Dyson’s African American male students at Brown University who objected to the presence of whites in his course on the radical Muslim leader. True to his goal of reaching beyond the scholarly community, Dyson’s book was deliberately marketed to a wide, youthful readership. In his third book Between God and Gangsta Rap, Dyson attempted to put gangsta rap in its cultural and social perspective and established himself as an authority. As a result, he was asked to testify on the genre before a congressional subcommittee, gained popularity as a lecturer, and became a sought-after guest on talk shows. He continued his writing, producing Race Rules: Navigating the Color Line (1996), I May Not Get There With You: The True Martin Luther King Jr. (2000), and Holler if You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur (2001). Dyson has been considered one of a group of “new intellectuals.” In 1996, he headed the Institute of African American Research at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill and continued to address issues of race and culture in both scholarly and popular publications. He next served as a visiting professor at Columbia University before taking a position with DePauw University in Chicago. In 2002, he joined the faculty at Penn State as the Avalon Foundation Professor in the Humanities and African-American Studies.

JOHN HOPE FRANKLIN (1915– ) Scholar

Franklin’s long and distinguished career includes the publication of numerous books of history and biography, his autobiography, numerous awards and honorary degrees, and a position of great stature in the scholarly community, and as a leader of a national dialogue about race.

Franklin was born in Rentiesville, Oklahoma, in 1915. He received his bachelor’s degree from Fisk University in 1935 and then began graduate work at Harvard, which awarded him a master’s in 1936 and a Ph.D. in 1941. He taught history at Fisk and St. Augustine’s College while working on his doctorate, later moving on to North Carolina College at Durham, Howard University, Brooklyn College (where he chaired the history department), Cambridge University, the University of Chicago, and Duke University.

Among his many publications are books such as From Slavery to Freedom, A History of Negro Americans, Militant South, Reconstruction After the Civil War, The Emancipation Proclamation, A Southern Odyssey, Race and History: Selected Essays (1947), and The Color Line: Legacy for the Twenty-First Century (1946). Even into his 80s, Franklin continued to produce scholarly works on race. In 1996 he co-wrote Black Intellectuals: Race and Responsibility in an American Life for which he won an American Book Award in 1997. He also co-wrote Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation, 1790–1860 in 1999. In 1998 he published a long-overdue biography of African American historian George Washington Williams, and in 2005 his autobiography, Mirror to America, was published.

Twice a Guggenheim Fellow, Franklin received honors from the Fellowship of Southern Writers, Encyclopedia Britannica and many other organizations, was made professor emeritus of history at Duke, and earned the Publications Prize of the American Studies Association established in his name in 1986. Franklin has received over 90 honorary degrees. In 1995, President Clinton awarded Franklin the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America’s highest civilian honor. Franklin was honored with a Harold Washington Literary Award in 2000 for his impressive body of work, and that same year was awarded a Lincoln Prize for his distinguished contribution to the study of the Civil War. In 2006 he was co-recipient of the Kluge Prize for lifetime achievement, for his study of humanity.

In 1997 President Clinton named Franklin as chair of the White House Initiative on Race and Reconciliation, a position that enabled him to lead a year-long dialogue on race held in cities across the nation. He is currently the James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of History at Duke University.

E. FRANKLIN FRAZIER (1894–1962) Educator, Sociologist, Activist

E. Franklin Frazier left a 30-year legacy of research and writings on the African American family, youth, the church, and middle class. He combined theory with practice, and his work remains an authoritative source for later generations of scholars.

Born on September 24, 1894, in Baltimore, Maryland, Frazier attended the segregated schools of Baltimore and graduated from the Colored High School. On scholarship, he entered Howard University in Washington, D.C., and used income from odd jobs to support his college career. He graduated cum laude in 1915 and a few months later began teaching mathematics at Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University) in Alabama. He left two years later and taught at various African American schools and colleges. After spending some time in military service, he enrolled in Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, and graduated in 1920 with a master’s degree in sociology.

Frazier was an American Scandinavian Foundation fellow from 1921 to 1922. In the fall of 1922, he moved to Atlanta and held a dual position as director of the School of Social Work and professor of sociology at Morehouse College. He remained productive in research and writing during his Atlanta years. He moved to Chicago and studied full-time for his doctorate at the University of Chicago. In 1929 he moved to Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, and in 1931 completed his Ph.D. dissertation “The Negro Family in Chicago,” which was regarded as a landmark study. Frazier left Fisk in 1934 and moved to Howard University in Washington, D.C., where he remained for 28 years as head of the Department of Sociology. While at Fisk and Howard, he also added to his body of research and writing. Prominent among his publications were The Negro intheUnitedStates (1949) and his most controversial book Black Bourgeoise (1955 and 1957).

Frazier later headed UNESCO’s Division of Applied Sciences for two years and traveled and lectured abroad as well. He retired from Howard University as professor emeritus in 1959, but continued to teach there and at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. Frazier died on May 17, 1962; his book The Negro Church in America was published posthumously that year.

HENRY LOUIS GATES JR. (1950– ) Literary Scholar, Educator, Critic

Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born on September 16, 1950, in Keyser, West Virginia. He was summa cum laude in 1973 at Yale University, where he earned a bachelor’s in history. He went on to receive a master’s in 1974 and a Ph.D. in 1979, from Clare College, Cambridge University. He served as a staff correspondent for Time magazine in London until 1975. There he studied with Nobel laureate playwright Wole Soyinka of Nigeria. His post-graduate studies examined African American literature as it has derived from the traditions of Africa and the Caribbean. He returned to the U.S. as a guest lecturer for Yale periodically from 1976 to 1979.

In 1979, Gates accepted an assistant professorship in the English department at Yale, where he served as director of the undergraduate Afro-American studies department until 1985. In 1981, the MacArthur Foundation awarded him $150,000 for his critical essays about African American literature. When he republished Harriet E. Wilson’s Our Nig, or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black, in a Two-Story White House, North, Showing That Slavery’s Shadows Fall Even There in 1983, he vaulted to the top of the world of African American scholarship. He has also been a Rockefeller Foundation fellow and has enjoyed grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities. During this time, he created the PBS television series The Image of the Black in the Western Imagination, which aired in 1982. From 1985 to 1990, he served as a professor of English and African Studies at Cornell University and as a W. E. B. Du Bois Professor of Literature at Duke University from 1988 to 1990. He moved to Harvard in 1990, where he was named W. E. B. Du Bois Professor in the Humanities, and in 1991 became chair of the Department of African American Studies.

In 1989, Gates won the American Book Award for The Signifying Monkey and an Ainsfield-Wolfe Book Award the same year for Towards a Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. In 1994, Gates’s memoir Colored People was published; the work encompasses his experiences growing up in rural West Virginia. In 1996, Gates earned prestige for his African American studies department by attracting some of the country’s leading scholars to Harvard. In addition, Gates and Kwame Appiah edited Encarta Africana, a multimedia encyclopedia on compact disc released in January 1999.

Other works that Gates has contributed to or edited include: (Contributor) Facing History: The Black Image in American Art, 1710-1940 (1990); (Introduction) Josephine Baker and La Revue Negre: Paul Colin’s Lithographs of Le Tumulte Noir in Paris, 1927 (1998); (Co-editor) Pioneers of the Black Atlantic: Five Slave Narratives from the Enlightenment, 1772-1815 (1998); (Co-editor) Black Imagination and the Middle Passage (1999); (Co-editor) The Civitas Anthology of African American Slave Narratives (1999); (Contributor) Wonders of the African World (1999); (Editor) The Bondswoman’s Narrative by Hannah Crafts, a Fugitive Slave, Recently Escaped from North Carolina (2002).

WILLIAM L. HANSBERRY (1894–1965) Historian, Educator

William Leo Hansberry was born on February 25, 1894, in Gloster, Mississippi. He earned a bachelor’s in anthropology in 1921. Determined to eliminate American ethnocentrism regarding Africa, he issued a manifesto to African American schools and colleges titled “Announcing an Effort to Promote the Study and Facilitate the Teaching of the Fundamentals of Negro Life and History.” The flier brought Hansberry three job offers from schools, and he accepted a post at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Beginning in 1922, he began designing courses on African and African American history.

Despite Hansberry’s ability to prove the material taught in his courses, the board of Howard University pulled his financial backing after spurious accusations by colleagues but agreed to keep the African studies program in place. Still, the scuffle cost him much in funds and promotions. Nevertheless, in 1932, Hansberry returned to Harvard to complete his master’s in anthropology and history, continuing his studies in the mid-1930s at the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute. His studies won him a Rockefeller Foundation grant that allowed him to study at Oxford University in England from 1937 to 1938, when Howard University finally recognized his achievements with an assistant professorship. But entrenched racial prejudice kept Hansberry from earning more grants and fellowships to continue his work.

Howard University made little effort to compensate him and after over 20 years of service, he remained only an associate professor in 1945. But then the university climate changed and Hansberry was appointed advisor to African students in 1946; in 1950, he was made Emergency Aid to the African Students’ Committee at Howard University in addition to his teaching load. Due to increased interest in African studies, Hansberry won a Fulbright scholarship to lecture at Cairo University and to study in Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Sudan in 1953. He also visited Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Hansberry died in Chicago on November 3, 1965.

BELL HOOKS (1952– ) Social Activist, Educator, Writer

Feminist educator bell hooks (it is her preference that her name appear in lowercase letters) has done her most important work as a teacher in programs that allow a critique of racism that was absent during her own undergraduate years. She contributes essays to a variety of scholarly journals and also publishes fiction and poetry. hooks has gained notoriety as a writer of critical essays on systems of domination, making herself a prominent name in feminist debate. Her titles include: Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (1989); Black Looks: Race and Representation (1992); Killing Rage: Ending Racism (1995); Black Is a Woman’s Color (1996); and Bone Black: Memories of Girlhood (1996).

Born Gloria Jean Watkins in 1952, hooks grew up with five siblings in Hopkinsville, a small town in rural Kentucky. Despite her family’s poverty and hardship, hooks reveled in lessons of diligence and community. She attended segregated public schools, where her role models were single African American female teachers. Verbally and through poetry, hooks began defiantly resisting the sexism she perceived within her neighborhood. Rejecting her expected role as an obedient Southern girl, the writer eventually adopted a pseudonym to represent a new sense of self—a woman who spoke her mind and was not afraid to talk back.

When she won a scholarship to Stanford University, hooks sought out intellectual and political affirmation from the campus feminist movement. Disillusioned and alienated by the absence of material by or discussion about African American women, hooks began criticizing the persistent racism within feminism. Having gained her bachelor’s degree in 1973, hooks faced obstacles at the University of Wisconsin and the University of California at Santa Cruz, where male faculty members were determined to prevent her from becoming a university professor. In 1981, hooks published Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism, which was sharply criticized for its defiance of academic convention. Nonetheless, the work became central to discussions of racism and sexism. hooks persisted with her studies, earned a Ph.D. in 1983, and went on to teach African American and women’s studies at Yale University, Oberlin College, and City College of New York.

JOHN HOPE (1868–1936) Educator, Activist

The progress made in higher education for African American students has been strongly helped by the efforts of John Hope. His life was committed to improving the school system of his time to afford more minority access. Hope was one of the most influential leaders of his time in the field of higher education.

In 1894, Hope graduated from Brown University in Worcester, Massachusetts, and was elected class orator for the commencement service. In later years, Hope would receive an honorary master of arts and law degree from Brown, along with admittance into the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Upon graduating, Hope accepted a teaching job at Roger Williams University in Nashville, Tennessee. Four years later he accepted a teaching position at Atlanta Baptist College, located in Georgia, the state of his birth. At the college, Hope began a long-time friendship with the educator W. E. B. Du Bois. They both attended the 1895 Macon Convention which turned into the Georgia Equal Rights Convention.

In 1906, John Hope became acting president of Atlanta Baptist College, and the next year he was named president. He was the first African American to be appointed president at a Baptist school. As president, Hope expanded the college with funds donated by John T. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. In 1913, the school was renamed Morehouse College and was very progressive in its stressing of the dignity of its African American students. During the 1920s, the college continued to expand as Hope developed the Atlanta School of Social Work.

In 1929, Hope fulfilled his lifelong ambition to establish a formal relationship among Atlanta’s African American schools by having the Atlanta University Affiliation signed by the presidents of Atlanta University, Spelman, and Morehouse College. Hope was appointed president of Atlanta University while continuing as president of Morehouse College. Hope received the Harmon Award in 1930 for distinguished achievement in education. He died in Atlanta on February 20, 1936.

FREDERICK HUMPHRIES (1935– ) College and University President, Educator

Frederick Humphries was born in Apalachicola, Florida, on December 26, 1935. He graduated magna cum laude with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Florida A&M University in 1957. Following two years as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Security Agency, Humphries spent the next five years working on his Ph.D. at the University of Pittsburgh while earning a living as an academic tutor. He received his doctorate in 1964, and took an associate professorship at his alma mater.

In 1967, Humphries became a full professor at Florida A&M after spending two years at the University of Minnesota. Along with the professorship, Humphries also became a program director of the Thirteen-Colleges Curriculum Program, which initially involved 13 historically African American colleges. As director, Humphries advocated new methods of looking at the particular problems facing African American students with the intent of improving students’ overall educational progress. Humphries and his colleagues instituted successful experimental curriculum changes that made classrooms “student-centered academic environment(s).” A scientist himself, Humphries also strived to increase African American students’ accessibility in math and science.

Tennessee State University hired Humphries as its president in 1974. He served in the post until 1985, when he returned, once again, to his alma mater—this time as its president. Under Humphries, Florida A&M’s status as an institute of higher learning was greatly elevated. In 1992, 1995, and 1997, the school attracted more National Achievement Scholars, the nation’s top African American students, than any other institution. At the same time, Florida A&M’s enrollment more than doubled under the leadership of Humphries; innovative programs that increased the number of African American students going on to pursue graduate studies were implemented. Humphries retired on June 30, 2001.

CHARLES S. JOHNSON (1893–1956) Scholar

Charles Spurgeon Johnson was born in Bristol, Virginia, in 1893. He earned a B.A. from Virginia Union University and worked on a Ph.D. at the University of Chicago.

Johnson occupied a number of diverse positions, from editor to administrator. He served as the assistant executive secretary of the Chicago Commission on Race Relations and as research director of the National Urban League, where he founded the organization’s journal Opportunity.

In 1928 Johnson was made chairman of Fisk University’s Department of Social Sciences. While at Fisk he established the Fisk Institute of Race Relations. In 1933 he was appointed director of Swarthmore College’s Institute of Race Relations. In 1946 Johnson was appointed president of Fisk University—the first African American to hold the position.

Johnson wrote several books before his death on October 27, 1956, including The Negro in American Civilization (1930), The Economic Status of the Negro (1933), The Negro College Graduate (1936), and Educational and Cultural Crisis (1951).

MORDECAI W. JOHNSON (1890–1976) Former College President, Minister

As president of Howard University in Washington, D.C., for 34 years, Mordecai W. Johnson became a highly respected minister, educator, and orator of international note. He built the university into a highly visible academic institution that became known as the “Capstone of Negro Education.”

Johnson was the son of former slaves. He was born in Paris, Tennessee, on December 12, 1890, and attended Roger Williams University in Nashville and the Howe Institute in Memphis, both of which are now defunct. He transferred to Atlanta Baptist College, now known as Morehouse College, where he completed the secondary and undergraduate programs. He taught at the college for a year, then continued his studies at the University of Chicago where he received a second undergraduate degree. Johnson earned his bachelor of divinity degree from Rochester Theological Seminary in Rochester, New York.

He was pastor of the First Baptist Church in Charleston, West Virginia, for nine years. In 1912 he took a leave of absence to study at Harvard University Divinity School graduating in June of 1922. In 1926, when he was 36-years old, Johnson was elected 11th president and the first African American president of Howard University. Johnson first concentrated on providing financial stability for the school. Starting with the medical school, he received solid support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the General Education Board. Then he moved to strengthen the law school and appointed Charles Hamilton Houston as dean of the school; he approached the country’s top law schools for recommendations for Howard’s law school faculty. One of its most notable graduates was Thurgood Marshall. The law school also engaged in research and analysis involving important civil rights issues that went before the court. Johnson was awarded the Spingarn Medal in 1928, the NAACP’s highest award.

During the first half of his tenure, Johnson faced sharp criticism because he lacked a terminal academic degree and because some faculty and staff opposed his administrative style. He survived the controversy, maintained the support of the board of trustees, and continued fruitful contacts with foundations for financial support. He attracted outstanding scholars to the Howard faculty including philosopher Alain Locke, cell biologist Ernest E. Just, chemist Percy Julian, political scientist Ralph Bunche, historian Rayford Logan, and Charles Drew, who became known for his work with blood plasma. Johnson also erected new buildings and founded several honor societies on campus including a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa.

Johnson traveled widely; his lectures, given without notes, often lasted 45 minutes and held audiences spellbound. His themes often focused on racism, segregation, and discrimination. He retired from the presidency of Howard in 1960 and died on September 10, 1976, when he was 86 years old.

LAURENCE CLIFTON JONES (1884–1975) School Founder, School Administrator

Laurence Clifton Jones founded a school in the deep woods of Mississippi’s Black Belt and made it possible for thousands of African American youths to receive elementary and high school education. He uplifted the community as well by helping uneducated men and women to enhance their lives. He became known as “The Little Professor of Piney Woods.”

Jones was born on November 21, 1884, in St. Joseph, Missouri, and worked his way to a degree from Iowa State University. Booker T. Washington inspired Jones first through his writings and later when he offered Jones a position at his school, Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). Jones declined and, instead, in 1910 founded what he called a “country life school” in Piney Woods, Mississippi. Officially, the school was established on May 17, 1913. He garnered the moral support of the community, and when the students lacked money for school expenses, he accepted payments in produce.

On June 29, 1912, Jones married Grace M. Allen, whom he had met while he was in college. Together the Joneses enabled the school to grow and engaged in fund-raising activities. Grace taught useful skills to community residents and also became a member of the school’s faculty. With the help of the Cotton Blossom Singers—the school’s ambassadors of music—the Joneses traveled the United States performing fundraising concerts. Laurence Jones organized the International Sweethearts of Rhythms in the late 1930s and engaged that group in fundraising concerts until the group, which became known worldwide, severed its relationship with the school in April of 1941.

The school then expanded, adding a department for blind children. Jones later became known through the television program This Is Your Life aired in December of 1954. An appeal for support made during the program resulted in substantial funding for Piney Woods. Jones retired from the presidency in 1974, but continued to travel on official school business until he died in 1975.

E. J. JOSEY (1924– ) Librarian, Activist, Author

Elonnie Junius Josey was born in Norfolk, Virginia on January 20, 1924. He studied music and played the church organ until 1943, when he was drafted into the U.S. Army, serving for three years. Josey, known simply as E. J., went on to complete his education at Howard University’s School of Music, later moving on to Columbia University’s master’s program in history and the State University of New York’s Library School. In 1953, Josey began his career in libraries and rapidly became a leader in confronting segregation within them.

After his initial struggle against the Georgia Library Association when they denied him membership in 1960, Josey persevered in a diverse public and academic library career and gained a reputation as a wise, impassioned speaker on social issues. His publication The Black Librarian in America was a pioneering look into conditions for African Americans within librarianship. Its 1994 sequel The Black Librarian in America Revisited was an appraisal of changes that had been made in intervening years. Josey helped organize the Black Caucus of the American Library Association, which combated institutional racism and widespread discrimination both within the profession and in conjunction with library services.

As president of the American Library Association from 1984 to 1985, Josey fostered awareness of the value of libraries as an integral part of the nation’s infrastructure. Fighting against severe budget cuts imposed by the Reagan administration, Josey rallied library advocates in Washington, D.C., to march with him in protest. Josey has, in addition to his professional achievements, led community advocacy for civil and human rights as a leading member of the NAACP, was a contributor to intellectual development in emerging African countries, and was awarded four honorary doctorates. From the late 1980s until his retirement in 1995, Josey joined the faculty of the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh and devoted himself to achieving a racial balance in library education. For his long service to promoting reading and diverse library selections, Josey was presented with an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Clarion University of Pennsylvania in 2001.

MAULANA KARENGA (1941– ) Activist-scholar, Educator, Ethicist

Dr. Maulana Karenga is professor and chair of the Department of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach, where he also chairs the President’s Task Force on Multicultural Education and Campus Diversity. He holds Ph.D. degrees in political science from United States International University and in social ethics with a focus on the classical African ethics of ancient Egypt from the University of Southern California. He has also been awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Durban-Westville, South Africa for his “intellectual and practical work on behalf of African people.”

Karenga came to prominence in the 1960s as founder of The Organization Us, a cultural and social change group whose name he explains, “simply means us Black people and stresses the communitarian focus of the organization and its philosophy Kawaida, which is an ongoing synthesis of the best of African thought and practice in constant exchange with the world.” Karenga and Us have greatly influenced the development of the discipline of black studies, the black arts and black student movements, Afrocentricity, and ancient Egyptian studies. They have also advanced the independent school and rites of passage movements through the Nguzo Saba (The Seven Principles of Kawaida).

Moreover, Karenga and Us played important roles in the founding of the initial Black Power conferences in the 1960s and the National Black United Front in the 1980s. More recently they were in the forefront of organizing the National African American Leadership Summit and the Million Man March/Day of Absence. Karenga was a member of the executive council for the landmark 1995 gathering in Washington and authored its mission statement, co-editing the subsequent volume The Million Man March/Day of Absence: A Commemorative Anthology. Having celebrated its 33rd anniversary in 1998, The Organization Us continues its declared commitment to “[s]truggle, service and institution-building.”

An internationally recognized activist-scholar, Karenga has published numerous scholarly articles and books, among them the widely used Introduction to Black Studies; his retranslation and commentary on ancient Egyptian texts; Selections from the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient Egypt; and the influential Kwanzaa: A Celebration of Family, Community and Culture. In fact, he created the Kwanzaa celebration now observed throughout the world African community. He has lectured throughout the United States and the world and earned numerous scholarship, leadership, and community service awards.

ELIZABETH DUNCAN KOONTZ (1919–1989) Educator, Organizational Official

As teacher, assistant state school superintendent, leader in state and national teachers’ associations, and the first African American president of the National Education Association (NEA), Elizabeth Duncan Koontz served the education needs of her constituents. Born on June 3, 1919, in Salisbury, North Carolina, she was the youngest of seven children. She graduated from Livingstone College with honors in 1938 and received a master’s degree from Atlanta University in 1941. Beyond this, she studied at the graduate level in several colleges and universities.

Koontz moved from being an elementary school teacher in Dunn, North Carolina, to Aggrey Memorial School in Landis, then to Fourteenth Street School in Winston-Salem, and finally taught special education classes at Price High School in Salisbury. Her participation in the NEA began in 1952, when she was a member of the North Carolina Negro Teachers Association. That group was later admitted to the state chapter of the NEA. She served two terms as secretary, one as vicepresident,and one as president-elect of the NEA’s Department of Classroom Teachers. In 1965, she became the department’s first African American president. On July 6, 1968, Koontz was installed as the first African American president of the NEA. During her tenure, she brought a shift in the association from traditionally conservative to liberal. She supported agitation and, if necessary, strikes to bring about necessary change. She endorsed militant teachers and strongly supported teacher commitment and responsibility.

In January of 1969, President Richard Nixon appointed Koontz as director of the U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, making her the first African American director. Later she became deputy assistant secretary for Labor Employment Standards. In the latter capacity, she became the U.S. delegate to the United Nation’s Commission on the Status of Women. She was active in numerous civic, religious, and educational organizations, and received approximately three dozen honorary degrees from various colleges and universities. Koontz held other positions until she retired in April of 1982. She suffered a heart attack at home in Salisbury and died on January 6, 1989.

LUCY C. LANEY (1854–1933) Educator, School Founder

Lucy Craft Laney spent her life assuring African Americans, particularly women, that they would be educated and had the freedom to educate others. She was born to former slaves on April 11, 1854, in Macon, Georgia. At age 15, Laney entered Atlanta University and graduated in 1873 in the school’s first class. She then did graduate study at the University of Chicago during the summer months.

Although virtually penniless, in 1883 Laney opened a school for Augusta, Georgia’s African American youth, held in Christ Presbyterian Church. The school was chartered in 1886 under Georgia law as a normal and industrial school. Haines Normal and Industrial Institute established the city’s first kindergarten and nurse education department in the early 1890s. Later the nurse education department became the school of nursing at Augusta’s University Hospital. By the 1930s, Haines dropped elementary education and offered a four-year high school program and some college-level courses. The Presbyterian Board of Missions, the schools’ primary source of funds, withdrew support during the Great Depression. Haines school declined, then closed its doors in 1949. Later, a new public structure, the Lucy C. Laney High School, was built on the site. Laney died on October 23, 1933, in Augusta, and later was recognized as a leading African American educator in the South.

SARA LAWRENCE-LIGHTFOOT (1944– ) Educator, Sociologist, Writer

Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot’s sociological writing has been an attempt to create a clearer picture of the reality of African Americans lives. She has felt much of what has been previously written is a distorted view of who African Americans really are.

Lawrence-Lightfoot’s 1994 book I’ve Known Rivers: Lives of Loss and Liberation details life in the African American middle class through interviews with six African American professionals. It was chosen as a Book-of-the-Month Club main choice. In 1978, her book Worlds Apart promoted cooperation between parents and teachers for the education of children. Her third book The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture chronicles the positive methods of six schools in the United States, offering the book as a catalyst for institutional change. She co-wrote a sequel to The Good High School in 1997 under the title The Art and Science of Portraiture. She also wrote Respect: An Exploration in 1999.

Lawrence-Lightfoot departed from her sociological writings to write a personal account of her mother’s life in her 1988 book Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer. She received a MacArthur Award to fund the writing of the book. Along with writing her books, teaching at Harvard University as a professor of education, and conducting her research, Lawrence-Lightfoot gives lectures and serves on numerous committees and national boards, among them the National Academy of Education, the Boston Globe, and the John D. and Catherine T. Mac-Arthur Foundation, the last of which she became chair in 2002.

DAVID LEVERING LEWIS (1936– ) Educator, Writer

David Levering Lewis was born May 25, 1936, in Little Rock, Arkansas. He earned a bachelor’s in history from Fisk University in 1956 and continued his studies at Columbia University, where he earned a master’s degree in 1958. He received his Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1962. He published his first paper as an undergraduate, titled “History of the Negro Upper Class in Atlanta, Georgia 1890–1958.”

Lewis eventually began studying African American history after years as a scholar of French history, teaching at the University of Ghana, Notre Dame University, and Howard University. In 1971, he published a scholarly biography of Martin Luther King Jr., titled Martin Luther King: A Critical Biography. Lewis followed this work with one on anti-Semitism called Prisoners of Honor: The Dreyfus Affair in 1973 at which time he accepted a teaching post at Federal City College in Washington, D.C. In 1974, he became a full professor of history at the University of the District of Columbia.

Throughout the 1970s, he studied the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s, writing a work of definitive scholarship on the subject, published in 1981, as When Harlem Was in Vogue: The Politics of the Arts in the Twenties and Thirties. Next, Lewis tackled W. E. B. Du Bois, the great scholar and writer, in his biography W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919, which won a Pulitzer Prize for biography in 1994 and a National Book Award the same year. In 1999 he accepted a MacArthur Foundation “genius grant” to continue his research, and published W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–1963 in 2000. He won a second Pulitzer Prize for that work. By the time his Du Bois biography was published in 1993, Lewis had taken a position as the chair of the history department of Rutgers University. He is now Julius Silver University Professor and professor of history at New York University. Lewis contributes regularly to scholarly journals and the Washington Post.

ALAIN LOCKE (1886–1954) Scholar

Born on September 3, 1886, in Philadelphia, Locke graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a B.A. degree from Harvard University in 1907. He was then awarded a

Rhodes scholarship for two years of study at Oxford University in England and did further graduate study at the University of Berlin (1910–1911). Upon returning to the United States, Locke took an assistant professorship in English and philosophy at Howard University in Washington, D.C. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1918 and the same year was made chairman of the philosophy department at Howard where he stayed until his retirement in 1953.

In 1934 Locke founded the Associates in Negro Folk Education. In 1942 he was named to the Honor Roll of Race Relations. A prolific author, Locke’s first book was entitled Race Contacts and Inter-Racial Relations (1916). His best known works include The New Negro: An Interpretation (1925), a book that introduced America to the Harlem Renaissance, and The Negro in Art: A Pictorial Record of the Negro Artist and of the Negro Theme in Art (1940). Locke died in New York City on June 9, 1954.

BENJAMIN E. MAYS (1894–1984) Former Morehouse College President

In addition to occupying the president’s office at More-house, Benjamin Mays wrote, taught mathematics, worked for the Office of Education, served as chairman of the Atlanta Board of Education, preached in a Baptist church, acted as an advisor to the Southern Christian Leadership Council, and was a church historian.

Born in Epworth, South Carolina, in 1894, Mays attended Bates College and later received his master’s and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He served as a pastor at Georgia’s Shiloh Baptist Church from 1921 to 1924, and later taught at Morehouse College and South Carolina’s State College at Orangeburg. After a stint at the Tampa Urban League, he worked for the YMCA as national student secretary and then directed a study of African American churches for the Institute of Social and Religious Research. From 1934 to 1940, he acted as dean of Howard University’s School of Religion, before taking up the presidency of Morehouse from 1940 to 1967. He served in several other distinguished posts including the Atlanta Board of Education chairmanship and positions at HEW and the Ford Foundation. Awards earned by Mays include 43 honorary degrees, the Dorie Miller Medal of Honor, and the 1971 Outstanding Older Citizen Award. He died at his Atlanta home on March 21, 1984.

JESSE EDWARD MOORLAND (1863–1940) Archivist, Clergyman

Jesse Moorland was born on September 10, 1863, in Coldwater, Ohio. Following the untimely death of his parents, Moorland was reared by his grandparents. His early education consisted of sporadic attendance at a small rural schoolhouse and being read to by his grandfather. Moorland eventually attended Normal University in Ada, Ohio, married, and taught school in Urbana, Ohio. He went on to attend Howard University in Washington and graduated with a degree in theology in 1891.

Moorland was ordained a congregational minister and, between 1891 and 1896, he served at churches in South Boston, Virginia, Nashville, and Cleveland. In 1891 he also became active in the YMCA, an association he would maintain for much of his life.

In 1909 Moorland’s well-known essay “Demand and the Supply of Increased Efficiency in the Negro Ministry” was published by the American Negro Academy. In it, Moorland called for a more pragmatic ministry, both in terms of the education of its members and its approach to social issues.

By 1910 Moorland had become quite active in the YMCA and was appointed secretary of the Colored Men’s Department. In this position, Moorland raised millions of dollars for the YMCA’s construction and building fund.

Having reached the mandatory retirement age in 1923, Moorland resigned from the YMCA and began devoting his time and considerable energy to other pursuits. Moorland was active with the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, the National Health Circle for Colored People, and the Frederick Douglass Home Association.

From 1907 and onward, Moorland served as a trustee of Howard University. In 1914 he donated his private library of African American history to the university. Out of this gift grew the Moorland Foundation. The collection was renamed the Moorland-Spingarn Collection and later renamed the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center. This collection of documents on African American history and culture was the first African American research collection at a major American university. Moorland died in New York on April 30, 1940.

ROD PAIGE (1935– ) Secretary of Education

Rod Paige was born on June 17, 1935 in Brookhaven, Mississippi. He attended Lawrence County Training School, where he was a both a solid student and a stand-out football player. His athletic skills earned him a scholarship to Jackson State University, where Paige earned a bachelor of science degree in 1955, graduating with honors. Following graduation, Paige became a head football coach, first at Utica Junior College, and then at Jackson State from 1962–1969. During this period, he also earned a master of science degree in 1964 and a doctorate in physical education in 1969, both from Indiana University.

In 1971, Paige took the coaching job at Texas Southern University. With it came the position of Athletic Director and a faculty appointment. By 1984, he had risen to the post of dean of the school of education. He served in that capacity through 1990. Paige was elected to the Houston Independent School District Board of Education in 1989. He was named district superintendent in 1994. During his tenure, Paige helped to turn around the state’s largest school district by giving more responsibility to effective principals, addressing the issue of unqualified teachers, and making Houston’s schools a safe place for students and faculty. Within five years, the district’s test scores had risen substantially, and the dropout and violent crime rates had fallen.

Paige was honored in 1999 by the Council of Great City Schools, who named him one of the top two educators in the nation. The next year he was named as the first African-American education secretary by President George W. Bush. In his first two years in the post, Paige helped to create and promote the administration’s vision for education reform, which focused on the issues of national assessment testing and school vouchers.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS PATTERSON. SEENATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS CHAPTER.

BENJAMIN F. PAYTON (1932– ) Former Tuskegee University President

Born in Orangeburg, South Carolina, in 1932, Benjamin Franklin Payton took a bachelor’s degree with honors from South Carolina State College in 1955. He earned a B.D. from Howard University in 1958, a master’s degree from Columbia University in 1960, and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1963. He took a position as assistant professor at Howard University before working for the National Council of Churches as the Commission on Religion and Race’s executive director of social justice—a position which he retained even as he took over the presidency of Benedict College in 1967. He left Benedict in 1972 for a position at the Ford Foundation, where he remained until he became the president of Tuskegee University in 1981. Payton has sought to increase the visibility of the university during his tenure, and in 1999 he was instrumental in establishing the nation’s first African-American bioethics center on the campus.

Payton holds honorary degrees from Eastern Michigan University, Morris Brown, Benedict, and Morgan State. A recipient of the Napoleon Hill Foundation Gold Medal Award and the Benjamin E. Mays Award, he served as educational advisor to Vice President George Bush on Bush’s seven-nation tour of Africa in 1982. Payton has also served as a member of several organizations including the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, the Alabama Industrial Relations Council, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Executive Board of the National Consortium for Educational Access.

ARTHUR A. SCHOMBURG (1874–1938) Archivist, American Negro Academy President

Born in Puerto Rico in 1874, Arturo Schomburg led a richly varied public life. He worked as a law clerk and was a businessman, journalist, editor, lecturer, New York Public Library curator, and teacher of Spanish.

In 1911 Schomburg co-founded the Negro Society for Historical Research. He was also a lecturer for the United Negro Improvement Association. Schomburg was a member of the New York Puerto Rico Revolutionary Party and served as secretary of the Cuban Revolutionary Party. In 1922 he headed the American Negro Academy, an organization founded by Alexander Crummell in 1879 to promote African American art, literature, and science.

Schomburg, who died on June 10, 1938, collected thousands of works on African American culture over his lifetime. In 1926 Schomburg’s personal collection was purchased by the Carnegie Corporation and given to the New York Public Library. In 1973 the collection became known as the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and History; the name was later changed to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

SHELBY STEELE (1946– ) Scholar

Steele was born January 1, 1946, in Chicago but grew up in Phoenix, Illinois, a blue-collar suburb of Chicago. He attended high school in Harvey, Illinois, where he was student council president his senior year prior to graduating in 1964. Steele then attended Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where he was active in SCOPE—an organization associated with Martin Luther King Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He graduated in 1968 and, in 1971, received an M.S. in sociology from Southern Illinois University. He went on to receive a Ph.D. in English literature from the University of Utah in 1974. While at Southern Illinois University, he taught African American literature to impoverished children in East St. Louis. Steele is currently research fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, where he concentrates on issues of race.

In 1990 Steele published The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America, which won the National Book Critics Circle Award. In this controversial book, Steele argued that African-American self-doubt and its exploitation by the white and black liberal establishment is as great a cause of problems for African Americans as more traditional forms of racism. He published A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America in 1998. Steele has also written articles on this theme for such respected publications as Harper’s, New Republic, American Scholar, and Commentary.

Because of his beliefs, Steele has been identified as part of an emerging African American neo-conservative movement, but in an interview with Time magazine (August 12, 1991), he categorized himself as a classical liberal focusing on the freedom and sacredness of the individual.

H. PATRICK SWYGERT (1943– ) University President, Lawyer

Since taking office as the 15th president of Howard University in Washington, D.C., H. Patrick Swygert has worked to craft a strategy to move the institution into the twenty-first century. He aims to place the university on a firmer financial footing and sees Howard’s role as one of shaping and implementing an academic and research agenda for African Americans.

Born on March 11, 1943, in Philadelphia, Swygert graduated from Howard University in 1965 with an A.B. degree and received his J.D. from the Howard University School of Law in 1968. After graduation, Swygert was law clerk to Chief Justice William H. Hastie of the U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit in Philadelphia, and later served as administrative assistant to Congressman Charles B. Rangel. He held various positions at Temple University, first as vice president for university administration, then special counsel to the president, and later acting dean of the law school. He was also a full professor on the law school faculty. After serving as visiting professor at the University of Ghana and Tel Aviv University, he was a visiting lecturer in Cairo, Egypt; Rome, Italy; and Athens, Greece.

Swygert has also held several positions with the U.S. government including general counsel to the U.S. Service Commission. He was president of the State University of New York at Albany for five years, until he became president of Howard University on August 1, 1995. He is committed to sustaining Howard’s stature among higher education institutions that serve African Americans.

IVAN VAN SERTIMA (1935– ) Scholar

Born in British Guyana in 1935, anthropologist, linguist, and literary critic Ivan Van Sertima is currently professor of African studies at Rutgers University.

In 1977 Van Sertima published They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America. Drawing from various disciplines, Van Sertima presents evidence of pre-Columbian contact with the New World by Africans. The book earned him the Clarence L. Holte Prize in 1981, although it also drew criticism from anthropologists who argued that he ignored critical evidence that would disprove his theory.

In 1979 Van Sertima founded The Journal of African Civilizations, which presents a revisionist approach to world history. He is also the author of Caribbean Writers, a collection of essays, and Early America Revisited, published in 1998.

CORNEL WEST. SEE RELIGION CHAPTER.

CLIFTON R. WHARTON JR. (1926– ) Former University President and Deputy Secretary of State

Clifton R. Wharton, born on September 13, 1926, was the first African American to head the largest university system in the United States—the State University of New York. He was also president of Michigan State University and served as chairman and CEO of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and College Retirement Equities Fund. He also served briefly as President Clinton’s deputy secretary of state.

A native Bostonian, Wharton took a bachelor’s degree cum laude from Harvard in 1947. He received a master’s at Johns Hopkins the following year, as the first African American admitted into the university’s School for Advanced International Studies. In 1956 he took a second M.A. from the University of Chicago, which awarded him a Ph.D. in 1958. Between master’s degrees he worked as a research associate for the University of Chicago. He then proceeded to the Agricultural Development Council, Inc., where he worked for 12 years. He also held a post as visiting professor at the University of Malaya and served as director and eventually vice president of the American Universities Research Program. Wharton took over the presidency of Michigan State in 1970 and stayed there for eight years; he moved on to the SUNY system from 1978 to 1987. He then became chief executive of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA), which is the largest pension fund in the world, and later became the first African American to chair the Rockefeller Foundation. Wharton achieved yet another first in 1993 when President Clinton selected him as his deputy secretary of state, the first African American to achieve that post. He was only at the job eight months, however, before he resigned in frustration over political struggles within the administration. He then returned to TIAA as an overseer, and also became a director of the New York Stock Exchange and Harcourt General. As of 2000 he was working as an economist and vice president of the Agricultural Development Council.

Wharton won the President’s Award on World Hunger in 1983 and has earned honorary degrees from more than 45 colleges and universities.

CARTER G. WOODSON (1875–1950) Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History Cofounder, Historian, Writer, Publisher, Black History Month Founder

Often called “The Father of Black History,” Carter Godwin Woodson was a tireless advocate of African American history in school curriculum, the promotion of African American achievements through the work of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History that he co-founded, and the promotion of the African American heritage through Negro History Week (now Black History Month).

Woodson was born to former slaves in 1875, in New Canton, Virginia. In 1898, he studied at Berea College in Kentucky, then taught school in Fayette County, West Virginia. In 1900, he was appointed principal of his alma mater, Douglass High School, then returned to Berea until the school, racially integrated at first, was forced to close its doors to African American students because of the state’s segregation laws. Woodson then studied at the University of Chicago and returned to Berea after it readmitted African Americans.

Woodson then taught school and later served as school supervisor in the Philippines. He spent a semester at the Sorbonne, where he improved his French-speaking skills. He returned to the University of Chicago, where he received a B.A. in 1907 and M.A. degrees in history, romance languages, and literature in 1908. Woodson began studying for his doctorate at Harvard University in 1908 and later taught at several schools in the District of Columbia; his longest tenure was at the M Street High School where he remained from 1911 to 1917. He completed his dissertation and received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1912, becoming the second African American man to receive such a degree from that institution (the first was W. E. B. Du Bois).

Deeply devoted to the study and promotion of African American history and to the preservation of the culture of his race, Woodson joined several other men in founding the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History in 1912 (ASALH). Wood-son’s obsession with the history of African Americans remained foremost throughout his life’s work. In 1916, the association began publishing the widely recognized Journal of Negro History.

Woodson held several positions in academia in the District of Columbia: principal of Armstrong Manual Training School (1918–1919); faculty member, dean, and head of the graduate faculty at Howard University (1919–1920); and dean at West Virginia Collegiate Institute (1920–1922). After that, he concentrated on the work of the ASALH. In 1921, he organized Associated Publishers, the publishing arm of ASALH. Among his own works issued by the press were The History of the Negro Church (1921) and The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933).

Woodson remained concerned that young people, teachers, laymen, and others should know about African American history. As a partial solution, beginning February 1926, he promoted a special commemoration, or Negro History Week, to incorporate the birthdays of Booker T. Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Frederick Douglass. The celebration had national appeal and, later, in 1976, Negro History Week became Black History Month. To further promote African American history among the schools, Woodson founded the Negro History Bulletin in 1937. On April 3, 1950, Woodson died in Washington, D.C. In 1976, ASALH changed its name to the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History.

HISTORICALLY AND PREDOMINANTLY AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Alabama A&M University
PO Box 908
Normal, AL 35762
Telephone: (800) 553-0816
Web site: www.aamu.edu
Established 1875.

Alabama State University
915 South Jackson Street
Montgomery, AL 36104
Telephone: (800) 253-5037
Web site: www.alasu.edu
Established 1867.

Albany State University
504 College Dr.
Albany, GA 31705
Telephone: (800) 822-7267
Web site: crystal.asurams.edu/asu/
Established 1903.

Alcorn State University
100 ASU Drive
Lorman, MS 39096
Telephone: (800) 222-6790
Web site: www.alcorn.edu
Established 1871.

Allen University
1530 Harden St.
Columbia, SC 29204
Telephone: (803) 376-5780
Established 1870.
Web site: www.allenuniversity.edu/enter.html

Arkansas Baptist College
1600 Bishop St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-6099
Telephone: (501) 374-7856
Established 1884.

Atlanta Metropolitan College
1630 Stewart Avenue, SW
Atlanta, GA 30310
Telephone: (404) 756-4004
Web site: www.atlm.edu/
Established 1974.

Barber-Scotia College
145 Cabarrus Ave.
Concord, NC 28025
Telephone: (800) 610-0778
Established 1867.

Benedict College
Harden and Blanding Sts.
Columbia, SC 29204-1086
Telephone: (800) 868-6598
Web site: www.benedict.edu
Established 1870.

Bennett College for Women
900 E. Washington St.
Greensboro, NC 27401-3239
Telephone: (800) 413-5323
Web site: www.bennett.edu
Established 1873.

Bethune-Cookman College
640 Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune Blvd.
Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3099
Telephone: (800) 448-0228
Web site: www.bethune.cookman.edu
Established 1904.

Bishop State Community College
351 N. Broad St.
Mobile, AL 36603-5898
Telephone: (334) 438-6801
Web site: www.bscc.cc.al.us
Established 1965.

Bluefield State College
219 Rock St.
Bluefield, WV 24701
Telephone: (304) 327-4000
Web site: www.bluefield.wvnet.edu
Established 1895.

Bowie State University
14000 Jericho Park Rd.
Bowie, MD 20715-3318
Telephone: (301) 464-3000
Web site: www.bsu.umd.edu
Established 1865.

Central State University
1400 Brush Row Rd.
Wilberforce, OH 45384-9999
Telephone: (800) 388-2781
Web site: www.ces.edu
Established 1887.

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
Cheyney, PA 19319-0200
Telephone: (610) 399-2000
Web site: www.cheyney.edu
Established 1837.

Chicago State University
9501 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr.
Chicago, IL 60628-1598
Telephone: (773) 995-2000
Web site: www.csu.edu
Established 1867.

Claflin College
College Ave., NE
Orangeburg, SC 29115
Telephone: (803) 534-2710
Web site: www.icusc.org/cchome.htm
Established 1869.

Clark Atlanta University
James P. Brawley Dr. at Fair St., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-4385
Telephone: (404) 880-8000
Web site: www.cau.edu
Established 1988.

Clinton Junior College
PO Box
968 Rock Hill, SC 29731
Telephone: (803) 327-5587
Established 1894.

Coahoma Community College
3240 Friars Point Rd.
Clarksdale, MS 38614-9799
Telephone: (662) 627-2571
Web site: www.ccc.cc.ms.us/
Established 1949.

Compton Community College
1111 E. Artesia Blvd.
Compton, CA 90221-5393
Telephone: (310) 900-1600
Web site: gopher://compton.cc.ca.us
Established 1927.

Concordia College
1804 Green St.
Selma, AL 36701
Telephone: (334) 874-7143
Web site: www.cuis.edu/www/cus/cual.html
Established 1922.

Coppin State College
2500 W. North Ave.
Baltimore, MD 21216-3698
Telephone: (410) 383-5400
Web site: www.coppin.umd.edu
Established 1900.

Cuyahoga Community College, Metropolitan Campus
2900 Community College Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44115
Telephone: (216) 987-4000
Web site: www.tri-c.cc.oh.us
Established 1963.

Delaware State University
1200 N. DuPont Hwy.
Dover, DE 19901
Telephone: (302) 857-6353
Web site: www.dsc.edu
Established 1891.

Denmark Technical College
Solomon Blatt Blvd., PO Box 327
Denmark, SC 29042-0327
Telephone: (803) 793-3301
Web site: www.den.tec.sc.us/
Established 1948.

Dillard University
2601 Gentilly Blvd.
New Orleans, LA 70122-3097
Telephone: (504) 283-8822
Web site: www.dillard.edu
Established 1869.

J.F. Drake State Technical College
3421 Meridian St.
Huntsville, AL 35811
Telephone: (256) 539-8161
Web site: www.dstc.cc.al.us
Established 1961.

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
1621 E. 120th St.
Los Angeles, CA 90059-3025
Telephone: (323) 563-4800
Web site: www.cdrew.edu
Established 1966.

Elizabeth City State University
Parkview Drive
Elizabeth City, NC 27909
Telephone: (800) 347-3278
Web site: www.ecsu.edu
Established 1891.

Fayetteville State University
1200 Murchison Rd., Newbold Station
Fayetteville, NC 28301-4298
Telephone: (800) 222-2549
Web site: www.uncfsu.edu
Established 1867.

Fisk University
1000 17th Ave., N.
Nashville, TN 37208-3051
Telephone: (615) 329-8500
Web site: www.fisk.edu
Established 1866.

Florida A&M University
1500 Wahnish Way
Tallahassee, FL 32307
Telephone: (850) 599-3000
Web site: www.famu.edu
Established 1887.

Florida Memorial College
15800 NW 42nd Ave.
Miami, FL 33054-6199
Telephone: (800) 553-0816
Web site: www.fmc.edu
Established 1879.

Fort Valley State University
805 State College Drive
Fort Valley, GA 31030-4313
Telephone: (912) 825-6211
Web site: www.fcsc.edu
Established 1895.

Grambling State University
100 Main Street
Grambling, LA 71245-3091
Telephone: (318) 274-2000
Web site: www.gram.edu
Established 1901.

Hampton University
Hampton, VA 23668-0199
Telephone: (800) 624-3328
Web site: www.hamptonu.edu/
Established 1868.

Harris-Stowe State College
3026 Laclede Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63103
Telephone: (314) 340-3366
Web site: www.hssc.edu/
Established 1857.

Hinds Community College, Utica Campus
Highway 18 West
Utica, MS 39175-9599
Telephone: (800) 446-3722
Web site: www.hindscc.edu
Established 1917.

Mary Holmes College
Hwy.50 W., PO Drawer 1257
West Point, MS 39773-1257
Telephone: (601) 494-6820
Web site: www.maryholmes.edu
Established 1892.

Howard University
2400 6th St., NW
Washington, DC 20059-0001
Telephone: (202) 806-6100
Web site: www.howard.edu
Established 1867.

Howard University School of Law
2900 Van Ness St., NW
Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 806-8000
Web site: www.law.howard.edu
Established 1869.

Huston-Tillotson College
1820 East Eighth Street
Austin, TX 78702
Telephone: (512) 505-3000
Web site: www.htc.edu
Established 1876.

Interdenominational Theological Center
700 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 427-7700
Web site: www.itc.edu
Established 1958.

Jackson State University
1400 John R. Lynch St.
Jackson, MS 39217
Telephone: (800) 848-6817
Web site: www.jsums.edu
Established 1877.

Jarvis Christian College
PO Box 1470, Highway 80 W.
Hawkins, TX 75765-9989
Telephone: (903) 769-5700
Web site: www.jarvis.edu
Established 1912.

