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Education

EDUCATION

EDUCATION. Americans have long invested importance in education as a means of social improvement and individual fulfillment. Education has entailed both formal instruction in schools, universities, and other institutions, and informal learning in a variety of settings. Schools were respected institutions early in American history, and their significance has grown with time. Education and schooling have also been at the center of social and political conflict, often over issues of status and inequality. Schools eventually became instruments of government social policy, utilized to offset historic inequities and to help achieve social justice. Education also contributed human capital to the nation's economy. In the nineteenth century, reformers focused on training reliable workers; in the twentieth century, schools prepared men and women for office and professional employment. At the same time, education has been a vital element of social and economic mobility for generations of Americans.

Historically, the primary schools were the objects of the nation's first great era of education reform. Next came secondary schools, which grew most rapidly during the early twentieth century, and colleges and universities expanded notably in the years following World War II. Schools at all levels have been indispensable to the formation of a national identity for Americans throughout history. From the very earliest stages of the new republic, schools have helped to foster loyalty to the principles of democratic governance, and to the particular tenets of American nationalism. They also have served as a forum for debate over the evolution of these principles.

Education in the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods

The cultivation of skills and the transmission of culture were major concerns of English settlers in North America, evident almost immediately upon their arrival. This was apparent in New England, where early laws called for establishing schools and for educating young men—and eventually young women too. But schools were established elsewhere, along with colleges, to provide avenues of formal education. Schools were fragile institutions in the colonial world, existing alongside older and more familiar agencies of education, the family and the church. Even though there was a high level of rhetorical commitment to formal education in certain colonies, only a minority of youth were "educated" by today's standards.

New England's colonists placed special value on the necessity of moral and religious leadership, and preparing a cadre of educated leaders was considered essential. An early sign of this was the decision to establish Boston Latin School in 1635 and Harvard College a year later. In the wake of religious debates and schisms, other colleges were started in nearby Connecticut (Yale, 1701), Rhode Island (Brown, 1764), and New Hampshire (Dart-mouth, 1769). These were small institutions, enrolling fewer than a hundred students, and hardly represented a well-developed education system.

In 1647, Massachusetts enacted a law requiring towns of fifty families to establish a school, to confound the "Old Deluder Satan" in his never-ending quest to lead Christians astray. Connecticut enacted a similar law just a few years later and eventually other New England colonies did as well, with the exception of Rhode Island. It is unlikely, however, that most towns large enough to be covered by these measures complied immediately, especially if there was not a large number of families interested in establishing a school. Only eleven known schools existed in Massachusetts in 1650, serving some 2,339 households (or one for every 212); by 1689, the number of schools had grown to 23 and households to 8,088 (one for every 352). Even if the quantity of schools increased significantly in the eighteenth century, many children probably attended only briefly, if at all.

In other colonies, schools were even fewer. In 1689, Virginia had only eight schools for more than seven thousand households (or about one for every nine hundred); and New York had eleven for about 2200 families (one for every two hundred). Virginia's William and Mary (1693) was the only southern college of the colonial era. Others appeared in the middle colonies, reflecting the region's religious and cultural diversity. The College of New Jersey (today Princeton) was established in 1746, New York's Kings College (Columbia) in 1754, the College of Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania) in 1755, and New Jersey's Queens College (Rutgers) in 1766.

While the appearance of such institutions was notable, there also was considerable indifference or even hostility to formal education, especially in the South. In 1671, Lord Berkeley of Virginia made this famous statement: "I thank God that there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope that we shall not have these [for a] hundred years." Berkeley, who was governor at the time, echoed the view of many aristocrats and wealthy planters that "learning has brought disobedience, and heresy, and sects into the world." Attitudes such as these no doubt accounted for some of the regional disparities in colonial education.

Schools typically were run by a single teacher, or "master." Outside of Boston, New York or Philadelphia, schools rarely were larger than a single classroom, with perhaps several dozen students. For most colonists, schooling lasted less than seven or eight years, with only four or five months in each term. Students read the Bible, along with spellers, prayer books, catechisms, and other religious materials. The famous New England Primer, first published before 1690, was the best known of a wide range of reading materials used to impart lessons in spelling and grammar, along with morality and virtue. While there were a few legendary teachers, such as Ezekial Cheever of the Boston Latin School, many were college students or recent graduates waiting to be called to a pulpit. Yet other teachers were men of modest education, ill suited for other lines of work, managing schools for lack of better employment. In certain New England towns "dame schools" were run by women, offering classes for young children of both sexes. As a rule, teaching was a relatively low status occupation, even when schools were few and education was considered at least nominally important.

Statistics on literacy seem to confirm the general regional distribution of schools, although it is not clear that reading was always linked to formal education. New England exhibited the highest rates of literacy, as measured by counting signatures on wills. About three-quarters of the male population was literate in the mid-eighteenth century, and nearly 90 percent by the time of the revolution. Literacy rates appear to have been lower in the middle colonies, New York and Pennsylvania, and were the lowest in the South. The male literacy rate in Virginia was about 70 percent by the end of the eighteenth century, comparable to England. The female literacy rate was lower than men's everywhere, although in New England the gap appears to have narrowed by the end of the eighteenth century.

Much of life in colonial society revolved around the family, the central unit of productive activities and a key site of informal education. Families were large and children were expected to contribute to the welfare of each household. Relevant skills and bodies of knowledge, ranging from farming, carpentry, husbandry, and hunting to food preservation, soap making, cooking, and sewing were imparted informally, along with basic literacy. Popular books praised the independence of children, and the virtue of lessons learned away from parents and family. Many families sent older children to board with neighbors or relatives, as a form of apprenticeship and a means of discipline. There also were traditional apprenticeships for young men interested in learning a trade, a practice with deep European roots, observed widely in the colonies. In most cases, formal contracts were drawn up, periods of service were outlined, and lessons were agreed upon. The host household typically provided food, lodging, and other necessities of support in exchange for work, training, and education as specified by the contract. Occasionally there were complaints about cruel or unfair masters who did not abide by such agreements.

A limited number of schools were established to educate Native Americans and Blacks, the principal non-European groups in colonial society. Dartmouth College included a provision for American Indians in its original charter, although this idea was short lived. The Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, or SPG, aimed to convert non-Christian residents of the colonies, particularly Native Americans and Africans. Starting in the early eighteenth century, the SPG dispatched hundreds of ministers and teachers to the New World, opening a number of schools, most of them transitory. It was more effective at printing Bibles and religious tracts that circulated widely in colonial society.

The American Revolution was a watershed event in the early history of American education. The war disrupted many institutions, forcing students to suspend studies and teachers to consider joining one side or the other. More importantly, the revolution led to a new republican sensibility in the former colonies, articulated by a generation of enlightened leaders who believed that education was essential to the new political order. Citizens of a representative democracy, they reasoned, had to be well informed and prepared to critically assess the arguments and opinions of the day.

Education and schooling became topics of discussion and debate, the subject of speeches, addresses, articles, and pamphlets. Thomas Jefferson proposed publicly supported schools throughout Virginia, in a "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge," before the revolution ended in 1779. He believed that free schooling would lead to a "natural aristocracy" of talent and accomplishment, leaders for the new nation. Jefferson's plan was never adopted, but it reflected the new significance attached to education. Benjamin Rush advocated making American children into "republican machines" through improved systems of schooling. Noah Webster advocated universal free education to foster national unity. Webster called for schools to establish "an inviolable attachment to their country" in the minds of children, and urged Americans to "begin with the infant in the cradle; let the first word he lisps be Washington." Early federal legislation for the distribution of public lands, passed in 1785 and 1787, called for a portion of the proceeds to be used for establishing state education systems, including universities. Seven of the new state constitutions also made reference to education, reflecting these concerns.

Among the most important effects of the American Revolution was its impact on the lives of colonial women. Benjamin Rush probably was the best-known proponent of women's education in the years immediately following the revolution. The reasoning was plain: if children needed to be trained in the virtues of republican government, the task of early education would fall to their mothers. Consequently, American women had to be educated, at least enough to read, write, and teach their children moral precepts and principles of republicanism. Historians have labeled this view "republican motherhood," and it contributed to increased interest in women's education during the latter decades of the eighteenth century.

While the colonial era saw limited development in education, the closing decades of the eighteenth century were marked by considerable ferment about it. Revolutionary ideas about state-sponsored systems of schooling, republican socialization, and women's education marked the dawn of a new era. It would take time, and the efforts of another generation of reformers, for these notions to affect the schooling of most Americans.

Education in the Nineteenth Century

The nineteenth century was a time of rapid economic growth and urbanization, an era of institution building, and education was shaped by these developments. Schools became instruments of reform, intended to help redress pressing social problems. State and city systems of schooling came into view, although local prerogatives continued to dictate most educational practices. It was a time when schools and education gradually assumed greater importance, and came to reflect prevailing social divisions and patterns of inequality in American life.

The nation's total investment in education grew dramatically, as more people attended school for greater lengths of time. In 1800, the average American received about 210 days of formal education in a lifetime. By 1850, that figure had more than doubled and by 1900, it had jumped to 1050 days, about half of what it would be in 2000. In the course of these changes, formal education began to assume the familiar dimensions of modern school experiences. Schooling became associated with the cultivation of proper "habits" of industriousness and responsibility, along with essential skills of literacy, numerical calculation, and knowledge of history, geography, and other subjects.

Education in the countryside evolved slowly, but schools developed more rapidly in the cities. Education was linked to questions of poverty and destitution, crime and social conflict. The earliest publicly supported urban institutions were called "charity schools," and were designated for the children of the poor. Started by civic-minded members of the urban middle and upper classes, they imparted proper norms of behavior along with basic lessons in literacy, mathematics, geography, and other subjects. Monitorial schools, modeled on the ideas of English educator Joseph Lancaster, featured a single teacher managing hundreds of children by using older students as "monitors." These and other schools reflected prevailing norms of strict discipline and order. Urban reformers struggled to improve attendance and introduce uniformity into lessons, at the same time that city growth created rising demand for schooling.

Industrialization posed challenges to education. With the advent of child labor, the factory became a school by default, although its lessons were usually quite harsh. While some states passed laws requiring factory owners to arrange for teaching child employees, such measures often were honored in the breach. Some reformers rejected the idea of industry altogether and attempted to establish ideal agrarian societies in isolated communities dotting the countryside. The best known of these communal experiments was Robert Owen's socialist cooperative in Indiana, called New Harmony. Established on principles of shared work and property, and an education system predicated on performing useful tasks without the imposition of discipline, New Harmony was a challenge to long-standing conventions. Although other communal experiments persisted considerably longer than Owen's, their collective influence on the educational system was limited.

Schools in the countryside were isolated and small; classes were conducted for relatively short periods and taught by itinerant masters with little formal training. A typical district school served an area of two to four square miles, populated by twenty to fifty families. These institutions helped to enhance basic literacy skills, but they built on a foundation established by local households. By the early nineteenth century, they literally dotted the countryside in most northern states, serving millions of children. Overall, levels of enrollment were quite high, over 70 percent for children aged nine to thirteen in 1830. Only Germany had higher rates, and by 1880, the U.S. led the world. These figures reflect girls attending along with boys, at least in the Northeastern states and the upper Midwest, another unique feature of American education.

Enrollments notwithstanding, the length of school terms varied, and day-to-day attendance often was inconsistent. There was scarcely any advanced training, as most teachers knew little beyond the "three Rs" and seldom remained in any one place longer than a year or two. Schools generally were ungraded, with children of all ages in the same room and enduring the discomforts of poor ventilation and threadbare accommodations. Discipline was emphasized, with rules enforced by harsh physical punishments. The chief instructional technique was recitation, requiring students to repeat portions of text they had memorized. Schools also conveyed basic mathematical and computational principles, along with a smattering of history, geography, and "moral philosophy." Contests and games, such as spelling bees or multiplication tournaments, helped break the monotony, and storytelling imparted history and geography lessons.

Early reformers were troubled by the variability that existed in the rural schools. They fretted over the haphazard training of teachers, the short terms squeezed between harvest and planting seasons, and the chance provision of such basic school supplies as books and firewood. Reformers also worried about the growing diversity of American society and the possibility of social conflict in the absence of common values and a shared identity. In light of these concerns, and the reforms they inspired, historians have referred to this period as the "age of the common school."

The best-known proponent of common school re-form was Horace Mann, an indefatigable lawyer and state legislator who accepted the newly created post of Secretary of the State Board of Education in Massachusetts in 1837. Like other reformers, Mann worked with a modest salary and little formal authority, traveling widely to proclaim the virtues of common schools. His annual reports, published by the state, became influential statements of educational reform. Mann battled over issues of religious sectarianism in instruction, property taxes for education, longer school terms, and systematic examinations and training requirements for teachers. In particular, he succeeded in persuading the Massachusetts legislature to establish the nation's first publicly supported teacher training institution, called a normal school, derived from the French word normale, in Lexington in 1838.

Mann and other reformers thought that women had a special role to play as teachers. Many believed women naturally suited for this role, due to their supposed maternal characteristics of patience and affection toward small children. Women teachers also cost less than men, even when professionally trained, so their employment could help restrain the expense of reforms. Feminization of teaching had occurred earlier in New England, but proceeded rapidly elsewhere, and by the time of the Civil War a majority of teachers in most northern states were women.

Henry Barnard was a famous contemporary of Mann who held similar appointments in Connecticut and Rhode Island and served as the first U.S. Commissioner of Education from 1867 to 1870. Other leading reformers included John Pierce in Michigan and Calvin Stowe in Ohio. This generation shared a similar set of values and assumptions about schooling and its purposes, much of it derived from their Protestant upbringing and nationalist ardor. Influential textbooks transmitted these values to generations of students, especially the popular McGuffey readers first published in 1836. These reforms found support in the fervent language regarding education in new state constitutions, particularly in the northern tier extending west from New England and the Middle Atlantic States.

Larger cities became sites of battles over the control and content of public schooling. Immigrant religious groups objected to the inveiglement of Protestant precepts and values in most curricula and textbooks, and they demanded support for parochial schools. The best-known conflict occurred in 1842, when New York's Bishop John Hughes challenged local charity school groups, prompting creation of a public board of education. Eventually, parochial schools became quite numerous in many northern cities, enrolling thousands of children and providing an important alternative to public schools.

Another aspect of reform concerned secondary or high schools, which became popular institutions in the nineteenth century. There had been little public demand for secondary schools until after the revolution, as private tutoring and tuition-based academies prepared young men for college and few occupations required advanced schooling. Beginning in 1821, with the establishment of the first public high school, Boston's English High School, American secondary schools, as distinct from a classical grammar school or academy, prepared students for a host of practical purposes. By the end of the nineteenth century, they existed in one form or another in nearly every type of city or large town in the country, enrolling nearly a half million students. The high school had become pervasive, even though it served less than 10 percent of the nation's teenage population.

High schools also featured instruction in some classical subjects, especially Latin, long considered a sign of achievement and status. Most larger public high schools admitted students by examination, and many prospective scholars were turned away. These tax-supported institutions often were quite costly, occupying palatial buildings erected at great expense and with considerable fanfare. This, along with their exclusivity, led to attacks, culminating in a landmark 1874 decision in Kalamazoo, Michigan, upholding the right of school boards to levy taxes to support such institutions. High schools in the United States also generally were coeducational. Advances in women's secondary education were envisioned by such pioneering educators as Emma Willard, Mary Lyon, and Catharine Beecher. While these reformers' influence was limited, and conservatives attacked the idea of coeducation, public support for women's education was high. By the end of the nineteenth century, female students outnumbered males in high schools across the country.

Education in the South lagged behind other regions. This was partly due to the plantation elite, which viewed popular education with suspicion. It also was linked to the legacy of slavery, and concerns with keeping the black population in a condition of servitude. Informal forms of education abounded, from tutoring to apprenticeship and other forms of vocational training. Despite their exclusion from formal education, slave families imparted lessons from one generation to another, transmitting a rich cultural tradition that left an indelible imprint on the region.

Free blacks established schools for their struggling communities, or modified those founded by philanthropic whites. This was true in northern cities before the Civil War, and throughout the South after. The Freedman's Bureau supported thousands of schools in the war's aftermath, providing critical skills and training. Black literacy rates began to improve significantly, and by 1890, nearly two-thirds could read. Even so, inequities abounded. Term lengths in southern black schools stagnated, while those in the white schools began to increase, even approaching the standard of the northern states by the 1890s. Black teachers were paid less than their white counterparts, and were allotted meager sums for textbooks and other supplies. Legal challenges to this were denied in the U.S. Supreme Court case Cumming v. School Board of Education of Richmond County, Georgia (1899). Where there had been some measure of parity during Reconstruction, southern school districts eventually spent as little on black students as a fifth of that expended for whites.

Native American education in the nineteenth century featured a deliberate crusade to alter an indigenous way of life. American Indians had long practiced their own forms of education, a process of acculturation that varied from one tribal group to another. Early schools for Native Americans were established by religious missionaries, intent on evangelizing and introducing basic literacy skills. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), established as part of the War Department in 1824, supervised dozens of schools by 1850, reaching a small fraction of the population. In 1870, programs were run by both the BIA and missionaries, as part of the federal government's "Peace Policy," although government schools eventually predominated. In 1877, there were 150 BIA schools enrolling several thousand students, and by 1900, the number of institutions had more than doubled and enrollments exceeded twenty thousand, representing half the school age population. Certain schools boarded students, the most famous being the Carlisle School, founded in 1879 by Captain Richard Henry Pratt. These institutions attempted aggressive assimilation of American Indian students, but rarely succeeded. Despite these efforts, and an extensive network of BIA schools, Native Americans remained isolated on reservations, and outside the nation's social and economic mainstream.

The nineteenth century is also referred to as the "age of the college." While only a handful of higher education institutions existed in 1800, several hundred others were founded in the next fifty years. Leading state universities were established and other institutions were sponsored by religious denominations. Most fought for survival, competing for students and financial support. The Dartmouth College case, settled in 1819, granted private institutions autonomy from the state legislatures that chartered them. Many colleges offered few advanced courses, however, the rest being "prepatory" classes equivalent to those in academies or high schools. Through much of the nineteenth century, American collegiate institutions were dominated by a classical curriculum and an academic culture shaped by traditions handed down from the colonial period. Latin and Greek represented the core of the curriculum and most classes were conducted by recitation. There were efforts to introduce more scientific, historical, and literary studies. Francis Wayland advocated such innovations as president at Brown, but the Yale Report of 1828, a faculty document defending classical studies, helped to slow widespread change during the antebellum period. Tradition held the classical emphasis to be indispensable; without it, no course of study could represent collegiate standards.

Change was evident, however, in the latter decades of the century. The first Land Grant College Act in 1862, drafted by Vermont congressman Justin Smith Morrill, established support for institutions devoted to practical and scientific study. A second Morrill act in 1890 provided even more support for these state universities. Meanwhile, visionary leaders such as Harvard's Charles Eliot broke the stranglehold of tradition in the collegiate curriculum, introducing a liberal elective system that allowed students to choose courses freely. Scientific research institutes had been opened at Harvard, Yale, and other institutions even before Eliot's reforms, and new research oriented universities were established afterward, with Cornell (1868), Johns Hopkins (1876), and Chicago (1890) leading the way. These institutions were influenced by the German model of higher education, which emphasized research-based learning instead of classical training. Flagship state universities, such as Michigan, Wisconsin, and California, also exhibited German influences and attracted professors dedicated to scholarship and research.

Adult education found expression in the lyceum movement, which began in 1826 and within a decade had established more than three thousand local forums for lectures and debates. After the Civil War, the Chautauqua movement sponsored traveling and local exhibitions and lectures, eventually embracing hundreds of local associations. These forms of popular learning continued into the early twentieth century, when their roles were increasingly filled by universities, museums, libraries, and other institutions.

By 1900, the basic elements of a modern education system were in place. Common school reform had established a network of primary schools, public high schools existed in towns and cities across the country, and colleges and universities were widely accessible. Americans attended school at higher rates than in any other nation and engaged in a variety of other educational activities. This keen interest in education would continue in the years ahead.

Reforming Education in the Early Twentieth Century

Education reform appeared in many guises in the opening decades of the twentieth century. Progressive education was identified with such renowned reform figures as John Dewey, Francis W. Parker, and William Wirt, and influenced a small but highly visible cadre of educational reformers. Other school reformers were less idealistic by temperament and more concerned with issues of efficiency and carefully aligning the purposes of schooling with the needs of the economy. High schools expanded rapidly, and colleges and universities also grew.

Progressive educators represented the legacy of such well-known European thinkers as Frederck Froebel, Henrich Pestalozzi, and Johann Herbart. They also were influenced the experiential psychology of William James and the work of Edward Sheldon, principal of the Oswego, New York Normal School. Dewey was the most famous of progressive educators, well known for his work with the University of Chicago Laboratory School, which he founded upon joining the university's faculty in 1894. A leading academic and popular philosopher, Dewey's best-known work on schooling was Democracy and Education (1916). Chicago had become a center for these ideas after Francis Parker arrived in 1883 to head the Cook County Normal School, one of the city's teacher-training institutions. William Wirt introduced "platoon schools" in nearby Gary, Indiana, in 1908.

Women were especially prominent in reform, founding progressive schools and occasionally providing leadership to school districts. Caroline Pratt, Marietta Johnson, and Flora Cook were leaders of innovative private institutions, and Chicago's Ella Flagg Young was among the nation's most important progressive superintendents. Their efforts met resistance, as many educators complained experiential methods did not impart academic skills. Other critics lampooned progressive education as a trendy fad among the social and intellectual elite.

Additional reformers in this period contributed to the emergence of new, centralized, and efficient city school systems between 1890 and 1920. This was a part of a sweeping reform campaign in municipal government, one that attacked the corruption associated with ward-based political regimes. Hundreds of municipalities changed from ward-level school boards and city councils to centralized and bureaucratic forms of governance and administration. Urban school systems came to be run by boards elected from across a community or municipality, and administered by superintendents selected for their experience and professional competence. This gave rise to new bureaucratic forms of school management and control. New organizational forms were adopted, the most important being the kindergarten and junior high schools.

A corollary to this was the development of standardized or mental testing, and school personnel trained in the new subfield of psychological measurement. French researchers Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon devised the first general test of mental aptitude in 1908; Lewis Terman of Stanford University and Edward Thorndike of Columbia University were among the chief American proponents of these techniques. By the latter 1920s, thousands of school districts employed standardized tests to judge student abilities, to justify curricular decisions, or simply to inform teachers and parents.

The rise of the mental testing movement was especially important for children with special needs or learning difficulties. Blind, deaf, or speech-impaired students had been educated in special schools since the mid-nineteenth century. As urban school systems grew, particular courses were established for such students. In 1879, for instance, Cleveland created a class for "feebleminded" children; Boston followed suit in 1898, as did other cities. Eventually, public fears were raised about these children intermingling with the "normal" population, sentiments fueled by pseudoscientific advocates of "mental hygiene" and "eugenics," a term for human perfectibility. Zealous proponents of these ideas issued racist bromides against immigration and the assimilation of minority groups, and even urged the sterilization of "feebleminded" couples.

This also was a time of rapid expansion for the American high school. Enrollments stood at about 300,000 in 1890 (public and private schools combined), and by 1930, the number had increased to nearly 5 million, almost half of the nation's eligible teenage population. Much of this was due to the growing number of institutions: on average, a new secondary school was established every day. The regions leading this expansion were the northern, midwestern, and western states, especially areas with high levels of income and little inequality. Enrollments tended to be higher in communities with fewer manufacturing jobs and smaller numbers of immigrants. On average, high school graduates earned higher wages, an indication of their contributions to the economy.

The general bearing and purpose of secondary education was framed by the "Report of the Committee of Ten," published in 1893. Comprised of university representatives and national education leaders, this group was chaired by Harvard's Charles Eliot, and included William Torrey Harris, U.S. Commissioner of Education. Its purpose was to establish order and uniformity in a secondary education system that included public high schools, academies, private and religious schools, and various other institutions. Twenty-five years later, a second national report was issued by the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education of the National Education Association, chaired by Clarence Kingsley. Widely known as the "Cardinal Principles Report," this document outlined a broad range of social and academic purposes for the high school. It provided a vision of the "comprehensive high school," embracing vocational and academic curricula and uniting students in a common commitment to democratic citizenship. This would serve as an important American ideal for decades to come.

Specialized secondary curricula were developed for women and blacks. Ellen Richards, a chemist and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's first female faculty member, helped to launch a distinctive academic field called "home economics." In high schools home economics became a way of defining women's roles through training in "domestic science" and socialization in prescribed standards of conduct. At the same time, commercial education, training in stenography, typing and bookkeeping, became popular among women interested in office employment.

Due to limited opportunities, fewer than 5 percent of eligible black students were enrolled at the secondary level at this time, most of them in private schools supported by tuition, local donations, and northern philanthropy. Public high schools were established throughout the south for whites. Between 1905 and 1920 more than five hundred were established, making secondary schooling accessible across the region. By contrast, in 1916 only fifty-eight public high schools for African Americans existed in fourteen southern states, just twenty-five in the former Confederate states. Many of these schools featured a curriculum focused on manual trades and domestic science, reflecting the influence of Booker T. Washington, the period's most famous black educator. W. E. B. Du Bois was an outspoken critic of Washington, advocating high academic standards for a "talented tenth" of black students.

Nationally, post-secondary education continued to expand. Overall enrollment climbed from about a quarter million in 1900 to more than a million in 1930, representing more than 10 percent of the age group. The number of female students grew even faster, from less than 40 percent of the student body in the 1890s to almost half by the twenties. These developments infused new verve into campus life. Fraternities, sororities, and dating became popular, especially after 1920, along with spectator sports such as football.

There was a decided shift in the university curriculum, and a new utilitarian disposition was signaled by the appearance of professional schools and institutes. Nineteenth-century legal and medical training had been conducted by private schools or individuals; after 1900 universities began acquiring these institutions, or developing their own, and awarding degrees to their graduates. Similar arrangements were made for the preparation of engineers, social workers, and other professionals. The first university programs to provide training for business also appeared, offering courses in accounting, finance, management, marketing, and similar subjects.

The growth of higher education also led to new types of institutions. Among the most important was the junior college, a two-year school intended to offer preparation for higher study, later called community colleges. These schools first appeared in the West and the Midwest, numbering some two hundred by the 1920s, but enrolling less than a tenth of all undergraduates. Other more popular forms of higher education also flourished, among them municipal colleges in the larger cities and private urban universities, many of them religious. State-sponsored normal schools gradually expanded their purview, and began to evolve into state colleges and universities. These institutions served local students, providing baccalaureate education along with a variety of professional programs. Altogether, the range of higher education alternatives expanded appreciably, accounting for much of the increase in enrollments.

By the close of this period, much of the creative energy of progressive education had dissipated. Due to the Great Depression, the 1930s were years of fiscal distress for many school districts, particularly those in larger cities. Programs were cut, especially extracurricular activities and such "frills" as music and art. At the same time, high school and college enrollments increased as youth employment opportunities disappeared. World War II, on the other hand, pulled students away from the schools to serve in the military or work in war industries. Neither episode provided an environment for educational reform. Many of the developments of earlier decades remained in place, such as standardized testing, the comprehensive high school and the new research-based and utilitarian university. Yet, the impact of other reform ideals, particularly those of Dewey and his progressive allies, was less enduring.

Education in Postwar America

Among the most striking features of the latter twentieth century was the growing importance attached to formal education, both as a matter of public policy and as a private concern. The federal government became a source of funding, and education developed into a major issue in national politics. At the same time, more Americans attended school, as enrollments climbed at all levels of the educational system, but especially in the nation's high schools and colleges.

In the 1950s schools expanded rapidly, straining resources with the postwar "baby boom." A number of prominent academics and journalists criticized progressive education, linking it in the public mind with failure in the schools. This was partly due to the climate of the Cold War and suspicions that progressive educators were "soft headed" or left-leaning. It also reflected perceptions of a lack of discipline in American children, particularly teenagers. When the Russian Sputnik spacecraft was launched in 1957, many attributed American failures in the "space race" to shortcomings in the schools. This led to passage of the National Defense Education Act in 1958, boosting federal support for instruction in science and mathematics.

The major events in postwar education, however, revolved around questions of race and inequality. The 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, declaring segregated schools to be inherently unequal, was a milestone of national educational policy and in popular thinking about social justice. The decision was the culmination of a series of legal challenges to segregated education undertaken by the NAACP in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. It immediately led to vows of non-compliance by southern politicians and educators. Consequently, desegregation proceeded slowly but gained speed in the following decade, when compliance was linked to federal school funding. Civil rights activists waged local battles against segregation and educational inequality, first in the South and later in the North, where de facto segregation was widespread. De jure policies of separate schooling ended, but overall patterns of segregation proved much harder to change.

The changing racial and ethnic composition of the nation's principal metropolitan areas exacerbated these issues. With the migration of millions of blacks after World War II, big city public schools systems became divided along racial lines. Despite the principles of integration and equity embodied in the "Brown" decision and the efforts of liberal-minded educators, growing inequalities in education came to characterize metropolitan life. Because of residential segregation, school resources were also spatially distributed, a point that eventually became contentious. Schools in black neighborhoods tended to be overcrowded, with larger classes and fewer experienced teachers than schools in white areas. Migration to the suburbs, widely known as "white flight," also made it difficult to desegregate city schools. Between 1960 and 1980, the country's suburban population nearly doubled in size, making urban desegregation an elusive goal.

Civil rights organizations issued legal challenges to de facto patterns of school segregation, charging school districts with upholding segregation to avoid aggravating whites. A series of federal court decisions in the latter 1960s and early 1970s articulated a new legal doctrine requiring the active pursuit of integrated schools. In the landmark case of Swan v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), a federal district court established mandatory bussing of students as a remedy to residential segregation. In sub-sequent years, desegregation plans requiring bussing were implemented in scores of cities, most of them by order of federal or state authorities. These decisions were supported by research, particularly a national survey under-taken in 1966 by sociologist James Coleman, finding that integrated schooling produced high achievement levels in minority students. The Supreme Court's 1974 Miliken v. Bradley decision, however, limited the impact of desegregation plans by prohibiting bussing across district lines, effectively exempting most suburban communities.

Meanwhile, education became an integral part of Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty." In 1965, he sponsored the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), dramatically expanding federal assistance to schools. Title 1 of this legislation provided resources to schools with high numbers of poor students, to address inequities. Other educational initiatives begun under the Johnson administration included Head Start, a preschool program aimed at children from poor families. By 1972, more than a million children were enrolled in the program and studies showed that it boosted academic achievement.

Legislation addressing inequality and discrimination extended to other groups of students. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 provided funding to schools serving the nation's 3 million students who did not speak English as a primary language. In 1970 the Office of Civil Rights issued guidelines requiring districts where such students constituted more than 5 percent of the population to take "affirmative steps" to meet their needs. At about the same time a series of court cases challenged the principle of separate classes for special education students, a group that had grown rapidly in the postwar period. In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was signed into law by President Gerald Ford. With this measure, the federal government required school districts to provide these students with free and equitable schooling in the least restrictive environment possible. Similarly, the National Organization of Women (NOW) included a provision in its 1967 Women's Bill of Rights calling for "equal and unsegregated education." Five years later, Title IX was included in ESEA, declaring "no person … shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." School districts responded most visibly in the area of women's athletics. The 1970s witnessed a five-fold increase in female participation in competitive sports, although change in other areas was much slower.

The post-World War II period also witnessed significant change in higher education. An influential Harvard faculty report in 1945 advocated flexible curricula under the heading "general education," and a presidential commission on higher education in 1949 presciently argued the need for greater capacity. By 1970, enrollments had quadrupled to more than 8 million. Early growth was due to the GI Bill, which provided tuition benefits to veterans, but the major source of new students was the affluent postwar "baby-boom" generation, a third of whom eventually enrolled in college. The number of institutions did not increase significantly, but the size of campuses grew dramatically. Colleges dropped any pretense of governing the daily living habits of students, even those residing on campus, creating a fertile field for alternative lifestyles and cultural practices. It also opened the door to widespread sexual freedom. The Supreme Court decision in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District (1969), limiting the ability of schools to control student self-expression, extended many of the same freedoms to secondary students.

Perhaps more important, the large concentrations of young people with little supervision abetted the development of political organizations, and students became conspicuous participants in both the civil rights and antiwar movements. The latter was based largely on campuses, and came to a head in the spring of 1970, when four students were killed by national guardsmen at Kent State University. Yet other protests focused on curricular issues, leading to a number of new courses, departments, and programs. The most important of these were African American (or Black) Studies and Women's Studies programs, but there were others as well.

All of these developments helped to make education a contentious national political issue. Bussing plans produced heated reactions from white urbanites. Others believed the schools had drifted away from their academic mission, and that the universities cultivated protestors. The Supreme Court's 1978 Bakke decision, barring quotas but allowing race to be considered in university admissions, further polarized public opinion. In 1980, promising to end federal involvement in education, presidential candidate Ronald Reagan vowed to remove the U.S. Department of Education as a cabinet position. It was a promise that remained unfulfilled, however. A national commission's 1983 report on the schools, "A Nation at Risk," further galvanized support for federal leadership in strengthening the education system. These concerns led George H. Bush to campaign as the "education president," even though he proposed little change in policy.

In the closing decades of the twentieth century, American interest in formal education reached historic highs. With public expenditures on education (in constant dollars) more than doubling since 1960, by 1990 there was growing interest in student performance on tests of scholastic achievement. As the economy shifted away from manufacturing, rates of college enrollment among secondary graduates increased from less than 50 percent in 1980 to nearly two-thirds in 2000. Spurred by the women's movement and growing employment options, the number of female students increased even more rapidly, after lagging in earlier decades. At the same time, vocational education programs considered integral to the comprehensive high school were increasingly seen as irrelevant.

Growing disquiet about the quality of public education contributed to movements to create "charter schools," publicly supported institutions operating outside traditional school systems, and "voucher" programs offering enrollment in private institutions at public expense. These and other "choice" or "market-based" alternatives to the public schools were supported by Republicans, keen to challenge existing systems and to undermine Democratic teacher's unions. By 2000, there were more than two thousand charter schools in communities across the country, with states such as Arizona and Michigan leading the movement. Voucher experiments in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and a few other cities have not produced decisive results.

In the 2000 presidential election, candidates Albert Gore and George W. Bush both placed education policy initiatives in the forefront of their campaigns. This was a historic first and an indication of the heightened significance of education in the public mind. Bush's narrow victory in the election was at least partly due to his calls for greater accountability in schooling at all levels. Passage of federal legislation re-authorizing ESEA, popularly known as "Leave No Child Behind Act," established testing programs as a requirement for receiving federal assistance. Even though this was a natural extension of the "systemic reform" initiatives undertaken by the Clinton Administration, encouraging state testing regimes, it marked a new level of federal involvement in the nation's school system.

Conclusion

American education has changed a great deal since 1647, when Massachusetts passed its first school law. The reforms of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries helped to establish a comprehensive education system extending from the primary school to the university. The ferment of the postwar period revolved around issues of equity and excellence, as ever more Americans attended some form of school. Much has been accomplished, however. Many of the most abhorrent inequities have been narrowed considerably. As a result of past struggles there is considerable parity in black and white education, despite persistent segregation and achievement gaps. Gender differences have diminished even more dramatically. This is not to say that problems do not exist. The United States is host to a new generation of immigrants, and battles have been waged over bilingual education and other cultural issues; but the outlook is bright, as Americans still exhibit a firm commitment to education as a means of providing opportunity. That, more than anything else, is the principal legacy of American education, and its great hope for the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Angus, David L., and Jeffrey E. Mirel. The Failed Promise of the American High School, 1890–1995. New York: Teachers College Press, 1999.

Axtell, James. The School upon a Hill: Education and Society in Colonial New England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974.

Cremin, Lawrence Arthur. American Education; the Colonial Experience, 1607–1783. New York, Harper and Row, 1970.

———. American Education, the Metropolitan Experience, 1876–1980. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

———. American Education, the National Experience, 1783–1876. New York: Harper and Row, 1980.

———. The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876–1957. New York: Knopf, 1961.

Kaestle, Carl F. Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society, 1780–1860. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

Levine, David O. The American College and the Culture of Aspiration, 1915–1940. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Lockridge, Kenneth A. Literacy in Colonial New England: An Enquiry into the Social Context of Literacy in the Early Modern West. New York: Norton, 1974.

Ravitch, Diane. The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945– 1980. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Reese, William J. The Origins of the American High School. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.

Rury, John L. Education and Social Change: Themes in the History of American Schooling. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.

Tyack, David B., and Elisabeth Hansot. Learning Together: A History of Coeducation in American Schools. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.

———. Managers of Virtue: Public School Leadership in America, 1820–1980. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

Tyack, David B; Thomas James; and Aaron Benavot. Law and the Shaping of Public Education, 1785–1954. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

Veysey, Laurence R. The Emergence of the American University. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965.

JohnRury

See alsoCarlisle Indian Industrial School ; Charity Schools ; Chautauqua Movement ; Dame School ; Dartmouth College Case ; Indian Boarding Schools ; McGuffey's Readers ; New England Primer ; andvol. 9:Massachusetts School Law .

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Education

EDUCATION

When people think about education, they gradually think about the traditional school, and about their own personal experience. Education functions in all settings of modern society, however, and educational forms have changed over the years. During the industrial revolution, the advent of formal education undermined the authority of older people because older people's knowledge of farming, rural life, and crafts did not prove useful to young people working in factories in growing cities. During the mid-twentieth century, the first gerontologists saw lifelong learning as a rare experimental program and worried about the loss of the educational function of grandparents. Parents worried about entrusting their children's education to their own parents, fearing they would be out of touch with the rapid pace of social change. As retirement became commonplace and longevity provided more healthy years of leisure, many older persons looked for educational opportunities through special programs and at institutions of higher education. The advent of the information age brought many older persons into learning again with computer technology, though this time it was often grandchildren helping grandparents learn the new technologies.

Trends in years of schooling

The education gap between younger and older adults in the United States is closing. For example, the gap in median years of education for those age twenty-five to thirty-four and those fifty-five and over shrank from 4.4 years in 1947 to 0.2 years in 1991 (see Figure 1). The improvement for older adults came rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, reflecting the growth of public education in the first decades of the twentieth century. More than half of the young adults in the United States had completed twelve years of education by 1952, while it was 1979 before half of the older adults had achieved this level. The gap between men and women in median years of education has nearly disappeared for all age groups, especially for young adults.

Until the 1930s, a typical childhood pattern of education involved completing the sixth grade and then going to work. Many Americans never attended high school. Since 1940, rates of finishing school before high school graduation have decreased while rates of graduating high school (or higher levels of education) have increased. Until the late 1950s it was uncommon for middle-aged people to have completed high school. Since 1990, rising college enrollment has led to a drop in the percentage of adults who only graduate from high school. The percentage of young adults who finished their schooling with high school declined from 44 percent in 1973 to about 31 percent in 2000, but has remained steady in the 1990s for older adults. At the turn of the twenty-first century similar proportions of young adults had completed their schooling with some college (28 percent) or had completed a college degree (29 percent). Older adults will reflect this trend of increasing educational attainment by the middle of the twenty-first century.

The statistic of median years of schooling hides a lot of variation in educational attainment among racial and ethnic groups. Wide differences remain, and gender differences linger among older persons in various racial and ethnic groups. The gap is closing for high school completion rates, and gender differences barely exist at this level. High school graduation rates for whites remained above 80 percent in the 1990s, while rates for blacks stayed above 70 percent after 1993. Although 1980 census figures showed two-thirds of Hispanics completing high school, from 1990 to 2000 the rates remained below 60 percent, reflecting the recent immigrant status of many Hispanics. Asian and Pacific Islander men have the highest levelsup to 88 percent completed high school in the 1990sand women in this category hovered around 80 percent.

Similar trends in college degree completion show differences between the genders in racial and ethnic groups. The gender gap is most extreme for older adults (see Figure 2). Asian and Pacific Islanders have the highest level of college degree completion among U.S. groups, with men around 32 percent and women above 15 percent. For other older men, whites have a college degree completion rate of 23.2 percent, while Hispanics are at 9.3 percent and blacks are at 7.5 percent. For other older women, the frequency of college completion is: whites, 12 percent; blacks, 8.3 percent; and Hispanics, 5.3 percent.

Although 30 percent of older adults (compared to 10 percent of younger adults) in the United States still lack a high school degree, the education gap is shrinking rapidly. A gap persists at the higher-education level due to an expansion of opportunities since the mid-twentieth century, and minor regional differences persist. High school completion levels for those age twenty-five and over were highest for the Midwest (87 percent) and lowest for the South (82 percent). When baby boomers reach retirement, the education gap will begin to close. Older people in Europe and Japan are generally not as educated as their counterparts in the United States.

Differences remain for members of minority groups in the United States, but these are not uniform. Non-Hispanic blacks have a lower level of educational attainment by all measures, though the rate for black women exceeds that of black men. Asians have the highest education rates, while Hispanics are often the least educated at all ages, despite both these groups having recent immigrant status. These cultures are more patriarchal and strongly favor the education of men. Elizabeth Vierck reports that, in the United States, one in ten people over age sixty-five speaks a foreign language at home. Gender differences for older adults persist in Asian and non-Hispanic whites, although they appear to be fading. In the developing world, however, education levels among older women are generally low or nonexistent.

The impact of education

Education is a significant factor in aging. It is modestly related to income and strongly related to occupational prestige, both of which lead to better health care throughout life, a key to the enjoyment of later years. Ronald Manheimer reports that "education is associated with increased participation in politics and the electoral process, more aggressive health-seeking behavior, different styles of consumerism, and the desire for lifelong learning" (p. 45). Further, "education must prepare the individual not only for the tasks of early and middle age, but for those of old age as well" (Erikson, Erikson, and Kivnick, p. 336). Arguing from a developmental perspective, Erikson, Erikson, and Kivnick advocate more practical courses in public schools, and they stress knowledge of the aging human body as an aid in maintenance and long-range survival.

Education has been linked to maintaining self-esteem, developing leadership abilities for volunteer roles, and empowering older people as health care consumers. Helena Lopata, famous for her studies of widows, reminds us that education helps people cope with loss. By providing the skills to develop friendships and commitments to voluntary associations, education links people to sources of support during periods of adjustment.

Health and economic dependency vary significantly with educational attainment. Comfort in interacting with doctors and adherence to treatment regimens come from greater learning. Obtaining work that supplies health benefits is usually contingent on completing high school or college. Having greater income for proper nutrition and regular preventive health care is also associated with higher education. These factors set up differences in longevity related to education. Because racial, ethnic, and cultural heritage are linked to differences in education and economic resources, longevity varies by these categories as well.

Lifelong learning

Interestingly, while years of education and life have increased more than 150 percent since 1900, the percentage of life that Americans spend in an educational setting has remained at around 17 percent. People now participate in education in more mixed patterns, however, with cyclical or blended variations occurring throughout the life course. As the baby boomers aged during the 1980s, there was a drop in the number of young people entering college, and many community colleges began to open their doors to older adults. The bulk of adults over sixty-five are enrolled in community colleges, primarily studying part-time in public institutions. Computer technology and corporate downsizing also sent many older adults back to school for retraining in the 1980s. Older women significantly outnumbered older men in college and graduate school at the end of the twentieth century.

The increase in leisure time in later life and the explosion of higher education after 1950 fueled the growth in life-long learning. Elderhostel emerged in the 1970s to provide short-term (typically weeklong) educational opportunities for people age fifty-five and older. It began with five campuses and 220 participants in 1975, and in 2000 there were over 270,000 hostellers participating in over 10,000 Elderhostel programs in over seventy countries. In 1988, twenty-four established Institutes for Learning in Retirement (ILRs) collaborated with Elderhostel to form the Elderhostel Institute Network, a series of permanent programs at sponsoring college and university campuses involving noncredit courses and activities staffed by older volunteers. In 2000 there were over 225 such ILRs in the network, providing over 3,000 courses a term to 52,000 network members. In 1992 a service program began with opportunities such as teaching English, archaeological digs, and building affordable housing throughout the world. In conjunction with the Institute Network, the typical college campus offers three or four courses of considerable variety and takes advantage of local attractions with extracurricular activities during the week of Elderhostel. A typical Elderhostel week includes three different classes taught by college professors and various field trips in the evening to local interest sites. For example, "Music in the Big Band Era," "The Many Cultures of Texas," and "Feminist Theology," tours at a local dairy farm, a lake outing, and a visit to a historic house might constitute a week's offerings.

SeniorNet is an organization that began in the 1980s to help older persons take advantage of the information age. It focuses on computer technology instruction and establishing learning communities online. Through small lab sites, often donated by businesses, volunteers teach about computer software and the Internet. According to Mary Russell and Laura Ginsburg's report for the National Center on Adult Literacy, SeniorNet's success comes from characteristics of good online learning communities: its learning environment uses nonformal (and informal) models of learning; it embraces a vision of adult learning and development attuned to social, psychological, and political dimensions; its instructional model is interactive and generative, acknowledging the experience older learners bring to classes; and its social construct supports collective and participatory communication. Diversity and outreach remain special challenges.

Countless local programs are emerging in response to the interest in involving older people in formal education. Grants from the Funds for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE) have helped traditional liberal arts colleges develop programs to stimulate young people by involving retired professionals in regular classes. Foster Grandparents programs and Retired and Senior Volunteer programs place volunteers in elementary schools for tutoring. Many volunteer associations consider education a significant part of their mission. AARP sponsors driver education courses that assist older persons with insurance deductions and improve road safety.

Public policy has supported education for older citizens through a variety of statutes enacted since passage of the Older Americans Act of 1965. In addition to statutes addressing adult, technical, vocational, and bilingual education, various laws have supported older veterans, displaced homemakers, and women. These enactments stress the importance of education for productive life and service.

The benefits of education are many. Older adults know this and are pioneers in the new era of lifelong learning. The education gaps between young and old are becoming a thing of the past, and a traditional age for learning is fading with them.

Janet Huber Lowry

See also Leisure; Life Course; Volunteer Activities and Programs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Erikson, J. M.; Erikson, E. H.; and Kivnick, H. Vital Involvement in Old Age. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986.

Kaplan, M. "Adult Education as Part of a Leisure Program." In Handbook of Social Gerontology: Societal Aspects of Aging. Edited by C. Tibbitts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Koff, T. H., and Park, Richard W. Aging Public Policy: Bonding the Generations, 2d ed. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Company, 1999.

Lopata, H. Z. Women as Widows: Support Systems. New York: Elsevier, 1979.

Manheimer, R. J., ed., with North Carolina Center for Creative Retirement, University of North Carolina at Asheville. Older Americans AlmanacA Reference Work for Seniors in the United States. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research Inc., 1994.

Smith, M. C., and Pourchot, T., eds. Adult Learning and Development: Perspectives from Educational Psychology. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998.

Vierck, E. Fact Book on Aging. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1990.

Yntema, S., ed. Americans 55 & OlderA Changing Market. Ithaca, N.Y.: New Strategists Publications, Inc., 1997.

INTERNET RESOURCES

Elderhostel, Incorporated. www.elderhostel.org.

National Center for Health Statistics. "Life Expectancy." Available at www.cdc.gov/

Russell, M., and Ginsburg, L. "Learning Online: Extending the Meaning of Community: A Review of Three Programs from the Southeastern United States." National Council on Adult Literacy (NCAL) Technical Report TR9901. Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania for the Southeast, and Islands Regional Technology in Education Consortium, 1999. Available at http://literacyonline.org/products/

SeniorNet Organization. www.seniornet.org

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Education

Education

In the 1960s many young people in the United States were inspired to pursue aerospace-related careers because of the U.S. commitment to send humans to the Moon. Universities saw an influx of enthusiastic students ready to take on the challenges of the Apollo program. Six Apollo Moon landings brought twelve astronauts to explore the lunar surface. But Moonwalkers are prehistory to students in the twenty-first century. Consequently, universities today put forth the challenge of a human mission to Mars to attract students.

Rapid advances in technology and computers have influenced more students to pursue courses of study in the sciences and space-related engineering and technology programs. Many computer experts who lost their jobs in the crash of the "dot-com" industry subsequently explored the field of aerospace engineering. Even if students do not decide on a space-related career, an aerospace engineering degree provides them with a wide variety of employment choices.

What are these students looking for in a college or university? They not only want a good selection of courses in the fields of their interests, but students also want exposure to innovative research in the field. Colleges and universities are addressing these needs largely by building valuable relationships with space-related organizations, aerospace companies, government agencies like the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and other colleges and universities. Internships are frequently beneficial experiences for students, and often lead to employment opportunities at the sponsoring facility.

How Universities Attract New Students to Space Sciences

The public affairs departments at some universities have realized the potential of promoting their students' and professors' accomplishments. A good example of this is the University of Arizona in Tucson, which sends out weekly press releases about discoveries made by faculty and student astronomers using their Kitt Peak Observatories and astronomical spacecraft.

A university whose graduates become astronauts or known in a field of space science or aerospace engineering is also a pull for students. This is not only true for the University of Arizona at Tucson, but also the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the California Institute of Technology, and Purdue University, among others.

One of the opportunities Purdue University affords both its graduate and undergraduate students is the chance to be a part of a tight-knit academic community with top professors in the aerospace field. This personal attention makes their program a popular one with students. Purdue claims to have produced more astronauts than any other university.

A New Array of Space Courses

Many colleges and universities have expanded their degree programs and course offerings in the fields of space sciences, astronomy, and Earth sciences to attract more students, as well as professors and research grants. The future holds a vast array of space-related careers. For example, space tourism in the decades to come will require a wide range of careers, and students at Rochester Institute of Technology are getting ready. In the departments of hotel management, food management, and travel programs, students are enrolled in what is likely the world's first college course on space tourism.

Promoting Space in Universities

National Space Grant Consortium.

One of the most effective programs for bringing more space research and related projects, as well as funding, to universities is NASA's National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. This program funds space research, education, and public service projects through a network of consortia in each of the fifty states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

Each state's space grant consortium provides the students with information about local aerospace research and financial assistance. They also develop space education projects in their states. Some space grant projects, such as the one at the University of Colorado in Boulder (CU Boulder), involve students in current space missions. Students at CU Boulder are monitoring a spacecraft from their own mission control room on campus. At the Colorado School of Mines, students can enroll in courses on space resources and work with former and current NASA experts.

Universities Space Research Association.

The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) is a private nonprofit corporation formed under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences. All member institutions have graduate programs in space sciences or aerospace engineering. Besides eighty-two member institutions in the United States, there are two member institutions in Canada, two in England, and two in Israel.

USRA provides a mechanism through which universities can cooperate effectively with one another, with the government, and with other organizations to further space science and technology and to promote education in these areas. A unique feature of USRA is its system of science councils, which are standing panels of scientific experts who provide program guidance in specific areas of research. Most of USRA's activities are funded by grants and contracts from NASA.

Universities Worldwide

The International Space University (ISU), through both its summer courses and its permanent campus in France, has made major contributions to establishing new curricula. It draws the top students worldwide, because their professors are leading figures from space-related industries, government and international organizations, and universities around the world. ISU students come to the university with their specialist backgrounds and broaden their perspectives through increased knowledge in other relevant fields. Another example of international efforts to attract students is found at Saint Louis University at its Madrid campus in Spain, whose aerospace program has drawn students from abroad to study in St. Louis, Missouri.

Student Space Competitions

Universities are also involved in efforts to reach out to younger students and expose them to space sciences. Space-related projects and competitions for kindergarten through twelfth-grade students sponsored by a university member of the National Space Grantor in collaboration with other organizations such as the National Space Society, the Challenger Center for Space Science Education, the Space Foundation and the Planetary Societycan make an impression on students that will influence their career decisions much later.

The experience of being involved in science fair projects also provides students with a sense of ownership and interest that lasts throughout their careers. Many university scientists and engineers, as well as experts from aerospace companies, are involved in helping and judging science fairs.

Through space-related professional organizations like the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the aerospace division of American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, universities are providing opportunities for students to submit papers and projects to be judged by experts in the field. These competitions, which are held at the organizations' conferences, provide an avenue for building relationships with aerospace professionals, as well as other students. These relationships can form an essential network of colleagues as students launch into their careers.

NASA and other organizations sponsor an array of design projects for students of all ages. Projects can include flying their experiment on a KC-135 airplane that provides 25 seconds of microgravity at a time. Other competitions involve designing space settlements and Moon and Mars bases.

NASA's Commercial Space Centers

NASA's commercial space centers are a consortia of academia, government, and industry who partner to develop new or improved products and services, usually through collaborative research conducted in space. The NASA Space Product Development office manages 11 of the 17 centers that perform research in the areas of biotechnology, agribusiness, structure-based drug design, and materials research. Topics of interest at the centers include space power, satellite communication networks, remote sensing , mapping, microgravity materials processing, medical and biological research and development, crystallography , space automation and robotics, engineering, space technology, and combustion in space.

see also Career Astronauts (volume 1); Careers in Astronomy (volume 2); Careers in Business and Program Management (volume 1); Careers in Rocketry (volume 1); Careers in Space (volume 4); Careers in Space Law (volume 1); Careers in Space Medicine (volume 1); Careers in Space Science (volume 2); Careers in Spaceflight (volume 3); Careers in Writing, Photography, and Filmmaking (volume 1); International Space University (volume 1).

Barbara Sprungman

Bibliography

Sachnoff, Scott, and Leonard David. The Space Publication's Guide to Space Careers. BethSpace Publications, 1998

Internet Resources

NASA Commercial Space Centers. <http://spd.nasa.gov/csc.html>

National Space Grant Consortium. <http://www.hq.nasa.gov/spacegrant>

Universities Space Research Association. <http://www.usra.edu>

ELV See Launch Vehicles, Expendable (Volume 1).

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Education, United States Department of

United States Department of Education, executive department of the federal government responsible for advising on educational plans and policies, providing assistance for education, and carrying out educational research. It was established (1867) as an independent government agency and then transferred (1869) to the Dept. of the Interior as the Bureau of Education. In 1939 the bureau, by executive order, was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, which in 1953 became the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare. It became an independent department in 1979. Within the Dept. of Education are offices of elementary and secondary education, postsecondary education, special education and rehabilitative services, bilingual education and minority languages, vocational and adult education, civil rights, and educational research and improvement. The department also administers funds for Gallaudet and Howard universities, the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, and the American Printing House for the Blind.

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Education

Education


Environmental regulatory organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have historically dealt with pollution problems through control or remediation, as opposed to the pollution prevention (commonly called "P2") approach. However, treating pollution at its source can minimize, and sometimes eliminate, pollution. Environmental education is one effective, proactive strategy to implement P2.


An Educated Public

One goal of environmental education is to educate the public so that it is better informed to handle the issues and problems regarding pollution, whether it comes from industry, agriculture, or from the home. Educational programs, classes, pamphlets, and other informational products provide the public with the necessary skills to make informed decisions and take responsible action. For instance, activities at the community level are often successful with such grassroots projects as school environmental curricula, hazardous waste collection days, and stream and river cleanups. However, environmental education programs are often at the mercy of public funding such as at the federal and state levels and of private donations and contributions.


Reasons to Learn

An important purpose of environmental education is to teach understanding about pollution in order to best protect the environment. Thus, groups involved with environmental education often teach individuals and groups pertinent information about subjects, such as biology, geology, meteorology, and hydrology, in order to better analyze the various sides of an issue through critical thinking. For example, members of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) use a wide variety of materials and methods in order to investigate the environment within the context of economics, politics, popular culture, and social equity (just to name a few) as well as natural systems and processes in order to better educate the public.

Although the EPA is specifically constrained from creating environmental education curriculum, its leadership firmly believes that environmental education can help to:

  • Protect human health
  • Promote sustainable development (environmental protection and pollution prevention in conjunction with economic development)
  • Create interest in a wide variety of jobs in various environmental fields
  • Enhance learning in all areas of education
  • Reinforce the desire to protect natural resources for future generations

Outreach Efforts

As a response to the growing pollution problem in the United States and other countries, outreach programs have been set up by various government agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to promote the awareness and prevention of pollution. This educational strategy is effective at reducing (and even eliminating) pollution so that it requires less regulation, monitoring, and cleaning up.

The EPA has organized cooperative programs with the Peace Corps, the North American Association for Environmental Education, the Institute for Sustainable Communities, and other organizations to provide training, technical help, and information distribution to aid the international development of environmental education programs. These programs have been successfully used in Eastern and Central Europe, and in South and Central America.

On a smaller scale, JT&A, Inc., distributes EnviroScape, three-dimensional landscapes that illustrate residential, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and transportation areas. All landscapes contain possible sources of water pollution, so that children learn by interacting with drink mix (which simulates chemicals) and cocoa (which simulates loose soil) just how their actions affect the quality of water. Hands-on demonstrations allow complex problems to be simplified. Besides being used in elementary schools, the demonstrations are also used by universities, soil and water conservation districts, municipal governments, utility companies, environmental consultants, and environmental groups.


National Pollution Prevention Roundtable

The National Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NPPR) is one of the largest NGOs in the United States devoted exclusively to P2. It provides a national forum for the dissemination of P2 information with regards to policy developments, practices, and resources in order to diminish or eradicate pollution at the source. The NPPR provides its P2 membersfederal agencies, state and local government programs, regional resource centers, small businesses, nonprofit organizations, and industry associationswith up-to-date and accurate P2 information. An important aspect of the NPPR is its National Pollution Prevention Week, commonly called "P2 Week," which is held nationally in the third week of September.

When the public is educated about pollution, businesses become more competitive, businesses and governments realize cost savings, individuals play a more informed role, and, in the end, environmental quality of life is enhanced by a reduction of pollution.

Bibliography

heimlich, joe e., ed. (2002). environmental education: a resource handbook. bloomington, in: phi delta kappa educational foundation.


other resources

jt&a, inc. "welcome to enviroscapes." chantilly, va. available from http://enviroscapes.com.

national pollution prevention roundtable. "home page of the national pollution prevention roundtable." available from http://www.p2.org.

office of the federal environmental executive. (2002). "federal government celebrates national pollution prevention week." available from http://www.ofee.gov/whats/fgcnpp.htm.

u.s. environmental protection agency, office of communications, education, and media relations. (1999). "environmental education improves our everyday lives." (epa-171-f-98-015). available from http://www.epa.gov/enviroed/pdf/15envtraining.pdf.

u.s. environmental protection agency. "environmental resources." available from http://www.epa.gov/epahome/educational.htm.

William Arthur Atkins

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Education

EDUCATION

The Jewish people has an educational tradition as old as history (see *Education, Jewish). From the very beginning of their identification as a distinct entity, Jews have contributed not only to the advancement of their own education, but also to that of the world at large. The educational principles of the Bible found their way into the educational thought of Christians and Muslims. As an example one might cite the moral, spiritual, and character education through the family and community described in the Book of Proverbs. Compulsory teaching, incumbent upon the father in the first instance, is ordained in Deuteronomy 6:6–9 and 11:18–20. Compulsory school attendance was decreed by *Simeon b. Shetah in 75 b.c.e. and by *Joshua ben Gamla in 64 c.e. In recent years, educators have come to recognize that ancient Jewish education anticipated, and no doubt indirectly and remotely influenced, modern education. Thus the National Education Association of the United States cited the Babylonian Talmud as authority for a maximum class size of 25 pupils (BB 21a). The same source requires, under Joshua ben Gamla's ordinance, that children start school at six or seven, the age at which children all over the world traditionally enter school. Adult education is sometimes traced by educational historians, such as I.L. *Kandel, to the bet ha-midrash of Second Temple times. The importance of the teacher in the learning process is repeatedly emphasized in the Talmud (Avot), as is the significance of motivation in teaching and of vocational training-principles, which are basic to effective instruction and a modern educational system. The practice of "each one teach one," inaugurated by Frank C. Laubach in teaching literacy to the people of developing nations, has a talmudic prototype.

For most of their history, Jews educated their children in their own institutions and expressed their educational ideas in their own languages, until the late 18th century. There was little contact between Jewish and non-Jewish pedagogues. Jews made few, if any, contributions to general education during the greater part of the development of education from ancient times. One outstanding exception may be Constantinus Afer or Africanus (d. 1087), believed by some historians to be Jewish. He influenced the course of medical education at the University of Salerno and other medieval universities, chiefly through his Latin translations of Greek and Arabic medical works, many of the latter of Jewish origin. Africanus had learned Hebrew and Kabbalah from a Jewish teacher and transmitted his inspiration to the German humanist Johannes *Reuchlin. Reuchlin then learned his Hebrew from Jacob Loans, physician to the emperor Frederick iii, and from R. Obadiah *Sforno, the biblical exegete. Reuchlin went on to introduce the study of Hebrew as a learned subject in German universities. In this way Jews exercised an impact on the development of the European university curriculum.

The Edict of Tolerance issued by Emperor Joseph *ii of Austria in 1782 applied the principles of the Enlightenment to the Jews of his empire. Among other reforms, Jews were permitted to enroll their children in government schools and to establish secular schools of their own. Young Jews could now attend institutions of higher education. These changes were hailed by Naphtali Herz *Wessely, a disciple and collaborator of Moses *Mendelssohn, in his Divrei Shalom ve-Emet (Berlin, 1782). The separation of Jews from the general stream of education was now beginning to be bridged. This German Haskalah *period ushered in a growth of interest among Jews in the secular pedagogical theories and practices of their Christian neighbors. Especially of interest to Jewish educators were the new ideas and methods of Johann Bernhard Basedow, Johann Friedrich Herbart, and Friedrich Froebel of Germany, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi of Switzerland, and Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster, founders of the mutual or monitorial method of instruction in England.

Among the Jewish contributors to education in the early 19th century was the Austrian philanthropist Joseph Ritter von *Wertheimer who, among other things, was responsible for the development of Austrian kindergartens, the first of which he founded in Vienna in 1830. Another was Sir Isaac Lyon *Goldsmid, the first Jewish baronet in England, who helped to finance the establishment of University College in London (1825). The list of Jewish philanthropists in education is long. It covers many types of institutions in many countries. Among the men who made munificent and influential benefactions to education were Julius *Rosenwald, who contributed huge sums for the founding of schools for Blacks in the Southern states of the U.S.; James *Loeb, patron of the Loeb Classical Library; Sir Ernest *Cassel, founder of the Anglo-German Institute for the advancement of cultural relations between the two countries through the encouragement of mutual studies; and the Baroness Mayer de *Rothschild, who founded the Association for the Oral Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in London on the basis of the lip-reading method practiced by William van Praagh. The kindergarten movement received much attention from Jewish educators and philanthropists. Adolf Pick (1829–1874) founded a pioneering kindergarten in Italy on the German model. In Germany, the original home of the kindergarten, the well-known feminist Lina *Morgenstern-Bauer was an ardent propagandist of the movement through her writings on childhood development, as well as a founder of kindergartens and seminaries for training kindergarten teachers. In still another branch of education there was a Jewish pioneer in the 19th century. Otto Salomon (1849–1901) promoted the teaching of manual skills in Swedish schools. In 1875 he established the Sloyd Seminarium at Nääs, where he trained teachers of manual crafts from all over the world. His impact on education was extensive not only in Sweden, but in other countries as well. A notable educator in the specialized field of teaching deaf-mutes was the Frenchman Jacob Rodrigues *Péreire. The first teacher of deaf-mutes in France, Péreire was to influence Maria Montessori a century later in her teaching of handicapped children. The international authority Edouard Séguin has also testified to the significance of Péreire's work. Perhaps the most long-lasting contribution to general education was the opening in 1805 of a school in Seesen, Germany, by Israel *Jacobson, an initiator of the Jewish Reform movement and an ardent advocate of closer Christian-Jewish relations. Among German historians this type of school is known as a "Simultanschule," an institution where religious instruction is given to different religious groups within the same school building. For 30 years, between 1838 and 1867, there was an equal number of Jewish and Christian pupils in the school, but because of the shortage of Jewish teachers of secular subjects, especially the sciences, as a result of the earlier limitations on higher education for Jews, there was a much larger proportion of Christians on the staff. Jacobson's school remained in existence until the advent of the Nazis in 1933. Few other Jews in the 19th century made any recognizable mark on general education. Félix Hément (1827–1891) rose from elementary teaching in France to become inspector of primary schools in the department of the Seine and, upon his retirement, honorary inspector-general of public instruction. Naphtali Herz *Imber, author of Ha-Tikvah, contributed bulletins on ancient Jewish education to a series published by the U.S. Bureau of Education.

In the 20th century, the liberalization of the position of Jews in the Western world made it possible for more of them to participate in the educational thought and work of the world at large. Ferenc Kemény (1860–1944), a Hungarian convert to Christianity who served as teacher, principal, school inspector, and professor at the University of Budapest, was active in promoting plans for international education toward world peace. Emile *Durkheim, professor of sociology and education at the universities of Bordeaux and Paris, won an international reputation not only as a sociologist, but also as author of a number of influential and scholarly works on education. International figures in education included William *Stern, an émigré from Hamburg to Duke University in the U.S., whose Psychologie der fruehen Kindheit (1914; Psychology of Early Childhood, 1924) and interpretation of the nature of intelligence were most helpful to teachers on both sides of the Atlantic. Also of international interest was Kurt Hahn (1886–1974), another refugee from Nazi Germany, who moved his Salem progressive school to Gordonstoun, Scotland, where Prince Philip and his son Prince Charles received their education.

To obtain a balanced view of the Jewish contribution to education the subject should also be considered from the standpoint of particular nations.

In Germany, Clara Stern, the wife of William Stern, wrote on and put into practice principles of child development in relation to education. Erich *Stern, a doctor of medicine and philosophy, was a professor at the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt before leaving for the University of Paris after 1933. His educational work was concerned with intelligence tests and with the application of child psychiatry. Curt *Bondy, who returned to Germany after World War ii to become professor of social and educational psychology at the University of Hamburg, planned a system of education for juvenile prisoners. In the theoretical aspects of education, Jonas *Cohn, the neo-Kantian philosopher, wrote several works on educational philosophy, among them Geist der Erziehung (1919). Like Cohn, Richard *Hoenigswald approached pedagogy by way of his philosophical specialty, and wrote books on the theoretical foundations of education. He left Germany for the U.S. in 1933 after having been professor of philosophy at the universities of Breslau and Munich. There were many German Jewish educators who were concerned with the education of girls and women. Susanne *Engelmann wrote on the psychological foundations of girls' education, as well as a study of the teaching of German literary history. Ulrike Henschke (1830–1897) and her daughter Margarete (1859–?) were active in the promotion of secondary and vocational education for girls. Higher education for women was the special interest of Henriette Goldschmidt (1825–1920), who also made significant contributions, as a follower of Froebel, to the development of the kindergarten movement. This movement benefited immensely from the activities and writings of Clara Morgenstern and Johanna Goldschmidt. Eugen Pappenheim (1831–1901) opened kindergartens and seminaries, edited Der Kindergarten, and founded the Deutscher Froebelverband (1873). Among the other prominent German Jewish educators were Kurt Levinstein, author of research on the history of education and the teaching of literature; Leo *Kestenberg, author and editor of books on musical education; and Fritz *Karsen, head of the Karl-Marx-Schule in Berlin, a specialist in experimental schools and later professor of education at Brooklyn College, New York. August Homburger (1873–1930), a psychiatrist, founded in Heidelberg in 1917 the first German counseling center for the education of the mentally handicapped.

In Austria, Theodor *Heller pioneered in the teaching of the blind and the mentally handicapped, wrote and edited works in these fields, and organized societies. Alfred *Adler founded kindergartens and experimental schools, and edited and published works on education from the standpoint of individual psychology. Ferdinand Birnbaum (1892–1947), a psychologist, promoted through his teaching, writing, editing, and organizational work, the education of mentally handicapped children on an international basis. Siegfried *Bernfeld, a Freudian psychoanalyst, was active in youth psychology and education. In Denmark, Ernst Trier (1837–1893) founded the Vallekilde Folk High School (1865) in accordance with the principles of Grundtvig. Sofie *Elkan, a novelist, translated the writings of Comenius, Salzmann, and Pestalozzi into Swedish, thus making pedagogical classics available to the teachers of Sweden.

Jean *Zay, a youthful minister of education in France in 1936–39, introduced a school reform involving careful guidance of 11-year-old pupils before classification in secondary education. Among contemporary educators have been Lamberto *Borghi, professor and director of the Istituto di Pedagogia, University of Florence, and author and editor of pedagogical works and journals; Leon van Gelder, professor of education at the University of Groningen and former director of the Dutch teachers' association; and Joseph Katz, professor of comparative education at the University of British Columbia, founderpresident of the Comparative and International Education Society of Canada, and author and editor of significant writings on Canadian and international education.

Jews have played a significant role in general education in the U.S.S.R. Moses M. Rubenstein wrote extensively on the applications of psychology to education. Sergey L. *Rubinstein, of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, worked along similar lines. Moses M. Pistrak (1888–1940), author of the first textbook on education for pedagogical institutes (1934), also wrote works on educational theory. Yevgeni Y. Golant, professor at the Hertsen Pedagogical Institute in Leningrad, became a leading figure in the historical and methodological aspects of education. Sholom Izrailovich Ganelin, of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, is recognized as a specialist on the theory and history of education. Alexander R. Luria, a psychologist in the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, won an international reputation as an expert on the education of the mentally handicapped. Elye I. Monoszon, another of the many Jews in the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, wrote important works on didactics. Distinction in editorial work was attained by M.S. Epstein, coeditor of the pedagogical encyclopedia (1927–30), and by David A. Epshtein, an editor of the new children's encyclopedia.

In England, Sir Meyer A. Spielman (1856–1936) served as inspector of schools for juvenile delinquents and as a pioneer in the Borstal movement for their rehabilitation. Sir Philip J.H. *Hartog was a well-known specialist on higher education and on education in India. Susan *Isaacs applied psychoanalytic methods in early childhood education, published important studies on the social and intellectual development of children, and headed the department of child development at the University of London's Institute of Education (1933–43). A refugee from Nazi Germany, where he was professor of psychology at the University of Frankfurt, Karl Mannheim enhanced his international reputation when he was professor at the University of London's Institute of Education by his publications on the sociology of knowledge and education.

In the United States, the Jewish contributions to general education in the 20th century have been varied, frequent, and profound. Probably the single most influential force in changing American education was Abraham *Flexner, the author of reports on medical education (1910) and universities (1930). The arguments of Louis *Marshall, the lawyer on behalf of private schools, influenced the U.S. Supreme Court's Oregon decision (1925) upholding the constitutionality of parochial schools. Lillian D. *Wald, a social worker, pioneered in public school nursing in New York City. Vice Admiral Hyman G. *Rickover emerged as a widely read critic of the U.S. educational system. Of particular value was the analysis by Fred M. Hechinger, who replaced Benjamin Fine as education editor of the New York Times. In the professional field of education, numerous Jews have distinguished themselves: Isaac B. *Berkson, Harry S. *Broudy, and Israel *Scheffler in the philosophy of education; Bernard Bailyn, Lawrence A. *Cremin, and Saul Sack in the history of education; Isaac L. Kandel and Harold J. Noah in comparative education; David P. *Ausubel, Bruno *Bettelheim, Benjamin S. *Bloom, Frank S. Freeman, Kurt *Lewin, and Irving *Lorge in educational psychology and research; Jacob Greenberg, Mark M. Krug, Morris Meister, Paul C. Rosenbloom, and Joseph J. *Schwab in methods of teaching various subjects; Harold H. *Abelson, Paul *Klapper, and Harry N. *Rivlin as deans of university schools of education; and Myron *Lieberman as specialist on the professional status of teachers. Abraham A. *Ribicoff and Wilbur J. *Cohen both served as U.S. secretary of health, education, and welfare; David H. Kurtzman was superintendent of public instruction in Pennsylvania. Rose Shapiro was elected president of New York City's Board of Education in June 1968. Most of these experts exercised considerable influence on education in other countries. Another powerful force in education was the mostly Jewish United Federation of Teachers in New York with over 140,000 members. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, with the controversial Albert *Shanker serving as president 1964–74, it led a number of major strikes to improve the conditions of the city's teachers.

Two Israelis have won international recognition in education. The philosophical and educational writings of Martin *Buber have had a profound impact in educational theory and on teaching in Protestant theological seminaries in various countries. Ernst A. *Simon pioneered in the teaching of general educational history and theory in Israel, in research in these fields, and in advancement of comparative education.

bibliography:

S. Kaznelson (ed.), Juden im deutschen Kulturbereich (19592), 307–22; C. Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilisation (19563), 37–53 (bibl.), 281–2.

[William W. Brickman]

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Education

EDUCATION

EDUCATION. European preuniversity education from 1500 to 1789 underwent three major developments. First, Renaissance humanists created the classical Latin curriculum, which dominated schools throughout these centuries. Second, church institutions, both Catholic and Protestant, took leading roles in organizing schools and providing teachers for the vast majority of schools from the late sixteenth century onward. Third, Enlightenment school reformers of the eighteenth century attacked the church's role in education and proposed state schools as an alternative. Their proposals did not win acceptance until after 1789.

THE ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLING IN 1500

Renaissance Europe inherited from the Middle Ages an uncoordinated and diverse structure of schools. Different kinds of schools competed with or complemented each other. One way to understand them is to note their sponsorsthat is, the institution, entity, or person that governed or paid the expenses for a school. A single schoolmaster created an independent school, the equivalent of a "private school" in the twenty-first century. He typically opened a one-room school in his home or rented quarters. There he taught neighborhood pupils whose parents paid him fees to teach their sons. His only qualifications were his teaching skill and his ability to persuade parents to send their children. The teacher might possess a university degree, which meant facility in Latin and acquaintance with higher learning in rhetoric, philosophy, law, or theology. Or he might be only slightly better educated than his pupils.

The tutor was another independent schoolmaster. He lived and taught in the home of a noble or wealthy merchant or visited the household daily. In both cases he taught only the children of the household or two adjacent households. A few tutors were the constant guides and companions, at home or in travel, to single boys or youths of considerable wealth and social standing.

Other independent masters presided over their own boarding schools that housed, fed, and instructed children sent to them. This independent master became a substitute father to his charges. He taught boys in the classroom, chided their manners at table, and improved their morals throughout. At least parents hoped this happened. Some of the most famous humanistic schools of the Italian Renaissance operated by such famous pedagogues as Vittorino Ramboldoni da Feltre (1373/781446/47) and Guarino Guarini of Verona (13741460) were independent boarding schools.

The endowed school was an independent school that endured beyond the lifetime of a single teacher or founder. A wealthy individual left a sum of money for a school. Endowment income paid the master's salary and rent for a schoolroom or building where boys learned for free. In England before the Protestant Reformation, the master of an endowed school often had to be a priest so that he could celebrate daily a mass for the repose of the donor's soul. Schoolboys learned reading, Latin, and sometimes chant. A large endowment could create a boarding school in which boys both studied and lived. An inadequate endowment might mean that boys had to pay supplementary fees. Sometimes endowed schools became municipal schools when the town council paid additional expenses and took over direction.

One group of endowed schools, the English public schools, occupied a unique place in the life of England. Despite the name, they were expensive private schools. The Renaissance and Reformation era saw the foundation of the most prestigious: seven boarding schoolsWinchester (founded 1382), Eton (1440), Westminster (late sixteenth century), Shrewsbury (1552), Harrow (1571), Rugby (1576), and Charterhouse (1611)and two day schools, St. Paul's, founded by the English humanist John Colet (14671519) in 1508, and Merchant Taylors (1561). But England added many more public schools over the centuries. The public schools educated boys from the highest ranks of society, many of whom went on to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The public schools of England produced a large number of clergymen, army officers, and members of government and became even more important in English life in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The local civil authority, such as the town council, might sponsor a school. The town government chose and paid the master, sometimes imposed curricular directives, and sent a visitor to see that teacher and pupils performed satisfactorily. Sometimes municipal schools were free. But they never enrolled all the school-age boys of the town, and they seldom taught girls. The town government typically supported only one or two municipal teachers, who taught perhaps 50 or 60 percent of the town's school-age boys. Often the town permitted the municipal teacher to collect fees from the students to augment his modest salary. Universal public education, with or without fees, did not exist and only gradually won acceptance in the nineteenth century.

A third kind of school was the church school. An ecclesiastical authority or institution, such as a bishop, a cathedral chapter of canons, a monastery, or even the parish priest, opened a school. They were not numerous until the Protestant and Catholic Reformations of the sixteenth century created church schools, which dominated the educational landscape in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Regardless of its sponsorship, the actual school was usually modest. It normally consisted of a single teacher instructing a group of boys of varying ages and abilities, anywhere from a half dozen to thirty, in a single room. If the teacher had forty pupils or more, he might have an assistant who drilled the younger boys in their lessons, such as Latin conjugations and declensions. The schoolroom might be in the teacher's home or a rented room outside it. It is unlikely that the school had an outdoor area for play or physical exercises. Drinking water and food had to be brought in. If the schoolroom had a stove, each pupil might be required to bring a stick of wood on cold days.

Only a minority of boys and a tiny minority of girls aged six to fifteen attended school. Probably about 28 percent of boys attended formal schools in Florence, Italy, in 1480, and 26 percent of boys attended formal schools in Venice in 1587. The girls' percentage was low, probably less than 1 percent. About 20 to 25 percent of boys and less than 5 percent of girls attended school in sixteenth-century England. About 40 percent of boys received enough schooling to become literate in the town of Cuenca (in Castile, Spain) in the sixteenth century. And perhaps 12 percent of Polish males attended school in the 1560s.

School attendance closely followed the hierarchies of wealth, occupation, and social status. Sons of nobles, wealthy merchants, and professionals, such as lawyers, physicians, notaries, high civil servants, university professors, and preuniversity teachers, were much more likely to attend school than sons of craftsmen, artisans, small shopkeepers, wool workers, laborers, and servants. The primary reason for the different schooling rates was that schooling almost always cost money. The social and occupational expectations of parents offered additional reasons.

Boys were far more likely than girls to attend school. They needed schooling, especially Latin schooling, to qualify for leadership positions in society. But such positions and all the learned professions were barred to women. Hence few parents believed that daughters needed formal education. Some girls received informal teaching at home, but the number is impossible to estimate.

Urban dwellers were more likely to attend school than those who lived in the countryside or in farming villages, because more teachers were available in towns and cities. Rural areas had few resources to dedicate to schooling and few available teachers. The distances that students might have to walk to get to school and the exposure of the schoolroom to the elements, a serious consideration in northern Europe, also helped explain the lower schooling rate of rural children. In theory, schools taught all year. Of course numerous saints' days and civic holidays, long vacations at Christmas and Easter, and Carnival before Lent broke up the schedule. So did the need to work in the fields during harvest. And extremes of summer heat and winter cold shut down schools or kept children home.

THE CLASSICAL CURRICULUM OF THE RENAISSANCE

The most significant event in European schooling in these centuries was the adoption of a classical curriculum for the Latin schools in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Medieval Latin schools taught a mixture of manufactured verse texts of pious sentiments, grammar manuals and glossaries, and limited material from ancient classical texts. Renaissance humanists discarded the medieval curriculum in favor of the works of Virgil (7019 b.c.e.), Cicero (10643 b.c.e.), Terence (186/185?159 b.c.e.), Julius Caesar (10044 b.c.e.), and other ancient authors. These authors taught grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy, the famous humanistic studies that imparted virtue and eloquence to the free person, or so the Renaissance believed. Students learned to write Latin in the ornate and highly rhetorical style of Cicero's Epistolae ad familiares (Familiar letters), which was very different from the clear, functional, and sometimes graceless medieval Latin. They studied Virgil and Terence for poetry and Caesar and Valerius Maximus (fl. c. 3040 c.e.) for history. Humanist pedagogues sought guidance on Latin rhetoric and ancient pedagogy generally from the Institutio oratoria (Institutes of oratory) of the ancient Roman teacher of rhetoric Quintilian (c. 35c. 100). Italy adopted the classical Latin curriculum in the first half of the fifteenth century, and the rest of Europe followed in the early sixteenth century.

Attending a Latin school to learn classical Latin was the prerequisite for every professional career because Latin was the language of law, medicine, science, and theology into the eighteenth century and sometimes beyond. To mention one example among many, Isaac Newton (16421727) wrote his masterpiece, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687; Mathematical principles of natural philosophy) in Latin. All students who wished to go to the university had to learn Latin because the lectures, texts, disputations, and examinations were conducted in Latin. And even after Latin ceased to be the universal language for learning, pedagogues and parents believed the study of Latin and Greek grammar prepared the mind for any intellectual endeavor. Latin and Greek literature also conveyed high purpose and lofty moral sentiments that society and parents wanted leaders to emulate.

Social and intellectual consequences of the classical curriculum. The adoption of a classical humanistic curriculum had profound consequences. The division of European education into a classical Latin curriculum for the leaders of society and professionals and a vernacular education for the rest (see below) made schooling the key to social hierarchy. Certainly social divisions existed before the adoption of the classical curriculum and would have continued without it. But now a Latin classical education was crucial for anyone wishing to obtain or hold a certain position in society. Even a bright child could not learn Latin without long and difficult study. And only parents possessing a certain amount of income could afford the fees to send a son and occasionally a daughter to Latin schools for many years and to forgo the assistance and income that a working child brought to the family. From the Renaissance through the eighteenth century and beyond, the classical curriculum defined the academic secondary school, which divided the upper and middle classes from the working class. At the same time, using a classical education as the gateway to advancement also meant that boys, and later girls, of poor and humble origins might advance through merit if they could obtain a Latin education. Free Latin schools eventually became available to some children.

The adoption of a curriculum based on reading the ancient works was a remarkable but strange decision with far-reaching consequences. The ancient world, culturally Greek, spiritually pagan, and politically united under a militaristic Rome, differed greatly from modern European civilization, which was Christian and politically divided into numerous states. Yet Europe's intellectuals and political leaders decided that future leaders of society should study the classics of ancient Rome and Greece in order to become eloquent and morally upright. They did not change their minds until the twentieth century.

The classical curriculum also imparted a secular spirit to European schooling. Even though western European civilization was profoundly otherworldly in its ultimate goal, the Latin classical curriculum emphasized education for this life. Neither Cicero, Virgil, nor any other ancient pagan text urged men and women to do what was morally right in order to enjoy union with the Christian God in the next world. Of course Renaissance educators were convinced that Christianity and the classics taught an identical morality of honesty, self-sacrifice for the common good, and perseverance. But the classics did not teach one to love either enemy or neighbor. Even though Catholic religious orders and Protestant divines added considerable religious content to the classical curriculum, the secular spirit of the classical curriculum remained a significant part of European education far beyond the Renaissance.

VERNACULAR SCHOOLS

Vernacular schools also existed in every region of Europe. Indeed all of Europe had two school systems, classical Latin and vernacular, throughout these centuries. For example, in the major commercial city of Venice, half the boys in school attended vernacular schools in 1587 and 1588. They taught reading and writing in the vernacular and often commercial mathematics to boys (and a small number of girls) destined for the world of work. This curriculum emerged from the practical experience and lay culture of the merchant community. Vernacular schools probably underwent little change during the Renaissance and beyond. Since church and state authorities did not hand down directives for vernacular schools, the teachers, who were almost always modest independent masters, taught what they pleased. Hence the children learned to read from the same adult books of popular culture that their parents enjoyed. Indeed Venetian boys sometimes brought from home popular vernacular texts that parents wanted them to learn to read. The vernacular textbooks were a diverse lot, ranging from medieval saints' lives to Renaissance chivalric romances. Obviously they imparted conflicting moral values. Students would read about heroic saints who endured martyrdom for Christ, then read about knights who killed for revenge and ladies who committed adultery for love. Italian vernacular schools also taught advanced commercial mathematical skills and elementary bookkeeping. Vernacular schools in other parts of Renaissance Europe taught arithmetic but not the rest of the commercial curriculum of Italian vernacular schools.

German vernacular schools were called Winkelschulen ('backstreet' or 'corner schools') because they were located in out-of-the-way places, such as the back room of a shop or the attic of a crowded home, in larger towns or cities. There male and female teachers of modest backgrounds taught boys and some girls basic literacy and elementary arithmetic for small fees. The name also indicates the attitude of authorities, who saw them as unsupervised schools teaching questionable doctrines. A Prussian government evaluation of 1768 saw Winkelschulen as lacking method and discipline and as potential sources of depravity. The self-appointed teachers varied widely: members of dissident religious sects, unemployed preachers, would-be clergymen, artisans, injured soldiers, and women. Despite official disapproval, they continued through the eighteenth century and beyond in German states because they offered a service to a segment of the population that had little or no other access to schooling. Other European countries also had modest vernacular schools but on a more regular basis and enjoying better reputations.

PRINTING AND THE EXPANSION OF EDUCATION

Printing aided education by making available multiple copies of textbooks. The use of movable type began about 1450, and by the 1480s and 1490s publishers were producing significant numbers of reading primers and manuals of Latin syntax (the construction of sentences according to the rules governing the use of words) and morphology (the inflected forms of words). No longer would students have to rely on handwritten manuscripts available only to the teacher or to wealthy students. As the cost of printed books declined drastically in the sixteenth century, it is possible that most pupils had the resources to own a grammar manual and primer. Whether they did or not is impossible to determine.

Historians sometimes believe that more and cheaper printed books stimulated an increase in education and literacy. Rather, four factors working together probably increased the amount of schooling by 1600 and beyond: (1) inexpensive printed books, (2) greater availability of free or inexpensive schooling, (3) the desire of students and parents for more education, and (4) society's willingness to reward those who took the trouble to learn.

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND EDUCATION

Martin Luther (14831546) argued for universal compulsory education, at least at the elementary level. And when German princes embraced the Reformation, Lutheran clergymen drafted new arrangements for the church and state that almost always included a Schulordnung ('school order'). Protestant school orders firmly placed the state (prince or city council) in charge of the schools. By the 1560s and 1570s Protestant school orders created a relatively integrated set of schools, beginning with an elementary school to teach reading and writing. Abler students advanced to a higher school, which taught Latin, and the most gifted and socially privileged to an advanced secondary school, which led to university. The goals were twofold: (1) to train future clergymen and administrators of the state; and (2) to impart to a larger fraction of the male population enough reading and writing to function at an appropriate station in life. The students studied the same classical curriculum taught in Catholic lands along with a great deal of catechetical instruction in Lutheran Christianity. Protestant Germany and nearby border regions, such as Strasbourg, had some excellent secondary-level Latin schools.

It appears that the number and possibly the quality of schools increased during the age of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. But the Protestant Reformation did not mark the beginning of modern schooling. The goals were high, the results often modest. The level of instruction was not always elevated. The schools still often charged fees, which poor parents could not afford. Sometimes parents could not even provide the stick of wood that a child was expected to bring for the school fire in winter. A school seldom enrolled all the boys in the village, and enrollments waxed and waned according to the work seasons. Even though the state was supposed to organize and direct schools, the Winkelschulen continued.

Nevertheless, the Reformation did provide some interesting developments. In 1560 the Scottish Calvinist leader John Knox (15131572) called for a system of parish schools in Scotland that developed over the next two hundred years. Legislation required landowners to appoint a schoolmaster for each parish, to pay him a small salary, and to build a schoolhouse. Parish schools enrolled both boys and girls, although girls' education emphasized reading and sewing rather than the broader range of academic skills imparted to boys. All children had to pay small fees, but the church or community paid the fees of poor children. Although parish schools were less numerous in remote and poorer regions of Scotland than in the affluent lowlands, it was a rudimentary national system of elementary education. By the eighteenth century Scotland had one of the highest schooling rates, especially for girls, in Europe.

Despite such local successes as Scotland, it seems unlikely that the Protestant Reformation made education more available than did Catholic Europe. Indeed because Protestantism abolished religious orders, it did not enjoy the access to the extensive networks of new schools that the religious orders of the Catholic Reformation provided. Nor can the thesis that Protestantism created a permanent expansion of schooling and literacy so that every individual could read the Bible be supported on the basis of current research. The only example in which the Protestant Reformation achieved almost total reading literacy occurred in Sweden in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. There the state Reformed (Lutheran) Church undertook to teach the entire population, male and female, how to read. Thanks to great effort and governmental threats (such as refusing permission to marry to those who failed to learn to read), the effort succeeded. It was an impressive achievement but unique. Nothing comparable occurred anywhere else in Protestant or Catholic Europe.

RELIGIOUS ORDER EDUCATION IN CATHOLIC EUROPE

The new Catholic Reformation religious orders of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries altered the educational landscape of Catholic Europe. The Society of Jesus (founded in 1540) and other religious orders that followed its pedagogical example created new schools and sometimes took control of existing municipal schools. Because they did not charge fees, the new schools of the Jesuits, Piarists, and other orders expanded educational opportunity and dominated education in Catholic countries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Jesuit schools. The Jesuits had not intended to become educators. But in December 1547 the city government of Messina, firmly nudged by the Spanish viceroy who ruled Sicily for Spain, petitioned Ignatius Loyola (14911556) to send ten Jesuits to Messina, five to teach and the rest to undertake spiritual and charitable activities. The city government promised food, clothing, and a building. Recognizing this as an intriguing opportunity and knowing that one did not refuse a viceroy, Loyola managed to send seven Jesuits, including some of the ablest scholars of the young order. According to the agreement with the city, the Jesuit fathers would teach nine classes. In effect they created a classical Latin elementary and secondary school along with higher studies in philosophy. The city would erect a building, the people of Messina would support the Jesuits through freewill offerings, and the viceroy would also help. The school formally opened in October 1548. It was an immediate success, as two hundred boys enrolled by December. The school averaged an enrollment of about three hundred boys in the next two decades.

Free instruction largely explained the instant success of the Messina school. The Jesuits inaugurated the first systematic effort to provide free education for several hundred boys in a town, something entirely new for Italy and Europe. The opportunity must have seemed heaven-sent to boys and their parents. In addition the Jesuit fathers were learned scholars and teachers. Many other Jesuit schools followed.

The Jesuit schools offered the same Latin curriculum that the Italian humanists of the fifteenth century had created and that Desiderius Erasmus (1466?1536) and other northern humanists promoted. But they made several additions: prayers, religious training, and insistence that the boys attend mass, confess, and communicate; better pedagogical organization, including imaginative teaching techniques; and higher subjects, like philosophy, logic, mathematics, and theology.

The Jesuit schools soon refined their goals. Beginning in 1551 they phased out the introductory class that taught beginning reading and writing and the rudiments of Latin grammar. A boy had to learn these before entering a Jesuit school. And the Jesuits decided to concentrate their energies on those likely to stay in school for many years. With this decision, partly provoked by a shortage of teachers, the Jesuits narrowed their educational mission chronologically and socially: they taught the Latin humanities to upper- and middle-class boys aged ten to sixteen. Since the Jesuits followed the policy of free education until the nineteenth century, they sought and received financial support from wealthy lay or ecclesiastical leaders of the community and sometimes from the town government. The growth in the number of Jesuit schools was extraordinary. There were about 35 schools worldwide in 1556, 121 in 1575, 245 in 1599, 293 in 1607, 444 in 1626, 578 in 1679, 612 in 1710, and 669 in 1749. All but a few were in Europe, with the largest number in France and Italy.

A handful of Jesuit schools in large Italian cities, such as Rome and Milan, taught several hundred boys between the ages of ten and sixteen and a few older students. Jesuit schools in France, Germany, and Portugal often taught five hundred to fifteen hundred students. The largest and best-known Jesuit schools taught university-level philosophy, mathematics, and physics to the older and brighter students. At the same time the vast majority of Jesuit schools enrolled only one hundred to two hundred students who studied, under four or five teachers, the Latin humanities curriculum and religious instruction.

The Jesuit schools appealed to the community at large with their public programs. Students at Jesuit schools in Spain and Portugal began to give public performances with scenery, stagecraft, and music of Latin tragedies, both sacred and secular. They also presented what might be called achievement days, in which students orated, recited, and debated before parents and dignitaries of the city. The schools of other Catholic Reformation teaching orders, such as the Barnabites (Clerics Regular of St. Paul) and Somaschans (Clerics Regular of Somascha), did the same.

Schools for nobles. Boarding schools limited to boys of verified noble lineage were a feature of the stratified society of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Princes and others founded boarding schools for noble boys who mixed with their peers from different parts of Europe. They entered between the ages of eleven and fourteen and might stay until the age of twenty. The schools for nobles supplemented the standard Latin curriculum with lessons in singing, dancing, designing fortifications, French, and above all, horsemanship. These schools cost a great deal. Ranuccio I Farnese (15691622, ruled 15921622), duke of Parma and Piacenza, founded a famous school for nobles in 1601 in Parma and gave the Jesuits direction of the school in 1604. It had a peak enrollment of 550 to 600 boys between 1670 and 1700, then began to decline. The Jesuits were the teachers in many noble schools and boarding schools with upper-class boys. Other religious orders followed their lead but to a lesser extent. Some schools for nobles also developed in Protestant lands.