Kennedy-King College
6800 S. Wentworth Ave.
Chicago, IL 60621-3798
Telephone: (773) 602-5000
Web site: www.ccc.edu/kennedyking/
Established 1976.

Kentucky State University
400 E. Main St., Box PG-92
Frankfort, KY 40601-2355
Telephone: (502) 227-6000
Web site: www.kysu.edu.
Established 1886.

Knoxville College
901 College St.
Knoxville, TN 37921
Telephone: (800) 743-5669
Web site: www.knoxvillecollege.edu/
Established 1875.

LaGuardia Community College
31-10 Thompson Ave.
Long Island City, NY 11101
Telephone: (718) 482-5000
Web site: www.lagcc.cuny.edu
Established 1971.

Lane College
545 Lane Ave.
Jackson, TN 38301
Telephone: (901) 426-7000
Web site: www.lanecollege.edu/
Established 1882.

Langston University
PO Box 907
Langston, OK 73050-0907
Telephone: (405) 466-4000
Web site: www.lunet.edu
Established 1897.

Lawson State Community College
3060 Wilson Rd., SW
Birmingham, AL 35221
Telephone: (205) 925-2515
Web site: www.ls.cc.al.us/
Established 1965.

LeMoyne-Owen College
807 Walker Ave.
Memphis, TN 38126
Telephone: (901) 774-9090
Web site: www.lemoyne-owen.edu/
Established 1862.

Lewis College of Business
17370 Meyers Rd.
Detroit, MI 48235
Telephone: (313) 862-3000
Web site: www.lewiscollege.edu
Established 1906.

Lincoln University (Missouri)
820 Chestnut St.
Jefferson City, MO 65101-9880
Telephone: (573) 681-5000
Web site: www.lincolnu.edu
Established 1866.

Lincoln University of Pennsylvania
Lincoln University
PA 19352
Telephone: (800) 790-0191
Web site: www.lincoln.edu
Established 1854.

Livingstone College
701 W. Monroe St.
Salisbury, NC 28144
Telephone: (704) 797-1000
Web site: www.lsc.edu
Established 1879.

Medgar Evers College of City University of New York
1650 Bedford Ave.
Brooklyn, NY 11225
Telephone: (718) 270-6021
Web site: www.greatcollegetown.com/medgar.html
Established 1969.

Meharry Medical College
1005 D.B. Todd Jr. Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37208
Telephone: (615) 327-6000
Web site: www.mmc.edu
Established 1876.

Miles College
5500 Myron Massey Boulevard
Birmingham, AL 35064
Telephone: (205) 929-1656
Web site: www.miles.edu
Established 1905.

Mississippi Valley State University
14000 Hwy. 82 W.
Itta Bena, MS 38941
Telephone: (662) 254-9041
Web site: www.mcsu.edu
Established 1946.

Morehouse College
830 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 681-2800
Web site: www.morehouse.edu
Established 1867.

Morehouse School of Medicine
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30310-1495
Telephone: (404) 752-1500
Web site: www.msm.edu
Established 1984.

Morgan State University
Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-3000
Web site: www.morgan.edu
Established 1867.

Morris Brown College
643 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr., NW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 738-1000
Web site: www.morrisbrown.edu
Established 1881.

Morris College
North Main Street
Sumter, SC 29150
Telephone: (803) 775-9371
Web site: www2.morris.edu/index.asp
Established 1908.

New York City Technical College
300 Jay St.
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Telephone: (718) 260-5500
Web site: www.nyctc.suny.edu
Established 1946.

Norfolk State University
700 Park Avenue
Norfolk, VA 23504-3989
Telephone: (757) 683-8600
Web site: www.nsu.ed
Established 1935.

North Carolina A&T State University
1601 E. Market St.
Greensboro, NC 27411-0001
Telephone: (336) 334-7500
Web site: www.ncat.edu
Established 1891.

North Carolina Central University
PO Box 19717, Shepherd Station
Durham, NC 27707
Telephone: (919) 560-6100
Web site: www.nccu.edu
Established 1910.

Oakwood College
7000 Adventist Road
Huntsville, AL 35896
Telephone: (256) 726-7000
Web site: www.oakwood.edu
Established 1896.

Paine College
1235 15th St.
Augusta, GA 30910
Telephone: (706) 821-8200
Web site: www.paine.edu
Established 1882.

Prairie View A&M University
PO Box 3089
Prairie View, TX 77446-4019
Telephone: (936) 857-3311
Web site: www.pvamu.edu
Established 1876.

Paul Quinn College
3837 Simpson Stuart Rd.
Dallas, TX 75241-4398
Telephone: (214) 302-3613
Web site: www.pqc.edu
Established 1872.

Roxbury Community College
1234 Columbus Ave.
Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120-3400
Telephone: (617) 541-5310
Web site: www.rcc.mass.edu
Established 1973.

Rust College
150 Rust Ave.
Holly Spring, MS 38635
Telephone: (662) 252-8000
Web site: www.rustcollege.edu
Established 1866.

Saint Augustine’s College
1315 Oakwood Ave.
Raleigh, NC 27611
Telephone: (919) 516-4000
Web site: www.st-aug.edu/
Established 1867.

Saint Paul’s College
406 Windsor Ave.
Lawrenceville, VA 23868-9988
Telephone: (804) 848-3111
Web site: www.saintpauls.edu
Established 1888.

Savannah State University
3219 Falligant Avenue
Savannah, GA 31404-5255
Telephone: (912) 356-2336
Web site: www.savstate.edu
Established 1890.

Selma University
1501 Lapsley St.
Selma, AL 36701
Telephone: (334) 872-2533
Established 1878.

Shaw University
118 E. South St.
Raleigh, NC 27601
Telephone: (919) 546-8200
Web site: www.shawuniversity.edu/
Established 1865.

Shorter College
604 Locust St.
North Little Rock, AR 72114
Telephone: (501) 374-6305
Established 1888.

Simmons University Bible College
1811 Dumesnil St.
Louisville, KY 40210
Telephone: (502) 776-1443
Web site: www.sbcollege.edu/
Established 1879.

Johnson C. Smith University
100 Beatties Ford Rd.
Charlotte, NC 28216
Telephone: (704) 378-1000
Web site: www.jcsu.edu
Established 1867.

Philander Smith College
812 W. 13th St.
Little Rock, AR 72202-3799
Telephone: (501) 370-5310
Web site: www.philander.edu
Established 1877.

Sojourner-Douglass College
500 N. Caroline St.
Baltimore, MD 21205
Telephone: (410) 276-0306
Web site: www.sdc.edu/
Established 1972.

South Carolina State University
300 College St., NE
Orangeburg, SC 29117-0001
Telephone: (803) 536-7000
Web site: www.scsu.edu
Established 1896.

Southern University and A&M University at Baton Rouge
PO Box 9901
Baton Rouge, LA 70813
Telephone: (221) 771-4500
Web site: www.subr.edu
Established 1880.

Southern University at New Orleans
6400 Press Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70126
Telephone: (504) 286-5000
Web site: www.suno.edu
Established 1956.

Southern University at Shreveport
Martin Luther King Jr. Dr.
Shreveport, LA 71107
Telephone: (318) 674-3312
Web site: www.susbo.edu
Established 1964.

Southwestern Christian College
200 Bowser Circle
Terrell, TX 75160
Telephone: (972) 524-3341
Web site: www.swcc.edu/
Established 1949.

Spelman College
350 Spelman Ln., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 681-3643
Web site: www.spelman.edu/
Established 1881.

Stillman College
PO Box 1430, 3600 Stillman Blvd.
Tuscaloosa, AL 35403-1430
Telephone: (205) 349-4240
Web site: www.stillman.edu
Established 1876.

Talladega College
627 W. Battle St.
Talladega, AL 35160-2354
Telephone: (256) 362-0206
Web site: www.talladega.edu
Established 1867.

Tennessee State University
3500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878
Web site: www.tnstate.edu
Established 1912.

Texas College
2404 N. Grand Ave.
Tyler, TX 75712
Telephone: (903) 593-8311
Web site: www.texascollege.edu
Established 1894.

Texas Southern University
3100 Cleburne Ave.
Houston, TX 77004
Telephone: (713) 313-7011
Web site: www.tsu.edu
Established 1947.

Tougaloo College
300 E. County Line Rd.
Tougaloo, MS 39174
Telephone: (601) 977-7700
Web site: www.tougaloo.edu
Established 1869.

Trenholm State Technical College
1225 Air Base Blvd.
Montgomery, AL 36108
Telephone: (334) 832-9000
Web site: www.tstc.cc.al.us
Established 1963.

Tuskegee University
Tuskegee, AL 36088
Telephone: (334) 727-8500
Web site: www.tusk.edu
Established 1881.

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
1200 University Dr.
Pine Bluff, AR 71611
Telephone: (800) 264-6585
Web site: www.uapb.edu
Established 1873.

University of Maryland—Eastern Shore
Princess Anne, MD 21853-1299
Telephone: (410) 651-2200
Web site: www.umes.umd.edu
Established 1886.

University of the District of Columbia
4200 Connecticut Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 274-5000
Web site: www.udc.edu
Established 1976.

University of the Virgin Islands
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas
U.S. Virgin Islands, 00802
Telephone: (340) 776-9200
Web site: www.uvi.edu
Established 1962.

Virginia Seminary and College
2058 Garfield Ave.
Lynchburg, VA 24501
Telephone: (804) 528-5276
Web site: www.vsu.edu
Established 1888.

Virginia State University
Petersburg, VA 23806
Telephone: (804) 524-5000
Web site: www.vsu.edu
Established 1882.

Virginia Union University
1500 N. Lombardy St.
Richmond, VA 23220
Telephone: (804) 257-5600
Web site: www.vuu.edu
Established 1865.

Voorhees College
1411 Voorhees Rd.
Denmark, SC 29042
Telephone: (803) 703-3351
Web site: www.voorhees.edu
Established 1897.

Edward Waters College
1658 Kings Rd.
Jacksonville, FL 32209
Telephone: (904) 366-2715
Established 1866.

Wayne County Community College
801 W. Fort Ave.
Detroit, MI 48226-3010
Telephone: (313) 496-2500
Web site: www.wccc.edu
Established 1967.

West Virginia State College
P.O. Box 1000
Institute, WV 25112-1000
Telephone: (800) 987-2112
Web site: www.wvsc.edu
Established 1891.

Wilberforce University
1055 N. Bickett Rd.
Wilberforce, OH 45384
Telephone: (937) 376-2911
Web site: www.wilberforce.edu
Established 1856.

Wiley College
711 Wiley Ave.
Marshall, TX 75670
Telephone: (800) 658-6889
Web site: www.wiley.edu
Established 1873.

Winston-Salem State University
601 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr.
Winston-Salem, NC 27110
Telephone: (336) 750-2000
Web site: www.wssu.edu
Established 1892.

Xavier University of Louisiana
7325 Palmetto St.
New Orleans, LA 70125
Telephone: (504) 486-7411
Web site: www.xula.edu
Established 1915.

RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS

African Heritage Studies Association, Africana Studies & Research Institute, Queens College
65-30 Kissena Blvd.
Flushing, NY 11367
Telephone: (718) 997-2845

Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture
1901 Ft. Pl., S.E.
Washington, DC 20020
Telephone: (202) 287-3369

Association for Study of Afro-American Life and History, Inc.
7961 Eastern Ave., Ste. 301
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Telephone: (301) 587-5900
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.asalh.com

Bennett College for Women, Johnnetta B. Cole Global Diversity and Inclusion Institute
900 E. Washington St.
Greensboro, NC 27401-3239
Telephone: (336) 517-2272
E-mail: [email protected]

Black Arts Research Center
30 Marion St.
Nyack, NY 10960
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: barc0.tripod.com/

Boston University, African American Studies Center
138 Mountfort St.
Brookline, MA 02146
Telephone: (617) 353-2795
Web site: www.bu.edu/afam/

Bowie State University, Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
14000 Jericho Park Rd.
Bowie, MD 20715-3318
Telephone: (301) 464-3000
E-mail: [email protected]

Brooklyn College of City University of New York, Africana Studies
2900 Bedford Ave., 3105 James Hall
Brooklyn, NY 11210
Telephone: (718) 951-5597
Web site: depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/africana/

Brown University, Africana Studies Department
155 Angell St., 2nd Fl., PO Box 1904, Churchill House
Providence, RI 02912
Telephone: (401) 863-3137
Web site: www.brown.edu/Departments/African_American_Studies/

The Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in America
PO Box 1886
Providence, RI 02912
Telephone: (401) 863-3080
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.brown.edu/Departments/Race_Ethnicity/index.shtml

The Watson Institute
111 Thayer Street, PO Box 1970
Providence, RI 02912-1970
Telephone: (401) 863-2809
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.watsoninstitute.org/index2.cfm

Center for Third World Organizing
1218 E 21st St.
Oakland, CA 94606
Telephone: (510) 533-7583
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.ctwo.org

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
1621 E 120th St., MP 11
Los Angeles, CA 90059
Telephone: (310) 668-3177
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.cdrewu.edu/

City University of New York, Institute for Research on the African Diaspora in the Americas and the Caribbean (IRADAC)
365 5th Ave., Rm. 7114
New York, NY 10016-4309
Telephone: (212) 817-2071
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.gc.cuny.edu/research_centers_pages/IRADAC.htm

Claflin University, Center for Excellence in Teaching
400 Magnolia Street
Orangeburg, SC 29115
Telephone: (803) 535-5219
E-mail: [email protected]

Claflin University, Jonathan Jasper Wright Institute for the Study of Southern African History, Culture, and Policy
400 Magnolia Street
Orangeburg, SC 29115
Telephone: (803) 535-5092
E-mail: [email protected]

Claflin University, South Carolina Center for Biotechnology
400 Magnolia Street
Orangeburg, SC 29115
Telephone: (803) 535-5253
E-mail: [email protected]

Clark Atlanta University, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience
James P. Brawley Dr. at Fair St. SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-4385
Telephone: (404) 880-6790
Web site: http://www.cau.edu/acad_prog/default.html
Web site: http://www.cbn-atl.org

Clark Atlanta University, Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development
James P. Brawley Dr. at Fair St. SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-4385
Telephone: (404) 880-6763, ext. 6763
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.ccrtd.cau.edu

Clark Atlanta University, Environmental Justice Resource Center
Telephone: (404) 880-6911
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.ejrc.cau.edu

Clark Atlanta University, Research Center for Science and Technology
James P. Brawley Dr. at Fair St. SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-4385
Telephone: (404) 880-6996
Web site: http://www.cau.edu

Clark Atlanta University, Southern Center for Studies in Public Policy
James P. Brawley Dr. at Fair St. SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-4385
Telephone: (404) 880-8087
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.scspp.org/

Clemson University, Charles H. Houston Center for the Study of Black Experience Affecting Higher Education
213 Martin St.
Clemson, SC 29631-1555
Telephone: (864) 656-0313
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.houston.clemson.edu

College of Staten Island of City University of New York, History Department 2N215
2800 Victory Blvd.
Staten Island, NY 10314
Telephone: (718) 982-2870
E-mail: [email protected]

Colorado State University, Center for Applied Studies in American Ethnicity
Clark C127
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1790
Telephone: (970) 491-2418
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.colostate.edu/Depts/CASAE

Columbia College, Center for Black Music Research
600 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago, IL 60605-1996
Telephone: (312) 344-7559
Web site: www.cbmr.org/

Columbia University, The Institute for Research in African-American Studies
758 Schermerhorn Extension, Mail Code 5512, 1200 Amsterdam Ave.
New York, NY 10027
Telephone: (212) 854-7080
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.columbia.edu/cu/iraas/

Cornell University, Africana Studies and Research Center
310 Triphammer Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14853
Telephone: (607) 255-4625
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.asrc.cornell.edu/

Delaware State University, College of Agriculture and Related Sciences
1200 N Dupont Hwy.
Dover, DE 19901
Telephone: (302) 857-6400
E-mail: [email protected]

Duke University, Center for Documentary Studies
1317 W Pettigrew St.
Durham, NC 27705
Telephone: (919) 660-3663
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www-cds.aas.duke.edu/

Duke University, Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture, Division of Student Affairs
201 West Union Bldg., Box 90880
Durham, NC 27708-0880
Telephone: (919) 684-3814
Web site: www.mlw.studentaffairs.duke.edu

Fisk University, Center for Phototonic Materials and Devices
1000 17th Ave.N
Nashville, TN 37208-3051
Telephone: (615) 329-8654
E-mail: [email protected]

Fisk University, Center for Physics and Chemistry of Materials
1000 17th Ave, N
Nashville, TN 37208-3051
Telephone: (615) 329-8654
E-mail: [email protected]

Race Relations Institute
1000 17th Ave., N.
Nashville, TN 37208-3051
Telephone: (615) 329-8575
Web site: www.fiskrri.org

Florida A&M University
PO Box A-19
Tallahassee, FL 32307
Telephone: (850) 599-3325
E-mail: [email protected]

Florida International University, African-New World Studies Program, University Park
1120 SW 8th St.
Miami, FL 33199-0001
Telephone: (305) 348-2000
Web site: www.fiu.edu/~efricana/

Florida State University, African American Studies Program
106 Bellamy Bldg.
Tallahassee, FL 32306-2151
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.fsu.edu/~blkstudy/

Frederick D. Patterson Research Institute
8260 Willow Oaks Corporate Dr., PO Box 10444
Fairfax, VA 22031-4511
Telephone: (703) 205-3570
Web site: www.patterson-uncf.org/rbooks.htm

Hampton University, Center for the Study of the Origin and Structure of Matter
School of Science
Hampton, VA 23668-0199
Telephone: (800) 624-3328
Web site: www.hamptonu.edu/academics/schools/science/cosm/htm

Harvard University, Civil Rights Project
444 Gutman Library
Cambridge, MA 02136
Telephone: (617) 496-6367
Web site: www.law.harvard.edu/civilrights/

The W.E.B. Du Bois Center for Afro-American Research, Barker Center
12 Quincy St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
Telephone: (617) 495-4113
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: web-dubois.fas.harvard.edu/

Howard University, Center for Drug Abuse Research
2441 4th St., NW
Washington, DC 20059
Telephone: (292) 806-7340 Web site: www.howard.edu/schooleducation/programs/cdar/htm

Howard University, Center for Urban Progress
1739 7th St., NW
Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: (202) 806-4433
Web site: www.howard.edu/centerurbanprogress

Howard University, The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
500 Howard Pl. NW
Washington, DC 20059
Telephone: (202) 806-7240
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.founders.howard.edu/moorland-spingarn/default.html

Howard University, National Human Genome Center, College of Medicine
2041 Georgia Avenue, NW, Cancer Center Bldg., Room 615
Washington, DC 20060
Telephone: (202) 806-6284
Web site: www.genomecenter.howard.edu/intro.htm

Howard University, Ralph J. Bunche International Affairs Center
2218 Sixth St., NW
Washington, DC 20059
Telephone: (202) 806-4363

Indiana State University
Holmstedt Hall, Rm. 315
Terre Haute, IN 47809
Telephone: (812) 237-2436
E-mail: [email protected]

Indiana University Bloomington, Archives of African American Music and Culture
Smith Research Center, Suites 180-181, 2805 E. Tenth Street
Bloomington, IN 47408-2601
Telephone: (812) 855-8547
Web site: www.indiana.edu/~aaamc/

Neal-Marshall Black Cultural Center
275 N. Jordan Ave. Suite A226
Bloomington, IN 47405
Telephone: (812) 855-9271
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.indiana.edu/~aacc

Institute for the Preservation and Study of African-American Writing
PO Box 50172
Washington, DC 20004
Telephone: (202) 727-4047

Johns Hopkins University, Institute for Global Studies in Culture, Power & History
Baltimore, MD 21218
Telephone: (410) 516-7794
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.jhu.edu/~igscph

Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies
1090 Vermont Ave. NW, Ste. 1100
Washington, DC 20005-4961
Telephone: (202) 789-3500
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.jointcenter.org

Kent State University, Department of Pan-African Studies
101 Oscar Ritchie Hall
Kent, OH 44242-0001
Telephone: (330) 672-2300
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: dept.kent.edu/pas/htmfiles/deptpas.htm

Kentucky State University, Center of Excellence for the Study of Kentucky African Americans
400 E. Main St.
Frankfort, KY 40601

Langston University
Hwy. 33, PO Box 1600
Langston, OK 73050
Telephone: (405) 466-3346
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.lunet.edu/lib/

Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.
449 Auburn Ave. NE
Atlanta, GA 30312 Telephone: (404) 526-8900
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.thekingcenter.com

Mississippi Valley State University, Delta Cultural Research Institute
14000 Hwy. 82 W.
Itta Bena, MS 38941
Telephone: (662) 254-3794

Mississippi Valley State University, Institute for Effective Teaching
14000 Hwy. 82 W.
Itta Bena, MS 38941
Telephone: (662) 254-3718

Morehouse College, Andrew Young Center for International Affairs
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 215-2746
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/andrewyoungctr/index/html

Morehouse College, Bonner Offices of Community Service
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 681-2800, ext. 3360; 2535
E-mail: [email protected]

Morehouse College, Brisbane Institute
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3733
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu:16080/centers/brisbane/index.html

Morehouse College, Center for Teacher Preparation & Instructional Improvement
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 614-8552
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu/academics/cenins/center_teach/home.html

Morehouse College, Entrepreneurship Center
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 509-0533
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehousecenter.org/

Morehouse College, Leadership Center at Morehouse College
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 614-8565
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu:16080/centers/leadershipcenter/index.html

Morehouse College, Morehouse Research Institute
160 Euhrlee St.
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
Telephone: (404) 215-2676
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu:16080/centers/mri/about.html

Morehouse College, Public Health Sciences Institute
720 Westview Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30314-3773
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.morehouse.edu:16080/centers/phsi/index.html

Morgan State University, Center for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Education0
101 Jenkins Bldg., Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-3134

Morgan State University, Center for Global Studies
Turners’ Armory Room 208, Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-4027
Web site: www//jewel.morgan.edu/~cglobal

Morgan State University, Center for Health Disparities Solutions
Montebello Complex, D102, Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-4030
Web site: www.morgan.edu/academics/special/HealthDisparities.index.asp

Morgan State University, Estuarine Research Center
10545 Mackall Road
St. Leonard, MD 20685-2433
Telephone: (410) 586-9700
Web site: http://jewel.morgan.edu

Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research
Montebello Complex, D216, 1700 E. Cold Spring Ln.
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-4800
Web site: www.morgan.edu/academics/special/IUR/index.asp

Morgan State University, Minority Mental Health Research Scholars Program
Psychology Department, Cold Spring Lane and Hillen Road
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-2728
Web site: http://jewel.morgan.edu/%7Enimh_cor

Morgan State University, National Transportation Center
Montebello Complex, D206, 1700 E. cold Spring Ln.
Baltimore, MD 21251
Telephone: (443) 885-3666
Web site: www.eng.morgan.edu/~ntc/index.html

National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center
1350 Brush Row Rd., PO Box 578
Wilberforce, OH 45384
Telephone: (937) 376-4944
E-mail: [email protected]

National Black Child Development Institute
1101 15th St. NW, Ste. 900
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 833-2220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.nbcdi.org

National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc.
1424 K St. NW, Ste. 500
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 637-8400
E-mail: [email protected]

National Council for Black Studies, College of Arts & Science
California State University, Dominguez Hills, 1000 E Victoria St.
Carson, CA 90747
Telephone: (310) 243-2169
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.eiu.edu/~ncbs

National Urban League, Research Department
1111 14th St., NW, 6th Fl.
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 898-1604

New York University, The Institute of African American Affairs
269 Mercer St., Ste. 601
New York, NY 10003-6687
Telephone: (212) 998-2130
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/africana/institute-set.html

Niagara University, Center for the Study and Stabilization of the Black Family
PO Box 367
Niagara University, NY 14109
Telephone: (716) 285-1212

North Carolina A & T State University, Institute for Advanced Journalism Studies
1601 E. Market St.
Greensboro, NC 27411-0001
Telephone: (336) 256-2261
E-mail: [email protected]

North Carolina A & T State University, Institute for Public Health
1601 E. Market St.
Greensboro, NC 27411-0001
Telephone: (336) 256-0858

North Carolina Central University
New Education Bldg., Ste. 2027
Durham, NC 27707
Telephone: (919) 560-6367
E-mail: [email protected]

Northern Illinois University, Center for Black Studies
DeKalb, IL 60115-2854
Telephone: (815) 753-1709
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.niu.edu/depts/cbs/

Ohio University, African American Studies Department
300 Lindley Hall
Athens, OH 45701
Telephone: (740) 593-9178
E-mail: [email protected]

Princeton University, The Program in African American Studies at Princeton
112 Dickinson Hall
Princeton, NJ 08544-1017
Telephone: (609) 258-4270
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.princeton.edu/~aasprog/

Purdue University, African American Studies and Research Center
1367 Steven C. Beering Hall of Liberal Arts and Education (BRNG)
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1367
Telephone: (765) 494-5680
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.sla.purdue.edu/academic/idis/african-american/

Rutgers University, Institute of Jazz Studies
Dana Library, 4th Fl.
Newark, NJ 07102
Telephone: (973) 648-5595
Web site: www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rulib/abtlib/danlib/jazz.htm

Savannah State University, Center of Excellence in Marine Sciences
P.O. Box 20600
Savannah, GA 31404-5255
Telephone: (912) 356-2336

Savannah State University, Center of Excellence in Mass Communications
P.O. Box 20634
Savannah, GA 31404-5255
Telephone: (912) 356-2336

Savannah State University, Center of Excellence in Social Work
P.O. Box 20553
Savannah, GA 31404-5255
Telephone: (912) 356-2336

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
515 Malcolm X Blvd.
New York, NY 10037-1801
Telephone: (212) 491-2200
Web site: www.nypl.org/research/sc/sc.html

South Carolina State University, Center for Excellence in Transportation
300 College St., NE
Orangeburg, SC 29117-0001
Telephone: (803) 536-8863
E-mail: [email protected]

South Carolina State University, Environmental Policy Institute
300 College St., NE
Orangeburg, SC 29117-0001
Telephone: (803) 536-8863
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Center for Biomedical Research
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Center for Environmental Sciences Education and Research
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Center for Molecular Biology
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 270-5713
Web site: http://www.spelman.edu/academics/research/rise/

Spelman College, MacVicar Health Center for Education and Research
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Minority Access to Research Careers
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www/spelman.edu/academics/research/marc

Spelman College, Model Institutions for Excellence Program
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
E-mail: [email protected]

Spelman College, Research Infrastructure in Minority Institutions
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 270-5781
Web site: http://www.spelman.edu/academics/research/rimi/

Spelman College, Women’s Research & Resource Center
350 Spelman Lane, SW, Box 115, Cosby 2nd Floor
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 681-3643 (Ext. 2161)

Spelman College, Women in Science and Engineering
350 Spelman Lane, SW
Atlanta, GA 30314
Telephone: (404) 270-5859
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.spelman.edu/academics/research/wise/

State University of New York, New York African American Research Foundation
State University Plaza, Central Administration Bldg.
Albany, NY 12246
Telephone: (518) 443-5798

Temple University, The Center for African American History and Culture
Weiss Hall, Ste. B18, 1701 N 13th St.
Philadelphia, PA 19122
Telephone: (215) 204-4851
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.temple.edu/caahc

Tennessee State University, Center for Health
3500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878

Tennessee State University, Center of Excellence for Battlefield Sensor Fusion
3500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878

Tennessee State University, Center of Excellence for Research and Policy in Basic Skills
3500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878

Tennessee State University, Center of Excellence in Information Systems
3500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878

Tennessee State University, Small Business Development Center
2500 John Merritt Blvd.
Nashville, TN 37209-1561
Telephone: (888) 463-6878

Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
6823 St. Charles Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70118
Telephone: (504) 865-5535
Web site: www.tulane.edu/~amistad/

University at Albany, State University of New York, Department of Africana Studies
Business Administration 115
Albany, NY 12222
Telephone: (518) 442-4730
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.albany.edu/africana/

University of Alabama, Center for Southern History and Culture
PO Box 870342
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0342
Telephone: (205) 348-7467

University of California at Berkeley, The Department of African American Studies
660 Barrows Hall #2572
Berkeley, CA 94720-0318
Telephone: (510) 642-7084
Web site: socrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/

University of California, Los Angeles, Center for African American Studies
160 Haines Hall, Box 951545
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1545
Telephone: (310) 825-7403
Web site: www.sscnet.ucla.edu/caas/

University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Sociology
2201 Hershey Hall, 375 Portola Place
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1551
Telephone: (310) 206-7107
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/index.html

University of California, Riverside, Center for the Advanced Studies of the Americas
Humanities Bldg., Rm. 3609
Riverside, CA 92521
Telephone: (909) 787-2196
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site:www.chass.ucr.edu/csbsr/casa.html

University of California, Riverside, Paul Robeson Center for Legal and Historical Research
Humanities Bldg., Rm. 3612
Riverside, CA 92521
Telephone: (909) 787-2196
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.chass.ucr.edu/csbsr/robeson.html

University of California, San Francisco, Center for Aging in Diverse Communities
3333 California St., Ste. 335
San Francisco, CA 94143-0856
Telephone: (415) 476-9933
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: medicine.ucsf.edu/cadc/

University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Black Studies
South Hall, Rm. 4603
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3140
Telephone: (805) 893-3914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: research.ucsb.edu/cbs/

University of Charleston, Avery Research Center for African American History and Culture
125 Bull St.
Charleston, SC 29424
Telephone: (843) 953-7609
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.cofc.edu/~averyrsc

University of Chicago, Committee on African and African-American Studies
5828 S. University Ave.
Chicago, IL 60637
Telephone: (773) 702-0902

University of Cincinnati, The Department of African Amercian Studies
P.O. Box 210370
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0370
Telephone: (513) 556-0350
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: asweb.artsci.uc.edu/afamstudies/

University of Connecticut, Institute for African American Studies
241 Glenbrook Rd., Box U2162
Storrs, CT 06269-2162
Telephone: (860) 486-3630
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.ucc.uconn.edu/~aasadm03/

University of Florida, African American Studies Program
330 Little Hall, PO Box 118120
Gainesville, FL 32611
Telephone: (352) 392-5724
Web site: www.clas.ufl.edu/afam/

University of Georgia, Institute for African American Studies
312 Candler Hall
Athens, GA 30602
Telephone: (706) 542-5197
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.uga.edu/~iaas

University of Houston, African American Studies Program
Agnes Arnold Hall, College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences
Houston, TX 77204-3747
Telephone: (713) 743-2811
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.hfac.uh.edu/aas

University of Illinois at Chicago, Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy
324 CUPPA Hall, M/C 347, College of Urban Planning & Public Affairs, 412 S Peoria
Chicago, IL 60607-7066
Telephone: (312) 996-9145
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.uic.edu/cuppa/irrpp/

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, The Afro-American Studies and Research Program
1201 W Nevada St.
Urbana, IL 61801
Telephone: (217) 333-7781
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.aasrp.uiuc.edu

University of Kansas, Institute for Life Span Studies
1028 Dole Center
Lawrence, KS 66045-0048
Telephone: (785) 864-3990
E-mail: [email protected]

University of Maryland at College Park, David C. Driskell Center for the Study of the African Diaspora
2114 Tawes Fine Arts Building
College Park, MD 20742-1211
Telephone: (301) 314-2615
Web site: www.driskellcenter.umd.edu/

University of Maryland at College Park, Nyumburu Cultural Center
Bldg. 232, Ste. 1120, Office of the VP for Academic Affairs
College Park, MD 20742
Telephone: (301) 314-7758
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.inform.umd.edu/nyumburu

University of Massachusetts at Boston, The William Monroe Trotter Institute
100 Morrissey Blvd.
Boston, MA 02125-3393
Telephone: (617) 287-5880
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.trotterinst.org

University of Michigan, Center for Afroamerican and African Studies
106 West Hall Bldg., 550 E University
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1092
Telephone: (734) 764-5513
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.umich.edu/~iinet/caas/

University of Michigan, The Program for Research on Black Americans
5062 Institute for Social Research, 426 Thompson St., PO Box 1248
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248
Telephone: (734) 763-0045
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.isr.umich.edu/rcgd/prba/

University of Mississippi, Center for the Study of Southern Culture
Barnard Observatory
University, MS 38677
Telephone: (662) 232-5993
Web site: www.olemiss.edu/depts/south/

University of Oklahoma, Center for Research on Multi-Ethnic Education
455 Lindsey St., Rm. 804
Norman, OK 73019-0535
Telephone: (405) 325-4529

University of Pennsylvania, Afro-American Studies Program
3451 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Telephone: (215) 898-5000
Web site: www.sas.upenn.edu/afams/

University of Rochester, Frederick Douglass Institute for African and African-American Studies
302 Morey Hall
Rochester, NY 14627-0440
Telephone: (716) 275-7235

University of Texas at Austin, Center for African and African-American Studies
Jester Center, Rm. A232A, CMC D7200
Austin, TX 78705
Telephone: (512) 471-1784
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.utexas.edu/depts/caaas/

University of Virginia, Center for the Study of Civil Rights
1512 Jefferson Park Ave.
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Telephone: (804) 924-3109

University of Virginia, The Carter G. Woodson Institute for Afro-American and African Studies
108 Minor Hall, PO Box 400162
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4162
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.virginia.edu/~woodson

University of Wisconsin—Madison, The African Studies Program
205 Ingraham Hall, 1155 Observatory Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
Telephone: (608) 262-2380
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: polyglot.lss.wisc.edu/afrst/asphome.html

Vanderbilt University, Kelly Miller Institute on Black Church Studies
411 21st Ave. S
Nashville, TN 37240
Telephone: (615) 343-3981
Web site: divinity.library.vanderbilt.edu/kmsi/default.htm

Virginia State University, Center for Diplomacy and International Economics
Petersburg, VA 23806
Telephone: (804) 524-6756

Virginia State University, Institute for Race Relations
Petersburg, VA 23806
Telephone: (804) 524-5556

Virginia State University, Office for International Education
Petersburg, VA 23806
Telephone: (804) 524-5986

Voorhees College, Rural Health Center
5480 Voorhees Road
Denmark, SC 29042
Telephone: (803) 703-1073
E-mail: [email protected]

Voorhees College, James Clyburn Economic Development Center
5480 Voorhees Road
Denmark, SC 29042
Telephone: (803) 703-7021
E-mail: [email protected]

Wayne State University, Walter P. Reuther Library
5401 Cass Ave.
Detroit, MI 48202
Telephone: (313) 577-4024
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.reuther.wayne.edu/

Wesleyan University, Center for African American Studies
343 High St.
Middletown, CT 06459
Telephone: (860) 685-3568
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.wesleyan.edu/afam/

Western Michigan University, Africana Studies Program
330 Moore Hall
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
Web site: www.wmich.edu/blackamericanastudies/

Xavier University of Louisiana, Center for International Studies
7325 Palmetto St.
New Orleans, LA 70125
Telephone: (504) 520-5490
E-mail: [email protected]

Xavier University of Louisiana, Center for the Advancement of Teaching
7325 Palmetto St.
New Orleans, LA 70125
Telephone: (504) 520-7477
E-mail: [email protected]

Xavier University of Louisiana, Center for Undergraduate Studies
7325 Palmetto St.
New Orleans, LA 70125
Telephone: (504) 520-7408
E-mail: [email protected]

Yale University, Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition
PO Box 208206
New Haven, CT 06520-8206
Telephone: (203) 432-3339
Web site: www.library.yale.edu/training/gilderle.htm

AFRICAN AMERICANS HOLDING ENDOWED UNIVERSITY CHAIRS, CHAIRS OF EXCELLENCE, OR CHAIRED PROFESSORSHIPS (2007)

Endowed university chairs are an honor—both for the person for whom the chair is named as well as for the person who is named to the chair. Endowments are bestowed upon academicians of great talent who have distinguished themselves in their careers. Usually an organization separate from a collegiate institution will approach a university in hopes of setting up a chair and endowment fund. The reverse may also occur, as universities seek funds to attract, support, and recognize distinguished faculty by having a chair endowed for them. Such chairs may also bring a level of prestige to the institution.

In 2001, 136 African American professors were known to hold endowed chairs, including at least ten of those named for African Americans. Many such professors have either retired from endowed chairs, are professors emeriti, or are deceased, including T. J. Anderson (Tufts University); David C. Driskell (University of Maryland); Edgar G. Epps (University of Chicago); John Hope Franklin (three: Cambridge University, Duke University, and University of Chicago); James Lowell Gibbs Jr. (Stanford University); Edmund Gordon (Columbia Teachers College); Harry E. Groves (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); James E. Jones Jr. (University of Wisconsin); Barbara C. Jordan (University of Texas at Austin); C. Eric Lincoln (Duke University and Clark University); Bertha Maxwell-Roddy (University of North Carolina, Charlotte); Samuel DeWitt Proctor (Rutgers University); William H. Peterson (Campbell University); Charlotte H. Scott (University of Virginia); Nathan A. Scott (University of Virginia); John B. Turner (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); and Marilyn V. Yarborough (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

By 2007, twenty-two chairs have been identified as endowed and named for African American men and women, including Sterling A. Brown, Ray Charles, Constance E. Clayton, William and Camille Cosby, Charles R. Drew, W. E. B. Du Bois, Grace Towns Hamilton, Benjamin L. Hooks, John E. Jacob, James Earl Jones, Quincy Jones, Ernest Everett Just, Martin Luther King Jr., James M. Lawson, LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., Benjamin E. Mays, Wade H. McCree Jr., Ronald E. McNair, Willa B. Player, Samuel DeWitt Proctor, Paul Robeson, and Roy Wilkins. At least 186 African American scholars scattered throughout the country now hold endowed chairs.

Kofi Agawu, Walter Bigelow Rosen Professor of Music and Professor of African and African American Studies, Harvard University.

Delores P. Aldridge, Grace Towns Hamilton Professor of Sociology and African-American Studies, Emory University.

Gloria Long Anderson, Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Chemistry, Morris Brown College.

Maya Angelou, Reynolds Professor of American Studies, Wake Forest University.

Regina Austin, William A. Schnader Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania.

Mario J. Azevedo, Frank Porter Graham Professor, University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

Randall Bailey, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Hebrew Bible, Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta.

Houston A. Baker Jr., Distinguished University Professor, Vanderbilt University.

Oscar A. Barbarin, L. Richardson and Emily Preyer Bicentennial Distinguished Professor for Strenghthening Families, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Elizabeth Barron, Clarence Jupiter Professor in the Humanities, Xavier University of Louisiana

Colin O. Benjamin, Eminent Scholar, Management/International Business, Florida A & M University.

Estrada J. Bernard Jr., Van L. Weatherspoon Jr. Professor of Neurosurgery and Chief, Division of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Mary Frances Berry, Geraldine R. Segal Professor of American Social Thought and Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania.

Richard J. M. Blackett, Andrew Jackson Chair of History, Vanderbilt University.

Lawrence Bobo, Martin Luther King Jr. Centennial Professor, Stanford University.

Thomas Bonner, W. K. Kellogg Professor of English, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Gerald Boodoo, The Drexel Society Professor of Black Catholic Studies, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Kofi Bota, K. A. Huggins Professor of Chemistry, Clark Atlanta University.

Joanne M. Braxton, Frances L. and Edwin L. Cummings Professor of English and the Humanities, College of William and Mary.

Frank Brown, Cary C. Boshamer Professor of Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Herrington J. Bryce, Life of Virginia Professor of Business Administration, College of William and Mary.

Roy S. Bryce-Laporte, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Professor of Sociology, Colgate University.

Robert Bullard, E. A. Ware Professor of Sociology, Clark Atlanta University.

Walter G. Bumphus, Professor and Sid W. Richardson Regents Fellow, Community College Leadership Program, University of Texas at Austin.

John S. Butler, The Herb Keller Chair in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, and The Gale Chair in Entrepreneurship, University of Texas at Austin.

Carolyn M. Callahan, Doris M. Cook Chair of Accounting, Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas

Clive O. Callender, LaSalle D. Leffall Professor of Surgery, Howard University College of Medicine.

John O. Calmore, Reef C. Ivey II Research Professor of Law, UNC Law School, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

J. W. Carmichael, Xavier University State of Louisiana Chair in Sciences, Xavier University of Louisiana

Loftus C. Carson II, Ronald D. Krist Professor in Law, University of Texas at Austin.

Stephen L. Carter, William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Law, Yale University Law School.

Robert G. Clark, Distinguished Visiting Professor, Delta Cutural Research Institute, Mississippi Valley State University.

Pearl Cleage, Cosby Endowed Chair, Humanities, Spelman College.

Richard Collins, RosaMary Foundation Professor of English, Xavier University of Louisiana

James P. Comer, Maurice K. Falk Professor of Child Psychiatry, Yale University.

William W. Cook, Israel Evans Professor of Oratory and Belles Lettres, Dartmouth College.

Xavier Creary, Charles L. Huisking Professor of Chemistry, University of Notre Dame.

William A. Darity Jr., Cary C. Boshamer Professor of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Research Professor of Public Policy Studies, African American Studies and Economics, Duke University.

Leon Dash, Swanlund Professor of Journalism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

N. Gregson G. Davis, Andrew W. Mellon Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Duke University.

Thadious M. Davis, Geraldine R. Segal Professor of American Thought and Professor of English, University of Pennsylvania.

Addie Dawson-Euba, Community Coffee/Frank Hayden Professor of Visual Arts, Southern University A & M College, Baton Rouge.

Charles Edward Daye, Henry P. Brandis Professor of Law, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Dennis C. Dickerson. James M. Lawson Chair of History, Vanderbilt University.

Katherine Dobie, Endowed Professor, Economics and Transportation/Logistics Institute, North Carolina A & T State University.

Gary Donaldson, John LaFarge Professor of Social Justice, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Ronald Dorris, Class of’58 Professor of Liberal Arts, Xavier University of Louisiana

Rita Dove, Commonwealth Professor of English, University of Virginia.

Michael Eric Dyson, University Professor, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Gerald Early, Merle S. Kling Professor of Modern Letters, Washington University in St. Louis.

Harry J. Elam Jr., Olive H. Palmer Professor in the Humanities, Stanford University..Donna Y. Ford, Betts Chair of Education and Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

Edward Fort, Endowed Professor, School of Education, North Carolina A & T State University.

Frances Smith Foster, Charles Howard Candler Professor of English and Women’s Studies, Emory University.

Henry Frye, Distinguished Professor, College of Arts and Sciences, North Carolina A & T State University.

Vivian Gadsen, William T. Carter Professor in Child Development in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

Steven H. Gale, Endowed Professor of Humanities, Whitney M. Young Jr. College of Leadership Studies, Kentucky State University.

Oscar H. Gandy Jr., Herbert I. Schiller Professor, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania.

Jacquelyn Grant, Fuller E. Calloway Professor of Systematic Theology, Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta.

Fannie Gaston-Johansson, Elsie M. Lawler Professor, School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University.

Henry Louis Gates Jr., W. E. B. Du Bois Professor of the Humanities, Harvard University.

Sylvester James Gates Jr., John S. Toll Professor of Physics, University of Maryland.

Jewelle Taylor Gibbs, The Zellerbach Family Fund Chair in Social Policy, Community Change and Practice, University of California at Berkeley.

Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Associate Professor of Sociology and African-American Studies, Colby College.

Nikki Giovanni, University Distinguished Professor, Virginia Tech University.

Richard A. Goldsby, John Woodruff Simpson Lecturer and Professor of Biology, Amherst College.

Peter J. Gomes, Plummer Professor of Christian Morals, Harvard University.

William B. Gould IV, Charles A. Beardsley Professor of Law, Stanford University.

Kenneth Gray, Eminent Scholar, Management/ International Business, Florida A & M University.

Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Anna Julia Cooper Professor of Women’s Studies, Spelman College.

John H. Hall Jr., Bruce Rauner Professor of Chemistry, Morehouse College.

Raymond L. Hall, Orvil Dryfoos Professor of Public Affairs, Department of Sociology, Dartmouth College.

Michael S. Harper, I. J. Kapstein Professor of English, Brown University.

Trudier Harris, J. Carlyle Sitterson Professor of English and Comparative Literature, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Winifred Harris, Howard Hughes Professor of Biology, Clark Atlanta University.

J. K. Haynes, David E. Packard Professor in Science, Morehouse College.

James A. Hefner, Thomas and Patricia Frist Chair of Excellence in Entrepreneurship, Tennessee State University.

Asa Grant Hilliard III, Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Urban Education, Georgia State University.

Darlene Clark Hine, Board of Trustees Professor of African American Studies and History, Northwestern University.

Matthew Holden Jr., Henry L. and Grace M. Doherty Professor of Government and Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia.

Karla F.C. Holloway, William Rand Kenan Professor of English, Duke University.

Robert Holmes, Distinguished Professor of Political Science, Clark Atlanta University.

Thomas Holt, James Westphall Thompson Professor, Department of History, University of Chicago.

Alton E. Hornsby, Fuller E. Calloway Professor of History, Morehouse College.

James O. Horton, Benjamin Banneker Professor of American Studies and History, George Washington University.

Maureen Hurley, Claude H. and Elizabeth Organ Professor of Biology, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Tasha R. Inniss, Clare Booth Luce Professor of Mathematics, Trinity College, Washington, D.C.

Shubha Ireland, W. K. Kellogg Professor of Liberal Arts, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Edward Irons, Distinguished Professor of Finance, Clark Atlanta University.

Jacqueline Irvine, Charles Howard Candler Professor of Urban Education, Emory University.

Francesina R. Jackson, Evelyn Berry Chair of Education, Paine College.

Willie Jennings, Research Professor of Theology and Black Church/Cultural Studies, Duke University.

Charles Johnson, S. Wilson and Grace Pollock Professorship for Excellence in English, University of Washington.

James H. Johnson Jr., William Rand Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor of Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Richard A. Joseph, Asa G. Candler Professor of Politics, Department of Political Science, Emory University.

Kathleen Kennedy, Malcolm Ellington Professor of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Preston King, Distinguished Visiting Professor of Leadership Studies, Morehouse College.

Paul Kwame, Curb/Beaman Chair for the Fisk Jubilee Singers, Fisk University.

David Lanoue, W. K. Kellogg Professor of Teaching II, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot, Emily Hargroves Fisher Professor of Education, Harvard University.

LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., Charles R. Drew Professor of Surgery, Howard University College of Medicine.

David Levering Lewis, Julius Silver University Professor and professor of history, New York University.

Richard A. Long, Atticus Haygood Professor, Emory University.

Kenneth R. Manning, Thomas Meloy Professor of Rhetoric and the History of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Ali Mazrui, Albert Schweitzer Professor of Political Science, SUNY, Binghamton.

Reuben R. McDonald Jr., Charles and Elizabeth Prothro Regents Chair in Health Care Management, University of Texas at Austin.

Patricia McFadden, Cosby Endowed Chair, Social Sciences, Spelman College.

John McFaddon, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Benjamin Elijah Mays Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of South Carolina.

Donald E. McHenry, Distinguished Professor of Diplomacy and International Affairs, Georgetown University.

Ruth G. McRoy, Ruby Lee Piester Centennial Professor in Services to Children and Families, University of Texas at Austin.

Ronald E. Mickens, Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Physics, Clark Atlanta University.

Ivor Mitchell, Christine McEachern Smith Professor of Marketing, Clark Atlanta University.

Joseph Monroe, Jefferson Pilot/Ronald McNair Professor of Computer Science and Dean of the College of Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University.

Kathleen Morgan, Keller Foundation Professor of Science, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Toni Morrison, Robert F. Goheen Professor, Council of the Humanities, Princeton University.

John Howard Morrow Jr., Franklin Professor of History, University of Georgia.

V. Y. Mudimbe, Newman Ivey White Professor of Literature, Duke University.

Samuel L. Myers Jr., Roy Wilkins Professor of Human Relations and Social Justice, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Celestine A. Ntuen, Distinguished Professor, Cognitive Engineering Simulation, Human-Machine Systems Engineering, North Carolina A & T State University

Tumani Nyajeka, Dorothye and Cornelius Henderson Chair and E. Stanley Jones Associate Professor, Interdenominational Theological Seminary, Atlanta.

Robert G. O’Meally, Zora Neale Hurston Professor of English, Columbia University.

Bernard Oliver, Ewing Kauffman/Missouri Chair, School of Education, University of Missouri at Kansas City.

Reginald Owens, F. Jay Taylor Eminent Scholar of Journalism, Louisiana Tech University.

Nell Irvin Painter, Edwards Professor of American History Emerita, Princeton University.

Colin Palmer, Dodge Professor of History, Princeton University.

Peter J. Paris, Elmer G. Hornrighausen Professor of Christian Social Ethics, Princeton Theological Seminary.

Nell A. Parker, Herbert G. Kayser Professor of Civil Engineering, City University of New York, City College.

Orlando H. L. Patterson, John Cowles Professor of Sociology, Harvard University.

Charles Payne, Sally Dalton Robinson Professor of History, African American Studies, and Sociology, Duke University.

Gayle Pemberton, William Rand Kenan Professor of the Humanities, Wesleyan University.

Arlie O. Petters, William & Sue Gross Associate Professor of Mathematics, Duke University.

Leslie Pollard, Callaway Professor of History, Paine College.

Richard I. Powell, John Spencer Bassett Professor of Art History, Duke University.

Albert Jordy Raboteau, Henry W. Putnam Professor of Religion, Princeton University.

Arnold Rampersad, Sara Hart Kimball Professor in the Humanities, Stanford University.

William J. Raspberry, Knight Professor of the Practice of Journalism and Public Policy, Dewitt Wallace Center for Media and Democracy, Duke University.

Joe Ritchie, Knight Professor of Journalism, School of Journalism, Media and Graphic Arts, Florida A&M University.

Rosalie Richards, Kaolin Endowed Chair in Science, Georgia College and State University.

John R. Rickford, Martin Luther King Jr. Centennial Professor of Linguistics, Stanford University.

Charlotte H. Scott, University Professor of Commerce and Education, University of Virginia.

John Scott, Victor Labat Professor of Fine Arts, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Lemma W. Senbet, William E. Mayer Chair Professor of Finance, University of Maryland at College Park. This is as she submitted

William Serban, Ernest N. Morial Professor of Public Affairs and Public Policy, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Lonnie Sharpe Jr., Massie Chair of Excellence, Professorship of Engineering in the Environmental Disciplines, Tennessee State University.

George Shirley, Joseph Edgar Maddy Distinguished University Professor of Voice, University of Michigan.

Diana T. Slaughter-Defoe, Constance E. Clayton Professor in Urban Education, University of Pennsylvania.

Jessie Carney Smith, William and Camille Cosby Professor of the Humanities and University Librarian, Fisk University.

Earl Smith, Dr. Ernest Rubin Distinguished Professor of American Ethnic Studies, Wake Forest University.

Edwin M. Smith, Leon Benwell Professor of Law, University of Southern California.

Barbara J. Solomon, Stein/Sachs Professor, University of Southern California.

Jon Michael Spencer, Tyler and Alice Haynes Professor of American Studies, University of Richmond.

Margaret Beale Spencer, Board of Overseers Professor of Applied Psychology and Human Development, University of Pennsylvania.

Hortense Spillers, Gertrude Conaway Vanderbilt Professor, Vanderbilt University.

Susan Spillman, William Arcenaux Professor of French, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Claude M. Steele, Lucie Sterns Professor in the Social Sciences, Stanford University.

Cheryl Klein Stevens, Margaret W. Kelly Professor of Chemistry, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Chuck Stone, Walter Spearman Professor Emeritus, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Dorothy S. Strickland, Samuel DeWitt Proctor Professor of Education; State of New Jersey Professor of Reading, Rutgers University.

Lawrence Strout, BellSouth Professor of Communications, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Quintard Taylor, The Scott and Dorothy Bullitt Professor of American History, University of Washington.

Stephen B. Thomas, Philip Hallen Chair in Community Health and Social Justice, School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh.

Gerald E. Thomson, Samuel Lambert Professor of Medicine, Columbia University.

Susanne Tropez-Sims, Joy McCann Endowed Professor, Meharry Medical College.

Shirley Verrett, James Earl Jones Distinguished Professor of Voice, University of Michigan.

Gloria Wade-Gayles, The Eminent Scholar Endowed Chair, Spelman College.

Sheila S. Walker, Annabel Irion Worsham Centennial Professor and Director, Center for African and Afro-American Studies, Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin.

Maurice O. Wallace, William R. Kenan Professor of English, Duke University.

Jerry W. Ward Jr., Lawrence Durgin Professor of English, Tougaloo College.

John Ware, Keller Foundation Professor of Arts and Humanities, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Leland Ware, Louis L. Redding Professor for the Study of Law and Public Policy, University of Delaware.

Isiah M. Warner, Philip W. West Professor of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Louisiana State University.

Cornel West, Class of 1943 University Professor, Princeton University.

Michael White, The Rosa and Charles Keller Jr. Chair in the Arts and Humanities, Xavier University of Louisiana.

Kevin Eric Whitfield, Research Professor, Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

Roger W. Wilkins, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of History and American Culture, George Mason University.

DeWayne Wickham, Distinguished Professor, Institute for Advanced Journalism Studies, North Carolina A & T State University.

James H. Williams Jr., School of Engineering Professor of Teaching Excellence, Charles F. Hopewell Faculty Fellow, and professor of applied mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

John A. Williams, Paul Robeson Professor of English, Rutgers University.

John E. Williams, Mills Bee Lane Professor of Banking and Finance, Morehouse College.

Lisa R. Williams, Oren Harris Chair in Logistics, Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas.

Preston Noah Williams, Houghton Research Professor of Theology and Contemporary Change; Director, Summer Leadership Institute, Harvard University.

Walter E. Williams, John M. Olin Professor of Economics, George Mason University.

Scott C. Williamson, Robert H. Walkup Professor of Theological Ethics, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary.

Type of school attended by student and household characteristics: 1993 and 2003
[In percent, except total in thousands (33,900 represent 33,900,000). For students in grades 1 to 12. Includes homeschooled students enrolled in public or private school, 9 or more hours per week. Based on the Parent and Family Involvement Survey of the National Household Education Survey Program; see source and appendix III for details]
 Public Private
 Assigned Chosen Church-related Not church-related
Characteristic 1993 2003 1993 2003 1993 2003 1993 2003
1Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Condition of Education, 2004, NCES 2004-077, June 2004.
Total students (1,000) 33,900 35,300 4,700 7,400 3,200 4,000 700 1,100
Percent distribution79.973.911.015.47.58.41.62.4
Grade level:        
1 to 578.671.611.616.68.39.71.52.1
6 to 881.375.09.914.57.47.91.52.5
9 to 1280.676.011.214.46.56.91.82.6
Race/ethnicity:        
White, non-Hispanic81.074.78.612.98.69.71.82.7
Black, non-Hispanic77.268.118.624.03.45.70.82.2
Other, non-Hispanic73.070.114.919.39.07.23.13.4
Hispanic179.277.913.715.16.46.20.70.8
Family type:        
Two-parent household80.173.69.314.18.89.71.82.6
One-parent household78.974.515.218.34.85.31.11.9
Nonparent guardians83.774.713.520.02.13.70.71.5
Parents’ education:        
Less than high school83.677.613.719.72.42.10.20.6
High school diploma or equilvalent83.579.311.415.84.63.70.51.2
Some college, including vocational/technical79.875.811.115.87.76.71.41.7
Bachelor’s degree75.869.09.213.712.514.52.62.8
Graduate/professional degree72.766.29.814.113.114.14.45.6
Region:        
Northeast77.873.59.311.610.511.02.43.9
South82.075.910.915.85.48.11.72.1
Midwest79.671.610.414.49.212.10.81.9
West78.773.613.418.66.55.81.52.0

William Julius Wilson, Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser University Professor, Harvard University.

Herbert Graves Winful, The Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan.

May L. Wykle, Florence Cellar Professor of Nursing, Florence Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University.

College Population by Selected Characteristics: 1998
[In thousands (209,831 represents 209,831,000), except percent. As of October. For persons 15 years old and over. Based on the Current Population Survey.]
  Enrolled in college
   Type of school  Percent employed
Characteristic Total population Total 2-year 4-year Graduate school Percent enrolled full time Total Full time Part time
1Includes other races, not shown separately.
2Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-521.
Total1209,83115,5464,2348,2753,03765.563.733.630.1
Male101,1146,9051,8453,7771,28467.662.634.727.9
Female108,7188,6412,3894,4991,75463.964.632.831.8
White175,02812,4013,3896,6322,37964.665.934.131.8
Black25,1172,0166281,06332663.761.939.122.8
Hispanic origin221,8171,36364056016458.862.137.025.1
15 to 19 years old19,7523,7931,3012,4474588.948.69.738.9
20 and 21 years old7,1313,0927012,3187386.656.716.839.9
22 to 24 years old10,4742,5616191,40653773.864.530.334.2
25 to 34 years old38,6013,4148381,2611,31445.075.254.620.6
35 years and older133,8712,6857728391,07026.477.663.314.3
College enrollment—summary by sex, race and Hispanic origin: 2003
[In thousands (16,638 represents 16,638,000), except percent. As of October. Covers civilian noninstitutional population 15 years old and over enrolled in colleges and graduate schools. Based on Current Population Survey, see text, Section 1, Population and Appendix III]
 Race and Hispanic origin
  Sex White2    
Characteristic Total1 Male Female Total Non-Hispanic Black2 Asian2 Hispanic3
1 Includes other races, not shown separately.
2 For persons who selected this race group only.
3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, unpublished data. See Internet site <http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html>.
Total enrollment2 16,6387,3189,31912,87011,2952,1441,1621,714
15 to 17 years old150618910090281612
18 to 19 years old3,5121,5681,9442,8332,486374209379
20 and 21 years old3,5331,5511,9822,7962,419415219407
22 to 24 years old3,3201,5781,7422,5212,225435264329
25 to 29 years old2,1649821,1811,5851,371289228224
30 to 34 years old1,330607723960832214108156
35 years old and over2,6309701,6602,0751,872388116207
Type of school:
2-year4,3841,7822,6033,3202,741654221626
     76314374171
15 to 19 years old1,17854463491095923787244
20 to 24 years old1,5897008891,1931,01927461211
25 years old and over1,6185381,0801,217    
4-year8,9854,1204,8657,0696,2241,156533918
     1,795250152217
15 to 19 years old2,4551,0791,3762,0033,158541312461
20 to 24 years old4,5472,1332,4153,5771,27136569240
25 years old and over1,9839081,0751,488    
Graduate school3,2681,4161,8522,4812,331334408170
15 to 24 years old745302443566545818533
25 to 34 years old1,3996857141,02595712223475
35 years old and over1,1234296948898291319061
Public13,1095,7117,39910,1028,7431,7738331,480
2-year3,9991,6192,3813,0322,499601194578
4-year6,9813,1733,8085,4684,739942377 
Graduate2,1299191,2101,6021,505230262790
        112
Percent of students:         
Employed full-time31.734.129.832.232.434.720.630.9
Employed part-time45.746.545.149.249.929.832.444.7
Degrees earned by level and race/ethnicity: 1981 to 2003
[For school year ending in year shown. Based on survey; see Apppendix III]
 Total Percent distribution
Level of degree and race/ethnicity 19811 19851 1990 1995 20022 20032 1981 20032
1 Excludes some persons whose race/ethnicity was unknown and are slight undercounts of degrees awarded.
2 In this table, data beginning in 2000 reflect the new classification of instutitutions.
SOURCE: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.
Associate’s degrees, total 410,174 429,815 455,102 538,691 564,933 632,912 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic339,167355,343376,816420,656408,772437,79482.769.2
Black, non-Hispanic35,33035,79134,32647,06760,22175,4308.611.9
Hispanic17,80019,40721,50435,96251,57366,1754.310.5
Asian or Pacific Islander8,6509,91413,06620,67727,78232,6102.15.2
American Indian/Alaskan Native2,5842,9533,4305,4826,4977,4620.61.2
Nonresident alien6,6436,4075,9609,84710,08813,4411.62.1
Bachelor’s degrees, total 934,800 968,311 1,051,344 1,160,134 1,237,875 1,348,503 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic807,319826,106887,151914,610929,106994,23486.473.7
Black, non-Hispanic60,67357,47361,04687,236108,013124,2416.59.2
Hispanic21,83225,87432,82954,23075,05989,0302.36.6
Asian or Pacific Islander18,79425,39539,23060,50277,91287,9432.06.5
American Indian/Alaskan Native3,5934,2464,3906,6108,7199,8160.40.7
Nonresident alien22,58929,21726,69836,94639,06643,2392.43.2
Master’s degrees, total 294,183 280,421 324,301 397,629 457,056 512,645 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic241,216223,628254,299293,345320,485341,73582.066.7
Black, non-Hispanic17,13313,93915,33624,16635,87444,2725.88.6
Hispanic6,4616,8647,89212,90519,25324,9742.24.9
Asian or Pacific Islander6,2827,78210,43916,84723,21827,2452.15.3
American Indian/Alaskan Native1,0341,2561,0901,6212,2462,8370.40.6
Nonresident alien22,05726,95235,24548,74555,98071,5827.514.0
Doctor’s degrees, total 32,839 32,307 38,371 44,426 44,808 46,024 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic25,90823,93426,22127,84627,84327,69878.960.2
Black, non-Hispanic1,2651,1541,1491,6672,2462,5173.95.5
Hispanic4566777809841,3051,5611.43.4
Asian or Pacific Islander8771,1061,2252,6892,4202,4262.75.3
American Indian/Alaskan Native130119981301601960.40.4
Nonresident alien4,2035,3178,89811,13010,83411,62612.825.3
First-professional degrees, total 71,340 71,057 70,988 75,800 80,057 80,810 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic64,55163,21960,48759,40259,63758,67890.572.6
Black, non-Hispanic2,9313,0293,4094,7475,5555,7154.17.1
Hispanic1,5411,8842,4253,2313,8654,0862.25.1
Asian or Pacific Islander1,4561,8163,3626,3968,5849,7902.012.1
American Indian/Alaskan Native1922482574135645860.30.7
Nonresident alien6698611,0481,6111,8521,9550.92.4
Educational attainment by race and Hispanic origin: 1960 to 2004
[In percent. For persons 25 years old and over. 1960, 1970, and 1980 as of April 1 and based on sample data from the censuses of population. Other years as of March, and based on the Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III.]
     Hispanic3
Year Total1 White2 Black3 Asian and Pacific Islander2 Total4 Mexican Puerto Rican Cuban
NA Not available.
1Includes other races, not shown separately.
2The 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS) allowed respondents to choose more than one race. Beginning 2003 data represent persons who selected this race group only and exclude persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years only allowed respondents to report one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1.
3Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
4Includes persons of other Hispanic origin, not shown separately.
5Though 1990, completed 4 years of high school or more and 4 years of college or more.
6Starting in 2003, data are for Asians only, excludes Pacific Islanders.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census of Population, U.S. Summary, PC80-1-C1 and Current Population Report P20-550, and earlier reports, unpublished data, and data published on the Internet. See Internet site <http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/educ-attn.html>.
High school graduate or more5
196041.143.220.1(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)
197052.354.531.4(NA)32.124.223.443.9
198066.568.851.2(NA)44.037.640.155.3
199077.679.166.280.450.844.155.563.5
199581.783.073.8(NA)53.446.561.364.7
200084.184.978.585.757.051.064.373.0
200184.184.878.887.656.850.764.672.2
200284.184.878.787.457.050.666.870.8
200384.685.180.087.6657.050.969.770.8
200485.285.880.686.858.451.971.872.1
College graduate or more5
19607.78.13.1(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)
197010.711.34.4(NA)4.52.52.211.1
198016.217.18.4(NA)7.64.95.616.2
199021.322.011.339.99.25.49.720.2
199523.024.013.2(NA)9.36.510.719.4
200025.626.116.543.910.66.913.023.0
200126.226.615.747.511.17.812.919.3
200226.727.217.047.211.17.614.018.6
200327.227.617.349.8611.47.812.321.6
200427.728.217.649.412.17.914.024.0
Educational attainment by race, Hispanic origin, and sex: 1960 to 2004
[In percent]
 All races1 White2 Black2 Asian and Pacific Islander2 Hispanic 3
Year Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
NA Not available.
1Includes other races, not shown separately.
2Beginning 2003 for persons who selected this race group only.
3Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
4Through 1990, completed 4 years of high school or more and 4 years of college or more.
5Starting in 2003, data are for Asians only, excludes Pacific Islanders.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census of Population, 1960, 1970 and 1980, Vol. 1; and Current Population Reports, P20-550, and earlier reports; and data published on the Internet. See Internet site <http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/educ-attn.html>.
High school graduate or more4
196039.542.541.644.718.221.8(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)
197051.952.854.055.030.132.5(NA)(NA)37.934.2
198067.365.869.668.150.851.5(NA)(NA)67.365.8
199077.777.579.179.065.866.584.077.250.351.3
199581.781.683.083.073.474.1(NA)(NA)52.953.8
200084.284.084.885.078.778.388.283.456.657.5
200184.184.284.485.179.278.590.385.155.558.0
200283.884.484.385.278.578.989.585.556.157.9
200384.185.084.585.779.680.389.586.056.357.8
200484.885.485.386.380.480.888.7585.0557.359.5
College graduate or more4
1960
19709.75.810.36.02.83.3(NA)(NA)(NA)(NA)
198013.58.114.48.44.24.6(NA)(NA)7.84.3
199020.112.821.313.38.48.3(NA)(NA)9.46.0
199524.418.425.319.011.910.844.935.49.88.7
200026.020.227.221.013.612.9(NA)(NA)10.18.4
200127.823.628.523.916.316.747.640.710.710.6
200228.224.328.724.015.316.152.343.210.811.4
200328.525.129.125.416.417.550.943.811.011.2
200428.925.729.425.916.717.853.946.111.211.6
 29.426.130.026.416.618.553.7545.6511.812.6
Students who are homeschooled by selected characteristics: 2003
[As of spring. (50,707 represents 50,707,000). For students 5 to 17 with a grade equivalent of K-12. Homeschoolers are students whose parents reported them to be schooled at home instead of a public or private school. Excludes students who were enrolled in school for more than 25 hours a week or were homeschooled due to a temporary illness. Based on the Parent and Family Involvement Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program; see source and Appendix III for details]
 Number of students Percent distribution
Characteristic Total (1,000) Home-schooled (1,000) Precent home schooled All students Home-schooled Non-homeschooled
1Excludes those ungraded.
2Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program, unpublished data.
Total 50,707 1,096 2.2 100.0 100.0 100.0
Grade equivalent:1
K-524,2694721.947.943.348.0
Kindergarten3,643982.77.29.07.2
Grades 1 to 312,0982141.823.919.724.0
Grades 4 to 58,5281601.916.814.716.9
Grades 6 to 812,4723022.424.627.824.5
Grades 9 to 1213,9583152.327.528.927.5
Sex:
Male25,8195692.250.951.950.9
Female24,8885272.149.148.149.1
Race/ethnicity:
White, non-Hispanic31,5848432.762.377.062.0
Black, non-Hispanic7,9851031.315.79.415.9
Hispanic28,075590.715.95.316.2
Other23,063913.06.08.36.0
Number of children in the household:
One child8,0051101.415.810.116.0
Two children20,5103081.540.428.040.8
Three or more children22,1926793.143.862.043.3
Number of parents in the household:
Two parents35,9368862.570.980.870.7
One parent13,2601961.526.217.926.3
Nonparental guardians1,511140.93.01.33.0
Parents’ participation in the labor force:
Two parents-one in the labor force:10,5455945.620.854.220.1
Two parents-both in labor force25,1082741.149.525.050.1
One parent in labor force12,0451741.423.815.923.9
No parent in labor force3,008541.85.94.96.0
Household income:
$25,000 or less12,3752832.324.425.824.4
$25,001 to 50,00013,2203112.426.128.426.0
$50,001 to 75,00010,9442642.421.624.121.8
$75,001 or more14,1672381.727.921.728.0
Parents’ highest educational attainment:
High school diploma or less16,1062691.731.824.531.9
Voc/tech degree or some college16,0683382.131.730.831.7
Bachelor’s degree9,7982742.819.325.019.2
Graduate/professional school8,7342152.517.219.617.2
Proficiency test scores for selected subjects, by characteristic: 1977 to 2001
[Based on The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Tests which are administered to a representative sample of students in public and private schools. Reading, writing, mathematics, and social science based on NAEP Long-Term Assessments. Test scores can range from 0 to 500, except as indicated. For details, see source]
       Parental education
  Sex Race    More than high school
Test and year Total Male Female White 1Black 1Hispanic origin Less than high school High school Total Some college College graduate
NA Not available.
1Non-Hispanic
2Writing scores revised from previous years; previous writing scores were recorded on a 0to400 rather than 0 to 500 scale.3Civics uses a scale of 0 to 300.
SOURCE: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual, and NAEP 1998 Civics Report Card for the Nation; and NAEP 2001 Geography and History Report Card for the Nation.
Reading
9 year olds:
1979–80215210220221189190194213226(NA)(NA)
1987–88212208216218189194193211220(NA)(NA)
1998–99212209215221186193199206220(NA)(NA)
13 year olds:
1979–80259254263264233237239254271(NA)(NA)
1987–88258252263261243240247253265(NA)(NA)
1998–99259254265267238244238251270(NA)(NA)
17 year olds:
1979–80286282289293243261262278299(NA)(NA)
1987–88290286294295274271267282300(NA)(NA)
1998–99288282295295264271265274298(NA)(NA)
Writing2
4th graders:
1983–84204201208211182189179192217208218
1987–88206199213215173190194199212211212
1995–96207200214216182191190203(NA)205214
8th graders:
1983–84267258276272247247258261276271278
1987–88264254274269246250254258271275271
1995–96264251276271242246245258(NA)270274
11th grade:
1983–84290281299297270259274284299298300
1987–88291282299296275274276285298296299
1995–96283275292289267269260275(NA)287291
Mathematics
9 year olds:
1977–78219217220224192203200219231230231
1985–86222222222227202205201218231229231
1998–99232233231239211213214224(NA)237240
13 year olds:
1977–78264264265272230238245263280273284
1985–86269270268274249254252263278274280
1998–99276277275283251259256264(NA)279286
17 year olds:
1977–78300304297306268276280294313305317
1985–86302305299308279283279293310305314
1998–99308310307315283293289299(NA)308317
Science
9 year olds:
1976–77220222218230175192199223233237232
1985–86224227221232196199204220235236235
1998–99229231228240199206213218(NA)234237
13 year olds:
1976–77247251244256208213224245264260266
1985–86251256247259222226229245262258264
1998–99256259253266227227229243(NA)261268
17 year olds:
1976–77290297282298240262265284304296309
1985–86289295282298253259258277300295304
1998–99295300291306254276264281(NA)297307
History, 2001
4th graders209209209220188186177177(NA)214216
8th graders262264261271243243243241(NA)264270
12th graders287288286292269267274263(NA)287296
Geography, 2001
4th graders209212207222181184186197(NA)216216
8th graders262264260273234240238250(NA)265272
12th graders285287282291260270263274(NA)286294
Civics,1997–983
4th graders150149151159132126124153(NA)150153
8th graders150148152159133127123144(NA)143160
12th graders150148152158131130124140(NA)145160
School enrollment by race, Hispanic origin, and age: 1980 to 2003
[47,673 represents 47,673,000]
 White1 Black1 Hispanic origin 2
Age 1980 1990 2003 1980 1990 2003 1980 1990 2003
NA Not available.
1Beginning 2003 for persons who selected this race group only.
2Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, PPL-148; and earlier PPL and P-20 reports; and data published on the Internet. See Internet site <http:/www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html>.
Enrollment (1,000)
Total 3 to 34 years old 47,673 48,899 55,218 8,251 8,854 10,971 4,263 6,073 11,679
3 and 4 years old1,8442,7003,550371452714172249728
5 and 6 years old4,7815,7505,6709041,1291,0494918351,386
7 to 13 years old19,58520,07621,3773,5983,8324,5412,0092,7945,073
14 and 15 years old6,0385,2656,4271,0881,0231,3155687391,415
16 and 17 years old5,9374,8586,3111,0479621,2674545921,242
18 and 19 years old3,1993,2713,812494596651226329614
20 and 21 years old2,2062,4022,890242305458111213454
22 to 24 years old1,6691,7812,55919627445993121353
25 to 29 years old1,4731,7061,62118716229784130240
30 to 34 years old9421,0901,0011241192205472174
35 years old and over1,1042,0962,173186238438(NA)145250
Enrollment rate
Total 3 to 34 years old 48.9 49.5 55.4 53.9 51.9 59.2 49.8 47.4 49.6
3 and 4 years old36.344.955.338.241.655.628.529.843.7
5 and 6 years old95.896.594.795.496.394.494.594.891.6
7 to 13 years old99.299.698.399.499.898.399.299.498.0
14 and 15 years old98.399.197.397.999.297.994.399.096.7
16 and 17 years old88.692.595.090.691.794.381.885.492.1
18 and 19 years old46.357.164.445.755.261.937.844.150.5
20 and 21 years old31.941.048.223.428.441.319.527.233.7
22 to 24 years old16.420.226.713.620.027.411.79.916.1
25 to 29 years old9.29.911.08.86.112.26.96.36.2
30 to 34 years old6.35.96.26.84.48.65.13.64.6
35 years old and over1.32.11.81.82.12.8(NA)2.11.8
School Enrollment by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Age: 1980 to 1998
[As of October (47,673 represents 47,673,000). Covers civilian noninstitutional population enrolled in nursery school and above. Based on Current Population Survey.]
 White Black Hispanic origin 1
Age 1980 1990 1998 1980 1990 1998 1980 1990 1998
NA Not available.
1Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-521; and earlier reports.
ENROLLMENT (1,000)
Total 3 to 34 years old 47,673 48,899 44,898 8,251 8,854 10,800 4,263 6,073 9,274
3 and 4 years old1,8442,7002,623371452731172249565
5 and 6 years old4,7815,7504,8059041,1291,3214918351,316
7 to 13 years old19,58520,07617,7763,5983,8324,4262,0092,7944,037
14 and 15 years old6,0385,2655,0311,0881,0231,1675687391,018
16 and 17 years old5,9374,8584,9781,0479621,153454592908
18 and 19 years old3,1993,2713,394494596732226329487
20 and 21 years old2,2062,4022,270242305402111213287
22 to 24 years old1,6691,7811,77219627429893121275
25 to 29 years old1,4731,7061,40718716234484130227
30 to 34 years old9421,0908421241192265472154
35 years old and over1,1042,0962,062186238358(NA)145253
ENROLLMENT RATE
Total 3 to 34 years old 48.9 49.5 56.0 53.9 51.9 59.2 49.8 47.4 50.3
3 and 4 years old36.344.954.238.241.658.328.529.839.7
5 and 6 years old95.896.596.095.496.395.394.594.893.3
7 to 13 years old99.299.698.999.499.898.699.299.498.9
14 and 15 years old98.399.198.997.999.298.894.399.096.8
16 and 17 years old88.692.595.190.691.792.981.885.489.1
18 and 19 years old46.357.166.845.755.261.137.844.140.3
20 and 21 years old31.941.048.923.428.439.919.527.225.6
22 to 24 years old16.420.226.313.620.020.811.79.916.3
25 to 29 years old9.29.911.58.86.113.96.96.38.7
30 to 34 years old6.35.96.36.84.48.85.13.65.5
35 years old and over1.32.12.01.82.12.5(NA)2.12.3
High School Dropouts by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1975 to 1998
[In percent. As of October]
Item 1975 1980 1985 1990 11991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1Beginning 1990 reflects new editing procedures for cases with missing data on school enrollment.
2Percent of students who drop out in a single year without completing high school. For grades 10 to 12.
3Includes other races, not shown separately.
4Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
5Percent of the population who have not completed high school and are not enrolled, regardless of when they dropped out. For persons 18 to 24 years old.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-521.
EVENT DROPOUTS2
Total3 5.8 6.0 5.2 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.2 5.0 5.4 4.7 4.3 4.4
White5.45.64.83.83.74.14.14.75.14.54.24.4
Male5.06.44.94.13.63.84.14.65.44.84.94.4
Female5.84.94.73.53.84.44.14.94.84.13.54.4
Black8.78.37.75.16.24.95.46.26.16.34.85.0
Male8.38.08.34.15.53.35.76.57.94.64.14.6
Female9.08.57.26.07.06.75.05.74.47.85.75.5
Hispanic410.911.59.78.07.37.95.49.211.68.48.68.4
Male10.116.99.38.710.45.85.78.410.99.210.48.6
Female11.66.99.87.24.88.65.010.112.57.66.78.2
STATUS DROPOUTS5
Total3 15.6 15.6 13.9 13.6 14.2 12.7 12.7 13.3 13.9 12.8 13.0 13.9
White13.914.413.513.514.212.212.212.713.612.512.413.7
Male13.515.714.714.215.413.313.013.614.312.913.815.7
Female14.213.212.312.813.111.111.511.713.012.110.911.7
Black27.323.517.615.115.616.316.415.514.416.016.717.1
Male27.826.018.813.615.415.515.617.514.217.417.520.5
Female26.921.516.616.215.817.117.213.714.614.716.114.3
Hispanic434.940.331.537.339.633.932.734.734.734.530.634.4
Male32.642.635.839.844.438.434.736.134.236.233.239.7
Female36.838.127.034.534.529.631.033.135.432.727.628.6
High school dropouts by race and Hispanic origin: 1975 to 2003
[In percent. As of October]
Item 1975 1980 1985 19901 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
1 Beginning 1990, reflects new editing procedures for cases with missing data on school enrollment.
2Percent of students who drop out in a single year without completing high school. For grades 10 to 12.
3Includes other races, not shown separately.
4Beginning 2003, for persons who selected this race group only.
5Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
6Percent of the population who have not completed high school and are not enrolled, regardless of when they dropped out. For persons 18 to 24 years old.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, PPL-148; and earlier PPL and P-20 reports; and data published on the Internet. See Internet site <http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html>.
Event dropouts2
Total3 5.8 6.0 5.2 4.5 5.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.7 3.3 3.9
White45.45.64.83.95.14.24.44.44.34.63.03.7
Male5.06.44.94.15.44.94.44.14.75.33.03.9
Female5.84.94.73.84.83.54.44.74.03.83.03.4
Black48.78.37.77.76.14.85.06.05.65.74.44.5
Male8.38.08.36.97.94.14.65.27.66.15.14.1
Female9.08.57.28.64.45.75.56.83.85.43.84.9
Hispanic510.911.59.77.711.68.68.47.16.88.15.36.5
Male10.116.99.37.610.910.48.66.97.17.66.27.7
Female11.66.99.87.712.56.78.27.36.58.74.45.4
Status dropouts6
Total 315.6 15.6 13.9 14.4 13.9 13.0 13.9 13.1 12.4 13.0 12.3 11.8
White413.914.413.514.113.612.413.712.812.213.412.211.6
Male13.515.714.715.414.313.815.713.913.515.313.713.3
Female14.213.212.312.813.010.911.711.810.911.410.69.8
Black427.323.517.616.414.416.717.116.015.313.814.614.2
Male27.826.018.818.614.217.520.516.317.416.916.916.7
Female26.921.516.614.514.616.114.315.713.511.012.512.0
Hispanic534.940.331.537.734.730.634.433.932.331.730.128.4
Male32.642.635.840.334.233.239.736.436.837.133.831.7
Female36.838.127.035.035.427.628.631.127.335.525.624.7
Degrees Earned by Level and Race/Ethnicity: 1981 to 1997
[For school year ending in year shown. Data exclude some institutions not reporting field of study and are slight undercounts of degrees awarded]
 Total Percent distribution
Level of degree and race/ethnicity 1981 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1981 1997
SOURCE: U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.
Associate’s degrees, total 410,174 429,815 450,263 538,545 553,625 563,620 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic339,167355,343369,580419,323425,028424,36482.775.3
Black, non-Hispanic35,33035,79135,32747,14251,67255,2608.69.8
Hispanic17,80019,40722,19536,01338,16342,6454.37.6
Asian or Pacific Islander8,6509,91413,48220,71723,09124,8292.14.4
American Indian/Alaskan Native2,5842,9533,5305,4925,5565,9270.61.1
Nonresident alien6,6436,4076,1499,85810,11510,5951.61.9
Bachelor’s degrees, total 934,800 968,311 1,048,631 1,158,788 1,163,036 1,168,023 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic807,319826,106884,376913,377904,709898,22486.476.9
Black, non-Hispanic60,67357,47361,06387,20391,16694,0536.58.1
Hispanic21,83225,87432,84454,20158,28861,9412.35.3
Asian or Pacific Islander18,79425,39539,24860,47864,35967,9692.05.8
American Indian/Alaskan Native3,5934,2464,3926,6066,9707,4090.40.6
Nonresident alien22,58929,21726,70836,92337,54438,4272.43.3
Master’s degrees, total 294,183 280,421 322,465 397,052 405,521 414,882 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic241,216223,628251,690292,784297,558302,54182.072.9
Black, non-Hispanic17,13313,93915,44624,17125,80128,2245.86.8
Hispanic6,4616,8647,95012,90714,41215,1872.23.7
Asian or Pacific Islander6,2827,78210,57716,84218,16118,4772.14.5
American Indian/Alaskan Native1,0341,2561,1011,6211,7781,9240.40.5
Nonresident alien22,05726,95235,70148,72747,81148,5297.511.7
Doctor’s degrees, total 32,839 32,307 38,113 44,427 44,645 45,394 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic25,90823,93425,88027,82627,75628,34478.962.4
Black, non-Hispanic1,2651,1541,1531,6671,6361,8473.94.1
Hispanic4566777889849991,0981.42.4
Asian or Pacific Islander8771,1061,2352,6902,6462,6072.75.7
American Indian/Alaskan Native130119991301581730.40.4
Nonresident alien4,2035,3178,95811,13011,45011,32512.824.9
First-professional degrees, total 71,340 71,057 70,744 75,800 76,641 77,815 100.0 100.0
White, non-Hispanic64,55163,21960,24059,40259,45659,85290.576.9
Black, non-Hispanic2,9313,0293,4104,7475,0165,2514.16.7
Hispanic1,5411,8842,4273,2313,4763,5532.24.6
Asian or Pacific Islander1,4561,8163,3626,3976,6177,0372.09.0
American Indian/Alaskan Native1922482574124635110.30.7
Nonresident alien6698611,0481,6111,6131,6110.92.1
views updated

Education

3489 ■ 100TH INFANTRY BATTALION VETERANS CLUB

Attn: Scholarship Committee
520 Kamoku Street
Honolulu, HI 96826
Tel: (808)732-5216
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu/mnakano
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors and college students who plan to major or are majoring in education and exemplify the sponsor's motto of "Continuing Service."
Title of Award: Major James W. Lovell Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors planning to attend an institution of higher learning and full-time undergraduate students at community colleges, vocational/trade schools, 4-year colleges, and universities. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to demonstrate civic responsibility and community service. They must be majoring or planning to major in education. Along with their application, they must submit a 4-page essay that explains how lifelong learning (including academic success, experiential learning, intellectual growth, social and economic growth, leadership skills, and civic responsibility) is important for citizens and their state and country. Selection is based on that essay and the applicant's demonstration that he or she can effectively promote the legacy of the 100th Infantry Battalion and its motto of "Continuing Service." Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3490 ■ ACADEMY OF TELEVISION ARTS & SCIENCES FOUNDATION

Attn: Education Department
5220 Lankershim Boulevard
North Hollywood, CA 91601-3109
Tel: (818)754-2830
Fax: (818)761-ATAS
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.emmys.tv/foundation/index.php
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in working on a project in a field related to children's media.
Title of Award: Fred Rogers Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art, Caricatures and cartoons; Child development; Education, Early childhood; Filmmaking; Music; Psychology; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to upper-division and graduate students interested in preparing for a career in children's media. Applicants must be able to demonstrate a commitment, either through course work or experience, to any combination of at least 2 of the following fields: early childhood education, child development, child psychology, film or television production, music, or animation. They may apply for support for any of the following areas: research on the relationship between children's media and learning or children's use of media and personal growth; development of program concepts or extended development of creative elements of an existing concept (e.g., design of puppets, scripts, storyboards, characters, music); professional internship in an organization that is relevant to the applicant's goal for use of the award. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship, first awarded in 2005, is supported by Ernst & Young.

3491 ■ ALABAMA ALLIANCE FOR SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, MATHEMATICS, AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

Attn: Project Director
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Campbell Hall, Room 401
1300 University Boulevard
Birmingham, AL 35294-1170
Tel: (205)934-8762
Fax: (205)934-1650
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uab.edu/istp/alabama.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority students at designated institutions in Alabama who are interested in preparing for a career as a science teacher.
Title of Award: Science Teacher Preparation Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of underrepresented minority groups who have been unconditionally admitted to a participating Alabama college or university. Applicants may 1) be entering freshmen or junior college transfer students who intend to major in science education and become certified to teach in elementary, middle, or high school; 2) have earned a degree in mathematics, science, or education and are seeking to become certified to teach; or 3) have earned a degree in mathematics, science, or education and are enrolled in a fifth-year education program leading to a master's degree and certification. Additional Information: Support for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation. The participating institutions are Alabama A&M University, Alabama State University, Auburn University, Miles College, Stillman College, Talladega College, Tuskegee University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Alabama in Huntsville.

3492 ■ ALABAMA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Alabama in Huntsville
Materials Science Building, Room 205
Huntsville, AL 35899
Tel: (256)824-6800
Fax: (256)824-6061
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uah.edu/ASGC
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher of science or mathematics.
Title of Award: Teacher Education Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geosciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 10 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in or accepted for enrollment as full-time undergraduates at universities in Alabama participating in the consortium. Applicants must intend to enter the teacher certification program and teach in a pre-college setting. Priority is given to those majoring in science, mathematics, or earth/space/environmental science. Applicants should have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and must be U.S. citizens. Members of underrepresented groups in science and mathematics (minorities and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Along with their application, they must submit a 1- to 2-page statement on the reasons for their desire to enter the teaching profession, specifically the fields of science or mathematics education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

3493 ■ ALABAMA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Alabama in Huntsville
Materials Science Building, Room 205
Huntsville, AL 35899
Tel: (256)824-6800
Fax: (256)824-6061
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uah.edu/ASGC
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates who are studying the space sciences at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC).
Title of Award: Undergraduate Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Business administration; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; International affairs and relations; Law; Natural sciences; Physical sciences; Public administration; Sociology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 32 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at universities participating in the ASGC. Applicants must be studying in a field related to space, including the physical, natural, and biological sciences; engineering, education; economics; business; sociology; behavioral sciences; computer science; communications; law; international affairs; and public administration. They must be U.S. citizens and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Individuals from underrepresented groups (African Americans, Hispanic, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, Asian Americans, and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Interested students should submit a completed application with a career goal statement, personal references, a brief resume, and transcripts. Selection is based on 1) academic qualifications, 2) quality of the career goal statement, and 3) assessment of the applicant's motivation for a career in aerospace. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

3494 ■ ALASKA COMMISSION ON POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

Attn: AlaskAdvantage Programs
3030 Vintage Boulevard
Juneau, AK 99801-7109
Tel: (907)465-2962
Free: 800-441-2962
Fax: (907)465-5316
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://alaskaadvantage.state.ak.us/page/254
To provide forgivable loans to Alaska high school graduates who wish to prepare for a teaching career in a rural elementary or secondary school in the state.
Title of Award: Alaska Teacher Education Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 187 of these scholarship/loans were issued. Funds Available: This is a scholarship/loan program. Students may borrow up to $7,500 per year for in-state or out-of-state study. Loans may be used for tuition, room and board, books and supplies, and transportation costs (up to 2 round trips between the student's home community and the school of attendance). An origination fee of 3% of the amount loaned is added to the principal balance to be repaid. The interest rate charged is 6%. If the borrower is employed after graduation as a teacher in a rural elementary or secondary school in Alaska, he or she may be eligible for up to 100% forgiveness of the total loan. Duration: Loans may be awarded for up to a maximum of 5 years of undergraduate study. Repayment must begin no later than 12 months from the time the borrower terminates full-time student status. The loan must be repaid within 15 years.
Eligibility Requirements: Alaska high school graduates who are enrolled or who intend to enroll in a 4-year bachelor's degree program in elementary or secondary teacher education or a fifth-year teacher certification program may be nominated by a rural school district for receipt of this loan. Nominees must meet all the eligibility criteria of the AlaskAdvantage Education Loan Programs. Currently, only rural school districts may nominate loan recipients. Rural is defined as communities with a population of 5,500 or less that are not on road or rail to Anchorage or Fairbanks or with a population of 1,500 or less that are on road or rail to Anchorage or Fairbanks. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: Students cannot receive an Alaska Teachers Education Loan and an Alaska Supplemental Education Loan simultaneously, although their family members may borrow an Alaska Family Education Loan on their behalf.

3495 ■ ALASKA COMMISSION ON POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

Attn: AlaskAdvantage Programs
3030 Vintage Boulevard
Juneau, AK 99801-7109
Tel: (907)465-6779; (866)427-5683
Fax: (907)465-5316 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://alaskaadvantage.state.ak.us/page/276
To provide financial assistance to Alaska residents who attend college in the state to prepare for a career in designated fields with a workforce shortage.
Title of Award: AlaskAdvantage Educational Grants Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Health care services; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; students with the greatest financial need are awarded support until funds are exhausted. Funds Available: Grants range from $500 to $2,000 per year, depending on the need of the recipient. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed as long as the recipient remains enrolled at least half time, makes satisfactory academic progress, and continues to meet residency and financial need requirements.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Alaska who have been admitted to an undergraduate degree or vocational certificate program at a qualifying institution in the state. Applicants must be planning to work on a degree or certificate in a field that the state has designated as a workforce shortage area; currently, those are allied health sciences, community or social service, and teaching. They must be able to demonstrate financial need and SAT or ACT scores in the top quartile. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3496 ■ ALEXANDER CHRISTIAN FOUNDATION OF INDIANA

312 East Main Street, Suite B
P.O. Box 246
Greenfield, IN 46140-0246
Tel: (317)467-1223
Web Site: http://www.acfindiana.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Christian Church or Church of Christ (Independent) in Indiana who are preparing for a church-related vocation.
Title of Award: Alexander Christian Foundation of Indiana Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Music; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $1,200 to $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of the Christian Church or Church of Christ (Independent) in Indiana who are candidates for a church-related vocation or currently working full time on an appropriate undergraduate or graduate degree. Applicants must be attending or planning to attend a college or seminary affiliated with the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ. Students at Christian colleges must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an essay of 500 to 1,000 words on "Why I Desire to Serve Christ in a Church-Related Vocation." Selection is based on that essay, evaluations of the applicant's character and motivation by their home church minister and an elder of their church, and transcripts. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1964. Church-related vocations include preaching ministry, youth ministry, missions ministry, music ministry, counseling ministry, and education ministry.

3497 ■ ALPHA DELTA KAPPA

1615 West 92nd Street
Kansas City, MO 64114-3296
Tel: (816)363-5525
Free: 800-247-2311
Fax: (816)363-4010
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alphadeltakappa.org/public/ite_information.htm
To offer scholarships to foreign women who are interested in learning American educational techniques.
Title of Award: International Teacher Education Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to single women between 20 and 35 years of age from countries other than the United States who are interested in full-time teacher training in the United States. Applicants must have completed at least 1 year of college and rank in the top 25% of their class. Students who have received an undergraduate degree are also eligible, but doctoral study is beyond the scope of this program. Applicants must have well-rounded personalities and should display qualities of leadership. Awards are not granted to members of Alpha Delta Kappa. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year. Additional Information: The scholarships, first awarded in 1963, are tenable in the United States at any accredited institution of higher learning. The recipient is expected to live in an American college or university dormitory. Should there be no available dormitory space, she is to live in university or college approved housing. After the scholarship year, the recipient is to return to her home country to work for at least 1 year in her major field of study or related field of education. Should further qualification for employment in her field be necessary in the student's homeland, she will be allowed an additional amount of time, not to exceed 3 years, before beginning her year of work.

3498 ■ AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740
Tel: (301)209-3344
Fax: (301)209-0845 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aapt.org/Grants/lotze.cfm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors or currently-enrolled college students interested in preparing for a career as a high school physics teacher.
Title of Award: Barbara Lotze Scholarship for Future Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Secondary; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Generally, 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are high school seniors, high school graduates, and currently-enrolled undergraduate students in or planning to enter a physics teacher preparation program. All applicants must be U.S. citizens. All other considerations being equal, applicants from Allegheny College are given preference. Deadline for Receipt: Applications may be submitted at any time.

3499 ■ AMERICAN COUNCIL OF THE BLIND

Attn: Coordinator, Scholarship Program
1155 15th Street, N.W., Suite 1004
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: (202)467-5081
Free: 800-424-8666
Fax: (202)467-5085
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acb.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students who are blind and are interested in studying in a field of service to persons with disabilities.
Title of Award: Arnold Sadler Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special; Law; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. In addition, the winner receives a Kurzweil-1000 Reading System. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in rehabilitation, education, law, or other fields of service to persons with disabilities. Applicants must be legally blind and U.S. citizens. In addition to letters of recommendation and copies of academic transcripts, applications must include an autobiographical sketch. A cumulative GPA of 3.3 or higher is generally required. Selection is based on demonstrated academic record, involvement in extracurricular and civic activities, and academic objectives. The severity of the applicant's visual impairment and his/her study methods are also taken into account. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship is funded by the Arnold Sadler Memorial Scholarship Fund. Scholarship winners are expected to be present at the council's annual conference; the council will cover all reasonable expenses connected with convention attendance.

3500 ■ AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND

Attn: Scholarship Committee
11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300
New York, NY 10001
Tel: (212)502-7661
Free: 800-AFB-LINE
Fax: (212)502-7771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afb.org/scholarships.asp
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate and graduate students who wish to study in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of the blind.
Title of Award: Delta Gamma Foundation Florence Margaret Harvey Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind juniors, seniors, or graduate students. U.S. citizenship is required. Applicants must be studying in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of visually impaired and blind persons. Along with their application, they must submit an essay that includes the field of study they are pursuing and why they have chosen it; their educational and personal goals; their work experience; any extracurricular activities with which they have been involved, including those in school, religious organizations, and the community; and how they intend to use scholarship monies that may be awarded. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship is supported by the Delta Gamma Foundation and administered by the American Foundation for the Blind.

3501 ■ AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND

Attn: Scholarship Committee
11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300
New York, NY 10001
Tel: (212)502-7661
Free: 800-AFB-LINE
Fax: (212)502-7771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afb.org/scholarships.asp
To provide financial assistance to legally blind undergraduate or graduate students studying in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of visually impaired and blind persons.
Title of Award: Rudolph Dillman Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 3 without consideration of financial need and 1 to an applicant who can submit evidence of financial need. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500 per year. Duration: 1 academic year; previous recipients may not reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be able to submit evidence of legal blindness, U.S. citizenship, and acceptance in an accredited undergraduate or graduate training program within the broad field of rehabilitation and/or education of blind and visually impaired persons. Along with their application, they must submit an essay that includes the field of study they are pursuing and why they have chosen it; their educational and personal goals; their work experience; any extracurricular activities with which they have been involved, including those in school, religious organizations, and the community; and how they intend to use scholarship monies that may be awarded. They may also include documentation of financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3502 ■ AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

Attn: Minority Participation Program
4220 King Street
Alexandria, VA 22302-1502
Tel: (703)379-2480
Fax: (703)379-7563
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.agiweb.org/mpp/index.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students interested in working on a degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Minority Geoscience Student Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Geology; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 19 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 academic year; renewable if the recipient maintains satisfactory performance.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of ethnic minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Eskimos, Hawaiians, and Samoans). U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Applicants must be full-time students enrolled in an accredited institution working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in the geosciences, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, and earth science education; students in other natural sciences, mathematics, or engineering are not eligible. Selection is based on a 250-word essay on career goals and why the applicant has chosen a geoscience as a major, work experience, recommendations, honors and awards, extracurricular activities, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by ExxonMobil Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ChevronTexaco Corporation, Marathon Corporation, and the Seismological Society of America.

3503 ■ AMERICAN LEGION

Attn: Department of New Hampshire
State House Annex
25 Capitol Street, Room 431
Concord, NH 03301-6312
Tel: (603)271-2211
Fax: (603)271-5352
To provide financial assistance to students in New Hampshire who are interested in becoming a teacher.
Title of Award: Christa McAuliffe Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Students who are or will be graduates of a New Hampshire high school and have been New Hampshire residents for at least 3 years may apply for this scholarship if they are entering their first year of college to study education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3504 ■ AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY

Attn: Department of Maryland
1589 Sulphur Spring Road, Suite 105
Baltimore, MD 21227
Tel: (410)242-9519
Fax: (410)242-9553
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance for college to the daughters of veterans who are Maryland residents and wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field.
Title of Award: Maryland Legion Auxiliary Children and Youth Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Business administration; Education; Medicine; Public administration; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible for this scholarship are Maryland senior high girls with veteran parents who wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field other than nursing at a college or university in the state. Preference is given to children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary. Selection is based on character (30%), Americanism (20%), leadership (10%), scholarship (20%), and financial need (20%). Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3505 ■ APPALACHIAN COLLEGE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Director of Programs
210 Center Street
Berea, KY 40403
Tel: (859)986-4584
Fax: (859)986-9549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acaweb.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students majoring in biology, chemistry, or mathematics at colleges and universities that are members of the Appalachian College Association (ACA) who plan to become teachers.
Title of Award: Robert Noyce Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Education; Mathematics and mathematical sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 12 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $7,500 per year. Recipients must be willing to sign a promissory note with a commitment to teach in a high-need middle or high school for 2 years for every year of the scholarship. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at ACA member institutions with a major in biology, chemistry, or mathematics and plans to earn a teaching license. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to document financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay describing their interest in becoming a 6-12 teacher; their commitment to the Appalachian region, including the impact they hope to have as a teacher; and actual and planned progress toward becoming certified. U.S. citizenship is required. Preference is given to graduates of high schools in the Appalachian region and to applicants who express a desire to teach in a high-need middle or high school, especially schools in central Appalachia. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation. The ACA includes member institutions in Kentucky (Alice Lloyd College, Berea College, Campbellsville University, University of the Cumberlands, Kentucky Christian University, Lindsey Wilson College, Pikeville College, and Union College), North Carolina (Brevard College, Lees-McRae College, Mars Hill College, Montreat College, and Warren Wilson College), Tennessee (Bryan College, Carson-Newman College, King College, Lee University, Lincoln Memorial University, Maryville College, Milligan College, Tennessee Wesleyan College, Tusculum College, and University of the South), Virginia (Bluefield College, Emery & Henry College, Ferrum College, and Virginia Intermont College), and West Virginia (Alderson-Broaddus College, Bethany College, Davis & Elkins College, Ohio Valley University, University of Charleston, West Virginia Wesleyan College, and Wheeling Jesuit University).