France. In the early sixteenth century many French towns established Latin classical schools open to the boys of the town and staffed by teachers who had imbibed the Renaissance humanistic curriculum at Paris. Then the crown in the early seventeenth century encouraged the Jesuits and other orders to establish schools in the kingdom. Through financial subsidies or royal command, King Henry IV (ruled 15891610) persuaded the religious orders to take direction of the town schools. Sometimes the towns agreed because the schools were going poorly. The town could not provide enough funding, teachers were in short supply, enrollments were declining, academic standards were falling, and the students were disorderly. Under the protection of the crown, the new religious orders of the Catholic Reformation became the schoolmasters of France.

Numerous towns across France replaced their secular schoolmasters with the Jesuits, the French Congregation of the Oratory, and the Doctrinaires (Secular Priests of the Christian Doctrine). They established some remarkable schools. In 1603 Henry IV gave the Jesuits a château in the town of La Flèche in the Loire Valley. Le Collège Henry IV at La Flèche (usually just called La Flèche) began with that gift. The king provided additional financial support in the following years and strongly encouraged members of his court to send their sons there. The school was an instant success, boasting an enrollment of twelve hundred to fourteen hundred students, of whom three hundred were boarders, in a few years. La Flèche's most famous pupil was René Descartes (15961650). Entering in 1606, Descartes spent nine years there, the first six studying Latin grammar, humanities, and rhetoric, the last three studying philosophy, which included mathematics, physics, and Galileo's telescope discoveries. Although he eventually rejected the philosophy learned there, Descartes in 1641 strongly endorsed La Flèche for the excellence of its instruction, its lively students from all over France, and the spirit of student equality the Jesuits fostered.

The Collège de Clermont (15601762), renamed the Collège Louis le Grand in 1682, was the Jesuit school in Paris. It enrolled boys aged twelve to twenty. The number of students steadily rose from fifteen hundred (including three hundred boarders) in 1619 to twenty-five hundred to three thousand students (including five hundred to six hundred boarders) in the late seventeenth century.

Students in the Jesuit schools and probably in most Latin schools in both Catholic and Protestant Europe were placed and promoted according to their achievement, not their ages. This meant that boys of many ages might be in a single class. For example, the rhetoric class at the Collège de Clermont in Paris had 160 pupils (obviously taught by more than one teacher) in 1677. One pupil was ten years old, three were eleven, eight were twelve, fifteen were thirteen, thirty-five were fourteen, thirty-seven were fifteen, twenty-five were sixteen, twenty-eight were seventeen, six were eighteen, two were nineteen, and one was twenty. While the rhetoric class normally took two years to complete, some pupils may have required more time.

Jesuit schools in Europe, Asia, and the Americas followed the program of studies minutely organized in the society's Ratio Studiorum (Plan of studies) of 1599. It prescribed texts, classroom procedures, rules, and discipline. The Ratio Studiorum frowned on corporal punishment; if unavoidable, a non-Jesuit should administer it. Other Catholic religious order schools offering Latin education often copied Jesuit educational procedures to greater or lesser degree.

Piarist schools. Not all schools of the religious orders taught a Latin curriculum to middle- and upper-class boys. The Basque priest José Calasanz (c. 15571648) had the revolutionary idea of offering comprehensive free schooling to poor boys when he opened his first "pious school" in the working-class area of Trastevere, Rome, in 1597. The first pious school accepted only pupils presenting certificates of poverty issued by parish priests. It aimed to educate poor and working-class boys so they might earn a living in this life and attain salvation in the next. The school offered free instruction in vernacular reading, writing, and arithmetic plus some Latin to bright boys, an early attempt to combine the vernacular and Latin curricula. It also furnished books, paper, pens, ink, and on occasion food to needy pupils. Calasanz established a religious order, the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (usually called the Piarists) in 1621 to carry on his work. In time the Piarists dropped the certificate of poverty as a prerequisite for enrollment and accepted students from the middle and upper classes. But they continued to see the poor as their primary student constituency. Their schools enabled poor boys to move up the social ladder, those who learned Latin into professional positions. The Piarists had over two hundred schools, the majority in Italy and Spain and a smaller number in central Europe, in 1784.

EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

Boys and girls almost always attended separate schools in both Catholic and Protestant Europe. A large number of female religious convents educated Catholic girls as long-term boarders. Parents sent a girl to a convent for several years to be educated and to learn sewing and manners. She emerged educated, virtuous, and ready to marry. Some girls decided to remain as nuns. Indeed professed nuns living in convents had a higher literacy rate and were consistently better educated than laywomen.

Church organizations also offered charity schools for poor girls. For example, in 1655 the papacy contributed funding to hire numerous female teachers to staff free neighborhood schools for girls in Rome. Each schoolmistress taught vernacular reading and writing to any number, from a handful to more than seventy girls. These schools lasted until the Kingdom of Italy seized Rome in 1870. Catholic Europe also had an abundance of catechism schools (called Schools of Christian Doctrine), which taught the rudiments of Catholicism and a limited amount of reading, on Sundays and numerous religious holidays, to boys and girls in separate classes. Protestant Europe also had catechism classes or Sunday schools, about which less is known. And numerous clergymen lacking benefices, livings, or parishes in both Protestant and Catholic Europe supported themselves as schoolmasters.

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

Until the eighteenth century, central governments played no direct role in schooling, with the partial exception of state-church collaboration in some small German Protestant states. In the middle of the eighteenth century, educational reformers, strongly influenced by Enlightenment views, began to argue that church schools should be eliminated and the state should become the directing force in education.

State education and attacks on church schools.

Enlightenment reformers, who always came from the upper ranks of society, believed that the absolutist state could and should improve men and women through reform from above. They accepted the psychology of John Locke (16321704), educated at the public school of Westminster and at Oxford University, who published two influential works on education, An Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690) and Some Thoughts concerning Education (1693). He held that the child was a tabula rasa ('blank slate') on which anything could be written. Thus the right early education would impart useful skills and would form the child with proper values, which included good manners and deference to authority. Children so formed would become useful and loyal citizens; if wrongly educated, they would not. Hence the central government, rather than the church or local authorities, should control schools and choose the teachers. Numerous Enlightenment figures echoed or expanded Locke's views.

The attack on church education began in Catholic countries just as the ruling classes in Catholic Europe began to find fault with the most famous of the church schools, those of the Jesuits. For example, enrollment at La Flèche dropped to four hundred, of whom two hundred were boarders, by 1760. The reformers launched a general attack on the Society of Jesus for many reasons, of which their domination in education was one. The Jesuits were expelled from Portugal in 1759, from France in 1764, and from Spain in 1767. Their schools (105 in France) were closed or assigned to other religious congregations. Bowing to pressure from governments, the papacy suppressed the society in 1773. But needing to maintain educational institutions for their Catholic subjects, Frederick the Great (17121786) of Prussia and Catherine the Great (17291796) of Russia, neither of whom was Catholic, rejected the papal bull and welcomed the Jesuits in their realms.

State authorities across Europe also confiscated numerous church buildings and properties during the last years of the eighteenth century and in the nineteenth century, further weakening the capacity of church groups to support schools. Governments seldom succeeded in eliminating church schools in either Catholic or Protestant lands. But they seriously weakened churches as rivals to the central state governments as the chief force in schooling.

Numerous eighteenth-century school reformers filled with Enlightenment views fanned across Europe, offering schemes to replace church schools and to change preuniversity education. They offered advice to any ruler who showed an interest, however fleeting, in school reform. Their plans had many similarities, because they came from a common stock of Enlightenment principles and because the reformers borrowed from each other, helped by the fact that Europe's educated classes all read and spoke French.

The educational reform plan of Louis-Renéde Caradeuc de la Chalotais (17011785) attracted the most attention. As royal attorney for the parlement of his native Rennes, La Chalotais published an influential work against the Jesuits and their schools, Comptes rendus des constitutions des jésuites

(Report on the Constitution of the Jesuits) in 17611762. In 1763 he published his Essai d'éducation nationale, ou plan d'études pour la jeunesse (Essay on national education; or, a plan of studies for youth). Much of the treatise reiterated views held by others, but he added something new, the idea of national education.

La Chalotais's plan had several parts. He advocated the teaching of French while not eliminating Latin. He wanted children to learn national history, another difference from the classical schools. The state should ensure that children were taught good morals based on fundamental ethical truths, because good morals were essential for the well-being of society. La Chalotais allowed that churches might teach religion, but outside of the school. He also believed that girls should be educated, albeit with the substitution of needlework and like skills appropriate to their gender for some of the studies of boys. The most important part of the treatise was his belief that schools were a national concern, and therefore the state should organize schools, regulate studies, appoint teachers, and provide school buildings. This was revolutionary at a time when governments left the regulation of schools to local authorities and church institutions. But he did not advocate universal education; he thought there already were too many collèges, that is, secondary schools. Too many would entice working-class parents to send their children, who would become secretaries, thus depriving society of men for the manual trades, recruits for the navy, and other useful workers. Most Enlightenment reformers agreed; Voltaire (16941778), for example, congratulated La Chalotais for proposing to limit the number of collèges. La Chalotais even thought elementary education should not be too extensive: it was enough that some people learned how to use tools, he wrote.

Enlightenment school reformers held a hierarchical view of society that limited their commitment to universal education. Most other Enlightenment educational reformers agreed with La Chalotais on his major points. State schooling should be free for lower-class boys but limited to elementary education, ending at the ages of ten to twelve. Otherwise they would aspire to rise above their station, thus depriving society of their labor and upsetting the right order of things. By contrast, the sons of the ruling classes should avoid state elementary schools and continue to study with tutors or attend elite schools. They should go on to secondary schools, including boarding schools, with their classical Latin and Greek curriculum.

Rulers in France, Prussia, Austria, Bavaria, Russia, Spain, Piedmont, Sweden, and elsewhere showed interest in reforming schools. Numerous reformers gave them advice; for example, Denis Diderot (17131784) advised Catherine the Great of Russia, and Étienne Bonnet de Condillac (17151780) advised the duke of Parma. They all agreed that the state, not the church, should control education and that education should aim to produce good citizens by teaching good morals. They wanted limited universal education, a contradiction in terms.

The results were negligible. Rulers promulgated sweeping school reform proposals but failed to support their proposals by providing more lay teachers, teacher training, school buildings, or even textbooks. Nor did they change the religious orientation of schools. Rulers offered halfhearted support for educational change because they feared that universal education would upset the social order. Most education remained in the hands of church institutions, except for the banished Society of Jesus.

Frederick the Great, king of Prussia from 1740 until his death in 1786, was typical. Declaring that uneducated citizens were like animals, he promulgated sweeping new school regulations for Prussia in 1763 and then forgot about them. Part of the reason was his fear that, if rural children learned more than reading and writing, they would run off to the city for higher occupations. The state needed peasants, laborers, and soldiers.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778), in his novel Émile ou de l'éducation (Emile, or about education) of 1762 offered the most radical educational approach. Totally opposed to Locke's views that basic ideas could be implanted in a boy and that he should be raised for a specific role or occupation in society, Rousseau believed the child should be allowed to develop his or her unique nature. Rousseau saw the child not as a small adult but as a developing person. He would postpone moral training until later and raise the child independently of religious doctrine or the influences of civilization. Rousseau's book stimulated great discussion but had no discernible influence on contemporary education. Not until the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era (17891815), and the nineteenth century as a whole did some of the proposals from the school reforms of the eighteenth century come to fruition, and then only slowly.

CONCLUSION

Education was an integral part of the intellectual life and social fabric of Europe. Education divided the population into an educated elite, a middle group who received vernacular educations, and an unschooled or little-schooled third group. From their first days in the classroom children received different educations according to the social and economic position of a child's parent, usually the father, a child's intended position in society, and a child's gender. Education enabled some academically gifted individuals to rise.

From the Renaissance onward the classical secondary school was the center of European elite education. Educational leaders and probably the majority of society believed that learning ancient languages and literatures developed mental discipline and offered examples of the highest human culture in the original language. Skills learned in Latin classes shaped rhetorical patterns, moral attitudes, habits of thought, and even vernacular speech and writing. The study of Latin and Greek grammar developed mental discipline, while ancient Latin and Greek literature offered examples of the highest human culture in the original language. The classical curriculum also offered practical skills, since university education, law, the church, and government service required a knowledge of Latin. Children not destined for leadership roles attended vernacular schools. Despite the limitations, the organization and curricula of the schools of these centuries was surprisingly rich and varied.

See also Enlightenment ; Humanists and Humanism ; Jesuits ; Latin ; Religious Orders ; Universities .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

Kallendorf, Craig W., ed. and trans. Humanist Educational Treatises. Cambridge, Mass., 2002. Translations of four influential fifteenth-century treatises.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Émile; or, On Education. Introduction, translation, and notes by Allan Bloom. New York, 1979.

Secondary Sources

Brizzi, Gian Paolo. La formazione della classe dirigente nel Sei-Settecento: I seminaria nobilium nell'Italia centrosettentrionale. Bologna, 1976. Study of Jesuit boarding schools for nobles in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Charlton, Kenneth. Education in Renaissance England. London, 1965.

Chartier, Roger, Dominique Julia, and Marie-Madeleine Compère. L'éducation en France du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1976. Much statistical information.

Chisick, Harvey. The Limits of Reform in the Enlightenment: Attitudes toward the Education of the Lower Classes in Eighteenth-Century France. Princeton, 1981.

Cruz, Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran. "Education in the Renaissance." In Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, edited by Paul F. Grendler et al. Vol. 2, pp. 242254. New York, 1999. Good pan-European survey.

Delattre, Pierre, ed. Les établissements des jésuites en France depuis quatre siècles. 5 vols. Enghien and Wetteren, Belgium, 19491957. Articles on all the Jesuit schools in France.

Farrell, Alan P. The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education: Development and Scope of the "Ratio Studiorum." Milwaukee, 1938.

Friedrichs, Christopher R. "Whose House of Learning? Some Thoughts on German Schools in Post-Reformation Germany." History of Education Quarterly 22 (1982): 371377.

Gawthorp, Richard L., and Gerald Strauss. "Protestantism and Literacy in Early Modern Germany." Past and Present 104 (1984): 3155.

Grendler, Paul F. Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning, 13001600. Baltimore and London, 1989. Comprehensive study of all forms of preuniversity education in Italy.

Grendler, Paul F., ed. "Education in the Renaissance and Reformation." Renaissance Quarterly 43, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 774824. European coverage with extensive bibliography.

Hans, Nicholas A. The Russian Tradition in Education. London, 1963. Russian pedagogical thought for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Houston, R. A. Literacy in Early Modern Europe: Culture and Education, 15001800. 2nd ed. rev. Harlow, U.K., and London, 2002.

Huppert, George. Public Schools in Renaissance France. Urbana, Ill., and Chicago, 1984. Latin secondary schools in France.

Jewell, Helen M. Education in Early Modern England. Basingstoke, U.K., and New York, 1998.

Leith, James A., ed. Facets of Education in the Eighteenth Century. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, vol. 167. Oxford, 1977. Rich collection of articles on education in Europe and North America.

Maynes, Mary Jo. Schooling in Western Europe: A Social History. Albany, N.Y., 1985. Survey for 1750 to 1850.

Melton, James Van Horn. Absolutism and the Eighteenth-Century Origins of Compulsory Schooling in Prussia and Austria. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1988.

Pelliccia, Guerrino. La scuola primaria a Roma dal secolo XVI al XIX. Rome, 1985. Comprehensive account of Roman elementary education from 1513 to 1829.

Roggero, Marina. Insegnar lettere: Ricerche di storia dell'istruzione in età moderna. Alessandria, Italy, 1992. Italian education 1500 to 1800.

Spitz, Lewis W., and Barbara Sher Tinsley. Johann Sturm on Education: The Reformation and Humanist Learning. St. Louis, 1995.

Strauss, Gerald. Enacting the Reformation in Germany: Essays on Institution and Reception. Aldershot, U.K., and Brookfield, Vt., 1993. Includes several essays on schools in the German Reformation.

. Luther's House of Learning: Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation. Baltimore and London, 1978. Critical assessment of the aims and results of education in the Lutheran Reformation.

Toscani, Xenio. Scuole e alfabetismo nello Stato di Milano da Carlo Borromeo alla Rivoluzione. Brescia, Italy, 1993. Model study of schooling and literacy in Milan, 1560 to 1800.

Tuer, Andrew White. History of the Horn Book. New York, 1979. Study of the primer used throughout Europe with many illustrations; first published in 1897.

Paul F. Grendler

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Education

EDUCATION

Education and social transformation in the Middle East.

Institutions of formal education have undergone marked transformations in societies of the Middle East since 1800. Education refers to processes in which knowledge, skills, moral behavior, values, tastes, loyalties, and a range of cultural competencies and dispositions get transmitted, learned, and negotiated in various settings. Schooling, on the other hand, refers to a set of practices and behaviors that occur in the bounded institutional universe of the school and is referred to as "formal education."

Institutions of learning in the Middle East once held a position of global preeminence. During the height of the Islamic civilization from the ninth to possibly as late as the sixteenth century, they contributed to staggering advances in fields as diverse as optics, mathematics, medicine, physics, astronomy, philosophy, geometry, translation, architecture, and music. Similarly, the madrasa (plural, madaris ), the Islamic college of law, produced the dual intellectual movements of humanism and scholasticism which, as George Makdisi methodically documents, were borrowed in the medieval period by the Christian West and incorporated into their institutions of higher learning (Makdisi 1981, 1990). Despite the primacy of formal learning in the Muslim Middle East for many centuries, by the eighteenth century the region began looking elsewhere for educational models. In the wake of the European Renaissance, Industrial Revolution, and rise of Europe as a global economic and imperial force, and also within the context of Russian imperial expansion, there rose an urgency among the leaders of Ottoman, Egyptian, and Iranian states to modernize their armies and supporting institutions, including scientific and humanistic educational institutions. The educational model from Europe and to some extent Russia was considered to contain the formula for achieving power, economic success, and scientific advancement in the new world order.

The type of schooling that became increasingly important for projects of military, social, political economic, scientific, and cultural reform throughout the last two centuries has been variously termed "modern," "Western," "civil," "foreign," "secular," "new order," "new method," or simply "new"; what is clear is that this new schooling was intended to transform the organization of knowledge transmission by utilizing new disciplining techniques of power, as Timothy Mitchell and Brinkley Messick elaborate in their discussions of new schooling in Egypt and Yemen respectively (Mitchell; Messick). In their ideal configurations the new schools differed in content, organization, and culture in certain fundamental ways from the existent Islamic indigenous madaris and schools for elementary learning, the kuttab (plural, katatib ) or maktab (plural, makatib ), in which students learned the Qurʾan by rote and might acquire basic writing and reading skills. Among the more distinguishing features of the new schooling were that students were separated into classes by age groups; knowledgeincluding religious knowledgewas codified and fixed into textbooks and curricula, thus contributing to secularization; the school day was organized according to a regimented timetable; school grounds, classrooms, and equipment were spatially arranged to instill discipline and order in students; a new professional class of teachers competent in new pedagogies and located to a large degree outside the Muslim scholarly class (ulama) was trained to staff the new schools; and the planning and administration of formal schooling over time became more centralized in state bureaucratic apparatuses.

In actuality, however, the new schools often overlapped with and contained elements of the preexisting indigenous schools in areas such as staff, disciplinary codes, and texts, testifying to their syncretic nature. As Benjamin Fortna demonstrates in his outstanding social history of new schooling in the late Ottoman period, members of the ulama often served as teachers in the new schools, in which (Islamic) morality played a central role. Furthermore, even with the rise of new schooling as a dominant educational paradigm, Islamic institutions of learning in countries such as Iran and Morocco maintained a position of eminence, as Roy Mottahedeh and Dale Eickelman show in their portrayals of religious education in the contemporary period in the two countries respectively (Mottahedeh; Eickelman).

Although the appearance of "Western"-looking and -organized schools in the Middle East from the nineteenth century has sometimes been interpreted as reflecting a kind of cultural Westernization of those societies, or at least of their institutions, the reality has been much more complex. The new schools have embodied the tensions, aspirations, and negotiations inherent in processes of institutional and cultural adaptation.


Pre-1800 to 1877: The Incipient New School Movement between the State and Private Sphere

As early as the 1720s official state delegations from the Ottoman Empire traveled to Europe to visit and study their institutions of learning. As Ekmeleddin Ihsanoğlu notes, one of the first attempts to "set up an Ottoman intellectual institution without an organic structure" occurred during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Ahmet III when scholars were assembled in 1720 for the purpose of translating works of history and philosophy from European languages into Turkish and Arabic (Ihsanoğlu, p. 165). By the first decades of the nineteenth century, states more systematically supported the use of nonorganic education for modernizing reforms.

The figure most often credited with utilizing new schooling for military and accompanying scientific and technological reform was the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammed Ali Pasha (r. 18051849). In 1809 he sent the first group of students on an educational mission to Europe, and over the next decades he established numerous schools in Egyptroughly equivalent to vocational high schools and technical collegesthat specialized in military sciences, medicine, agriculture, veterinarian medicine, midwifery, pharmaceutics, chemistry, engineering, and translation (Heyworth-Dunne). With the exception of the School of Midwives, all schools were exclusively for male students. In 1825 the first state preparatory (postprimary) school for boys, Qasr al-Ayni, was established to supply students for the new specialized schools. The new schools, many of which did not endure beyond his reign, were administered by the Ministry of War (Diwan al-Jihadiyya) and depended largely on foreign staff. The education policies under his grandson Khedive Ismael (18641879), in which the famous teacher-education college, Dar alUlum (est. 1872), and the first state school for girls, al-Saniyya School (est. 1873), were established, had more lasting impact.

Parallel developments occurred throughout the Ottoman Empire under the reigns of Sultan Selim III (r. 17891807) with his "New Order" (Nizam alJadid) program; Mahmud II (18081839); Abdülmecit (r. 18391861), the Tanzimat sultan; and Abdülhamit II (18761909). Similar to Egypt, students were sent on educational missions abroad, state schools for higher technical and vocational training were established, and primary (rüşdiye) and preparatory (idadi) schools were developed. Among the more famous Ottoman state schools for secondary and higher learning were the School of Military Medicine (est. 1827), the War College (Mekteb-i Harbiye, est. 1846), Mülkiye School (est. 1859), and Galatasaray Lycée (Mekteb-I Sultanî, est. 1868). The ulama in Iran, who were politically stronger than ulama in Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, maintained a near monopoly on formal education, and very few new schools were founded. During the reign of Qajar Shah Nasir al-Din (r. 18481896), however, Crown Prince Abbas Mirza initiated a New Order reform program and established the renowned Dar al-Funun (est. 1851), an elite military institution in which French was the language of instruction.

As it became increasingly evident in the early decades of the nineteenth century that the new education was to become an enduring part of state apparatuses of power and reform, legislation was issued and new administrative bodies formed to manage it. Among the early landmark education legislation from Istanbul was an 1824 decree mandating compulsory elementary education for boys. In Egypt the Primary School Regulation of 1836 led to the establishment of the first education ministry, the Department of Schools (Diwan al-Madaris). Tanzimat era (18391876) reforms included the Education Regulation of 1869 (Maarif Nizamnamesi), which was the blueprint for the empire's first centrally organized and controlled network of schools, and the 1876 Iranian Constitution stipulated that elementary education was to be compulsory and provided by the state free of charge. Such ambitious far-reaching plans would not begin to be effectively implemented until the middle of the twentieth century, but they indicated the hopes the Muslim majority government placed on new schooling for societal change.

States also pursued policies of school expansion with the aim of cultivating a Muslim middle class that would be able to compete with the prosperous segments of foreign and minority communities in matters of trade and other commercial endeavors. The economic success of non-Muslim groups in Egypt and the Ottoman territories was attributed in part to the legal privileges afforded them by the capitulations, but also to the skills, languages, and other competencies they acquired through their participation in the new schooling.

New education had been spreading among minority millet and foreign communities since the eighteenth century. By the 1860s, a period of precarious European economic investment and colonial encroachment in the region, there arose a vast proliferation of schools established by religious missions, foreign governments, local communities, and private associations from France, Britain, Austria, Greece, England, Germany, the United States, and Italy. They served ethnic minority and religious communities such as the Armenians, Jews, and Christians, and also progressively higher numbers of elite Muslim children who were attracted to the prestigious foreign schools. Among the organizations with notable quantitative and qualitative educational impact were the Church Missionary Society of Great Britain (CMS) (est. 1799), the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (est. 1810), and the French-based Alliance Israélite Universelle (est. 1860). Collectively these organizations founded hundreds of schools throughout the region, serving tens of thousands of students. Foreign schools played pioneering roles in, among other areas, girls' and women's education, and higher education (Thompson). The institutions of higher education founded by foreign missions and organizations included the Syrian Protestant College, later named the American University of Beirut (est. 1866); Saint Joseph University, also located in Beirut and founded by French jesuits (est. 1874); Robert College, Istanbul, which became the location for Bogazici University in 1971 (est. 1863); the Istanbul-based American College for Girls (est. 1890); and the American University in Cairo (est. 1920).

The proliferation of foreign educational institutions in the region did not occur without a great deal of tension, and schooling became an ever more hotly debated issue as the century progressed.


1878 to 1913: Colonialism, Nascent Nationalist Movements, and Fragmented Schooling

The new schooling was involved in forging a different kind of society, and its role in societal transformation was widely debated by government officials, foreign missionaries, social reformers, public intellectuals, ordinary citizens, Muslim clerics, and colonial government representatives. They raised pressing questions relating to what populations should participate in the new schooling, who should fund and regulate it, and what its content, methods, and objectives should be. Whereas the British Mandate government in Egypt (18821922), for example, advocated limited educational development to maintain the local population in a subordinate position, the French considered the spread of schooling as part of their mission civilatrice. Members of emerging reform and nationalist movements, engaged citizens, local notables, and officials, on the other hand, perceived new schooling as a requisite for much-needed social reform; however, they largely frowned upon foreign control over it. Foreign schooling was criticized for contributing to a climate of intensified sectarianism and for threatening local religious, cultural, and national sovereignty. Local groups and individuals spearheaded educational alternatives for the moral, scientific, and political socialization of their youth.

A notable experiment that took place in the Levant and Egypt was the Benevolent Society school movement. Benevolent societies were locally funded Muslim, Christian, and intersectarian associations that provided social services by way of support for widows and the poor, hospitals, libraries, student hostels, and, most prominently, schools for boys and girls. These schools were modeled on the government and foreign schools but placed more emphasis on Arabic studies, regional history, vocational training, religion, and morals. The first school of this type was the Maqasid School of the Maqasid Benevolent Society (Jamʿiyat al-Maqasid alKhayriyya), established in Beirut in 1878 by Abd al-Qadir al-Qabbani. The following year the Benevolent Society School of Alexandria, which later added the word Islamic to its name (Madrasat al-Jamʿiyya alKhayriyya al-Islamiyya bi al-Iskandariyya), was opened in Egypt by Abdullah al-Nadim. Within two decades a growing network of benevolent-society schools spread in the region, the most famous among them the al-Maqasid schools of Egypt started by Muhammad Abduh in 1892. Similar examples of local alternative schooling in later periods include the Moroccan Free Schools, which proliferated in the 1920s as an alternative to French colonial schools, and the extensive network of Muslim Brotherhood schools in Egypt from the 1920s until the organization was outlawed in the 1940s.

It is no coincidence that the founders and advocates of benevolent-society schools were in many instances prominent figures in the emerging press, which constituted, with the schools, a powerful component of the new education. With the growth of the press (including a vibrant women's press), an active and engaged public sphere was in the making. As with schools, governments increasingly regarded with trepidation the press because it could be a means of fomenting popular unrest and political opposition. The new education ministries in Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, for example, took on the task of not only supervising schools, but also of censoring the press. School texts, journals, pamphlets, plays, and books of all sorts were subject to censorship. Education ministries have also been closely linked with state security apparatuses. During the Hamidian period, for example, the secret police monitored classes in the Ottoman University (est. 1890), where potentially subversive subjects such as politics, sociology, history, and philosophy were excluded from the curriculum. Censorship and surveillance policies were ultimately unsuccessful, for the secret revolutionary society that eventually aided in the overthrow of the Ottoman sultan, the Committee of Union and Progress or "Young Turks," was begun by four cadets in the Military Medical College in 1889, and their literature spread largely through the growing networks of schools and school inspectors.

Throughout the period leading up to World War I, schooling, including religious schooling, was gradually taken out of the jurisdiction of the ministries of religious endowments (awqaf) and put under the legal authority of new state education ministries. The process of centralization of formal schooling would continue with a vengeance in the period following World War I.


1913 to 1960s: Nationalization and Centralization of Mass Education

In the postWorld War I era the Ottoman Empire was dismantled and the political configuration of the region altered substantially. Turkey became an independent republic, and the Arab territories of the Gulf, Maghreb, Levant, Transjordan, and Egypt were carved up and divided between England and France. In 1948 the Jewish State of Israel was established by British mandate. The age of direct European colonialism came to an end as sovereign nation states were born. The new governments, influenced by modernist ideologies that advocated mass education as the panacea for economic, social, and political development, pursued policies of vigorous educational expansion. Education also figured prominently in the new and revised constitutions, which, with the exception of Saudi Arabia's and Bahrain's, made stipulations for compulsory schooling for boys and girls. This period also witnessed the development of national universities, to which women eventually gained full access.

Two major features characterized national education at the preuniversity level in the Arab states and Iran: Education was centrally administered, one consequence being that foreign schools to a large degree were incorporated into national systems; and education was organically linked to upbringing (tarbiya in Arabic, and parvaresh in Persian). Schools are socializing institutions par excellence, but in Muslim majority states the upbringing aspect of schooling is expressed in explicit terms. As Gregory Starrett notes, "Muslim states have followed a different course to modernity, insisting explicitly that progress requires a centrally administered emphasis upon moral as well as economic development" (Starrett, p. 10). Most of the education ministries in the region contain the word upbringing in their official designations, as in the Ministry of Upbringing and Education (Wizarat al-Tarbiya wa al-Taʿlim) in Egypt, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates; the Ministry of National Upbringing (Wizarat al-Tarbiya alWataniyya) in Algeria and Morocco; and the Ministry of Education and Upbringing (Vezarat-e Amuzesh va Parvaresh) in Iran.

The upbringing component of state-monitored formal schooling serves as a way of ensuring that indigenous, usually Islamic cultural tenets get incorporated into national, and tacitly "secular," education programs. Through school policies that include mandatory religion classes and a host of formal and informal cultural policies such as sex segregation, dress and grooming codes, and supervision of youth behavior in and outside school grounds, educators attempt to guide youth toward socially acceptable conduct. Yet the contours of what is "acceptable" shift and differ according to the historic moment and individual interpretation, social class, region, life stage, and gender. Similar to the Muslim majority states, in the Jewish state of Israel religion is a required subject in state schools from the first grade through high school. The state also supports Jewish religious state schools in which moral conduct and behavior based on Jewish principles play a central role.

Education has long been regarded as a means of national-identity building. Schools are infused with ideological and nationalist content that gets transmitted through curricula, rituals, celebrations, and symbols. In the Arab states, particularly in the post-1950s when pan-Arabism was at its peak, education was seen as a means of solidifying the "Arab nation." In Israel, schools and kibbutzim were intended to generate allegiance to the Jewish state, a process that the non-Jewish Arab minority remained outside of. In secular republican Turkey, education was a means of forging a secular citizenry, and in Iran under the Pahlavi Dynasty, education was geared toward cultural secularization. However, national-identity building does not always evolve according to state policy. The decline of Arab nationalism, the onset of the Iranian revolution, the rise of Islamism throughout much of the region (including "secular" Turkey), and the appearance of an increasingly fragmented polity in Israel have all posed challenges to national education systems. National educational policies would undergo further challenges and changes in the succeeding period characterized by a new globalization.

1970s to the Present: Education between the Local and the Global

The Middle East has undergone dramatic economic, political, and ideological changes since 1970, all of which have had a major impact on development and practice of formal education. The 1970s oil boom in Persian Gulf countries and subsequent massive interregional labor migrations; the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which gave way to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran; the IranIraq War; the 1967 ArabIsraeli War and ensuing Israeli occupation of Arab lands; the first and second (al-Aqsa) Palestinian intifadas; the ongoing civil war in Sudan; the 1990 Gulf War; the U.S. war on and occupation of Iraq; the rise of Islamism as a political and sociocultural movement; and the rise of Middle Eastern states as major debtor nations are all some of the major factors that have contributed to profound changes in the realm of education.

Education has long developed as a result of transnational, regional, and global exchanges, borrowings, and adaptations, but certain unique characteristics underpin education in the current period of globalization. To a growing extent supranational, nonlocally accountable organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.), and United Nations (UN) determine policies and measurements of education as Robert Arnove and Carlos Torres put forward in their tome on comparative education (2003). The "success" or "failure" of national education sectors tend to be measured in quantitative terms and based on factors such as enrollments rates and test scores, with scant attention to "quality." The Arab world has not fared well in these global assessments with illiteracy rates in the mid-1990s as high as roughly 55 percent for females and 30 percent for males. Debtor states of the Middle East and elsewhere have also been compelled to follow certain austerity measures that have included increased privatization and decentralization of national education. Studies on the Middle East region and other regions of the south have repeatedly shown that such policies unequivocally disadvantage the poor, rural populations, and women, and accentuate social inequality. Indeed, these "global" policies are often in direct contravention of national and community interests, indicating a lack of real autonomy and sovereignty among postcolonial states and in educational policy design.

Yet, with growing homogenization of education policies a host of local responses have emerged. In the Middle East there has been an unmistakable revitalization of religious-oriented education. In "secular" Turkey, for example, there was a prodigious growth of the Islamic-oriented Imam Hatip schools until they were curbed by legislative intervention from the end of the 1990s. There has also been a rise in religious Jewish schools in Israel. Various types of Islamic schools, including katatib and new hybrid private Islamic schools, have been on the rise in Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, and Palestine. With the growing privatization and subsequent commercialization of education (with its lucrative financial possibilities), new manifestations of religious schooling have appeared, such as the "five-star" Islamic school, which incorporates up-to-date computer labs, swimming pools, and other signs of prestige and desires being produced in a globalized world in their programs (Herrera, p. 185). In keeping with the privatization pattern, the decade of the 1990s also witnessed prodigious growth in the private university sector, with the opening of twelve new private universities and higher education institutions in Jordan, fifteen in Turkey, seven in Lebanon, and six in Egypt, with plans in all countries for more. Much of the privatized higher education discourse has focused on issues of accreditation, competitiveness, professional degrees, financing, profit, and the needs of the global economic markets, largely removing the new private universities from humanistic endeavors.

The record of national regional universities in social science, humanities, and sciences, however, has been mixed at best. The scientific quality of universities and individual faculties varies substantially. In the Arab countries and Iran, national universities have reflected authoritarian political systems and been characterized by especially cumbersome bureaucratic structures and severe restrictions on academic freedom, both of which have contributed to the problem of "brain drain." In the Persian Gulf countries, for example, scholarly research is allowed except where the "general social system . . . religious precepts, social traditions, cultural and ethical considerations are concerned" (Morsi, p. 44). National universities in Egypt, Jordan, and Syria are heavily monitored and censored by state security apparatuses that interfere in aspects of research, student conduct, travel of faculty, and topics of conferences. In Iran during the "cultural revolution" under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (r. 19791989), faculty and students were purged from universities on ideological grounds and materials censored. Under the previous regime of Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, censorship and surveillance were also widespread. Lack of freedom in academia, however, is not necessarily indicative of the absolute power of political regimes, for state policies have often been subverted and resisted at the sites of schools and universities. Students movements, as Ahmad Abdallah documents in the case of Egypt from the 1920s to the 1970s, have been a powerful social and political force.

Early in the twentieth century women struggled for the right to join universities as full participating members. In the 2000s the participation of women in universities throughout the region is proportionally high. In Persian Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait, women make up more than half of the undergraduate population. In 2001 Iranian women overtook men in university entrance. In Egypt women make up more than half of the students in some of the prestigious medical faculties. Although women have made tremendous strides in higher education, at present the attainment of university degrees does not translate into comparable participation in the political arena and the labor force. However, as history has repeatedly demonstrated, the outcomes of mass education are unpredictable at best, and the trend toward increased female attainment of higher education could very well translate into far-reaching social changes.


Conclusion

The "new" education of the past two centuries has developed alongside movements of modernism, nationalism, pan-Arabism, Islamism, and globalism. As with other forms of institutional borrowing and adaptation, education has been characterized by "intertwined and overlapping histories" (Said, p. 18). It has served as a force in cultural and political reproduction and in social transformation, with often unintended and unpredictable consequences.

Bibliography

Abdallah, Ahmed. The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt, 19231973. London: Al Saqi Books, 1985.

Arnove, Robert F., and Torres, Carlos Alberto, eds. Comparative Education: The Dialective of the Global and the Local, 2d edition. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Little-field, 2003.

Eickelman, Dale. Knowledge and Power in Morocco: The Education of a Twentieth-Century Notable. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Herrera, Linda. "Islamization and Education in Egypt: Between Politics, Culture, and the Market." In Modernizing Islam: Religion in the Public Sphere in Europe and the Middle East, edited by John L. Esposito and François Burgat. London: Hurst and Company, 2003.

Heyworth-Dunne, J. An Introduction to the History of Education in Modern Egypt, 2d edition. London and Edinburgh: Frank Cass, 1968 [1939].

Ihsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin. "Genesis of Learned Societies and Professional Associations in Ottoman Turkey." Archiuum Ottomanicum 14 (1995/1996): 160190.

Makdisi, George. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh, U.K.: Edinburgh University Press, 1981.

Makdisi, George. The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West. Edinburgh, U.K.: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

Messick, Brinkley. The Calligraphic State: Textual Domination and History in an Islamic Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Morsi, Monir Mohamed. Education in the Arab Gulf States. Doha: Educational Research Center, University of Qatar, 1990.

Mottahedeh, Roy. The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.

Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

Starrett, Gregory. Putting Islam to Work: Education, Politics, and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Thompson, Elizabeth. Colonial Citizens. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.


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Education

EDUCATION

Education and literacy were highly politicized issues in both Imperial and Soviet Russia, tied closely to issues of modernization and the social order. The development of an industrialized society and modern state bureaucracy required large numbers of literate and educated citizens. During the Imperial period, state officials faced what one scholar has dubbed "the dilemma of education": how to utilize education without undermining Russia's autocratic government. During the early Soviet period, on the other hand, the Bolsheviks attempted to use the education system as a tool of social engineering, as they attempted to invert the old social hierarchy. In both cases, the questions of which citizens should be educated and what type of education they should receive were as important as the actual material they were to be taught.

the education system in imperial russia, 17001917

Before 1700, Russia had no secular educational system. Literacy, defined here as the ability to comprehend unfamiliar texts, was generally taught in the home. Although there was a considerable spike upwards in literacy in seventeenth-century Muscovy, the overall percentage of literate Russians remained low. In 1700 no more than 13 percent of the urban male population could readfor male peasants, the rate was between 2 and 4 percent.

This was well below Western European literacy rates, which exceeded 50 percent among urban men. The hostility of many Orthodox officials towards education and the absence of a substantial urban class of burghers and artisans were two factors that contributed to Russia's comparatively low literacy rates.

Like many aspects of Russian society, the educational system was introduced and developed by the state. Peter I opened the first secular schools institutes for training specialists, such as navigators and doctorsas part of his plan to turn Russia into a modern state. A number of important institutions, such as Moscow University (1755), were created in the next decades, but it was not until 1786 that a ruler (Catherine II) attempted to create a regular system of primary and secondary schools.

This was only the first of many such plans initiated by successive tsars. The frequent reorganization of the school system was disruptive, and since new types of schools were opened in addition to, rather than in place of, existing schools, the situation became quite chaotic over time. This confusion was compounded by the fact that many schools lay outside the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which was created in 1802. Other state ministries regularly opened their own schools, ranging from technical institutes to primary schools, and the Holy Synod sponsored extensive networks of parochial schools. As a result, there were sixty-seven different types of primary schools in Russia in 1914.

Most schools fell into one of three categories: primary, secondary, or higher education. Primary schools were intended to provide students with basic literacy, numeracy, and a smattering of general knowledge. As late as 1911, less than 20 percent of primary school students went on to further study. Many secondary schools were also terminal, often with a vocational emphasis. Other secondary schools, such as gymnasia, prepared students for higher education. Higher education encompassed a variety of institutions, including universities and professional institutes.

From Peter I onward, the Russian state devoted a disproportionate amount of its educational spending on higher education. This was partly due to the pressing need for specialists, and partly because these institutions catered to social and economic elites. Ambitious plans notwithstanding, Russia developed a top-heavy educational system, which produced a relatively small number of well-educated individuals, but which failed to offer any educational opportunities to most Russians until the end of the nineteenth century. The number of primary school students in Russia grew from 450,000 in 1856 to 1 million in 1878 to 6.6 million in 1911; even then, there were still not enough spaces for all who wanted to enroll.

Access to education was, as a rule, better in cities and large towns than in rural areas, though it was still limited in even the largest cities until the 1870s. In 1911, 67 percent of urban youth aged eight to eleven were enrolled in primary schools (75% of boys, 59% of girls). In the countryside, the school system developed more slowly. Many rural schools opened before the 1870s were short-lived, and it was only in the 1890s that a concerted effort began to establish an extensive network of permanent rural schools. In 1911, 41 percent of rural children aged eight to eleven were enrolled in primary school (58% of boys, 24% of girls). Peasants in different areas had different attitudes about education, and there has been some dispute about how useful literacy was considered by rural populations.

The better access to education in urban areas is reflected in literacy statistics. The literacy rate among the urban population (over age nine) was roughly 21 percent in 1797 (29% of men, 12% of women); 40 percent in 1847 (50% of men, 28% of women); 58 percent in 1897; and 70 percent in 1917 (80% of men, 61% of women). In rural areas, the literacy rate was 6 percent in 1797 (6% of men, 5% of women); 12 percent in 1847 (16% of men, 9% of women); 26 percent in 1897; and 38 percent in 1917 (53% of men, 23% of women).

social and cultural aspects of imperial education policies

While military and economic needs forced the Russian state to create an educational system, social and political considerations also played a role in shaping it. Tsars and their advisers carefully considered who should be educated, how long they should study, and what they should be taught. Above all, they were concerned about the educational policy's impact on Russia's political system and social hierarchy, both of which they wanted to preserve.

This was evident in the higher educational system, which was shaped to a degree by the tsars' desire to maintain social order and the nobility's support. Special institutes, such as the Corp of Cadets (1731), were created exclusively for the sons of hereditary nobles. While non-nobles were not barred from higher education (with a few exceptions), the very nature of the Russian school system made it difficult for such students to qualify for advanced institutions. Escalating student fees at gymnasia and universities in the nineteenth century provided an additional barrier.

Just as the nobility's position had to be defended, the lower classes had to be protected from "too much knowledge." Nicholas I and his Education Minister Sergei Uvarov (18311849) believed that excessive education would only create dissatisfaction among the peasantry. Accordingly, they placed strict limits on the curriculum and duration of rural primary schools. But they also increased the number of such schools, since they understood that basic literacy was of social and economic value. Uvarov, like many other Russian pedagogues, saw education as an opportunity to instill in young Russians loyalty to the tsar and proper moral values. A centrally controlled school inspectorate was created to ensure that teachers were imparting the right values to their students. All textbooks also required state approval.

Schools were used in other ways to maintain or modify the social order. A separate school system was created for Russia's Jews, and strict limits were placed on the number of Jewish students admitted into higher educational institutions. In the annexed Western provinces, schools were used as a weapon in the aggressive Russification campaign of the 1890s. And while most primary and secondary schools were coeducational, higher educational institutions were not. Separate women's institutes were only opened in 1876, and Russia's first coed university, the private Shaniavsky University, was established in 1908.

In order to prevent the circulation of subversive ideas, the state placed strict limits on private and philanthropic educational endeavors. In the 1830s all private educational institutions and tutors were placed under state supervision. The activities of volunteer movements trying to provide adult education, such as the Sunday School Movement

(18591862), were severely constrained, though zemstvos (local governmental bodies) were later allowed more leeway in this area. Alarm over the proliferation of unofficial (and illegal) peasant schools helped motivate the state's expansion of its rural education system in the 1890s.

Ironically, it was the educated elite the state had created that ultimately challenged the tsar's authority. Discontent became widespread in the 1840s, as large segments of educated society came to see state policies as retrograde and harmful to the peasantry. Frustrated by the conservative bureaucracy's disregard of their ideas, many educated Russians began to question the legitimacy of the autocratic form of government, with a small number of them becoming revolutionaries. This was one reason why the tsarist government found itself with little support among educated Russians in February 1917.

Even as educated society was becoming estranged from the autocracy, its members were growing distant from the masses they wished to help. As educated Russians adopted Western values and ideas, a vast cultural and social divide developed between them and the mostly uneducated peasantry, which largely retained traditional beliefs and culture. The growth of the education system in the last decades before 1917 was starting to bridge this gap, but the inability of these groups to understand one another contributed to the violence and chaos of 1917. Scholars debate whether a more rapid introduction of mass education into late Imperial Russia would have stabilized or further destabilized the existing order.

education in the soviet union

While the Bolsheviks shared their tsarist predecessors' belief in education's potential social and political power, they had a different agenda: swift industrialization, social change, and the dissemination of socialist values. Although they lacked an educational policy upon seizing power, the Bolsheviks pledged to make education accessible to all, coeducational at all levels, and to achieve full literacy.

The Russian Republic's educational system was placed under the control of the Russian Commissariat of Enlightenment (Narodnyi kommisariat prosveshcheniia, or Narkompros), a republic-level institution created in October 1917. Its first leader was Anatoly Lunacharsky (r. 19171929). Like all Soviet institutions, Narkompros was controlled by the Communist Party. Before 1920, however, it had little authority. Many instructors had supported the Provisional Government's moderate reform program, and they refused to cooperate with the Bolsheviks. During the civil war (19181921), education was under the control of local authorities.

After 1920, Narkompros' officials tried to implement the ideas of progressive pedagogues, such as John Dewey, in primary and secondary schools. Their attempts were largely unsuccessful, hampered by a lack of funds and teacher opposition. Narkompros also faced challenges from the economic commissariats, which eventually took control of vocational education. This was the first round in a decades-long debate over the roles of general and vocational education. Teachers were frequently harassed by members of the Leninist Youth League (Komsomol).