3506 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arkansashighered.com/mmasters.html
To provide fellowship/loans to minority graduate students in Arkansas who want to become teachers in selected subject areas.
Title of Award: Arkansas Minority Masters Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 25 of these fellowship/loans were approved. Funds Available: The stipend is up to $7,500 per year for full-time students (or up to $2,500 per summer for part-time summer students). This is a fellowship/loan program. The loan will be forgiven at the rate of 50% for each year the recipient teaches full time in an Arkansas public school or public institution of higher education. If the recipient does not attend college on a full-time basis, withdraws from an approved teacher education program, or does not fulfill the required teaching obligation, the loan must be repaid in full with interest at a rate up to 5 percentage points above the Federal Reserve discount rate. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient remains a full-time student with a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be minority (African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Asian American) residents of Arkansas who are U.S. citizens and enrolled as full-time master's degree students at an Arkansas public or independent institution with a cumulative GPA of 2.75 or higher. Also eligible are minority students in the fifth year of a 5-year teacher certification program. Recipients must be willing to teach in an Arkansas public school or public institution of higher education for at least 2 years after completion of their education. Preference is given to applicants who completed their baccalaureate degrees within the previous 2 years. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3507 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arkansashighered.com/mteachers.html
To provide scholarship/loans to minority undergraduates in Arkansas who want to become teachers.
Title of Award: Arkansas Minority Teacher Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Elementary; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: Awards up to $5,000 per year are available. This is a scholarship/loan program. The loan will be forgiven at the rate of 20% for each year the recipient teaches full time in an Arkansas public school (or 33% per year if the obligation is fulfilled in 3 years as described above). If the loan is not forgiven by service, it must be repaid with interest at a rate up to 5% points above the Federal Reserve discount rate. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient remains a full-time student with a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be minority (African American, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American) residents of Arkansas who are U.S. citizens and enrolled as full-time juniors or seniors in an approved teacher certification program at an Arkansas public or independent 4-year institution. They must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be willing to teach in an Arkansas public school for at least 5 years after completion of their teaching certificate (3 years if the teaching is in 1 of the 42 counties of Arkansas designated as the Delta Region; or if the teaching is in mathematics, science, or foreign language; or if the recipient is an African American male and teaches at the elementary level; or if the service is as a guidance counselor). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3508 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.starark.com
To provide scholarship/loans to college students in Arkansas who are interested in preparing for a teaching career in an approved subject or geographic shortage area.
Title of Award: Arkansas State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geosciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 42 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: The award is $3,000 per year for students who agree to teach in either a geographic teacher shortage area or a subject teacher shortage area. For students who agree to teach in both a geographic shortage area and a subject shortage area, the award is $6,000 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in an Arkansas geographic or subject shortage area for 1 year for each year of support they receive. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay all funds received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient is enrolled in a 4-year teacher education program or 2 additional years if enrolled in a 5-year teacher education program. Renewal requires that the recipient maintain a GPA of 2.75 or higher and complete 24 semester hours as an undergraduate or 18 semester hours as a graduate student.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Arkansas residents who are full-time students enrolled 1) at a 4-year public or private college or university in the state with an approved teacher education program; 2) in an associate of arts in teaching program; or 3) in an master of arts in teaching program. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year (or be in a master's degree program). They must be willing to teach in a public school located in a geographic area of Arkansas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers or in a subject matter area designated as having a critical shortage of teachers. Applicants must have completed their freshman year at an accredited Arkansas public or private college or university in a major field of study leading to secondary teacher certification in 1 of the shortage areas. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2004 as a replacement for the former Arkansas Emergency Secondary Education Loan Program. Recently, the subject areas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers were foreign language, mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, physical science, earth science, and special education. For a list of geographic areas of Arkansas that are designated as having a critical shortage of teachers, contact the Department of Higher Education. The State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) program also provides that teachers who received federal student loans may have those loans repaid 1) at the rate of $3,000 per year if they teach a subject area in Arkansas that is designated as a shortage area or if they teach in a geographic area of the state with a shortage of teachers, or 2) at the rate of $6,000 per year if they teach a shortage subject area in a shortage geographic area. Students may not, however, participate in both the scholarship/loan program and the federal loan repayment program.

3509 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED OF OHIO

c/o Marjorie E. Ward
1568 Lafayette Drive
Columbus, OH 43220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aerohio.org/schgrts/schol-grant.htm
To provide financial assistance to Ohio residents who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a field related to rehabilitation of the blind.
Title of Award: AERO Personnel Preparation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students in rehabilitation counseling, rehabilitation teaching, orientation and mobility, or education of students with visual disabilities. Applicants must be residents of Ohio, although they may be studying in any state. Undergraduates must have at least junior standing. All applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a short essay explaining why they have chosen their specific field as their profession and what they would like to contribute to the field; 2) a short description of volunteer or paid involvement with individuals with visual disabilities or any other disability; 3) transcripts; and 4) 3 letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3510 ■ ASSOCIATION OF RETIRED TEACHERS OF CONNECTICUT

240 Pomeroy Avenue, Suite 201
Meriden, CT 06450-7170
Tel: (203)639-9628; (866)343-ARTC
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.artcinc.org/Appl.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who are interested in majoring in education in college.
Title of Award: Glenn Moon Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 1 at $1,500 and 3 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,500 or $1,000. Duration: 1 year; the $1,500 award may be renewed up to 3 additional years; the $1,000 awards are nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: Connecticut high school seniors who intend to become teachers are eligible to apply. Applicants must submit an autobiographical essay that includes their reasons for wishing to teach, history of teaching and/or tutoring experience, desired teaching level and/or subject area, and experiences that influenced their selection of teaching as a career. Selection is based on the essay, academic record, financial need, character and personality, interests, and educational activities. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1979. Information is also available from T.M. Barton, 361 Woodland Street, Bristol, CT 06010.

3511 ■ ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS

Attn: Scholarships
305 East Huntland Drive, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78752-3792
Tel: (512)467-0071
Free: 800-777-ATPE
Fax: (512)467-2203
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atpe.org/Awards/bjordaninfo.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at predominantly ethnic minority institutions in Texas.
Title of Award: Barbara Jordan Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Up to 6 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at predominantly ethnic minority institutions in Texas. Applicants must submit a 2-page essay on their personal philosophy toward education, why they want to become an educator, who influenced them the most in making their career decision, and why they are applying for the scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: The qualifying institutions are Huston-Tillotson College, Jarvis Christian College, Our Lady of the Lake University, Paul Quinn College, Prairie View A&M University, St. Mary's University of San Antonio, Sul Ross State University, Sul Ross State University Rio Grande College, Texas A&M International University, Texas A&M University at Kingsville, Texas Southern University, University of Houston, University of Houston-Downtown, University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College, University of Texas at El Paso, University of Texas at San Antonio, University of Texas-Pan American, University of the Incarnate Word, and Wiley College.

3512 ■ ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS

Attn: Scholarships
305 East Huntland Drive, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78752-3792
Tel: (512)467-0071
Free: 800-777-ATPE
Fax: (512)467-2203
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atpe.org/Awards/fwiesnerinfo.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at institutions in Texas.
Title of Award: Fred Wiesner Educational Excellence Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 3 to undergraduates and 1 to a graduate student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at colleges and universities in Texas. Applicants must submit a 2-page essay on their personal philosophy toward education, why they want to become an educator, who influenced them the most in making their career decision, and why they are applying for the scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3513 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN GEOSCIENTISTS

Attn: AWG Foundation
P.O. Box 30645
Lincoln, NE 68503-0645
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.awg.org/eas/minority.html
To provide financial assistance to minority women who are interested in working on an undergraduate degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Association for Women Geoscientists Minority Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Geology; Geosciences; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A total of $5,000 is available for this program each year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women who are African American, Hispanic, or Native American (including Eskimo, Hawaiian, Samoan, or American Indian). Applicants must be full-time students working on, or planning to work on, an undergraduate degree in the geosciences (including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, or earth science education). They must submit a 500-word essay on why they have chosen to major in the geosciences and their career goals, 2 letters of recommendation, high school and/or college transcripts, and SAT or ACT scores. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, first offered in 2004, is supported by ExxonMobil Foundation.

3514 ■ CALIFORNIA ADOLESCENT NUTRITION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND CULINARY ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS

2140 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 610
Berkeley, CA 94704
Tel: (510)644-1533
Free: 800-200-3131
Fax: (510)644-1535
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.canfit.org/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to minority undergraduate and graduate students who are studying nutrition, physical education or culinary arts in California.
Title of Award: CANFit Program Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Culinary arts; Education, Physical; Nutrition; Public health; Youth Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 graduate scholarships and 10 undergraduate scholarships are available each year. Funds Available: Graduate stipends are $1,000 each and undergraduate stipends are $500 per year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are American Indians/Alaska Natives, African Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Latinos/Hispanics who are enrolled in either: 1) an approved master's or doctoral graduate program in nutrition, public health nutrition, or physical education or in a preprofessional practice program approved by the American Dietetic Association at an accredited university in California; or, 2) an approved bachelor's or professional certificate program in culinary arts, nutrition, or physical education at an accredited university or college in California. Graduate student applicants must have completed at least 12 units of graduate course work and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher; undergraduate applicants must have completed 50 semester units or the equivalent of college credits and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on financial need, academic goals, and community nutrition or physical education activities. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: A goal of the California Adolescent Nutrition and Fitness (CANFit) program is to improve the nutritional status and physical fitness of California's low-income multiethnic youth aged 10 to 14. By offering these scholarships, the program hopes to encourage more students to consider careers in adolescent nutrition and fitness.

3515 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR

Attn: Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program
1600 Exposition Boulevard
P.O. Box 15649
Sacramento, CA 95852
Tel: (916)274-5969
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bigfun.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of California who are working on a teacher credential.
Title of Award: California State Fair Teacher Credential Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 at $1,500 and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,500 or $500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of California currently working on a teacher credential at a college or university in the state. Reentry professionals are also eligible. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on why they are pursuing their desired career and life goals. Selection is based on personal commitment, goals established for their chosen field, leadership potential, and civic accomplishments. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program was established in 1993.

3516 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR

Attn: Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program
1600 Exposition Boulevard
P.O. Box 15649
Sacramento, CA 95852
Tel: (916)274-5969
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bigfun.org
To provide financial assistance for college to residents of California who are interested in majoring in designated fields or preparing for a career in the Fair industry.
Title of Award: Eddie G. Cole Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Education, Physical; Equine studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 at $1,000 and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of California currently working on an undergraduate degree at a college or university in the state. Applicants be 1) majoring in physical education, agriculture, or equine studies; or 2) preparing for a career in the Fair industry. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on why they are pursuing their desired career and life goals. Selection is based on personal commitment, goals established for their chosen field, leadership potential, and civic accomplishments. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program was established in 1993.

3517 ■ CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF UKRAINIAN STUDIES

c/o University of Alberta
450 Athabasca Hall
Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E8
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ualberta.ca/CIUS/cius-grants.htm
To provide financial assistance to Canadian undergraduate students majoring in a field related to Ukrainian or Ukrainian Canadian studies.
Title of Award: Leo J. Krysa Family Undergraduate Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Canadian studies; Education; European studies; Humanities; Social sciences; Ukrainian studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $C3,500. Duration: 8 months; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Canadian citizens and permanent residents who are entering the final year of study for an undergraduate degree at a college or university in Canada. Applicants' programs must emphasize Ukrainian and/or Ukrainian Canadian studies, through a combination of Ukrainian and east European or Canadian courses in education, history, humanities, or the social sciences. Selection is based on overall academic record, performance in Ukrainian-content courses, a working sample, and community involvement. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend any Canadian university.

3518 ■ CATCHING THE DREAM

8200 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 203
Albuquerque, NM 87110-7835
Tel: (505)262-2351
Fax: (505)262-0534
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.catchingthedream.org
To provide financial assistance to American Indian students who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in selected fields.
Title of Award: MESBEC Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Education; Engineering; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 30 to 35 each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to American Indians who can provide proof that they are at least one-quarter Indian blood and a member of a U.S. tribe that is federally-recognized, state-recognized, or terminated. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll full time and major in the 1 of the following fields: mathematics, engineering, science, business administration, education, or computer science. They may be entering freshmen, undergraduate students, graduate students, or Ph.D. candidates. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, 3 letters of recommendation, copies of applications and responses for at least 15 other sources of funding, official transcripts, standardized test scores (ACT, SAT, GRE, MCAT, LSAT, etc.), and an essay explaining their goals in life, college plans, and career plans (especially how those plans include working with and benefiting Indians). Selection is based on merit and potential for improving the lives of Indian people. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year for fall term; September of each year for spring and winter terms; March of each year for summer school. Additional Information: MESBEC is an acronym that stands for the priority areas of this program: mathematics, engineering, science, business, education, and computers. The sponsor was formerly known as the Native American Scholarship Fund.

3519 ■ CATCHING THE DREAM

8200 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 203
Albuquerque, NM 87110-7835
Tel: (505)262-2351
Fax: (505)262-0534
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.catchingthedream.org
To provide financial assistance to American Indian paraprofessionals in the education field who wish to return to college or graduate school.
Title of Award: Native American Leadership in Education (NALE) Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Educational administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 15 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to paraprofessionals who are working in Indian schools and who plan to return to school to complete their degree in education, counseling, or school administration. Applicants must be able to provide proof that they are at least one-quarter Indian blood and a member of a U.S. tribe that is federally-recognized, state-recognized, or terminated. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, 3 letters of recommendation, copies of applications and responses for at least 15 other sources of funding, official transcripts, standardized test scores (ACT, SAT, GRE, MCAT, LSAT, etc.), and an essay explaining their goals in life, college plans, and career plans (especially how those plans include working with and benefiting Indians). Selection is based on merit and potential for improving the lives of Indian people. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year for fall term; September of each year for spring and winter terms; March of each year for summer school. Additional Information: The sponsor was formerly known as the Native American Scholarship Fund.

3520 ■ CHICKASAW FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 1726
Ada, OK 74821-1726
Tel: (580)421-9030
Fax: (580)421-9031
Web Site: http://www.cflink.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Chickasaw Nation who are majoring or minoring in American history.
Title of Award: Colbert "Bud" Baker Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; History, American; Law; Native American studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Chickasaw students who are currently enrolled full time at an accredited institution of higher education. Applicants must be classified as juniors or seniors at a 4-year college. They must be majoring in history or majoring in education or prelaw with a minor in history. The history emphasis must be on Chickasaw tribal history or Native American studies. Along with their application, they must submit high school or college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, a copy of their Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, a copy of their Chickasaw Nation citizenship card, and a 1-page essay on their long-term goals and plans for achieving them. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3521 ■ CHICKASAW FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 1726
Ada, OK 74821-1726
Tel: (580)421-9030
Fax: (580)421-9031
Web Site: http://www.cflink.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Chickasaw Nation interested in studying education in college.
Title of Award: Mary K. Moreland and Daniel T. Jenks Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Chickasaw students who are currently enrolled full time as an undergraduate at an accredited 4-year college. Applicants must be majoring in education and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit high school or college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, a copy of their Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, a copy of their Chickasaw Nation citizenship card, and a 1-page essay on their long-term goals and plans for achieving them. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3522 ■ CHRISTIAN LIFE RESOURCES

Attn: WELS Lutherans for Life
Scholarship Review Committee
2949 North Mayfair Road, Suite 309
Milwaukee, WI 53222-4304
Tel: (414)774-1331
Fax: (414)774-1360
Web Site: http://www.christianliferesources.com
To provide financial assistance to Lutheran high school seniors in Wisconsin who are interested in studying life-related issues in college.
Title of Award: WELS Lutherans for Life Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Education, Special; Engineering, Biomedical; Journalism; Law; Medicine; Physical therapy; Political science; Psychology; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 9 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,000 are available. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are active members of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) or an affiliated church. Applicants must be planning to go to a 4-year school to prepare for a secular career in which pro-life values will be demonstrated. Acceptable fields include medicine, biotechnology/biological engineering, medical research/genetics, law/politics, journalism/media, psychology, physical therapy, social services, or special education. They must have a GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit essays on 1) the field of study they plan to enter and how it relates to pro-life issues; 2) why the scholarship should be awarded to them, including their future goals; and 3) how they have demonstrated a Christian, pro-life attitude in their life. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: WELS Lutherans for Life was formerly a ministry of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.

3523 ■ CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW ENGLAND

c/o Allen M. Ware
University of Connecticut
Department of History Box U-103
Storrs, CT 06269-2103
Tel: (860)486-3722
Fax: (860)486-0641
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.caneweb.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in New England who are working on certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek.
Title of Award: CANE Certification Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are intended to cover tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year or summer session.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to junior and senior undergraduates at colleges and universities in New England and to holders of a master's degree. Applicants must be preparing for secondary school certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek or both in a New England state. Full-time, part-time, and summer programs qualify. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation from college classicists, a letter attesting to their ability to communicate and work with young people and inspire them to high levels of achievement, a 1,000-word personal statement explaining why they are preparing for a career as a secondary school classicist, high school and college transcripts, and a description of their program and the expenses involved. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3524 ■ COLORADO COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

1380 Lawrence Street, Suite 1200
Denver, CO 80204
Tel: (303)866-2723
Fax: (303)866-4266
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.state.co.us/cche/finaid/students/stateaid/types.html
To provide funding to Colorado undergraduate education students who need assistance in paying for their education while they are working as student teachers.
Title of Award: Colorado Supplemental Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership (SLEAP) Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of assistance varies, to a maximum of $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Colorado who are enrolled in an undergraduate or postbaccalaureate teacher education program in the states. Applicants must be engaged full time in a student teaching assignment as preparation for teacher education licensure. They must be able to demonstrate financial need. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating institution sets its own deadlines. Additional Information: Applications are available either from the Colorado Commission on Higher Education or from the financial aid office of eligible Colorado institutions.

3525 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER NEW BRITAIN

Attn: Scholarship Manager
74A Vine Street
New Britain, CT 06052-1431
Tel: (860)229-6018
Fax: (860)225-2666
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cfgnb.org
To provide financial assistance to minority college students in Connecticut who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Alma Exley Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 to a 4-year student and 1 to an ARC student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year for students at a 4-year college or university or $500 for a student in the ARC program. Duration: 2 years for students at 4-year colleges or universities; 1 year for students in the ARC program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students of color (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans) enrolled in a teacher preparation program in Connecticut. Applicant must 1) have been admitted to a traditional teacher preparation program at an accredited 4-year college or university in the state, or 2) be participating in the Alternate Route to Certification (ARC) program sponsored by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year.

3526 ■ CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS FOUNDATION, INC.

Attn: Director, Educational Programs
1720 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202)263-2836
Free: 800-784-2577
Fax: (202)775-0773
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbcfinc.org
To provide financial assistance to minority and other undergraduate and graduate students who reside in a Congressional district represented by an African American and are interested in preparing for a health-related career.
Title of Award: Cheerios Brand Health Initiative Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Education, Physical; Engineering; Food service careers; Health care services; Medicine; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) minority and other graduating high school seniors planning to attend an accredited institution of higher education and 2) currently-enrolled full-time undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students in good academic standing with a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Applicants must reside or attend school in a Congressional district represented by a member of the Congressional Black Caucus. They must be interested in preparing for a career in a medical, food services, or other health-related field, including pre-medicine, nursing, chemistry, biology, physical education, and engineering. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word personal statement on 1) the field of study they intend to pursue and why they have chosen that field; 2) their interests, involvement in school activities, community and public service, hobbies, special talents, sports, and other highlight areas; and 3) any other experiences, skills, or qualifications they feel should be considered. They must also be able to document financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The program was established in 1998 with support from General Mills, Inc.

3527 ■ CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Aid
61 Woodland Street
Hartford, CT 06105-2326
Tel: (860)947-1855
Fax: (860)947-1838
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctdhe.org/SFA/sfa.htm
To provide financial assistance and loan repayment to minority upper-division college students in Connecticut who are interested in teaching at public schools in the state.
Title of Award: Connecticut Minority Teacher Incentive Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $5,000 per year. In addition, if recipients complete a credential and teach at a public school in Connecticut, they may receive up to $2,500 per year, for up to 4 years, to help pay off college loans. Duration: Up to 2 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority juniors and seniors enrolled full time in Connecticut college and university teacher preparation programs. Students must be nominated by the education dean at their institution. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3528 ■ CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Education and Employment Information Center
61 Woodland Street
Hartford, CT 06105-2326
Tel: (860)947-1846
Free: 800-842-0229
Fax: (860)947-1311
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctdhe.org/SFA/sfa.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students in Connecticut who are preparing for a career as a special education teacher.
Title of Award: Connecticut Special Education Teacher Incentive Grant Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Hearing and deafness; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year for full-time study or $2,000 per year for part-time graduate study. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors and full- or part-time graduate students who are residents of Connecticut. Applicants must be enrolled in 1) special education teacher preparation programs at selected universities in Connecticut; or 2) Out-of-state teacher preparation programs seeking cross-endorsement for teaching "low-incidence student" areas. They must be nominated by the dean of education at their school and have a stated intent to teach in a Connecticut public school, an approved private special education facility, or a Regional Educational Service Center. Priority is given to minority (African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian American, and Native American) and bilingual students and to Connecticut residents enrolled in an approved out-of-state program. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year. Additional Information: The approved in-state programs are at Central Connecticut State University, Fairfield University, Saint Joseph College, Southern Connecticut State University, University of Connecticut, and University of Hartford. The programs for students seeking cross-endorsement certification for teaching students who are blind and partially-sighted or visually impaired are at Hunter College of CUNY (New York, New York), Dominican College (Orangeburg, New York), Teachers College of Columbia University (New York, New York), and University of Northern Colorado (Greeley, Colorado). The programs for students seeking cross-endorsement certification for teaching students who are deaf or hearing-impaired are at Hunter College, Teachers College, Clarke School for the Deaf at Smith College (Northampton, Massachusetts), and Boston University (Boston, Massachusetts).

3529 ■ CONTINENTAL SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF INDIAN WARS

c/o Mrs. Donald C. Trolinger, Scholarship Chair
61300 East 110 Road
Miami, OK 74354-4726
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to Native American college students who are interested in preparing for a career in education.
Title of Award: Continental Society, Daughters of Indian Wars Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be certified tribal members of a federally-recognized tribe, plan to prepare for a career in education or social service, plan to work on a reservation, be a junior at an accredited college, have earned at least a 3.0 GPA, and carry at least 10 quarter hours or 8 semester hours. Selection is based primarily on academic achievement and commitment to the field of study; financial need is not necessary but is considered. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3530 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in selected fields to Alaska Natives who are original enrollees to Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: CIRI Foundation Special Excellence Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Engineering; General studies/Field of study not specified; Health care services; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $18,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees to CIRI under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 4-year undergraduate or a graduate degree program. They must have a GPA of 3.7 or higher. Preference is given to students working on a degree in business, education, mathematics, sciences, health services, or engineering. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997. Recipients must enroll in school on a full-time basis.

3531 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in selected liberal arts to Alaska Natives who are original enrollees to Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: Lawrence Matson Memorial Endowment Fund Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Communications; Education; Law; Linguistics; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 1 of these scholarships (at $7,000 per year) was awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $9,000 per year, $7,000 per year, or $2,000 per semester, depending on GPA. Duration: 1 year (2 semesters).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees to CIRI under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 4-year undergraduate or a graduate degree program in the following liberal arts fields: language, education, social sciences, arts, communications, or law. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This fund was established in 1989. Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis.

3532 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying business or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Coca-Cola DECA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, business, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2002, is sponsored by the Coca-Cola Company.

3533 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying management or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Otis Spunkmeyer Student Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Management; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 15 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, management, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by Otis Spunkmeyer, Inc.

3534 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying business or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Walgreens DECA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, business, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2004, is sponsored by Walgreens.

3535 ■ DELAWARE HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Carvel State Office Building
820 North French Street
Wilmington, DE 19801
Tel: (302)577-3240
Free: 800-292-7935
Fax: (302)577-6765
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.doe.state.de.us/high-ed/christa.htm
To provide scholarship/loans for teacher training to Delaware residents with outstanding academic records.
Title of Award: Christa McAuliffe Teacher Scholarship/Loan Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; English language and literature; Library and archival sciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Reading; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 50 each year. Funds Available: Funds up to the cost of tuition, fees, and other direct educational expenses are provided. This is a scholarship/loan program; if the recipient performs required service at a school in Delaware, the loan is forgiven at the rate of 1 year of assistance for each year of service. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Delaware residents who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment at a Delaware college or university in a program leading to teacher qualification. Preference is given to applicants planning to teach in an area of critical need. High school seniors must rank in the top half of their class and have a combined score of at least 1570 on the SAT; applicants who are already enrolled in college must have a cumulative GPA of 2.75 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The areas of critical need recently included bilingual education, business education, English, foreign languages, English to speakers of other languages, mathematics, reading, science, school librarianship, special education, and technology education.

3536 ■ DELAWARE STATE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarship Committee
136 East Water Street
Dover, DE 19901
Tel: (302)734-5834; (866)734-5834
Fax: (302)674-8499
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dsea.org/aboutdsea/dsea/scholarship.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in Delaware who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Christopher K. Smith Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients are expected to be employed for 1 year as a teacher in a public school district within 1 year of graduation. If this does not happen, the scholarship is viewed as a loan and must be repaid with interest. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from public high schools in Delaware who are interested in preparing for a career in teaching. Selection is based on class rank, GPA, standardized test scores, school activities, awards and honors, career plans, and letters of reference. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are expected to work on a 4-year college degree leading to a Delaware teacher certificate and to teach in a public school (preferably in Delaware) for at least 1 year.

3537 ■ FBLA/PBL FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarships
P.O. Box 3021010
Montgomery, AL 36130-2101
Tel: (334)242-9109
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) and Phi Beta Lambda (PBL).
Title of Award: FBLA/PBL Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 in each FBLA/PBL district. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are members of FBLA and college students who are members of PBL. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll in a business education program at a college or university. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on a topic administered to them by their adviser at their home site. Selection is based on that essay (20%), FBLA/PBL involvement and leadership (25%), community involvement (20%), honors and awards other than FBLA/PBL (15%), GPA (10%), and financial need (10%). Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3538 ■ FINANCE AUTHORITY OF MAINE

Attn: Education Finance Programs
5 Community Drive
P.O. Box 949
Augusta, ME 04332-0949
Tel: (207)623-3263
Free: 800-228-3734
Fax: (207)623-0095
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.famemaine.com/html/education/fameprogs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors, college students, and graduate students in Maine who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Educators for Maine Program Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education; Speech and language pathology/audiology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Funds Available: Full-time undergraduate students receive $3,000 per academic year; postbaccalaureate students receive $2,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients may receive 1 year of loan forgiveness by completing 1 year of full-time teaching in a Maine public or private elementary or secondary school. The repayment option can be accelerated to 2 years of loan forgiveness for each year of teaching if the service is conducted in an educator shortage area or underserved subject area. If the loan recipient does not meet the service obligation, the total amount borrowed must be repaid at 9% interest; undergraduate borrowers must complete repayment within 10 years of graduation or withdrawal from school; postbaccalaureate students must complete repayment within 5 years of graduation or withdrawal from school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years if the recipient remains a Maine resident and maintains a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) high school seniors planning to attend college to prepare for a career in education; 2) currently-enrolled college students; and 3) postbaccalaureate students who are enrolled or planning to enroll in a program leading to certification as a teacher, speech pathologist, or child care provider. Applicants must be residents of Maine with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, activities, community service, and an essay; financial need is not considered. Preference is given to applicants planning to teach a shortage subject. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: These scholarship/loans may be used at any accredited postsecondary institution offering certificate, 2-year, 4-year, or graduate programs that lead to an associate, baccalaureate, master's, or doctoral degree. This program was formerly known as Teachers for Maine. Undergraduate recipients must attend school on a full-time basis, but postbaccalaureate students and teachers are not required to enroll as full-time students.

3539 ■ BILL AND MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 10500
Fairfax, VA 22031-8044
877-690-GMSP
Web Site: http://www.gmsp.org
To provide financial assistance to outstanding low-income minority students, particularly those interested in majoring in specific fields in college. Title of Award: Gates Millennium Undergraduate Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Engineering; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Under the Gates Millennium Scholars Program, a total of 4,000 students receive support each year. Funds Available: The program covers the cost of tuition, fees, books, and living expenses not paid for by grants and scholarships already committed as part of the recipient's financial aid package. Duration: 4 years or the completion of the undergraduate degree, if the recipient maintains at least a 3.0 GPA.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Pacific Islander Americans who are graduating high school seniors with a GPA of 3.3 or higher. Principals, teachers, guidance counselors, tribal higher education representatives, and other professional educators are invited to nominate students with outstanding academic qualifications, especially those likely to succeed in the fields of mathematics, science, engineering, education, or library science. Nominees should have significant financial need and demonstrated leadership abilities through participation in community service, extracurricular, or other activities. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Nominees must be planning to enter an accredited college or university as a full-time, degree-seeking freshman in the following fall. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 1999, is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and administered by the United Negro College Fund with support from the American Indian Graduate Center, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund, and the Organization of Chinese Americans.

3540 ■ GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT

c/o Hamden Women's Club
Antoinette Antonucci, Co-President
26 Country Way
Wallingford, CT 06492
Tel: (203)265-9407
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gfwcct.org
To provide financial assistance to women in Connecticut who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Phipps Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female residents of Connecticut who have completed at least 2 years of college. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be working on a bachelor's or master's degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3541 ■ GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT

c/o Hamden Women's Club
Antoinette Antonucci, Co-President
26 Country Way
Wallingford, CT 06492
Tel: (203)265-9407
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gfwcct.org
To provide financial assistance to women in Connecticut who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Dorothy E. Schoelzel Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female residents of Connecticut who have completed at least 3 years of college. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be working on a bachelor's or master's degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3542 ■ GEORGIA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Ruth Lee, Awards Chair
Mitchell Baker High School
1000 Newton Road
Camilla, GA 31730
Tel: (229)336-2173
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.georgiagbea.org
To provide financial assistance to student members of the Georgia Business Education Association (GBEA) who are enrolled in an undergraduate program of student.
Title of Award: Georgia Business Education Association College Student Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to GBEA student members enrolled full time in an approved business education program of study. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a statement of commitment, 3 letters of recommendation, and a transcript. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3543 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org
To provide forgivable loans to residents of Georgia who are preparing for a second career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Georgia Destination Teacher Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum total loan is $5,000. Within 6 months of completion of the program, recipients must become a teacher and repay the loan by working in a high-need school in a high-need district in Georgia. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to second career candidates (including paraprofessionals) preparing to become teachers at high-need schools in Georgia. Applicants must be interested in attending designated institutions of the University System of Georgia. Additional Information: Interested students should contact a program liaison at a college or university for their region of the state: Region 1 (Albany State College); Region 2 (Armstrong Atlantic State University); Region 3 (Georgia State University); Region 4 (Georgia Southwestern State University); Region 5 (Georgia Southern University or East Georgia College); Region 6 (Valdosta State University, Waycross College, South Georgia College, or Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College).

3544 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org/gsfc/grants/dsp_gcmts.cfm
To provide financial assistance to Georgia residents who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Charles McDaniel Teacher Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Georgia who graduated from a public high school in the state and are currently enrolled as full-time juniors or seniors in a college or department of education within an approved Georgia public institution. Each of the public colleges in Georgia that offers a teaching degree may nominate 1 student for these scholarships. Nominees must be working toward an initial baccalaureate degree, have a GPA of 3.25 or higher, and indicate a strong desire to prepare for a career as an elementary or secondary school teacher. They must submit an essay discussing their professional goals, reasons for pursuing a teaching career at the elementary or secondary level, and accomplishments, experiences, and honors that relate to teaching.

3545 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org/GSFA/SCL/dsp_teacher_prom_scholarship.cfm
To provide forgivable loans to students in Georgia who are preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: PROMISE Teacher Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 600 each year. Funds Available: Full-time students may borrow up to a maximum of $3,000 per year and part-time students up to $1,500; loan funds may be used for tuition and fees, room and board, and any other part of the student's cost of attendance budget. Loans are forgiven at the rate of $1,500 for each year that the recipient teaches in a Georgia public school system at the preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary level. Otherwise, all money received must be repaid with interest at a rate up to 10%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress (a continuing 3.0 GPA is not required).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students entering their junior year in a teacher education program at an approved college or university in Georgia. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and be certified by the college of education teacher certification official at their institution. They do not need to be residents of Georgia but must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Additional Information: This program is administered by the Georgia Student Finance Authority as a component of its Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally (HOPE) program.

3546 ■ GOLDEN APPLE FOUNDATION

Attn: Director of Scholars, Recruitment and Placement
8 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60603-3463
Tel: (312)407-0433
Fax: (312)407-0344
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.goldenapple.org/scholars.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in Illinois who wish to study education at an Illinois college and teach in the state.
Title of Award: Golden Apple Scholars of Illinois Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 100 each year. Funds Available: Scholars receive a scholarship/loan of $2,500 per year to apply toward their educational expenses and a stipend of $2,000 per year for participating in a summer teaching internship. If they complete a bachelor's degree and teach for 5 years in an Illinois school of need, the loan is forgiven. Schools of need are defined as those either having Chapter I status by the U.S. Department of Education or having mediocre to poor PSAE or ISAT scores. Duration: 4 years, provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.0 or higher during the freshman year and 2.5 or higher in subsequent years. Students who enter the program as sophomores receive 2 years of support.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors at schools in Illinois. Students must be nominated by a teacher, principal, guidance counselor, or other non-family adult; self-nominations are also accepted. Nominees must be committed to teaching as a profession and must be interested in attending 1 of 53 designated colleges and universities in Illinois. A limited number of openings are also available to sophomores at those designated Illinois institutions. The program strongly encourages nomination of prospective teachers for which there is currently a shortage, especially minority and bilingual teachers. Deadline for Receipt: Nominations must be submitted by November of each year. Additional Information: During the annual summer institutes, scholars participate in teaching internships and seminars on the art and craft of teaching. This program was established in 1988.

3547 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Alma White-Delta Kappa Gamma Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are enrolled in an education program (as a junior, senior, or graduate student). They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. Applications must be accompanied by a short statement indicating reasons for attending college, planned course of study, and career goals. Recipients must attend college on a full-time basis. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1998.

3548 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to seniors at designated high schools in Hawaii who are interested in studying education in college.
Title of Award: Ron Bright Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 3 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors at Castle, Kahuku, Kailua, Kalaheo, and Olomana high schools who plan to major in education in college. Preference is given to students with extracurricular activities in the performing arts. Applicants must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland.

3549 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career in early childhood education.
Title of Award: Henry and Dorothy Castle Memorial Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child care; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 10 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are interested in pursuing full-time undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of early childhood education (birth through third grade), including child care and preschool. They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, applicants must 1) write a short statement indicating their reasons for attending college, their planned course of study, and their career goals, and 2) write an essay that states their interests and goals in studying early childhood education and how they plan to contribute to the field. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland. This scholarship is funded by the Samuel N. and Mary Castle Foundation.

3550 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career that will fill gaps in the local job market.
Title of Award: Hawai'i Community Foundation Community Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Education; Humanities; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount awarded varies; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Hawaii who show potential for filling a community need; demonstrate accomplishment, motivation, initiative, and vision; are residents of the state of Hawaii; intend to return to, or stay in, Hawaii to work; are able to demonstrate financial need; are interested in attending an accredited 2- or 4-year college or university as a full-time student at either the undergraduate or graduate level; plan to major in the arts, architecture, education, humanities, or social science; and are able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 3.0 or higher). Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in Hawaii or on the mainland. This fund was established in 1947.

3551 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career in designated health fields.
Title of Award: Dr. Alvin and Monica Saake Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical; Medicine, Sports; Occupational therapy; Parks and recreation; Physical therapy Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 19 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $2,895. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are enrolled as full-time juniors, seniors, or graduate students. Applicants must be majoring in kinesiology, leisure science, physical education, athletic training, exercise science, sports medicine, physical therapy, or occupational therapy. They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, applicants must write a short statement indicating their reasons for attending college, their planned course of study, and their career goals. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland.

3552 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are nontraditional students planning to major in education.
Title of Award: Dr. Hans and Clara Zimmerman Foundation Education Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 61 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount of the award depends on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,620. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who have worked for at least 2 years and are returning to school as full-time students majoring in education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.8 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, they must write a short statement describing their community service and how their college education will help them achieve their career goals. Preference is given to students of Hawaiian ancestry, students from the neighboring islands who plan to teach in Hawaii, and students with some teaching experience. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship was established in 1997.

3553 ■ HOPI TRIBE

Attn: Office of Education
P.O. Box 123
Kykotsmovi, AZ 86039
Tel: (928)734-3533
Free: 800-762-9630
Fax: (928)734-9575
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hopi.nsn.us/education_htgsp.asp
To encourage Hopi students to get an undergraduate or graduate degree in an area of interest to the Hopi Tribe.
Title of Award: Hopi Tribal Priority Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Health care services; Law; Medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend covers all educational expenses. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to enrolled members of the Hopi Tribe. They must be college juniors, seniors, or graduate students whose degree is in a subject area that is of priority interest to the Hopi Tribe. Those areas are law, natural resources, education, medicine, health, engineering, or business. This is a highly competitive scholarship. Selection is based on academic merit and the likelihood that the applicants will use their training and expertise for tribal goals and objectives. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis.

3554 ■ IDAHO SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Idaho
College of Engineering
P.O. Box 441011
Moscow, ID 83844-1011
Tel: (208)885-6438
Fax: (208)885-1399
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://isgc.uidaho.edu
To provide financial assistance for study in space-related fields to undergraduate students at institutions belonging to the Idaho Space Grant Consortium (ISGC).
Title of Award: Idaho Space Grant Consortium Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 24 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is up to $1,000 per year. Funds are to be used to pay for registration at colleges in the consortium. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at ISGC member institutions. Applicants must be majoring in engineering, mathematics, science, or science/math education and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher. They should be planning to work on a 4-year degree in a space-related field. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on their future career and educational goals and why they believe the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) should support their education. U.S. citizenship is required. As a component of the NASA Space Grant program, the ISGC encourages participation by women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Members of the consortium include Albertson College of Idaho, Boise State University, College of Southern Idaho, Idaho State University, Lewis Clark State College, North Idaho College, Northwest Nazarene College, Brigham Young University of Idaho, and the University of Idaho. This program is funded by NASA.

3555 ■ IDAHO STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Len B. Jordan Office Building
650 West State Street, Room 307
P.O. Box 83720
Boise, ID 83720-0037
Tel: (208)332-1574
Fax: (208)334-2632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.idahoboardofed.org/scholarships/loan.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Idaho students who wish to prepare for a teaching or nursing career in Idaho.
Title of Award: Idaho Education Incentive Loan Forgiveness Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 45 each year. Funds Available: This is a scholarship/loan program. Loans are forgiven if the recipient pursues a teaching or nursing career within Idaho for at least 2 years. Duration: 1 year; renewable.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have graduated from a secondary school in Idaho within the previous 2 years and rank within the upper 15% of their graduating high school class or have earned a cumulative GPA in college of 3.0 or higher. They must enroll as a full-time student at an Idaho public college or university, working on a degree that will qualify them to receive an Idaho teaching certificate or write the licensure examination approved by the Board of Nursing for a registered nurse.

3556 ■ IDAHO STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Len B. Jordan Office Building
650 West State Street, Room 307
P.O. Box 83720
Boise, ID 83720-0037
Tel: (208)332-1574
Fax: (208)334-2632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.idahoboardofed.org/scholarships/gyo.asp
To provide financial assistance to students at selected Idaho colleges and universities who are interested in becoming teachers of bilingual education or English as a Second Language (ESL) or to Native American education students.
Title of Award: Idaho Grow Your Own Teacher Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross- cultural; Education, English as a second language Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year for full-time students; the stipend for part-time students depends on the number of credit hours and the fee charged to part-time students at the participating college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Idaho school district employees and volunteers who are 1) interested in completing an associate and/or baccalaureate degree in education with a bilingual or ESL endorsement, or 2) Native Americans preparing to teach in Idaho school districts with a significant Native American student population. Applicants must be attending Boise State University, the College of Southern Idaho, Lewis-Clark State College, or Idaho State University.

3557 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to college students in Illinois who are interested in training or retraining for a teaching career in academic shortage areas.
Title of Award: Illinois Future Teacher Corps Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Physical; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Hearing and deafness; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds. Funds Available: This program pays tuition and fees, room and board, or a commuter allowance at academic institutions in Illinois. The maximum award is $5,000 or $10,000 (and may even be increased by an additional $5,000), depending on the teaching commitment the recipient makes. Funds are paid directly to the school. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach in an Illinois public, private, or parochial preschool, elementary school, or secondary school for 1 year for each full year of assistance received. The teaching obligation must be completed within 5 years of completion of the degree or certificate program for which the scholarship was awarded. That time period may be extended if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate program related to teaching, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher, or takes additional courses on at least a half-time basis to teach in a specialized teacher shortage discipline. Recipients who fail to honor this work obligation must repay the award with interest. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Illinois residents who are enrolled at the junior level or higher at an institution of higher education in the state. Applicants must be planning to prepare for a career as a preschool, elementary, or secondary school teacher. Preference is given to students working on a degree in designated teacher shortage disciplines, making a commitment to teach at a hard-to-staff school, and/or planning to teach minority students. Recently, the teacher shortage disciplines included behavior disordered, bilingual teacher (K-12), cross categorical (seeking certification in 2 or more areas of special education), general special education (including blind and deaf specialties and early childhood special education), learning disabled, mathematics (K-12), music (K-12), physical education (K-12), reading and English language arts (K-12), and speech and language impaired. Preference is given to renewal applicants. Selection is based on cumulative GPA, expected family contribution, and minority student status. Deadline for Receipt: Priority consideration is given to applications submitted by February of each year. Additional Information: This program was formerly known as the David A. DeBolt Teacher Shortage Scholarship Program.

3558 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Illinois who are interested in training or retraining for a career in special education.
Title of Award: Illinois Special Education Teacher Tuition Waiver Program Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate, Professional Number Awarded: 250 each year. Funds Available: This program waives tuition and fees at 12 participating Illinois public 4-year universities. Recipients must agree to teach full time in a special education discipline at an Illinois public, private, or parochial school for 2 of the 5 years immediately following graduation or termination of enrollment. That teaching requirement may be postponed if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate or postgraduate program, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher, or withdraws from a course of study leading to a teacher certification in special education but remains enrolled full time in another academic discipline. Participants who fail to fulfill that teaching requirement must repay the entire amount of the tuition waiver prorated to the fraction of the teaching requirement not completed, plus interest at a rate of 5% per year. Duration: Up to 4 continuous calendar years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible for support under this program are Illinois residents who are enrolled or planning to enroll in an Illinois public institution of higher education to prepare for a career as a public, private, or parochial elementary or secondary school teacher in the state. Applicants must be undergraduate or graduate students seeking certification in an area of special education. They must rank in the upper half of their Illinois high school graduating class. Current teachers who have a valid teaching certificate that is not in the discipline of special education are also eligible. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The participating universities are Chicago State University, Eastern Illinois University, Governors State University, Illinois State University, Northeastern Illinois University, Northern Illinois University, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Springfield, University of Illinois at Urbana, and Western Illinois University.

3559 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to minority students in Illinois who plan to become teachers at the preschool, elementary, or secondary level.
Title of Award: Minority Teachers of Illinois Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Grants up to $5,000 per year are awarded. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach full time 1 year for each year of support received. The teaching agreement may be fulfilled at a public, private, or parochial preschool, elementary school, or secondary school in Illinois; at least 30% of the student body at those schools must be minority. It must be fulfilled within the 5-year period following the completion of the undergraduate program for which the scholarship was awarded. The time period may be extended if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate program related to teaching, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher at a qualifying school, or takes additional courses on at least a half-time basis to obtain certification as a teacher in Illinois. Recipients who fail to honor this work obligation must repay the award with 5% interest. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be Illinois residents, U.S. citizens or eligible noncitizens, members of a minority group (African American/Black, Hispanic American, Asian American, or Native American), and high school graduates or holders of a General Educational Development (GED) certificate. They must be enrolled in college full time at the sophomore level or above, have a GPA of 2.5 or higher, not be in default on any student loan, and be enrolled or accepted for enrollment in a teacher education program. Deadline for Receipt: Priority consideration is given to applications received by February of each year.

3560 ■ INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR GENDER EDUCATION

Attn: Transgender Scholarship and Education Legacy Fund
P.O. Box 540229
Waltham, MA 02454-0229
Tel: (781)899-2212
Fax: (781)899-5703
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tself.org
To provide financial assistance to transgender students who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in the caring professions.
Title of Award: Transgender Scholarship and Education Legacy Fund Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Health care services; Law; Religion; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends average $2,000. Funds are paid directly to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students who are living full time in a gender or sex role that differs from that assigned to them at birth and who are "out and proud" about their transgender identity. Applicants must be working on a degree in the helping and caring professions, including, but not limited to, social services, health care, religious instruction, education, and the law. They may be of any age or nationality, but they must be attending or planning to attend a college, university, trade school, or technical college in the United States or Canada. Selection is based on affirmation of transgender identity; demonstration of integrity and honesty; participation and leadership in community activities; service as role model, mentor, colleague, or advisor for the transgender communities; and service as transgender role model, mentor, colleague, or advisor to non-transpeople in the helping and caring professions. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the TSELF Youth Award (for applicants under 22 years of age entering their first or second year of postsecondary education); the TSELF Schools Education Award (for applicants working on a degree in education and teaching); the Lee Frances Heller Memorial Award (for Christian students or applicants who are or will be attending a college, university, or other institution for religious studies); the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Award (for applicants who have been involved in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment activities); and the Chicago Gender Society Leadership Award (for applicants who have been involved in community building activities).

3561 ■ JEWISH FEDERATION OF GREATER HARTFORD, INC.

Attn: Endowment Foundation
333 Bloomfield Avenue
West Hartford, CT 06117
Tel: (860)523-7460
Fax: (860)231-0576
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jcfhartford.org
To provide financial assistance for college to students in Connecticut interested in Jewish education.
Title of Award: Hebrew Ladies Sheltering Home Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Jewish studies; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 to 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Jewish residents of Connecticut who are graduating high school seniors. Applicants must be interested in working on a degree in Jewish education. U.S. citizenship is required. Selection is based on academic record and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3562 ■ KANSAS BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Student Financial Aid
1000 S.W. Jackson Street, Suite 520
Topeka, KS 66612-1368
Tel: (785)296-3518
Fax: (785)296-0983
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.kansasregents.com/financial_aid/teacher.html
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors, high school graduates, and selected undergraduates who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher in Kansas.
Title of Award: Kansas Teacher Service Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 100 each year. Funds Available: Participants receive $5,000 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in Kansas 1 year for every year of funding received, or they must repay the amount received with interest at 5% over the federal PLUS rate. The teaching must be in the specific curriculum area or in an underserved geographic area (recently including Wichita, Leavenworth, Garden City, and Kansas City). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years or up to 4 additional years for designated 5-year courses of study requiring graduate work.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Kansas residents who plan to enter the teaching profession in specific curriculum areas; recently, those included special education, mathematics, and science. Applicants must submit evidence of completion of the Kansas Scholars Curriculum (4 years of English, 4 years of mathematics, 3 years of science, 3 years of social studies, 2 years of foreign language, and 1 year of computer technology), ACT or SAT scores, high school GPA, high school class rank, and (if relevant) college transcripts and letters of recommendation from a college or university official. First priority goes to applicants who are in the final 2 years of study in teacher education and have submitted a college transcript and 1 letter of recommendation from a college official. Special consideration is given to minority applicants (academic performance being similar), because minorities continue to be underrepresented in the teaching profession in Kansas schools. Second priority goes to students who have completed the Kansas Scholars Curriculum and have competitive GPAs, ACT scores, and class rank. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: There is a $10 application fee.

3563 ■ KANSAS FEDERATION OF BUSINESS & PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS, INC.

Attn: Kansas BPW Educational Foundation
c/o Diane Smith, Executive Secretary
10418 Haskins
Lenexa, KS 66215-2162
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bpwkansas.org/bpw_foundation.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of Kansas who are preparing for a career in special education in the state.
Title of Award: Dena Nigus Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for a total of 4 semesters or 2 summers if the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Kansas residents (men and women) who are college juniors, seniors, or graduate students and preparing to teach special education in the state. Applicants must submit a 3-page personal biography in which they express their career goals, the direction they want to take in the future, their proposed field of study, their reason for selecting that field, the institutions they plan to attend and why, their circumstances for reentering school (if a factor), and what makes them uniquely qualified for this scholarship. They must also be able to document financial need. Applications must be submitted through a local organization of the sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year.

3564 ■ MAINE COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Program Director
245 Main Street
Ellsworth, ME 04605
Tel: (207)667-9735; 877-700-6800
Fax: (207)667-0447
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mainecf.org/html/scholarships/index.html
To provide financial assistance to seniors at designated high schools in Maine who are interested in attending college to prepare for a career coaching or teaching sports at the secondary school level.
Title of Award: Billy Brown Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds must be used for tuition, room, board, books, laboratory fees, and equipment. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have attended Portland, Deering, Catherine McAuley, Chevrus, Waynflete, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Scarborough, or Yarmouth high schools in Maine. They are not required to be graduating seniors, but they must be entering the first year of postsecondary education at a 4-year institution. They must be planning to coach or teach sports in secondary education, including baseball, soccer, and softball. Selection is based on financial need, scholastic talent, and demonstrated dedication to coaching or teaching those sports. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 1999.

3565 ■ MAINE ROADS SCHOLARSHIP FUND

c/o University of Southern Maine, Muskie School
400 Congress Street
P.O. Box 15010
Portland, ME 04112
888-900-0055
Fax: (207)780-5817
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/maineroads/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to child care providers in Maine who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree at an institution in the state.
Title of Award: Maine Roads Degree Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education, Early childhood; Parks and recreation; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range up to $1,800 for undergraduate students or up to $2,400 for graduate students. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to child care providers who are residents of Maine working on a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree at an institution of higher education in the state. Applicants must have a family income that does not exceed 300% of the federal poverty level (currently, that means an income of $26,940 for a family of 1, rising to $92,880 for a family of 8). They must have experience within the past 2 years working in the child care and early education field in licensed or certified child care facilities or resource development centers. Courses of study may include early childhood education, child development, recreation and leisure services with a special needs focus, social work with an emphasis on early childhood, or child care administration. Along with their application, they must submit brief statements on their plans to work directly with children after completing their degree and how earning their degree will impact their work in child care. Deadline for Receipt: June or October of each year.

3566 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4563
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_child.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland who wish to prepare for a career as a child care provider.
Title of Award: Maryland Child Care Provider Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Child care; Child development; Education, Early childhood Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends at 4-year institutions are $2,000 per year for full-time study, $1,000 for part-time; at community colleges, annual stipends are $1,000 for full-time study, $500 for part-time. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Within 12 months of graduation, recipients must provide 1 year of child care service in Maryland for each year of financial aid received under this program; failure to comply with that service obligation will require the recipient to repay the scholarship money with interest. Teaching in a public school in Maryland does not fulfill the service requirement. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years of full-time study provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible are residents of Maryland who are enrolled or plan to enroll in a program leading to an associate or bachelor's degree in a Maryland institution of higher education that offers an undergraduate program in early childhood education or child development. Full-time enrollment is required, although part-time study is allowed if the applicant is employed for a minimum of 15 hours per week at a child care or family day care center. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3567 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4594
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_devdis.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland who are interested in working on a degree in a designated human services program.
Title of Award: Maryland Developmental Disabilities, Mental Health, Child Welfare, and Juvenile Justice Workforce Tuition Assistance Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Criminal justice; Criminology; Disabilities; Education, Special; Gerontology; Law enforcement; Mental health; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Physical therapy; Psychology; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $2,000 per year for students attending a 2-year institution or $3,000 per year for students at a 4-year institution. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Recipients must agree to work in a Maryland community-based program that is licensed by the Developmental Disabilities Administration or approved by the Mental Hygiene Administration, or in a residential program that is licensed by the Department of Human Resources or the Department of Juvenile Justice. The service obligation must begin within 6 months of graduation. The total service requirement is 2,000 hours if the award amount is $1,999 or less, 3,000 hours if the award amount is $2,000 to $3,999, or 4,000 hours if the award amount is $4,000 or more. If the service requirement is not completed, the award must be repaid with interest. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress and remains enrolled in a human services degree program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. Applicants and their parents must be Maryland residents attending a college or university in the state in 1 of the following human services degree programs: aging services, counseling, disability services, mental health, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, psychology, rehabilitation, social work, special education, supported employment, vocational rehabilitation, or any other concentration in the healing arts or a program providing support services to individuals with special needs including child welfare and juvenile justice. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3568 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4569
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_dste.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland interested in preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Maryland Distinguished Scholar Teacher Education Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The award is $3,000 per year. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in a Maryland public school 1 year for each year the award was received or the award must be repaid with interest. They must begin the service obligation within 9 months of graduation. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years, if the recipient maintains a 3.0 GPA and full-time enrollment.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Maryland residents who have been awarded a Maryland Distinguished Scholar award. Applicants must be enrolled full time in an approved teacher education program at an approved Maryland institution. Financial need is not required. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3569 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4545
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_scm.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Maryland residents who wish to prepare for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Sharon Christa McAuliffe Memorial Teacher Education Award Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Classical studies; Computer and information sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; Education, Vocational-technical; Foreign languages; Geosciences; Health care services; Hearing and deafness; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics; Space and planetary sciences; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of the award is based on the recipient's enrollment and housing status, to a maximum of $17,000 per year. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Following graduation, recipients must teach at a Maryland public school for 1 year for each year of financial aid received under this program. If they fail to meet that service obligation, they must repay all funds they received with interest. They must begin the service obligation within 12 months of graduation. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and enrollment at a 2-year or 4-year Maryland college or university in an approved teacher education program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Maryland residents who are college students with at least 60 semester credit hours completed, college graduates, and teachers in a non-critical shortage area. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and plan to teach in a field identified as a critical shortage area. Selection is based on cumulative GPA, applicable work or volunteer experience, quality of academic background in certification field, and a writing sample. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the eligible critical shortage areas were business education, chemistry, computer science, earth and space science, English for speakers of other languages, family and consumer sciences, German, health occupations, Latin, mathematics, physical science, physics, Spanish, special education (generic infant-grade 3, generic grades 1-8, generic grades 6-adult, hearing impaired, severely and profoundly handicapped, visually impaired), and technology education.

3570 ■ MARYLAND STATE GRANGE

Attn: Master
8743 Old Kiln Road
Thurmont, MD 21788-1219
Tel: (301)447-2075
Fax: (301)447-2019
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to Maryland residents who are either deaf or preparing to work with hearing-impaired people.
Title of Award: Maryland State Grange Deaf Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified; Hearing and deafness Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maryland who graduated from a high school in the state and are attending college or graduate school in the state. Applicants must be 1) deaf or hearing impaired, or 2) preparing for a career working with deaf or hearing-impaired people. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Donna D. Wiles, Deaf Activities Director, 5543 Buffalo Road, Mount Airy, MD 21771, (301) 829-0545.

3571 ■ MASSACHUSETTS OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

454 Broadway, Suite 200
Revere, MA 02151
Tel: (617)727-9420
Fax: (617)727-0667
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osfa.mass.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to students at colleges and universities in Massachusetts who are interested in becoming teachers in the state following graduation.
Title of Award: Massachusetts Incentive Program for Aspiring Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Eligible students are entitled to a tuition waiver equal to the resident tuition rate at the state college or university campus where they are enrolled. If they do not complete their college education within 4 years of entering the program, or if they fail to complete their 2-year teaching commitment within 4 years following graduation from college, they must pay the state the full amount of the tuition waivers granted, with interest. Duration: 2 years, provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in their third or fourth year of a Massachusetts state-approved teacher certification program field with teacher shortages. Applicants must 1) have been residents of Massachusetts for at least 1 year and 2) be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. They must be attending 1 of the 9 Massachusetts state colleges or the 4 campuses of the University of Massachusetts and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher. A condition of the program is that they must commit to teaching for 2 years in a public school in Massachusetts upon successful completion of a bachelor's degree.

3572 ■ MASSACHUSETTS OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

454 Broadway, Suite 200
Revere, MA 02151
Tel: (617)727-9420
Fax: (617)727-0667
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osfa.mass.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to educational paraprofessionals in Massachusetts who are interested in completing a college degree and becoming certified as teachers.
Title of Award: Massachusetts Paraprofessional Teacher Preparation Grant Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Grants depend on the type of institution attended. At public universities, the maximum award is $625 per credit, to a total of $7,500 per academic year. At state colleges, the maximum award is $450 per credit, to a total of $6,000 per academic year. At community colleges, the maximum award is $250 per credit, to a total of $4,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach in a Massachusetts public school 1 year for each year of full or partial grant received. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay the amount of the grant received. Duration: Until completion of an undergraduate degree, provided the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Massachusetts residents who 1) have been employed as paraprofessionals in public schools in the state for at least 2 years, or 2) are working on a degree in an area of high need (recently defined as bilingual education, foreign languages, mathematics, science, and special education). Applicants must be enrolled full time in an undergraduate degree program leading to teacher certification at a Massachusetts public institution. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required Applicants must submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), but financial need is not required.

3573 ■ MAUI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Attn: Liko A'e Native Hawaiian Scholarship Program
310 West Ka'ahumanu Avenue
Kahului, HI 96732-1617
Tel: (808)984-3553
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.likoae.org/scholarship_info.asp
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to Native Hawaiian students.
Title of Award: Liko A'e Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Child care assistance is also provided. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778. Applicants must be enrolled or accepted as full- or part-time students in an accredited 2- or 4-year degree-granting institution of higher education. Undergraduates must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher and graduate students must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on merit (as judged by GPA and responses to essay questions) and financial need. Preference is given to students working on degrees in professions in which Native Hawaiians are underrepresented. Some of the scholarships are designated for students from smaller rural communities who are working on a degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: Deadlines are in May, August, November, and February. Additional Information: This program was established in 2003 by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and is administered by Maui Community College.

3574 ■ MEMORIAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE

50 Broadway, 34th Floor
New York, NY 10004
Tel: (212)425-6606
Fax: (212)425-6602
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mfjc.org
To assist well-qualified individuals to train for careers in a field related to Jewish community service.
Title of Award: International Scholarship Program for Community Service Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Jewish studies; Religion; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Funds Available: The amount of the grant varies, depending on the country in which the student will be trained and other considerations. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: The scholarship is open to any individual, regardless of country of origin, who is presently receiving or plans to undertake training in his/her chosen field at a recognized yeshiva, teacher training seminary, school of social work, university, or other educational institution. Applicants must be interested in pursuing professional training for careers in Jewish education, Jewish social service, the rabbinate, or as religious functionaries (e.g., shohatim, mohalim) in Diaspora Jewish communities in need of such personnel. Students planning to serve in the United States, Canada, or Israel are not eligible. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must agree to serve for at least 2 to 3 years in a Jewish-deprived Diaspora community where their skills are needed after completing their training.

3575 ■ MINNESOTA BUSINESS EDUCATORS, INC.

c/o Kathryn Larson, MBEI Awards Chair
Owatonna High School
333 East School Street
Owatonna, MN 55060
Tel: (507)444-8800
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mbei-online.org
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Minnesota Business Educators, Inc. (MBEI) who are enrolled in a business teaching licensure program at a Minnesota college or university.
Title of Award: Minnesota Business Educators Award for Business Education Teaching Majors Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student members of MBEI enrolled as a major in a business teacher licensure program at a Minnesota college or university. Applicants must submit a letter indicating why they merit this award, a 2-page resume, 2 letters of recommendation, and a transcript. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This award was first presented in 1989.

3576 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/cnar.html
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Mississippi interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and willing to work in selected areas of the state or teach in specified subject areas.
Title of Award: Mississippi Critical Needs Alternate Route Teacher Loan/Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: The program provides payment of tuition and required fees (at the in-state rate only), an allowance for room and board equal to the state average for a Mississippi resident, and an allowance for books. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must sign a contract agreeing to teach 1 year for each year the award is received in an accredited public school or public school district in a critical teacher geographic shortage area of Mississippi as defined at the time of graduation. If the recipient fails to remain enrolled in a teacher education program or fails to fulfill the service obligation, repayment of principal and interest is required. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, meets the satisfactory academic progress standards of their institution, and remains enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternate Route teacher license.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is normally open to juniors and seniors at Mississippi 4-year colleges and universities. Mississippi residency is not required. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternate Route teacher license and be working on their first bachelor's degree. They must have passed Praxis I; agree to employment immediately after completing their degree as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school located in a critical teacher shortage area of the state or in a subject shortage area; participate in entrance counseling; and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: A list of the current critical teacher shortage areas is available from the Mississippi Department of Education. Current subject shortage areas are mathematics, science (chemistry, physics, and biology only), foreign language (French, German, and Spanish only), and special education. Recipients are not eligible for funds from other state aid programs.

3577 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/cntp.html
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Mississippi interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and willing to work in selected areas of the state or teach in specified subject areas.
Title of Award: Mississippi Critical Needs Teacher Loan/Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: The program provides payment of tuition and required fees (at the in-state rate only), an allowance for room and board equal to the state average for a Mississippi resident, and an allowance for books. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must sign a contract agreeing to teach 1 year for each year the award is received in an accredited public school or public school district in a critical teacher geographic shortage area of Mississippi as defined at the time of graduation. If the recipient fails to remain enrolled in a teacher education program or fails to fulfill the service obligation, repayment of principal and interest is required. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, meets the satisfactory academic progress standards of their institution, and remains enrolled in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is normally open to juniors and seniors at Mississippi 4-year colleges and universities. Mississippi residency is not required. While in high school applicants must have passed Praxis I, had an ACT score of 21 or higher, or had an SAT score of 860 or higher. While in college, they must enroll in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license; agree to employment immediately after completing their degree as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school located in a critical teacher shortage area of the state or in a subject shortage area; participate in entrance counseling; and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1998. A list of the current critical teacher shortage areas is available from the Mississippi Department of Education. Current subject shortage areas are mathematics, science (chemistry, physics, and biology only), foreign language (French, German, and Spanish only), and special education. Recipients are not eligible for funds from other state aid programs.

3578 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/wwar.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Mississippi residents working on an Alternative Route teacher educator license.
Title of Award: William Winter Alternative Route Teacher Scholar Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: Loans are provided up to $4,000 per academic year. For each year of service as a full-time classroom teacher in an accredited public school or public school district in Mississippi, 1 year's loan will be forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, remains enrolled full time in a program of study leading to an Alternative Route teacher educator license, exhibits satisfactory academic progress, and documents that Praxis II has been passed after no more than 3 semesters of participation in this program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Mississippi residents who are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors at an accredited Mississippi 4-year public or private college or university. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternative Route teacher educator license with a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. They must have passed Praxis I and agree to employment immediately upon degree completion as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may not defer the service obligation to work on an advanced degree.

3579 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/wwts.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Mississippi residents working on a Class "A" teacher educator license.
Title of Award: William Winter Teacher Scholar Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: Loans are provided up to $4,000 per academic year. For each year of service as a full-time classroom teacher in an accredited public school or public school district in Mississippi, 1 year's loan will be forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, remains enrolled full time in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license, exhibits satisfactory academic progress, and documents that Praxis II has been passed after no more than 3 semesters of participation in this program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Mississippi residents who are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors at an accredited Mississippi 4-year public or private college or university. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license with a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. They must be able to document that they have passed Praxis I or have an ACT score of 21 or higher with a minimum of 18 on all sub-scores. Programs of study that do not qualify include, but are not limited to, speech and language pathology, psychological and counseling services, and recreational therapy. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Mississippi legislature established this program in 1987. Recipients may not defer the service obligation to work on an advanced degree.

3580 ■ MORRIS SCHOLARSHIP FUND

Attn: Scholarship Selection Committee
525 S.W. Fifth Street, Suite A
Des Moines, IA 50309-4501
Tel: (515)282-8192
Fax: (515)282-9117
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.morrisscholarship.org
To provide financial assistance to African Americans in Iowa interested in preparing to work with "at risk" students.
Title of Award: Nelson Urban Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The awards generally range from $2,500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African Americans who are Iowa residents, enrolled full or part time at the undergraduate or graduate school level, and interested in working with "at risk" minority students in the elementary or secondary schools. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3581 ■ P. BUCKLEY MOSS SOCIETY

20 Stoneridge Drive, Suite 102
Waynesboro, VA 22980
Tel: (540)943-5678
Fax: (540)949-8408
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mosssociety.org
To provide financial assistance to students working on a bachelor's or master's degree in special education.
Title of Award: Judith Cary Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to be nominated for this scholarship are students who have completed at least 2 years of undergraduate study and are working on a bachelor's or master's degree in special education. Nominations may be submitted by society members only. The nomination packet must include proof of acceptance into a specific program to teach special needs students, 2 letters of recommendation, a short essay on school and community work activities and achievements, and an essay of 250 to 500 words on their career goals, teaching philosophies, reasons for choosing this career, and ways in which they plan to make a difference in the lives of special needs students. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999.

3582 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL OFFICE PROFESSIONALS

Attn: NAEOP Foundation
P.O. Box 12619
Wichita, KS 67277-2619
Tel: (316)942-4822
Fax: (316)942-7100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.naeop.org/foundation.htm
To provide financial assistance to students interested in preparing for an office-related career.
Title of Award: Marion T. Wood National Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Secretarial sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to business education students preparing for an office-related career, preferably in the field of education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3583 ■ NATIONAL DAIRY PROMOTION AND RESEARCH BOARD

c/o Dairy Management Inc.
10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900
Rosemont, IL 60018-5616
Tel: (847)803-2000
Fax: (847)803-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dairycheckoff.com/DairyCheckoff/about/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in fields related to the dairy industry.
Title of Award: NDPRB Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Dairy science; Economics; Education; Food science and technology; Journalism; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship at $2,500 and 19 other scholarships at $1,500. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500 or $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors enrolled in college and university programs that emphasize dairy. Eligible majors include agricultural education, business, communications and/or public relations, economics, food science, journalism, marketing, and nutrition. Fields related to production (e.g., animal science) are not eligible. Selection is based on academic performance; interest in a career in dairy; involvement in extracurricular activities, especially those relating to dairy; and evidence of leadership ability, initiative, character, and integrity. The applicant who is judged most outstanding is awarded the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Dairy Management Inc. manages this program on behalf of the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDPRB).

3584 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: (641)236-3366
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate or graduate students who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Educator of Tomorrow Award Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are working on or planning to work full time on an undergraduate or graduate degree. Applicants must be preparing for a career in elementary, secondary, or postsecondary teaching. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.

3585 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: (641)236-3366
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate and graduate students working on a degree in the field of education, especially those planning to major in education of disabled youth.
Title of Award: Sally S. Jacobsen Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are working on or planning to work full time on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education. Preference is given to applicants planning to specialize in education of disabled youth. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.

3586 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND OF CONNECTICUT

580 Burnside Avenue, Suite 1
East Hartford, CT 06108
Tel: (860)289-1971
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nfbct.org/html/bcmsch.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to students in Connecticut who plan to become a teacher of the blind and visually impaired.
Title of Award: Brian Cummins Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduate and undergraduate students enrolled full time at colleges and universities in Connecticut who are preparing for a career as a certified teacher of the blind and visually impaired. Applicants must be planning to reside in Connecticut and work as a teacher of the blind and visually impaired. Along with their application, they must submit a letter on their career goals and how the scholarship might help them achieve those. Applicants do not need to be blind or members of the National Federation of the Blind of Connecticut. Selection is based on academic quality, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year. Additional Information: This program was established to honor Brian Cummins, who lost his life in the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

3587 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from Florida and Georgia who are interested in studying fields related to agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Chevron Corporation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Natural resources; Wildlife conservation, management, and science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be residents of Florida or Georgia planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in agricultural communications and education, environmental engineering, environmental science, natural resource management, wildlife management, or public service and administration in agriculture. Preference is given to those who have shown outstanding leadership. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by ChevronTexaco Corporation.

3588 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]a.org
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are interested in studying agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Garst Seed Company Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 25 each year: 10 to students with any agricultural major, 5 to students majoring in agricultural communications or education, and 10 to students in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll or students currently enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture; in agricultural communications or education; or in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Garst Seed Company.

3589 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Elmer J. and Hester Jane Johnson Honorary Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be planning to work on a 4-year college degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on financial need, leadership ability, and academic standing. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3590 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in working on a degree in agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Monsanto Roadrunners Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to FFA members who are high school seniors and whose families are actively engaged in production agriculture. Applicants must be planning to work full time on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. They must have an ACT composite score of 18 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and math score of 850 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is funded by employees of Monsanto Company who combine their passion for running and commitment to agricultural education by running in marathons to raise funds for scholarships.

3591 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Alumni Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college or students already enrolled in college on a full-time basis. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a 4-year degree in agricultural education to prepare for a career as an agriculture teacher. They must be an alumni member or from an FFA chapter with an active alumni affiliate. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by the National FFA Alumni Association.

3592 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Foundation/AERO Staff Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by staff and board members of the National FFA Organization, National FFA Foundation, and the Agricultural Education Related Organizations (AERO).

3593 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agribusiness and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Social Sciences Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agriculture, Economic aspects; Education; Finance; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to business and the social sciences; this includes: agribusiness, agricultural economics, agricultural education, agricultural finance, and agricultural marketing. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

3594 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to current or former FFA members who are interested in studying a field related to agriculture at a college or university in designated states.
Title of Award: Norfolk Southern Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Engineering, Agricultural; Finance; Forestry; Management; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either graduating high school seniors planning to enroll in college or students already enrolled in college. Applicants must be interested in working full time on a 4-year degree in agricultural and forestry production, communication, education, engineering, finance, management, marketing, merchandising, sales, or agricultural science. They must be planning to attend a college or university in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, or Virginia. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by the Norfolk Southern Foundation.

3595 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from designated states who are interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Pioneer Hi-Bred International Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 12 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be residents of Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, or Nebraska and interested in working on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. of Des Moines, Iowa.

3596 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are studying a field related to communications, business, or education in college.
Title of Award: Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members currently enrolled full time in college and working on a 4-year degree in agricultural communications, marketing, merchandising, sales, or as an education specialist. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the creative marketing firm Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing.

3597 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in working on a degree in agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Bernie Staller Endowment Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to FFA members who are high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be planning to work on a 4-year degree in agricultural education and have career plans to teach at the secondary level. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3598 ■ NATIONAL SORORITY OF PHI DELTA KAPPA, INC.-DELTA BETA CHAPTER

c/o Nancy Thompson, Chapter Scholarship Chair
4703 Broadhill Drive
Austin, TX 78723
Tel: (512)926-6309
To provide financial assistance to African American high school seniors who plan to study education in college.
Title of Award: Carmer Mercer Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African American graduating high school seniors who are planning a 4-year college and major in the field of education. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, high school transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, SAT and/or ACT scores, a list of honors and awards received in high school, and a list of extracurricular, community, and volunteer activities. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3599 ■ NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
120 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005
Tel: (212)558-5300; 888-839-0467
Fax: (212)344-5332
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nul.org/jerrybartowscholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) that are participating in the Black Executive Exchange Program (BEEP).
Title of Award: Jerry Bartow Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Management; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African American sophomores, juniors, and seniors at HBCUs that are participating in the BEEP. Applicants must be majoring in business, management, technology, and/or education. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997 by ITT Hartford Insurance Company. Recipients are required to attend the annual BEEP conference to accept the award. Travel and hotel arrangements are provided by BEEP.

3600 ■ NAVY WIVES CLUB OF AMERICA

P.O. Box 54022
Millington, TN 38053-6022
(866)511-NWCA
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.navywivesclubsofamerica.org/nwc/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or medical school to the children of naval personnel.
Title of Award: Navy Wives Club of America National Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified; Medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Doctorate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 41 each year: 6 to freshmen, 18 for renewals, 4 to current undergraduates applying for the first time, 2 to medical students, 2 to students majoring in special education, and 9 to children of NWCA members. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants for these scholarships must be the children (natural born, legally adopted, or stepchildren) of enlisted members of the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard on active duty, retired with pay, or deceased. Applicants must be attending or planning to attend an accredited college or university. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their career objectives and the reasons they chose those objectives. Selection is based on academic standing, moral character, and financial need. Some scholarships are reserved for students majoring in special education, medical students, and children of members of Navy Wives Club of American (NWCA). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from the NWCA Scholarship Foundation Director, Susan Quinn, 1644A Jana Court, Norfolk, VA 23503. Membership in the NWCA is open to spouses of enlisted personnel serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and the active Reserve units of those services; spouses of enlisted personnel who have been honorable discharged, retired, or transferred to the Fleet Reserve on completion of duty; and widows of enlisted personnel in those services.

3601 ■ NEW HAMPSHIRE POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION

3 Barrell Court, Suite 300
Concord, NH 03301-8543
Tel: (603)271-2555
Fax: (603)271-2696
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.state.nh.us/postsecondary/finwork.html
To provide scholarship/loans to New Hampshire residents who are interested in attending college to prepare for careers in designated professions.
Title of Award: New Hampshire Workforce Incentive Program Forgivable Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Nursing; Physical sciences; Physics; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $500 per semester ($1,000 per year). This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must agree to pursue, within New Hampshire, the professional career for which they receive training. Recipients of loans for 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 1 year of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 3 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. Recipients of loans for more than 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 2 years of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 5 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. If the note is not cancelled because of service, the recipient must repay the loan within 2 years. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New Hampshire who wish to prepare for careers in fields designated by the commission as shortage areas. Currently, the career shortage areas are chemistry, general science, mathematics, physical sciences, physics, special education, world languages, and nursing (L.P.N. through graduate). Applicants must be enrolled as a junior, senior, or graduate student at a college in New Hampshire and must be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year for fall semester; December of each year for spring semester. Additional Information: The time for repayment of the loan, either in cash or through professional service, is extended while the recipient is 1) engaged in a course of study, at least on a half-time basis, at an institution of higher education; 2) serving on active duty as a member of the armed forces of the United States, or as a member of VISTA, the Peace Corps, or AmeriCorps, for a period up to 3 years; 3) temporarily totally disabled for a period up to 3 years; or 4) unable to secure employment because of the need to care for a disabled spouse, child, or parent for a period up to 12 months. The repayment obligation is cancelled if the recipient is unable to work because of a permanent total disability, receives relief under federal bankruptcy laws, or dies. This program went into effect in 1999.

3602 ■ NEW JERSEY SCHOOLWOMEN'S CLUB

c/o Judy Jordan
67 Spray Way
Lavallette, NJ 08735
To provide financial assistance for college to female high school seniors in New Jersey who intend to prepare for a career in education.
Title of Award: New Jersey Schoolwomen's Club Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women graduating from high schools in New Jersey. Applicants must be planning to attend a 4-year college or university to prepare for a career in the field of education. They must have an academic average of "C+" or higher and a combined SAT mathematics and critical reading score of at least 950. Selection is based on academic achievement, community involvement, and extracurricular activities. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the Patricia Barber Scholarship and the Jeanette Hodge Scholarship.

3603 ■ NEW MEXICO ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BUSINESS OFFICIALS

Attn: Executive Director
P.O. Box 7535
Albuquerque, NM 87194-7535
Tel: (505)821-1887
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nmasbo.org
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in New Mexico who plan to study education in college.
Title of Award: NMASBO Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 6 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in New Mexico with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Applicants must be planning to attend a college or university in the state to work full time on a degree related to education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3604 ■ NORTH CAROLINA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Betsy Tobin, Past President
700 East Stonewall Street, Suite 400
Charlotte, NC 28202
Tel: (980)343-2384
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ncbea.org/bunch.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in North Carolina who plan to study business or business education in college.
Title of Award: John M. Bunch Student Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Funds are disbursed through the financial aid office at the recipient's college. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in North Carolina who have taken 1 or more business education subjects. Applicants must be planning to attend a technical school, community college, college, or university in North Carolina to prepare for a career in business and/or business education. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on their future goals or aspirations and how college can help them achieve those goals. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1993.

3605 ■ NORTH CAROLINA STATE EDUCATION ASSISTANCE AUTHORITY

Attn: Teacher Assistant Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 13663
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3663
Tel: (919)248-8614
Free: 800-700-1775
Fax: (919)248-6632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ncseaa.edu/TAS.htm
To provide financial assistance to public school teacher assistants in North Carolina who are interested in working on a college degree to become a teacher.
Title of Award: North Carolina Teacher Assistant Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Professional Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, a total of 239 students were receiving $957,100 in support through this program. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,600 per semester (including summer sessions). A student can receive up to $4,800 per year or $28,000 per lifetime. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient completes at least 12 semester hours with a GPA of 2.8 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to teacher assistants employed full time in North Carolina public schools. Applicants must be enrolled in at least 6 semester hours pursuing teacher licensure at an accredited 4-year college in North Carolina with a teacher education program. They must have a GPA of 2.8 or higher and remain employed as a teacher assistant while attending college part time. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3606 ■ NORTH CAROLINA TEACHING FELLOWS COMMISSION

Koger Center, Cumberland Building
3739 National Drive, Suite 210
Raleigh, NC 27612
Tel: (919)781-6833
Fax: (919)781-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.teachingfellows.org
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in North Carolina who wish to prepare for a career in teaching.
Title of Award: North Carolina Teaching Fellows Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 400 each year. Approximately 20% of the program's recipients are minority and 30% are male. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $6,500 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must teach in a North Carolina public school 1 year for each year of support received. If they cannot fulfill the service requirement, they must repay the loan with 10% interest. Duration: 1 year; renewable for up to 3 additional years if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 2.25 or higher for the freshman year and 2.50 or higher in the sophomore year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors at high schools in North Carolina who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and have been accepted for enrollment at a participating school in the state. Applicants must demonstrate superior achievement on the basis of high school grades, class standing, SAT scores, a writing sample, community service, extracurricular activities, and references from teachers and members of the community. U.S. citizenship is required. A particular goal of the program is to recruit and retain greater numbers of male and minority teacher education candidates in North Carolina. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: The participating schools are Appalachian State University, East Carolina University, Elon College, Meredith College, North Carolina A&T State University, University of North Carolina at Asheville, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and Western Carolina University. This program was established in 1986 and the first fellows were named in 1987.

3607 ■ OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Attn: Science and Engineering Education
P.O. Box 117
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
Tel: (865)241-8240
Fax: (865)241-5219
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm
To provide financial assistance and summer research experience to upper-division students who are working on a degree in a field of interest to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Title of Award: Ernest F. Hollings Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Computer and information sciences; Education; Engineering; Information science and technology; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Approximately 100 each year. Funds Available: This program provides a stipend of $8,000 per academic year and $650 per week during the internship, a housing subsidy and limited travel reimbursement for round-trip transportation to the internship site, and travel expenses to the scholarship program conference at the completion of the internship. Duration: 2 academic years plus 10 weeks during the intervening summer.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior year at an accredited college or university in the United States or its territories. Applicants must be majoring in a discipline related to oceanic and atmospheric science, research, technology, and education, and supportive of the purposes of NOAA's programs and mission (e.g., biological, life, and agricultural sciences; computer and information sciences; engineering; mathematics; physical sciences; social and behavioral sciences; or teacher education). They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. As part of their program, they must be interested in participating in summer research and development activities at NOAA headquarters (Silver Spring, Maryland) or field centers. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2005, is funded by NOAA and administered by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

3608 ■ OHIO BUSINESS TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

c/o Victoria Hammer, President
University of Cincinnati
Raymond Walters College
9555 Plainfield Road
Cincinnati, OH 45236
Tel: (513)745-5791
Fax: (513)745-5771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rwc.uc.edu/obta
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students and professionals in Ohio who are interested in business education.
Title of Award: Ohio Business Teachers Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) undergraduate students enrolled full time in a 4-year bachelor's degree program in the field of business education at an accredited Ohio institution; 2) graduate students at Ohio institutions who are members of the Ohio Business Teachers Association (OBTA) and/or the business education division of the Ohio Vocational Association (OVA) and are enrolled in course work for regular academic credit in business, business education, or a directly-related field; and 3) professional educators who are currently employed as a teacher and/or administrator in business education in Ohio, are current members of OBTA and/or the business education division of OVA, and have the equivalent of 3 academic years of teaching in business education. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year.

3609 ■ OHIO CLASSICAL CONFERENCE

c/o Amy J. Sawan, Scholarship Committee
Medina Senior High School
777 East Union Street
Medina, OH 44256
Tel: (330)636-3200
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://dept.kent.edu/mcls/classics/occ
To provide financial assistance to Ohio residents preparing for a career as a Latin teacher.
Title of Award: Ohio Classical Conference Scholarship for Prospective Latin Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Ohio enrolled at least at the sophomore level at a college or university in the United States. Applicants must be taking courses leading to a career in the teaching of Latin at the K-12 level in a public, private, or parochial school. They must submit college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation (including 1 from a member of their classics department), a prospectus of courses completed and to be taken as part of the program, and a 1-page statement of their academic goals and reasons for applying for the scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3610 ■ OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Scholarship and Grant Programs
655 Research Parkway, Suite 200
P.O. Box 108850
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-8850
Tel: (405)225-9239
Free: 800-858-1840
Fax: (405)225-9230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.okhighered.org/student-center/financial-aid/futureteach.shtml
To provide forgivable loans to Oklahoma residents who are interested in teaching (particularly in teacher shortage fields) in Oklahoma.
Title of Award: Oklahoma Future Teachers Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special; English language and literature; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 136 students received support through this program. Funds Available: Full-time students receive up to $1,500 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $1,000 if they have completed fewer than 60 hours; part-time students receive up to $750 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $500 per year if they have completed fewer than 60 hours. Funds are paid directly to the institution on the student's behalf. This is a forgivable loan program; recipients must agree to teach in Oklahoma public schools for 3 years following graduation and licensure. Duration: 1 year; may be renewable for up to 3 additional years as long as the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Candidates for this program must be nominated by institutions of higher education in Oklahoma. Nominees may be high school seniors, high school graduates, or currently-enrolled undergraduate or graduate students. They must 1) rank in the top 15% of their high school graduating class; 2) have an ACT or SAT score ranking in the top 15% for high school graduates of the same year; 3) have been admitted into a professional education program at an accredited Oklahoma institution of higher education; or 4) have achieved an undergraduate record of outstanding success as defined by the institution. Both part-time and full-time students are eligible, but preference is given to full-time students. Applicants must be interested in teaching in critical shortage areas in the state upon graduation. These areas change periodically but recently have included special education, mathematics, science, English, and foreign languages. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3611 ■ OMAHA VOLUNTEERS FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

c/o Lois Carlson
2010 Country Club Avenue
Omaha, NE 68104
Tel: (402)553-0378
To provide financial assistance for college to Nebraska residents who have a physical disability or are preparing for a career related to people with orthopedic impairments or physical disabilities.
Title of Award: Omaha Volunteers for Handicapped Children Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 to 10 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Nebraska who are U.S. citizens. First priority applicants must have an orthopedic impairment or physical disability and be 1) high school seniors with a GPA of 2.25 or higher and accepted into the school of their choice or 2) college students making satisfactory progress toward graduation. Second priority applicants must be enrolled in the college of their choice and preparing for a teaching or health-related career of service to people with orthopedic impairments or physical disabilities. All applicants must submit a 250-word essay on their future goals and need for the scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year.

3612 ■ OREGON NASA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o Oregon State University
92 Kerr Administration Building
Corvallis, OR 97331-2103
Tel: (541)737-2414
Fax: (541)737-9946
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.oregonspacegrant.orst.edu/programs/education/undergraduate.html
To provide financial assistance for study in space-related fields to undergraduate students at colleges and universities that are members of the Oregon Space Grant Consortium (OSGC).
Title of Award: Oregon Space Grant Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Space and planetary sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens enrolled full time at OSGC member institutions. Applicants must be working on 1) a baccalaureate degree in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) field (including mathematics or science education) related to the mission of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); or 2) an associate degree in applied science and planning to transfer to a 4-year institution to complete a baccalaureate in the same fields. Along with their application, they must submit a letter of intent of 250 to 300 words on their career goals as they relate to NASA and how this scholarship will contribute to those goals. Selection is based on scholastic achievement, aerospace-related career goals, and 2 letters of recommendation. Applications are especially encouraged from members of underrepresented groups (women, minorities, and people with disabilities). Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Institutions that are members of OSG include Oregon State University, Portland State University, the University of Oregon, Southern Oregon University, Eastern Oregon University, Western Oregon University, George Fox University, Lane Community College, Linfield College, Portland Community College, and Oregon Institute of Technology. This program is funded by NASA.

3613 ■ OREGON STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Grants and Scholarships Division
1500 Valley River Drive, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401-2146
Tel: (541)687-7395
Free: 800-452-8807
Fax: (541)687-7419
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osac.state.or.us
To provide financial assistance to Oregon residents majoring in education on the undergraduate or graduate school level.
Title of Award: James Carlson Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 3 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipend amounts vary; recently, they were at least $1,300. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Oregon who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Applicants must be either 1) college seniors or fifth-year students majoring in elementary or secondary education or 2) graduate students working on an elementary or secondary certificate. Full-time enrollment and financial need are required. Priority is given to 1) members of African American, Asian American, Hispanic, or Native American ethnic groups; 2) dependents of members of the Oregon Education Association; and 3) applicants committed to teaching autistic children. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is administered by the Oregon Student Assistance Commission (OSAC) with funds provided by the Oregon Community Foundation, 1221 S.W. Yamhill, Suite 100, Portland, OR 97205, (503) 227-6846, Fax: (503) 274-7771.

3614 ■ OREGON STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Grants and Scholarships Division
1500 Valley River Drive, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401-2146
Tel: (541)687-7395
Free: 800-452-8807
Fax: (541)687-7419
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osac.state.or.us
To provide financial assistance to students in Oregon who are employed while working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in teaching or nursing.
Title of Award: Friends of Oregon Students Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 28 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $3,000 to $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Oregon who are working and will continue to work at least 20 hours per week while attending college or graduate school at least three-quarter time. Applicants must be interested in preparing for a career in teaching or nursing. They must be able to demonstrate a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and volunteer or work experience relevant to their chosen profession. Preference is given to applicants who 1) are nontraditional students (e.g., older, returning, single parents), 2) have overcome significant personal obstacles, or 3) graduated from an alternative high school, obtained a GED, or are transferring from an Oregon community college to a 4-year college. Along with their application, they must submit essays and letters of reference on how they balance school, work, and personal life as well as their experiences in overcoming obstacles. Selection is based on work experience, community service and volunteer activities, responses to essay questions, letters of reference, and financial need; academic promise (as indicated by GPA and SAT/ACT scores) is also considered. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program, established in 1996, is provided by the HF Fund, P.O. Box 55187, Portland, OR 97238, (503) 234-0259, E-mail: [email protected]

3615 ■ POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC UNION OF AMERICA

Attn: Education Fund Scholarship Program
984 North Milwaukee Avenue
Chicago, IL 60622-4101
Tel: (773)782-2600 Free: 800-772-8632
Fax: (773)278-4595
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prcua.org/benefits/educationfundscholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate education students of Polish heritage.
Title of Award: Jean C. Osajda Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds are paid directly to the institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time as sophomores, juniors, and seniors in an undergraduate program or full or part time as a graduate or professional school student. Applicants must be majoring in education. Selection is based on academic achievement, Polonia involvement, and community service. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3616 ■ SCHOLARSHIP ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES, INC.

Attn: ABE Program
2000 Rock Street, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94043
To provide financial assistance to students working on a bachelor's or master's degree in business education.
Title of Award: American Business Educators Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 20 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students working on or planning to work on a bachelor's or master's degree in business education. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to demonstrate a record of involvement in extracurricular and work activities related to business. Along with their application, they must submit a 1,000-word essay on their educational and career goals, why they believe business is essential to America, and how they plan to make an impact as a business teacher at the secondary level. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by American Business Educators (ABE) and administered by Scholarship Administrative Services, Inc. ABE was established in 2004 to encourage more American students to consider a career as a business teacher at the secondary level. Requests for applications should be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope, the student's e-mail address, and the source where they found the scholarship information.

3617 ■ SEATTLE MARINERS WOMEN'S CLUB

P.O. Box 4100
Seattle, WA 98104
Tel: (206)628-3555
To provide financial assistance to high school athletes in Washington state who are interested in preparing for an athletic-related career.
Title of Award: Bev and Wes Stock Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to athletes who display good character both on and off the playing field. They must be graduating high school seniors in Washington state who are planning to prepare for an athletic-related career and will be attending a college or university in the coming academic year. There is no application form. Applicants must submit a typewritten essay outlining why they are applying for the scholarship, their extracurricular activities, their goals, and how receiving the scholarship will be an advantage to them. Also required are a transcript and 3 letters of recommendation. Selection is based on merit. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: No telephone inquiries are permitted.

3618 ■ SOCIETY OF PHYSICS STUDENTS

c/o American Institute of Physics
One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740-3843
Tel: (301)209-3007
Fax: (301)209-0839
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.spsnational.org/programs/future_teacher.htm
To provide financial assistance to members of the Society of Physics Students (SPS) interested in preparing for a career as a physics teacher.
Title of Award: SPS Future Teacher Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time college juniors who are active members of the society. Applicants must be enrolled in a teacher education program with plans to prepare for a career in physics education. Selection is based on 1) high scholarship performance both in physics and overall studies, 2) potential for continued scholastic development in physics, 3) active participation in society programs, and 4) a statement of experiences and ambitions with regard to teaching physics. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the Sigma Pi Sigma Trust Fund and the American Institute of Physics.

3619 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA ALLIANCE OF BLACK SCHOOL EDUCATORS

Attn: Executive Director
P.O. Box 11737
Columbia, SC 29211
Tel: (803)786-6478
Fax: (803)735-1159
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.scabse.com
To provide financial assistance to residents of South Carolina, especially minorities, interested in preparing for a career as a classroom teacher.
Title of Award: South Carolina Alliance of Black School Educators Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of South Carolina who are high school seniors or college undergraduates planning to attend or attending a college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring, or planning to major, in education and become a classroom teacher in the state. They should be able to help meet a goal of the program to increase the number of ethnic minorities in South Carolina classrooms. Along with their application, they must submit 1-page essays on 1) what they hope their colleagues and former students will say about them at the close of their career, and 2) the approaches they will take to honor the diversity of the students in their classes. Selection is based on scholarship (20%); school, community, and employment activities (20%); written expression and commitment (40%); and recommendations (20%). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program parallels the goals of the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention, and Advancement (CERRA), which administers this program. Information is also available from CERRA, Stewart House at Winthop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, (803) 323-4032, Fax: (803) 323-4044.

3620 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Anne M. London, Scholarship Committee Chair
837 Stiles Drive
Charleston, SC 29412
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.scbea.org/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to students seeking certification in a business and marketing education program at a college or university in South Carolina.
Title of Award: South Carolina Business Education Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students seeking initial certification in the upper division of a state-approved business and marketing education program at South Carolina colleges and universities. Applicants must submit a 300-word essay on why they would like to receive this scholarship. Selection is based on that essay, academic record, honors received, extracurricular activities, work experience, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3621 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA CENTER FOR EDUCATOR RECRUITMENT, RETENTION, AND ADVANCEMENT

Attn: South Carolina Teaching Fellows Program
Ward House at Winthrop University
Rock Hill, SC 29733
Tel: (803)323-4032
Free: 800-476-2387
Fax: (803)323-4044
Web Site: http://www.cerra.org/fellows.asp
To provide loans-for-service to high school seniors in South Carolina interested in preparing for a career as a teacher in the state.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teaching Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 200 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $6,000 per year, including $5,700 for tuition and board and $300 for summer enrichment programs administered by the sponsor. Fellows must agree to teach in South Carolina 1 year for each year they receive the fellowship. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are legal residents of South Carolina and enrolled in a public, private, or home school. The initial application requires documentation of academic achievement and school activities, a separate indicator for Teacher Cadet and ProTeam participation, 3 references, and a short narrative on why the applicant wants to become a teacher. Based on those applications, semifinalists are invited to regional interviews, where they first write a 30-minute response to an education-related question and then appear before an interview committee. Final selection is based on communication, problem solving ability, knowledge of world and educational issues, originality, and commitment to teaching as demonstrated in those responses and interviews. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: The South Carolina General Assembly established this program in 1999. The participating institutions are Anderson College, Charleston Southern University, College of Charleston, Columbia College, Furman University, Lander University, Newberry College, South Carolina State University, University of South Carolina at Columbia, University of South Carolina Upstate, and Winthrop University.

3622 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Student Services
1333 Main Street, Suite 200
Columbia, SC 29201
Tel: (803)737-2260; 877-349-7183
Fax: (803)737-2297
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.che.sc.gov
To provide scholarship/loans to teachers in South Carolina who wish to improve their content knowledge and degree programs.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teaching Scholarship Grants Program Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Dance; Economics; Education; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geography; History; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Music; Political science; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per fiscal year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must sign a commitment to teach in South Carolina public schools for at least 1 year following completion of the scholarship grant year and agree to refund the scholarship amount if the 1-year teaching commitment is not honored. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if recipients maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher. They may receive up to 3 grants in a 5-year period.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of South Carolina who have a professional teaching certificate and are under contract as a teacher in a public school in the state. Applicants must be 1) accepted as a degree-seeking graduate student in the teaching field at the master's level and enrolled at an eligible institution in the state; or 2) enrolled for graduate or undergraduate courses in their current teaching field or in a teaching field in which they wish to add on certification. Proposed fields of study must relate to core content areas of English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts (advanced fine arts, art, dance, drama, music, and speech), history, or geography; early childhood, elementary education, middle level education, secondary education, and special education also qualify. Priority is given to classroom teachers (not administrators, counselors, media specialists, or other support personnel) whose teaching specialties are critical need subject areas. Continuing graduate students must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year for second summer session and fall semester; June of each year for spring semester and first summer session. Additional Information: This program was established in 2001.

3623 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o College of Charleston
Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences
66 George Street
Charleston, SC 29424 Tel: (843)953-5463
Fax: (843)953-5446
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cofc.edu/~scsgrant/scholar/overview.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in South Carolina who are preparing for a career as a science and mathematics teacher.
Title of Award: South Carolina Space Grant Consortium Pre-Service Teacher Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Astronomy and astronomical sciences; Education; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds may be used for such expenses as 1) partial payment of tuition; 2) travel and registration for attending science and mathematics education workshops or conferences for the purpose of professional development; 3) purchase of supplies for student teaching activities; or 4) other supportive activities that lead to successful professional development and graduation as an educator in South Carolina. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students at member institutions of the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium. Applicants must be working on a teaching certificate in science, mathematics, or engineering. Their areas of interest may include, but are not limited to, the basic sciences, astronomy, science education, planetary science, environmental studies, or engineering. U.S. citizenship is required. Selection is based on academic qualifications of the applicant; 2 letters of recommendation; a description of past activities, current interests, and future plans concerning a space science or aerospace-related field; a sample lesson plan using curriculum materials available from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); and faculty sponsorship. Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Members of the consortium are Benedict College, The Citadel, College of Charleston, Clemson University, Coastal Carolina University, Furman University, University of South Carolina, Wofford College, South Carolina State University, The Medical University of South Carolina, and University of the Virgin Islands. This program is funded by NASA.

3624 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA STUDENT LOAN CORPORATION

Interstate Center
16 Berryhill Road, Suite 210
P.O. Box 21487
Columbia, SC 29221-1487
Tel: (803)798-0916
Free: 800-347-2752
Fax: (803)772-9410
Web Site: http://www.slc.sc.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to students in South Carolina who wish to teach certain subjects or in certain geographic areas.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teacher Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Classical studies; Consumer affairs; Dance; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Special; English language and literature; Foreign languages; Library and archival sciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Speech and language pathology/audiology; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Freshmen and sophomores may borrow up to $2,500 per academic year; juniors, seniors, and graduate students may borrow up to $5,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program; loans are forgivable at the rate of 20% or $3,000, whichever is greater, for each full year of teaching in an area (either geographic or subject) of critical need; for students who teach in both critical subject and geographic areas, the rate of cancellation is 33% or $5,000, whichever is greater, per year. Borrowers who fail to teach in either a critical subject or geographic area must repay the loan at an annual interest rate that varies (currently, 5.37%) but is capped at 10.25%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for a total of 5 years of undergraduate and 5 years of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are residents of South Carolina who are planning to teach in certain critical geographic areas of the state, or to teach in critical subject areas. Entering freshmen must have ranked in the top 40% of their high school class and have an ACT or SAT score greater than the South Carolina average (recently 986 on the SAT or 19.3 on the ACT); enrolled undergraduates or entering graduate students must have at least a 2.75 cumulative GPA; graduate students who have completed at least 1 term must have a GPA of 3.5 or better. Undergraduate students at South Carolina colleges must have taken and passed the Education Entrance Exam; students at institutions outside South Carolina must have completed the necessary prerequisites required at that institution. Only U.S. citizens may apply. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the critical subject areas include mathematics, science (biology, chemistry, physics, and general science), media specialist, special education, industrial technology, foreign languages (Spanish, French, Latin, and German), family and consumer science, art, music, business education, English and language arts, dance, speech and drama/theater, and agriculture. For a list of critical geographic area, contact the sponsor.