Bolshevik higher educational policies were even more ambitious. Most members of educated society did not support the communists. Bolshevik leaders responded by creating a "red intelligentsia" to replace them. The children of "socially alien" groups were largely excluded from higher education, their places taken by young, poorly educated workers and peasants, known as vydvizhentsy. The number of technical institutes was expanded to accommodate the rapid growth of industry. A network of communist higher educational institutions was also opened. The influx of vydvizhentsy into higher education, and the persecution of "socially alien" teachers and students at all levels, climaxed during the cultural revolution (19281932). It has been argued that the vydvizhentsy, many of whom rose to prominent positions, provided an important base of support for Stalin's regime.

After 1932, experimental approaches were abandoned in favor of more practical teaching methods. Primary schools were returned to a more traditional curriculum, class-based preferences ended, and the separate communist educational system eliminated. The minimum duration of schooling was raised from four to seven years. Schools were now open to all students, though children whose parents were arrested faced serious discrimination until Stalin's death in 1953. Most of Narkompros' functions were transferred to the new Ministry of Education in 1946.

By the late 1950s, all children had access to a free education. Social mobility was possible on the basis of merit, although inequalities still existed. Children of the emerging Soviet elites often had access to superior secondary schools, which prepared them for higher education. Members of some non-Russian ethnic minorities had spaces reserved for them at prestigious higher educational institutions, as part of the Soviet Union's unique affirmative action program. After the 1950s, however, unofficial quotas again limited Jewish students' access to higher education.

There were also numerous adult education programs in the Soviet Union. These ranged from utopian attempts to train artists during the civil war to ongoing literacy campaigns. Literacy rates continued their steady rise after 1917 (88% in 1939, and 98% in 1959). Adult education programs were run by many groups, including the trade unions and the Red Army.

Soviet schools were expected to teach students loyalty to the state and instill them with socialist values; teachers who did otherwise were liable to arrest or dismissal. Political material was a constant part of Soviet curricula. In some periods, it was restricted mainly to the social sciences and obligatory study of Marxism-Leninism. During Stalin's rule, however, almost every subject was politicized. Rote memorization was common and student creativity discouraged.

Despite its flaws, the Soviet educational system achieved some impressive successes. The heavily subsidized system produced millions of well-trained professionals and scientists in its last decades. After 1984 the state began to loosen its grip on education, allowing teachers some flexibility. These tentative steps were quickly overtaken by events, however. Since 1991 the Russian school system has faced serious funding problems and declining facilities. Control of education has been transferred to regional authorities.

See also: academy of arts; academy of science; higher party school; language laws; lunarchsky, anatoly vasilievich; national library of russia; russian state library

bibliography

Black, J. L. (1979). Citizens for the Fatherland: Education, Educators, and Pedagogical Ideals in Eighteenth Century Russia. Boulder, CO: East European Quarterly.

Brooks, Jeffrey. (1985). When Russia Learned to Read: Literacy and Popular Culture, 18611917. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

David-Fox, Michael. (1997). Revolution of the Mind: Higher Learning Among the Bolsheviks, 19181929. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Dunstan, John, ed. (1992). Soviet Education under Perestroika. London: Routledge.

Eklof, Ben. (1986). Russian Peasant Schools: Officialdom, Village Culture, and Popular Pedagogy, 18611914. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. (1979). Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 19211934. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hans, Nicholas. (1964). History of Russian Educational Policy, 17011917. New York: Russell & Russell, Inc.

Holmes, Larry E. (1991). The Kremlin and the Schoolhouse: Reforming Education in Soviet Russia, 19171931. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Kassow, Samuel D. (1989). Students, Professors, and the State in Tsarist Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Marker, Gary. (1990). "Literacy and Literacy Texts in Muscovy: A Reconsideration." Slavic Review 49(1): 7484.

Matthews, Mervyn. (1982). Education in the Soviet Union: Policies and Education Since Stalin. London: Allen & Unwin.

McClelland, James C. (1979). Autocrats and Academics: Education, Culture, and Society in Tsarist Russia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mironov, Boris N. (1991). "The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries." History of Education Quarterly 31(2): 229251.

Sinel, Allen. (1973). The Classroom and the Chancellery: State Educational Reform in Russia under Count Dmitry Tolstoi. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Webber, Stephen L. (2000). School, Reform, and Society in the New Russia. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Whittaker, Cynthia H. (1984). The Origins of Modern Russian Education: An Intellectual Biography of Count Sergei Uvarov. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

Brian Kassof

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education

education, any process, either formal or informal, that shapes the potential of a maturing organism. Informal education results from the constant effect of environment, and its strength in shaping values and habits can not be overestimated. Formal education is a conscious effort by human society to impart the skills and modes of thought considered essential for social functioning. Techniques of instruction often reflect the attitudes of society, i.e., authoritarian groups typically sponsor dogmatic methods, while democratic systems may emphasize freedom of thought.

Development of Education

In ancient Greece education for freemen was a matter of studying Homer, mathematics, music, and gymnastics. Higher education was carried on by the Sophists and philosophers before the rise of the Academy and the philosophical schools.

In medieval Western Europe, education was typically a charge of the church: the monastic schools and universities were the chief centers, and virtually all students took orders. Lay education consisted of apprentice training for a small group of the common people, or education in the usages of chivalry for the more privileged. With the Renaissance, education of boys (and some girls) in classics and mathematics became widespread. After the Reformation both Protestant and Roman Catholic groups began to offer formal education to more people, and there was a great increase in the number of private and public schools, although the norm remained the classical-mathematical curriculum.

The development of scientific inquiry in the 19th cent. brought new methods and materials. As elementary and secondary schools were established and as larger proportions of the population attended, curriculums became differentiated (see progressive education; guidance and counseling) and included aspects of vocational education. Opportunities for higher education were expanded, especially in the land-grant colleges of the western United States. A large increase in college and vocational training resulted from the various veterans' assistance acts that have been passed since World War II. These measures have provided financial assistance to veterans seeking higher education or job training.

Most modern political systems recognize the importance of universal education. One of the first efforts of the former Soviet Union was to establish a comprehensive national school system. In the United States education has traditionally been under state and local control, although the federal government has played a larger role in the latter half of the 20th cent. Various religious groups, notably the Roman Catholic Church, administer parochial schools that parallel public schools. Private schools and colleges have frequently been leaders in educational experiment.

See adult education; audiovisual education; bilingual education; kindergarten; nursery schools; school; vocational education.

Theories of Education

Education theorists today struggle over whether a single model of learning is appropriate for both sexes (see coeducation), or for students of all ethnic backgrounds; although equality of educational opportunity in the United States is an accepted principle, it is not always easy to practice. Throughout history theories of education have reflected the dominant psychologies of learning and systems of ethics.

An ancient idea, held by Socrates, is that the rightly trained mind would turn toward virtue. This idea has actually never been abandoned, although varying criteria of truth and authority have influenced both the content and the techniques of education. It was reflected in the classical curriculum of the Renaissance, the theorists of which included Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and George Buchanan.

Since the 17th cent. the idea has grown that education should be directed at individual development for social living. John Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi, Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori, and Horace Mann were outstanding figures in this development. In the 20th cent. John Dewey declared that young people should be taught to use the experimental method in meeting problems of the changing environment. Later in the century the psychologist B. F. Skinner developed a theory of learning, based on animal experimentation, that came to have a strong effect on modern theories of education, especially through the method of programmed instruction. More recent educational models based on the theories of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bonner, and Howard Gardner have gained wide support. In the United States, recent developments have included an emphasis on standardized testing, the emergence of the charter school, and such national reform programs as No Child Left Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009).

Bibliography

See J. Dewey, Democracy and Education (1916, repr. 1966); R. Welter, Popular Education and Democratic Thought in America (1963); R. Ulich, The Education of Nations (rev. ed. 1967); L. A. Cremin, American Education (1970–88); J. A. Bowen, A History of Western Education (3 vol., 1972–81); M. Blang, Economics of Education (1978); W. F. Connell, A History of Education in the Twentieth Century World (1980); K. Egan, The Educated Mind (1997); D. Bok, Higher Education in America (2013); D. Goldstein, The Teacher Wars: A History of America's Most Embattled Profession (2014).

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Education

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education

education Process, either formal or informal, of acquiring knowledge and skills, leading to the development of understanding, attitudes and values. Formal education is organized instruction undertaken by society. The Egyptians and Sumerians founded the first schools in c.3000 bc. In c.387 bc, Plato founded a school of philosophy, known as the Academy. The Renaissance and the invention of printing saw an expansion in formal education. The Enlightenment brought new disciplines and teaching methods. The early 19th century saw the beginnings of state education. In 1841, Friedrich Froebel opened the first kindergarten. Elementary education became free and compulsory throughout most of Europe by the early 20th century. In the UK, the Education Act (1944) established a system of comprehensive schools.

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education

ed·u·ca·tion / ˌejəˈkāshən/ • n. the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: a new system of public education. ∎  the theory and practice of teaching: colleges of education. ∎  a body of knowledge acquired while being educated: his education is encyclopedic and eclectic. ∎  information about or training in a particular field or subject: health education. ∎  a particular stage in the process of being educated: a high-school education. ∎  (an education) fig. an enlightening experience: the wares in the shops are an education in quality.

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION Formal schooling of the young in preparation for life, usually as a passage through various institutions set up for that purpose and arranged in the levels primary (around the ages 5–7 to around 11), secondary (from around 12 to 15–18), and tertiary (from 16–18 onward). Formal education in the Western style acquired its present form only in the 19c, during which the concept and ideal of universal education has grown with the increasing complexity of society. With the development of institutions such as kindergartens and play groups for the early years, on the one hand, and further education and higher degrees for later adolescence and adulthood on the other, the concept of education has expanded so much as to be seen as virtually a lifelong process.

Education and language

In most systems of Western and Westernized education, the skills of READING, WRITING, and arithmetic (the three Rs) have been basic. Such systems were once dominated by LATIN, through which in addition GRAMMAR, LOGIC, and RHETORIC were taught. Until the late 19c, knowledge of contemporary foreign language was regarded as a social ‘accomplishment’ rather than an essential part of a school's curriculum; all LANGUAGE TEACHING was prescriptivist, assuming a grammar based on firm rules and concentrating on a relatively fixed CANON of literary texts both as source material and as models for composition. In the 20c, such assumptions have been increasingly disputed and greater language awareness has led to new, often experimental and controversial, approaches. Prescriptivism, however, is by no means dead. In contemporary educational practice, oracy as well as LITERACY is regarded as important, and a foundation of linguistic competence is taken to be essential for all subjects: that is, ‘language across the curriculum’, as recommended by the UK's Bullock Report in 1975.

Young people are currently introduced to many kinds of language material, including reports, advertisements, and technical instructions, as well as literature of various kinds. Free expression is encouraged in writing, rather than composition on a set theme with assessment based largely on correct SYNTAX, SPELLING, and PUNCTUATION. Some educationists, however, consider that the processes of liberalism and liberation have gone far enough, and throughout the English-speaking world there appears to be an impulse towards basic knowledge and firmer standards (back to the basics). The teaching of foreign languages also looks to the living situation rather than a given literary CORPUS, with emphasis on the direct method and, wherever possible, complete immersion in the target language (especially by living among its speakers). Language in education has often been influenced by political factors: for example, WELSH was proscribed in the schools of Wales for a long time in the 19c, but is now part of their curriculum. In the many countries with substantial ethnic minorities, decisions have to be taken about the status of the mother tongue in relation to the national language or language variety, as a result of which it has often been necessary to introduce specific teaching of the national medium as a ‘second’ (sometimes in effect a ‘foreign’) language.

Education and English

Although a general recognition of English as a significant literary language developed in the second half of the 16c, it was long before it was equally honoured in the educational system. The principal aim of education was for centuries to inculcate skill in LATIN and to a lesser extent in GREEK. The grammar of ‘Grammar Schools’ was Latin grammar, and the use of Latin continued at the ancient universities. Richard MULCASTER, who offered guidance in the basic teaching of English in The First Part of the Elementarie (1582), was exceptional among schoolmasters; John Brinsley made a plea for English teaching in 1627, but these lone voices were virtually unheeded. Thomas Sheridan in 1763 advocated the study of English grammar at the universities, but classics continued to dominate their curricula until well into the 19c. However, more attention was given to English in the Dissenting Academies for sons of nonconformist families, such as the Northampton Academy founded in 1729. Where ENGLISH TEACHING developed, it was prescriptivist and based on formal grammars like those of Lowth and Murray.

The foundation of new universities in the 19c led to chairs and eventually whole departments of English. There was much concentration on OLD ENGLISH as giving a sound philological training; ENGLISH LITERATURE was taught largely in historical terms, with major authors and defined periods. The grammar schools and public schools of England began to give attention to English: for example, at Rugby, Thomas Arnold laid emphasis on essay-writing in English. In 1868, the Taunton Commission on the endowed grammar schools recommended the teaching of ‘modern’ subjects, including English, a view endorsed and strengthened by later official educational reports in Britain. As late as 1886, Winston CHURCHILL at Harrow was among those who ‘were considered such dunces that we could only learn English’ (My Early Life, 1930). The Victorian movement for popular education through Mechanics' Institutes and similar organizations gave some impetus to the study of English in circumstances where the traditional prestige of Latin and Greek did not come into the question.

By the beginning of the 20c, the teaching of English at all levels was established throughout the English-speaking world. A Board of Education report, The Teaching of English in England (1921), criticized the survival of old-fashioned approaches in both schools and universities. Subsequently, the teaching of English has been influenced by wider understanding of the importance of language skills. In the schools, free composition and oral practice have largely taken the place of formal exercises. University departments of English have proliferated worldwide, the historical approach being superseded by practical criticism and personal response to texts. More recently, the abundance of rival theories of literary criticism has meant that a particular approach may be dominant in a department. Genre studies and work on writers outside the traditional canon are now almost universal. In addition, English is not always treated as a separate subject, but may be incorporated into media studies or communication studies, with wider attention to other forms of expression.

See CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, EXAMINING IN ENGLISH, FRIES, FUNCTIONAL LITERACY, GENERAL ENGLISH, HALLIDAY, HORNBY, JESPERSEN, KINGMAN REPORT, LANGUAGE AWARENESS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE PLANNING, PITMAN (I.), PITMAN (J.), PUBLIC SCHOOL ENGLISH, PUBLIC SCHOOL PRONUNCIATION, SWEET, TEFL, TEIL, TESD, TESL, TESOL.

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Education

207. Education (See also Teaching.)

  1. Academy, the Platos school in Athens. [Gk. Hist.: Benét, 5]
  2. Cadmus introduced the alphabet to the Greeks. [Gk. Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 161]
  3. Cambridge one of two leading British universities (since 1231); consists of 24 colleges. [Br. Education: Payton, 116]
  4. Catherine of Alexandria, St. patroness of education. [Christian Hagiog.: Hall, 58]
  5. Education of Henry Adams, The autobiography describing intellectual influences on the author. [Am. Lit.: Hart, 249]
  6. Emile Rousseaus treatise on education of children (1762). [Fr. Lit.: Emile, Magill III, 330333]
  7. Feverel, Sir Austen rears his son by a scientific system in which women were a minor factor. [Br. Lit.: Meredith The Ordeal of Richard Feverel in Magill I, 692]
  8. Gradgrind, Thomas raises and educates children on materialistic principles. [Br. Lit.: Dickens Hard Times ]
  9. Grand Tour, the European tour as necessary part of education for British aristocrats. [Eur. Hist.: Plumb, 414]
  10. Instructions to a Son papyrus document; one of earliest preserved writings (c. 2500 B.C.). [Classical Hist.: Grun, 2]
  11. Ivy League select group of colleges: Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Pennsylvania, Princeton, Yale. [Am. Education: Payton, 343]
  12. Lyceum a gymnasium where Aristotle taught in ancient Athens. [Gk. Hist.: Hart, 502]
  13. McGuffey Readers sold 122,000,000 copies and exerted profound moral and cultural effect in mid 19th-century America. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 509]
  14. mortarboard closefitting cap with flat square piece and tassel; part of academic costume. [Am. and Br. Culture: Misc.]
  15. Oxford one of two leading British universities (c. 1167); consists of 34 colleges. [Br. Education: Payton, 502]
  16. Phi Beta Kappa honorary scholarship society. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 651]
  17. Seven Sisters select group of colleges: Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar, Wellesley. [Am. Education: Payton, 615]
  18. Sorbonne University of Paris; long esteemed as educational center. [Fr. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1019]
  19. Wanderjahr a years absence from ones schooling as period to reflect on learning. [Eur. Hist.: Plumb, 414]

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Education

Education

Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy

In Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy, No. 05-18, 548 U.S. _____ (2006), a very divided U.S. SUPREME COURT held that "fee-shifting" provisions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (the Act) did not cover fees paid by parents to an educational consultant in conjunction with litigation over their disabled son's private education. Specifically, 20 USC 1415(i)(3)(B) of the Act provides for an award (recovery) of "reasonable attorneys' fees as part of the costs" to prevailing parents (prevailing parties) who sue under the Act on behalf of their child. In this particular case, the educational consultant had served as an expert witness during court proceedings. The high court's majority opinion upheld both district court and appellate court decisions holding that the Act would not be read to permit recovery of expert fees without explicit statutory authority. Justice Samuel Alito delivered the lengthy opinion of the court. Justice Breyer filed a multiple-paged and very detailed dissenting opinion, in which he was joined by three other justices. Justice Ginsburg wrote a separate opinion, concurring in part and concurring in the judgment.

In 1999, parents Pearl and Theodore Murphy filed a complaint on behalf of their dyslexic son, who suffered several other cognitive disabilities, claiming that the Arlington Central School District (Arlington) failed to provide a proper Individualized Education Program (IEP) for their son. Under the Act, local school systems are required to develop such an educational development plan specifically designed to address the needs of any or each child in the school system who suffers a disability. The Murphys petitioned for an order requiring Arlington to pay for their son's private school tuition for specified school years. The federal district court (Southern District of New York) agreed with the parents, and the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed.

Section 1415(i)(3)(B) of the Act allows for the award of "reasonable attorneys fees" incurred in an "action or proceeding" brought under the Act, but makes no mention of awarding "expert fees." Notwithstanding, as "prevailing" parents in the IDEA litigation, the Murphys then sought to recover more than $29,000 in fees for the services of an educational consultant who had assisted them throughout the proceedings.

For its part, Arlington argued that the educational expert was not eligible to receive attorneys' fees because she was not a licensed attorney. Neither was she eligible to receive expert fees because they were not recoverable under the Act. (In a separate action, the Delaware Supreme Court ruled in 2000 that the educational consultant had engaged in the unauthorized practice of law by representing families of children with disabilities in due process hearings).

The district court had actually permitted the limited recovery of the expert's fees for her "expert consulting services," (e.g., observing a student in class, interviewing teachers, attending IEP meetings, preparing reports, advising parents, etc.) that were provided between the time of the hearing request and the ruling, which amounted to about $8,000 of the requested $29,000. However, the district court ruled that the expert could not be awarded any fees for time that could be characterized as legal representation. The court further found that all of the time spent during the relevant period in this case could be characterized as falling within the compensable category, and awarded $8,650.

The Second Circuit affirmed. It had first relied on two previous U.S. Supreme Court cases holding that expert fees were not recoverable as taxed costs under particular cost- or fee-shifting provisions of other acts or statutes. (See Crawford Fitting Co. v. J.T. Gibbons, 482 U.S. 437, interpreting Fed. Rule Civ. Proc. 54(d); and West Virginia Univ. Hospitals v. Casey, interpreting 42 USC 1988.) Ultimately, however, the Second Circuit was persuaded by statements found in a Conference Committee Report relating to the relevant provision in the IDEA, 1415(i)(3)(B) and a footnote in Casey, above. Based on these considerations, the appellate court affirmed the district court's award of costs (including experts' fees) incurred by prevailing parents. The Supreme Court granted certiorari based on the conflict among circuits regarding the compensation of expert fees to prevailing parents under the IDEA.

The high court first noted that it was guided in this case by the fact that Congress had enacted IDEA pursuant to the Spending Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8). While Congress has broad power to set the terms on which it disburses money to states, any conditions it attaches to a state's acceptance of such funds must be expressed unambiguously. Accordingly, noted the Court, the question here was whether IDEA provided clear notice regarding experts fees. There is no such provision in the text of the Act that even hints toward acceptance of IDEA funds making states responsible for reimbursing prevailing parents for the services of experts. The express language only provides for adding reasonable attorneys' fees "as part of the costs."

The majority opinion also noted that the Second Circuit's initial reliance on Crawford and Casey, above, was correct, as these cases, though involving other statutes, nonetheless reinforce that IDEA does not unambiguously authorize prevailing parents to recover such expert fees. Moreover, Arlington's other arguments were unpersuasive, including that regarding legislative history. The arguments that IDEA's purpose was to ensure that all children have available to them a free education, and that parents' rights to challenge adverse school decisions must be safeguarded, were too general in nature to support a conclusion that states must reimburse parents for experts' fees. The Supreme Court then reversed the Second Circuit and remanded the case.

Justice Ginsburg agreed with the Court's resolution of the case, but did not agree with the Court's repeated reference to a "clear notice" requirement derived from the Spending Clause.

Justice Breyer's strong dissent focused on an interpretation of the word "costs" within the Act itself (see above). "The word 'costs' does not define its own scope," the dissenting opinion stated. "… But members of Congress did make clear their intent by … approving a Conference Report that specified that 'the term attorneys fees as part of the costs include[s] reasonable expenses of expert witnesses and reasonable costs of any test or evaluation which is found to be necessary for the preparation of the parent or guardian's case in the action or proceeding." The dissent concluded that the use of the word "costs" in the Act's text thereby included and authorized payment of costs for experts. Justices Stevens and Souter joined in the dissent.

Bush v. Holmes

The legal controversy over the constitutionality of school voucher programs that directed public education funds into private secular and religious schools was resolved at the federal level in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639, 122 S.Ct. 2460, 153 L.Ed.2d 604 (2002). The Supreme Court ruled that an Ohio voucher program did not violate the FIRST AMENDMENT's Establishment Clause. However, opponents of voucher programs sought to challenge these state laws on state constitutional grounds. A number of states have constitutional provisions that ban the funding of private and religious schools, while others include language that suggests voucher programs are precluded. The Florida Supreme Court, in Bush v. Holmes, 919 So.2d 392 (2006), struck down a state law that authorized a voucher program, finding that the state constitution barred the program on several grounds. The decision was a setback for Governor Jeb Bush, who had based much of his educational reform efforts on this program.

The Florida legislature enacted the Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP) in 1999. The OSP authorized a system of school vouchers that was intended to give students in poorly performing ("failing") schools the chance to use public education funds as a scholarship to pay for private school tuition. Under the law private schools, whether secular or religious, were eligible to receive students and their scholarships if they met a set of criteria. Parents of OSP scholarship students were to comply with the private school's parental involvement requirements and to make sure that students take all required statewide assessments. Once a student was admitted to a private school under OSP, the student did not have to transfer back to the public school if that school's performance had improved. The maximum amount of the scholarship was equivalent to the per-pupil allocation granted to the public school district. The school district's amount of funds was reduced for each student who left to take an OSP placement. The scholarship was paid directly to the parent, who endorsed the check over to the private school.

A group of plaintiffs filed suit to prevent the implementation of OSP, arguing that it violated the Establishment Clause and the Florida Constitution. After the Zelman decision was announced, the plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed the Establishment Clause challenge and proceeded only on state constitutional grounds. The lower Florida courts ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, striking down OSP as unconstitutional. The Florida Supreme Court then addressed this controversial issue.

The court, in a 5-2 decision, ruled OSP unconstitutional. Chief Justice Barbara Pariente, writing for the majority, looked to Art. IX, § 1(a) of the Florida Constitution, which declared that it was "a paramount duty of the state to make adequate provision for the education of all children residing within its borders" and to provide "by law for a uniform, efficient, safe, secure, and high quality system of free public schools that allow students to obtain a high quality education." Pariente reviewed the constitutional history of the education article, which reached back to 1838. The adoption of a revised constitution in 1968 included the "adequate provision" language and a 1998 amendment inserted the "paramount duty of the state" phrase. By inserting this language the court concluded that Florida's education article imposed "a maximum duty on the state to provide for public education that is uniform and of high quality."

The court found that OSP was in direct conflict with the state's "paramount duty" to make adequate provision for education and to maintain a "high quality system of free public schools." The OPS violated the education article because it devoted "the state's resources to the education of children within our state through means other than a system of free public schools. Paying tuition to have children attend private schools was a substantially different manner of meeting this obligation and one which did not pass constitutional muster. Chief Justice Pariente rejected the claim tat OPS supplemented the public school system because the tax money transferred to private schools went to pay for the "same service—basic primary education." Though these scholarships had not been widely used since 1999, the potential scale of this program was in the court's view "unlimited." As the OSP grew it would take more and more money away from the public schools and would undermine the system of "high quality" schools mandated by the constitution.

Another problem with the scholarship program was that it did not comply with the constitution's mandate to provide a "uniform" system of public education. Private schools were not required under OSP eligibility requirements to hire teachers with undergraduate degrees and state teaching certifications. In addition, private schools were not obligated to teach the subjects mandated by the state board of education nor meet uniform curriculum standards. By failing to meet the uniformity standard in the constitution, OSP was constitutionally deficient.

The court emphasized that OSP was distinguishable from other programs that allowed exceptional students to attend private schools because of the lack of special services in their school district. These programs were tailored for physically disabled students who needed special facilities or instructional personnel. They were "structurally different from the OSP, which provides a systematic private school alternative to the public school system mandated by our constitution."

Justice Kenneth Bell, in a dissenting opinion joined by Justice Raoul Cantero, contended that nothing in the constitution prohibited the legislature from enacting the OSP. Unlike other state constitutions, Florida's did not clearly preclude the funding of private schools from public funds. Justice Bell found no "language of exclusion" in the education article that required that "public schools be the sole means by which the State fulfills its duty to provide for the education of children."

Schaffer v. Weast

The Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C.A. § 1400 et seq., seeks to ensure that all children with disabilities have the right to a "free appropriate public education." School districts are required by the statute to develop an "individualized education program" (IIEP) for each disabled child. Parents may challenge an IEP if they believe it is not appropriate through an administrative hearing. An administrative law judge then decides the issue. Though the IDEA is a detailed law, it does not state which party bears the burden of persuasion at an administrative hearing. Normally the party that requests a hearing bears this burden, but there are some exceptions. In the IDEA arena parents have argued that the school district should bear this burden, even if the parent requests the hearing. The U.S. SUPREME COURT, in Schaffer v. Weast, __U.S.__, 126 S.Ct. 528, 163 L.Ed.2d 387 (2005), rejected this argument. The Court held that the party seeking relief bears the burden of persuasion.

In 1997, the parents of seventh-grader Brian Schaffer were told by the administrator of the private school Brian attended that he must leave because of his poor academic record. His parents contacted the local Maryland public school district, Montgomery County Public Schools System (MCPS), which evaluated Brian's needs and convened an IEP team. The committee offered Brian a place in either of two middle schools but the parents objected, believing he needed to be placed in smaller classes and provided more intensive services. Ultimately, the parents placed Brian in another private school and asked for an administrative hearing challenging the IEP. They also asked that the school district pay for Brian's private school tuition.

An administrative law judge (ALJ) conducted a three-day hearing, concluding that the evidence was close. He held that the parents bore the burden of persuasion. Because the parents could not provide enough evidence to tip the balance, the ALJ ruled in favor of the school district. The parents then filed a lawsuit in federal district court, which reversed and remanded the case. The district court ruled that the school board carried the burden of persuasion. At about the same time as this decision the parents accepted an offer from the school district to place Brian in a high school with a special learning center. The lawsuit continued because the parents sought compensation for the two years of private middle-school tuition and other educational expenses. The school district appealed the burden of persuasion ruling but the ALJ used that ruling to reconsider the case. Again he found that the evidence was in "equipoise" but because the school district now had the burden of persuasion it was the losing party. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals then considered the matter, reversing the district court and ruling that the party seeking relief has the burden of proof.

The Supreme Court, in a 6-2 decision (newly confirmed Chief Justice John Roberts did not take part in the case), upheld the Fourth Circuit ruling. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing for the majority, reviewed the legislative mission and history of the IDEA, emphasizing that the "core of the statute" is the "cooperative process that it establishes between parents and schools." Though Congress set out minimal due process requirements for the IEP review hearings, it did give all parties the right to have legal counsel and to present evidence and confront, cross-examine and compel the attendance of witnesses. Parents who prevail in this proceeding may also recover their attorney's fees. However, as to which party should bear the burden of proof, Congress was silent. Justice O'Connor noted that the term "burden of proof" referred to two separate and distinct burdens: the "burden of persuasion" and the "burden of production." The burden of persuasion refers to which party will lose if the evidence is closely balanced. The burden of production refers to which party bears the responsibility of producing evidence at different points in a proceeding. In this case only the burden of persuasion was at issue.

With the absence of congressional direction on the burden of persuasion, the Court first looked at the "ordinary default rule that plaintiffs bear the risk of failing to prove their claims." Justice O'Connor pointed out that other federal laws authorizing lawsuits did not define who carried the burden of proof and the Supreme Court has presumed that the default rule applied. Exceptions to the rule have been made in civil rights trials, where the defendant is obligated to present affirmative defenses or exemptions, but these exceptions were few and limited. The Schaffer's argued that Congress had been guided by two lower court opinions when it drafted the IDEA and that in these two cases the courts had placed the burden of persuasion on the school districts. Justice O'Connor rejected this claim because it was not permissible for the Court to conclude Congress intended to adopt ideas not written into the law.

Justice O'Connor also disputed the parents' contention that placing the burden on the school district would help ensure that children receive what they are entitled to under the IDEA. Very few cases "will be in evidentiary equipoise" and shifting the burden to the school district might force them to spend more funds on litigation costs than educational services. The Court refused to shift the burden because that implied that every IEP was invalid "until the school district says it is not. The Act does not support that conclusion." Moreover, the IDEA includes a "stay-put" provision which requires the student to remain in his or her current educational placement until the IEP dispute is resolved. Congress could have required that the child be given the educational placement required by the parents during the dispute, but it did not. This suggested that Congress presumed "parents will prevail when they have legitimate grievances." Finally, the IDEA provided parents with many tools to prepare for the IEP hearing, including the right to review all school records, to have an independent evaluation of their child, and to receive from the school district written reasons for the disputed actions. Therefore, the party who files the complaint challenging an IEP must carry the burden of persuasion."

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dissented, arguing that school districts have been charged with fulfilling the needs of a disabled child with an IEP and therefore they should be "called upon to demonstrate its adequacy." School districts were in a better position to prove the adequacy of an IEP than the parents of a disabled child are to show the inadequacy of the program. In a separate dissent, Justice Stephen Beyer contended that the absence of a congressional provision on the burden of proof meant that the issue should be left to each state to decide.

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Education

Education

3489 ■ 100TH INFANTRY BATTALION VETERANS CLUB

Attn: Scholarship Committee
520 Kamoku Street
Honolulu, HI 96826
Tel: (808)732-5216
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu/mnakano
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors and college students who plan to major or are majoring in education and exemplify the sponsor's motto of "Continuing Service."
Title of Award: Major James W. Lovell Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors planning to attend an institution of higher learning and full-time undergraduate students at community colleges, vocational/trade schools, 4-year colleges, and universities. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to demonstrate civic responsibility and community service. They must be majoring or planning to major in education. Along with their application, they must submit a 4-page essay that explains how lifelong learning (including academic success, experiential learning, intellectual growth, social and economic growth, leadership skills, and civic responsibility) is important for citizens and their state and country. Selection is based on that essay and the applicant's demonstration that he or she can effectively promote the legacy of the 100th Infantry Battalion and its motto of "Continuing Service." Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3490 ■ ACADEMY OF TELEVISION ARTS & SCIENCES FOUNDATION

Attn: Education Department
5220 Lankershim Boulevard
North Hollywood, CA 91601-3109
Tel: (818)754-2830
Fax: (818)761-ATAS
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.emmys.tv/foundation/index.php
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in working on a project in a field related to children's media.
Title of Award: Fred Rogers Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art, Caricatures and cartoons; Child development; Education, Early childhood; Filmmaking; Music; Psychology; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to upper-division and graduate students interested in preparing for a career in children's media. Applicants must be able to demonstrate a commitment, either through course work or experience, to any combination of at least 2 of the following fields: early childhood education, child development, child psychology, film or television production, music, or animation. They may apply for support for any of the following areas: research on the relationship between children's media and learning or children's use of media and personal growth; development of program concepts or extended development of creative elements of an existing concept (e.g., design of puppets, scripts, storyboards, characters, music); professional internship in an organization that is relevant to the applicant's goal for use of the award. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship, first awarded in 2005, is supported by Ernst & Young.

3491 ■ ALABAMA ALLIANCE FOR SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, MATHEMATICS, AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

Attn: Project Director
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Campbell Hall, Room 401
1300 University Boulevard
Birmingham, AL 35294-1170
Tel: (205)934-8762
Fax: (205)934-1650
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uab.edu/istp/alabama.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority students at designated institutions in Alabama who are interested in preparing for a career as a science teacher.
Title of Award: Science Teacher Preparation Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of underrepresented minority groups who have been unconditionally admitted to a participating Alabama college or university. Applicants may 1) be entering freshmen or junior college transfer students who intend to major in science education and become certified to teach in elementary, middle, or high school; 2) have earned a degree in mathematics, science, or education and are seeking to become certified to teach; or 3) have earned a degree in mathematics, science, or education and are enrolled in a fifth-year education program leading to a master's degree and certification. Additional Information: Support for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation. The participating institutions are Alabama A&M University, Alabama State University, Auburn University, Miles College, Stillman College, Talladega College, Tuskegee University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Alabama in Huntsville.

3492 ■ ALABAMA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Alabama in Huntsville
Materials Science Building, Room 205
Huntsville, AL 35899
Tel: (256)824-6800
Fax: (256)824-6061
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uah.edu/ASGC
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher of science or mathematics.
Title of Award: Teacher Education Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geosciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 10 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in or accepted for enrollment as full-time undergraduates at universities in Alabama participating in the consortium. Applicants must intend to enter the teacher certification program and teach in a pre-college setting. Priority is given to those majoring in science, mathematics, or earth/space/environmental science. Applicants should have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and must be U.S. citizens. Members of underrepresented groups in science and mathematics (minorities and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Along with their application, they must submit a 1- to 2-page statement on the reasons for their desire to enter the teaching profession, specifically the fields of science or mathematics education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

3493 ■ ALABAMA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Alabama in Huntsville
Materials Science Building, Room 205
Huntsville, AL 35899
Tel: (256)824-6800
Fax: (256)824-6061
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uah.edu/ASGC
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates who are studying the space sciences at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC).
Title of Award: Undergraduate Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Business administration; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; International affairs and relations; Law; Natural sciences; Physical sciences; Public administration; Sociology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 32 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at universities participating in the ASGC. Applicants must be studying in a field related to space, including the physical, natural, and biological sciences; engineering, education; economics; business; sociology; behavioral sciences; computer science; communications; law; international affairs; and public administration. They must be U.S. citizens and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Individuals from underrepresented groups (African Americans, Hispanic, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, Asian Americans, and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Interested students should submit a completed application with a career goal statement, personal references, a brief resume, and transcripts. Selection is based on 1) academic qualifications, 2) quality of the career goal statement, and 3) assessment of the applicant's motivation for a career in aerospace. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

3494 ■ ALASKA COMMISSION ON POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

Attn: AlaskAdvantage Programs
3030 Vintage Boulevard
Juneau, AK 99801-7109
Tel: (907)465-2962
Free: 800-441-2962
Fax: (907)465-5316
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://alaskaadvantage.state.ak.us/page/254
To provide forgivable loans to Alaska high school graduates who wish to prepare for a teaching career in a rural elementary or secondary school in the state.
Title of Award: Alaska Teacher Education Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 187 of these scholarship/loans were issued. Funds Available: This is a scholarship/loan program. Students may borrow up to $7,500 per year for in-state or out-of-state study. Loans may be used for tuition, room and board, books and supplies, and transportation costs (up to 2 round trips between the student's home community and the school of attendance). An origination fee of 3% of the amount loaned is added to the principal balance to be repaid. The interest rate charged is 6%. If the borrower is employed after graduation as a teacher in a rural elementary or secondary school in Alaska, he or she may be eligible for up to 100% forgiveness of the total loan. Duration: Loans may be awarded for up to a maximum of 5 years of undergraduate study. Repayment must begin no later than 12 months from the time the borrower terminates full-time student status. The loan must be repaid within 15 years.
Eligibility Requirements: Alaska high school graduates who are enrolled or who intend to enroll in a 4-year bachelor's degree program in elementary or secondary teacher education or a fifth-year teacher certification program may be nominated by a rural school district for receipt of this loan. Nominees must meet all the eligibility criteria of the AlaskAdvantage Education Loan Programs. Currently, only rural school districts may nominate loan recipients. Rural is defined as communities with a population of 5,500 or less that are not on road or rail to Anchorage or Fairbanks or with a population of 1,500 or less that are on road or rail to Anchorage or Fairbanks. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: Students cannot receive an Alaska Teachers Education Loan and an Alaska Supplemental Education Loan simultaneously, although their family members may borrow an Alaska Family Education Loan on their behalf.

3495 ■ ALASKA COMMISSION ON POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

Attn: AlaskAdvantage Programs
3030 Vintage Boulevard
Juneau, AK 99801-7109
Tel: (907)465-6779; (866)427-5683
Fax: (907)465-5316 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://alaskaadvantage.state.ak.us/page/276
To provide financial assistance to Alaska residents who attend college in the state to prepare for a career in designated fields with a workforce shortage.
Title of Award: AlaskAdvantage Educational Grants Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Health care services; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; students with the greatest financial need are awarded support until funds are exhausted. Funds Available: Grants range from $500 to $2,000 per year, depending on the need of the recipient. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed as long as the recipient remains enrolled at least half time, makes satisfactory academic progress, and continues to meet residency and financial need requirements.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Alaska who have been admitted to an undergraduate degree or vocational certificate program at a qualifying institution in the state. Applicants must be planning to work on a degree or certificate in a field that the state has designated as a workforce shortage area; currently, those are allied health sciences, community or social service, and teaching. They must be able to demonstrate financial need and SAT or ACT scores in the top quartile. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3496 ■ ALEXANDER CHRISTIAN FOUNDATION OF INDIANA

312 East Main Street, Suite B
P.O. Box 246
Greenfield, IN 46140-0246
Tel: (317)467-1223
Web Site: http://www.acfindiana.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Christian Church or Church of Christ (Independent) in Indiana who are preparing for a church-related vocation.
Title of Award: Alexander Christian Foundation of Indiana Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Music; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $1,200 to $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of the Christian Church or Church of Christ (Independent) in Indiana who are candidates for a church-related vocation or currently working full time on an appropriate undergraduate or graduate degree. Applicants must be attending or planning to attend a college or seminary affiliated with the Christian Churches/Churches of Christ. Students at Christian colleges must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an essay of 500 to 1,000 words on "Why I Desire to Serve Christ in a Church-Related Vocation." Selection is based on that essay, evaluations of the applicant's character and motivation by their home church minister and an elder of their church, and transcripts. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1964. Church-related vocations include preaching ministry, youth ministry, missions ministry, music ministry, counseling ministry, and education ministry.

3497 ■ ALPHA DELTA KAPPA

1615 West 92nd Street
Kansas City, MO 64114-3296
Tel: (816)363-5525
Free: 800-247-2311
Fax: (816)363-4010
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alphadeltakappa.org/public/ite_information.htm
To offer scholarships to foreign women who are interested in learning American educational techniques.
Title of Award: International Teacher Education Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to single women between 20 and 35 years of age from countries other than the United States who are interested in full-time teacher training in the United States. Applicants must have completed at least 1 year of college and rank in the top 25% of their class. Students who have received an undergraduate degree are also eligible, but doctoral study is beyond the scope of this program. Applicants must have well-rounded personalities and should display qualities of leadership. Awards are not granted to members of Alpha Delta Kappa. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year. Additional Information: The scholarships, first awarded in 1963, are tenable in the United States at any accredited institution of higher learning. The recipient is expected to live in an American college or university dormitory. Should there be no available dormitory space, she is to live in university or college approved housing. After the scholarship year, the recipient is to return to her home country to work for at least 1 year in her major field of study or related field of education. Should further qualification for employment in her field be necessary in the student's homeland, she will be allowed an additional amount of time, not to exceed 3 years, before beginning her year of work.

3498 ■ AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740
Tel: (301)209-3344
Fax: (301)209-0845 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aapt.org/Grants/lotze.cfm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors or currently-enrolled college students interested in preparing for a career as a high school physics teacher.
Title of Award: Barbara Lotze Scholarship for Future Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Secondary; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Generally, 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are high school seniors, high school graduates, and currently-enrolled undergraduate students in or planning to enter a physics teacher preparation program. All applicants must be U.S. citizens. All other considerations being equal, applicants from Allegheny College are given preference. Deadline for Receipt: Applications may be submitted at any time.

3499 ■ AMERICAN COUNCIL OF THE BLIND

Attn: Coordinator, Scholarship Program
1155 15th Street, N.W., Suite 1004
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: (202)467-5081
Free: 800-424-8666
Fax: (202)467-5085
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acb.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students who are blind and are interested in studying in a field of service to persons with disabilities.
Title of Award: Arnold Sadler Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special; Law; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. In addition, the winner receives a Kurzweil-1000 Reading System. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in rehabilitation, education, law, or other fields of service to persons with disabilities. Applicants must be legally blind and U.S. citizens. In addition to letters of recommendation and copies of academic transcripts, applications must include an autobiographical sketch. A cumulative GPA of 3.3 or higher is generally required. Selection is based on demonstrated academic record, involvement in extracurricular and civic activities, and academic objectives. The severity of the applicant's visual impairment and his/her study methods are also taken into account. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship is funded by the Arnold Sadler Memorial Scholarship Fund. Scholarship winners are expected to be present at the council's annual conference; the council will cover all reasonable expenses connected with convention attendance.

3500 ■ AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND

Attn: Scholarship Committee
11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300
New York, NY 10001
Tel: (212)502-7661
Free: 800-AFB-LINE
Fax: (212)502-7771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afb.org/scholarships.asp
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate and graduate students who wish to study in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of the blind.
Title of Award: Delta Gamma Foundation Florence Margaret Harvey Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind juniors, seniors, or graduate students. U.S. citizenship is required. Applicants must be studying in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of visually impaired and blind persons. Along with their application, they must submit an essay that includes the field of study they are pursuing and why they have chosen it; their educational and personal goals; their work experience; any extracurricular activities with which they have been involved, including those in school, religious organizations, and the community; and how they intend to use scholarship monies that may be awarded. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship is supported by the Delta Gamma Foundation and administered by the American Foundation for the Blind.

3501 ■ AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND

Attn: Scholarship Committee
11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300
New York, NY 10001
Tel: (212)502-7661
Free: 800-AFB-LINE
Fax: (212)502-7771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afb.org/scholarships.asp
To provide financial assistance to legally blind undergraduate or graduate students studying in the field of rehabilitation and/or education of visually impaired and blind persons.
Title of Award: Rudolph Dillman Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 3 without consideration of financial need and 1 to an applicant who can submit evidence of financial need. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500 per year. Duration: 1 academic year; previous recipients may not reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be able to submit evidence of legal blindness, U.S. citizenship, and acceptance in an accredited undergraduate or graduate training program within the broad field of rehabilitation and/or education of blind and visually impaired persons. Along with their application, they must submit an essay that includes the field of study they are pursuing and why they have chosen it; their educational and personal goals; their work experience; any extracurricular activities with which they have been involved, including those in school, religious organizations, and the community; and how they intend to use scholarship monies that may be awarded. They may also include documentation of financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3502 ■ AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

Attn: Minority Participation Program
4220 King Street
Alexandria, VA 22302-1502
Tel: (703)379-2480
Fax: (703)379-7563
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.agiweb.org/mpp/index.html
To provide financial assistance to underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students interested in working on a degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Minority Geoscience Student Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Geology; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 19 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 academic year; renewable if the recipient maintains satisfactory performance.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of ethnic minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Eskimos, Hawaiians, and Samoans). U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Applicants must be full-time students enrolled in an accredited institution working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in the geosciences, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, and earth science education; students in other natural sciences, mathematics, or engineering are not eligible. Selection is based on a 250-word essay on career goals and why the applicant has chosen a geoscience as a major, work experience, recommendations, honors and awards, extracurricular activities, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by ExxonMobil Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ChevronTexaco Corporation, Marathon Corporation, and the Seismological Society of America.

3503 ■ AMERICAN LEGION

Attn: Department of New Hampshire
State House Annex
25 Capitol Street, Room 431
Concord, NH 03301-6312
Tel: (603)271-2211
Fax: (603)271-5352
To provide financial assistance to students in New Hampshire who are interested in becoming a teacher.
Title of Award: Christa McAuliffe Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Students who are or will be graduates of a New Hampshire high school and have been New Hampshire residents for at least 3 years may apply for this scholarship if they are entering their first year of college to study education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3504 ■ AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY

Attn: Department of Maryland
1589 Sulphur Spring Road, Suite 105
Baltimore, MD 21227
Tel: (410)242-9519
Fax: (410)242-9553
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance for college to the daughters of veterans who are Maryland residents and wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field.
Title of Award: Maryland Legion Auxiliary Children and Youth Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Business administration; Education; Medicine; Public administration; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible for this scholarship are Maryland senior high girls with veteran parents who wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field other than nursing at a college or university in the state. Preference is given to children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary. Selection is based on character (30%), Americanism (20%), leadership (10%), scholarship (20%), and financial need (20%). Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3505 ■ APPALACHIAN COLLEGE ASSOCIATION

Attn: Director of Programs
210 Center Street
Berea, KY 40403
Tel: (859)986-4584
Fax: (859)986-9549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acaweb.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students majoring in biology, chemistry, or mathematics at colleges and universities that are members of the Appalachian College Association (ACA) who plan to become teachers.
Title of Award: Robert Noyce Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Education; Mathematics and mathematical sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 12 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $7,500 per year. Recipients must be willing to sign a promissory note with a commitment to teach in a high-need middle or high school for 2 years for every year of the scholarship. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at ACA member institutions with a major in biology, chemistry, or mathematics and plans to earn a teaching license. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to document financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay describing their interest in becoming a 6-12 teacher; their commitment to the Appalachian region, including the impact they hope to have as a teacher; and actual and planned progress toward becoming certified. U.S. citizenship is required. Preference is given to graduates of high schools in the Appalachian region and to applicants who express a desire to teach in a high-need middle or high school, especially schools in central Appalachia. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation. The ACA includes member institutions in Kentucky (Alice Lloyd College, Berea College, Campbellsville University, University of the Cumberlands, Kentucky Christian University, Lindsey Wilson College, Pikeville College, and Union College), North Carolina (Brevard College, Lees-McRae College, Mars Hill College, Montreat College, and Warren Wilson College), Tennessee (Bryan College, Carson-Newman College, King College, Lee University, Lincoln Memorial University, Maryville College, Milligan College, Tennessee Wesleyan College, Tusculum College, and University of the South), Virginia (Bluefield College, Emery & Henry College, Ferrum College, and Virginia Intermont College), and West Virginia (Alderson-Broaddus College, Bethany College, Davis & Elkins College, Ohio Valley University, University of Charleston, West Virginia Wesleyan College, and Wheeling Jesuit University).