3625 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu/administration/academics/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors planning to attend a public university in South Dakota and major in elementary education.
Title of Award: Annis Irene Fowler/Kaden Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000; funds are allocated to the institution for distribution to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to first-time entering freshmen at public universities in South Dakota. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and an intent to major in elementary education. They must submit an essay (from 1,000 to 1,500 words) on a topic that changes annually; recently, the topic related to advantages and disadvantages of No Child Left Behind laws. Special consideration is given to students who demonstrate motivational ability, who have a disability, or who are self-supporting. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3626 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu/administration/academics/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to students at public universities in South Dakota who are enrolled in a teacher education program.
Title of Award: Haines Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,150; funds are allocated to the institution for distribution to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors at public universities in South Dakota. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and a declared major in a teacher education program. They must submit a statement that describes their personal philosophy and their philosophy of education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3627 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu
To provide assistance for additional training to certain elementary and secondary school teachers and vocational instructors in South Dakota.
Title of Award: South Dakota Tuition Reduction for Certain Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Education, Vocational-technical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Qualified teachers and instructors are entitled to pay only 50% of tuition (but 100% of required fees) at a South Dakota state-supported institution of higher education. Duration: Recipients are entitled to the tuition reduction as long as they meet the eligibility requirements and maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to teachers and vocational instructors who are residents of South Dakota and employed by an accredited elementary or secondary school as a teacher or vocational instructor. Applicants must be required by state law, administrative rules, or an employment contract to pursue additional undergraduate or graduate education as a condition of employment or to maintain a certificate to teach. Additional Information: The tuition reduction can by used for a maximum of 6 credit hours per academic year.

3628 ■ STATE STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION OF INDIANA

Attn: Grant Division
150 West Market Street, Suite 500
Indianapolis, IN 46204-2811
Tel: (317)232-2350; 888-528-4719
Fax: (317)232-3260
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.in.gov/ssaci/programs/m-teach.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Black and Hispanic undergraduate students in Indiana interested in preparing for a teaching career and to other residents of the state preparing for a career in special education, occupational therapy, or physical therapy.
Title of Award: Indiana Minority Teacher/Special Education Services Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Occupational therapy; Physical therapy Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Up to $1,000 annually; if students demonstrate financial need, they may receive up to $4,000 annually. For 3 out of the 5 years following graduation, recipients must teach full time in an elementary or secondary school in Indiana or practice as an occupational or physical therapist at a school or rehabilitation facility in the state. If they fail to meet that service requirement, they are required to reimburse the state of Indiana for all funds received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years if recipients maintain a 2.0 GPA. They may, however, take up to 6 years to complete the program from the start of receiving the first scholarship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) Black and Hispanic students seeking teacher certification; 2) students seeking special education teaching certification; or 3) students seeking occupational or physical therapy certification. Applicants must be Indiana residents and U.S. citizens who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment as full-time students at an academic institution in Indiana. Students who are already enrolled in college must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. Applicants must be preparing to teach in an accredited elementary or secondary school in Indiana or to work as an occupational or physical therapist at a school or rehabilitation facility. Financial need may be considered, but it is not a requirement. Preference is given to minorities and to students enrolling in college for the first time. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating college or university establishes its filing deadline for this program. Additional Information: This program was established in 1988 to address the critical shortage of Black and Hispanic teachers in Indiana. An amendment in 1990 added the field of special education, and in 1991 the fields of occupational and physical therapy were added. Participating colleges in Indiana select the recipients. Students must submit their application to the financial aid office of the college they plan to attend (not to the State Student Assistance Commission of Indiana).

3629 ■ TENNESSEE STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Parkway Towers
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1950
Nashville, TN 37243-0820
Tel: (615)741-1346
Free: 800-342-1663
Fax: (615)741-6101
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tnscholardollars.com/mon_college/minority_teach.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to minority Tennesseans who wish to enter the teaching field.
Title of Award: Tennessee Minority Teaching Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 20 new awards are granted each year. Funds Available: The scholarship/loan is $5,000 per year. Recipients incur an obligation to teach at the K-12 level in a Tennessee public school 1 year for each year the award is received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority residents of Tennessee who are either high school seniors planning to attend a college or university in the state or continuing college students at a Tennessee college or university. High school seniors must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and either have an ACT score of at least 18 (or its SAT equivalent) or rank in the top 25% of their high school class. Continuing college students must have a college GPA of 2.5 or higher. All applicants must agree to teach at the K-12 level in a Tennessee public school following graduation from college. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1989.

3630 ■ TENNESSEE STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Parkway Towers
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1950
Nashville, TN 37243-0820
Tel: (615)741-1346
Free: 800-342-1663
Fax: (615)741-6101
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tnscholardollars.com/mon_college/tn_teach_sch.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Tennessee who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Tennessee Teaching Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 185 each year. Funds Available: Loans up to $4,500 per year are available. For each year of teaching in Tennessee, 1 year of the loan is forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years, provided the recipient maintains a 2.75 GPA.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and postbaccalaureate students in approved teacher education programs in Tennessee. They must be U.S. citizens, be Tennessee residents, have earned a GPA of 2.75 or higher, and agree to teach at the public preschool, elementary, or secondary level in Tennessee. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3631 ■ TEXAS BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

c/o Mona Fannon, Scholarship Committee Chair
Route 2 Box 8-14
Fritch, TX 79036
Tel: (806)857-9320
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tbtea.org
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Business Professionals of America (BPA) or Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) in Texas.
Title of Award: Texas Business and Technology Educators Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Education; Information science and technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Texas who are members of BPA or FBLA (or were members during their junior year). Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be nominated by a teacher who is a member of the Texas Business and Technology Educators Association. They must be planning to attend college to prepare for a career in business, business education, computer science, computer information systems, or a related field. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page letter describing why they deserve this scholarship, defining their career goals, and including any information regarding financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3632 ■ HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION

Attn: Executive Secretary
712 Jackson Place, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202)395-4831
Fax: (202)395-6995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.truman.gov
To provide grants-for-service for graduate school to current college juniors who are interested in preparing for a career in public service.
Title of Award: Harry S. Truman Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; History; International affairs and relations; Law; Physical sciences; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Public service; Social sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 70 to 75 each year: a) 1 "state" scholarship is available to a qualified resident nominee in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Islands (Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); and b) up to 25 at-large scholars. Funds Available: The program provides up to $30,000, including up to $15,000 for the first year of graduate study and up to $15,000 for the final year of graduate study. Duration: Support is provided for the first and last year of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Students must be nominated to be considered for this program. Nominees must be full-time students with junior standing at a 4-year institution, committed to a career in government or public service, in the upper quarter of their class, and U.S. citizens or nationals. Each participating institution may nominate up to 4 candidates (and up to 3 additional students who completed their first 2 years at a community college); community colleges and other 2-year institutions may nominate former students who are enrolled as full-time students with junior-level academic standing at accredited 4-year institutions. Selection is based on extent and quality of community service and government involvement, academic performance, leadership record, suitability of the nominee's proposed program of study for a career in public service, and writing and analytical skills. Priority is given to candidates who plan to enroll in a graduate program that specifically trains them for a career in public service, including government at any level, uniformed services, public interest organizations, nongovernmental research and/or educational organizations, public and private schools, and public service oriented nonprofit organizations. The fields of study may include agriculture, biology, engineering, environmental management, physical and social sciences, and technology policy, as well as such traditional fields as economics, education, government, history, international relations, law, nonprofit management, political science, public administration, public health, and public policy. Interviews are required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend graduate school in the United States or in foreign countries. Scholars are required to work in public service for 3 of the 7 years following completion of a graduate degree program funded by this program. Scholars who do not meet this service requirement, or who fail to provide timely proof to the foundation of such employment, will be required to repay funds received, along with interest.

3633 ■ MORRIS K. UDALL FOUNDATION

130 South Scott Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85701-1922
Tel: (520)670-5529
Fax: (520)670-5530
Web Site: http://www.udall.gov/scholarship
To provide financial assistance to 1) college sophomores and juniors who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy.
Title of Award: Morris K. Udall Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Economics; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Health care services; Native American studies; Natural resources; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 80 scholarships and 50 honorable mentions are awarded each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend for scholarship winners is $5,000 per year. Funds are to be used for tuition, fees, books, and room and board. Honorable mention stipends are $350. Duration: 1 year; recipients nominated as sophomores may be renominated in their junior year.
Eligibility Requirements: Each 2-year and 4-year college and university in the United States and its possessions may nominate up to 6 sophomores or juniors from either or both categories of this program: 1) students who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy, and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy. For the first category, the program seeks future leaders across a wide spectrum of environmental fields, such as policy, engineering, science, education, urban planning and renewal, business, health, justice, and economics. For the second category, the program seeks future Native American and Alaska Native leaders in public and community health care, tribal government, and public policy affecting Native American communities, including land and resource management, economic development, and education. Nominees must be U.S. citizens, nationals, or permanent residents with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an 800-word essay discussing a significant public speech, legislative act, or public policy statement by former Congressman Morris K. Udall and its impact on their field of study, interests, and career goals. Selection is based on demonstrated commitment to 1) environmental issues through substantial commitment to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, research, community service, or public service; or 2) tribal public policy or Native American health through substantial contributions to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, tribal involvement, community or public service, or research; a course of study and proposed career likely to lead to position where nominee can make significant contributions to the shaping of environmental, tribal public policy, or Native American health care issues, whether through scientific advances, public or political service, or community action; and leadership, character, desire to make a difference, and general well-roundedness. Deadline for Receipt: Faculty representatives must submit their nominations by early March of each year.

3634 ■ U.S. MARINE CORPS

Manpower and Reserve Affairs (MMEA-85)
3280 Russell Road
Quantico, VA 22134-5103
Tel: (703)784-9264
Fax: (703)784-9843
Web Site: http://www.usmc.mil
To allow selected noncommissioned Marine Corps officers to earn a bachelor's degree in selected fields by pursuing full-time college study while continuing to receive their regular pay and allowances.
Title of Award: Marine Corps Staff Noncommissioned Officers Degree Completion Program Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Finance; Management; Music; Protective services; Psychology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 Marines were selected to participate in this program. Funds Available: Noncommissioned officers selected to participate in this program receive their regular Marine Corps pay while attending a college or university on a full-time basis. Tuition, matriculation fees, and other expenses (such as books) must be paid by the recipient through personal funds, in-service Montgomery GI Bill benefits, student loans, or other non-Marine Corps means. Duration: Up to the equivalent of 2 academic years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are regular active-duty Marines, especially in the grades of staff sergeant and gunnery sergeant. Applicants must have completed at least 2 years of postsecondary study and have been accepted by an accredited degree-granting college or university in a program offered to all matriculating students; enrollment in a multiple major program designed for adults returning to school does not qualify. The program recently was limited to the following majors: accounting, business administration with an emphasis on accounting or financial management, education, environmental safety, environmental health management, hazardous material and waste control, music, occupational safety, psychology, safety education, safety management, and waste control. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Applicants must agree to extend/reenlist for a period of 4 years beyond completion of this program.

3635 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to teach in the public school system after graduating from college.
Title of Award: Red Oak Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,200 per year. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and enroll at a 4-year public college or university in Texas (or Baylor University or Texas Wesleyan University) by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.75 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Applicants for this scholarship must have declared their intention to teach grades K-12 in the public school system. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3636 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to enter the teaching profession.
Title of Award: Dr. B.J. Stamps Memorial Endowment Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year (1 at $1,000 and 1 at $500). Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and begin college or university in Texas by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.5 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Applicants for this scholarship must have declared their intention to enter the teaching profession. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3637 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to enter the teaching profession after graduating from college.
Title of Award: J.O. Webb Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and enroll at a designated university in Texas by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.5 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Preference for this scholarship is given to students planning to enter the teaching profession. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: The designated universities are University of North Texas, Sam Houston State University, West Texas A&M University, Texas Women's University, and Southwest Texas State University.

3638 ■ UTAH HIGHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE AUTHORITY

Board of Regents Building, The Gateway
60 South 400 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1284
Tel: (801)321-7294; 877-336-7378
Fax: (801)321-7299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uheaa.org/scholarships.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to undergraduate students in Utah interested in becoming elementary or secondary school teachers.
Title of Award: Terrel H. Bell Teaching Incentive Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Students at public institutions in Utah receive a waiver of tuition and fees; students at participating private institutions in the state receive a stipend of $995 per semester. Recipients must teach in Utah public schools for a period equal to the time they received assistance. If they fail to complete the degree or perform the required teaching service, they must repay all funds received with 9% interest. Duration: Up to 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be either 1) seniors at high schools in Utah or 2) teacher education students currently enrolled in a college or university in Utah who have completed 24 semester units or more. They must plan to teach in Utah public schools following graduation from college. Selection is based on high school GPA, ACT or SAT scores, ethnicity, and intended teaching field. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was formerly known as the Utah Career Teaching Scholarship Program.

3639 ■ VERMONT ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL OFFICE PROFESSIONALS

Attn: Scholarships
c/o Linda Hendrickson
Title of Award: Virginia PTA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 24 of these scholarships were awarded: the 2 named scholarships at $1,200 and 22 scholarships at $1,000. Funds Available: The stipend is either $1,000 or $1,200 (for the 2 named scholarships) per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Virginia that are PTA or PTSA members. Applicants must be planning to attend a college or university in Virginia to prepare for a career in teaching or another youth-serving profession. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program includes 2 named scholarships: M. Frieda Koontz Scholarship ($1,200) and S. John Davis Scholarship ($1,200).

3642 ■ VIRGINIA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

Attn: Fellowship Coordinator
Old Dominion University Peninsula Center
600 Butler Farm Road
Hampton, VA 23666
Tel: (757)766-5210
Fax: (757)766-5205
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vsgc.odu.edu/Menu3_1_1.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to students in Virginia planning a career as science, mathematics, or technology educators.
Title of Award: Virginia Space Grant Teacher Education Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geosciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: Approximately 10 each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) colleges and universities in a track that will qualify them to teach in a pre-college setting. Priority is given to those majoring in technology education, mathematics, or science, particularly earth, space, or environmental science. Applicants may apply while seniors in high school or sophomores in a community college, with the award contingent on their enrollment at a VSGC college and entrance into a teacher certification program. They must submit a statement of academic goals and plan of study, explaining their reasons for desiring to enter the teaching profession, specifically the fields of science, mathematics, or technology education. Students currently enrolled in a VSGC college can apply when they declare their intent to enter the teacher certification program. Students enrolled in a master of education degree program leading to teacher certification in eligible fields are also eligible to apply. Applicants must be U.S. citizens with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Since an important purpose of this program is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities, women, and persons with disabilities in science, mathematics, and technology education, the VSGC especially encourages applications from those students. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The VSGC institutions are College of William and Mary, Hampton University, Old Dominion University, the University of Virginia, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. This program is funded by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

3643 ■ IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA-MINNESOTA DIVISION

Attn: Scholarship Committee
555 Park Street, Suite 140
St. Paul, MN 55103-2110
Tel: (651)221-0215
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.minnesotaikes.org
To provide financial assistance to Minnesota residents who are studying an environmental field in college.
Title of Award: Minnesota Division Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental law; Environmental science; Wildlife conservation, management, and science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Minnesota who are in at least their second year of college. Applicants must be majoring in environmental education, environmental law, wildlife management, or some other conservation-oriented program. They must be U.S. citizens and able to demonstrate financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay on their belief in conservation and what the future holds for them (including their educational plans and career goals), a transcript, a description of their program of study, and 2 letters of recommendation. An interview may be requested. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3644 ■ WASHINGTON HIGHER EDUCATION COORDINATING BOARD

917 Lakeridge Way
P.O. Box 43430
Olympia, WA 98504-3430
Tel: (360)753-7851; 888-535-0747
Fax: (360)753-7808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hecb.wa.gov/financialaid/other/alternative.asp
To provide forgivable loans to K-12 classified employees in Washington who are interested in attending a college or university in order to become a teacher.
Title of Award: Washington Conditional Scholarships for Alternative Teaching Certification Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Elementary; Education, English as a second language; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Foreign languages; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physics; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 25 each year. Funds Available: The maximum award is $4,000 per academic year. These awards are in the form of loans that can be forgiven in exchange for teaching service. Each 2 years of eligible teaching service results in the forgiveness of 1 year of loan. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 4 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Washington residents who are currently employed as a classified instructional employee in a K-12 public school. Applicants must 1) have a transferable associate degree and be seeking residency teacher certification with endorsements in special education or English as a second language; or 2) have a bachelor's degree and subject matter expertise in a shortage area and be seeking residency teacher certification in a subject matter shortage area (currently defined as special education, English as a second language, chemistry, physics, Japanese, mathematics, and technology education). to enroll in an accredited Washington college or university and work as a teacher in a K-12 public school in the state after completing initial teacher certification. Selection is based on academic ability, a statement demonstrating commitment to the teaching profession, the applicant's ability to serve as a positive role model as a K-12 public school teacher, length and quality of contributions to the Washington K-12 public school, and recommendations from a current teacher or school official describing the applicant's potential as a future teacher. The priority in making awards is: 1) eligible renewal applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; 2) all other eligible renewable applicants; 3) eligible new applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; and 4) all other new eligible applicants. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: This program was established by the Washington legislature in 2001. It is administered by the Washington Higher Education Coordinator Board, but the Washington State Professional Educator Standards Board selects the recipients.

3645 ■ WASHINGTON STATE BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Jackie Floetke, Awards & Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 138
Wilson Creek, WA 98860
Tel: (509)345-2541
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wsbea.org/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for graduate school to members of the Washington State Business Education Association (WSBEA).
Title of Award: Dr. F. Ross Byrd Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Educational administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of WSBEA who are enrolled in graduate school with at least 1 semester or quarter remaining before graduation. Applicants must be working on an advanced degree in business education or a related field (e.g., vocational administration, business and marketing, curriculum). Along with their application, they must submit a statement of their need for this scholarship, a description of their leadership activities, information on their work experience, and a 300-word essay on why they want an advanced degree in business education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3646 ■ WASHINGTON STATE BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Jackie Floetke, Awards & Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 138
Wilson Creek, WA 98860
Tel: (509)345-2541
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wsbea.org/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Phi Beta Lambda (PBL) in Washington.
Title of Award: Doris Y. and John L. Gerber Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of PBL who are juniors or seniors majoring in business education at a college or university in Washington. Applicants must be nominated by their advisor, who must be a current member of the Washington State Business Education Association (WSBEA). Along with their application, they must submit a statement of their need for this scholarship, a description of their leadership activities, a description of their community service activities, information on their work experience, and a 300-word essay on why becoming a business educator is important to them. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year.

3647 ■ WATTS CHARITY ASSOCIATION, INC.

6245 Bristol Parkway, Suite 224
Culver City, CA 90230
Tel: (323)671-0394
Fax: (323)778-2613
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://4watts.tripod.com/id5.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division college students majoring in child development, teaching, or social services.
Title of Award: Joyce Washington Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens of African American descent who are enrolled full time as a college or university junior. Applicants must be majoring in child development, teaching, or the study of social services. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, be between 17 and 24 years of age, and be able to demonstrate that they intend to continue their education for at least 2 years. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a 1-paragraph statement on why they should be awarded a Watts Foundation scholarship, and 2) a 1- to 2-page essay on a specific type of cancer, based either on how it has impacted their life or on researched information. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Royce R. Watts, Sr. established the Watts Charity Association after he learned he had cancer in 2001.

3648 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in education at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Hedberg Public Library College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants must be majoring in education and be able to demonstrate an interest in working with children of all ages. They must be interested in an internship at the Hedberg Public Library in Janesville, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Hedberg Public Library.

3649 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to social work at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Holiday House of Manitowoc County College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; General studies/Field of study not specified; Occupational therapy; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at private colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be interested in an internship at Holiday House of Manitowoc County. Preference is given to 1) students attending Lakeland College or Silver Lake College; 2) residents of Manitowoc County attending another WFIC member institution; and 3) students majoring in education, occupational therapy, or social work. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The other WFIC schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by Holiday House of Manitowoc County, Inc. The WFIC's College-to-Work Program includes a number of other financial assistance and work experience programs aimed at eligible students interested in majoring in fields related to social work, including the Lutheran Social Services College-to-Work Program, Manitowoc County Domestic Violence Center College-to- Work Program, and YWCA of Rock County College-to-Work Program.

3650 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to technology at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Jefferson County Literacy Council College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Education; General studies/Field of study not specified; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants may be studying any field, but preference is given to majors in computer technology, education, marketing, sales, or website design. They must be interested in an internship at the Jefferson County Literacy Council in Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Jefferson County Literacy Council.

3651 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to history at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Milton Historical Society College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: African-American studies; Education; History, American; Museum science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Preference is given to students majoring in African American studies, American history, museum science, or history education. Applicants must be interested in an internship at the Milton Historical Society in Milton, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Milton Historical Society.

3652 ■ WISCONSIN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL AIDS BOARD

131 West Wilson Street, Room 902
P.O. Box 7885
Madison, WI 53707-7885
Tel: (608)267-2212
Fax: (608)267-2808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://heab.state.wi.us/programs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to minorities in Wisconsin who are interested in teaching in Wisconsin school districts with large minority enrollments.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Minority Teacher Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Scholarship/loans are provided up to $2,500 per year. For each year the student teaches in an eligible school district, 25% of the loan is forgiven; if the student does not teach in an eligible district, the loan must be repaid at an interest rate of 5%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and American Indians in Wisconsin are eligible to apply if they are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors in an independent or public institution in the state. The program also includes students who were admitted to the United States after December 31, 1975 and who are a former citizen of Laos, Vietnam, or Cambodia or whose ancestor was a citizen of 1 of those countries. Applicants must be enrolled in a program leading to teaching licensure and must agree to teach in a Wisconsin school district in which minority students constitute at least 29% of total enrollment or in a school district participating in the inter-district pupil transfer program. Deadline for Receipt: Deadline dates vary by institution; check with your school's financial aid office. Additional Information: Eligible students should apply through their school's financial aid office.

3653 ■ WISCONSIN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL AIDS BOARD

131 West Wilson Street, Room 902
P.O. Box 7885
Madison, WI 53707-7885
Tel: (608)266-1665
Fax: (608)267-2808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://heab.state.wi.us/programs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to residents of Wisconsin who are interested in teaching the visually impaired at a school in the state.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Teacher of the Visually Impaired Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Scholarship/loans are provided up to $10,000 per year, or a lifetime maximum of $40,000. For each of the first 2 years the student teaches and meets the eligibility criteria, 25% of the loan is forgiven; for the third year, 50% of the loan is forgiven. If the student does not teach and meet the eligibility criteria, the loan must be repaid at an interest rate of 5%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Wisconsin who are enrolled at least half time at an in-state or eligible out-of-state institution in a program that prepares them to be licensed as teachers of the visually impaired or as orientation and mobility instructors. Applicants must agree to be a licensed teacher or an orientation and mobility instructor in a Wisconsin school district, the Wisconsin Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, or a cooperative educational service agency. Financial need is considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: Deadline dates vary by institution; check with your school's financial aid office. Additional Information: Eligible students should apply through their school's financial aid office.

3654 ■ WORLD WIDE BARACA PHILATHEA UNION

610 South Harlem Avenue
Freeport, IL 61032-4833
To provide financial assistance to students preparing for Christian ministry, Christian missionary work, or Christian education.
Title of Award: World Wide Baraca Philathea Union Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Funds Available: Stipends are paid directly to the recipient's school upon receipt of the first semester transcript and a letter confirming attendance. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply for this support are students enrolled in an accredited college or seminary who are majoring in Christian ministry, Christian missionary work, or Christian education (e.g., church youth pastor, writer of Sunday school curriculum). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

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Education

I. The Study of Educational SystemsBurton R. Clark

BIBLIOGRAPHY

II. Education and SocietyC. Arnold Anderson

BIBLIOGRAPHY

III. Educational OrganizationA. H. Halsey

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The articles under this heading are for the most part devoted to discussions of education as an institutionalized form of socialization to adult roles. The articles underSocializationdescribe other and broader aspects of this concept. Education as an occupation is described inTeaching. Particular institutions that have an educational function are described inAdult Education; Communication, mass; Religious Organization; Universities; Voluntary Associations. The economic aspects of education are discussed inCapital, Human; the psychological aspects inAchievement Testing; Educational Psychology; Intellectual Development; Intelligence and intelligence testing; Learning. Other relevant material may be found inEquality; Leisure; Occupations and czareers; Professions; and the biographies ofDewey; Durkheim; Mannheim; Montessori; Veblen; Waller; Weber, Max.

I THE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

Instruction is a basic activity of mankind. Men inform one another, conveying belief, knowledge, and skill, as they raise a family, earn a living, govern a polity, minister a church, nurse the ill, encounter friends, or communicate through a mass medium. All social systems, large or small, contain occasions for learning and participate to some degree in transmitting culture and in socializing the individual. But the degree of educational involvement is often minor, since many systems of regular transaction leave instruction undifferentiated and incidental and are not characterized by their educational effort. Some webs of human relations, however, are designed to instruct: they raise instruction to purpose; they possess roles of teacher and learner; they receive social definitions—school, college, education—that signify their emphasis. They are set apart in society precisely to differentiate instruction from other activities and make it a form of adult work. When educational activities are thus concentrated, we call them educational systems.

The study of education, while prepared to pursue instruction in its weaker expressions, focuses on these units that constitute a distinctive sector. What transpires within the school and college to determine human behavior and the relations of men? What activities besides instruction emerge to characterize the educational enterprise? How are educational systems shaped by, and how do they in turn affect, the structures of society that allocate resources, exercise power, and provide social order?

Education fascinates the citizen and the scholar alike in the modern era, as it grows in importance but retreats from the view of the amateur. New and expanding economic, political, and social functions pull education into the mainstream of society. At the same time, growing size, deepening complexity, and ever greater specialization mask the processes of education—in the recesses of the city school district, the privacy of the boarding school, the esoteric divisions of the giant university, the educational subsystems of religious, industrial, and military establishments. Rapid change undermines the understanding of education that everyone possesses from the remembrance of things past. Caring more but knowing less, practical men support systematic study of education in the hope it will inform the conventional wisdom and advise educational policy. Aware that political, economic, social, and psychological theory must comprehend the educational domain, social scientists have turned a forgotten realm into a field of special interest. As they point out, a major social institution that touches the lives of all and incorporates a fifth or fourth or third of the population at one time is overlooked only at considerable peril to social practice and social theory.

Among the attending social sciences, sociology casts a wide net in its pursuit of educational behavior. The sociology of education is partly a holding company for men who study particular social forms and processes and happen to have followed their interests into the educational domain. Students of small-group behavior, childhood and adolescence, deviancy, stratification, occupations, science, law, formal organizations, and leadership are found wandering in schools and colleges in search of findings that would develop a perspective, suggest a concept, or warrant a generalization. The ties of the sociology of education to general sociology are thus many and intimate, defined and redefined by the shifting interests and locales of sociological research. This research field is also, however, a search for unique features of social structure that characterize educational systems. Every major social institution has dynamics of its own, special social functions, and particular problems of performance. When society locates so much cultural transmission and socialization in a separate major institution, the distinctive social qualities of that institution will have significant consequence for the rest of society. The need for social research here is that of clarifying the major implications of concentrating instruction in administered settings, where it becomes the business and vested interest of a segment of the population.

Dividing along lines of social structure, there are four broad sectors of sociological approach: the connection of education to the rest of society; the character of education as a- broad institution composed of many organizations and practitioners; the internal life of the school or college; and the systems of organized instruction that arise in major institutions other than education itself.

education and society

Education, economy, and politics

As a society undergoes industrialization and modernization, its instruction of the young becomes extensively differentiated, internally complex, and elaborately connected with other features of society. Education becomes more necessary for the economy and linked closely to it as a major mediator between manpower demand and labor supply. Occupational competence, general and specific, is increasingly certified by schooling, and achievement is thereby prefigured, as labor shifts from manual to mental and from low to high degree of skill. In the aggregate, those who leave school early are designated for unskilled work, and those who remain on the educational escalator are carried to the jobs for which their general education and specialized vocational training have earmarked them. Higher education is also deeply involved in technological advance, as a location for scientific work and as the enterprise that trains the modern researcher and technologist. Thus, education becomes a way of investing in human capital across many levels of skill.

If brain workers are the economic need of societies in advanced industrialism, governmental as well as industrial leaders must become interested in the agencies that attempt systematically to develop mental capacities. The relation of education to government becomes extensive as public officials scrutinize schools and colleges for labor-force effectiveness and worry about the costs and benefits of different programs for training educated labor. The relation of education to the main stream of politics grows as mass education creates new publics— some active, some passive—that attract the politician and the political party to issues of what the government is and should be doing in education.

Mass education also deepens the role of the school in political socialization. In the past, the central political contribution of the schools has been the training of a small governmental elite, as in the case of the Victorian public school in England (Wilkinson 1964). In modern society, education becomes a prime source of differences in political perspectives across large populations. The more highly educated are more aware of the impact of government and are more likely to consider themselves free to engage in political discussions and competent to influence governmental affairs; they “possess the keys to political participation and involvement” (Almond & Verba 1963, p. 318). Among the settings that shape belief, the school is also preeminently within the reach of political control, tempting new governments or revolutionary regimes to use it as an instrument for legitimating particular forms of government and reform. Strong pressures exist to move education from elite to mass indoctrination.

Thus, education increasingly becomes a branch of political economy. The sociology of education here converges with the growing body of inquiry into the economics and politics of education and with the interests of political scientists and political sociologists in governance and political socialization.

Social stratification and mobility

As education connects more closely to the economy and the political order, the role of education in assigning status to individuals and groups also sharpens and intensifies. The paths of social mobility run through the school; the system divides the young and assigns them to adult statuses by means of years of schooling and specific occupational preparation. Thus, the equality of educational provision and access, across divisions of class, ethnicity, and race, becomes a critical social and educational problem. Does the educational system function primarily as an institution of social inheritance, stabilizing social position across generations, or as an institution of social mobility, appointing sons to statuses different from their fathers’? Whatever else education in advanced industrial societies is about, it is about equality.

Massive inequality is generated in modern society when there is considerable difference in the quantity and quality of schooling between rural and urban areas, among regions of a country, and among the neighborhoods and suburbs of the metropolis. Where schooling is of slight consequence to the fate of the masses, such patterned differences matter little. But as schooling becomes the precursor of adult status, the demand to equalize educational provision is heightened. In the United States, where social and educational doctrines have emphasized equal opportunity, the comprehensive school was for some time considered an assurance of equal treatment. But the pulling apart of the classes and the races in the major metropolitan areas, often into separate educational districts, has turned the public schools into agencies that are unequally equipped. Extensive regional differences have also been revealed, especially in the education of the Negro minority. With this, equality becomes a political and administrative issue of planning across larger sectors of population to equalize school resources, personnel, and climates of learning.

Personal aspiration and the capacity to use education—or be processed by it—also varies greatly by the class- and ethnic-linked characteristics of the home, the age group, the neighborhood, and the state or region of country. These shaping environments of youth, external to the school, are ascribed rather than achieved. When these early and systematic inequalities of background are put alongside the growing importance of education in adult status, they appear unfair, and their reduction becomes a matter of social justice. Certain social settings of child rearing—the slums—are deemed educationally incompetent, giving the child so little educational capacity and drive that he appears culturally stunted and destined to be shunted to the depths of the lower class (Work Conference … 1963). Democratic doctrine and the politics of democracy then urge that the educational domain be extended into earlier years of life, so that formal agents of care and instruction may blunt and overcome the educationally negative effects of family and neighborhood. The extending and deepening connections of education to the economy and social status thus move educational institutions into a deeper encroachment upon the domains of socialization that in early society were monopolized by family, church, and community.

Modern research (e.g., Halsey et al. 1961) suggests the existence of deep and systematic differences in educability that are a product of the early preschool and extraschool environments. A society’s pool of ability is socially as well as biologically defined; “talent” is a function of social strata, educational provision, and the interaction between the two.

Education and culture

Education’s broadest function has been to act as caretaker and dispenser of certain cultural resources of society. The raising of the culturally unformed—the child and the immigrant—to the state of capable adult is the activity on which the formal institution of education was founded. Formal education is therefore an effort to do explicitly and systematically what family and community had long accomplished in an undifferentiated fashion before society became so complex that the task had to be performed by specialists.

Of all the relations of education to society, the primordial function of cultural transmission is the one most seriously disturbed by modern social forces. There is some slippage of this function to other institutions: thus, educational subsystems emerge and develop extensively in the institutions of adult work. Moreover, there is a growing amount of unsystematic cultural indoctrination through the mass media—television, radio, movies, records— where instruction is combined with entertainment and commerce. The media blend, competing with the school and affecting its performance, is new in its near-universal coverage. The child tunes in daily to central molders of taste and transmitters of lore; a significant part of traditional and emergent culture is surely now communicated through these new channels. The problem for research is to ascertain what part of the imagery and knowledge of youth is transmitted in these extraeducational ways, what alterations in the emphases of the core culture are made, and how the work of the school and college is affected. The possibility exists that the very form of new means of communication, particularly the visual sensing of television, affects the relation of the person to the environment (McLuhan 1964).

The transmission of culture also becomes segmental in the upper levels of the educational system, as formal instruction is both extended and differentiated to prepare men for an elaborating structure of skilled occupations. Men must be differentially socialized to the spreading variety of adult statuses. The professional school is a purveyor of specialized culture, and even the disciplines of the liberal arts grow less liberal in modern times as academic men respond to proliferating knowledge by developing expertise in a narrow segment. These tendencies weaken rather than strengthen understanding among educated men, as experts discourse in esoteric languages and gaze down the tunnels of special perspectives.

But the relation of education to culture is perhaps most changed, not by alterations in the transmitting of a heritage, but by expansion in the creating of knowledge. This historically minor role evolves toward dominance in higher education as nations increase their commitment to research. The involvement of the university, as locus of research and trainer of the researcher, makes education an active, intrusive force in culture as well as social and political affairs. The university has helped to instigate and propel the explosion in knowledge and the ascendance of science that characterize technological societies. This dynamic relation constitutes part of the awesomeness of the educational enterprise in modern times.

Social change and social integration

The greater the scope of the educational institution, the more complex is its relation to social order. Schools and colleges, as noted above, increasingly undertake broad functions for the mass of the population that were formerly fulfilled by family, community, and church. The educational system, when socially effective, becomes a device for orderly change across generations in the class and elite location of individuals and groups. But the system may weaken the integration of society through lack of articulation or incapacity to adapt. Articulation is partly a problem of how well educational output matches occupational demand. An oversupply of men educated in public administration and law, or other-wise prepared to seize coveted posts in the civil service, is a source of a discontented and restless intelligentsia in industrializing societies that are at the same time short of scientists and engineers. A vast supply of men trained below a general threshold of functional literacy offers the possibility in advanced industrial societies of a mass of unskilled workers ill-fitted for the job-upgrading and retraining that spreads throughout the modern economy.

Adaptation is partly a problem of how the major training institution confronts rapid social change. Mannheim (1950, p. 248) maintained that the school of the past was “a training ground for imitative adjustment to an established society,” while the modern school is (or ought to be) “an introduction into an already dynamic society.” To face only tradition is potentially malintegrative; new knowledge must be brought into the curriculum, and the new and the old made coherent. Estimates must be made of behavior appropriate to an unknown future, increasing the pressure to educate for “adaptability.” But this is to risk loss of age-old values, cultural discontinuity, and crisis in personal identity. Flexibility, a training ideal suggested by rapid change, may cause confusion and lend a hand to chaos. Social integration, in its instructional bases, depends in part on the capacity of the school to blend adaptive flexibility with stable imitation of the past, working to avoid both atomized individualism and cultural orthodoxy.

Since education faces many forces in complex societies, its adaptation in one direction may generate serious strain in another. The close link to the economy in advanced industrial societies turns education into a talent farm, a massive “people-processing” enterprise preparing manpower to the specifications of occupational demand and govern-mental blueprint. Such an. enterprise is also characteristically large in scale and highly specialized in internal operation. One outcome of massive processing is a callous relation between those who administer and teach and those who occupy the chairs of the student. The processing hardly bothers the student with only vocational objectives in mind, but it seriously disturbs intellectual interests of faculty and students. Idealistic youth, concerned about personal identity and social justice in the mass society, sees itself poorly served by instructional systems that are hooked to the requirements of technological advance. Thus, as education becomes “Establishment,” it contributes to modern intellectual discontent and alienation.

When the educational system is hypnotized with occupational demand, it will also overlook the requirements of a man when he is off the job. Clearly, education must learn to contribute substantially to the use of free time. Yet the orientation to duty and the tight schedules of schools that prepare the young for bureaucratized work are antithetical to the sensibilities appropriate for leisure. Fixation on utilitarian study also renders art a frill in the curriculum, reducing the aesthetic experience of the young and leaving it to other institutions to sustain the arts in society.

In the short span of a generation or two an educational system may even prove critical to the identity and integration of a nation. In the rapid change characteristic of the last half of the twentieth century, new nations and traditional societies struggle to bring their populations to modernity. One example is Israel, where mass immigration focuses national energies on assimilation of traditional folk. By 1960 Israel was a secular, Western-type democracy, with an economy rooted in science and technology. But over a half of the country’s large wave of immigrants in the 1950s were Afro-Asian Jews, illiterate and poor and Eastern in terms of values. In such circumstances, the socialization that takes place in the immigrant family threatens rather than supports national integration. The youth of the traditional families must be captured by such arms of the state as the school and the army, rapidly weaned from tradition, and transformed into modern citizens and workers; or else when the children of today come to adulthood and the ballot, there may be two nations or a nation with a different identity. [SeeRefugees, article Onadjustment and assimilation.]

Many other nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, some newly formed as well as undergoing rapid modernization, find the educational system playing a critical role in nationhood and national change. The educational system strains to provide the trained men for the expanding upper sectors of a rapidly changing structure of occupations, particularly the men who can plan and lead modern government and industry. The teachers and graduates of the system, far ahead of the masses in capacity to understand the modern polity, challenge traditional ruling elites, by means ranging from the barricades of the street demonstration to the desks of the civil servant. Critical problems of national identity sometimes center on the capacity of the schools to promote a national language in a multilingual new society; for example, there has been an attempt in Malaya, peopled by Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Europeans, to make Malay the unifying language of the nation. Whatever else education in the modernizing society is about, it is about national integration and modern competence. Here the sociology of education becomes preeminently a part of the sociology of national development [see, for example, Foster 1965; Coleman 1965; see alsoLinguistics, article onthe speech community; modernization].

Finally, education has become a peculiarly creative force in society. Its laboratories may serve industry and government, but its scholars and scientists also create the knowledge that opens new vistas and undermines existing economic and political structures. Its teachings may prepare the compliant worker, but its teachers also create attitudes critical of established ways and acquaint the young with ideals and institutions of freedom. Complex systems of prolonged education lead toward change as well as stability, critical thought as well as un-thinking imitation, discontinuity and eruption as well as continuity and slow evolution. The tendencies are plural, leaving the outcome open to the play of values, the effectiveness of group action, and the exercise of political power.

The major educational institution

The major educational institution of a society has a division of labor, a structure of control, and a work force. Important social phenomena in their own right, these components of the system at large affect the educational process and its impact on the individual and society. The institutional features in part reflect the larger society, but they also have dynamics of their own and consequences not planned by political leaders and administrative staffs. Several issues involved in the division of labor and the structure of control will be reviewed here.

As education is extended to a larger share of the population, lengthened to occupy more years in the life cycle, and linked more closely to the allocation of occupation and status, the tasks of education are diversified. More educational sectors form around permutations of program, personnel, and clientele, intensifying problems of division of labor and control. In societies characterized by central control of educational policy, national governmental authorities attempt systematically to allocate tasks to sectors and to standardize programs and requirements of entry and exit within those major segments. In decentralized educational structures, tasks may be defined and seized by private initiative and dispersed public authorities, resulting in greater variation in the wares that schools offer parents and students.

Centralization of educational control in a national ministry, or, at a lower level, in a regional or state department, serves certain ends and presents certain institutional problems, while decentralization serves other ends and leads to problems of a different order. Centralization serves integration, orderly procedure, the uniform application of standards, and innovation from the top. It allows for redistribution of resources across a large system to reduce the disparity among local educational settings, between the poor and the rich and the backward and the advanced. The problems posed by central control are ones of bureaucratic rigidity, massive error, and the lessening of initiative in the provinces; such an establishment may not have the foresight, sensibility, and planning capacity to make the myriad adjustments required of a diversified institution in a rapidly changing society.

Decentralization serves local adaptation to the diverse values of plural societies and the tailoring of school interests to specific group interests, for example, the preparation of Philadelphia gentlemen, the maintenance of Lutheranism, the acculturation of a minority. It allows for grass-roots initiative. The problems posed by decentralized control are ones of local initiative becoming subservient to local status quo and of piecemeal response to needs and interests that extend across society. A locally adaptive system becomes a case of institutional drift as authority moves upward in other institutions: for example, as national corporations, unions, and regulatory agencies come to dominate the economy and as the work of education comes to relate closely to the national economy and such concerns as the technology of national advance and protection. The perceived costs of drift and the natural insensitivity of local authority to national problems promote efforts to centralize control or to construct national mechanisms for influencing the scattered authorities who retain formal control.

The modern state needs to order the educational division of labor. Where a national bureaucratic machinery is weak or lacking, the effort to coordi-nate the division of labor will encourage the strengthening of that machinery and also the growth of an ancillary structure, composed of voluntary associations, interorganization compacts, study committees, accrediting bodies, and testing organizations, that helps to knit together separate public and private authorities. The ancillary groups, lacking command, operate primarily through the persuasion of money, prestige, and competitive advantage of large organization over solitary effort. At the same time, the modern state also needs to support research, to diversify its advanced education, and to develop sectors of creative adjustment to rapid change that cannot be anticipated in all its complexity in the central office. Where decentralization or federalism is lacking, the effort to diversify and provide for widespread initiative will encourage the proliferation of centers of influence within the system and result in a loosening of the tight integration of the traditional structure.

Thus, decentralized educational structures are under pressure to change the internal division of labor and control toward national order, through ancillary organization as well as stronger national bureaucracy. On the other hand, centralized educational systems are under pressure to loosen the traditional bureaucracy in order to admit new forms of secondary and higher education and to exploit the role of education in research and innovation. The strain toward coordinated order and the strain toward individual and organizational autonomy are fundamental conflicting tendencies inherent in education in advanced industrial societies. With different cultural traditions and different structures of political power, societies will pursue somewhat different resolutions of this basic conflict. But we may also expect some convergence among nations to occur on a model of the educational system that weds central direction to extensive consultation and persuasion and that places preparation for unguided change on a par with direct implementation of national policy.

The educational organization

The school or college is a formal social system with external relations and internal patterns that condition the educational process (Bidwell 1965). The individual agency has a particular part to play in the educational division of labor, and its place in the institutional web affects the status of the organization and its members. A school is judged externally by public perception of how its main tasks connect with the general status system of society. “Vocational” secondary schools that lead to low-status occupations, compared to “academic” secondary schools leading to high-status occupations, everywhere labor under a stigma that affects the recruitment and morale of teachers and the self-conception and ambition of students. It is virtually an iron law of school status that a parity of esteem cannot be achieved by schools performing different educational and social tasks (Banks 1955). In systems of specialized secondary schools, for example, the tripartite English structure, the difficulties of school esteem turn some educators and laymen toward the more comprehensive forms of school organization, grouping curricular streams within a common school in order to avoid the status degradation of a good share of the teachers and the students. As schools and colleges grow in number and variety, the status of one among the others is increasingly affected by a contest composed of the effort of favored organizations to protect and proclaim their acknowledged superiority, the attempts of consuming publics to discriminate and label, and the maneuvers of some reformers, administrators, and the less-favored teachers to screen the division of work from the public assessments that define status inequalities (Clark 1960).

In the internal structure of the educational organization, the growing scale and proliferation of work activities induce a differentiation of roles. Administration becomes separated from teaching; because of the need for coordination, a hierarchy of administrative levels comes into being. Teaching itself becomes more specialized as knowledge proliferates. The magnitude of the task of advising and channeling students produces the nonteaching counselor. As the role structure of the school becomes more complicated, there is a bureaucratization of relations, with responsibilities and jurisdictions formally circumscribed and rules formally elaborated to preform decisions for maximum fairness and dependability. As written records shadow the student and experts assess him and assign him to treatments, the formal apparatus takes on such weight that it is able to compete with the home and neighborhood in determining the future of the young. Parental and student orientations must interact with the increasingly more systematized means of achievement. The orientations are sometimes defined, sometimes redefined, and always processed by the everyday activities of a bureaucracy (Cicourel & Kitsuse 1963).

The weight of bureaucracy varies among schools and colleges, however, depending on the exercise of other forms of influence, particularly the collegial authority of faculties, and on the informal counterpressures of faculty and student subcultures. The importance of bureaucracy also depends on whether the large school or college is a unitary organization or a federation of quasi-independent clusters of faculty and students. Indeed, organizational structure may possibly have strong and lasting effects on individual character. Personal identity is hard to establish in the modern fast-changing world, and the campus is one of the critical locales of identity formation. If identity is dependent on personal relations, then the decline in community typical of the large mass campus will disturb and weaken identity processes. Growing impersonality in schools and colleges apparently has greater social consequence than impersonality in nearly all other types of organizations. The effort of some educational reformers to structure large campuses as federations of small states is a response to this growing belief. On this apparently critical issue, the sociological imagination is still largely imprisoned by cliches and uninformed by research.

Education in other institutions

The immense appetite of modern society for systematic instruction extends educational work throughout society. Substantial educational sub-systems develop within the military, industry, and the church to instill specific skill, knowledge, or perspective not provided in the regular line of schools and colleges. This development is particularly powered by rapid change in work skills and the complex demands of modern organization. A modern business firm takes care of its competence by systematic training of personnel, from top management to the rank and file. Men alternate between production and instruction, with blocs of hours or weeks or months given over to the classroom within or outside the firm. The modern military establishment is a vast educational enterprise: its competence depends on the capacity to transform raw recruits into technicians and to create an officers’ corps in which the manager and the technologist assume places alongside the fighting commander of old. Military careers increasingly depend on effective performance in the schools that train officers to successively higher levels of complex skill and thought.

New nations also find the military a primary educational workshop. In Israel, the army plays an important role alongside the schools in the acculturation of immigrants: young men learn Hebrew, their own history and geography, the modern-style discipline of working with others, and new work skills. In most modernizing societies, military officers are among the best educated groups, gaining particular competence in engineering and administration. Combining modern expertise with access to means of power, they play a critical role in the politics of national development.

Religious organizations, long educational in their formal and quasi-formal indoctrination of the flock, plunge further into organized instruction as they turn the church basement into community center and the church official into social worker and adult educator, broadening activities to maintain a central place in secularizing societies. In the United States of the 1960s, more persons participate in the adult classes of churches and synagogues than in those offered by colleges and universities, particularly in the South. The established churches capture educational audiences more effectively than the educational courses of television (Johnstone & Rivera 1965, pp. 10 ff., 53–55, 111). When to the formal classes we add the deliberate socialization performed from the pulpit, it is clear that a broad definition of education would have to include much investigation of the church as an instructional medium.

Similar trends obtain in the public bureau, the union, and the professional association. Institutions of adult work and pleasure find it to their self-interest to encourage the emergence of an educational subsystem and thus to spread formal education throughout society. Thus, for an ever larger share of the population, formal education is the main means to cultural as well as occupational qualification. Knowledge is a prime ingredient of the society based on science, technology, and expertise, and the primacy of knowledge is the primacy of education. In the face of large dangers and uncertainty, a learning society offers the opportunity that very large numbers of men may partici-pate effectively in a complex culture and in the social and political affairs of a complex society. In this possibility lies the educational promise of modern man.

Burton R. Clark

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Almond, Gabriel A.; and Versa, Sidney 1963 The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton Univ. Press.

Banks, Olive 1955 Parity and Prestige in English Secondary Education: A Study in Educational Sociology. London: Routledge; New York: Humanities.

Becker, Howard S. et al. 1961 Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Bidwell, Charles E. 1965 The School as a Formal Organization. Pages 972–1022 in James G. March (editor), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Charters, W. W. JR. 1963 The Social Background of Teaching. Pages 715–813 in Nathaniel L. Gage (editor), Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Cicourel, Aaron V.; and Kitsuse, John I. 1963 The Educational Decision-makers. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. → An analysis of the confounding of educational guidance by psychological assumptions and social bias.

Clark, Burton R. 1960 The Open Door College: A Case Study. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Clark, Burton R. 1964 Sociology of Education. Pages 734–769 in Robert E. L. Paris (editor), Handbook of Modern Sociology. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Goleman, James S. 1961 The Adolescent Society: The Social Life of the Teenager and Its Impact on Education. New York: Free Press.

Coleman, James S. (editor) 1965 Education and Political Development. Princeton Univ. Press.

Durkheim, Émile (1902–1911) 1956 Education and Sociology. Glencoe, III.: Free Press. → Contains four articles first published in French.

Foster, Philip J. 1965 Education and Social Change in Ghana. London: Routledge; Univ. of Chicago Press.

Fraser, W. R. 1963 Education and Society in Modern France. New York: Humanities; London: Routledge.

Gross, Neal; Mason, Ward S.; and Mceachern, Alexander W. 1958 Explorations in Role Analysis: Studies of the School Superintendency Role. New York: Wiley.

Halsey, A. H.; Floud, Jean; and Anderson, C. Arnold (editors) 1961 Education, Economy, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Education. New York: Free Press.