3506 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arkansashighered.com/mmasters.html
To provide fellowship/loans to minority graduate students in Arkansas who want to become teachers in selected subject areas.
Title of Award: Arkansas Minority Masters Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 25 of these fellowship/loans were approved. Funds Available: The stipend is up to $7,500 per year for full-time students (or up to $2,500 per summer for part-time summer students). This is a fellowship/loan program. The loan will be forgiven at the rate of 50% for each year the recipient teaches full time in an Arkansas public school or public institution of higher education. If the recipient does not attend college on a full-time basis, withdraws from an approved teacher education program, or does not fulfill the required teaching obligation, the loan must be repaid in full with interest at a rate up to 5 percentage points above the Federal Reserve discount rate. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient remains a full-time student with a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be minority (African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Asian American) residents of Arkansas who are U.S. citizens and enrolled as full-time master's degree students at an Arkansas public or independent institution with a cumulative GPA of 2.75 or higher. Also eligible are minority students in the fifth year of a 5-year teacher certification program. Recipients must be willing to teach in an Arkansas public school or public institution of higher education for at least 2 years after completion of their education. Preference is given to applicants who completed their baccalaureate degrees within the previous 2 years. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3507 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.arkansashighered.com/mteachers.html
To provide scholarship/loans to minority undergraduates in Arkansas who want to become teachers.
Title of Award: Arkansas Minority Teacher Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Elementary; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: Awards up to $5,000 per year are available. This is a scholarship/loan program. The loan will be forgiven at the rate of 20% for each year the recipient teaches full time in an Arkansas public school (or 33% per year if the obligation is fulfilled in 3 years as described above). If the loan is not forgiven by service, it must be repaid with interest at a rate up to 5% points above the Federal Reserve discount rate. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient remains a full-time student with a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be minority (African American, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American) residents of Arkansas who are U.S. citizens and enrolled as full-time juniors or seniors in an approved teacher certification program at an Arkansas public or independent 4-year institution. They must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be willing to teach in an Arkansas public school for at least 5 years after completion of their teaching certificate (3 years if the teaching is in 1 of the 42 counties of Arkansas designated as the Delta Region; or if the teaching is in mathematics, science, or foreign language; or if the recipient is an African American male and teaches at the elementary level; or if the service is as a guidance counselor). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3508 ■ ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Financial Aid Division
114 East Capitol Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72201-3818
Tel: (501)371-2050
Free: 800-54-STUDY
Fax: (501)371-2001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.starark.com
To provide scholarship/loans to college students in Arkansas who are interested in preparing for a teaching career in an approved subject or geographic shortage area.
Title of Award: Arkansas State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geosciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 42 of these scholarship/loans were approved. Funds Available: The award is $3,000 per year for students who agree to teach in either a geographic teacher shortage area or a subject teacher shortage area. For students who agree to teach in both a geographic shortage area and a subject shortage area, the award is $6,000 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in an Arkansas geographic or subject shortage area for 1 year for each year of support they receive. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay all funds received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient is enrolled in a 4-year teacher education program or 2 additional years if enrolled in a 5-year teacher education program. Renewal requires that the recipient maintain a GPA of 2.75 or higher and complete 24 semester hours as an undergraduate or 18 semester hours as a graduate student.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Arkansas residents who are full-time students enrolled 1) at a 4-year public or private college or university in the state with an approved teacher education program; 2) in an associate of arts in teaching program; or 3) in an master of arts in teaching program. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year (or be in a master's degree program). They must be willing to teach in a public school located in a geographic area of Arkansas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers or in a subject matter area designated as having a critical shortage of teachers. Applicants must have completed their freshman year at an accredited Arkansas public or private college or university in a major field of study leading to secondary teacher certification in 1 of the shortage areas. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2004 as a replacement for the former Arkansas Emergency Secondary Education Loan Program. Recently, the subject areas designated as having a critical shortage of teachers were foreign language, mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, physical science, earth science, and special education. For a list of geographic areas of Arkansas that are designated as having a critical shortage of teachers, contact the Department of Higher Education. The State Teacher Assistance Resource (STAR) program also provides that teachers who received federal student loans may have those loans repaid 1) at the rate of $3,000 per year if they teach a subject area in Arkansas that is designated as a shortage area or if they teach in a geographic area of the state with a shortage of teachers, or 2) at the rate of $6,000 per year if they teach a shortage subject area in a shortage geographic area. Students may not, however, participate in both the scholarship/loan program and the federal loan repayment program.

3509 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED OF OHIO

c/o Marjorie E. Ward
1568 Lafayette Drive
Columbus, OH 43220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aerohio.org/schgrts/schol-grant.htm
To provide financial assistance to Ohio residents who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a field related to rehabilitation of the blind.
Title of Award: AERO Personnel Preparation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education, Special; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students in rehabilitation counseling, rehabilitation teaching, orientation and mobility, or education of students with visual disabilities. Applicants must be residents of Ohio, although they may be studying in any state. Undergraduates must have at least junior standing. All applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a short essay explaining why they have chosen their specific field as their profession and what they would like to contribute to the field; 2) a short description of volunteer or paid involvement with individuals with visual disabilities or any other disability; 3) transcripts; and 4) 3 letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3510 ■ ASSOCIATION OF RETIRED TEACHERS OF CONNECTICUT

240 Pomeroy Avenue, Suite 201
Meriden, CT 06450-7170
Tel: (203)639-9628; (866)343-ARTC
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.artcinc.org/Appl.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who are interested in majoring in education in college.
Title of Award: Glenn Moon Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 1 at $1,500 and 3 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,500 or $1,000. Duration: 1 year; the $1,500 award may be renewed up to 3 additional years; the $1,000 awards are nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: Connecticut high school seniors who intend to become teachers are eligible to apply. Applicants must submit an autobiographical essay that includes their reasons for wishing to teach, history of teaching and/or tutoring experience, desired teaching level and/or subject area, and experiences that influenced their selection of teaching as a career. Selection is based on the essay, academic record, financial need, character and personality, interests, and educational activities. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1979. Information is also available from T.M. Barton, 361 Woodland Street, Bristol, CT 06010.

3511 ■ ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS

Attn: Scholarships
305 East Huntland Drive, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78752-3792
Tel: (512)467-0071
Free: 800-777-ATPE
Fax: (512)467-2203
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atpe.org/Awards/bjordaninfo.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at predominantly ethnic minority institutions in Texas.
Title of Award: Barbara Jordan Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Up to 6 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at predominantly ethnic minority institutions in Texas. Applicants must submit a 2-page essay on their personal philosophy toward education, why they want to become an educator, who influenced them the most in making their career decision, and why they are applying for the scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: The qualifying institutions are Huston-Tillotson College, Jarvis Christian College, Our Lady of the Lake University, Paul Quinn College, Prairie View A&M University, St. Mary's University of San Antonio, Sul Ross State University, Sul Ross State University Rio Grande College, Texas A&M International University, Texas A&M University at Kingsville, Texas Southern University, University of Houston, University of Houston-Downtown, University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College, University of Texas at El Paso, University of Texas at San Antonio, University of Texas-Pan American, University of the Incarnate Word, and Wiley College.

3512 ■ ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS

Attn: Scholarships
305 East Huntland Drive, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78752-3792
Tel: (512)467-0071
Free: 800-777-ATPE
Fax: (512)467-2203
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.atpe.org/Awards/fwiesnerinfo.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at institutions in Texas.
Title of Award: Fred Wiesner Educational Excellence Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 3 to undergraduates and 1 to a graduate student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students enrolled in educator preparation programs at colleges and universities in Texas. Applicants must submit a 2-page essay on their personal philosophy toward education, why they want to become an educator, who influenced them the most in making their career decision, and why they are applying for the scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3513 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN GEOSCIENTISTS

Attn: AWG Foundation
P.O. Box 30645
Lincoln, NE 68503-0645
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.awg.org/eas/minority.html
To provide financial assistance to minority women who are interested in working on an undergraduate degree in the geosciences.
Title of Award: Association for Women Geoscientists Minority Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Earth sciences; Education; Geology; Geosciences; Hydrology; Meteorology; Oceanography Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A total of $5,000 is available for this program each year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women who are African American, Hispanic, or Native American (including Eskimo, Hawaiian, Samoan, or American Indian). Applicants must be full-time students working on, or planning to work on, an undergraduate degree in the geosciences (including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, physical oceanography, planetary geology, or earth science education). They must submit a 500-word essay on why they have chosen to major in the geosciences and their career goals, 2 letters of recommendation, high school and/or college transcripts, and SAT or ACT scores. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, first offered in 2004, is supported by ExxonMobil Foundation.

3514 ■ CALIFORNIA ADOLESCENT NUTRITION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND CULINARY ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS

2140 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 610
Berkeley, CA 94704
Tel: (510)644-1533
Free: 800-200-3131
Fax: (510)644-1535
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.canfit.org/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to minority undergraduate and graduate students who are studying nutrition, physical education or culinary arts in California.
Title of Award: CANFit Program Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Culinary arts; Education, Physical; Nutrition; Public health; Youth Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 graduate scholarships and 10 undergraduate scholarships are available each year. Funds Available: Graduate stipends are $1,000 each and undergraduate stipends are $500 per year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are American Indians/Alaska Natives, African Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Latinos/Hispanics who are enrolled in either: 1) an approved master's or doctoral graduate program in nutrition, public health nutrition, or physical education or in a preprofessional practice program approved by the American Dietetic Association at an accredited university in California; or, 2) an approved bachelor's or professional certificate program in culinary arts, nutrition, or physical education at an accredited university or college in California. Graduate student applicants must have completed at least 12 units of graduate course work and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher; undergraduate applicants must have completed 50 semester units or the equivalent of college credits and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on financial need, academic goals, and community nutrition or physical education activities. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: A goal of the California Adolescent Nutrition and Fitness (CANFit) program is to improve the nutritional status and physical fitness of California's low-income multiethnic youth aged 10 to 14. By offering these scholarships, the program hopes to encourage more students to consider careers in adolescent nutrition and fitness.

3515 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR

Attn: Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program
1600 Exposition Boulevard
P.O. Box 15649
Sacramento, CA 95852
Tel: (916)274-5969
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bigfun.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of California who are working on a teacher credential.
Title of Award: California State Fair Teacher Credential Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 at $1,500 and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,500 or $500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of California currently working on a teacher credential at a college or university in the state. Reentry professionals are also eligible. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on why they are pursuing their desired career and life goals. Selection is based on personal commitment, goals established for their chosen field, leadership potential, and civic accomplishments. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program was established in 1993.

3516 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR

Attn: Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program
1600 Exposition Boulevard
P.O. Box 15649
Sacramento, CA 95852
Tel: (916)274-5969
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bigfun.org
To provide financial assistance for college to residents of California who are interested in majoring in designated fields or preparing for a career in the Fair industry.
Title of Award: Eddie G. Cole Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Education, Physical; Equine studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 at $1,000 and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of California currently working on an undergraduate degree at a college or university in the state. Applicants be 1) majoring in physical education, agriculture, or equine studies; or 2) preparing for a career in the Fair industry. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay on why they are pursuing their desired career and life goals. Selection is based on personal commitment, goals established for their chosen field, leadership potential, and civic accomplishments. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Friends of the Fair Scholarship Program was established in 1993.

3517 ■ CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF UKRAINIAN STUDIES

c/o University of Alberta
450 Athabasca Hall
Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E8
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ualberta.ca/CIUS/cius-grants.htm
To provide financial assistance to Canadian undergraduate students majoring in a field related to Ukrainian or Ukrainian Canadian studies.
Title of Award: Leo J. Krysa Family Undergraduate Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Canadian studies; Education; European studies; Humanities; Social sciences; Ukrainian studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $C3,500. Duration: 8 months; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Canadian citizens and permanent residents who are entering the final year of study for an undergraduate degree at a college or university in Canada. Applicants' programs must emphasize Ukrainian and/or Ukrainian Canadian studies, through a combination of Ukrainian and east European or Canadian courses in education, history, humanities, or the social sciences. Selection is based on overall academic record, performance in Ukrainian-content courses, a working sample, and community involvement. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend any Canadian university.

3518 ■ CATCHING THE DREAM

8200 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 203
Albuquerque, NM 87110-7835
Tel: (505)262-2351
Fax: (505)262-0534
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.catchingthedream.org
To provide financial assistance to American Indian students who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in selected fields.
Title of Award: MESBEC Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Education; Engineering; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 30 to 35 each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to American Indians who can provide proof that they are at least one-quarter Indian blood and a member of a U.S. tribe that is federally-recognized, state-recognized, or terminated. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll full time and major in the 1 of the following fields: mathematics, engineering, science, business administration, education, or computer science. They may be entering freshmen, undergraduate students, graduate students, or Ph.D. candidates. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, 3 letters of recommendation, copies of applications and responses for at least 15 other sources of funding, official transcripts, standardized test scores (ACT, SAT, GRE, MCAT, LSAT, etc.), and an essay explaining their goals in life, college plans, and career plans (especially how those plans include working with and benefiting Indians). Selection is based on merit and potential for improving the lives of Indian people. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year for fall term; September of each year for spring and winter terms; March of each year for summer school. Additional Information: MESBEC is an acronym that stands for the priority areas of this program: mathematics, engineering, science, business, education, and computers. The sponsor was formerly known as the Native American Scholarship Fund.

3519 ■ CATCHING THE DREAM

8200 Mountain Road, N.E., Suite 203
Albuquerque, NM 87110-7835
Tel: (505)262-2351
Fax: (505)262-0534
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.catchingthedream.org
To provide financial assistance to American Indian paraprofessionals in the education field who wish to return to college or graduate school.
Title of Award: Native American Leadership in Education (NALE) Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Educational administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 15 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to paraprofessionals who are working in Indian schools and who plan to return to school to complete their degree in education, counseling, or school administration. Applicants must be able to provide proof that they are at least one-quarter Indian blood and a member of a U.S. tribe that is federally-recognized, state-recognized, or terminated. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, 3 letters of recommendation, copies of applications and responses for at least 15 other sources of funding, official transcripts, standardized test scores (ACT, SAT, GRE, MCAT, LSAT, etc.), and an essay explaining their goals in life, college plans, and career plans (especially how those plans include working with and benefiting Indians). Selection is based on merit and potential for improving the lives of Indian people. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year for fall term; September of each year for spring and winter terms; March of each year for summer school. Additional Information: The sponsor was formerly known as the Native American Scholarship Fund.

3520 ■ CHICKASAW FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 1726
Ada, OK 74821-1726
Tel: (580)421-9030
Fax: (580)421-9031
Web Site: http://www.cflink.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Chickasaw Nation who are majoring or minoring in American history.
Title of Award: Colbert "Bud" Baker Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; History, American; Law; Native American studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Chickasaw students who are currently enrolled full time at an accredited institution of higher education. Applicants must be classified as juniors or seniors at a 4-year college. They must be majoring in history or majoring in education or prelaw with a minor in history. The history emphasis must be on Chickasaw tribal history or Native American studies. Along with their application, they must submit high school or college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, a copy of their Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, a copy of their Chickasaw Nation citizenship card, and a 1-page essay on their long-term goals and plans for achieving them. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3521 ■ CHICKASAW FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 1726
Ada, OK 74821-1726
Tel: (580)421-9030
Fax: (580)421-9031
Web Site: http://www.cflink.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Chickasaw Nation interested in studying education in college.
Title of Award: Mary K. Moreland and Daniel T. Jenks Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Chickasaw students who are currently enrolled full time as an undergraduate at an accredited 4-year college. Applicants must be majoring in education and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit high school or college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, a copy of their Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, a copy of their Chickasaw Nation citizenship card, and a 1-page essay on their long-term goals and plans for achieving them. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3522 ■ CHRISTIAN LIFE RESOURCES

Attn: WELS Lutherans for Life
Scholarship Review Committee
2949 North Mayfair Road, Suite 309
Milwaukee, WI 53222-4304
Tel: (414)774-1331
Fax: (414)774-1360
Web Site: http://www.christianliferesources.com
To provide financial assistance to Lutheran high school seniors in Wisconsin who are interested in studying life-related issues in college.
Title of Award: WELS Lutherans for Life Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Education, Special; Engineering, Biomedical; Journalism; Law; Medicine; Physical therapy; Political science; Psychology; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 9 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,000 are available. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are active members of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) or an affiliated church. Applicants must be planning to go to a 4-year school to prepare for a secular career in which pro-life values will be demonstrated. Acceptable fields include medicine, biotechnology/biological engineering, medical research/genetics, law/politics, journalism/media, psychology, physical therapy, social services, or special education. They must have a GPA of 3.25 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit essays on 1) the field of study they plan to enter and how it relates to pro-life issues; 2) why the scholarship should be awarded to them, including their future goals; and 3) how they have demonstrated a Christian, pro-life attitude in their life. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: WELS Lutherans for Life was formerly a ministry of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.

3523 ■ CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW ENGLAND

c/o Allen M. Ware
University of Connecticut
Department of History Box U-103
Storrs, CT 06269-2103
Tel: (860)486-3722
Fax: (860)486-0641
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.caneweb.org
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in New England who are working on certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek.
Title of Award: CANE Certification Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are intended to cover tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year or summer session.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to junior and senior undergraduates at colleges and universities in New England and to holders of a master's degree. Applicants must be preparing for secondary school certification as a teacher of Latin or Greek or both in a New England state. Full-time, part-time, and summer programs qualify. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation from college classicists, a letter attesting to their ability to communicate and work with young people and inspire them to high levels of achievement, a 1,000-word personal statement explaining why they are preparing for a career as a secondary school classicist, high school and college transcripts, and a description of their program and the expenses involved. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3524 ■ COLORADO COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

1380 Lawrence Street, Suite 1200
Denver, CO 80204
Tel: (303)866-2723
Fax: (303)866-4266
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.state.co.us/cche/finaid/students/stateaid/types.html
To provide funding to Colorado undergraduate education students who need assistance in paying for their education while they are working as student teachers.
Title of Award: Colorado Supplemental Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership (SLEAP) Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of assistance varies, to a maximum of $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Colorado who are enrolled in an undergraduate or postbaccalaureate teacher education program in the states. Applicants must be engaged full time in a student teaching assignment as preparation for teacher education licensure. They must be able to demonstrate financial need. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating institution sets its own deadlines. Additional Information: Applications are available either from the Colorado Commission on Higher Education or from the financial aid office of eligible Colorado institutions.

3525 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER NEW BRITAIN

Attn: Scholarship Manager
74A Vine Street
New Britain, CT 06052-1431
Tel: (860)229-6018
Fax: (860)225-2666
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cfgnb.org
To provide financial assistance to minority college students in Connecticut who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Alma Exley Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 to a 4-year student and 1 to an ARC student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year for students at a 4-year college or university or $500 for a student in the ARC program. Duration: 2 years for students at 4-year colleges or universities; 1 year for students in the ARC program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students of color (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans) enrolled in a teacher preparation program in Connecticut. Applicant must 1) have been admitted to a traditional teacher preparation program at an accredited 4-year college or university in the state, or 2) be participating in the Alternate Route to Certification (ARC) program sponsored by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year.

3526 ■ CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS FOUNDATION, INC.

Attn: Director, Educational Programs
1720 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202)263-2836
Free: 800-784-2577
Fax: (202)775-0773
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbcfinc.org
To provide financial assistance to minority and other undergraduate and graduate students who reside in a Congressional district represented by an African American and are interested in preparing for a health-related career.
Title of Award: Cheerios Brand Health Initiative Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Education, Physical; Engineering; Food service careers; Health care services; Medicine; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) minority and other graduating high school seniors planning to attend an accredited institution of higher education and 2) currently-enrolled full-time undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students in good academic standing with a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Applicants must reside or attend school in a Congressional district represented by a member of the Congressional Black Caucus. They must be interested in preparing for a career in a medical, food services, or other health-related field, including pre-medicine, nursing, chemistry, biology, physical education, and engineering. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word personal statement on 1) the field of study they intend to pursue and why they have chosen that field; 2) their interests, involvement in school activities, community and public service, hobbies, special talents, sports, and other highlight areas; and 3) any other experiences, skills, or qualifications they feel should be considered. They must also be able to document financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The program was established in 1998 with support from General Mills, Inc.

3527 ■ CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Aid
61 Woodland Street
Hartford, CT 06105-2326
Tel: (860)947-1855
Fax: (860)947-1838
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctdhe.org/SFA/sfa.htm
To provide financial assistance and loan repayment to minority upper-division college students in Connecticut who are interested in teaching at public schools in the state.
Title of Award: Connecticut Minority Teacher Incentive Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $5,000 per year. In addition, if recipients complete a credential and teach at a public school in Connecticut, they may receive up to $2,500 per year, for up to 4 years, to help pay off college loans. Duration: Up to 2 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority juniors and seniors enrolled full time in Connecticut college and university teacher preparation programs. Students must be nominated by the education dean at their institution. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3528 ■ CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Education and Employment Information Center
61 Woodland Street
Hartford, CT 06105-2326
Tel: (860)947-1846
Free: 800-842-0229
Fax: (860)947-1311
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctdhe.org/SFA/sfa.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students in Connecticut who are preparing for a career as a special education teacher.
Title of Award: Connecticut Special Education Teacher Incentive Grant Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Hearing and deafness; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year for full-time study or $2,000 per year for part-time graduate study. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors and full- or part-time graduate students who are residents of Connecticut. Applicants must be enrolled in 1) special education teacher preparation programs at selected universities in Connecticut; or 2) Out-of-state teacher preparation programs seeking cross-endorsement for teaching "low-incidence student" areas. They must be nominated by the dean of education at their school and have a stated intent to teach in a Connecticut public school, an approved private special education facility, or a Regional Educational Service Center. Priority is given to minority (African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian American, and Native American) and bilingual students and to Connecticut residents enrolled in an approved out-of-state program. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year. Additional Information: The approved in-state programs are at Central Connecticut State University, Fairfield University, Saint Joseph College, Southern Connecticut State University, University of Connecticut, and University of Hartford. The programs for students seeking cross-endorsement certification for teaching students who are blind and partially-sighted or visually impaired are at Hunter College of CUNY (New York, New York), Dominican College (Orangeburg, New York), Teachers College of Columbia University (New York, New York), and University of Northern Colorado (Greeley, Colorado). The programs for students seeking cross-endorsement certification for teaching students who are deaf or hearing-impaired are at Hunter College, Teachers College, Clarke School for the Deaf at Smith College (Northampton, Massachusetts), and Boston University (Boston, Massachusetts).

3529 ■ CONTINENTAL SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF INDIAN WARS

c/o Mrs. Donald C. Trolinger, Scholarship Chair
61300 East 110 Road
Miami, OK 74354-4726
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to Native American college students who are interested in preparing for a career in education.
Title of Award: Continental Society, Daughters of Indian Wars Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be certified tribal members of a federally-recognized tribe, plan to prepare for a career in education or social service, plan to work on a reservation, be a junior at an accredited college, have earned at least a 3.0 GPA, and carry at least 10 quarter hours or 8 semester hours. Selection is based primarily on academic achievement and commitment to the field of study; financial need is not necessary but is considered. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3530 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in selected fields to Alaska Natives who are original enrollees to Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: CIRI Foundation Special Excellence Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Engineering; General studies/Field of study not specified; Health care services; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $18,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees to CIRI under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 4-year undergraduate or a graduate degree program. They must have a GPA of 3.7 or higher. Preference is given to students working on a degree in business, education, mathematics, sciences, health services, or engineering. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997. Recipients must enroll in school on a full-time basis.

3531 ■ COOK INLET REGION, INC.

Attn: CIRI Foundation
2600 Cordova Street, Suite 206
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)263-5582
Free: 800-764-3382
Fax: (907)263-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.thecirifoundation.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate studies in selected liberal arts to Alaska Natives who are original enrollees to Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) and their lineal descendants.
Title of Award: Lawrence Matson Memorial Endowment Fund Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Communications; Education; Law; Linguistics; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 1 of these scholarships (at $7,000 per year) was awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $9,000 per year, $7,000 per year, or $2,000 per semester, depending on GPA. Duration: 1 year (2 semesters).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Alaska Native enrollees to CIRI under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 and their lineal descendants. There are no Alaska residency requirements or age limitations. Applicants must be accepted or enrolled full time in a 4-year undergraduate or a graduate degree program in the following liberal arts fields: language, education, social sciences, arts, communications, or law. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, rigor of course work or degree program, quality of a statement of purpose, student financial contribution, financial need, grade level, previous work performance, education and community activities, letters of recommendation, seriousness of purpose, and practicality of educational and professional goals. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This fund was established in 1989. Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis.

3532 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying business or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Coca-Cola DECA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, business, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2002, is sponsored by the Coca-Cola Company.

3533 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying management or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Otis Spunkmeyer Student Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Management; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 15 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, management, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by Otis Spunkmeyer, Inc.

3534 ■ DECA

1908 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1594
Tel: (703)860-5000
Fax: (703)860-4013
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deca.org/student.html
To provide financial assistance to DECA members interested in studying business or marketing education in college.
Title of Award: Walgreens DECA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to DECA members who are interested in working full time on a 2-year or 4-year degree in marketing, business, or marketing education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate evidence of DECA activities, academic achievement, leadership ability, and community service involvement. Selection is based on merit, not financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2004, is sponsored by Walgreens.

3535 ■ DELAWARE HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Carvel State Office Building
820 North French Street
Wilmington, DE 19801
Tel: (302)577-3240
Free: 800-292-7935
Fax: (302)577-6765
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.doe.state.de.us/high-ed/christa.htm
To provide scholarship/loans for teacher training to Delaware residents with outstanding academic records.
Title of Award: Christa McAuliffe Teacher Scholarship/Loan Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; English language and literature; Library and archival sciences; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Reading; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 50 each year. Funds Available: Funds up to the cost of tuition, fees, and other direct educational expenses are provided. This is a scholarship/loan program; if the recipient performs required service at a school in Delaware, the loan is forgiven at the rate of 1 year of assistance for each year of service. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Delaware residents who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment at a Delaware college or university in a program leading to teacher qualification. Preference is given to applicants planning to teach in an area of critical need. High school seniors must rank in the top half of their class and have a combined score of at least 1570 on the SAT; applicants who are already enrolled in college must have a cumulative GPA of 2.75 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The areas of critical need recently included bilingual education, business education, English, foreign languages, English to speakers of other languages, mathematics, reading, science, school librarianship, special education, and technology education.

3536 ■ DELAWARE STATE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarship Committee
136 East Water Street
Dover, DE 19901
Tel: (302)734-5834; (866)734-5834
Fax: (302)674-8499
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dsea.org/aboutdsea/dsea/scholarship.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in Delaware who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Christopher K. Smith Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients are expected to be employed for 1 year as a teacher in a public school district within 1 year of graduation. If this does not happen, the scholarship is viewed as a loan and must be repaid with interest. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from public high schools in Delaware who are interested in preparing for a career in teaching. Selection is based on class rank, GPA, standardized test scores, school activities, awards and honors, career plans, and letters of reference. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are expected to work on a 4-year college degree leading to a Delaware teacher certificate and to teach in a public school (preferably in Delaware) for at least 1 year.

3537 ■ FBLA/PBL FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarships
P.O. Box 3021010
Montgomery, AL 36130-2101
Tel: (334)242-9109
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) and Phi Beta Lambda (PBL).
Title of Award: FBLA/PBL Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 in each FBLA/PBL district. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are members of FBLA and college students who are members of PBL. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll in a business education program at a college or university. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on a topic administered to them by their adviser at their home site. Selection is based on that essay (20%), FBLA/PBL involvement and leadership (25%), community involvement (20%), honors and awards other than FBLA/PBL (15%), GPA (10%), and financial need (10%). Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3538 ■ FINANCE AUTHORITY OF MAINE

Attn: Education Finance Programs
5 Community Drive
P.O. Box 949
Augusta, ME 04332-0949
Tel: (207)623-3263
Free: 800-228-3734
Fax: (207)623-0095
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.famemaine.com/html/education/fameprogs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors, college students, and graduate students in Maine who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Educators for Maine Program Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education; Speech and language pathology/audiology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Funds Available: Full-time undergraduate students receive $3,000 per academic year; postbaccalaureate students receive $2,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients may receive 1 year of loan forgiveness by completing 1 year of full-time teaching in a Maine public or private elementary or secondary school. The repayment option can be accelerated to 2 years of loan forgiveness for each year of teaching if the service is conducted in an educator shortage area or underserved subject area. If the loan recipient does not meet the service obligation, the total amount borrowed must be repaid at 9% interest; undergraduate borrowers must complete repayment within 10 years of graduation or withdrawal from school; postbaccalaureate students must complete repayment within 5 years of graduation or withdrawal from school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years if the recipient remains a Maine resident and maintains a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) high school seniors planning to attend college to prepare for a career in education; 2) currently-enrolled college students; and 3) postbaccalaureate students who are enrolled or planning to enroll in a program leading to certification as a teacher, speech pathologist, or child care provider. Applicants must be residents of Maine with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement, activities, community service, and an essay; financial need is not considered. Preference is given to applicants planning to teach a shortage subject. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: These scholarship/loans may be used at any accredited postsecondary institution offering certificate, 2-year, 4-year, or graduate programs that lead to an associate, baccalaureate, master's, or doctoral degree. This program was formerly known as Teachers for Maine. Undergraduate recipients must attend school on a full-time basis, but postbaccalaureate students and teachers are not required to enroll as full-time students.

3539 ■ BILL AND MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION

P.O. Box 10500
Fairfax, VA 22031-8044
877-690-GMSP
Web Site: http://www.gmsp.org
To provide financial assistance to outstanding low-income minority students, particularly those interested in majoring in specific fields in college. Title of Award: Gates Millennium Undergraduate Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Engineering; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Under the Gates Millennium Scholars Program, a total of 4,000 students receive support each year. Funds Available: The program covers the cost of tuition, fees, books, and living expenses not paid for by grants and scholarships already committed as part of the recipient's financial aid package. Duration: 4 years or the completion of the undergraduate degree, if the recipient maintains at least a 3.0 GPA.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Pacific Islander Americans who are graduating high school seniors with a GPA of 3.3 or higher. Principals, teachers, guidance counselors, tribal higher education representatives, and other professional educators are invited to nominate students with outstanding academic qualifications, especially those likely to succeed in the fields of mathematics, science, engineering, education, or library science. Nominees should have significant financial need and demonstrated leadership abilities through participation in community service, extracurricular, or other activities. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Nominees must be planning to enter an accredited college or university as a full-time, degree-seeking freshman in the following fall. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 1999, is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and administered by the United Negro College Fund with support from the American Indian Graduate Center, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund, and the Organization of Chinese Americans.

3540 ■ GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT

c/o Hamden Women's Club
Antoinette Antonucci, Co-President
26 Country Way
Wallingford, CT 06492
Tel: (203)265-9407
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gfwcct.org
To provide financial assistance to women in Connecticut who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Phipps Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female residents of Connecticut who have completed at least 2 years of college. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be working on a bachelor's or master's degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3541 ■ GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT

c/o Hamden Women's Club
Antoinette Antonucci, Co-President
26 Country Way
Wallingford, CT 06492
Tel: (203)265-9407
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gfwcct.org
To provide financial assistance to women in Connecticut who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Dorothy E. Schoelzel Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to female residents of Connecticut who have completed at least 3 years of college. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be working on a bachelor's or master's degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3542 ■ GEORGIA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Ruth Lee, Awards Chair
Mitchell Baker High School
1000 Newton Road
Camilla, GA 31730
Tel: (229)336-2173
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.georgiagbea.org
To provide financial assistance to student members of the Georgia Business Education Association (GBEA) who are enrolled in an undergraduate program of student.
Title of Award: Georgia Business Education Association College Student Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to GBEA student members enrolled full time in an approved business education program of study. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a statement of commitment, 3 letters of recommendation, and a transcript. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3543 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org
To provide forgivable loans to residents of Georgia who are preparing for a second career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Georgia Destination Teacher Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum total loan is $5,000. Within 6 months of completion of the program, recipients must become a teacher and repay the loan by working in a high-need school in a high-need district in Georgia. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to second career candidates (including paraprofessionals) preparing to become teachers at high-need schools in Georgia. Applicants must be interested in attending designated institutions of the University System of Georgia. Additional Information: Interested students should contact a program liaison at a college or university for their region of the state: Region 1 (Albany State College); Region 2 (Armstrong Atlantic State University); Region 3 (Georgia State University); Region 4 (Georgia Southwestern State University); Region 5 (Georgia Southern University or East Georgia College); Region 6 (Valdosta State University, Waycross College, South Georgia College, or Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College).

3544 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org/gsfc/grants/dsp_gcmts.cfm
To provide financial assistance to Georgia residents who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Charles McDaniel Teacher Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Georgia who graduated from a public high school in the state and are currently enrolled as full-time juniors or seniors in a college or department of education within an approved Georgia public institution. Each of the public colleges in Georgia that offers a teaching degree may nominate 1 student for these scholarships. Nominees must be working toward an initial baccalaureate degree, have a GPA of 3.25 or higher, and indicate a strong desire to prepare for a career as an elementary or secondary school teacher. They must submit an essay discussing their professional goals, reasons for pursuing a teaching career at the elementary or secondary level, and accomplishments, experiences, and honors that relate to teaching.

3545 ■ GEORGIA STUDENT FINANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarships and Grants Division
2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200
Tucker, GA 30084-5305
Tel: (770)724-9000
Free: 800-505-GSFC
Fax: (770)724-9089
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gsfc.org/GSFA/SCL/dsp_teacher_prom_scholarship.cfm
To provide forgivable loans to students in Georgia who are preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: PROMISE Teacher Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 600 each year. Funds Available: Full-time students may borrow up to a maximum of $3,000 per year and part-time students up to $1,500; loan funds may be used for tuition and fees, room and board, and any other part of the student's cost of attendance budget. Loans are forgiven at the rate of $1,500 for each year that the recipient teaches in a Georgia public school system at the preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary level. Otherwise, all money received must be repaid with interest at a rate up to 10%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress (a continuing 3.0 GPA is not required).
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students entering their junior year in a teacher education program at an approved college or university in Georgia. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and be certified by the college of education teacher certification official at their institution. They do not need to be residents of Georgia but must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Additional Information: This program is administered by the Georgia Student Finance Authority as a component of its Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally (HOPE) program.

3546 ■ GOLDEN APPLE FOUNDATION

Attn: Director of Scholars, Recruitment and Placement
8 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60603-3463
Tel: (312)407-0433
Fax: (312)407-0344
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.goldenapple.org/scholars.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in Illinois who wish to study education at an Illinois college and teach in the state.
Title of Award: Golden Apple Scholars of Illinois Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 100 each year. Funds Available: Scholars receive a scholarship/loan of $2,500 per year to apply toward their educational expenses and a stipend of $2,000 per year for participating in a summer teaching internship. If they complete a bachelor's degree and teach for 5 years in an Illinois school of need, the loan is forgiven. Schools of need are defined as those either having Chapter I status by the U.S. Department of Education or having mediocre to poor PSAE or ISAT scores. Duration: 4 years, provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.0 or higher during the freshman year and 2.5 or higher in subsequent years. Students who enter the program as sophomores receive 2 years of support.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors at schools in Illinois. Students must be nominated by a teacher, principal, guidance counselor, or other non-family adult; self-nominations are also accepted. Nominees must be committed to teaching as a profession and must be interested in attending 1 of 53 designated colleges and universities in Illinois. A limited number of openings are also available to sophomores at those designated Illinois institutions. The program strongly encourages nomination of prospective teachers for which there is currently a shortage, especially minority and bilingual teachers. Deadline for Receipt: Nominations must be submitted by November of each year. Additional Information: During the annual summer institutes, scholars participate in teaching internships and seminars on the art and craft of teaching. This program was established in 1988.

3547 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education.
Title of Award: Alma White-Delta Kappa Gamma Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are enrolled in an education program (as a junior, senior, or graduate student). They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. Applications must be accompanied by a short statement indicating reasons for attending college, planned course of study, and career goals. Recipients must attend college on a full-time basis. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1998.

3548 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to seniors at designated high schools in Hawaii who are interested in studying education in college.
Title of Award: Ron Bright Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 3 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors at Castle, Kahuku, Kailua, Kalaheo, and Olomana high schools who plan to major in education in college. Preference is given to students with extracurricular activities in the performing arts. Applicants must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland.

3549 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career in early childhood education.
Title of Award: Henry and Dorothy Castle Memorial Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child care; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 10 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are interested in pursuing full-time undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of early childhood education (birth through third grade), including child care and preschool. They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, applicants must 1) write a short statement indicating their reasons for attending college, their planned course of study, and their career goals, and 2) write an essay that states their interests and goals in studying early childhood education and how they plan to contribute to the field. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland. This scholarship is funded by the Samuel N. and Mary Castle Foundation.

3550 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career that will fill gaps in the local job market.
Title of Award: Hawai'i Community Foundation Community Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Education; Humanities; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount awarded varies; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Hawaii who show potential for filling a community need; demonstrate accomplishment, motivation, initiative, and vision; are residents of the state of Hawaii; intend to return to, or stay in, Hawaii to work; are able to demonstrate financial need; are interested in attending an accredited 2- or 4-year college or university as a full-time student at either the undergraduate or graduate level; plan to major in the arts, architecture, education, humanities, or social science; and are able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 3.0 or higher). Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in Hawaii or on the mainland. This fund was established in 1947.

3551 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career in designated health fields.
Title of Award: Dr. Alvin and Monica Saake Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical; Medicine, Sports; Occupational therapy; Parks and recreation; Physical therapy Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 19 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amounts of the awards depend on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $2,895. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who are enrolled as full-time juniors, seniors, or graduate students. Applicants must be majoring in kinesiology, leisure science, physical education, athletic training, exercise science, sports medicine, physical therapy, or occupational therapy. They must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.7 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, applicants must write a short statement indicating their reasons for attending college, their planned course of study, and their career goals. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend college in Hawaii or on the mainland.

3552 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are nontraditional students planning to major in education.
Title of Award: Dr. Hans and Clara Zimmerman Foundation Education Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 61 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount of the award depends on the availability of funds and the need of the recipient; recently, stipends averaged $1,620. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Hawaii residents who have worked for at least 2 years and are returning to school as full-time students majoring in education. Applicants must be able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 2.8 or higher), good moral character, and financial need. In addition to filling out the standard application form, they must write a short statement describing their community service and how their college education will help them achieve their career goals. Preference is given to students of Hawaiian ancestry, students from the neighboring islands who plan to teach in Hawaii, and students with some teaching experience. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This scholarship was established in 1997.

3553 ■ HOPI TRIBE

Attn: Office of Education
P.O. Box 123
Kykotsmovi, AZ 86039
Tel: (928)734-3533
Free: 800-762-9630
Fax: (928)734-9575
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hopi.nsn.us/education_htgsp.asp
To encourage Hopi students to get an undergraduate or graduate degree in an area of interest to the Hopi Tribe.
Title of Award: Hopi Tribal Priority Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Health care services; Law; Medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend covers all educational expenses. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to enrolled members of the Hopi Tribe. They must be college juniors, seniors, or graduate students whose degree is in a subject area that is of priority interest to the Hopi Tribe. Those areas are law, natural resources, education, medicine, health, engineering, or business. This is a highly competitive scholarship. Selection is based on academic merit and the likelihood that the applicants will use their training and expertise for tribal goals and objectives. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must attend school on a full-time basis.

3554 ■ IDAHO SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Idaho
College of Engineering
P.O. Box 441011
Moscow, ID 83844-1011
Tel: (208)885-6438
Fax: (208)885-1399
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://isgc.uidaho.edu
To provide financial assistance for study in space-related fields to undergraduate students at institutions belonging to the Idaho Space Grant Consortium (ISGC).
Title of Award: Idaho Space Grant Consortium Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 24 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is up to $1,000 per year. Funds are to be used to pay for registration at colleges in the consortium. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at ISGC member institutions. Applicants must be majoring in engineering, mathematics, science, or science/math education and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher. They should be planning to work on a 4-year degree in a space-related field. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on their future career and educational goals and why they believe the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) should support their education. U.S. citizenship is required. As a component of the NASA Space Grant program, the ISGC encourages participation by women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Members of the consortium include Albertson College of Idaho, Boise State University, College of Southern Idaho, Idaho State University, Lewis Clark State College, North Idaho College, Northwest Nazarene College, Brigham Young University of Idaho, and the University of Idaho. This program is funded by NASA.

3555 ■ IDAHO STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Len B. Jordan Office Building
650 West State Street, Room 307
P.O. Box 83720
Boise, ID 83720-0037
Tel: (208)332-1574
Fax: (208)334-2632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.idahoboardofed.org/scholarships/loan.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Idaho students who wish to prepare for a teaching or nursing career in Idaho.
Title of Award: Idaho Education Incentive Loan Forgiveness Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 45 each year. Funds Available: This is a scholarship/loan program. Loans are forgiven if the recipient pursues a teaching or nursing career within Idaho for at least 2 years. Duration: 1 year; renewable.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have graduated from a secondary school in Idaho within the previous 2 years and rank within the upper 15% of their graduating high school class or have earned a cumulative GPA in college of 3.0 or higher. They must enroll as a full-time student at an Idaho public college or university, working on a degree that will qualify them to receive an Idaho teaching certificate or write the licensure examination approved by the Board of Nursing for a registered nurse.

3556 ■ IDAHO STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Len B. Jordan Office Building
650 West State Street, Room 307
P.O. Box 83720
Boise, ID 83720-0037
Tel: (208)332-1574
Fax: (208)334-2632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.idahoboardofed.org/scholarships/gyo.asp
To provide financial assistance to students at selected Idaho colleges and universities who are interested in becoming teachers of bilingual education or English as a Second Language (ESL) or to Native American education students.
Title of Award: Idaho Grow Your Own Teacher Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross- cultural; Education, English as a second language Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year for full-time students; the stipend for part-time students depends on the number of credit hours and the fee charged to part-time students at the participating college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Idaho school district employees and volunteers who are 1) interested in completing an associate and/or baccalaureate degree in education with a bilingual or ESL endorsement, or 2) Native Americans preparing to teach in Idaho school districts with a significant Native American student population. Applicants must be attending Boise State University, the College of Southern Idaho, Lewis-Clark State College, or Idaho State University.

3557 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to college students in Illinois who are interested in training or retraining for a teaching career in academic shortage areas.
Title of Award: Illinois Future Teacher Corps Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Physical; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Hearing and deafness; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds. Funds Available: This program pays tuition and fees, room and board, or a commuter allowance at academic institutions in Illinois. The maximum award is $5,000 or $10,000 (and may even be increased by an additional $5,000), depending on the teaching commitment the recipient makes. Funds are paid directly to the school. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach in an Illinois public, private, or parochial preschool, elementary school, or secondary school for 1 year for each full year of assistance received. The teaching obligation must be completed within 5 years of completion of the degree or certificate program for which the scholarship was awarded. That time period may be extended if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate program related to teaching, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher, or takes additional courses on at least a half-time basis to teach in a specialized teacher shortage discipline. Recipients who fail to honor this work obligation must repay the award with interest. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Illinois residents who are enrolled at the junior level or higher at an institution of higher education in the state. Applicants must be planning to prepare for a career as a preschool, elementary, or secondary school teacher. Preference is given to students working on a degree in designated teacher shortage disciplines, making a commitment to teach at a hard-to-staff school, and/or planning to teach minority students. Recently, the teacher shortage disciplines included behavior disordered, bilingual teacher (K-12), cross categorical (seeking certification in 2 or more areas of special education), general special education (including blind and deaf specialties and early childhood special education), learning disabled, mathematics (K-12), music (K-12), physical education (K-12), reading and English language arts (K-12), and speech and language impaired. Preference is given to renewal applicants. Selection is based on cumulative GPA, expected family contribution, and minority student status. Deadline for Receipt: Priority consideration is given to applications submitted by February of each year. Additional Information: This program was formerly known as the David A. DeBolt Teacher Shortage Scholarship Program.

3558 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Illinois who are interested in training or retraining for a career in special education.
Title of Award: Illinois Special Education Teacher Tuition Waiver Program Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate, Professional Number Awarded: 250 each year. Funds Available: This program waives tuition and fees at 12 participating Illinois public 4-year universities. Recipients must agree to teach full time in a special education discipline at an Illinois public, private, or parochial school for 2 of the 5 years immediately following graduation or termination of enrollment. That teaching requirement may be postponed if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate or postgraduate program, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher, or withdraws from a course of study leading to a teacher certification in special education but remains enrolled full time in another academic discipline. Participants who fail to fulfill that teaching requirement must repay the entire amount of the tuition waiver prorated to the fraction of the teaching requirement not completed, plus interest at a rate of 5% per year. Duration: Up to 4 continuous calendar years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible for support under this program are Illinois residents who are enrolled or planning to enroll in an Illinois public institution of higher education to prepare for a career as a public, private, or parochial elementary or secondary school teacher in the state. Applicants must be undergraduate or graduate students seeking certification in an area of special education. They must rank in the upper half of their Illinois high school graduating class. Current teachers who have a valid teaching certificate that is not in the discipline of special education are also eligible. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The participating universities are Chicago State University, Eastern Illinois University, Governors State University, Illinois State University, Northeastern Illinois University, Northern Illinois University, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Springfield, University of Illinois at Urbana, and Western Illinois University.

3559 ■ ILLINOIS STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
1755 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, IL 60015-5209
Tel: (847)948-8550
Free: 800-899-ISAC
Fax: (847)831-8549
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.collegezone.com
To provide scholarship/loans to minority students in Illinois who plan to become teachers at the preschool, elementary, or secondary level.
Title of Award: Minority Teachers of Illinois Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Grants up to $5,000 per year are awarded. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach full time 1 year for each year of support received. The teaching agreement may be fulfilled at a public, private, or parochial preschool, elementary school, or secondary school in Illinois; at least 30% of the student body at those schools must be minority. It must be fulfilled within the 5-year period following the completion of the undergraduate program for which the scholarship was awarded. The time period may be extended if the recipient serves in the U.S. armed forces, enrolls full time in a graduate program related to teaching, becomes temporarily disabled, is unable to find employment as a teacher at a qualifying school, or takes additional courses on at least a half-time basis to obtain certification as a teacher in Illinois. Recipients who fail to honor this work obligation must repay the award with 5% interest. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be Illinois residents, U.S. citizens or eligible noncitizens, members of a minority group (African American/Black, Hispanic American, Asian American, or Native American), and high school graduates or holders of a General Educational Development (GED) certificate. They must be enrolled in college full time at the sophomore level or above, have a GPA of 2.5 or higher, not be in default on any student loan, and be enrolled or accepted for enrollment in a teacher education program. Deadline for Receipt: Priority consideration is given to applications received by February of each year.

3560 ■ INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR GENDER EDUCATION

Attn: Transgender Scholarship and Education Legacy Fund
P.O. Box 540229
Waltham, MA 02454-0229
Tel: (781)899-2212
Fax: (781)899-5703
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tself.org
To provide financial assistance to transgender students who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in the caring professions.
Title of Award: Transgender Scholarship and Education Legacy Fund Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Health care services; Law; Religion; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends average $2,000. Funds are paid directly to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students who are living full time in a gender or sex role that differs from that assigned to them at birth and who are "out and proud" about their transgender identity. Applicants must be working on a degree in the helping and caring professions, including, but not limited to, social services, health care, religious instruction, education, and the law. They may be of any age or nationality, but they must be attending or planning to attend a college, university, trade school, or technical college in the United States or Canada. Selection is based on affirmation of transgender identity; demonstration of integrity and honesty; participation and leadership in community activities; service as role model, mentor, colleague, or advisor for the transgender communities; and service as transgender role model, mentor, colleague, or advisor to non-transpeople in the helping and caring professions. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the TSELF Youth Award (for applicants under 22 years of age entering their first or second year of postsecondary education); the TSELF Schools Education Award (for applicants working on a degree in education and teaching); the Lee Frances Heller Memorial Award (for Christian students or applicants who are or will be attending a college, university, or other institution for religious studies); the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Award (for applicants who have been involved in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment activities); and the Chicago Gender Society Leadership Award (for applicants who have been involved in community building activities).

3561 ■ JEWISH FEDERATION OF GREATER HARTFORD, INC.

Attn: Endowment Foundation
333 Bloomfield Avenue
West Hartford, CT 06117
Tel: (860)523-7460
Fax: (860)231-0576
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jcfhartford.org
To provide financial assistance for college to students in Connecticut interested in Jewish education.
Title of Award: Hebrew Ladies Sheltering Home Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Jewish studies; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 to 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Jewish residents of Connecticut who are graduating high school seniors. Applicants must be interested in working on a degree in Jewish education. U.S. citizenship is required. Selection is based on academic record and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3562 ■ KANSAS BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Student Financial Aid
1000 S.W. Jackson Street, Suite 520
Topeka, KS 66612-1368
Tel: (785)296-3518
Fax: (785)296-0983
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.kansasregents.com/financial_aid/teacher.html
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors, high school graduates, and selected undergraduates who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher in Kansas.
Title of Award: Kansas Teacher Service Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 100 each year. Funds Available: Participants receive $5,000 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in Kansas 1 year for every year of funding received, or they must repay the amount received with interest at 5% over the federal PLUS rate. The teaching must be in the specific curriculum area or in an underserved geographic area (recently including Wichita, Leavenworth, Garden City, and Kansas City). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years or up to 4 additional years for designated 5-year courses of study requiring graduate work.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Kansas residents who plan to enter the teaching profession in specific curriculum areas; recently, those included special education, mathematics, and science. Applicants must submit evidence of completion of the Kansas Scholars Curriculum (4 years of English, 4 years of mathematics, 3 years of science, 3 years of social studies, 2 years of foreign language, and 1 year of computer technology), ACT or SAT scores, high school GPA, high school class rank, and (if relevant) college transcripts and letters of recommendation from a college or university official. First priority goes to applicants who are in the final 2 years of study in teacher education and have submitted a college transcript and 1 letter of recommendation from a college official. Special consideration is given to minority applicants (academic performance being similar), because minorities continue to be underrepresented in the teaching profession in Kansas schools. Second priority goes to students who have completed the Kansas Scholars Curriculum and have competitive GPAs, ACT scores, and class rank. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: There is a $10 application fee.

3563 ■ KANSAS FEDERATION OF BUSINESS & PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS, INC.

Attn: Kansas BPW Educational Foundation
c/o Diane Smith, Executive Secretary
10418 Haskins
Lenexa, KS 66215-2162
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bpwkansas.org/bpw_foundation.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of Kansas who are preparing for a career in special education in the state.
Title of Award: Dena Nigus Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for a total of 4 semesters or 2 summers if the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Kansas residents (men and women) who are college juniors, seniors, or graduate students and preparing to teach special education in the state. Applicants must submit a 3-page personal biography in which they express their career goals, the direction they want to take in the future, their proposed field of study, their reason for selecting that field, the institutions they plan to attend and why, their circumstances for reentering school (if a factor), and what makes them uniquely qualified for this scholarship. They must also be able to document financial need. Applications must be submitted through a local organization of the sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year.

3564 ■ MAINE COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Program Director
245 Main Street
Ellsworth, ME 04605
Tel: (207)667-9735; 877-700-6800
Fax: (207)667-0447
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mainecf.org/html/scholarships/index.html
To provide financial assistance to seniors at designated high schools in Maine who are interested in attending college to prepare for a career coaching or teaching sports at the secondary school level.
Title of Award: Billy Brown Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds must be used for tuition, room, board, books, laboratory fees, and equipment. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have attended Portland, Deering, Catherine McAuley, Chevrus, Waynflete, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Scarborough, or Yarmouth high schools in Maine. They are not required to be graduating seniors, but they must be entering the first year of postsecondary education at a 4-year institution. They must be planning to coach or teach sports in secondary education, including baseball, soccer, and softball. Selection is based on financial need, scholastic talent, and demonstrated dedication to coaching or teaching those sports. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 1999.

3565 ■ MAINE ROADS SCHOLARSHIP FUND

c/o University of Southern Maine, Muskie School
400 Congress Street
P.O. Box 15010
Portland, ME 04112
888-900-0055
Fax: (207)780-5817
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/maineroads/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to child care providers in Maine who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree at an institution in the state.
Title of Award: Maine Roads Degree Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education, Early childhood; Parks and recreation; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range up to $1,800 for undergraduate students or up to $2,400 for graduate students. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to child care providers who are residents of Maine working on a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree at an institution of higher education in the state. Applicants must have a family income that does not exceed 300% of the federal poverty level (currently, that means an income of $26,940 for a family of 1, rising to $92,880 for a family of 8). They must have experience within the past 2 years working in the child care and early education field in licensed or certified child care facilities or resource development centers. Courses of study may include early childhood education, child development, recreation and leisure services with a special needs focus, social work with an emphasis on early childhood, or child care administration. Along with their application, they must submit brief statements on their plans to work directly with children after completing their degree and how earning their degree will impact their work in child care. Deadline for Receipt: June or October of each year.

3566 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4563
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_child.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland who wish to prepare for a career as a child care provider.
Title of Award: Maryland Child Care Provider Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Child care; Child development; Education, Early childhood Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends at 4-year institutions are $2,000 per year for full-time study, $1,000 for part-time; at community colleges, annual stipends are $1,000 for full-time study, $500 for part-time. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Within 12 months of graduation, recipients must provide 1 year of child care service in Maryland for each year of financial aid received under this program; failure to comply with that service obligation will require the recipient to repay the scholarship money with interest. Teaching in a public school in Maryland does not fulfill the service requirement. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years of full-time study provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible are residents of Maryland who are enrolled or plan to enroll in a program leading to an associate or bachelor's degree in a Maryland institution of higher education that offers an undergraduate program in early childhood education or child development. Full-time enrollment is required, although part-time study is allowed if the applicant is employed for a minimum of 15 hours per week at a child care or family day care center. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3567 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4594
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_devdis.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland who are interested in working on a degree in a designated human services program.
Title of Award: Maryland Developmental Disabilities, Mental Health, Child Welfare, and Juvenile Justice Workforce Tuition Assistance Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Criminal justice; Criminology; Disabilities; Education, Special; Gerontology; Law enforcement; Mental health; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Physical therapy; Psychology; Rehabilitation, Physical/Psychological; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $2,000 per year for students attending a 2-year institution or $3,000 per year for students at a 4-year institution. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Recipients must agree to work in a Maryland community-based program that is licensed by the Developmental Disabilities Administration or approved by the Mental Hygiene Administration, or in a residential program that is licensed by the Department of Human Resources or the Department of Juvenile Justice. The service obligation must begin within 6 months of graduation. The total service requirement is 2,000 hours if the award amount is $1,999 or less, 3,000 hours if the award amount is $2,000 to $3,999, or 4,000 hours if the award amount is $4,000 or more. If the service requirement is not completed, the award must be repaid with interest. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress and remains enrolled in a human services degree program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. Applicants and their parents must be Maryland residents attending a college or university in the state in 1 of the following human services degree programs: aging services, counseling, disability services, mental health, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, psychology, rehabilitation, social work, special education, supported employment, vocational rehabilitation, or any other concentration in the healing arts or a program providing support services to individuals with special needs including child welfare and juvenile justice. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3568 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4569
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_dste.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Maryland interested in preparing for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Maryland Distinguished Scholar Teacher Education Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The award is $3,000 per year. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must teach in a Maryland public school 1 year for each year the award was received or the award must be repaid with interest. They must begin the service obligation within 9 months of graduation. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years, if the recipient maintains a 3.0 GPA and full-time enrollment.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Maryland residents who have been awarded a Maryland Distinguished Scholar award. Applicants must be enrolled full time in an approved teacher education program at an approved Maryland institution. Financial need is not required. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3569 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4545
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_scm.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Maryland residents who wish to prepare for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Sharon Christa McAuliffe Memorial Teacher Education Award Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Classical studies; Computer and information sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Education, English as a second language; Education, Special; Education, Vocational-technical; Foreign languages; Geosciences; Health care services; Hearing and deafness; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Physics; Space and planetary sciences; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of the award is based on the recipient's enrollment and housing status, to a maximum of $17,000 per year. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Following graduation, recipients must teach at a Maryland public school for 1 year for each year of financial aid received under this program. If they fail to meet that service obligation, they must repay all funds they received with interest. They must begin the service obligation within 12 months of graduation. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for 1 additional year if the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and enrollment at a 2-year or 4-year Maryland college or university in an approved teacher education program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Maryland residents who are college students with at least 60 semester credit hours completed, college graduates, and teachers in a non-critical shortage area. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and plan to teach in a field identified as a critical shortage area. Selection is based on cumulative GPA, applicable work or volunteer experience, quality of academic background in certification field, and a writing sample. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the eligible critical shortage areas were business education, chemistry, computer science, earth and space science, English for speakers of other languages, family and consumer sciences, German, health occupations, Latin, mathematics, physical science, physics, Spanish, special education (generic infant-grade 3, generic grades 1-8, generic grades 6-adult, hearing impaired, severely and profoundly handicapped, visually impaired), and technology education.

3570 ■ MARYLAND STATE GRANGE

Attn: Master
8743 Old Kiln Road
Thurmont, MD 21788-1219
Tel: (301)447-2075
Fax: (301)447-2019
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to Maryland residents who are either deaf or preparing to work with hearing-impaired people.
Title of Award: Maryland State Grange Deaf Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified; Hearing and deafness Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maryland who graduated from a high school in the state and are attending college or graduate school in the state. Applicants must be 1) deaf or hearing impaired, or 2) preparing for a career working with deaf or hearing-impaired people. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Donna D. Wiles, Deaf Activities Director, 5543 Buffalo Road, Mount Airy, MD 21771, (301) 829-0545.

3571 ■ MASSACHUSETTS OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

454 Broadway, Suite 200
Revere, MA 02151
Tel: (617)727-9420
Fax: (617)727-0667
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osfa.mass.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to students at colleges and universities in Massachusetts who are interested in becoming teachers in the state following graduation.
Title of Award: Massachusetts Incentive Program for Aspiring Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Eligible students are entitled to a tuition waiver equal to the resident tuition rate at the state college or university campus where they are enrolled. If they do not complete their college education within 4 years of entering the program, or if they fail to complete their 2-year teaching commitment within 4 years following graduation from college, they must pay the state the full amount of the tuition waivers granted, with interest. Duration: 2 years, provided the recipient maintains a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in their third or fourth year of a Massachusetts state-approved teacher certification program field with teacher shortages. Applicants must 1) have been residents of Massachusetts for at least 1 year and 2) be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. They must be attending 1 of the 9 Massachusetts state colleges or the 4 campuses of the University of Massachusetts and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher. A condition of the program is that they must commit to teaching for 2 years in a public school in Massachusetts upon successful completion of a bachelor's degree.

3572 ■ MASSACHUSETTS OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

454 Broadway, Suite 200
Revere, MA 02151
Tel: (617)727-9420
Fax: (617)727-0667
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osfa.mass.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to educational paraprofessionals in Massachusetts who are interested in completing a college degree and becoming certified as teachers.
Title of Award: Massachusetts Paraprofessional Teacher Preparation Grant Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Grants depend on the type of institution attended. At public universities, the maximum award is $625 per credit, to a total of $7,500 per academic year. At state colleges, the maximum award is $450 per credit, to a total of $6,000 per academic year. At community colleges, the maximum award is $250 per credit, to a total of $4,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must agree to teach in a Massachusetts public school 1 year for each year of full or partial grant received. If they fail to complete that teaching obligation, they must repay the amount of the grant received. Duration: Until completion of an undergraduate degree, provided the recipient maintains satisfactory academic progress.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Massachusetts residents who 1) have been employed as paraprofessionals in public schools in the state for at least 2 years, or 2) are working on a degree in an area of high need (recently defined as bilingual education, foreign languages, mathematics, science, and special education). Applicants must be enrolled full time in an undergraduate degree program leading to teacher certification at a Massachusetts public institution. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required Applicants must submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), but financial need is not required.

3573 ■ MAUI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Attn: Liko A'e Native Hawaiian Scholarship Program
310 West Ka'ahumanu Avenue
Kahului, HI 96732-1617
Tel: (808)984-3553
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.likoae.org/scholarship_info.asp
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to Native Hawaiian students.
Title of Award: Liko A'e Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Child care assistance is also provided. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778. Applicants must be enrolled or accepted as full- or part-time students in an accredited 2- or 4-year degree-granting institution of higher education. Undergraduates must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher and graduate students must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on merit (as judged by GPA and responses to essay questions) and financial need. Preference is given to students working on degrees in professions in which Native Hawaiians are underrepresented. Some of the scholarships are designated for students from smaller rural communities who are working on a degree in education. Deadline for Receipt: Deadlines are in May, August, November, and February. Additional Information: This program was established in 2003 by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education and is administered by Maui Community College.

3574 ■ MEMORIAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE

50 Broadway, 34th Floor
New York, NY 10004
Tel: (212)425-6606
Fax: (212)425-6602
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mfjc.org
To assist well-qualified individuals to train for careers in a field related to Jewish community service.
Title of Award: International Scholarship Program for Community Service Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Jewish studies; Religion; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Funds Available: The amount of the grant varies, depending on the country in which the student will be trained and other considerations. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: The scholarship is open to any individual, regardless of country of origin, who is presently receiving or plans to undertake training in his/her chosen field at a recognized yeshiva, teacher training seminary, school of social work, university, or other educational institution. Applicants must be interested in pursuing professional training for careers in Jewish education, Jewish social service, the rabbinate, or as religious functionaries (e.g., shohatim, mohalim) in Diaspora Jewish communities in need of such personnel. Students planning to serve in the United States, Canada, or Israel are not eligible. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must agree to serve for at least 2 to 3 years in a Jewish-deprived Diaspora community where their skills are needed after completing their training.

3575 ■ MINNESOTA BUSINESS EDUCATORS, INC.

c/o Kathryn Larson, MBEI Awards Chair
Owatonna High School
333 East School Street
Owatonna, MN 55060
Tel: (507)444-8800
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mbei-online.org
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Minnesota Business Educators, Inc. (MBEI) who are enrolled in a business teaching licensure program at a Minnesota college or university.
Title of Award: Minnesota Business Educators Award for Business Education Teaching Majors Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student members of MBEI enrolled as a major in a business teacher licensure program at a Minnesota college or university. Applicants must submit a letter indicating why they merit this award, a 2-page resume, 2 letters of recommendation, and a transcript. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This award was first presented in 1989.

3576 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/cnar.html
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Mississippi interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and willing to work in selected areas of the state or teach in specified subject areas.
Title of Award: Mississippi Critical Needs Alternate Route Teacher Loan/Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: The program provides payment of tuition and required fees (at the in-state rate only), an allowance for room and board equal to the state average for a Mississippi resident, and an allowance for books. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must sign a contract agreeing to teach 1 year for each year the award is received in an accredited public school or public school district in a critical teacher geographic shortage area of Mississippi as defined at the time of graduation. If the recipient fails to remain enrolled in a teacher education program or fails to fulfill the service obligation, repayment of principal and interest is required. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, meets the satisfactory academic progress standards of their institution, and remains enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternate Route teacher license.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is normally open to juniors and seniors at Mississippi 4-year colleges and universities. Mississippi residency is not required. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternate Route teacher license and be working on their first bachelor's degree. They must have passed Praxis I; agree to employment immediately after completing their degree as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school located in a critical teacher shortage area of the state or in a subject shortage area; participate in entrance counseling; and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: A list of the current critical teacher shortage areas is available from the Mississippi Department of Education. Current subject shortage areas are mathematics, science (chemistry, physics, and biology only), foreign language (French, German, and Spanish only), and special education. Recipients are not eligible for funds from other state aid programs.

3577 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/cntp.html
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Mississippi interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and willing to work in selected areas of the state or teach in specified subject areas.
Title of Award: Mississippi Critical Needs Teacher Loan/Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: The program provides payment of tuition and required fees (at the in-state rate only), an allowance for room and board equal to the state average for a Mississippi resident, and an allowance for books. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must sign a contract agreeing to teach 1 year for each year the award is received in an accredited public school or public school district in a critical teacher geographic shortage area of Mississippi as defined at the time of graduation. If the recipient fails to remain enrolled in a teacher education program or fails to fulfill the service obligation, repayment of principal and interest is required. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, meets the satisfactory academic progress standards of their institution, and remains enrolled in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is normally open to juniors and seniors at Mississippi 4-year colleges and universities. Mississippi residency is not required. While in high school applicants must have passed Praxis I, had an ACT score of 21 or higher, or had an SAT score of 860 or higher. While in college, they must enroll in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license; agree to employment immediately after completing their degree as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school located in a critical teacher shortage area of the state or in a subject shortage area; participate in entrance counseling; and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1998. A list of the current critical teacher shortage areas is available from the Mississippi Department of Education. Current subject shortage areas are mathematics, science (chemistry, physics, and biology only), foreign language (French, German, and Spanish only), and special education. Recipients are not eligible for funds from other state aid programs.

3578 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/wwar.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Mississippi residents working on an Alternative Route teacher educator license.
Title of Award: William Winter Alternative Route Teacher Scholar Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: Loans are provided up to $4,000 per academic year. For each year of service as a full-time classroom teacher in an accredited public school or public school district in Mississippi, 1 year's loan will be forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, remains enrolled full time in a program of study leading to an Alternative Route teacher educator license, exhibits satisfactory academic progress, and documents that Praxis II has been passed after no more than 3 semesters of participation in this program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Mississippi residents who are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors at an accredited Mississippi 4-year public or private college or university. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to an Alternative Route teacher educator license with a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. They must have passed Praxis I and agree to employment immediately upon degree completion as a full-time classroom teacher in a Mississippi public school. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may not defer the service obligation to work on an advanced degree.

3579 ■ MISSISSIPPI OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID

3825 Ridgewood Road
Jackson, MS 39211-6453
Tel: (601)432-6997
Free: 800-327-2980
Fax: (601)432-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihl.state.ms.us/financialaid/wwts.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Mississippi residents working on a Class "A" teacher educator license.
Title of Award: William Winter Teacher Scholar Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending on the availability of funds; awards are granted on a first-come, first-served basis. Funds Available: Loans are provided up to $4,000 per academic year. For each year of service as a full-time classroom teacher in an accredited public school or public school district in Mississippi, 1 year's loan will be forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher, remains enrolled full time in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license, exhibits satisfactory academic progress, and documents that Praxis II has been passed after no more than 3 semesters of participation in this program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Mississippi residents who are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors at an accredited Mississippi 4-year public or private college or university. Applicants must be enrolled in a program of study leading to a Class "A" teacher educator license with a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. They must be able to document that they have passed Praxis I or have an ACT score of 21 or higher with a minimum of 18 on all sub-scores. Programs of study that do not qualify include, but are not limited to, speech and language pathology, psychological and counseling services, and recreational therapy. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The Mississippi legislature established this program in 1987. Recipients may not defer the service obligation to work on an advanced degree.

3580 ■ MORRIS SCHOLARSHIP FUND

Attn: Scholarship Selection Committee
525 S.W. Fifth Street, Suite A
Des Moines, IA 50309-4501
Tel: (515)282-8192
Fax: (515)282-9117
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.morrisscholarship.org
To provide financial assistance to African Americans in Iowa interested in preparing to work with "at risk" students.
Title of Award: Nelson Urban Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The awards generally range from $2,500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African Americans who are Iowa residents, enrolled full or part time at the undergraduate or graduate school level, and interested in working with "at risk" minority students in the elementary or secondary schools. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3581 ■ P. BUCKLEY MOSS SOCIETY

20 Stoneridge Drive, Suite 102
Waynesboro, VA 22980
Tel: (540)943-5678
Fax: (540)949-8408
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mosssociety.org
To provide financial assistance to students working on a bachelor's or master's degree in special education.
Title of Award: Judith Cary Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to be nominated for this scholarship are students who have completed at least 2 years of undergraduate study and are working on a bachelor's or master's degree in special education. Nominations may be submitted by society members only. The nomination packet must include proof of acceptance into a specific program to teach special needs students, 2 letters of recommendation, a short essay on school and community work activities and achievements, and an essay of 250 to 500 words on their career goals, teaching philosophies, reasons for choosing this career, and ways in which they plan to make a difference in the lives of special needs students. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999.

3582 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL OFFICE PROFESSIONALS

Attn: NAEOP Foundation
P.O. Box 12619
Wichita, KS 67277-2619
Tel: (316)942-4822
Fax: (316)942-7100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.naeop.org/foundation.htm
To provide financial assistance to students interested in preparing for an office-related career.
Title of Award: Marion T. Wood National Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Secretarial sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to business education students preparing for an office-related career, preferably in the field of education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3583 ■ NATIONAL DAIRY PROMOTION AND RESEARCH BOARD

c/o Dairy Management Inc.
10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900
Rosemont, IL 60018-5616
Tel: (847)803-2000
Fax: (847)803-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dairycheckoff.com/DairyCheckoff/about/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in fields related to the dairy industry.
Title of Award: NDPRB Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Dairy science; Economics; Education; Food science and technology; Journalism; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship at $2,500 and 19 other scholarships at $1,500. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500 or $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors enrolled in college and university programs that emphasize dairy. Eligible majors include agricultural education, business, communications and/or public relations, economics, food science, journalism, marketing, and nutrition. Fields related to production (e.g., animal science) are not eligible. Selection is based on academic performance; interest in a career in dairy; involvement in extracurricular activities, especially those relating to dairy; and evidence of leadership ability, initiative, character, and integrity. The applicant who is judged most outstanding is awarded the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Dairy Management Inc. manages this program on behalf of the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDPRB).

3584 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: (641)236-3366
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate or graduate students who wish to prepare for a career as a teacher.
Title of Award: Educator of Tomorrow Award Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are working on or planning to work full time on an undergraduate or graduate degree. Applicants must be preparing for a career in elementary, secondary, or postsecondary teaching. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.

3585 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: (641)236-3366
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance to blind undergraduate and graduate students working on a degree in the field of education, especially those planning to major in education of disabled youth.
Title of Award: Sally S. Jacobsen Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are working on or planning to work full time on an undergraduate or graduate degree in education. Preference is given to applicants planning to specialize in education of disabled youth. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.

3586 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND OF CONNECTICUT

580 Burnside Avenue, Suite 1
East Hartford, CT 06108
Tel: (860)289-1971
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nfbct.org/html/bcmsch.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to students in Connecticut who plan to become a teacher of the blind and visually impaired.
Title of Award: Brian Cummins Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; Visual impairment Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduate and undergraduate students enrolled full time at colleges and universities in Connecticut who are preparing for a career as a certified teacher of the blind and visually impaired. Applicants must be planning to reside in Connecticut and work as a teacher of the blind and visually impaired. Along with their application, they must submit a letter on their career goals and how the scholarship might help them achieve those. Applicants do not need to be blind or members of the National Federation of the Blind of Connecticut. Selection is based on academic quality, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year. Additional Information: This program was established to honor Brian Cummins, who lost his life in the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

3587 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from Florida and Georgia who are interested in studying fields related to agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Chevron Corporation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Natural resources; Wildlife conservation, management, and science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be residents of Florida or Georgia planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in agricultural communications and education, environmental engineering, environmental science, natural resource management, wildlife management, or public service and administration in agriculture. Preference is given to those who have shown outstanding leadership. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by ChevronTexaco Corporation.

3588 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are interested in studying agriculture in college.
Title of Award: Garst Seed Company Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 25 each year: 10 to students with any agricultural major, 5 to students majoring in agricultural communications or education, and 10 to students in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll or students currently enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture; in agricultural communications or education; or in agricultural marketing, merchandising, or sales. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Garst Seed Company.

3589 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Elmer J. and Hester Jane Johnson Honorary Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be planning to work on a 4-year college degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on financial need, leadership ability, and academic standing. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3590 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in working on a degree in agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Monsanto Roadrunners Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to FFA members who are high school seniors and whose families are actively engaged in production agriculture. Applicants must be planning to work full time on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. They must have an ACT composite score of 18 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and math score of 850 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is funded by employees of Monsanto Company who combine their passion for running and commitment to agricultural education by running in marathons to raise funds for scholarships.

3591 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Alumni Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college or students already enrolled in college on a full-time basis. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a 4-year degree in agricultural education to prepare for a career as an agriculture teacher. They must be an alumni member or from an FFA chapter with an active alumni affiliate. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by the National FFA Alumni Association.

3592 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Foundation/AERO Staff Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by staff and board members of the National FFA Organization, National FFA Foundation, and the Agricultural Education Related Organizations (AERO).

3593 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agribusiness and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Social Sciences Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agriculture, Economic aspects; Education; Finance; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to business and the social sciences; this includes: agribusiness, agricultural economics, agricultural education, agricultural finance, and agricultural marketing. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

3594 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to current or former FFA members who are interested in studying a field related to agriculture at a college or university in designated states.
Title of Award: Norfolk Southern Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Engineering, Agricultural; Finance; Forestry; Management; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either graduating high school seniors planning to enroll in college or students already enrolled in college. Applicants must be interested in working full time on a 4-year degree in agricultural and forestry production, communication, education, engineering, finance, management, marketing, merchandising, sales, or agricultural science. They must be planning to attend a college or university in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, or Virginia. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by the Norfolk Southern Foundation.

3595 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members from designated states who are interested in studying agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Pioneer Hi-Bred International Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 12 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be residents of Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, or Nebraska and interested in working on a 4-year degree in agricultural education. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. of Des Moines, Iowa.

3596 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who are studying a field related to communications, business, or education in college.
Title of Award: Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agribusiness; Agricultural sciences; Communications; Education; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members currently enrolled full time in college and working on a 4-year degree in agricultural communications, marketing, merchandising, sales, or as an education specialist. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the creative marketing firm Solutions Inc. Results Through Creative Marketing.

3597 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in working on a degree in agricultural education in college.
Title of Award: Bernie Staller Endowment Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to FFA members who are high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be planning to work on a 4-year degree in agricultural education and have career plans to teach at the secondary level. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3598 ■ NATIONAL SORORITY OF PHI DELTA KAPPA, INC.-DELTA BETA CHAPTER

c/o Nancy Thompson, Chapter Scholarship Chair
4703 Broadhill Drive
Austin, TX 78723
Tel: (512)926-6309
To provide financial assistance to African American high school seniors who plan to study education in college.
Title of Award: Carmer Mercer Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African American graduating high school seniors who are planning a 4-year college and major in the field of education. Along with their application, they must submit documentation of financial need, high school transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, SAT and/or ACT scores, a list of honors and awards received in high school, and a list of extracurricular, community, and volunteer activities. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3599 ■ NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
120 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005
Tel: (212)558-5300; 888-839-0467
Fax: (212)344-5332
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nul.org/jerrybartowscholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) that are participating in the Black Executive Exchange Program (BEEP).
Title of Award: Jerry Bartow Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education; Management; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African American sophomores, juniors, and seniors at HBCUs that are participating in the BEEP. Applicants must be majoring in business, management, technology, and/or education. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997 by ITT Hartford Insurance Company. Recipients are required to attend the annual BEEP conference to accept the award. Travel and hotel arrangements are provided by BEEP.

3600 ■ NAVY WIVES CLUB OF AMERICA

P.O. Box 54022
Millington, TN 38053-6022
(866)511-NWCA
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.navywivesclubsofamerica.org/nwc/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or medical school to the children of naval personnel.
Title of Award: Navy Wives Club of America National Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified; Medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Doctorate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 41 each year: 6 to freshmen, 18 for renewals, 4 to current undergraduates applying for the first time, 2 to medical students, 2 to students majoring in special education, and 9 to children of NWCA members. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants for these scholarships must be the children (natural born, legally adopted, or stepchildren) of enlisted members of the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard on active duty, retired with pay, or deceased. Applicants must be attending or planning to attend an accredited college or university. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their career objectives and the reasons they chose those objectives. Selection is based on academic standing, moral character, and financial need. Some scholarships are reserved for students majoring in special education, medical students, and children of members of Navy Wives Club of American (NWCA). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from the NWCA Scholarship Foundation Director, Susan Quinn, 1644A Jana Court, Norfolk, VA 23503. Membership in the NWCA is open to spouses of enlisted personnel serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and the active Reserve units of those services; spouses of enlisted personnel who have been honorable discharged, retired, or transferred to the Fleet Reserve on completion of duty; and widows of enlisted personnel in those services.

3601 ■ NEW HAMPSHIRE POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION

3 Barrell Court, Suite 300
Concord, NH 03301-8543
Tel: (603)271-2555
Fax: (603)271-2696
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.state.nh.us/postsecondary/finwork.html
To provide scholarship/loans to New Hampshire residents who are interested in attending college to prepare for careers in designated professions.
Title of Award: New Hampshire Workforce Incentive Program Forgivable Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Special; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Nursing; Physical sciences; Physics; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $500 per semester ($1,000 per year). This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must agree to pursue, within New Hampshire, the professional career for which they receive training. Recipients of loans for 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 1 year of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 3 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. Recipients of loans for more than 1 year have their notes cancelled upon completion of 2 years of full-time service; repayment by service must be completed within 5 years from the date of licensure, certification, or completion of the program. If the note is not cancelled because of service, the recipient must repay the loan within 2 years. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New Hampshire who wish to prepare for careers in fields designated by the commission as shortage areas. Currently, the career shortage areas are chemistry, general science, mathematics, physical sciences, physics, special education, world languages, and nursing (L.P.N. through graduate). Applicants must be enrolled as a junior, senior, or graduate student at a college in New Hampshire and must be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year for fall semester; December of each year for spring semester. Additional Information: The time for repayment of the loan, either in cash or through professional service, is extended while the recipient is 1) engaged in a course of study, at least on a half-time basis, at an institution of higher education; 2) serving on active duty as a member of the armed forces of the United States, or as a member of VISTA, the Peace Corps, or AmeriCorps, for a period up to 3 years; 3) temporarily totally disabled for a period up to 3 years; or 4) unable to secure employment because of the need to care for a disabled spouse, child, or parent for a period up to 12 months. The repayment obligation is cancelled if the recipient is unable to work because of a permanent total disability, receives relief under federal bankruptcy laws, or dies. This program went into effect in 1999.

3602 ■ NEW JERSEY SCHOOLWOMEN'S CLUB

c/o Judy Jordan
67 Spray Way
Lavallette, NJ 08735
To provide financial assistance for college to female high school seniors in New Jersey who intend to prepare for a career in education.
Title of Award: New Jersey Schoolwomen's Club Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women graduating from high schools in New Jersey. Applicants must be planning to attend a 4-year college or university to prepare for a career in the field of education. They must have an academic average of "C+" or higher and a combined SAT mathematics and critical reading score of at least 950. Selection is based on academic achievement, community involvement, and extracurricular activities. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the Patricia Barber Scholarship and the Jeanette Hodge Scholarship.

3603 ■ NEW MEXICO ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BUSINESS OFFICIALS

Attn: Executive Director
P.O. Box 7535
Albuquerque, NM 87194-7535
Tel: (505)821-1887
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nmasbo.org
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in New Mexico who plan to study education in college.
Title of Award: NMASBO Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 6 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in New Mexico with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Applicants must be planning to attend a college or university in the state to work full time on a degree related to education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3604 ■ NORTH CAROLINA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Betsy Tobin, Past President
700 East Stonewall Street, Suite 400
Charlotte, NC 28202
Tel: (980)343-2384
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ncbea.org/bunch.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in North Carolina who plan to study business or business education in college.
Title of Award: John M. Bunch Student Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Funds are disbursed through the financial aid office at the recipient's college. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in North Carolina who have taken 1 or more business education subjects. Applicants must be planning to attend a technical school, community college, college, or university in North Carolina to prepare for a career in business and/or business education. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on their future goals or aspirations and how college can help them achieve those goals. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1993.

3605 ■ NORTH CAROLINA STATE EDUCATION ASSISTANCE AUTHORITY

Attn: Teacher Assistant Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 13663
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3663
Tel: (919)248-8614
Free: 800-700-1775
Fax: (919)248-6632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ncseaa.edu/TAS.htm
To provide financial assistance to public school teacher assistants in North Carolina who are interested in working on a college degree to become a teacher.
Title of Award: North Carolina Teacher Assistant Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Professional Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, a total of 239 students were receiving $957,100 in support through this program. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,600 per semester (including summer sessions). A student can receive up to $4,800 per year or $28,000 per lifetime. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient completes at least 12 semester hours with a GPA of 2.8 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to teacher assistants employed full time in North Carolina public schools. Applicants must be enrolled in at least 6 semester hours pursuing teacher licensure at an accredited 4-year college in North Carolina with a teacher education program. They must have a GPA of 2.8 or higher and remain employed as a teacher assistant while attending college part time. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3606 ■ NORTH CAROLINA TEACHING FELLOWS COMMISSION

Koger Center, Cumberland Building
3739 National Drive, Suite 210
Raleigh, NC 27612
Tel: (919)781-6833
Fax: (919)781-6527
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.teachingfellows.org
To provide scholarship/loans to high school seniors in North Carolina who wish to prepare for a career in teaching.
Title of Award: North Carolina Teaching Fellows Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 400 each year. Approximately 20% of the program's recipients are minority and 30% are male. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $6,500 per year. This is a scholarship/loan program; recipients must teach in a North Carolina public school 1 year for each year of support received. If they cannot fulfill the service requirement, they must repay the loan with 10% interest. Duration: 1 year; renewable for up to 3 additional years if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 2.25 or higher for the freshman year and 2.50 or higher in the sophomore year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors at high schools in North Carolina who are interested in preparing for a career as a teacher and have been accepted for enrollment at a participating school in the state. Applicants must demonstrate superior achievement on the basis of high school grades, class standing, SAT scores, a writing sample, community service, extracurricular activities, and references from teachers and members of the community. U.S. citizenship is required. A particular goal of the program is to recruit and retain greater numbers of male and minority teacher education candidates in North Carolina. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: The participating schools are Appalachian State University, East Carolina University, Elon College, Meredith College, North Carolina A&T State University, University of North Carolina at Asheville, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and Western Carolina University. This program was established in 1986 and the first fellows were named in 1987.

3607 ■ OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Attn: Science and Engineering Education
P.O. Box 117
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
Tel: (865)241-8240
Fax: (865)241-5219
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm
To provide financial assistance and summer research experience to upper-division students who are working on a degree in a field of interest to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Title of Award: Ernest F. Hollings Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Computer and information sciences; Education; Engineering; Information science and technology; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Approximately 100 each year. Funds Available: This program provides a stipend of $8,000 per academic year and $650 per week during the internship, a housing subsidy and limited travel reimbursement for round-trip transportation to the internship site, and travel expenses to the scholarship program conference at the completion of the internship. Duration: 2 academic years plus 10 weeks during the intervening summer.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior year at an accredited college or university in the United States or its territories. Applicants must be majoring in a discipline related to oceanic and atmospheric science, research, technology, and education, and supportive of the purposes of NOAA's programs and mission (e.g., biological, life, and agricultural sciences; computer and information sciences; engineering; mathematics; physical sciences; social and behavioral sciences; or teacher education). They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. As part of their program, they must be interested in participating in summer research and development activities at NOAA headquarters (Silver Spring, Maryland) or field centers. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2005, is funded by NOAA and administered by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

3608 ■ OHIO BUSINESS TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

c/o Victoria Hammer, President
University of Cincinnati
Raymond Walters College
9555 Plainfield Road
Cincinnati, OH 45236
Tel: (513)745-5791
Fax: (513)745-5771
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rwc.uc.edu/obta
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students and professionals in Ohio who are interested in business education.
Title of Award: Ohio Business Teachers Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) undergraduate students enrolled full time in a 4-year bachelor's degree program in the field of business education at an accredited Ohio institution; 2) graduate students at Ohio institutions who are members of the Ohio Business Teachers Association (OBTA) and/or the business education division of the Ohio Vocational Association (OVA) and are enrolled in course work for regular academic credit in business, business education, or a directly-related field; and 3) professional educators who are currently employed as a teacher and/or administrator in business education in Ohio, are current members of OBTA and/or the business education division of OVA, and have the equivalent of 3 academic years of teaching in business education. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Deadline for Receipt: August of each year.

3609 ■ OHIO CLASSICAL CONFERENCE

c/o Amy J. Sawan, Scholarship Committee
Medina Senior High School
777 East Union Street
Medina, OH 44256
Tel: (330)636-3200
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://dept.kent.edu/mcls/classics/occ
To provide financial assistance to Ohio residents preparing for a career as a Latin teacher.
Title of Award: Ohio Classical Conference Scholarship for Prospective Latin Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Classical studies; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Foreign languages Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Ohio enrolled at least at the sophomore level at a college or university in the United States. Applicants must be taking courses leading to a career in the teaching of Latin at the K-12 level in a public, private, or parochial school. They must submit college transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation (including 1 from a member of their classics department), a prospectus of courses completed and to be taken as part of the program, and a 1-page statement of their academic goals and reasons for applying for the scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3610 ■ OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Scholarship and Grant Programs
655 Research Parkway, Suite 200
P.O. Box 108850
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-8850
Tel: (405)225-9239
Free: 800-858-1840
Fax: (405)225-9230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.okhighered.org/student-center/financial-aid/futureteach.shtml
To provide forgivable loans to Oklahoma residents who are interested in teaching (particularly in teacher shortage fields) in Oklahoma.
Title of Award: Oklahoma Future Teachers Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Special; English language and literature; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 136 students received support through this program. Funds Available: Full-time students receive up to $1,500 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $1,000 if they have completed fewer than 60 hours; part-time students receive up to $750 per year if they have completed 60 hours or more or up to $500 per year if they have completed fewer than 60 hours. Funds are paid directly to the institution on the student's behalf. This is a forgivable loan program; recipients must agree to teach in Oklahoma public schools for 3 years following graduation and licensure. Duration: 1 year; may be renewable for up to 3 additional years as long as the recipient maintains a GPA of 2.5 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: Candidates for this program must be nominated by institutions of higher education in Oklahoma. Nominees may be high school seniors, high school graduates, or currently-enrolled undergraduate or graduate students. They must 1) rank in the top 15% of their high school graduating class; 2) have an ACT or SAT score ranking in the top 15% for high school graduates of the same year; 3) have been admitted into a professional education program at an accredited Oklahoma institution of higher education; or 4) have achieved an undergraduate record of outstanding success as defined by the institution. Both part-time and full-time students are eligible, but preference is given to full-time students. Applicants must be interested in teaching in critical shortage areas in the state upon graduation. These areas change periodically but recently have included special education, mathematics, science, English, and foreign languages. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year.

3611 ■ OMAHA VOLUNTEERS FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

c/o Lois Carlson
2010 Country Club Avenue
Omaha, NE 68104
Tel: (402)553-0378
To provide financial assistance for college to Nebraska residents who have a physical disability or are preparing for a career related to people with orthopedic impairments or physical disabilities.
Title of Award: Omaha Volunteers for Handicapped Children Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Disabilities; Education, Special; General studies/Field of study not specified Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 to 10 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Nebraska who are U.S. citizens. First priority applicants must have an orthopedic impairment or physical disability and be 1) high school seniors with a GPA of 2.25 or higher and accepted into the school of their choice or 2) college students making satisfactory progress toward graduation. Second priority applicants must be enrolled in the college of their choice and preparing for a teaching or health-related career of service to people with orthopedic impairments or physical disabilities. All applicants must submit a 250-word essay on their future goals and need for the scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year.

3612 ■ OREGON NASA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o Oregon State University
92 Kerr Administration Building
Corvallis, OR 97331-2103
Tel: (541)737-2414
Fax: (541)737-9946
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.oregonspacegrant.orst.edu/programs/education/undergraduate.html
To provide financial assistance for study in space-related fields to undergraduate students at colleges and universities that are members of the Oregon Space Grant Consortium (OSGC).
Title of Award: Oregon Space Grant Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Space and planetary sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens enrolled full time at OSGC member institutions. Applicants must be working on 1) a baccalaureate degree in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) field (including mathematics or science education) related to the mission of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); or 2) an associate degree in applied science and planning to transfer to a 4-year institution to complete a baccalaureate in the same fields. Along with their application, they must submit a letter of intent of 250 to 300 words on their career goals as they relate to NASA and how this scholarship will contribute to those goals. Selection is based on scholastic achievement, aerospace-related career goals, and 2 letters of recommendation. Applications are especially encouraged from members of underrepresented groups (women, minorities, and people with disabilities). Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Institutions that are members of OSG include Oregon State University, Portland State University, the University of Oregon, Southern Oregon University, Eastern Oregon University, Western Oregon University, George Fox University, Lane Community College, Linfield College, Portland Community College, and Oregon Institute of Technology. This program is funded by NASA.

3613 ■ OREGON STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Grants and Scholarships Division
1500 Valley River Drive, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401-2146
Tel: (541)687-7395
Free: 800-452-8807
Fax: (541)687-7419
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osac.state.or.us
To provide financial assistance to Oregon residents majoring in education on the undergraduate or graduate school level.
Title of Award: James Carlson Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 3 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipend amounts vary; recently, they were at least $1,300. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Oregon who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Applicants must be either 1) college seniors or fifth-year students majoring in elementary or secondary education or 2) graduate students working on an elementary or secondary certificate. Full-time enrollment and financial need are required. Priority is given to 1) members of African American, Asian American, Hispanic, or Native American ethnic groups; 2) dependents of members of the Oregon Education Association; and 3) applicants committed to teaching autistic children. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is administered by the Oregon Student Assistance Commission (OSAC) with funds provided by the Oregon Community Foundation, 1221 S.W. Yamhill, Suite 100, Portland, OR 97205, (503) 227-6846, Fax: (503) 274-7771.

3614 ■ OREGON STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Grants and Scholarships Division
1500 Valley River Drive, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401-2146
Tel: (541)687-7395
Free: 800-452-8807
Fax: (541)687-7419
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osac.state.or.us
To provide financial assistance to students in Oregon who are employed while working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in teaching or nursing.
Title of Award: Friends of Oregon Students Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Nursing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 28 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $3,000 to $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Oregon who are working and will continue to work at least 20 hours per week while attending college or graduate school at least three-quarter time. Applicants must be interested in preparing for a career in teaching or nursing. They must be able to demonstrate a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and volunteer or work experience relevant to their chosen profession. Preference is given to applicants who 1) are nontraditional students (e.g., older, returning, single parents), 2) have overcome significant personal obstacles, or 3) graduated from an alternative high school, obtained a GED, or are transferring from an Oregon community college to a 4-year college. Along with their application, they must submit essays and letters of reference on how they balance school, work, and personal life as well as their experiences in overcoming obstacles. Selection is based on work experience, community service and volunteer activities, responses to essay questions, letters of reference, and financial need; academic promise (as indicated by GPA and SAT/ACT scores) is also considered. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program, established in 1996, is provided by the HF Fund, P.O. Box 55187, Portland, OR 97238, (503) 234-0259, E-mail: [email protected]

3615 ■ POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC UNION OF AMERICA

Attn: Education Fund Scholarship Program
984 North Milwaukee Avenue
Chicago, IL 60622-4101
Tel: (773)782-2600 Free: 800-772-8632
Fax: (773)278-4595
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prcua.org/benefits/educationfundscholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate education students of Polish heritage.
Title of Award: Jean C. Osajda Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds are paid directly to the institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time as sophomores, juniors, and seniors in an undergraduate program or full or part time as a graduate or professional school student. Applicants must be majoring in education. Selection is based on academic achievement, Polonia involvement, and community service. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3616 ■ SCHOLARSHIP ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES, INC.

Attn: ABE Program
2000 Rock Street, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94043
To provide financial assistance to students working on a bachelor's or master's degree in business education.
Title of Award: American Business Educators Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 20 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students working on or planning to work on a bachelor's or master's degree in business education. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to demonstrate a record of involvement in extracurricular and work activities related to business. Along with their application, they must submit a 1,000-word essay on their educational and career goals, why they believe business is essential to America, and how they plan to make an impact as a business teacher at the secondary level. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by American Business Educators (ABE) and administered by Scholarship Administrative Services, Inc. ABE was established in 2004 to encourage more American students to consider a career as a business teacher at the secondary level. Requests for applications should be accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope, the student's e-mail address, and the source where they found the scholarship information.