Johnstone, John W. C.; and Rivera, Ramon J. 1965 Volunteers for Learning: A Study of the Educational Pursuits of American Adults. Chicago: Aldine.

Mcluhan, Marshall 1964 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill. → A paperback edition was published in 1965.

Mannheim, Karl 1950 Freedom, Power, and Democratic Planning. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. → Published posthumously.

Veblen, Thorstein (1918) 1957 The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Business Men. New York: Sagamore.

Waller, Willard W. (1932) 1961 The Sociology of Teaching. New York: Russell.

Weber, Max (1906–1924) 1946 From Max Weber: Es-says in Sociology. Translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. → See especially pages 129–156, 240–244, and 426–434.

Wilkinson, Rupert 1964 Gentlemanly Power: British Leadership and the Public School Tradition; A Comparative Study in the Making of Rulers. Oxford Univ. Press. → Also published as The Prefects: British Leadership….

Wilson, Logan (1942) 1964 The Academic Man: A Study in the Sociology of a Profession. New York: Octagon Books.

Work Conference on Curriculum and Teaching in Depressed Urban Areas, 1962 1963 Education in Depressed Areas. Edited by A. H. Passow. New York: Columbia Univ., Teachers College, Bureau of Publications.

II EDUCATION AND SOCIETY

Education can be viewed as including all communicating of knowledge and shaping of values; in this sense it is synonymous with socialization. During most of human history deliberate instruction has been incidental and sporadic, and even in the most complex societies much instruction, in the broader sense of the term, devolves upon agencies other than schools. In this article, however, the focus is mainly upon formalized education as carried out by distinctive institutions, especially schools. The aim of formal education is to prepare the child for the transition from the confined but diffuse relationships of the family to the more impersonal and diversified relationships of the larger society. In its core sense, education rests on tutelage of child by adult; only in the complex societies is instruction often given by one adult to another. There are multiple explanations for the appearance of schools, and these same causes continue to generate new sorts and levels of schools as societies become more complex.

Rise of formal education

In many preliterate tribes an age group undergoes tuition in adult skills, and particularly in cult rituals and in religious beliefs and symbolisms, under the care of a specially designated adult. Ideological and ritual components appear in every example of formal education, although they become less definite and presumably less effective as schools are given more diversified and preponderantly secular responsibilities. Occasionally we observe a ruling group attempting to convert youth to beliefs not shared by most parents; typically, however, schools are expected to create consensus among a numerous citizenry around certain unifying themes.

A second source of formal schooling lies in the necessity that some youths acquire proficiency in a set of skills that may not only differ from those of the parents but may also be too complicated for the parents to teach. Until a late stage in the technological development of a society most individuals learn their livelihood skills as a by-product of growing up. The first deviation from that pattern is exemplified by apprenticeship under a master in a different household; the youth’s parents may teach the same craft, but the required impersonality of instruction encourages shifting the responsibility to another family. In many societies schools are set up to teach bookkeeping and correspondence arts to children of traders and artisans; this type of instruction is sometimes given in elementary schools, but wherever vocational training is organized in special schools, it normally occurs in a second or third level of school that builds upon the basic education of a “common” school. In most societies schools contribute little of the specialized training for manual occupations but function rather to prepare the child for later training in both manual and nonmanual skills on the job.

Although various sorts of extra-school and informal education are common to all societies, the full development of instruction occurs only after the appearance of writing. The adoption of writing adds a new dimension to the life of a society: a sense of the past, sometimes also anticipation of the future, and new agencies for coordinating the activities of scattered and heterogeneous groups. Writing may become the monopoly of a priesthood and its secular use be confined mainly to officials, or it may become widely used. Within a priesthood diversified and graded schools may develop; likewise, instruction and the certifying of competence may become highly elaborated among officials.

It has been pointed out that clocks came into use in order to give precision to the temporal coordination of activities extending beyond direct observation and the range of the voice. Likewise, literacy became diffused as it proved useful to coordinate activities over space as well as time. A society is defined by the area within which interchange is frequent and over which men are responsive to influences from shared focal centers; crystallization and preservation of this unity come to depend progressively upon formal training in basic literacy skills and in the unifying themes of the culture. However, deliberate efforts by ruling groups to spread literacy widely were rare until modern times —although schools were widespread some centuries ago in China and also in less elaborate form in India and parts of the Islamic world. Common schools were established usually in an effort to en-sure unity of sacred or secular ideology throughout a population; more direct economic and political considerations have become important only in modern times.

Even in societies with a relatively simple technology, schooling beyond simple literacy is fostered by the need to keep records and chronicles and conduct correspondence, and by the desire to read holy books. As shown by the initiative displayed among craftsmen and traders, ability to keep simple accounts and to handle transactions in distant markets provides another incentive. As trading and other contacts proliferate, the services of the occasional scribe prove inadequate. The advantages of literacy become important to more and more of the populace as ordinary men acquire the capacity and the right to choose among alternative ways of life. Useful books are published as well as uplifting ones, along with tales about the enlarging world and melodramas of social life. The exhilaration of widening experience through symbols of what is not immediately present in time or space should not be underestimated.

Schooling, unlike less formal training and apprenticeship, does not include participation in adult activities; instead, school subjects and adult life are mediated through the teacher, who becomes one of the key specialists in society, alongside the warrior, priest, trader, official, and master craftsman. In societies in which literacy is not widely diffused, such as Europe in the early medieval period, book learning takes on the character of a special apprenticeship for entry into an intellectual elite. Unless they happen to be born into this elite, students in such societies will not ordinarily meet with adults outside the schools who make use of school learning in their daily life, for this is a feature only of societies in which the printed word is both widely available and commonly understood. But even in highly literate societies the student’s opportunities for observing the uses of learning are severely limited. One reason for this is the increasing length of the period of compulsory education. The school pupil vicariously anticipates adult activities, but his perception of them is filtered through the teacher and the school environment. As the school years pass he will increasingly anticipate his own social future and come to perceive the relevance of his lessons. However, only if the education is vivid and learning meaningful will he incorporate his school experiences into his conception of himself so that learning becomes a development of self rather than authoritarian drill. In varying degrees, schooling enables the pupil to acquire skills that facilitate joint activities and that enable him to participate imaginatively in the lives of other people (including men who are dead or not yet living), to relate himself to activities not embraced in the life of his kin group, and to conceptualize social entities, such as the nation.

At all levels the lessons of the schoolroom are surrounded by moral and value judgments, regardless of curriculum. One of the most significant tendencies is for the formalized pattern of school lessons themselves to become instruments of moral teaching through the discipline or mastery of a subject that is “outside” the pupil. There are right ways to solve a problem; there is a correct spelling; an essay is ordered or disjointed. This morality characterizes the growing number of specialties and professions whose members have been subjected to the discipline of impersonal assessment of achievement. Direct moral instruction that is not linked to cognitive achievement is less likely to succeed.

As societies become larger and more complex, literacy must become more widely dispersed and more firmly inculcated, for the organization of virtually all aspects of national life depends upon it. A growing proportion of youths need an extended basic schooling in the common language of political, economic, and social intercourse; only with this will they be able to undertake the further specialized training made necessary by the increasing diversification of adult roles. Schooling is at once a homogenizing and differentiating process. Also, as social change accelerates and acquiescence in or commitment to change spreads, the adaptive or tradition-conserving function of schools is replaced in part by the support and creation of change. The growing complexity of society and the associated expansion and elaboration of the school system are reflected in an alteration and multiplication of procedures relating to selection of pupils for retention in higher schools and for their allocation among types of schools and curricula. The roles of teachers are first differentiated from other vocations and then internally divided in myriad ways.

Schools and society

Individuation and socialization: this duality runs through the history of education. Educational participation gives people things in common, but it also sets them apart into special worlds of discourse and of activity. Schools are expected to give youth the common skills that are simple and universal, as well as to identify those few individuals who can excel, rise to eminence in learning, and rule their fellows. Shared arts of communication and consensus on cherished values are prime aims of schools everywhere, but teachers are relied upon also to nourish the talented and indulge the privileged. How large a part schools play in homogenization and differentiation (and in what patterns) is at once a reflection of and a factor in the scale of the society and its realized or perceived need for integration. It depends also upon whether the society is elitist or democratic in orientation.

In premodern societies, where each community or district has its own dialect, costume, and even units of measure, schools may be nonexistent and unnecessary as agencies of social integration. however, the unifying of societies and nations has required the virtual obliteration of provincial cultures and the imposition of common expectations and practices to override local customs. Historically, the most frequent function of schools in this process has been the cultural homogenization of an elite. However, the molding of a linguistically and ideo-logically unified elite has reinforced status distinctions and thus has also been divisive, setting the elite apart. Parallel events are observable today in the newer nations, where secondary school (especially if residential) and university graduates make up the new leadership that strives to weld local cultures into a nation. Even where underlying ideologies are democratic, these few leaders risk becoming alienated from other citizens who do not participate at all in the “high culture.”

The unification of nations and larger societies cannot progress far without the common school for widening circles of ordinary folk. This was exemplified in the flourishing of the English “dame schools,” with their modicum of training in literacy and ciphering and their preoccupation with teaching of the proper behavior to the “lower orders.” With its gradual extension and improvement, the common school both challenges elitism and takes on responsibility for fostering consensus among all citizens around selected themes. The national language slowly spreads through successive generations of pupils, accommodating them to acknowledgment of the ruler’s writs, participation in the rituals of patriotism, and familiarity with the heroes and events of literature and history. The diffusion of literacy both incites and broadens participation in political life, and the spreading of facility in numbers underlies the knitting together of the larger economy.

The common schools perform an interclass assimilating function, however limited and crude. Through the common schools children of peasants and laborers acquire a less abrasive speech, less violent habits of conduct, some insight into the attractions of cultural amenities, and a few folkways of complex social living. Slowly increasing numbers learn the advantages of deferred gratification and of systematic work. In the more democratic school systems, this social assimilation may go on even within the university. Meanwhile, the high evaluation of education that motivates some to enter the preferred occupations stimulates the further spread of schooling throughout the population.

In the early stages of the diffusion of schools, the divisiveness produced by them extends spatially, as well as along the lines of status. Acceptance of schools beyond (and even below) the compulsory level is uneven among the districts and regions of a society. Common education proves to be more useful in some areas than in others, and in some districts it may quickly lead to the adoption of secondary and higher education. Residents of some areas draw ahead of residents of others in learning and in prosperity, in active sharing of the national culture, and in accessibility to the amenities of an advancing society. This disparity is most extreme in plural societies lacking a single mother tongue and especially in the new nations where, to a degree hitherto unparalleled in history, schools are being relied upon to create a unified people out of a throng of tribes. If vernacular languages are used in the early grades, the common schools may have little unifying effect.

Where schools are operated by religious groups —even where there is central inspection—the value content of curricula may become equivocal. Each nation’s history affects the balance of those influences that bridge the religions or strengthen their inward-looking tendencies. However, the contest for autonomy and for central financial aid can increase central control over curricula. Where many forces work to create a broad underlying national unity, separate schools may have little divisive effect. Indeed, for religious as for other minorities, “parochial” schools commonly serve as way stations on the road to assimilation, especially where a single language is used by all. What is common to these lessons and the atmosphere of all schools leads each group into assimilation of pervasive national ways of life.

As the duration of common schooling is extended, so also are both the duration of the period in which schools may carry out their socially integrating functions and the further years of school life for those who continue into the increasingly elaborated programs of middle and higher education. Again, we see both merging and separating forces at work as schools play a growing role in the society. The special cultures of the various better-educated groups that are fostered by their schooling are less exclusive than those in simpler elitist societies; these restricted cultures are in greater degree an extension in depth of the themes and practices that pervade the lower schools as well.

Thus, education continuously raises barriers to communication among the members of a society, even as it is also continuously eroding isolation. Associated with schooling are the occupational specialties of a complex society, and some of these groups exploit the schools to reinforce their favored positions by restricting numbers of qualified entrants. However, rising demands from the economy and populist pressures also force the breaking of such obstructions. Meanwhile, the rising standard of average schooling means that fewer occupational boundaries are chasms between sodden ignorance and genteel learning.

Diffusion of both schooling and consumer goods creates increasing diversity of ways of life even while fostering status continuities within the society. This process finds its most complete expression in the university, for no matter how much a society may press toward “comprehensive” rather than differentiated education for its various subpopulations, there is no escaping extreme specialization at the university level. And it is in the universities, in recent years, that there has arisen the greatest concern that learned men shall share a common culture.

Conservation and innovation

The principal task of formal education in the past was to inculcate accepted bodies of information and sets of beliefs—to conserve and pass down a heritage. However, in the more dynamic societies schools are called upon to play a more creative role by supporting or fostering change; everywhere they have indirectly provided support for change by giving men the basic tools with which to enlarge their knowledge indefinitely and to manipulate it creatively. The counterpoint of socialization and individuation is thus again at work.

Educational conservatism that finds its source in established religion or ethics was exemplified in Confucian learning and the bureaucratic examinations in China and in the development of clerkly schooling in medieval Europe. Yet even in those or similar situations, schooling did not function solely to rigidify ideas, for among the elites philosophical speculation could not be confined. And alongside the erudite education there arose also more popular and pragmatic kinds. Soon after the introduction of printing, books expounding practical novelties for daily life and craft practice poured from the press—and in China over the centuries from the hands of the copyist—opening new possibilities to men with even a minimum of literacy. The same funds of ideas stimulated religious and political innovation, enhanced in some societies by popular reading of the holy books.

The modern age takes it for granted that change is natural. Literacy has meant exposure to novelty and has prepared men of the most diverse stations to react to new ideas from many quarters. Preserving the continuity of expanding knowledge has become a principal source of innovation. It is significant that much of the Western technological revolution was the work of artisans who fused their ingenuity with published manuals to accelerate the rate of invention. Indeed, learned men and literate artisans were in more intensive interaction in past generations than they are today. Progressively, the potentialities of written communication were exploited by advocates of political and social reform, by religious leaders, and by the sellers of goods. In our much-schooled age we have forgotten how little schooling men need in order to put literacy to use, as we have forgotten also the capacity of oral traditions.

Modernization of new nations

The many educational developments that unfolded slowly throughout the history of Western countries are telescoped in the nations that are today borrowing educational systems, but similar borrowing had gone on among the Western countries as they were shaping their educational systems to changing conceptions of social need. The new nations find the task of adaptation more difficult because they are anxious to communicate an ill-defined and often nonexistent traditional unitary culture and equally eager to use schools to produce a technology for which traditional culture has little pertinence. Often, then, the implanted Western education has created mainly a small deviant group devoted to modernization. Although it is possible to absorb folklore into history and literature courses, other features of the traditional culture cannot be adapted so easily to meet the demands of modernization. In the societies where the fusion of traditional with technological folkways occurred more gradually, more of the traditional culture was preserved.

As school attendance diffuses, one principal result is deeper appreciation of the utility of education and thus the emergence of impulses for additional and different kinds of education. These attitudes spread through a population much as do other new cultural traits, with patterned foci and gradients of educational development; the climax areas correspond generally to those where other impulses to social change are also vigorous.

Wherever Western-type schools have taken root, their activity is associated with receptivity to new ideas and practices in many spheres of life, and the individual with more schooling possesses more traits of modernity. He is more informed about the world, more likely to accept the new, more appreciative of the complexities of his society, and better able to comprehend the more complex forces at work around him. Assimilation of schooling by females adds a special multiplier to these changes and serves also to transform family life in ways that foster more adaptive children. However, in all these respects there is much overlapping among subpopulations. The less educated are often better informed in pragmatic matters than the highly educated, and they can be more open-minded to novelty. Illiterate men in societies with strong oral traditions may have broad perspectives.

As common schooling is extended, its conserving function with respect to high culture spreads to more people. At the same time, the change-supporting influence of the schools permeates larger parts of the society and challenges elitist practices. Moreover, the more dynamic and creative ways of teaching begin to be effective even in the common schools, which come to embrace elements of science and social studies along with the three Rs—the whole in a context of change. Secondary and especially university education becomes predominantly oriented to subjects relating to the less conservative parts of the culture.

Of particular importance is the transformation of the language skills of children by the school. Not only does the working language of the typical child expand but it also becomes increasingly oriented to use in ways instrumental to change. however, in this process the handicaps of those groups least affected by informal as well as formal education become more visible. Laggard groups may become more than nominally absorbed into the schools only slowly, and in many advanced societies the task of making formal education effective for such groups has emerged as crucial in a time of rapid occupational change.

Schools as agencies of change

It is Western education, that of the civilization whose science and technology is now spreading everywhere, that has seen the most explicit use of schools as agencies of change. Response to technological requirements appeared first at intermediate levels of the schools. Apart from the proliferation of apprentice-ship and ciphering and similar schools, demands for formal technical instruction were met in many countries by a diversification of secondary vocational programs, by technical institutes, and by university-level technological training that was often segregated from the university proper. The “agricultural and mechanical” colleges of the United States borrowed many components from Europe and with them created a more permissive and diversified system, which in turn was copied in Europe and elsewhere. Outside the prestige branches of education, varied practical training supplanted the traditional “cultural” subjects and initiated a reorientation of education toward programs more supportive of change.

However, in almost all societies universities have been the sanctuaries for critical analysis of the society; even where they have made little use of that privilege, it has usually been available. And insofar as high-level intellectual training has been required by practical activities, universities have been persuaded to provide that instruction. However belatedly they may have responded, the universities now constitute centers for induced change; they train more and more segments of the national elite. In a few countries it has come to be accepted that many kinds of occupations deserve university sponsorship, that new vocations call for new kinds of professors, and that varied motives and standards of competence may legitimately be part of university life.

Schools resist change both by passivity and by active opposition. It is easier to continue on welltrod, familiar paths, and typically the new is not welcomed by teachers, most of whom have spent their lives within schools. At the higher levels, resistance in part reflects devotion to particular intellectual traditions, often confounded with conventions as to the “standards” that a university must uphold. These conventions lose their power only after science and technology have manifested self-sustaining powers and critical importance for national survival.

Regardless of intent, schools assist change when they provide the simple literacy that enables men to read and the core training in the traditional branches of learning. They favor change also by identifying and promoting the talented who, even when co-opted into presumably constraining prestige positions, often prove recalcitrant to custom. They foster change more directly when they accept new materials into classrooms or accept responsibility to train for new vocations. They are completely involved when or if they encourage independent and critical thinking (at whatever level) and when they undertake scientific research and carry on the special kind of apprenticeship called graduate study. Finally, expansion of adult education and refresher courses at all levels of schooling is becoming an integral part of social organization to counter obsolescence and foster more rapid change.

Combining the homogenizing-differentiating dichotomy with the conserving-changing dichotomy gives us four categories in terms of which the different stages of education may be described. It is in common schooling (which may last as long as 12 or even 14 years) that the homogenizing and conserving functions are most distinctly merged. Furthermore, any separation of schools for different subpopulations, relegating most children to inferior schools, also upholds tradition. On the other hand, as more individuals share schooling through many years, change is favored simply because individuals begin to learn the scientific and technical ideas that link them to other influences making for change. It is at the university level that specialization accompanied by advanced instruction combines differentiation with facilitation of change.

Education and social class

Structuring of a school system so that pupils pass from one class or grade to the next by promotion is in part a response to problems of scale and in part associated with a more elaborated content of teaching. It may also reflect a shift away from an elitist system, manifested, for example, by the decline of gentlemanly prerogatives at the university and the adoption of merit competition for entry. The oldest formal promotion system, that of China, emphasized advancement from one examination level to eligibility to sit for the next. Over much of its history that system used achievement criteria for advancement with only minor complication by status considerations, and China was the source of the now world-wide examinations for testing competence.

Once schooling extended beyond ecclesiastical bounds or tutorial practice for formation of an elite, a three-level system emerged in the countries of western Europe: universities for an elite, grammar schools for clerks and as preparation for the university, and primary schools (if any) for the populace. This system became entrenched even as schooling became widely diffused. Meanwhile, it has been economic limitation as much as snobbery that has preserved the idea that the proportion of children enrolled should diminish rapidly at each successive level of school. Tacitly or explicitly, it has been assumed also that lessons grow in difficulty with level and that progressively fewer children can cope with them. In premodern economies relatively few men are needed for the nonmanual occupations. These conditions and assumptions have been slowly modified in the more advanced countries, as people come to believe both that more education is needed among the citizenry of a democracy and that education is a satisfying good in its own right to which all are entitled. However, the pyramidal form persists, and among the functions of the educational system are selection of those pupils who may move to successively higher courses and also, as schools are diversified, allocation of those who do continue among various types and qualities of school.

In societies that have developed school systems there are sets of adult vocations for which corresponding levels or varieties of schooling are normally the minimal conditions of entry. Selection for continuation in school thus becomes at the same time one factor in the allocation of ultimate roles in society, and allocation among specialized courses of study establishes links to particular subsets of adult positions within the broader categories anticipated by educational selection. Thus, the schools become related in ever more complex ways to economic and social stratification and to the mobility structures of the society. At the same time, the procedures adopted for intraschool selection and allocation have repercussions on pedagogical processes, teacher orientations, and the general atmosphere of the school.

Education-determined status

A formal school system, then, never exists solely as an ornament to the leisure of a privileged stratum but serves also as a means for determining which individuals will occupy various positions in the society. Traditionally, few children from humble families gained admittance to the “classical” schools. Since passage through the upper levels of such schools facilitated entry into elitist occupations and positions, education contributed as much to intergenerational stability as to mobility in status. However, as lowerstatus children come to form an appreciable proportion of postprimary enrollments, schooling plays a more important part in distributing individuals among occupations and status levels; educated and able sons of workers fill the expanding white-collar and professional positions and even displace some of the less able sons of the older elites. In open and nonrestrictive economies, however, once prolonged schooling becomes widespread the separate and distinctive effect of the sheer amount of schooling upon economic and social status is blurred. Parental status will play a small part, but native ability, drive, health, and luck make for wide status variability among men of equivalent schooling.

Thus neither the association of schooling with parental status nor its association with the individual’s own adult status is simple or stable. The clearest instances of education-determined status exist where the individual’s status is defined by his position in a bureaucracy and where such a position is conditional upon possession of particular certificates. Developing societies during the period when school opportunities are still distributed narrowly (in proportionate enrollments but not necessarily in terms of parental status) provide the most striking contemporary examples of education-determined status; however, they also display the precarious political influence of educated elites as populist political practices take root. Moreover, in such societies the status associated with years of schooling is status in a new structure growing up beside the old system. The connections between old and new status systems may be tenuous and the roles of schooled men in them quite disparate, Although as yet we know little about these relationships.

Selection and allocation

In the intraschool sorting operations many factors are at play. In all societies self-selection (or, conversely, dropping out) is important. In earlier periods when the schools retained a literary or religious flavor throughout, self-selection (which always incorporates some ability factors) occurred sometimes mainly within the elite and sometimes more broadly, especially in recruitment to the clergy. As enrollments have broadened and schooling has become prolonged and diversified, self-selection—as well as self-allocation to lines of study or types of schools—has been extended to increasing proportions of the population.

However, even in the most egalitarian societies, readiness to use schools is unevenly distributed through both geographic and social space. These imparities exceed what might be explained by differences in financial capacity or native ability. In part, they are associated with area and ethnic differentials in what schooling can contribute to subsequent incomes and positions, but the degree of awareness of both the pragmatic and the more esoteric values of schooling reflects also the communication structure of the society. Interacting with self-selection are the practices and policies of teachers and the rules for promotion and allocation that have become educational customs. These range from informal guidance to the most formal and rigid examination systems.

Examination systems

Especially pervasive are the difficulties associated with the use of examinations, although a clear appreciation of this problem is comparatively recent. So long as schooling beyond simple literacy was confined to small minorities, Western countries relied primarily upon self-selection and status selection, with informal identification of talent by performance in the lower school. However, as school systems grew this procedure became inadequate, and teachers’ assessments and classroom exercises were supplemented and even replaced by systematic testing, often by examinations prepared by outside experts. Whereas standardized external examinations were adopted in China at a time when they could be limited to classical literary material, in the more recent Western systems such examinations were introduced at a time when schools and curricula were rapidly diversifying. No single traditional set of criteria comparable to that of the Chinese could suffice, and in the West standardized examinations have seldom become so central a feature of an entire school system as in some Oriental lands. By the same token, rote learning has been less pervasive, and it is no accident that “progressive” education emerged in the United States—the least rigid and least examination-prone of the Western nations.

In the West testing shifted to a mass basis in response to several circumstances: growing enrollments, pressures from new subpopulations for entry to postprimary schools, concern for protecting or imposing “standards” (which extended in some nations to intellectual life outside the schools), rising aspirations for equality of educational opportunity, and most recently anxiety about identifying the unutilized “reserves of talent.” Increasing reliance upon examinations has injected into previously looser systems the well-known pressures upon teachers to orient their lessons to expected tests rather than to exploration of the subject or to the child’s mental and creative development. On the other hand, mass testing has led to increasing awareness of irregularities in standards among schools and the educational poverty of the poorest schools, particularly in decentralized systems. The counterpoints of quality versus quantity and of conformity to set standards versus diversity of educational outcomes have been laid out with a new clarity in recent years.

Selection procedures

Meanwhile, there has been a growing concern about the validity of tests as bases for selection and allocation, however reliable they may be for measuring a restricted set of accomplishments. Tests in the traditional academic core subjects may satisfactorily predict future academic success along the same lines; however, they are of limited help in predicting occupational success in nonacademic positions that nevertheless presuppose a strong educational preparation. Indeed, as we become more familiar with the intricacies of selection in practice (of which examinations are only a part), doubts about its validity multiply. Errors can be diminished by postponing the age at which selection (or allocation to preferred streams) must occur; by giving children a good number of years in which to manifest their potentialities, underestimation of talent is less likely. Indeed, the present reaction in favor of more “general” education shows that some hoary educational traditions contain much merit.

Systematic investigation, reinforced by changing social philosophies, is revealing more about how the capacity of children to benefit from school is modified by their home environments, including participation in diverse kinds of outside supportive activities; educability is now considered to be a function of prior educational experiences. These relationships are dramatized also in the schools of newly developing countries and among the “culturally deprived” in the backward rural areas and city slums of Western countries.

Again we face conflicting considerations: many of the educationally handicapped will be reluctant pupils if held in school—or marginal workers if they leave. Some respond by apathy or rebellion because they dislike school and think that what they study is useless. Among many who wish to continue but who do poorly in lessons, repeated failure induces withdrawal and lethargy, which sometimes turns into open aggression. Others resent being treated perpetually as nonadults and still others, while surviving in school, see no connection between what they do as pupils and what they expect to do as adults. The growing tendency in contemporary society to impose formal educational requirements for entry to even the least skilled jobs therefore presents schools with an unprecedented task.

Many of these problems reflect unimaginative teaching, while others arise from pressures on schools to orient their programs to selection and allocation standards for admission to a next level of school. As professionals, teachers face a dilemma. Selecting a minority of superior pupils is an obligation, and their own prestige is affected by the outcome, not to mention that encouragement of superior performance is what many teachers most enjoy. However, there is also a primary obligation to maximize the learning of all pupils. Teachers have both the instrumental task of impelling pupils to learn set lessons and the expressive task of making learning pleasant. The process of selection throws the balance to the instrumental side.

Effects of the type of schooling and the type of curriculum upon the choice of a particular vocation shift with technological advances and changing societal structures. Traditionally, only a small proportion of families have relied upon formal instruction for vocational training; manual workers and large parts of the middle stratum have relied largely upon apprenticeship. As the typical individual’s schooling was lengthened, three things have happened. First, additional general education has become a prerequisite for a rising proportion of jobs, and hence specialized vocational training has been deferred; most of higher education remains, as it has always been, vocational. Second, much of what previously would have been learned on the job has been formalized and incorporated in vocational and technical schools. Third, on-thejob training has also multiplied, and the age-cycle pattern of vocational and refresher or upgrading study has become more complex and extended.

As the first and third of these tendencies go further, schools can decrease their responsibility for allocation, but insofar as the second tendency predominates, schools are expected to assign children early to courses that prepare for particular kinds of occupation. This is not a task for which schools are well qualified. In practice they identify the pupils that are ready for further academic education—although with less validity than is commonly believed—while giving little useful pedagogical guidance to others. The problem is most critical, although often least recognized, where postschool occupational selection and allocation processes are the most rigidly geared to diplomas (whether by convention, rulings of vocational associations, or government regulation), and it is exacerbated to the degree that status of pupils’ families strongly affects educational aspirations or performance. Allocation by the school may range from a formal priority system based on examinations through less formal constraints on pupil choices. Even though guidance may be offered, this rests on a shaky scientific basis and much of it reflects social bias as well as pedagogic rigidity. Moreover, specialized capacities are rare; most pupils will have aptitudes in almost equal degree for a wide range of courses and of occupations, at least within a broad band of general ability.

Recently a tendency toward “manpower planning” has emerged and is rapidly being diffused throughout the world. Its aim is to forecast the numbers of individuals with different occupational qualifications needed by the society, to ration school places accordingly, and then to direct individuals toward the “right” preparation. The validity of these forecasts remains unproved in the present state of research, quite apart from the value question of how much direction should be given to individual choices of education or vocation.

C. Arnold Anderson

[Directly related are the entriesLiteracy; Teaching; Universities. Other relevant material may be found inSocialization; Social mobility.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ben-david, Joseph 1963/1964 Professions in the Class System of Present Day Societies: A Trend Report and Bibliography. Current Sociology 12:247–330. → In addition to providing a social history of the transformation of the professions, this article emphasizes their relationships with higher education; it includes an extensive bibliography.

Campbell, Roald F.; and Brunnell, Robert A. (editors) 1963 Nationalizing Influences on Secondary Education. Univ. of Chicago, Midwest Administration Center. → A demonstration of the forces making for educational uniformity in a highly decentralized administrative system.

Cicourel, Aaron V.; and Kitsuse, John I. 1963 The Educational Decisionmakers. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. → An analysis of the confounding of educational guidance by psychological assumptions and social bias.

Davis, James A. 1965 Undergraduate Career Decisions. Chicago: Aldine.

Floud, Jean E.; and Halsey, A. H. 1958 The Sociology of Education: A Trend Report and Bibliography. Current Sociology 7, no. 3. → Traces the emergence of the discipline and assesses its main contributions. Contains an extensive bibliography.

Gage, Nathaniel L. (editor) 1963 Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally. → A symposium of research and interpretation on all aspects of teaching: assessment of methods, recruitment to the profession, etc.

Goody, Jack; and Watt, Ian 1963 The Consequences of Literacy. Comparative Studies in Society and history 5:304–345. → An analysis of the social consequences of the introduction of writing into a society.

Halsey, A. H. (editor) 1961 Ability and Educational Opportunity. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. → Comparison of educacational selection and allocation in various countries.

Halsey, A. H.; Floud, Jean; and Anderson, C. Arnold (editors) 1961 Education, Economy, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Education. New York: Free Press.

Henry, Jules 1960 A Cross-cultural Outline of Education. Current Anthropology 1:267–305.

National Society for the Study of Education, Committee on Education for the Professions 1962 Education for the Professions. Edited by Nelson B. Henry. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Sanford, Nevitt (editor) 1962 The American College. New York: Wiley. → A symposium of research on virtually every aspect of higher education, with special attention to variations in selection.

Stinchcombe, Arthur L. 1964 Rebellion in a High

School. Chicago: Quadrangle Books. → An analysis of the sources of educational apathy induced by compulsory education under existing pedagogical conditions.

Waller, Willard W. (1932) 1961 The Sociology of Teaching. New York: Russell.

Znaniecki, Florian 1936 Social Actions. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. → See pages 189–230 on “Educational Guidance” for a discussion of the social relationships that constitute education.

III EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION

The study of educational organization has its place in the social sciences mainly as an application of theories of organization. In such theories any organization, whether a national system of education, an industry, or a single institution, such as a school, hospital, or prison, is treated as if it were a self-contained system of social relationships. The link to the wider network of social relationships, of which any organization must be a part, is then treated in terms of boundary maintenance, functional exchange, or the distinction between internal structure and external environment. At the most macroscopic level, studies of education concentrate on the functional relations between education and the other great institutional orders of society—the economy, the polity, religion, and kinship—and form part of general comparative sociology.

Educational organizations—that is, the social structure and functioning of an educational system or its constituent units—are studied at descending levels of generality. An educational system or subsystem, an individual school or a university, will have a formal constitution defining the distribution of roles within it, the allocation of resources and disciplinary powers, and the content and method of teaching. It will also have an informal pattern of power, influence, and communication and a characteristic value system. Initially, organizations are formal arrangements made to pursue defined ends; however, within them arise spontaneous friendships, loyalties, habits of work, and routines of communication that may support or subvert, but that will in any case modify and complicate, the functioning of the system as defined in its formal charter.

These aspects of organization may be studied both individually and in relation to one another; but in the case of the sociology of the school, the effectiveness of any study depends upon knowledge at a more macroscopic level. There is what W. W. Waller termed “a separate culture of the school,” but this is responsive to the structure of the wider society. Wider social trends can and do affect and alter the functions of schools, colleges, and universities, with or without any explicit redirection of aim or overt reorganization. In any case, they give rise to the stresses and strains that underlie and permeate the daily life of educational institutions. Thus, the analysis of the role of the teacher or the pupil must sooner or later go beyond the boundary of the school or college as a social system and take account of those influences in the external environment that support or frustrate tacit or explicit educational goals as they are interpreted within the organization. The structure and culture of a school derive partly from the logic of a teaching and learning situation, but they are also, and usually more importantly, shaped by outside influences. Persons entering the organization bring with them expectations and assumptions about their own rights and obligations. The family, neighborhood, class, and ethnic environment of pupils send them into school with varying attitudes toward their educational experience. To understand the internal life of the school, it is necessary to see it in a wider social context; in this way the sociology, anthropology, and social psychology of the school is necessarily linked to the study of the family, the neighborhood, the religious community, and, ultimately, to the whole of society.

Sociological studies

Education is a topic as old as civilization, but only in recent years has educational organization, as described above, been defined as a special area for sociological study. There is no article on educational organization in the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, which was published in the early 1930s. However, the general field of the sociology of education has a recognizable, if checkered, history, which dates perhaps from the publication of Lester Ward’s Dynamic Sociology in 1883 and certainly from the delivery of Durkheim’s lectures (1902–1911) at the Sorbonne in the early years of the twentieth century. Thorstein Veblen’s satirical and bitter classic on The Higher Learning in America, which constituted a landmark in the analysis of the university as a social system, appeared in 1918, and Willard W. Waller’s treatment of the school in sociologically similar, if politically more urbane, terms was published in 1932.

However, it is only since World War ii that the study of educational organization has begun to flourish as an integral part of the social sciences. This development owes much to the rise of a group of American and European sociologists who have been determined to treat education in the same terms as any other social institution, that is, as an object intrinsically worthy of scientific study, apart from any concern for social policy or human betterment.

Education and society

Appreciation of the character and significance of educational systems is becoming increasingly important for the understanding of contemporary society. Education has expanded rapidly with the advance of industrialization; it is being extended to new nations and new classes of students, and new pedagogical methods are continually being developed. Now that as much as 5 per cent of national income may be spent on education, economists, sociologists, and psychologists are all drawn to analyze the comparative costs, efficiency, and functioning of the various systems of teaching, research, and administration.

Educational planning plays a prominent part in the modern government of both advanced and so-called underdeveloped countries, and in the recent past it has produced a large literature of official reports and academic studies that illustrate the problems of educational organization at widely varying levels of educational development. In California the problem is to devise a system of mass higher education, whereas in underdeveloped countries like Nigeria the problem is to develop higher education while at the same time creating adequate primary and secondary education. One of these official planning reports deserves special mention: the Robbins Report, which has provided a detailed description (and prescription) for higher education in Britain, has also yielded an excellent comparative sociography of the secondary and higher educational systems of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Switzerland, the United States, and the Soviet Union (Great Britain … 1963).

Types of educational organization

Educational systems have one universal characteristic: they transmit knowledge and belief. They consist, therefore, of a disciplined relation between teacher and taught, but they can and do vary according to what is to be taught, how, by whom, and to whom. Accordingly, the classification of types and the analysis of variations may proceed from all or any of the following four points of reference. First, the aims of the organization define its role in relation to knowledge and belief, whether as guardian, critic, or innovator. Second, the control of the organization refers to its relations—of control and subservience, service and support—with other social institutions, notably the state, the church, the family, and the employer. Third, the formal organization refers to the allocation of roles within the organization, the rights and duties attaching to them, and the methods of selection for the various positions of administration, teaching, research, and learning. Finally, the informal organization consists of the “subcultures,” or spontaneous groupings and patterns of interaction that form within the formal framework of the organization.

Weber’s typology of educational systems

No typology of educational organization based on all these sources of variation exists as yet in the literature, although the accumulation of case studies and comparative work promises to make the task feasible. A beginning is to be found in Max Weber’s discussion of charisma and bureaucracy and their application to the social roles of the Chinese literati (Weber 1906–1924). Weber’s principal reference is to the aims and functions of whole systems of education rather than to the differentiation of functions among particular organizations within them. His attention is, moreover, largely confined to those forms of education aimed at producing members of the elite or ruling strata of societies, and thus he has little or nothing to say about modern mass education.

Most educational systems have been restricted to elites, and from this point of view Weber distinguished three broad types of social personality: the charismatic, that of the cultivated man, and the expert. These three social types correspond to three types of power and authority in society. The first is that of the charismatic leader whose personal gift or mission is magically or divinely inspired. The second includes a wide range of forms of authority sanctioned by custom and tradition— for example, that of the Chinese mandarins, the minority leisure class of citizens in ancient Greece or Rome, or the gentlemanly strata of eighteenth-century Europe. The third type corresponds to the rational and bureaucratic forms of authority typical of advanced industrial societies, for example, that of the special expertise of scientists and professional men. In the total range of educational systems, the first and third of Weber’s types are polar opposites, and the most numerous actual examples are found within the intermediate range. In reality there are no pure cases of these types, as Weber took care to emphasize.

Strictly speaking, the qualities necessary for charismatic leadership cannot be transmitted by a system of education in the sense that this would be understood in the modern world. By definition, charisma cannot be created by training; it is a personal gift of grace that either exists in a person or infiltrates him through magical rebirth. In contrast, the cultivation of the pupil for the style of life of a secular or religious status group is in principle possible for anyone, and this is likewise true for the type of organization that sets out to train experts for practical usefulness in a public authority, a business enterprise, or a scientific laboratory. Although entry to either the second system (that of “education”) or the third (that of “training”) is open in principle to individuals of any social origin, the goals will nevertheless vary —in the former case, according to the idea of cultivation held by the dominant stratum; in the latter, according to the internal requirements of the expertise. Thus, the second type of organization includes a wide range of actual educational goals. The goal may be the production of a socially distinctive type of knight or courtier, as in the case of the Japanese samurai; it may be the education of a scribe or intellectual, where a priestly class is dominant; or it may be the amateur gentlemanly administrator, as in imperial Britain.

Systems of education for membership in a cultivated status group have usually been under religious control. This is true of the Christian, Islamic, and Judaic traditions, but the Chinese literati and the Hellenic philosophers’ schools are important exceptions. The education of the Chinese mandarin, although based on sacred texts, consisted in laymen teaching laymen, and the Hellenic schools were completely secular and designed for the education of a leisured ruling class.

Bureaucratization. The characteristic mark of the type of education that aims at imparting specialized expert training is the standardized examination system. This is not to say that examination systems are either indispensable to bureaucratic forms of authority or unknown to prebureaucratic systems. For example, the special examination system came late to the French, English, and American bureaucracies, whereas classical China for many centuries enjoyed a politically organized examination system for official careers. However, the Chinese system was not designed to examine special skills but rather to ensure that successful candidates were broadly equipped with the high culture of the literati. In the case of the modern bureaucracies, qualifications for entry are increasingly defined in terms of specialized scientific and technological training, at the expense of wide humanistic cultivation. As Weber put it: “Behind all the present discussions of the foundations of the educational system, the struggle of the ‘specialist type of man’ against the older type of ‘cultivated man’ is hidden at some decisive point. This fight is determined by the irresistibly expanding bureaucratization of all public and private relations of authority and by the ever-increasing importance of expert and specialized knowledge” ([1906–1924] 1946, p. 243).

Educational systems in industrial society

Bureaucratic organization of authority and the specialization of knowledge are the starting points for the analysis of educational systems in modern industrial society. Education is a planned process of cultural transmission, consisting of three elements: preservation, innovation, and dissemination. Whereas in simple cultures only preservation is important, in modern industrial society all three elements are essential to the maintenance of a culture that is cumulative in its complexity. Such cultures require long and specialized education for increasing proportions of the population, as well as the organization of innovation in institutions of research and development. The translation of these processes of cultural transmission into forms of educational organization varies according to the political and social structure of nations, but the basic trend toward large-scale specialization and bureaucratization is unmistakable.

The major force for change has been the pressure in industrial society to incorporate a scientific culture into the organization of studies. Thus, since the second half of the nineteenth century, educational systems have expanded in numbers of students, range of teaching, and provision for research. They have also become increasingly dependent on governments for financial support and increasingly controlled by the state. Primary education is compulsory for all, and secondary education is available for an increasing majority.

The structure of systems of higher education is the outcome of a long process of historical adaptation, with the dominant line of descent stemming from the European medieval universities. There are other more ancient traditions of higher learning in the Islamic world and in China and India. But the spread of Western technological civilization has carried the European conception of a university throughout the world and especially to those parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia that at some time have been dominated or ruled by European countries.

There are considerable variations in the place retained by universities in expanded systems of higher education. The general trend has been toward functional specialization among different kinds of colleges and institutes, although, of course, the new professions based on technology and the social sciences meet with greater or lesser acceptance in the teaching schedule of different institutions. It is in the United States that the newer branches of higher education are most likely to be included within the university systems; American graduate schools have been particularly willing to incorporate almost every kind of vocational course. The Soviet Union represents the opposite tendency; the Russian institutes are highly differentiated, providing education in a single specialized field and entirely separated from the universities. The western European universities occupy an intermediate position, with technology and teacher training commonly provided in separate institutions that are often of lower prestige.

Aims

Education in industrial societies is characteristically aimed at the production of experts; consequently, it is organized in a complex of schools and colleges with more or less specialized aims in relation to education, training, and research. Quite apart from the need in all societies (industrial or preindustrial) to ensure the communication of some kind of common value system, the economic functions of education require that secondary and higher forms of schooling be based on universal or near-universal primary schooling.

Primary schooling. All advanced industrial countries have universal compulsory schooling at the primary stage and curricula designed to equip the whole population with basic literacy and numeracy in preparation for possible entry to more specialized education at the secondary stage. Primary schools are at the same time the major agencies of socialization into groups beyond the family. According to Parsons (1959), the American primary school weans children from complete reliance on the moral assumptions of particularism and diffuseness, which are characteristic of kin relations, and inculcates acceptance of universalism and specificity as the essential basis for role playing in a differentiated industrial economy.

Secondary schooling. Economic demand for trained scientific and professional manpower and a growing political demand for equality of educational opportunity result everywhere in educational expansion. Throughout the world the systems vary enormously. In Soviet Russia the school system has been centrally organized to meet estimated demands for labor through selective technical education; and it has incorporated both political indoctrination and a fusing of school and work at the secondary level in order to foster loyalty to Soviet society and its political and social ideology. It is significant, in terms of both of these aims of Russian education, that plans have been anounced for secondary boarding schools to be established for 80 per cent of pupils by 1980 (Great Britain … 1963). In western Europe the organization of education still preserves its traditional form, reflecting the demands of the class system for schooling according to social origin and as preparation for a particular social position. Secondary schools are differentiated, with a minority offering curricula that prepare pupils for entry to higher education. In most European countries entry to skilled trades is accomplished by some form of apprenticeship or learnership system within industry; however, the trend is toward transferring industrial training to technical schools and colleges, along either American or Russian lines.

In the United States secondary schooling developed from a movement to Americanize large numbers of immigrants and to raise the educational and social level of new and growing communities. However, in many countries there has generally been opposition to the integrated extension of compulsory common schooling. The problem in Europe, and in many of its Asian and African colonial or former colonial territories, is to develop comprehensive types of secondary education out of systems of separate schools with unequal social prestige, which were designed historically for different social classes (see, for instance, Pedley 1963). Attempts in this direction have met with varying success. In Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and elsewhere in eastern Europe the break with tradition has been sharp. There is also a strong movement in Scandinavia in favor of “comprehensive schools” (in which all children of compulsory school age are given various types of training within the same institution); weaker movements in favor of such schools exist in France and Britain.

Universities. The European universities remain elitist in conception. Although in many countries (with the notable exceptions of England and the Soviet Union) they are formally open to all secondary school graduates, compared with American universities they are highly restricted both in numbers and in terms of the social origins of their students.

Universities are usually defined as self-governing communities of scholars. In practice, they may be neither self-governing nor communities nor entirely composed of scholars. Nevertheless, the idea of a corporate body that acts as the “guardian” of a world-wide intellectual culture is what enables the term “university” to be applied to institutions of widely ranging size, quality, and purpose. Intellectual culture is preserved in universities through teaching directed particularly at those students capable of forming the academic succession. In modern times, especially since the rise of the natural sciences, the universities have come to be concerned as much with extending as with preserving knowledge, that is, with research as much as with teaching.

Control

The state exercises a large measure of control over the educational system in all industrial countries. The degree to which religious and private control is permitted varies, and private education may be of crucial social significance, as in the case of the British “public” schools. The degree of centralization also varies; this determines the level at which religious bodies, political parties, teachers’ unions, and parents’ associations exert pressure in favor of their particular interests. Centralized government may be combined with centralized administration as in France or with decentralized administration as in Sweden, or both may be decentralized as in the United States. But decentralization does not guarantee the autonomy of individual schools. There is, for example, a marked contrast between Britain and the United States in terms of the greater degree of insulation of the British school from outside influences and the greater freedom of the classroom teacher to determine his own methods of teaching and choice of textbooks.

In most countries the financing of universities is mainly borne by the state, although in some countries, for example the United States, there are many purely private institutions. The British universities, although increasingly dependent for their finance on state funds, are nevertheless independent of direct state control and are linked to the government through the University Grants Committee. In the former British colonial territories similar arrangements for state financial support have been made, coupled with self-government in individual universities. Frequently, however (as in Nigeria and Ghana), there is greater stress than in England on the right of the state to control the university according to what is conceived as the national interest.

Principles of authority

Burton Clark (1962, p. 152) distinguished three principles of authority in the control of schools and colleges: public trusteeship, bureaucracy, and colleagueship. The dominant form is that of the public trust, through which control is exercised by a lay body representing state, community, religious, or other interests. This type of control is common among both state and private schools and colleges. In the public trust the formal position of the internal administration of the school is subordinate to the policy of the lay governors. But in practice the line between policy and administration is often difficult to determine. In any case, the increasing size and specialization of educational organizations favor the growth of bureaucracy and/or the collegiate type of authority. Bureaucratic and trustee types of authority share the characteristic of a hierarchical allocation of jurisdictions and duties, whereas the collegiate type presupposes the equal sharing of power and responsibility among peers.

Bureaucratic organization is typical of large and internally differentiated groups that aim at producing a specified and standardized “product.” In schools or colleges that concentrate on instruction rather than education and that standardize their product by regular examinations, bureaucratic organization is correspondingly viable. But educational organizations, and especially universities, usually have other functions, and where the relationship between teacher and students involves character training, there must be an element of particularism that cannot be bureaucratized. For example, the collegiate ideal associated with traditional Oxford and Cambridge is one of a community of established older and aspiring younger scholars living closely together and cooperating in the task of preserving and transmitting a cultivated way of life. This collegiate system is not conceived as narrowly intellectual in its scope, and far less as a tradition of occupational training. It is intended to pass on to each new generation of scholars a total culture or style of life, including carefully nurtured elements of mind and aesthetic taste and character in due measure. Relations of teachers and taught within this system are particularistic, affective, and attended by diffuse obligations.

By contrast, in the kind of college that trains the student for a lucrative, specialized technical position in business or the professions, the typical organization is bureaucratic. The institution assumes no responsibility for the values or social character of the novitiate; teacher and taught meet only in the context of formal instruction. The relationship is segmental rather than comprehensive, and the obligations specific rather than diffuse.

Specialization and professionalization

The modern social context of higher education increasingly favors the bureaucratic type of institution. A technological economy seeks to fashion the institution of higher learning as an antechamber for its manpower demands and as a source of marketable technical innovation. As systems of higher education expand, they recruit students from wider and wider ranges of social origin, a practice that no longer guarantees the homogeneity of family and school backgrounds, on which the traditional collegiate life of the ancient universities depended. Students seek a degree course to earn a living, rather than college residence to complete their induction into a style of life. Similarly, in the same context, the career interests of professors and lecturers encourage research, which brings academic and professional recognition, or administration, which brings local reward, rather than teaching, which commonly brings neither.