3617 ■ SEATTLE MARINERS WOMEN'S CLUB

P.O. Box 4100
Seattle, WA 98104
Tel: (206)628-3555
To provide financial assistance to high school athletes in Washington state who are interested in preparing for an athletic-related career.
Title of Award: Bev and Wes Stock Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Athletics; Education, Physical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to athletes who display good character both on and off the playing field. They must be graduating high school seniors in Washington state who are planning to prepare for an athletic-related career and will be attending a college or university in the coming academic year. There is no application form. Applicants must submit a typewritten essay outlining why they are applying for the scholarship, their extracurricular activities, their goals, and how receiving the scholarship will be an advantage to them. Also required are a transcript and 3 letters of recommendation. Selection is based on merit. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: No telephone inquiries are permitted.

3618 ■ SOCIETY OF PHYSICS STUDENTS

c/o American Institute of Physics
One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740-3843
Tel: (301)209-3007
Fax: (301)209-0839
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.spsnational.org/programs/future_teacher.htm
To provide financial assistance to members of the Society of Physics Students (SPS) interested in preparing for a career as a physics teacher.
Title of Award: SPS Future Teacher Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time college juniors who are active members of the society. Applicants must be enrolled in a teacher education program with plans to prepare for a career in physics education. Selection is based on 1) high scholarship performance both in physics and overall studies, 2) potential for continued scholastic development in physics, 3) active participation in society programs, and 4) a statement of experiences and ambitions with regard to teaching physics. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the Sigma Pi Sigma Trust Fund and the American Institute of Physics.

3619 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA ALLIANCE OF BLACK SCHOOL EDUCATORS

Attn: Executive Director
P.O. Box 11737
Columbia, SC 29211
Tel: (803)786-6478
Fax: (803)735-1159
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.scabse.com
To provide financial assistance to residents of South Carolina, especially minorities, interested in preparing for a career as a classroom teacher.
Title of Award: South Carolina Alliance of Black School Educators Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of South Carolina who are high school seniors or college undergraduates planning to attend or attending a college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring, or planning to major, in education and become a classroom teacher in the state. They should be able to help meet a goal of the program to increase the number of ethnic minorities in South Carolina classrooms. Along with their application, they must submit 1-page essays on 1) what they hope their colleagues and former students will say about them at the close of their career, and 2) the approaches they will take to honor the diversity of the students in their classes. Selection is based on scholarship (20%); school, community, and employment activities (20%); written expression and commitment (40%); and recommendations (20%). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program parallels the goals of the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention, and Advancement (CERRA), which administers this program. Information is also available from CERRA, Stewart House at Winthop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, (803) 323-4032, Fax: (803) 323-4044.

3620 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Anne M. London, Scholarship Committee Chair
837 Stiles Drive
Charleston, SC 29412
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.scbea.org/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to students seeking certification in a business and marketing education program at a college or university in South Carolina.
Title of Award: South Carolina Business Education Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students seeking initial certification in the upper division of a state-approved business and marketing education program at South Carolina colleges and universities. Applicants must submit a 300-word essay on why they would like to receive this scholarship. Selection is based on that essay, academic record, honors received, extracurricular activities, work experience, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3621 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA CENTER FOR EDUCATOR RECRUITMENT, RETENTION, AND ADVANCEMENT

Attn: South Carolina Teaching Fellows Program
Ward House at Winthrop University
Rock Hill, SC 29733
Tel: (803)323-4032
Free: 800-476-2387
Fax: (803)323-4044
Web Site: http://www.cerra.org/fellows.asp
To provide loans-for-service to high school seniors in South Carolina interested in preparing for a career as a teacher in the state.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teaching Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 200 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $6,000 per year, including $5,700 for tuition and board and $300 for summer enrichment programs administered by the sponsor. Fellows must agree to teach in South Carolina 1 year for each year they receive the fellowship. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are legal residents of South Carolina and enrolled in a public, private, or home school. The initial application requires documentation of academic achievement and school activities, a separate indicator for Teacher Cadet and ProTeam participation, 3 references, and a short narrative on why the applicant wants to become a teacher. Based on those applications, semifinalists are invited to regional interviews, where they first write a 30-minute response to an education-related question and then appear before an interview committee. Final selection is based on communication, problem solving ability, knowledge of world and educational issues, originality, and commitment to teaching as demonstrated in those responses and interviews. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: The South Carolina General Assembly established this program in 1999. The participating institutions are Anderson College, Charleston Southern University, College of Charleston, Columbia College, Furman University, Lander University, Newberry College, South Carolina State University, University of South Carolina at Columbia, University of South Carolina Upstate, and Winthrop University.

3622 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Student Services
1333 Main Street, Suite 200
Columbia, SC 29201
Tel: (803)737-2260; 877-349-7183
Fax: (803)737-2297
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.che.sc.gov
To provide scholarship/loans to teachers in South Carolina who wish to improve their content knowledge and degree programs.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teaching Scholarship Grants Program Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Dance; Economics; Education; Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Geography; History; Linguistics; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Music; Political science; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per fiscal year. This is a scholarship/loan program. Recipients must sign a commitment to teach in South Carolina public schools for at least 1 year following completion of the scholarship grant year and agree to refund the scholarship amount if the 1-year teaching commitment is not honored. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if recipients maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher. They may receive up to 3 grants in a 5-year period.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of South Carolina who have a professional teaching certificate and are under contract as a teacher in a public school in the state. Applicants must be 1) accepted as a degree-seeking graduate student in the teaching field at the master's level and enrolled at an eligible institution in the state; or 2) enrolled for graduate or undergraduate courses in their current teaching field or in a teaching field in which they wish to add on certification. Proposed fields of study must relate to core content areas of English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts (advanced fine arts, art, dance, drama, music, and speech), history, or geography; early childhood, elementary education, middle level education, secondary education, and special education also qualify. Priority is given to classroom teachers (not administrators, counselors, media specialists, or other support personnel) whose teaching specialties are critical need subject areas. Continuing graduate students must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status is required. Deadline for Receipt: December of each year for second summer session and fall semester; June of each year for spring semester and first summer session. Additional Information: This program was established in 2001.

3623 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o College of Charleston
Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences
66 George Street
Charleston, SC 29424 Tel: (843)953-5463
Fax: (843)953-5446
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cofc.edu/~scsgrant/scholar/overview.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in South Carolina who are preparing for a career as a science and mathematics teacher.
Title of Award: South Carolina Space Grant Consortium Pre-Service Teacher Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Astronomy and astronomical sciences; Education; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds may be used for such expenses as 1) partial payment of tuition; 2) travel and registration for attending science and mathematics education workshops or conferences for the purpose of professional development; 3) purchase of supplies for student teaching activities; or 4) other supportive activities that lead to successful professional development and graduation as an educator in South Carolina. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students at member institutions of the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium. Applicants must be working on a teaching certificate in science, mathematics, or engineering. Their areas of interest may include, but are not limited to, the basic sciences, astronomy, science education, planetary science, environmental studies, or engineering. U.S. citizenship is required. Selection is based on academic qualifications of the applicant; 2 letters of recommendation; a description of past activities, current interests, and future plans concerning a space science or aerospace-related field; a sample lesson plan using curriculum materials available from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); and faculty sponsorship. Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Members of the consortium are Benedict College, The Citadel, College of Charleston, Clemson University, Coastal Carolina University, Furman University, University of South Carolina, Wofford College, South Carolina State University, The Medical University of South Carolina, and University of the Virgin Islands. This program is funded by NASA.

3624 ■ SOUTH CAROLINA STUDENT LOAN CORPORATION

Interstate Center
16 Berryhill Road, Suite 210
P.O. Box 21487
Columbia, SC 29221-1487
Tel: (803)798-0916
Free: 800-347-2752
Fax: (803)772-9410
Web Site: http://www.slc.sc.edu
To provide scholarship/loans to students in South Carolina who wish to teach certain subjects or in certain geographic areas.
Title of Award: South Carolina Teacher Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Classical studies; Consumer affairs; Dance; Education, Elementary; Education, Music; Education, Special; English language and literature; Foreign languages; Library and archival sciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Speech and language pathology/audiology; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Freshmen and sophomores may borrow up to $2,500 per academic year; juniors, seniors, and graduate students may borrow up to $5,000 per academic year. This is a scholarship/loan program; loans are forgivable at the rate of 20% or $3,000, whichever is greater, for each full year of teaching in an area (either geographic or subject) of critical need; for students who teach in both critical subject and geographic areas, the rate of cancellation is 33% or $5,000, whichever is greater, per year. Borrowers who fail to teach in either a critical subject or geographic area must repay the loan at an annual interest rate that varies (currently, 5.37%) but is capped at 10.25%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for a total of 5 years of undergraduate and 5 years of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are residents of South Carolina who are planning to teach in certain critical geographic areas of the state, or to teach in critical subject areas. Entering freshmen must have ranked in the top 40% of their high school class and have an ACT or SAT score greater than the South Carolina average (recently 986 on the SAT or 19.3 on the ACT); enrolled undergraduates or entering graduate students must have at least a 2.75 cumulative GPA; graduate students who have completed at least 1 term must have a GPA of 3.5 or better. Undergraduate students at South Carolina colleges must have taken and passed the Education Entrance Exam; students at institutions outside South Carolina must have completed the necessary prerequisites required at that institution. Only U.S. citizens may apply. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Recently, the critical subject areas include mathematics, science (biology, chemistry, physics, and general science), media specialist, special education, industrial technology, foreign languages (Spanish, French, Latin, and German), family and consumer science, art, music, business education, English and language arts, dance, speech and drama/theater, and agriculture. For a list of critical geographic area, contact the sponsor.

3625 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu/administration/academics/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors planning to attend a public university in South Dakota and major in elementary education.
Title of Award: Annis Irene Fowler/Kaden Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000; funds are allocated to the institution for distribution to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to first-time entering freshmen at public universities in South Dakota. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and an intent to major in elementary education. They must submit an essay (from 1,000 to 1,500 words) on a topic that changes annually; recently, the topic related to advantages and disadvantages of No Child Left Behind laws. Special consideration is given to students who demonstrate motivational ability, who have a disability, or who are self-supporting. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3626 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu/administration/academics/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to students at public universities in South Dakota who are enrolled in a teacher education program.
Title of Award: Haines Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,150; funds are allocated to the institution for distribution to the student. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors at public universities in South Dakota. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and a declared major in a teacher education program. They must submit a statement that describes their personal philosophy and their philosophy of education. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3627 ■ SOUTH DAKOTA BOARD OF REGENTS

Attn: Scholarship Committee
306 East Capitol Avenue, Suite 200
Pierre, SD 57501-2545
Tel: (605)773-3455
Fax: (605)773-2422
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sdbor.edu
To provide assistance for additional training to certain elementary and secondary school teachers and vocational instructors in South Dakota.
Title of Award: South Dakota Tuition Reduction for Certain Teachers Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Education, Vocational-technical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Qualified teachers and instructors are entitled to pay only 50% of tuition (but 100% of required fees) at a South Dakota state-supported institution of higher education. Duration: Recipients are entitled to the tuition reduction as long as they meet the eligibility requirements and maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to teachers and vocational instructors who are residents of South Dakota and employed by an accredited elementary or secondary school as a teacher or vocational instructor. Applicants must be required by state law, administrative rules, or an employment contract to pursue additional undergraduate or graduate education as a condition of employment or to maintain a certificate to teach. Additional Information: The tuition reduction can by used for a maximum of 6 credit hours per academic year.

3628 ■ STATE STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION OF INDIANA

Attn: Grant Division
150 West Market Street, Suite 500
Indianapolis, IN 46204-2811
Tel: (317)232-2350; 888-528-4719
Fax: (317)232-3260
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.in.gov/ssaci/programs/m-teach.html
To provide scholarship/loans to Black and Hispanic undergraduate students in Indiana interested in preparing for a teaching career and to other residents of the state preparing for a career in special education, occupational therapy, or physical therapy.
Title of Award: Indiana Minority Teacher/Special Education Services Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Occupational therapy; Physical therapy Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Up to $1,000 annually; if students demonstrate financial need, they may receive up to $4,000 annually. For 3 out of the 5 years following graduation, recipients must teach full time in an elementary or secondary school in Indiana or practice as an occupational or physical therapist at a school or rehabilitation facility in the state. If they fail to meet that service requirement, they are required to reimburse the state of Indiana for all funds received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years if recipients maintain a 2.0 GPA. They may, however, take up to 6 years to complete the program from the start of receiving the first scholarship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) Black and Hispanic students seeking teacher certification; 2) students seeking special education teaching certification; or 3) students seeking occupational or physical therapy certification. Applicants must be Indiana residents and U.S. citizens who are enrolled or accepted for enrollment as full-time students at an academic institution in Indiana. Students who are already enrolled in college must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. Applicants must be preparing to teach in an accredited elementary or secondary school in Indiana or to work as an occupational or physical therapist at a school or rehabilitation facility. Financial need may be considered, but it is not a requirement. Preference is given to minorities and to students enrolling in college for the first time. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating college or university establishes its filing deadline for this program. Additional Information: This program was established in 1988 to address the critical shortage of Black and Hispanic teachers in Indiana. An amendment in 1990 added the field of special education, and in 1991 the fields of occupational and physical therapy were added. Participating colleges in Indiana select the recipients. Students must submit their application to the financial aid office of the college they plan to attend (not to the State Student Assistance Commission of Indiana).

3629 ■ TENNESSEE STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Parkway Towers
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1950
Nashville, TN 37243-0820
Tel: (615)741-1346
Free: 800-342-1663
Fax: (615)741-6101
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tnscholardollars.com/mon_college/minority_teach.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to minority Tennesseans who wish to enter the teaching field.
Title of Award: Tennessee Minority Teaching Fellows Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 20 new awards are granted each year. Funds Available: The scholarship/loan is $5,000 per year. Recipients incur an obligation to teach at the K-12 level in a Tennessee public school 1 year for each year the award is received. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to minority residents of Tennessee who are either high school seniors planning to attend a college or university in the state or continuing college students at a Tennessee college or university. High school seniors must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and either have an ACT score of at least 18 (or its SAT equivalent) or rank in the top 25% of their high school class. Continuing college students must have a college GPA of 2.5 or higher. All applicants must agree to teach at the K-12 level in a Tennessee public school following graduation from college. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1989.

3630 ■ TENNESSEE STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Parkway Towers
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1950
Nashville, TN 37243-0820
Tel: (615)741-1346
Free: 800-342-1663
Fax: (615)741-6101
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tnscholardollars.com/mon_college/tn_teach_sch.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to students in Tennessee who are interested in preparing for a teaching career.
Title of Award: Tennessee Teaching Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Early childhood; Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 185 each year. Funds Available: Loans up to $4,500 per year are available. For each year of teaching in Tennessee, 1 year of the loan is forgiven. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years, provided the recipient maintains a 2.75 GPA.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and postbaccalaureate students in approved teacher education programs in Tennessee. They must be U.S. citizens, be Tennessee residents, have earned a GPA of 2.75 or higher, and agree to teach at the public preschool, elementary, or secondary level in Tennessee. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3631 ■ TEXAS BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

c/o Mona Fannon, Scholarship Committee Chair
Route 2 Box 8-14
Fritch, TX 79036
Tel: (806)857-9320
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tbtea.org
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Business Professionals of America (BPA) or Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) in Texas.
Title of Award: Texas Business and Technology Educators Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Education; Information science and technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Texas who are members of BPA or FBLA (or were members during their junior year). Applicants must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be nominated by a teacher who is a member of the Texas Business and Technology Educators Association. They must be planning to attend college to prepare for a career in business, business education, computer science, computer information systems, or a related field. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page letter describing why they deserve this scholarship, defining their career goals, and including any information regarding financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3632 ■ HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION

Attn: Executive Secretary
712 Jackson Place, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202)395-4831
Fax: (202)395-6995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.truman.gov
To provide grants-for-service for graduate school to current college juniors who are interested in preparing for a career in public service.
Title of Award: Harry S. Truman Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; History; International affairs and relations; Law; Physical sciences; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Public service; Social sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 70 to 75 each year: a) 1 "state" scholarship is available to a qualified resident nominee in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Islands (Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); and b) up to 25 at-large scholars. Funds Available: The program provides up to $30,000, including up to $15,000 for the first year of graduate study and up to $15,000 for the final year of graduate study. Duration: Support is provided for the first and last year of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Students must be nominated to be considered for this program. Nominees must be full-time students with junior standing at a 4-year institution, committed to a career in government or public service, in the upper quarter of their class, and U.S. citizens or nationals. Each participating institution may nominate up to 4 candidates (and up to 3 additional students who completed their first 2 years at a community college); community colleges and other 2-year institutions may nominate former students who are enrolled as full-time students with junior-level academic standing at accredited 4-year institutions. Selection is based on extent and quality of community service and government involvement, academic performance, leadership record, suitability of the nominee's proposed program of study for a career in public service, and writing and analytical skills. Priority is given to candidates who plan to enroll in a graduate program that specifically trains them for a career in public service, including government at any level, uniformed services, public interest organizations, nongovernmental research and/or educational organizations, public and private schools, and public service oriented nonprofit organizations. The fields of study may include agriculture, biology, engineering, environmental management, physical and social sciences, and technology policy, as well as such traditional fields as economics, education, government, history, international relations, law, nonprofit management, political science, public administration, public health, and public policy. Interviews are required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend graduate school in the United States or in foreign countries. Scholars are required to work in public service for 3 of the 7 years following completion of a graduate degree program funded by this program. Scholars who do not meet this service requirement, or who fail to provide timely proof to the foundation of such employment, will be required to repay funds received, along with interest.

3633 ■ MORRIS K. UDALL FOUNDATION

130 South Scott Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85701-1922
Tel: (520)670-5529
Fax: (520)670-5530
Web Site: http://www.udall.gov/scholarship
To provide financial assistance to 1) college sophomores and juniors who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy.
Title of Award: Morris K. Udall Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Economics; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Health care services; Native American studies; Natural resources; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 80 scholarships and 50 honorable mentions are awarded each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend for scholarship winners is $5,000 per year. Funds are to be used for tuition, fees, books, and room and board. Honorable mention stipends are $350. Duration: 1 year; recipients nominated as sophomores may be renominated in their junior year.
Eligibility Requirements: Each 2-year and 4-year college and university in the United States and its possessions may nominate up to 6 sophomores or juniors from either or both categories of this program: 1) students who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy, and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy. For the first category, the program seeks future leaders across a wide spectrum of environmental fields, such as policy, engineering, science, education, urban planning and renewal, business, health, justice, and economics. For the second category, the program seeks future Native American and Alaska Native leaders in public and community health care, tribal government, and public policy affecting Native American communities, including land and resource management, economic development, and education. Nominees must be U.S. citizens, nationals, or permanent residents with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an 800-word essay discussing a significant public speech, legislative act, or public policy statement by former Congressman Morris K. Udall and its impact on their field of study, interests, and career goals. Selection is based on demonstrated commitment to 1) environmental issues through substantial commitment to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, research, community service, or public service; or 2) tribal public policy or Native American health through substantial contributions to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, tribal involvement, community or public service, or research; a course of study and proposed career likely to lead to position where nominee can make significant contributions to the shaping of environmental, tribal public policy, or Native American health care issues, whether through scientific advances, public or political service, or community action; and leadership, character, desire to make a difference, and general well-roundedness. Deadline for Receipt: Faculty representatives must submit their nominations by early March of each year.

3634 ■ U.S. MARINE CORPS

Manpower and Reserve Affairs (MMEA-85)
3280 Russell Road
Quantico, VA 22134-5103
Tel: (703)784-9264
Fax: (703)784-9843
Web Site: http://www.usmc.mil
To allow selected noncommissioned Marine Corps officers to earn a bachelor's degree in selected fields by pursuing full-time college study while continuing to receive their regular pay and allowances.
Title of Award: Marine Corps Staff Noncommissioned Officers Degree Completion Program Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Finance; Management; Music; Protective services; Psychology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 Marines were selected to participate in this program. Funds Available: Noncommissioned officers selected to participate in this program receive their regular Marine Corps pay while attending a college or university on a full-time basis. Tuition, matriculation fees, and other expenses (such as books) must be paid by the recipient through personal funds, in-service Montgomery GI Bill benefits, student loans, or other non-Marine Corps means. Duration: Up to the equivalent of 2 academic years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are regular active-duty Marines, especially in the grades of staff sergeant and gunnery sergeant. Applicants must have completed at least 2 years of postsecondary study and have been accepted by an accredited degree-granting college or university in a program offered to all matriculating students; enrollment in a multiple major program designed for adults returning to school does not qualify. The program recently was limited to the following majors: accounting, business administration with an emphasis on accounting or financial management, education, environmental safety, environmental health management, hazardous material and waste control, music, occupational safety, psychology, safety education, safety management, and waste control. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Applicants must agree to extend/reenlist for a period of 4 years beyond completion of this program.

3635 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to teach in the public school system after graduating from college.
Title of Award: Red Oak Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,200 per year. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and enroll at a 4-year public college or university in Texas (or Baylor University or Texas Wesleyan University) by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.75 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Applicants for this scholarship must have declared their intention to teach grades K-12 in the public school system. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3636 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to enter the teaching profession.
Title of Award: Dr. B.J. Stamps Memorial Endowment Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year (1 at $1,000 and 1 at $500). Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and begin college or university in Texas by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.5 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Applicants for this scholarship must have declared their intention to enter the teaching profession. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3637 ■ UNIVERSITY INTERSCHOLASTIC LEAGUE

Attn: Texas Interscholastic League Foundation
1701 Manor Road
P.O. Box 8028
Austin, TX 78713
Tel: (512)232-4938
Fax: (512)471-5908
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uil.utexas.edu/tilf/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to students who participate in programs of the Texas Interscholastic League Foundation (TILF) and plan to enter the teaching profession after graduating from college.
Title of Award: J.O. Webb Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who meet the 5 basic requirements of the TILF: 1) graduate from high school during the current year and enroll at a designated university in Texas by the following fall; 2) enroll full time and maintain a GPA of 2.5 or higher during the first semester; 3) compete in a University Interscholastic League (UIL) academic state meet contest in accounting, calculator applications, computer applications, computer science, current issues and events, debate (cross-examination and Lincoln-Douglas), journalism (editorial writing, feature writing, headline writing, and news writing), literary criticism, mathematics, number sense, 1-act play, ready writing, science, social studies, speech (prose interpretation, poetry interpretation, informative speaking, and persuasive speaking), or spelling and vocabulary; 4) submit high school transcripts that include SAT and/or ACT scores; and 5) submit parents' latest income tax returns. Preference for this scholarship is given to students planning to enter the teaching profession. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: The designated universities are University of North Texas, Sam Houston State University, West Texas A&M University, Texas Women's University, and Southwest Texas State University.

3638 ■ UTAH HIGHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE AUTHORITY

Board of Regents Building, The Gateway
60 South 400 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1284
Tel: (801)321-7294; 877-336-7378
Fax: (801)321-7299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uheaa.org/scholarships.htm
To provide scholarship/loans to undergraduate students in Utah interested in becoming elementary or secondary school teachers.
Title of Award: Terrel H. Bell Teaching Incentive Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Elementary; Education, Secondary Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Students at public institutions in Utah receive a waiver of tuition and fees; students at participating private institutions in the state receive a stipend of $995 per semester. Recipients must teach in Utah public schools for a period equal to the time they received assistance. If they fail to complete the degree or perform the required teaching service, they must repay all funds received with 9% interest. Duration: Up to 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be either 1) seniors at high schools in Utah or 2) teacher education students currently enrolled in a college or university in Utah who have completed 24 semester units or more. They must plan to teach in Utah public schools following graduation from college. Selection is based on high school GPA, ACT or SAT scores, ethnicity, and intended teaching field. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was formerly known as the Utah Career Teaching Scholarship Program.

3639 ■ VERMONT ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL OFFICE PROFESSIONALS

Attn: Scholarships
c/o Linda Hendrickson
Title of Award: Virginia PTA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 24 of these scholarships were awarded: the 2 named scholarships at $1,200 and 22 scholarships at $1,000. Funds Available: The stipend is either $1,000 or $1,200 (for the 2 named scholarships) per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Virginia that are PTA or PTSA members. Applicants must be planning to attend a college or university in Virginia to prepare for a career in teaching or another youth-serving profession. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program includes 2 named scholarships: M. Frieda Koontz Scholarship ($1,200) and S. John Davis Scholarship ($1,200).

3642 ■ VIRGINIA SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

Attn: Fellowship Coordinator
Old Dominion University Peninsula Center
600 Butler Farm Road
Hampton, VA 23666
Tel: (757)766-5210
Fax: (757)766-5205
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vsgc.odu.edu/Menu3_1_1.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to students in Virginia planning a career as science, mathematics, or technology educators.
Title of Award: Virginia Space Grant Teacher Education Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Earth sciences; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geosciences; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Science; Space and planetary sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: Approximately 10 each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) colleges and universities in a track that will qualify them to teach in a pre-college setting. Priority is given to those majoring in technology education, mathematics, or science, particularly earth, space, or environmental science. Applicants may apply while seniors in high school or sophomores in a community college, with the award contingent on their enrollment at a VSGC college and entrance into a teacher certification program. They must submit a statement of academic goals and plan of study, explaining their reasons for desiring to enter the teaching profession, specifically the fields of science, mathematics, or technology education. Students currently enrolled in a VSGC college can apply when they declare their intent to enter the teacher certification program. Students enrolled in a master of education degree program leading to teacher certification in eligible fields are also eligible to apply. Applicants must be U.S. citizens with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Since an important purpose of this program is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities, women, and persons with disabilities in science, mathematics, and technology education, the VSGC especially encourages applications from those students. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The VSGC institutions are College of William and Mary, Hampton University, Old Dominion University, the University of Virginia, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. This program is funded by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

3643 ■ IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA-MINNESOTA DIVISION

Attn: Scholarship Committee
555 Park Street, Suite 140
St. Paul, MN 55103-2110
Tel: (651)221-0215
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.minnesotaikes.org
To provide financial assistance to Minnesota residents who are studying an environmental field in college.
Title of Award: Minnesota Division Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental law; Environmental science; Wildlife conservation, management, and science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Minnesota who are in at least their second year of college. Applicants must be majoring in environmental education, environmental law, wildlife management, or some other conservation-oriented program. They must be U.S. citizens and able to demonstrate financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay on their belief in conservation and what the future holds for them (including their educational plans and career goals), a transcript, a description of their program of study, and 2 letters of recommendation. An interview may be requested. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3644 ■ WASHINGTON HIGHER EDUCATION COORDINATING BOARD

917 Lakeridge Way
P.O. Box 43430
Olympia, WA 98504-3430
Tel: (360)753-7851; 888-535-0747
Fax: (360)753-7808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hecb.wa.gov/financialaid/other/alternative.asp
To provide forgivable loans to K-12 classified employees in Washington who are interested in attending a college or university in order to become a teacher.
Title of Award: Washington Conditional Scholarships for Alternative Teaching Certification Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Education; Education, Bilingual and cross-cultural; Education, Elementary; Education, English as a second language; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Foreign languages; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physics; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 25 each year. Funds Available: The maximum award is $4,000 per academic year. These awards are in the form of loans that can be forgiven in exchange for teaching service. Each 2 years of eligible teaching service results in the forgiveness of 1 year of loan. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 4 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to Washington residents who are currently employed as a classified instructional employee in a K-12 public school. Applicants must 1) have a transferable associate degree and be seeking residency teacher certification with endorsements in special education or English as a second language; or 2) have a bachelor's degree and subject matter expertise in a shortage area and be seeking residency teacher certification in a subject matter shortage area (currently defined as special education, English as a second language, chemistry, physics, Japanese, mathematics, and technology education). to enroll in an accredited Washington college or university and work as a teacher in a K-12 public school in the state after completing initial teacher certification. Selection is based on academic ability, a statement demonstrating commitment to the teaching profession, the applicant's ability to serve as a positive role model as a K-12 public school teacher, length and quality of contributions to the Washington K-12 public school, and recommendations from a current teacher or school official describing the applicant's potential as a future teacher. The priority in making awards is: 1) eligible renewal applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; 2) all other eligible renewable applicants; 3) eligible new applicants who are within 2 years of completing their initial teacher certification requirements; and 4) all other new eligible applicants. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: This program was established by the Washington legislature in 2001. It is administered by the Washington Higher Education Coordinator Board, but the Washington State Professional Educator Standards Board selects the recipients.

3645 ■ WASHINGTON STATE BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Jackie Floetke, Awards & Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 138
Wilson Creek, WA 98860
Tel: (509)345-2541
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wsbea.org/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for graduate school to members of the Washington State Business Education Association (WSBEA).
Title of Award: Dr. F. Ross Byrd Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education; Educational administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of WSBEA who are enrolled in graduate school with at least 1 semester or quarter remaining before graduation. Applicants must be working on an advanced degree in business education or a related field (e.g., vocational administration, business and marketing, curriculum). Along with their application, they must submit a statement of their need for this scholarship, a description of their leadership activities, information on their work experience, and a 300-word essay on why they want an advanced degree in business education. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3646 ■ WASHINGTON STATE BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

c/o Jackie Floetke, Awards & Scholarship Chair
P.O. Box 138
Wilson Creek, WA 98860
Tel: (509)345-2541
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wsbea.org/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college to members of Phi Beta Lambda (PBL) in Washington.
Title of Award: Doris Y. and John L. Gerber Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of PBL who are juniors or seniors majoring in business education at a college or university in Washington. Applicants must be nominated by their advisor, who must be a current member of the Washington State Business Education Association (WSBEA). Along with their application, they must submit a statement of their need for this scholarship, a description of their leadership activities, a description of their community service activities, information on their work experience, and a 300-word essay on why becoming a business educator is important to them. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year.

3647 ■ WATTS CHARITY ASSOCIATION, INC.

6245 Bristol Parkway, Suite 224
Culver City, CA 90230
Tel: (323)671-0394
Fax: (323)778-2613
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://4watts.tripod.com/id5.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division college students majoring in child development, teaching, or social services.
Title of Award: Joyce Washington Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Child development; Education; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens of African American descent who are enrolled full time as a college or university junior. Applicants must be majoring in child development, teaching, or the study of social services. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, be between 17 and 24 years of age, and be able to demonstrate that they intend to continue their education for at least 2 years. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a 1-paragraph statement on why they should be awarded a Watts Foundation scholarship, and 2) a 1- to 2-page essay on a specific type of cancer, based either on how it has impacted their life or on researched information. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Royce R. Watts, Sr. established the Watts Charity Association after he learned he had cancer in 2001.

3648 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in education at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Hedberg Public Library College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1eachyear. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants must be majoring in education and be able to demonstrate an interest in working with children of all ages. They must be interested in an internship at the Hedberg Public Library in Janesville, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Hedberg Public Library.

3649 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to social work at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Holiday House of Manitowoc County College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Education; General studies/Field of study not specified; Occupational therapy; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at private colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be interested in an internship at Holiday House of Manitowoc County. Preference is given to 1) students attending Lakeland College or Silver Lake College; 2) residents of Manitowoc County attending another WFIC member institution; and 3) students majoring in education, occupational therapy, or social work. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The other WFIC schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by Holiday House of Manitowoc County, Inc. The WFIC's College-to-Work Program includes a number of other financial assistance and work experience programs aimed at eligible students interested in majoring in fields related to social work, including the Lutheran Social Services College-to-Work Program, Manitowoc County Domestic Violence Center College-to- Work Program, and YWCA of Rock County College-to-Work Program.

3650 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to technology at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Jefferson County Literacy Council College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Education; General studies/Field of study not specified; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants may be studying any field, but preference is given to majors in computer technology, education, marketing, sales, or website design. They must be interested in an internship at the Jefferson County Literacy Council in Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Jefferson County Literacy Council.

3651 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to history at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Milton Historical Society College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: African-American studies; Education; History, American; Museum science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks during the summer for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at WFIC member colleges and universities. Preference is given to students majoring in African American studies, American history, museum science, or history education. Applicants must be interested in an internship at the Milton Historical Society in Milton, Wisconsin. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Milton Historical Society.

3652 ■ WISCONSIN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL AIDS BOARD

131 West Wilson Street, Room 902
P.O. Box 7885
Madison, WI 53707-7885
Tel: (608)267-2212
Fax: (608)267-2808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://heab.state.wi.us/programs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to minorities in Wisconsin who are interested in teaching in Wisconsin school districts with large minority enrollments.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Minority Teacher Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Education Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Scholarship/loans are provided up to $2,500 per year. For each year the student teaches in an eligible school district, 25% of the loan is forgiven; if the student does not teach in an eligible district, the loan must be repaid at an interest rate of 5%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and American Indians in Wisconsin are eligible to apply if they are enrolled full time as juniors or seniors in an independent or public institution in the state. The program also includes students who were admitted to the United States after December 31, 1975 and who are a former citizen of Laos, Vietnam, or Cambodia or whose ancestor was a citizen of 1 of those countries. Applicants must be enrolled in a program leading to teaching licensure and must agree to teach in a Wisconsin school district in which minority students constitute at least 29% of total enrollment or in a school district participating in the inter-district pupil transfer program. Deadline for Receipt: Deadline dates vary by institution; check with your school's financial aid office. Additional Information: Eligible students should apply through their school's financial aid office.

3653 ■ WISCONSIN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL AIDS BOARD

131 West Wilson Street, Room 902
P.O. Box 7885
Madison, WI 53707-7885
Tel: (608)266-1665
Fax: (608)267-2808
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://heab.state.wi.us/programs.html
To provide scholarship/loans to residents of Wisconsin who are interested in teaching the visually impaired at a school in the state.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Teacher of the Visually Impaired Loans Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Special Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Scholarship/loans are provided up to $10,000 per year, or a lifetime maximum of $40,000. For each of the first 2 years the student teaches and meets the eligibility criteria, 25% of the loan is forgiven; for the third year, 50% of the loan is forgiven. If the student does not teach and meet the eligibility criteria, the loan must be repaid at an interest rate of 5%. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Wisconsin who are enrolled at least half time at an in-state or eligible out-of-state institution in a program that prepares them to be licensed as teachers of the visually impaired or as orientation and mobility instructors. Applicants must agree to be a licensed teacher or an orientation and mobility instructor in a Wisconsin school district, the Wisconsin Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, or a cooperative educational service agency. Financial need is considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: Deadline dates vary by institution; check with your school's financial aid office. Additional Information: Eligible students should apply through their school's financial aid office.

3654 ■ WORLD WIDE BARACA PHILATHEA UNION

610 South Harlem Avenue
Freeport, IL 61032-4833
To provide financial assistance to students preparing for Christian ministry, Christian missionary work, or Christian education.
Title of Award: World Wide Baraca Philathea Union Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Education, Religious; Religion Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Funds Available: Stipends are paid directly to the recipient's school upon receipt of the first semester transcript and a letter confirming attendance. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply for this support are students enrolled in an accredited college or seminary who are majoring in Christian ministry, Christian missionary work, or Christian education (e.g., church youth pastor, writer of Sunday school curriculum). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

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Education

Chapter 3
Education

In The Condition of Education, 2005 (2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports that two factors—rising immigration and the baby boom echo—boosted public school enrollment from the latter part of the 1980s and into the first half of the 2000s, reaching an estimated 48.3 million in 2004. Enrollment is projected to continue to increase to an all-time high of fifty million in 2014. Along with this increase in enrollment came an increase in the proportion of public school students who were considered to be part of a minority group, due largely to the growth in the Hispanic public school population. The NCES also reports that 41.7% of public school students enrolled in kindergarten through twelfth grade in the fall of 2003 belonged to a minority group. Hispanics (18.6%) and African-Americans (16.1%) accounted for the largest number of minority students in public schools. These figures represented a significant increase since the early 1970s, when white students made up 77.8% and minority students only 22.2% of the public school population. (See Table 3.1.)

PUBLIC SCHOOL OUTCOMES

In the United States, education is often viewed as a way out of poverty to a better life. Many observers believe education is the key to narrowing the economic gap between the races. While many individual minority students strive for, and achieve, great educational success, on average minority students perform less well than white students in school and are generally more likely than their white counterparts to drop out of school. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the exception to this rule. Many Asian-American students accomplish stunning academic achievements. Educators point with pride to these high-achieving students, who have often overcome both language and cultural barriers. Why are some groups more at risk of failure, while other groups enjoy success?

Risk Factors in Education

Asian-American students generally have fewer family risk factors—living below the poverty level, living in a household where the primary language is not English, having a mother whose highest education is less than a high school diploma or equivalent, and living in a single-parent household—than other minority groups. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort, a study by the NCES, collected information on a cohort of children born in 2001 and will follow them through 2007, focusing on children's early development and how parents prepare their children for school. While at nine months of age little variation in mental and motor skills was found by race or ethnic group, several demographic characteristics were related to the likelihood of families engaging in activities that help prepare children for school, including reading or telling them stories, singing to them, taking them on errands, playing peek-a-boo, and allowing them to play outside. Asian-American families were more likely than other minority groups to read to their children (26%), tell them stories (25%), and play peek-a-boo (73%), although they were less likely to facilitate outside playing (43%) and significantly less likely to take their children on errands (38%) than were other minority families. (See Table 3.2.)

In contrast, both African-American and Hispanic families were less likely to read to (23% and 21%, respectively) and tell their children stories (24% and 21%, respectively), and more likely to sing to them (73% and 70%, respectively) and play peek-a-boo (61% and 64%, respectively) than were white families. This may be partly because poor families were much less likely to engage in these activities with their children than were nonpoor families, and African-American and Hispanic families are disproportionately poor. African-American, white, and Hispanic families were about equally likely to take their children on errands and facilitate outside playing. (See Table 3.2.)

TABLE 3.1
Percentage distribution of public school students enrolled in grades K-12 who were minorities, 1972–2003
Fall of year White Total Minority enrollment
Black Hispanic Other
*Not available.
Note: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Black includes African American and Hispanic includes Latino. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified. Includes all public school students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2003, the categories for race changed on the Current Population Study (CPS), allowing respondents to select more than one race. Respondents who selected more than one race were placed in the "other" category for the purposes of this analysis.
source: "Table 4-1. Percentage Distribution of Public School Students Enrolled in Kindergarten through 12th Grade, by Race/Ethnicity: Fall 1972–2003," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
197277.822.214.86.01.4
197378.121.914.75.71.4
197476.823.215.46.31.5
197576.223.815.46.71.7
197676.223.815.56.51.7
197776.123.915.86.21.9
197875.524.516.06.52.1
1979*****
1980*****
198172.427.616.08.72.9
198271.928.116.08.93.2
198371.328.716.19.23.4
198471.728.316.18.53.6
198569.630.416.810.13.5
198669.130.916.610.83.6
198768.531.516.610.84.0
198868.331.716.511.04.2
198968.032.016.611.44.0
199067.632.416.511.74.2
199167.132.916.811.84.2
199266.833.316.912.14.3
199367.033.016.612.14.3
199465.834.216.713.73.8
199565.534.516.914.13.5
199663.736.316.614.55.3
199763.037.016.914.95.1
199862.437.617.215.45.1
199961.938.116.516.25.5
200061.338.716.616.65.4
200161.338.716.516.65.6
200260.739.316.517.65.2
200358.341.716.118.67.0

Segregation in Schools Persists

One reason African-American children have historically lagged behind white children in educational achievement has been the separate and inferior schools that they have been forced to attend. On May 17, 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 US 483), the U.S. Supreme Court declared that separate schools for African-American children were inherently unequal and that schools had to be desegregated. More than fifty years later, more and more school districts are questioning whether the federal courts need to continue supervising desegregation. However, despite regulations and busing, many inner-city schools are still not integrated, and academic achievement for African-American children is still lagging. Many white students have moved (with their families' tax dollars) to the suburbs or transferred to private schools to avoid inner-city schools with high populations of minority students. Typically, half the white students assigned to new schools under desegregation orders never attend those schools.

Overcoming Risk Factors

In "Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement: The Children of Southeast Asian Boat People Excel in the American School System" (Scientific American, February 1992), Nathan Caplan, Marcella H. Choy, and John K. Whitmore find that despite hardships and severe traumatic experiences in their native countries and despite attending schools in low-income inner cities, most Indo-Chinese refugee students (which include children from Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos) performed well in school. Caplan, Choy, and Whitmore also find that strong family traditions and values were the important influences in these children's lives. The families were committed to a love of learning. They placed a high value on homework and did it as a family activity, with the older children helping the younger ones. Furthermore, parents read regularly to their children either in English or in their native language.

The Indo-Chinese are not the only group to have accomplished this kind of academic success. For the most part, Japanese immigrant families have strong traditions that place great value on learning. This group has also had high academic success, overcoming longtime racial prejudice to excel in school. In schools that emphasize parental involvement and structure in the children's learning environment at home as well as in school, African-Americans have also had outstanding achievement.

Educational Progress

THE EARLY CHILDHOOD LONGITUDINAL STUDY

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study collected information on a cohort of children who began kindergarten in the fall of 1998 and followed them through the spring of 2004. The study specifically looked at children's achievement in mathematics and reading as they progressed through school. The study found that the number of family risk factors (poverty, non-English primary home language, mother's lack of a high school diploma/GED, or a single-parent household) inversely related to gains in mathematics and reading through third grade. (See Table 3.3.) Minority children tend to have higher numbers of risk factors than do white children. However, even when controlling for family risk factors, African-American children had lower average achievement scores than other racial and ethnic groups when they began kindergarten, and the gap in those achievement scores widened from the start of kindergarten through the end of third grade. The researchers have not yet proposed an explanation for this difference, but it may be because of entrenched racism within American culture and the school system—if children of a particular group are expected to perform poorly, they may in fact do so.

TABLE 3.2
Percentage of children about 9 months of age who engaged in selected activities with a family member daily in a typical week, by child and family characteristics, 2001–02
Child and family characteristic Read stories Told stories Sung to Taken on errands Played peek-a-boo Played outside
aAmerican Indian includes Alaska Native, black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. Race catagories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified.
bNormal birth weight is more than 5.5 pounds; low birthweight is more than 3.3 to 5.5 pounds; and very low birthweight is 3.3 pounds or less.
cFamily risk factors include living below the poverty level, living in a household where the primary language was not English, having a mother whose highest education was less than a high school diploma or equivalent, and living in a single-parent household.
Note: While the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) was designed to collect information on children about 9 months of age (i.e., 8 to 10 months), children were assessed as young as 6 months and as old as 22 months. Seventy-two percent of the children were between 8 and 10 months at the time of the assessment, and 84 percent were between 8 and 11 months.
source: "Table 35-1. Percentage of Children about 9 Months of Age who Engaged in Selected Activities with a Family Member Daily in a Typical Week, by Child and Family Characteristics: 2001–02," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
   Total 33 27 74 64 68 47
Age
Less than 10 months312673636846
11-13 months322773656947
14-22 months443773706459
Sex
Male322773646848
Female332774646846
Race/ethnicitya
American Indian182364756446
Asian/Pacific Islander262571387343
Black232473636145
White413175657247
Hispanic212170646448
Birth weightb
Normal332773646847
Low292876587044
Very low272873516638
Poverty status
Poor222467646448
Nonpoor362875647047
Mother's education
Less than high school222266646550
High school diploma or equivalent272572677044
Some college352978656944
Bachelor's degree or higher483379597048
Family type
Two parents, with other siblings312571636546
Two parents, without other siblings383278627548
One parent, with other siblings242572626546
One parent, without other siblings292773717048
Primary language spoken in the home
English362975657046
Other than English181967576349
Mother's employment
35 hours or more292673596741
Less than 35 hours362775666946
Unemployed272675687150
Not in labor force342873656851
Number of family risk factorsc
Zero413177647046
One252573646747
Two or more202065636451

The study found that by the end of third grade the mean scale scores for reading achievement were highest for whites (112) and Asians and Pacific Islanders (111), followed by Hispanics (105) and African-Americans (98). The same pattern held true in mathematics. The mean scale scores for mathematics achievement were highest for whites (89) and Asians and Pacific Islanders (88), followed by Hispanics (82) and African-Americans (73). From the start of kindergarten through third grade, whites, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics made similar gains in both reading and mathematics; however, African-Americans lagged behind in both areas. (See Table 3.3.)

TABLE 3.3
Children's reading and mathematics mean scale scores from kindergarten through 3rd grade, by selected characteristics, 1998–2002
Characteristic Fall kindergarten Spring kindergarten Spring 1st grade Spring 3rd grade Total gain from fall kindergarten to spring 3rd grade
a Black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. Racial categories exclude Hispanic origin.
b Family risk factors include living below the poverty level, primary home language was non-English, mother's highest education was less than a high school diploma/GED, and living in a single-parent household, as measured in kindergarten.
Note: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Estimates reflect the sample of children assessed in English in all assessment years (approximately 19 percent of Asian children and approximately 30 percent of Hispanic children were not assessed). The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (ECLS-K) reading and mathematics assessments were not administered in spring 2001, when most of the children were in 2nd grade. Although most of the sample was in 3rd grade in spring 2002, 10 percent were in 2nd grade, and about 1 percent were enrolled in other grades.
source: "Table 8-1. Children's Reading and Mathematics Mean Scale Scores for Fall 1998 First-Time Kindergartners from Kindergarten through 3rd Grade, by Selected Characteristics: Fall 1998, Spring 1999, Spring 2000, and Spring 2002," in The Condition of Education 2004, National Center for Education Statistics, 2004, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2004/pdf/08_2004.pdf (accessed December 29, 2005)
Reading
    Total 27 39 69 108 81
Sex
    Male26386710780
    Female28397011083
Race/ethnicitya
    Asian/Pacific Islander30437511181
    Black2534619873
    White28407111284
    Hispanic24366510581
    Other25366310176
Number of family risk factorsb
    0 factors29417311384
    1 factor25366510579
    2 or more factors2232589573
Mathematics
    Total 22 32 55 85 63
Sex
    Male2232568665
    Female2232558362
Race/ethnicitya
    Asian/Pacific Islander2334568865
    Black1826477355
    White2334588965
    Hispanic1929528263
    Other2029518061
Number of family risk factorsb
    0 factors2434598965
    1 factor2029518161
    2 or more factors1725477457

READING PERFORMANCE

The ability to read is fundamental to most aspects of education. When students cannot read well, they usually cannot succeed in other subject areas and will eventually have additional problems in a society requiring increasingly sophisticated job skills.