The trend toward increasingly large schools and colleges is coupled with the proliferation of more specialized administrative, teaching, and research roles, especially, although by no means exclusively, at the higher stages of education. Teaching has become an elaborate hierarchy of specialized professions, with specific qualifications for entry and increasing social and professional distance between the positions at the apex of the university system and the classroom teacher in a primary school. For example, the traditional integration of secondary and university teaching careers in France is breaking down under this pressure. At the same time, the geographical and social range of recruitment to teaching at all levels is widening into a national and even international market. Administration of large schools and colleges has also created specialized careers in educational administration, ancillary health and welfare services, and especially student counseling or vocational guidance.

Conflicts within the organization. The professionalization and specialization of the teaching professions constitute another force favoring colleagueship rather than bureaucratic authority. “Rationality in academic settings often seems best served by flat structures with relatively little hierarchy, a minimum of rules, and much freedom for the typical practitioner” (Clark 1962, pp. 161–162). Conflicts within schools and universities often express themselves as struggles between the administration and the faculty over the degree of “flatness” -of organization and its application to the multiple functions of education. Thus, if the formal organization of schools and colleges is made more bureaucratic through increasing scale, conflicts are typically brought about through specialization and take the form of opposition between bureaucratic and professional definitions of roles. In another guise similar conflicts emerge between “locals” and “cosmopolitans” (Lazarsfeld & Thielens 1958; cf. Caplow & McGee 1958), with the former oriented toward the organization, especially its teaching functions, and the latter oriented toward a profession extending beyond the boundaries of the institution, especially toward the world-wide pursuit of new knowledge in a specialist field of science or scholarship. The informal organization of educational institutions is also conditioned by these conflicts as well as by accommodations to the formal disciplinary relations between teachers and students.

Student subcultures

The conception of an organization as defined in its formal charter or organization chart, or its normative conception as expressed, for example, in “the idea of a university” (Newman 1852), may or may not faithfully reproduce an objective description of the statistical norms of behavior within it. Typically, both the formal organization and the normative conception are extensively modified by the existence of an informal organization, and in the case of schools and universities this informal structure appears as a set of subcultures among teachers and students. The distinction between “locals” and “cosmopolitans” referred to above is now commonplace in studies of university teachers. Student subcultures have also been identified in recent studies of colleges and high schools. Martin Trow and Burton Clark have distinguished four types of subcultures that flourish in varying degrees on different types of campuses (Clark 1962, chapter 6). The traditional culture is collegiate; it is pleasure seeking and manifests intense loyalty to the organization, although not to the intellectual purposes of the organization. Where the latter is also present, that is, where the loyalties of students to their college are articulated through the intellectual concerns of the senior members, there emerges an academic culture, symbolized by the library and the seminar. Where neither is present there is a consumer-vocational culture—a timeserving college attendance for the sake of acquiring a degree or diploma and, hence, a claim to a job. The fourth possibility occurs where a high value is attached to ideas and the institution is dis-esteemed; those circumstances encourage the nonconformist or bohemian culture which is sometimes found on the edge of academic life.

It should be emphasized that the authors have tried to distinguish cultures in terms of shared or group norms rather than to suggest classifications of either students or universities. All four subcultures may be found in any university and may influence any student. The four student cultures are derived from two variables, namely, degree of attachment to the institution and degree of attachment to intellectual ideas. The reference to “intellectual ideas” is intended to distinguish knowledge and techniques that are “useless” from those that are “useful” in the sense of being marketable or defined in terms of an occupational requirement. The distinction between academic and vocational subcultures is close to the distinction made earlier between “education” for a nonprofessional elite position and “training” for a clearly defined professional occupation.

Institutional and intellectual loyalties are strengthened or weakened by the modes of recruitment, social origins and destiny of the student, the social organization of the university, and the interests of the teaching, research, and administrative staff. In all industrial societies the increasing importance of the examination system, the intrusion of science, and the growth of the professions and of governmental administration mark the beginning of a double shift from the collegiate toward both the academic and the vocational types of culture among students.

Vocational culture is fostered under circumstances in which students are recruited widely from all social classes, especially from those that need and want to use educational qualifications to gain occupational advantage and security. It grows most readily in large, impersonal, nonresidential institutions, where the administration is highly bureaucratic and the interests of the staff are indined toward research and administration rather than teaching. Scientific industrialism generates precisely these conditions. It encourages, over a widening range of occupations, the allocation of roles according to achievement rather than by ascription, with a consequent endemic search for talented people and the proliferation of educational institutions as training centers for a society that exhibits an increasingly complex division of labor. Modern universities in industrial towns, as well as (even more clearly) technical and commercial colleges and evening institutes, have recruited students and organized their studies in ways that unavoidably tend to promote a vocational rather than an academic alternative to traditional collegiate culture.

Rejection of educational aims

Rather similar subcultures are also found in schools where the nonconformist variant shades over into, or is replaced by, a delinquent subculture that expresses rejection of the educational aims of the school. In a study of American high schools Coleman (1961) argued that these variations in patterns of values and behavior inside the school reflect the existence of a general adolescent culture in the wider society. He points out that diverse organizations—including factories, jails, armies, and hospitals—consist of an administrative corps controlling a larger subordinate group. The relationship takes the form of an exchange bargain or wages being exchanged for work; in the case of a school, “grades” and promotion are exchanged for learning and good behavior. Under all such circumstances, pressure is put on individuals by the subordinate group to conform to the group’s norms in order to prevent excessive competition and ensure a maximum return for minimum effort on the part of the average member. Where the adolescent culture is collegiate, vocational, or delinquent rather than academic, the result is to thwart high scholastic standards and to reduce the correlation between high intelligence and high academic performance. The challenge then becomes one of devising an organization that will harness the energy of the adolescent culture to educational aims.

A. H. Halsey

[See alsoAcademic Freedom; Adult Education; Bureaucracy; Teaching; Universities; and the biography ofWaller.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Caplow, Theodore; and McGee, Reece J. 1958 The Academic Marketplace. New York: Basic Books. → A paperback edition was published in 1961 by Wiley.

Clark, Burton R. 1962 Educating the Expert Society. San Francisco: Chandler.

Coleman, James S. 1961 The Adolescent Society: The Social Life of the Teenager and Its Impact on Education. New York: Free Press.

Curle, Adam 1963 Strategy for Developing Societies: A Study of Educational and Social Factors in Relation to Economic Growth. London: Tavistock.

De Witt, Nicholas 1961 Education and Professional Employment in the U.S.S.R. Washington: National Science Foundation.

Durkheim, Émile (1902–1911) 1956 Education and Sociology. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.

Floud, Jean E. 1962 Teaching in the Affluent Society. British Journal of Sociology 13:299–308.

Floud, Jean E.; and Halsey, A. H. 1958 The Sociology of Education: A Trend Report and Bibliography. Current Sociology 7, no. 3.

Gordon, C. Wayne 1957 The Social System of the High School: A Study in the Sociology of Adolescence. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.

Grant, Nigel 1965 Soviet Education. Gloucester, Mass.: Smith.

Great Britain, Committee on Higher Education 1963 Higher Education. Report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister, under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins, 1961–1963. Papers by Command, Cmnd. 2154. London: H.M. Stationery Office. → See especially Appendix No. 5.

Gross, Neal 1958 Who Runs Our Schools? New York: Wiley.

Gross, Neal; Mason, Ward S.; and Mceachern, Alexander W. 1958 Explorations in Role Analysis: Studies of the School Superintendency Role. New York: Wiley.

Halsey, A. H.; Floud, Jean; and Anderson, C. Arnold (editors) 1961 Education, Economy, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Education. New York: Free Press. → See especially parts 5 and 6.

Lazarsfeld, Paul F.; and Thielens, Wagner JR. 1958 The Academic Mind: Social Scientists in a Time of Crisis. A report of the Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.

Mead, Margaret 1951 The School in American Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

Newman, John H. (1852) 1957 The Idea of a University: Defined and Illustrated. New York: Longmans. → The classic formulation of the ideals of a Christian liberal education. First published as On the Scope and Nature of University Education.

Parsons, Talcott (1959) 1961 The School Class as a Social System: Some of Its Functions in American Society. Pages 434–455 in A. H. Halsey, Jean Floud, and C. Arnold Anderson (editors), Education, Economy, and Society. New York: Free Press. → First published in Volume 29 of the Harvard Educational Review.

Pedley, Robert 1963 The Comprehensive School. Baltimore: Penguin.

Riesman, David (1956) 1958 Constraint and Variety in American Education. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

Taylor, William 1963 The Secondary Modern School. London: Faber & Faber.

Veblen, Thorstein (1918) 1957 The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Business Men. New York: Sagamore.

Waller, Willard W. (1932) 1961 The Sociology of Teaching. New York: Russell.

Ward, Lester F. (1883) 1926 Dynamic Sociology: Or, Applied Social Science, as Based Upon Statical Sociology and the Less Complex Sciences. 2d ed., 2 vols. New York: Appleton.

Weber, Max (1906–1924) 1946 From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Wilson, Bryan R. 1962 The Teacher’s Role: A Sociological Analysis. British Journal of Sociology 13:15–32.

Wilson, Logan 1942 The Academic Man: A Study in the Sociology of a Profession. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

The World Year Book of Education, 1965: The Education Explosion. Edited by George Z. F. Bereday and Joseph A. Lauwerys. 1965 New York: Columbia Univ., Teachers College.

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION. European preuniversity education from 1500 to 1789 underwent three major developments. First, Renaissance humanists created the classical Latin curriculum, which dominated schools throughout these centuries. Second, church institutions, both Catholic and Protestant, took leading roles in organizing schools and providing teachers for the vast majority of schools from the late sixteenth century onward. Third, Enlightenment school reformers of the eighteenth century attacked the church's role in education and proposed state schools as an alternative. Their proposals did not win acceptance until after 1789.

THE ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLING IN 1500

Renaissance Europe inherited from the Middle Ages an uncoordinated and diverse structure of schools. Different kinds of schools competed with or complemented each other. One way to understand them is to note their sponsorsthat is, the institution, entity, or person that governed or paid the expenses for a school. A single schoolmaster created an independent school, the equivalent of a "private school" in the twenty-first century. He typically opened a one-room school in his home or rented quarters. There he taught neighborhood pupils whose parents paid him fees to teach their sons. His only qualifications were his teaching skill and his ability to persuade parents to send their children. The teacher might possess a university degree, which meant facility in Latin and acquaintance with higher learning in rhetoric, philosophy, law, or theology. Or he might be only slightly better educated than his pupils.

The tutor was another independent schoolmaster. He lived and taught in the home of a noble or wealthy merchant or visited the household daily. In both cases he taught only the children of the household or two adjacent households. A few tutors were the constant guides and companions, at home or in travel, to single boys or youths of considerable wealth and social standing.

Other independent masters presided over their own boarding schools that housed, fed, and instructed children sent to them. This independent master became a substitute father to his charges. He taught boys in the classroom, chided their manners at table, and improved their morals throughout. At least parents hoped this happened. Some of the most famous humanistic schools of the Italian Renaissance operated by such famous pedagogues as Vittorino Ramboldoni da Feltre (1373/781446/47) and Guarino Guarini of Verona (13741460) were independent boarding schools.

The endowed school was an independent school that endured beyond the lifetime of a single teacher or founder. A wealthy individual left a sum of money for a school. Endowment income paid the master's salary and rent for a schoolroom or building where boys learned for free. In England before the Protestant Reformation, the master of an endowed school often had to be a priest so that he could celebrate daily a mass for the repose of the donor's soul. Schoolboys learned reading, Latin, and sometimes chant. A large endowment could create a boarding school in which boys both studied and lived. An inadequate endowment might mean that boys had to pay supplementary fees. Sometimes endowed schools became municipal schools when the town council paid additional expenses and took over direction.

One group of endowed schools, the English public schools, occupied a unique place in the life of England. Despite the name, they were expensive private schools. The Renaissance and Reformation era saw the foundation of the most prestigious: seven boarding schoolsWinchester (founded 1382), Eton (1440), Westminster (late sixteenth century), Shrewsbury (1552), Harrow (1571), Rugby (1576), and Charterhouse (1611)and two day schools, St. Paul's, founded by the English humanist John Colet (14671519) in 1508, and Merchant Taylors (1561). But England added many more public schools over the centuries. The public schools educated boys from the highest ranks of society, many of whom went on to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The public schools of England produced a large number of clergymen, army officers, and members of government and became even more important in English life in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The local civil authority, such as the town council, might sponsor a school. The town government chose and paid the master, sometimes imposed curricular directives, and sent a visitor to see that teacher and pupils performed satisfactorily. Sometimes municipal schools were free. But they never enrolled all the school-age boys of the town, and they seldom taught girls. The town government typically supported only one or two municipal teachers, who taught perhaps 50 or 60 percent of the town's school-age boys. Often the town permitted the municipal teacher to collect fees from the students to augment his modest salary. Universal public education, with or without fees, did not exist and only gradually won acceptance in the nineteenth century.

A third kind of school was the church school. An ecclesiastical authority or institution, such as a bishop, a cathedral chapter of canons, a monastery, or even the parish priest, opened a school. They were not numerous until the Protestant and Catholic Reformations of the sixteenth century created church schools, which dominated the educational landscape in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Regardless of its sponsorship, the actual school was usually modest. It normally consisted of a single teacher instructing a group of boys of varying ages and abilities, anywhere from a half dozen to thirty, in a single room. If the teacher had forty pupils or more, he might have an assistant who drilled the younger boys in their lessons, such as Latin conjugations and declensions. The schoolroom might be in the teacher's home or a rented room outside it. It is unlikely that the school had an outdoor area for play or physical exercises. Drinking water and food had to be brought in. If the schoolroom had a stove, each pupil might be required to bring a stick of wood on cold days.

Only a minority of boys and a tiny minority of girls aged six to fifteen attended school. Probably about 28 percent of boys attended formal schools in Florence, Italy, in 1480, and 26 percent of boys attended formal schools in Venice in 1587. The girls' percentage was low, probably less than 1 percent. About 20 to 25 percent of boys and less than 5 percent of girls attended school in sixteenth-century England. About 40 percent of boys received enough schooling to become literate in the town of Cuenca (in Castile, Spain) in the sixteenth century. And perhaps 12 percent of Polish males attended school in the 1560s.

School attendance closely followed the hierarchies of wealth, occupation, and social status. Sons of nobles, wealthy merchants, and professionals, such as lawyers, physicians, notaries, high civil servants, university professors, and preuniversity teachers, were much more likely to attend school than sons of craftsmen, artisans, small shopkeepers, wool workers, laborers, and servants. The primary reason for the different schooling rates was that schooling almost always cost money. The social and occupational expectations of parents offered additional reasons.

Boys were far more likely than girls to attend school. They needed schooling, especially Latin schooling, to qualify for leadership positions in society. But such positions and all the learned professions were barred to women. Hence few parents believed that daughters needed formal education. Some girls received informal teaching at home, but the number is impossible to estimate.

Urban dwellers were more likely to attend school than those who lived in the countryside or in farming villages, because more teachers were available in towns and cities. Rural areas had few resources to dedicate to schooling and few available teachers. The distances that students might have to walk to get to school and the exposure of the schoolroom to the elements, a serious consideration in northern Europe, also helped explain the lower schooling rate of rural children. In theory, schools taught all year. Of course numerous saints' days and civic holidays, long vacations at Christmas and Easter, and Carnival before Lent broke up the schedule. So did the need to work in the fields during harvest. And extremes of summer heat and winter cold shut down schools or kept children home.

THE CLASSICAL CURRICULUM OF THE RENAISSANCE

The most significant event in European schooling in these centuries was the adoption of a classical curriculum for the Latin schools in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Medieval Latin schools taught a mixture of manufactured verse texts of pious sentiments, grammar manuals and glossaries, and limited material from ancient classical texts. Renaissance humanists discarded the medieval curriculum in favor of the works of Virgil (7019 b.c.e.), Cicero (10643 b.c.e.), Terence (186/185?159 b.c.e.), Julius Caesar (10044 b.c.e.), and other ancient authors. These authors taught grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy, the famous humanistic studies that imparted virtue and eloquence to the free person, or so the Renaissance believed. Students learned to write Latin in the ornate and highly rhetorical style of Cicero's Epistolae ad familiares (Familiar letters), which was very different from the clear, functional, and sometimes graceless medieval Latin. They studied Virgil and Terence for poetry and Caesar and Valerius Maximus (fl. c. 3040 c.e.) for history. Humanist pedagogues sought guidance on Latin rhetoric and ancient pedagogy generally from the Institutio oratoria (Institutes of oratory) of the ancient Roman teacher of rhetoric Quintilian (c. 35c. 100). Italy adopted the classical Latin curriculum in the first half of the fifteenth century, and the rest of Europe followed in the early sixteenth century.

Attending a Latin school to learn classical Latin was the prerequisite for every professional career because Latin was the language of law, medicine, science, and theology into the eighteenth century and sometimes beyond. To mention one example among many, Isaac Newton (16421727) wrote his masterpiece, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687; Mathematical principles of natural philosophy) in Latin. All students who wished to go to the university had to learn Latin because the lectures, texts, disputations, and examinations were conducted in Latin. And even after Latin ceased to be the universal language for learning, pedagogues and parents believed the study of Latin and Greek grammar prepared the mind for any intellectual endeavor. Latin and Greek literature also conveyed high purpose and lofty moral sentiments that society and parents wanted leaders to emulate.

Social and intellectual consequences of the classical curriculum. The adoption of a classical humanistic curriculum had profound consequences. The division of European education into a classical Latin curriculum for the leaders of society and professionals and a vernacular education for the rest (see below) made schooling the key to social hierarchy. Certainly social divisions existed before the adoption of the classical curriculum and would have continued without it. But now a Latin classical education was crucial for anyone wishing to obtain or hold a certain position in society. Even a bright child could not learn Latin without long and difficult study. And only parents possessing a certain amount of income could afford the fees to send a son and occasionally a daughter to Latin schools for many years and to forgo the assistance and income that a working child brought to the family. From the Renaissance through the eighteenth century and beyond, the classical curriculum defined the academic secondary school, which divided the upper and middle classes from the working class. At the same time, using a classical education as the gateway to advancement also meant that boys, and later girls, of poor and humble origins might advance through merit if they could obtain a Latin education. Free Latin schools eventually became available to some children.

The adoption of a curriculum based on reading the ancient works was a remarkable but strange decision with far-reaching consequences. The ancient world, culturally Greek, spiritually pagan, and politically united under a militaristic Rome, differed greatly from modern European civilization, which was Christian and politically divided into numerous states. Yet Europe's intellectuals and political leaders decided that future leaders of society should study the classics of ancient Rome and Greece in order to become eloquent and morally upright. They did not change their minds until the twentieth century.

The classical curriculum also imparted a secular spirit to European schooling. Even though western European civilization was profoundly otherworldly in its ultimate goal, the Latin classical curriculum emphasized education for this life. Neither Cicero, Virgil, nor any other ancient pagan text urged men and women to do what was morally right in order to enjoy union with the Christian God in the next world. Of course Renaissance educators were convinced that Christianity and the classics taught an identical morality of honesty, self-sacrifice for the common good, and perseverance. But the classics did not teach one to love either enemy or neighbor. Even though Catholic religious orders and Protestant divines added considerable religious content to the classical curriculum, the secular spirit of the classical curriculum remained a significant part of European education far beyond the Renaissance.

VERNACULAR SCHOOLS

Vernacular schools also existed in every region of Europe. Indeed all of Europe had two school systems, classical Latin and vernacular, throughout these centuries. For example, in the major commercial city of Venice, half the boys in school attended vernacular schools in 1587 and 1588. They taught reading and writing in the vernacular and often commercial mathematics to boys (and a small number of girls) destined for the world of work. This curriculum emerged from the practical experience and lay culture of the merchant community. Vernacular schools probably underwent little change during the Renaissance and beyond. Since church and state authorities did not hand down directives for vernacular schools, the teachers, who were almost always modest independent masters, taught what they pleased. Hence the children learned to read from the same adult books of popular culture that their parents enjoyed. Indeed Venetian boys sometimes brought from home popular vernacular texts that parents wanted them to learn to read. The vernacular textbooks were a diverse lot, ranging from medieval saints' lives to Renaissance chivalric romances. Obviously they imparted conflicting moral values. Students would read about heroic saints who endured martyrdom for Christ, then read about knights who killed for revenge and ladies who committed adultery for love. Italian vernacular schools also taught advanced commercial mathematical skills and elementary bookkeeping. Vernacular schools in other parts of Renaissance Europe taught arithmetic but not the rest of the commercial curriculum of Italian vernacular schools.

German vernacular schools were called Winkelschulen ('backstreet' or 'corner schools') because they were located in out-of-the-way places, such as the back room of a shop or the attic of a crowded home, in larger towns or cities. There male and female teachers of modest backgrounds taught boys and some girls basic literacy and elementary arithmetic for small fees. The name also indicates the attitude of authorities, who saw them as unsupervised schools teaching questionable doctrines. A Prussian government evaluation of 1768 saw Winkelschulen as lacking method and discipline and as potential sources of depravity. The self-appointed teachers varied widely: members of dissident religious sects, unemployed preachers, would-be clergymen, artisans, injured soldiers, and women. Despite official disapproval, they continued through the eighteenth century and beyond in German states because they offered a service to a segment of the population that had little or no other access to schooling. Other European countries also had modest vernacular schools but on a more regular basis and enjoying better reputations.

PRINTING AND THE EXPANSION OF EDUCATION

Printing aided education by making available multiple copies of textbooks. The use of movable type began about 1450, and by the 1480s and 1490s publishers were producing significant numbers of reading primers and manuals of Latin syntax (the construction of sentences according to the rules governing the use of words) and morphology (the inflected forms of words). No longer would students have to rely on handwritten manuscripts available only to the teacher or to wealthy students. As the cost of printed books declined drastically in the sixteenth century, it is possible that most pupils had the resources to own a grammar manual and primer. Whether they did or not is impossible to determine.

Historians sometimes believe that more and cheaper printed books stimulated an increase in education and literacy. Rather, four factors working together probably increased the amount of schooling by 1600 and beyond: (1) inexpensive printed books, (2) greater availability of free or inexpensive schooling, (3) the desire of students and parents for more education, and (4) society's willingness to reward those who took the trouble to learn.

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND EDUCATION

Martin Luther (14831546) argued for universal compulsory education, at least at the elementary level. And when German princes embraced the Reformation, Lutheran clergymen drafted new arrangements for the church and state that almost always included a Schulordnung ('school order'). Protestant school orders firmly placed the state (prince or city council) in charge of the schools. By the 1560s and 1570s Protestant school orders created a relatively integrated set of schools, beginning with an elementary school to teach reading and writing. Abler students advanced to a higher school, which taught Latin, and the most gifted and socially privileged to an advanced secondary school, which led to university. The goals were twofold: (1) to train future clergymen and administrators of the state; and (2) to impart to a larger fraction of the male population enough reading and writing to function at an appropriate station in life. The students studied the same classical curriculum taught in Catholic lands along with a great deal of catechetical instruction in Lutheran Christianity. Protestant Germany and nearby border regions, such as Strasbourg, had some excellent secondary-level Latin schools.

It appears that the number and possibly the quality of schools increased during the age of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. But the Protestant Reformation did not mark the beginning of modern schooling. The goals were high, the results often modest. The level of instruction was not always elevated. The schools still often charged fees, which poor parents could not afford. Sometimes parents could not even provide the stick of wood that a child was expected to bring for the school fire in winter. A school seldom enrolled all the boys in the village, and enrollments waxed and waned according to the work seasons. Even though the state was supposed to organize and direct schools, the Winkelschulen continued.

Nevertheless, the Reformation did provide some interesting developments. In 1560 the Scottish Calvinist leader John Knox (15131572) called for a system of parish schools in Scotland that developed over the next two hundred years. Legislation required landowners to appoint a schoolmaster for each parish, to pay him a small salary, and to build a schoolhouse. Parish schools enrolled both boys and girls, although girls' education emphasized reading and sewing rather than the broader range of academic skills imparted to boys. All children had to pay small fees, but the church or community paid the fees of poor children. Although parish schools were less numerous in remote and poorer regions of Scotland than in the affluent lowlands, it was a rudimentary national system of elementary education. By the eighteenth century Scotland had one of the highest schooling rates, especially for girls, in Europe.

Despite such local successes as Scotland, it seems unlikely that the Protestant Reformation made education more available than did Catholic Europe. Indeed because Protestantism abolished religious orders, it did not enjoy the access to the extensive networks of new schools that the religious orders of the Catholic Reformation provided. Nor can the thesis that Protestantism created a permanent expansion of schooling and literacy so that every individual could read the Bible be supported on the basis of current research. The only example in which the Protestant Reformation achieved almost total reading literacy occurred in Sweden in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. There the state Reformed (Lutheran) Church undertook to teach the entire population, male and female, how to read. Thanks to great effort and governmental threats (such as refusing permission to marry to those who failed to learn to read), the effort succeeded. It was an impressive achievement but unique. Nothing comparable occurred anywhere else in Protestant or Catholic Europe.

RELIGIOUS ORDER EDUCATION IN CATHOLIC EUROPE

The new Catholic Reformation religious orders of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries altered the educational landscape of Catholic Europe. The Society of Jesus (founded in 1540) and other religious orders that followed its pedagogical example created new schools and sometimes took control of existing municipal schools. Because they did not charge fees, the new schools of the Jesuits, Piarists, and other orders expanded educational opportunity and dominated education in Catholic countries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Jesuit schools. The Jesuits had not intended to become educators. But in December 1547 the city government of Messina, firmly nudged by the Spanish viceroy who ruled Sicily for Spain, petitioned Ignatius Loyola (14911556) to send ten Jesuits to Messina, five to teach and the rest to undertake spiritual and charitable activities. The city government promised food, clothing, and a building. Recognizing this as an intriguing opportunity and knowing that one did not refuse a viceroy, Loyola managed to send seven Jesuits, including some of the ablest scholars of the young order. According to the agreement with the city, the Jesuit fathers would teach nine classes. In effect they created a classical Latin elementary and secondary school along with higher studies in philosophy. The city would erect a building, the people of Messina would support the Jesuits through freewill offerings, and the viceroy would also help. The school formally opened in October 1548. It was an immediate success, as two hundred boys enrolled by December. The school averaged an enrollment of about three hundred boys in the next two decades.

Free instruction largely explained the instant success of the Messina school. The Jesuits inaugurated the first systematic effort to provide free education for several hundred boys in a town, something entirely new for Italy and Europe. The opportunity must have seemed heaven-sent to boys and their parents. In addition the Jesuit fathers were learned scholars and teachers. Many other Jesuit schools followed.

The Jesuit schools offered the same Latin curriculum that the Italian humanists of the fifteenth century had created and that Desiderius Erasmus (1466?1536) and other northern humanists promoted. But they made several additions: prayers, religious training, and insistence that the boys attend mass, confess, and communicate; better pedagogical organization, including imaginative teaching techniques; and higher subjects, like philosophy, logic, mathematics, and theology.

The Jesuit schools soon refined their goals. Beginning in 1551 they phased out the introductory class that taught beginning reading and writing and the rudiments of Latin grammar. A boy had to learn these before entering a Jesuit school. And the Jesuits decided to concentrate their energies on those likely to stay in school for many years. With this decision, partly provoked by a shortage of teachers, the Jesuits narrowed their educational mission chronologically and socially: they taught the Latin humanities to upper- and middle-class boys aged ten to sixteen. Since the Jesuits followed the policy of free education until the nineteenth century, they sought and received financial support from wealthy lay or ecclesiastical leaders of the community and sometimes from the town government. The growth in the number of Jesuit schools was extraordinary. There were about 35 schools worldwide in 1556, 121 in 1575, 245 in 1599, 293 in 1607, 444 in 1626, 578 in 1679, 612 in 1710, and 669 in 1749. All but a few were in Europe, with the largest number in France and Italy.

A handful of Jesuit schools in large Italian cities, such as Rome and Milan, taught several hundred boys between the ages of ten and sixteen and a few older students. Jesuit schools in France, Germany, and Portugal often taught five hundred to fifteen hundred students. The largest and best-known Jesuit schools taught university-level philosophy, mathematics, and physics to the older and brighter students. At the same time the vast majority of Jesuit schools enrolled only one hundred to two hundred students who studied, under four or five teachers, the Latin humanities curriculum and religious instruction.

The Jesuit schools appealed to the community at large with their public programs. Students at Jesuit schools in Spain and Portugal began to give public performances with scenery, stagecraft, and music of Latin tragedies, both sacred and secular. They also presented what might be called achievement days, in which students orated, recited, and debated before parents and dignitaries of the city. The schools of other Catholic Reformation teaching orders, such as the Barnabites (Clerics Regular of St. Paul) and Somaschans (Clerics Regular of Somascha), did the same.

Schools for nobles. Boarding schools limited to boys of verified noble lineage were a feature of the stratified society of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Princes and others founded boarding schools for noble boys who mixed with their peers from different parts of Europe. They entered between the ages of eleven and fourteen and might stay until the age of twenty. The schools for nobles supplemented the standard Latin curriculum with lessons in singing, dancing, designing fortifications, French, and above all, horsemanship. These schools cost a great deal. Ranuccio I Farnese (15691622, ruled 15921622), duke of Parma and Piacenza, founded a famous school for nobles in 1601 in Parma and gave the Jesuits direction of the school in 1604. It had a peak enrollment of 550 to 600 boys between 1670 and 1700, then began to decline. The Jesuits were the teachers in many noble schools and boarding schools with upper-class boys. Other religious orders followed their lead but to a lesser extent. Some schools for nobles also developed in Protestant lands.

France. In the early sixteenth century many French towns established Latin classical schools open to the boys of the town and staffed by teachers who had imbibed the Renaissance humanistic curriculum at Paris. Then the crown in the early seventeenth century encouraged the Jesuits and other orders to establish schools in the kingdom. Through financial subsidies or royal command, King Henry IV (ruled 15891610) persuaded the religious orders to take direction of the town schools. Sometimes the towns agreed because the schools were going poorly. The town could not provide enough funding, teachers were in short supply, enrollments were declining, academic standards were falling, and the students were disorderly. Under the protection of the crown, the new religious orders of the Catholic Reformation became the schoolmasters of France.

Numerous towns across France replaced their secular schoolmasters with the Jesuits, the French Congregation of the Oratory, and the Doctrinaires (Secular Priests of the Christian Doctrine). They established some remarkable schools. In 1603 Henry IV gave the Jesuits a château in the town of La Flèche in the Loire Valley. Le Collège Henry IV at La Flèche (usually just called La Flèche) began with that gift. The king provided additional financial support in the following years and strongly encouraged members of his court to send their sons there. The school was an instant success, boasting an enrollment of twelve hundred to fourteen hundred students, of whom three hundred were boarders, in a few years. La Flèche's most famous pupil was René Descartes (15961650). Entering in 1606, Descartes spent nine years there, the first six studying Latin grammar, humanities, and rhetoric, the last three studying philosophy, which included mathematics, physics, and Galileo's telescope discoveries. Although he eventually rejected the philosophy learned there, Descartes in 1641 strongly endorsed La Flèche for the excellence of its instruction, its lively students from all over France, and the spirit of student equality the Jesuits fostered.

The Collège de Clermont (15601762), renamed the Collège Louis le Grand in 1682, was the Jesuit school in Paris. It enrolled boys aged twelve to twenty. The number of students steadily rose from fifteen hundred (including three hundred boarders) in 1619 to twenty-five hundred to three thousand students (including five hundred to six hundred boarders) in the late seventeenth century.

Students in the Jesuit schools and probably in most Latin schools in both Catholic and Protestant Europe were placed and promoted according to their achievement, not their ages. This meant that boys of many ages might be in a single class. For example, the rhetoric class at the Collège de Clermont in Paris had 160 pupils (obviously taught by more than one teacher) in 1677. One pupil was ten years old, three were eleven, eight were twelve, fifteen were thirteen, thirty-five were fourteen, thirty-seven were fifteen, twenty-five were sixteen, twenty-eight were seventeen, six were eighteen, two were nineteen, and one was twenty. While the rhetoric class normally took two years to complete, some pupils may have required more time.

Jesuit schools in Europe, Asia, and the Americas followed the program of studies minutely organized in the society's Ratio Studiorum (Plan of studies) of 1599. It prescribed texts, classroom procedures, rules, and discipline. The Ratio Studiorum frowned on corporal punishment; if unavoidable, a non-Jesuit should administer it. Other Catholic religious order schools offering Latin education often copied Jesuit educational procedures to greater or lesser degree.

Piarist schools. Not all schools of the religious orders taught a Latin curriculum to middle- and upper-class boys. The Basque priest José Calasanz (c. 15571648) had the revolutionary idea of offering comprehensive free schooling to poor boys when he opened his first "pious school" in the working-class area of Trastevere, Rome, in 1597. The first pious school accepted only pupils presenting certificates of poverty issued by parish priests. It aimed to educate poor and working-class boys so they might earn a living in this life and attain salvation in the next. The school offered free instruction in vernacular reading, writing, and arithmetic plus some Latin to bright boys, an early attempt to combine the vernacular and Latin curricula. It also furnished books, paper, pens, ink, and on occasion food to needy pupils. Calasanz established a religious order, the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (usually called the Piarists) in 1621 to carry on his work. In time the Piarists dropped the certificate of poverty as a prerequisite for enrollment and accepted students from the middle and upper classes. But they continued to see the poor as their primary student constituency. Their schools enabled poor boys to move up the social ladder, those who learned Latin into professional positions. The Piarists had over two hundred schools, the majority in Italy and Spain and a smaller number in central Europe, in 1784.

EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

Boys and girls almost always attended separate schools in both Catholic and Protestant Europe. A large number of female religious convents educated Catholic girls as long-term boarders. Parents sent a girl to a convent for several years to be educated and to learn sewing and manners. She emerged educated, virtuous, and ready to marry. Some girls decided to remain as nuns. Indeed professed nuns living in convents had a higher literacy rate and were consistently better educated than laywomen.

Church organizations also offered charity schools for poor girls. For example, in 1655 the papacy contributed funding to hire numerous female teachers to staff free neighborhood schools for girls in Rome. Each schoolmistress taught vernacular reading and writing to any number, from a handful to more than seventy girls. These schools lasted until the Kingdom of Italy seized Rome in 1870. Catholic Europe also had an abundance of catechism schools (called Schools of Christian Doctrine), which taught the rudiments of Catholicism and a limited amount of reading, on Sundays and numerous religious holidays, to boys and girls in separate classes. Protestant Europe also had catechism classes or Sunday schools, about which less is known. And numerous clergymen lacking benefices, livings, or parishes in both Protestant and Catholic Europe supported themselves as schoolmasters.

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

Until the eighteenth century, central governments played no direct role in schooling, with the partial exception of state-church collaboration in some small German Protestant states. In the middle of the eighteenth century, educational reformers, strongly influenced by Enlightenment views, began to argue that church schools should be eliminated and the state should become the directing force in education.

State education and attacks on church schools.

Enlightenment reformers, who always came from the upper ranks of society, believed that the absolutist state could and should improve men and women through reform from above. They accepted the psychology of John Locke (16321704), educated at the public school of Westminster and at Oxford University, who published two influential works on education, An Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690) and Some Thoughts concerning Education (1693). He held that the child was a tabula rasa ('blank slate') on which anything could be written. Thus the right early education would impart useful skills and would form the child with proper values, which included good manners and deference to authority. Children so formed would become useful and loyal citizens; if wrongly educated, they would not. Hence the central government, rather than the church or local authorities, should control schools and choose the teachers. Numerous Enlightenment figures echoed or expanded Locke's views.

The attack on church education began in Catholic countries just as the ruling classes in Catholic Europe began to find fault with the most famous of the church schools, those of the Jesuits. For example, enrollment at La Flèche dropped to four hundred, of whom two hundred were boarders, by 1760. The reformers launched a general attack on the Society of Jesus for many reasons, of which their domination in education was one. The Jesuits were expelled from Portugal in 1759, from France in 1764, and from Spain in 1767. Their schools (105 in France) were closed or assigned to other religious congregations. Bowing to pressure from governments, the papacy suppressed the society in 1773. But needing to maintain educational institutions for their Catholic subjects, Frederick the Great (17121786) of Prussia and Catherine the Great (17291796) of Russia, neither of whom was Catholic, rejected the papal bull and welcomed the Jesuits in their realms.

State authorities across Europe also confiscated numerous church buildings and properties during the last years of the eighteenth century and in the nineteenth century, further weakening the capacity of church groups to support schools. Governments seldom succeeded in eliminating church schools in either Catholic or Protestant lands. But they seriously weakened churches as rivals to the central state governments as the chief force in schooling.

Numerous eighteenth-century school reformers filled with Enlightenment views fanned across Europe, offering schemes to replace church schools and to change preuniversity education. They offered advice to any ruler who showed an interest, however fleeting, in school reform. Their plans had many similarities, because they came from a common stock of Enlightenment principles and because the reformers borrowed from each other, helped by the fact that Europe's educated classes all read and spoke French.

The educational reform plan of Louis-Renéde Caradeuc de la Chalotais (17011785) attracted the most attention. As royal attorney for the parlement of his native Rennes, La Chalotais published an influential work against the Jesuits and their schools, Comptes rendus des constitutions des jésuites

(Report on the Constitution of the Jesuits) in 17611762. In 1763 he published his Essai d'éducation nationale, ou plan d'études pour la jeunesse (Essay on national education; or, a plan of studies for youth). Much of the treatise reiterated views held by others, but he added something new, the idea of national education.

La Chalotais's plan had several parts. He advocated the teaching of French while not eliminating Latin. He wanted children to learn national history, another difference from the classical schools. The state should ensure that children were taught good morals based on fundamental ethical truths, because good morals were essential for the well-being of society. La Chalotais allowed that churches might teach religion, but outside of the school. He also believed that girls should be educated, albeit with the substitution of needlework and like skills appropriate to their gender for some of the studies of boys. The most important part of the treatise was his belief that schools were a national concern, and therefore the state should organize schools, regulate studies, appoint teachers, and provide school buildings. This was revolutionary at a time when governments left the regulation of schools to local authorities and church institutions. But he did not advocate universal education; he thought there already were too many collèges, that is, secondary schools. Too many would entice working-class parents to send their children, who would become secretaries, thus depriving society of men for the manual trades, recruits for the navy, and other useful workers. Most Enlightenment reformers agreed; Voltaire (16941778), for example, congratulated La Chalotais for proposing to limit the number of collèges. La Chalotais even thought elementary education should not be too extensive: it was enough that some people learned how to use tools, he wrote.

Enlightenment school reformers held a hierarchical view of society that limited their commitment to universal education. Most other Enlightenment educational reformers agreed with La Chalotais on his major points. State schooling should be free for lower-class boys but limited to elementary education, ending at the ages of ten to twelve. Otherwise they would aspire to rise above their station, thus depriving society of their labor and upsetting the right order of things. By contrast, the sons of the ruling classes should avoid state elementary schools and continue to study with tutors or attend elite schools. They should go on to secondary schools, including boarding schools, with their classical Latin and Greek curriculum.

Rulers in France, Prussia, Austria, Bavaria, Russia, Spain, Piedmont, Sweden, and elsewhere showed interest in reforming schools. Numerous reformers gave them advice; for example, Denis Diderot (17131784) advised Catherine the Great of Russia, and Étienne Bonnet de Condillac (17151780) advised the duke of Parma. They all agreed that the state, not the church, should control education and that education should aim to produce good citizens by teaching good morals. They wanted limited universal education, a contradiction in terms.

The results were negligible. Rulers promulgated sweeping school reform proposals but failed to support their proposals by providing more lay teachers, teacher training, school buildings, or even textbooks. Nor did they change the religious orientation of schools. Rulers offered halfhearted support for educational change because they feared that universal education would upset the social order. Most education remained in the hands of church institutions, except for the banished Society of Jesus.

Frederick the Great, king of Prussia from 1740 until his death in 1786, was typical. Declaring that uneducated citizens were like animals, he promulgated sweeping new school regulations for Prussia in 1763 and then forgot about them. Part of the reason was his fear that, if rural children learned more than reading and writing, they would run off to the city for higher occupations. The state needed peasants, laborers, and soldiers.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778), in his novel Émile ou de l'éducation (Emile, or about education) of 1762 offered the most radical educational approach. Totally opposed to Locke's views that basic ideas could be implanted in a boy and that he should be raised for a specific role or occupation in society, Rousseau believed the child should be allowed to develop his or her unique nature. Rousseau saw the child not as a small adult but as a developing person. He would postpone moral training until later and raise the child independently of religious doctrine or the influences of civilization. Rousseau's book stimulated great discussion but had no discernible influence on contemporary education. Not until the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era (17891815), and the nineteenth century as a whole did some of the proposals from the school reforms of the eighteenth century come to fruition, and then only slowly.

CONCLUSION

Education was an integral part of the intellectual life and social fabric of Europe. Education divided the population into an educated elite, a middle group who received vernacular educations, and an unschooled or little-schooled third group. From their first days in the classroom children received different educations according to the social and economic position of a child's parent, usually the father, a child's intended position in society, and a child's gender. Education enabled some academically gifted individuals to rise.

From the Renaissance onward the classical secondary school was the center of European elite education. Educational leaders and probably the majority of society believed that learning ancient languages and literatures developed mental discipline and offered examples of the highest human culture in the original language. Skills learned in Latin classes shaped rhetorical patterns, moral attitudes, habits of thought, and even vernacular speech and writing. The study of Latin and Greek grammar developed mental discipline, while ancient Latin and Greek literature offered examples of the highest human culture in the original language. The classical curriculum also offered practical skills, since university education, law, the church, and government service required a knowledge of Latin. Children not destined for leadership roles attended vernacular schools. Despite the limitations, the organization and curricula of the schools of these centuries was surprisingly rich and varied.

See also Enlightenment ; Humanists and Humanism ; Jesuits ; Latin ; Religious Orders ; Universities .

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Strauss, Gerald. Enacting the Reformation in Germany: Essays on Institution and Reception. Aldershot, U.K., and Brookfield, Vt., 1993. Includes several essays on schools in the German Reformation.

. Luther's House of Learning: Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation. Baltimore and London, 1978. Critical assessment of the aims and results of education in the Lutheran Reformation.

Toscani, Xenio. Scuole e alfabetismo nello Stato di Milano da Carlo Borromeo alla Rivoluzione. Brescia, Italy, 1993. Model study of schooling and literacy in Milan, 1560 to 1800.

Tuer, Andrew White. History of the Horn Book. New York, 1979. Study of the primer used throughout Europe with many illustrations; first published in 1897.

Paul F. Grendler

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Chapter 3
Education

In The Condition of Education, 2005 (2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports that two factors—rising immigration and the baby boom echo—boosted public school enrollment from the latter part of the 1980s and into the first half of the 2000s, reaching an estimated 48.3 million in 2004. Enrollment is projected to continue to increase to an all-time high of fifty million in 2014. Along with this increase in enrollment came an increase in the proportion of public school students who were considered to be part of a minority group, due largely to the growth in the Hispanic public school population. The NCES also reports that 41.7% of public school students enrolled in kindergarten through twelfth grade in the fall of 2003 belonged to a minority group. Hispanics (18.6%) and African-Americans (16.1%) accounted for the largest number of minority students in public schools. These figures represented a significant increase since the early 1970s, when white students made up 77.8% and minority students only 22.2% of the public school population. (See Table 3.1.)

PUBLIC SCHOOL OUTCOMES

In the United States, education is often viewed as a way out of poverty to a better life. Many observers believe education is the key to narrowing the economic gap between the races. While many individual minority students strive for, and achieve, great educational success, on average minority students perform less well than white students in school and are generally more likely than their white counterparts to drop out of school. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the exception to this rule. Many Asian-American students accomplish stunning academic achievements. Educators point with pride to these high-achieving students, who have often overcome both language and cultural barriers. Why are some groups more at risk of failure, while other groups enjoy success?

Risk Factors in Education

Asian-American students generally have fewer family risk factors—living below the poverty level, living in a household where the primary language is not English, having a mother whose highest education is less than a high school diploma or equivalent, and living in a single-parent household—than other minority groups. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort, a study by the NCES, collected information on a cohort of children born in 2001 and will follow them through 2007, focusing on children's early development and how parents prepare their children for school. While at nine months of age little variation in mental and motor skills was found by race or ethnic group, several demographic characteristics were related to the likelihood of families engaging in activities that help prepare children for school, including reading or telling them stories, singing to them, taking them on errands, playing peek-a-boo, and allowing them to play outside. Asian-American families were more likely than other minority groups to read to their children (26%), tell them stories (25%), and play peek-a-boo (73%), although they were less likely to facilitate outside playing (43%) and significantly less likely to take their children on errands (38%) than were other minority families. (See Table 3.2.)

In contrast, both African-American and Hispanic families were less likely to read to (23% and 21%, respectively) and tell their children stories (24% and 21%, respectively), and more likely to sing to them (73% and 70%, respectively) and play peek-a-boo (61% and 64%, respectively) than were white families. This may be partly because poor families were much less likely to engage in these activities with their children than were nonpoor families, and African-American and Hispanic families are disproportionately poor. African-American, white, and Hispanic families were about equally likely to take their children on errands and facilitate outside playing. (See Table 3.2.)

TABLE 3.1
Percentage distribution of public school students enrolled in grades K-12 who were minorities, 1972–2003
Fall of year White Total Minority enrollment
Black Hispanic Other
*Not available.
Note: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Black includes African American and Hispanic includes Latino. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified. Includes all public school students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2003, the categories for race changed on the Current Population Study (CPS), allowing respondents to select more than one race. Respondents who selected more than one race were placed in the "other" category for the purposes of this analysis.
source: "Table 4-1. Percentage Distribution of Public School Students Enrolled in Kindergarten through 12th Grade, by Race/Ethnicity: Fall 1972–2003," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
197277.822.214.86.01.4
197378.121.914.75.71.4
197476.823.215.46.31.5
197576.223.815.46.71.7
197676.223.815.56.51.7
197776.123.915.86.21.9
197875.524.516.06.52.1
1979*****
1980*****
198172.427.616.08.72.9
198271.928.116.08.93.2
198371.328.716.19.23.4
198471.728.316.18.53.6
198569.630.416.810.13.5
198669.130.916.610.83.6
198768.531.516.610.84.0
198868.331.716.511.04.2
198968.032.016.611.44.0
199067.632.416.511.74.2
199167.132.916.811.84.2
199266.833.316.912.14.3
199367.033.016.612.14.3
199465.834.216.713.73.8
199565.534.516.914.13.5
199663.736.316.614.55.3
199763.037.016.914.95.1
199862.437.617.215.45.1
199961.938.116.516.25.5
200061.338.716.616.65.4
200161.338.716.516.65.6
200260.739.316.517.65.2
200358.341.716.118.67.0

Segregation in Schools Persists

One reason African-American children have historically lagged behind white children in educational achievement has been the separate and inferior schools that they have been forced to attend. On May 17, 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 US 483), the U.S. Supreme Court declared that separate schools for African-American children were inherently unequal and that schools had to be desegregated. More than fifty years later, more and more school districts are questioning whether the federal courts need to continue supervising desegregation. However, despite regulations and busing, many inner-city schools are still not integrated, and academic achievement for African-American children is still lagging. Many white students have moved (with their families' tax dollars) to the suburbs or transferred to private schools to avoid inner-city schools with high populations of minority students. Typically, half the white students assigned to new schools under desegregation orders never attend those schools.

Overcoming Risk Factors

In "Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement: The Children of Southeast Asian Boat People Excel in the American School System" (Scientific American, February 1992), Nathan Caplan, Marcella H. Choy, and John K. Whitmore find that despite hardships and severe traumatic experiences in their native countries and despite attending schools in low-income inner cities, most Indo-Chinese refugee students (which include children from Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos) performed well in school. Caplan, Choy, and Whitmore also find that strong family traditions and values were the important influences in these children's lives. The families were committed to a love of learning. They placed a high value on homework and did it as a family activity, with the older children helping the younger ones. Furthermore, parents read regularly to their children either in English or in their native language.

The Indo-Chinese are not the only group to have accomplished this kind of academic success. For the most part, Japanese immigrant families have strong traditions that place great value on learning. This group has also had high academic success, overcoming longtime racial prejudice to excel in school. In schools that emphasize parental involvement and structure in the children's learning environment at home as well as in school, African-Americans have also had outstanding achievement.

Educational Progress

THE EARLY CHILDHOOD LONGITUDINAL STUDY

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study collected information on a cohort of children who began kindergarten in the fall of 1998 and followed them through the spring of 2004. The study specifically looked at children's achievement in mathematics and reading as they progressed through school. The study found that the number of family risk factors (poverty, non-English primary home language, mother's lack of a high school diploma/GED, or a single-parent household) inversely related to gains in mathematics and reading through third grade. (See Table 3.3.) Minority children tend to have higher numbers of risk factors than do white children. However, even when controlling for family risk factors, African-American children had lower average achievement scores than other racial and ethnic groups when they began kindergarten, and the gap in those achievement scores widened from the start of kindergarten through the end of third grade. The researchers have not yet proposed an explanation for this difference, but it may be because of entrenched racism within American culture and the school system—if children of a particular group are expected to perform poorly, they may in fact do so.

TABLE 3.2
Percentage of children about 9 months of age who engaged in selected activities with a family member daily in a typical week, by child and family characteristics, 2001–02
Child and family characteristic Read stories T