According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which measures reading, writing, and mathematics proficiency on a scale from zero to five hundred, in 2003 white and Asian and Pacific Islander students had higher average reading scores than other racial and ethnic groups. In fourth grade the average reading score for whites was 229, for Asians and Pacific Islanders, 226, for Native Americans, 202, for Hispanics, 200, and for African-Americans, 198. The same pattern prevailed for eighth graders. The average reading score for white students in eighth grade was 272, for Asians and Pacific Islanders, 270, for Native Americans, 246, for Hispanics, 245, and for African-Americans, 244. (See Table 3.4.) Between fourth and eighth grade white and Asian and Pacific Islander students made much greater gains in average reading scores than did African-American, Hispanic, or Native American students.

MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE

In a time when science and technology are considered vital to the nation's economy and position in the international community, education observers have been concerned about the generally poor American performance in mathematics and science. Since 1971 the NAEP has tested students to determine their mathematical knowledge, skills, and aptitudes.

TABLE 3.4
Average reading score for 4th- and 8th-graders, by selected student and school characteristics, 2003
Student or school characteristic Grade 4 Grade 8
aAmerican Indian includes Alaski Native, black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. Race categories include Hispanic origin unless specified.
bNot available
source: "Table 9-2. Average Reading Score for 4th- and 8th-Graders, by Selected Student and School Characteristics: 2003," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
    Total 218 263
Sex
Male215258
Female222269
Race/ethnicitya
American Indian202246
Asian/Pacific Islander226270
Black198244
White229272
Hispanic200245
Parents' education
Less than high schoolb245
High school diploma or equivalentb254
Some collegeb267
Bachelor's degree or higherb273
How often student discusses studies at home
Every day216267
2-3 times a week228271
1-2 times a month216260
Never/hardly ever212253
Number of books in the home
0-10192238
11-25204249
26-100223264
More than 100229278
Control
Public216261
Private235282
Location
Central city212258
Urban fringe/large town222267
Rural/small town220264
Enrollment
Less than 300222269
300-999218264
1,000 or more210260
Percent of students in school eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
0-10238280
11-25228270
26-50221263
51-75211253
76-100194239

In 2003 Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher average mathematics scores than all other racial and ethnic groups. In fourth grade the average mathematics score for Asians and Pacific Islanders was 246, for whites, 243, for Native Americans, 223, for Hispanics, 222, and for African-Americans, 216. The same pattern prevailed for eighth graders. The average mathematics score for Asian and Pacific Islander students in eighth grade was 291, for whites, 288, for Native Americans, 263, for Hispanics, 259, and for African-Americans, 252. (See Table 3.5.)

TABLE 3.5
Average mathematics score for 4th- and 8th-graders, by selected student and school characteristics, 2003
Student or school characteristic Grade 4 Grade 8
aAmerican Indian includes Alaska Native, black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin, unless specified.
bStudents reported on the mathematics course they were currently taking. Group 1 courses include 8th-grade mathematics and prealgebra. Group 2 courses include algebra I, algebra II, geometry, and integrated or sequential mathematics.
cNot available.
source: "Table 10-2. Average Mathematics Score for 4th- and 8th-Graders, by Selected Student and School Characteristics: 2003," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
    Total 235 278
Sex
Male236278
Female233277
Race/ethnicitya
American Indian223263
Asian/Pacific Islander246291
Black216252
White243288
Hispanic222259
Parents' education
Less than high schoolc257
High school diploma or equivalentc267
Some collegec280
Bachelor's degree or higherc288
Current mathematics class in 8th gradeb
Group 1c269
Group 2c298
Control
Public234276
Private245294
Location
Central city229271
Urban fringe/large town238281
Rural/small town236279
Enrollment
Less than 300236280
300-999235278
1,000 or more230275
Percent of students in school eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
0-10250295
11-25244285
26-50237278
51-75229266
76-100216251

Dropping Out

When students drop out or fail to complete high school, both the individual and society suffer. Dropping out of school often results in limited occupational and economic opportunities for these individuals. For society, it may result in increased costs of government assistance programs for these individuals and their families, costly public training programs, and higher crime rates.

TABLE 3.6
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who were high school dropouts, by race/ethnicity, selected years 1990–2003
Year Total White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native
*Interpret data with caution.
Note: The data presented here represent status dropout rates, which is the percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who are out of school and who have not earned a high school credential. The status dropout rate includes all dropouts regardless of when they last attended school, as well as individuals who may have never attended school in the U.S. such as immigrants who did not complete a high school diploma in their home country. Another way of calculating dropout rates is the event dropout rate, which is the percentage of 15- to 24-year-olds who dropped out of grades 10 through 12 in the 12 months preceding the fall of each data collection year.
source: Catherine Freeman and Mary Ann Fox, "Table 3.3. Percentage of 16- to 24-Year-Olds Who Were High School Dropouts, by Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, 1990 to 2003," in Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005108.pdf (accessed January 19, 2006)
199012.19.013.432.44.916.4*
199211.07.713.729.55.717.5*
199411.47.712.630.05.810.2*
199611.17.313.029.45.313.0*
199811.87.713.829.54.111.8*
200010.96.913.127.83.814.0*
200110.77.310.927.03.613.1*
200210.56.511.325.73.916.8
20039.96.310.923.53.915.0*

According to the NCES in the Digest of Education Statistics, 2004 (2005, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d04/tables/dt04_107.asp), 9.9% of sixteen- to twenty-four-year-olds in 2003 had dropped out of high school. A far lower percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander (3.9%) and white, non-Hispanic students (6.3%) dropped out of high school than did African-American (10.9%), Native American and Alaska Native (15%), or Hispanic students (23.5%). (See Table 3.6.) However, the percentage of dropouts in that age group had decreased for all race and ethnic groups since 1990.

Progress for African-American Students

While the average academic performance of African-American students, in general, remains below that of white students, high school graduation among African-Americans has risen considerably. According to the Digest of Education Statistics, 2004, these figures represent significant improvement since 1960, when 27.2% of all students dropped out of school, and 1975, when 22.9% of African-American students and 29.2% of Hispanic students dropped out of school. The dropout rate has decreased more dramatically for African-American students since 1975 than it has for Hispanic students. In 2003 African-Americans age twenty-five and older were less likely than non-Hispanic whites and Asians and Pacific Islanders to have earned a high school diploma, but they were more likely than Hispanics to have received a diploma. Four in five African-Americans of that age (80%) had received a high school diploma. (See Figure 3.1.)

The Digest of Education Statistics, 2004 also shows that the percent of African-American high school graduates who enrolled in college within the past twelve months fluctuated throughout the period from 1972 through 2003, from a low of 32.5% in 1973 to a high of 61.9% in 1998. In 2003 more than half (57.5%) of African-American students who had completed high school or earned a GED in the past twelve months sought higher education.

Hispanic Educational Attainment Holds Steady

Although Hispanics made modest gains in education in the 1990s, low educational attainment has been a major hindrance to their economic advancement. In 2003 Hispanics continued to trail behind other groups in high school graduation rates. Only 57% of Hispanics age twenty-five and older had received high school diplomas, compared with 89.4% of non-Hispanic whites, 87.6% of Asian-Americans, and 80% of African-Americans. Not surprisingly, in that same year Asians and Pacific Islanders (49.8%), non-Hispanic whites (30%), and African-Americans (17.3%) were all more likely to have graduated from college than were Hispanics (11.4%). (See Figure 3.1.)

Why do Hispanics trail other racial and ethnic groups in educational attainment? A language barrier may be one reason. In 2003, 6.4 million (67.6%) Hispanic students in kindergarten through twelfth grade spoke Spanish at home. Close to two million (21%) Hispanic students spoke English with difficulty—one million (27.3%) Hispanic students age five to nine and 932,000 (16.7%) Hispanic students age ten to seventeen. (See Table 3.7.) The proportion of Hispanic students who spoke English with difficulty was higher than in any other racial or ethnic group.

The U.S. Census Bureau report Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003 (June 2004, http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-550.pdf) points out that between 1993 and 2003 the educational attainment of the Hispanic population had increased. The proportion of Hispanics age twenty-five and older with a high school diploma increased from 53% in 1993 to 57% in 2003; the proportion with some college increased from 26% in 1993 to 30% in 2003; and the proportion who had completed a four-year college degree increased from 9% in 1993 to 11% a decade later. However, all remained lower than for any other race or ethnic group. In addition, the educational attainment of the Hispanic population age twenty-five to twenty-nine was notably lower than for other groups and showed no change between 1993 and 2003.

Native American Educational Attainment Remains Low

Native Americans have the lowest educational attainment of all minority groups, which is attributable in part to a high dropout rate. According to Catherine Freeman and Mary Ann Fox in Status and Trends in the Education of Native Americans and Alaska Natives (August 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005108.pdf), 45,828 students attended Bureau of Indian Affairs schools and tribal schools in 2003–04, while 624,298 Native American and Alaska Native students attended public schools. Native American and Alaska Native eighth graders had the highest rate of absences of any race or ethnic group in the preceding month—65.7% of Native American or Alaska Native students had been absent, compared with 58.4% of Hispanics, 57.2% of whites, 55.6% of African-Americans, and 36.7% of Asians and Pacific Islanders. (See Table 3.8.)

Freeman and Fox report that the Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP), which was established in the late nineteenth century, was working to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for the Native American population. In 2003–04 the OIEP oversaw 184 schools on sixty-three reservations in twenty-three states across the United States. In "Building Exemplary Schools for Tomorrow: 2002 Fingertip Facts" (2002, http://www.nectas.unc.edu/∼pdfs/topics/biaeduc.pdf), the OIEP reports that it convened in January 2001 a group of leaders and educators who developed a set of goals for programs to achieve by 2007. Known as the "Meeting of 100," the group anticipated that by 2007:

TABLE 3.7
Children ages 5-17 who spoke a language other than English at home and who spoke English with difficulty, by selected characteristics, 2003
[In thousands]
Characteristic Number Spoke a language other than English at home Spoke English with difficultya
Total Ages 5-9 Ages 10-17
Number Percent of populationb Number Percent of populationb Number Percent of populationb Number Percent of populationb
aRespondents were asked if each child in the household spoke a language other than English at home. If they answered "yes," they were asked how well each could speak English. Categories used for reporting were "very well," "well," "not well," and "not at all." All those who reported speaking English less than "very well" were considered to have difficulty speaking English.
bPercentage of the total population for that particular subgroup. For example, 18.8 percent of all American Indians spoke a language other than English at home and 2.4 percent of all American Indians spoke a language other than English at home and spoke English with difficulty.
cAny native language spoken by Asian or Pacific Islanders, which linguists classify variously as Sino-Tibetan, Austroasiatic, or Austronesian languages.
dAmerican Indian includes Alaska Native, black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified.
eU.S.-born includes all children born in Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories and those born outside of the United States to American citizens.
f"Near-poor" is defined as 100-199 percent of the poverty level, and "nonpoor" is defined as at least twice the poverty level.
Note: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
source: "Table 5-2. Number and Percentage of Children Ages 5-17 Who Spoke a Language Other than English at Home and Who Spoke English with Difficulty, by Selected Characteristics: 2003," in The Condition of Education 2005, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005094.pdf (accessed December 28, 2005)
    Total 53,023 9,911 18.7 2,915 5.5 1,431 7.2 1,485 4.5
Language spoken at home
Spanish7,0707,070100.02,18030.81,10339.91,07825.0
Other Indo-European1,1071,107100.028325.611630.716722.9
Asian/Pacific Islanderc1,5661,566100.042827.320034.322923.2
Other126126100.01612.8715.8911.1
Race/ethnicityd
American Indian4137818.8102.442.662.3
Asian/Pacific Islander1,9041,23264.734718.216623.218115.2
Black7,8354045.21051.3371.3681.4
White32,0081,6485.14361.41591.42771.4
Hispanic9,4136,36767.61,98021.01,04927.393216.7
    Mexican6,4174,44669.31,49023.282030.966917.8
    Puerto Rican92050554.99710.54111.35510.0
    Cuban20314471.03014.71722.01310.3
    Central or South American1,13794783.328825.313329.415522.7
    Other73632544.27610.43712.4399.0
Citizenshipe
U.S.-born50,3677,66515.21,8993.81,0605.68392.7
Naturalized U.S. citizen46129363.67416.11618.05815.6
Non-U.S. citizen2,1941,95389.094242.935554.658838.0
Poverty statusf
Poor7,9442,28328.787111.045013.74229.0
Near poor11,0643,04927.69688.849711.44717.0
Nonpoor32,5064,27013.19522.94233.75292.5
Region
Northeast9,4221,79219.05235.52316.62914.9
Midwest19,0323,03215.99094.84476.34633.9
South11,9741,1839.93883.21894.21992.6
West12,5953,90431.01,0958.756311.95326.8
  • All children will read independently by third grade.
  • 70% of students will be proficient or advanced in reading and math.
  • The individual student attendance rate will be 90% or better.
  • Students will demonstrate knowledge of their language and culture to improve academic achievement.
  • Enrollment, retention, placement, and graduation rates for postsecondary students will be increased.

REFORMING THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM

No Child Left Behind

In January 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (PL 107-110), which was intended to improve the public school system in the United States and provide educational choice, especially for minority families. The law mandated that all public school students be proficient in reading and math by 2014, with progress measured by the administration of annual standardized tests. In addition, all subgroups—those with certain racial backgrounds, limited English proficiency, disabilities, or low income—must meet the same performance standards as all students. Failure to make adequate yearly progress may result in escalating sanctions against the school, including the payment of transportation costs for students who wished to transfer to better-performing schools, extra tutoring for low-income students, replacement of the school staff, and potentially converting the school to a charter school or even turning to a private company to operate the school.

TABLE 3.8
Percentage distribution of 8th-grade students, by number of days absent from school in the preceding month and race/ethnicity, 2003
Race/ethnicity No absences Once or more absences
source: Catherine Freeman and Mary Ann Fox, "Table 3.1. Percentage Distribution of 8th-Grade Students, by Number of Days Absent from School in the Preceding Month and Race/Ethnicity: 2003," in Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005108.pdf (accessed January 19, 2006)
    Total 43.8 56.3
White, non-Hispanic42.857.2
Black, non-Hispanic44.455.6
Hispanic41.658.4
Asian/Pacific Islander63.336.7
American Indian/Alaska Native34.365.7

Although the NCLB was passed with bipartisan support, critics quickly emerged, including those who charged that the mandate was underfinanced by the Bush administration. More important, they considered the law inflexible and so flawed that it actually undercut the goals it sought to achieve. Some questioned the reliance on high-stakes standardized tests, which forced schools to spend a considerable amount of time preparing students to take the tests, an effort that produced no lasting educational benefit and required a reallocation of resources. In many cases gifted students' programs were cut back. Because low-income, minority gifted students lacked the options of their white counterparts, they were left to languish in classes that failed to stimulate them. Moreover, because of the strict testing requirements, many schools that were regarded as successful by almost all objective measures found themselves designated as failed schools. In some cases a school failed to meet its goal simply because two or three students in a subgroup failed to take a standardized test. In addition, the Center on Education Policy reports in From the Capital to the Classroom: Year 3 of the No Child Left Behind Act (March 2005, http://www.ctredpol.org/pubs/nclby3/press/cep-nclby3_21Mar2005.pdf) that the percentage of the nation's public schools that were identified each year between 2001 and 2004 remained a stable 13%.

A further problem was that minority students who attended schools that were unquestionably substandard found that even if by law they had the right to transfer to another school, there were few places to go. In Chicago, for instance, nineteen thousand students in 2003 asked for transfers to high-performing schools, but there were only one thousand slots. However well intentioned, the NCLB was already proving difficult to implement, demonstrating once again that there were no easy answers to improving the U.S. educational system, especially for minority and low-income students.

In National Assessment of Educational Progress 2005 Mathematics and Reading Trial Urban District Results (December 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/whatsnew/commissioner/remarks2005/12_1_2005.asp), the NCES reports that between 2003 and 2005 no urban school district surveyed showed a significant increase in the average reading score of fourth or eighth graders, or in the percentage of students at or above basic reading skills. Concerning mathematics performance, there were only modest increases in half the urban districts surveyed. This report suggests that the gap between white students and minority students might actually be increasing, despite assertions by the Bush administration that the NCLB has resulted in a narrowing of the gap.

School "Choice"

In The Condition of Education, 2004 (2004, http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004077), the NCES finds that the percentage of parents who enrolled their children in chosen public schools, rather than in their assigned public schools, increased between 1993 and 2003 from 11% to 15.4%. (See Figure 3.2.) More than half the parents surveyed (51%) reported that they had the option to send their children to a chosen public school. Among those parents, 65% sent their children to their assigned public school, while 27% sent their children to a chosen public school. In 2003 African-American students were most likely to attend a chosen public school (24%) and whites were least likely to attend (12.9%), probably because whites were more likely to attend chosen private schools. (See Table 3.9.)

SCHOOL VOUCHERS

Despite the Supreme Court's rejection of segregated schools, many minority students have been relegated to failing neighborhood public schools with little diversity. One proposed solution to this problem is the school voucher, a concept pioneered by the Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman in the 1950s. A voucher program provides parents with a predetermined amount of money—in essence the tax dollars already collected by a community to be used for education—and allows parents to present that voucher to the public or private school of their choice. Proponents for vouchers believe that not only will minority children benefit but also that public schools, fearful of losing tax revenues, will gain an incentive to improve. Opponents of vouchers maintain that "choice" will simply drain money from the public schools and worsen their condition, while not providing real choice for students from impoverished or low-income families.

Vouchers have been used on an experimental basis around the country—mostly in Cleveland, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and in Florida—and have produced mixed results. While some minority children have been able to use vouchers to escape inferior schools, many families still lack the money necessary to educate their children outside of the public system. The value of the vouchers, ranging from $1,250 to $3,700, is simply too small to cover the tuition for most traditional private schools, leading a number of parents to opt for Catholic schools, which can be less expensive. The funding of religious education, though, may not hold up to constitutional scrutiny. In "Vouchers Are Constitutionally Suspect" (2001, http://www.adl.org/vouchers/vouchers_constit_suspect.asp), the Anti-Defamation League states that "voucher programs … would force citizens—Christians, Jews, Muslims and atheists—to pay for the religious indoctrination of school children at schools with narrow parochial agendas. In many areas, 80 percent of vouchers would be used in schools whose central mission is religious training."

Moreover, parents using vouchers incur additional costs, such as transportation and school lunches, that many have found they cannot afford. According to Andrew Stephen in "America—Andrew Stephen on Magic Solutions for US Schools" (New Statesman, December 2002), in Florida "a quarter of the kids who were signed up for vouchers this school year have already found themselves back in the public system." In these cases voucher programs end up not helping low-income children at all but segregating them further in neighborhood public schools while children from higher-income families who can afford the additional costs use the vouchers to attend private schools.

The voucher movement suffered a serious setback on January 5, 2006, when the Florida Supreme Court struck down that state's Opportunity Scholarship voucher system, saying that it violated the constitutional requirement of a uniform system of free public schools. With this argument, the court avoided the controversial issue of whether public school dollars could be used to fund parochial education. The National Education Association reports in "Florida High Court Rules against Vouchers" (January 6, 2005, http://www.nea.org/vouchers/flvou-chers1-06.html) that even supporters of the voucher system in Florida admitted that the court decision most likely threatened the two other voucher programs in use in the state.

CHARTER SCHOOLS

Like vouchers, the idea of charter schools has also found proponents in the minority community. A charter school is publicly financed but operates independent of school districts, thereby combining the advantages of a private school with the free tuition of a public school. Parents, teachers, and other groups receive a "charter" from a state legislature to operate these schools, which in effect exist as independent school districts. They receive public funds and are accountable for both their financing and educational standards.

According to Robin J. Lake and Paul T. Hill in Hopes, Fears, and Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2005 (November 2005, http://www.crpe.org/ncsrp/pubs/2005_report/HopesandFears2005_report.pdf), the charter school experiment started in Minnesota in 1992. By September 2004 almost one million students were enrolled in thirty-three hundred charter schools in forty states and Washington, D.C. As with vouchers, results have been uneven, with a number of notable successes offset by charter schools that failed to improve student achievement. Overall, however, the charter school movement has stood the test of time, and these schools have provided some parents with real options for their children's education.

However, one unintended consequence of charter schools is that they are more segregated than public schools. According to Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee in "Charter Schools and Race: A Lost Opportunity for Integrated Education" (Education Policy AnalysisArchives, September 5, 2003, http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v11n32/), "seventy percent of all black charter school students attend intensely segregated minority schools compared with 34% of black public school students…. The pattern for Latino segregation is mixed; on the whole, Latino charter school students are less segregated than their black counterparts." Frankenberg and Lee report that 70% of African-American charter school students were attending charter schools composed of 90% to 100% minority students. (See Table 3.10.)

TABLE 3.9
Students in grades 1-12 by type of school attended, by student and household characteristics, selected years, 1993–2003
Student or household characteristic Type of school attended by student
Public, assigned Public, chosen
1993 1996 1999 2003 1993 1996 1999 2003
Number of students (thousands)33,90034,60035,80035,3004,7006,2006,8007,400
    Total (percent) 79.9 76.0 75.9 73.9 11.0 13.7 14.5 15.4
Grade level
1-578.674.173.771.611.614.815.316.6
6-881.379.478.675.09.911.211.714.5
9-1280.675.976.976.011.214.115.614.4
Race/ethnicity*
Black77.272.971.568.118.621.522.624.0
White81.077.177.174.78.611.111.512.9
Other73.069.372.670.114.919.017.419.3
Hispanic79.276.477.077.913.716.118.015.1
Family type
Two-parent household80.176.376.873.69.311.712.214.1
One-parent household78.974.674.474.515.218.418.418.3
Nonparent guardians83.780.272.974.713.514.621.720.0
Poverty status
Poor82.677.876.578.213.917.619.318.4
Near-poor82.578.678.477.011.114.015.716.7
Nonpoor77.274.074.671.49.711.711.914.0
Parents' education
Less than high school83.678.879.677.613.717.417.819.7
High school diploma or equivalent83.582.180.379.311.412.314.315.8
Some college, including vocational/technical79.876.477.475.811.114.715.215.8
Bachelor's degree75.870.771.569.09.213.113.113.7
Graduate/professional degree72.766.168.166.29.812.613.114.1
Region
Northeast77.874.374.173.59.312.913.711.6
South82.078.777.675.910.912.513.515.8
Midwest79.675.476.071.610.412.413.514.4
West78.774.074.873.613.417.718.118.6
Community type
Urban, inside of urbanized areas75.171.071.270.613.516.316.616.4
Urban, outside of urbanized areas86.681.281.678.87.710.712.013.5
Rural87.784.984.682.06.89.210.613.1

MINORITIES AND COLLEGE

Preparation for College

Most groups of minority students, except for Asian-American students, are at a disadvantage when applying to college. In 2005 the average grade point average (GPA) of most minority groups who took the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) was lower than 3.30, the average GPA of all students who took the SAT. The average GPA of African-American students was 0.31 lower than the average GPA, the average of Puerto Rican students was 0.19 lower, the average of other Hispanic students was 0.14 lower, the average of Native American students was 0.08 lower, and the average of Mexican American students was 0.07 lower. While Native American and African-American students narrowed the gap between their average GPA and the overall average GPA from 1995 to 2005, the gap between the GPA of all Hispanic groups and the overall average GPA actually widened. (See Figure 3.3.)

Asian-American students' average GPA remained higher than the average GPA of all students and higher than the GPA of white students in 2005—Asian-American students' GPAs were 0.09 higher than the average, while white students' GPAs were 0.07 higher than the average. The gap between Asian-American and white students' average GPAs, however, actually narrowed between 1995 and 2005. (See Figure 3.3.)

TABLE 3.9
Students in grades 1-12 by type of school attended, by student and household characteristics, selected years, 1993–2003 [continued]
Student or household characteristic Type of school attended by student
Private church-related Private not church-related
1993 1996 1999 2003 1993 1996 1999 2003
*Black includes African American and Hispanic includes Latino. Other includes Asian/Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian, American Indian, Alaska Native, and more than one race. Racial categories exclude Hispanic origin.
Note: Includes homeschooled students enrolled in public or private schools for 9 or more hours per week. Excludes students classified as "ungraded." Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
source: "Table 25-1. Number and Percentage Distributions of Students in Grades 1-12 by Type of School Attended, by Student and Household Characteristics: Selected Years 1993–2003," in The Condition of Education 2004, National Center for Education Statistics, 2004, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2004/pdf/25_2004.pdf (accessed December 29, 2005)
Number of students (thousands)3,2003,7003,4004,0007001,0001,1001,100
    Total (percent) 7.5 8.0 7.3 8.4 1.6 2.3 2.3 2.4
Grade level
1-58.38.98.69.71.52.22.52.1
6-87.47.47.57.91.52.02.22.5
9-126.57.35.36.91.82.72.32.6
Race/ethnicity*
Black3.44.24.45.70.81.41.62.2
White8.69.28.79.71.82.72.72.7
Other9.09.56.97.23.12.23.13.4
Hispanic6.46.33.96.20.71.31.10.8
Family type
Two-parent household8.89.58.49.71.82.42.52.6
One-parent household4.85.05.25.31.11.92.11.9
Nonparent guardians2.12.34.13.70.72.91.21.5
Poverty status
Poor3.03.02.52.60.51.51.60.9
Near-poor5.86.24.94.60.61.21.01.7
Nonpoor10.611.210.311.62.63.23.23.1
Parents' education
Less than high school2.42.01.72.10.21.80.90.6
High school diploma or equivalent4.65.04.13.70.50.71.31.2
Some college, including vocational/technical7.77.16.06.71.41.81.41.7
Bachelor's degree12.513.012.514.52.63.32.92.8
Graduate/professional degree13.115.312.814.14.46.06.15.6
Region
Northeast10.59.28.711.02.43.63.63.9
South5.46.46.46.11.72.42.52.1
Midwest9.210.99.312.10.81.31.21.9
West6.56.34.95.81.52.02.32.0
Community type
Urban, inside of urbanized areas9.510.09.210.11.92.73.02.9
Urban, outside of urbanized areas4.96.95.06.20.81.11.41.5
Rural4.33.93.73.81.21.91.11.1

In addition, the percentage of college-bound minority students who took challenging courses during their senior year to prepare for college was lower than the percentage of college-bound white students. Asian-American students proved the exception—65% of Asian-American college-bound seniors took physics, 62% took precalculus, and 44% took calculus. In contrast, among college-bound African-American seniors, only 41% took physics, 32% took precalculus, and 14% took calculus. Among college-bound Native Americans, only 44% took physics, 39% took precalculus, and 20% took calculus. Among college-bound Mexican Americans, 47% took physics, 47% took precalculus, and 19% took calculus. The percentages were similar for other Hispanic groups. (See Figure 3.4.) All these minority groups took these challenging courses at rates lower than that of white students, but African-American students took them at the lowest rate of all.

SAT and ACT Scores

Students wishing to enter most colleges and universities in the United States must take the SAT or the ACT Assessment (formerly the American College Test). These are standardized tests intended to measure verbal and mathematical ability to determine readiness for college-level work. Most students take the SAT. Performance on
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the SAT is measured in two areas, each on a scale of 200 to 800. A written essay portion was added to the SAT in 2005.

TABLE 3.10
Percentage distribution of students attending public charter schools, by entity granting school charter and race, 2000–01
Charter Public
50-100% Minority 90-100% Minority 50-100% Minority 90-100% Minority
source: Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee, "Table 3. Percentage of Charter and Public School Students in Segregated Minority Schools, by Race/Ethnicity, 2000–01," in Charter Schools and Race: A Lost Opportunity for Integrated Education, Harvard University, The Civil Rights Project, July 2003, http://www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu/research/deseg/Charter_Schools03.pdf (accessed December 29, 2005)
White172131
Black89707134
Latino78427737
Asian57215614
Native American65454719

Historically, minority students have not scored as well on the SAT as white students, but gains have been made since 1995. In 2005 the average score for the verbal portion of the SAT among whites was 532, compared with 511 for Asians and Pacific Islanders, 489 for Native Americans and Alaska Natives, and 433 for African-Americans. Among Hispanic subgroups, Mexican Americans averaged 453 on the verbal portion of the test, Puerto Ricans averaged 460, and the rest of the Hispanic subgroups combined for an average of 463. However, only Mexican Americans and other Hispanics failed to see gains from 1995 to 2005, while the gain for African-Americans was modest. (See Table 3.11.)

Mathematics scores were better in 2005 than they were in 1995 for all minority groups. In 2005 Asians and Pacific Islanders scored the highest by far on the math portion of the test, with an average score of 580. Whites scored an average of 536, Native Americans and Alaska Natives 493, Mexican Americans 463, Puerto Ricans 457, other Hispanics 469, and African-Americans 431. (See Table 3.11.)

Minority College Attendance

Generally, minority enrollment in colleges and universities has grown ever since racial and ethnic enrollment statistics were first reported in 1976. Although these gains are encouraging, they must be viewed in the context of overall participation rates in higher education and degree completion rates.

In October 2003 six out of ten (60.3%) Asians and Pacific Islanders ages eighteen to twenty-four were enrolled in colleges and universities, the largest proportion of all race and ethnic groups, compared with four out of ten (41.6%) white, non-Hispanic people ages eighteen to twenty-four. Other minority groups had significantly
[Image Not Available]
[Image Not Available]
lower enrollment rates. Almost one-third (32.3%) of African-Americans, 23.5% of Hispanics, and 17.7% of Native Americans and Alaska Natives in that age group were enrolled in colleges and universities. (See Table 3.12.)

Earning Bachelor's Degrees

College participation rates are telling, but so, too, are college completion rates. A number of students begin college, only to drop out before receiving a bachelor's degree. In 2003, 50.2% of African-Americans between the ages of twenty-five and twenty-nine had completed some college, while only 17.2% had actually graduated with a four-year degree. Among Hispanics in this age group, 31.1% had completed some college, while only 10% had received a bachelor's degree. Among both these minority groups, about two out of three students who began college failed to complete it. Among Asian-Americans in this age group, 81.2% had completed some college, and 61.6% had received a four-year degree—the highest completion rate of any race or ethnic group. (See Figure 3.1.)

TABLE 3.12
Percentage of persons ages 18-24 enrolled in colleges or universities, by race/ethnicity, October 2003
Race/ethnicity Enrolled
*Includes other race/ethnicity categories not separately shown.
source: Catherine Freeman and Mary Ann Fox, "Table 7.1b. Percentage of Persons Ages 18 to 24 Enrolled in Colleges or Universities, by Race/Ethnicity: October 2003," in Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005108.pdf (accessed January 19, 2006)
    Total* 37.8
White, non-Hispanic41.6
Black, non-Hispanic32.3
Hispanic23.5
Asian/Pacific Islander60.3
American Indian/Alaska Native17.7

Affirmative Action

In the landmark 1978 affirmative action case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (438 US 265), the U.S. Supreme Court allowed race and ethnicity to be considered in college admissions in the interest of racial and ethnic diversity on U.S. college campuses. This led many schools to take special steps to boost the number of minorities that they admitted, a process commonly called affirmative action.

Over time, many people came to see affirmative action as a negative policy. Their reasons varied, but a common complaint was that affirmative action allowed some minority students to get into colleges even when their test scores and high school grades were below what those colleges would accept from white students. In June 1996 Pete Wilson, the governor of California, urged California voters to support the California Civil Rights Initiative (Proposition 209), a proposal to eliminate affirmative action in higher-education enrollment. In November 1996 California voters approved Proposition 209, which prohibited public universities from considering race and ethnicity when deciding on admissions. Sheila O'Rourke reports in "Strategies for Achieving Faculty Diversity at the University of California in a Post-Proposition 209 Legal Climate" (2002, http://www.oma.umn.edu/kof/pdf/209.pdf) that in 1997, the last year that the University of California (UC) considered race and ethnicity in its admissions process, 7,236 students from underrepresented minority groups (Native Americans, African-Americans, and Hispanics) were admitted, accounting for 17.9% of total admissions. In 1998, the first year of admissions after Proposition 209 went into effect, the proportion of underrepresented minorities dropped to 15.5%.

In March 1996, in the case Hopwood v. Texas (78 F.3d 932), often called Bakke II, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously ruled that the University of Texas (UT) School of Law was discriminating against white students by using race or ethnicity as a factor in admissions. Four white applicants charged that less-qualified African-American and Hispanic students had been accepted instead of them because of racial preference on the part of UT. The appeals court ruled that colleges could not give preferences to minority students, even for what it called "the wholesome practice of correcting perceived racial imbalance in the student body." In the opinion of the appeals court, "any consideration of race or ethnicity by the law school for the purpose of achieving a diverse student body is not a compelling interest under the Fourteenth Amendment." The Hopwood decision applied to all public universities in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. In Texas, Attorney General Dan Morales applied the admissions ruling to include financial aid and scholarships.

This decision negatively affected the number of underrepresented minority students at the UT School of Law. According to Lydia Lum in "Minority Rolls Cut by Hopwood" (Houston Chronicle, September 1997, http://www.chron.com/cgi-bin/auth/story/content/chronicle/metropolitan/97/09/16/hopwood.2-0.html), in 1997, following the decision affecting the law school, out of five hundred incoming students, only four African-American students and twenty-six Mexican Americans were enrolled, down from thirty-one African-Americans and forty-two Mexican Americans the previous year. At the undergraduate levels, public universities throughout Texas also saw a drop in minority applications. Texas A&M University registered nearly 15% fewer Hispanics and 23% fewer African-Americans.

PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES RESPOND

In 1998 the UT system became the first public university to grant automatic admission to first-time freshmen based on class rank. Under Texas Education Code 51.803, students who graduate in the top 10% of their class from an accredited Texas high school are guaranteed admission to UT. Because some high schools have large minority populations, state officials hoped that more minority students would be admitted to state universities. After initial declines in minority enrollment, UT announced in early 2003 that Hispanic enrollment had returned to the pre-Hopwood level and that African-American enrollment was nearing its 1996 level.

In March 1999 UC regents approved a similar admission policy called Eligibility in the Local Context (ELC). Under the ELC, students graduating in the top 4% of their class in California high schools are eligible for admission to one of UC's undergraduate campuses. The ELC was implemented starting with freshmen applicants in the fall of 2001.

Supreme Court Affirms Racial Preferences

In June 2003 the Supreme Court made two separate rulings on the admission practices at the University of Michigan's undergraduate college and its law school. The undergraduate college used a point system in an effort to achieve diversity in the student body, awarding twenty points on a scale of 150 to African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The Court rejected this system, maintaining that it was too broad and too much like a quota, ruling that it violated the equal protection clause in the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. By contrast, the University of Michigan law school weighed race and ethnicity along with a number of other admissions factors. The Court deemed this approach legal in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), because it furthered "a compelling interest in obtaining education benefits that flow from a diverse student body." As a result, the Court upheld the concept of race-conscious admissions, but the nuanced approach to admissions that the Court found acceptable left the door open for further lawsuits. While smaller schools can devote more time and attention to individual applicants, larger institutions still face the problem of how to use race and ethnicity as a factor in screening many applications without assigning a numerical value to it.

Tribal Colleges

Special postsecondary institutions, collectively known as tribal colleges, were established to prepare Native American and Alaska Native students with the skills most needed on reservations, while at the same time preserving their culture. Usually situated in areas where the students cannot otherwise pursue education beyond high school, these colleges all offer associate's degrees. In addition, some offer bachelor's and master's degrees.

Tribal colleges offer courses ranging from teaching and nursing to secretarial skills and computer science that meet the needs of specific communities. Besides tribal languages, traditional subjects are a part of the curricula. According to the American Indian Higher Education Consortium in Tribal Colleges: An Introduction (February 1999, http://www.ihep.com/Pubs/PDF/Intro.pdf), an example is a traditional tribal literature class offered by Bay Mills Community College in Brimley, Michigan, "only in the winter term because the stories are supposed to be told when snow is on the ground."

Freeman and Fox report that in the fall of 2002, 15,837 students were enrolled in tribal colleges—82.2% of them were Native American or Alaska Native. Eight percent of all Native American or Alaska Native college students were enrolled in tribally controlled colleges. Rising enrollment figures suggest that these schools do meet the unique needs of Native American students. Enrollment in tribally controlled colleges increased at a faster rate between 1997 and 2002 (32%) than did Native American and Alaska Native enrollment in college generally (16%).

Black Colleges and Universities

More than one hundred institutions known as historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) exist in the United States. The state with the largest number of HBCUs (fourteen) is Alabama. North Carolina and Georgia are home to eleven institutions each, while another nine are located in Texas. The NCES reports in Fall Enrollment in Degree-Granting Historically Black Colleges and Universities, by Type and Control of Institution and Race/Ethnicity of Student: Various Years, 1976–2001 (April 2004, http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/AnnualReports/reports.asp?type=historically&pagetype=text) that in 2001, the last year for which data are available, 248,295 minority students, 238,638 of them African-American, were enrolled in these institutions.

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Education

16
Education

Jessie Carney Smith

Educational Opportunities in Colonial America

African American Educational Institutions in the Nineteenth Century

Philanthropy and Education

African American Education in the Twentieth Century

Current Educational Trends

Administrators, Educators, and Scholars

Historically and Predominantly African American Colleges and Universities

Research Institutions

African Americans Holding Endowed University Chairs, Chairs of Excellence, or Chaired Professorships (2007)

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN COLONIAL AMERICA

Historically, the attainment of education for African Americans has been a struggle. As far back as the late 1600s to the mid-1700s, there is some evidence of sporadic, systematic instruction of Africans in colonial America. Prior to 1830, some were even taught to read, write, and, in some instances, perform simple arithmetic. However, between 1830 and 1835, stringent laws were passed prohibiting whites from teaching African Americans to read and write. In spite of these laws though, many individuals struggled to provide informal and formal education to African Americans. In addition, churches and charitable organizations also played an important role in the creation of educational institutions for African Americans in the United States.

EARLY CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY ENDEAVORS

Early attempts to educate African Americans can be traced back to the missionary efforts of Christian churches in the early 1600s. French Catholics in Louisiana were probably the earliest group to provide instruction to African American laborers. Although the primary goal was to convert them to Christianity, the process often involved general education. In addition, the French code noir, a system of laws, made it incumbent upon masters to educate slaves.

Pennsylvania Quakers, who were opposed to the institution of slavery, organized monthly educational meetings for African Americans during the early 1700s, so that they might have the opportunity for improvement. One such Quaker, Anthony Benezet, established an evening school in his home in 1750 that was successful until 1760. In 1774 Quakers in Philadelphia joined together to open a school for African Americans.

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, organized by the Church of England in 1701 for the purpose of converting African slaves to Christianity, was another organization that provided educational opportunities to African Americans. In 1751 the Society sent Joseph Ottolenghi to convert and educate African Americans in Georgia. Ottolenghi “promised to spare no pains to improve the young children.”

AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

AFRICAN FREE SCHOOLS IN NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA

Similar to the churches, the anti-slavery movement played an important part in the creation of schools. In 1787 the Manumission Society founded the New York African Free School; by 1820 more than 500 African American children were enrolled. Support increased as other African Free Schools were established in New York until 1834 when the New York Common Council took over control of the schools.

In the North, there were opportunities for elementary education for African Americans in mostly segregated schools or in schools run in conjunction with African American churches. For example, in 1804 African Episcopalians in Philadelphia organized a school for African American children. In 1848 an African American industrial training school opened in Philadelphia at the House of Industry. Other schools in operation in Philadelphia included the Corn Street Unclassified School (1849), the Holmesburg Unclassified School (1854), and the Home for Colored Children (1859). By the mid-1860s, there were 1,031 pupils in the African American public schools of Philadelphia: 748 in the charity schools; 211 in the benevolent schools, and 331 in private schools. However, high schools in the North were almost inaccessible to African Americans in much of the nineteenth century.

FREEDMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS AND AGENCIES

At the close of the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of newly-freed African Americans were left without homes and adequate resources. As a means for providing temporary assistance to the former slaves, numerous organizations were formed. The American Missionary Association (AMA), established on September 3, 1846, had maintained an interest in African American education before and after the war. The AMA opened its first school for newly-freed slaves on September 17, 1861, at Fortress Monroe, Virginia. Mary S. Peake became the first teacher in an AMA school. The AMA also established a network of elementary schools, normal schools, and colleges throughout the South. In time, however, most of these schools were absorbed into local and state systems of education. Following the AMA’s early efforts, other voluntary and denominational groups responded to the need for freedmen’s aid and sent teachers into the Southern and border states, established elementary schools on plantations, in small towns, and in larger cities in the South. Although most of the schools were to be racially integrated, few whites attended.

The New England Freedmen’s Aid Society, organized in Boston on February 7, 1862, was founded to promote education among free African Americans. Supporters of the organization included Edward Everett Hale, Samuel Cabot, Charles Bernard, William Lloyd Garrison, and William Cullen Bryant. In New York, a similar organization was founded on February 20, 1862, the National Freedmens Relief Association. The Port Royal Relief Committee, later known as the Pennsylvania Freedmens Relief Association, founded in Philadelphia on March 3, 1862, followed this trend. In 1863 several of these organizations merged to form the United States Commission for the Relief of the National Freedmen, which, in 1865, became the American Freedman’s Aid Union.

The federal government responded to the needs of African Americans in the South. During the 1860s, Congress passed several Freedman’s Bureau Acts, creating and financing an agency designed to provide temporary assistance to newly freed slaves. Under the acts, the bureau’s chief functions were to provide food, clothing, and medical supplies. Working in conjunction with various benevolent organizations, Bureau Commissioner General Oliver Otis Howard established and maintained schools and managed to provide for teachers. By 1870 the Freedman’s Bureau operated over 2,600 schools in the South with 3,300 teachers educating 150,000 students; almost 4,000 schools were in operation prior to the abolition of the agency.

INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

The education of African Americans has been largely a function of independent schools, private institutions founded to meet the educational and employment needs of African Americans. In the second half of the century, these schools filled the gap until African American land grant colleges were founded in 1890. They also supplied many of the African American teachers in the South.

One of the earliest surviving African American independent schools, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), was established in 1881 by an act of the Alabama general assembly. Booker T. Washington, the school’s organizer and first principal, established a curriculum that provided African American students with the means to become economically self-supporting.

Similarly, other independent schools developed around the country. In a lecture room at the Christ Presbyterian Church, Lucy C. Laney opened what would become the Haines Normal and Industrial Institute in Savannah, Georgia in 1883. In 1901 Nannie Helen Burroughs founded the National Training School for Women and Girls in Washington, D.C. By the end of the first year the school had enrolled 31 students; 25 years later more than 2,000

women had trained at the school. In Sedalia, North Carolina, Charlotte Hawkins Brown founded the Palmer Memorial Institute in 1901.

With only $1.50 and five students, Mary McLeod Bethune founded Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Girls (now Bethune-Cookman College) in 1904 in Daytona Beach, Florida. Nineteen years later, the institute merged with the Cookman Institute of Jacksonville, Florida, founded in 1872 by D.S.B. Darnell. Over 2,000 students now study at Bethune-Cookman College.

EARLY AFRICAN AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Lincoln University in Pennsylvania (founded in 1854 as Ashmun Institute) and Wilberforce University (founded in 1856) are often regarded as the oldest of the historically African American institutions of higher education. Wilberforce College, as the latter school was first known, was founded in 1856 by the African Methodist Episcopal Church and named for the English abolitionist William Wilberforce. The school awarded its first degree in 1857. Wilberforce and Lincoln were the first African American colleges to remain in their original location and to develop into degree-granting institutions. The oldest institution in operation today, however, is Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (earlier known as the Institute for Colored Youth and, eventually, Cheyney State College), which was founded in 1837. The primary purpose of these institutions was to train African American youth for service as teachers and ministers.

Between 1865 and 1871, several predominantly African American institutions of higher learning were founded, including Atlanta University (now Clark-Atlanta University), Shaw University and Virginia Union University (1865); Fisk University and Lincoln Institute in Missouri (now Lincoln University) (1866); Talladega College, Augusta Institute (now Morehouse College), Biddle University (now Johnson C. Smith University), Howard University and Scotia Seminary (now Barber-Scotia College) (1867); Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) (1868); Tougaloo College (1869); Alcorn College (now Alcorn State University) and Benedict College (1871). Religious organizations were instrumental in the founding and supporting of these early African American institutions. The Freedmen’s Bureau either founded or aided in the development of Howard University, St. Augustine’s College, Lincoln Institute in Missouri, and Storer College (now merged with Virginia Union University). The American Missionary Association founded seven African American colleges; the first of these was Hampton. Other AMA-founded institutions were Atlanta, Fisk, LeMoyne (now LeMoyne-Owen College), Straight (now merged with New Orleans University to become Dillard University), Talladega, Tillotson College (now Huston-Tillotson), and Tougaloo. Benedict College, Shaw University, and Virginia Union were founded and supported by the American Baptist Home Mission Society.

Alcorn College (now Alcorn State University), founded in 1871, was the first African American land grant college. This was made possible under the Morrill Act of 1862, which provided federal land grant funds for higher education. In 1890 Congress passed the second Morrill Act, also known as the Land Grant Act of 1890. The second act stipulated that no federal aid was to be provided for the creation or maintenance of any white agricultural and mechanical school unless that state also provided for a similar school for African Americans. As a result, a system of separate, African American land grant institutions developed and became the basis of publicly-supported higher education of African Americans in the South.

African American colleges offered diversity in history, purpose, and curriculums. For example, early in their history, some African American colleges prepared their students for careers in medicine and medical-related fields. Those that prepared students for degrees in dentistry and medicine included Howard University, Meharry Medical College, Shaw University, and New Orleans Medical School. The nation’s only degree program in veterinary medicine among historically African American colleges and universities is still offered at Tuskegee University. Bennett College (founded 1873) and Spelman College (founded 1881) are the only two African American women’s colleges. At first coeducational, Bennett became a women’s two-year college in 1926. Xavier (founded in 1925) is the nation’s only Catholic-supported college for African Americans.

By 1900 there were some 34 African American institutions in the United States for higher education and more than 2,000 African Americans with earned degrees.

PHILANTHROPY AND EDUCATION

Pre-Civil War efforts did not fully address the educational needs and desires of African Americans, especially concerning the freed slaves. Northern philanthropy took up some of the burden of improving African American education. Agencies of the antebellum period aided in educating African Americans through their support of private and sectarian schools before and after the Civil War. By the end of the war, however, the South—the region where African Americans were concentrated—still had not addressed the educational needs of African Americans. Neither the newly-freed slaves nor their children had access to free public education. In 1867, a new type of support for education began when Massachusetts merchant George Peabody established the first educational philanthropy in the country. In his concern for the desolate South, he created the Peabody Education Fund to benefit “elementary education to children of the common people.” The fund later was credited with stimulating states to develop systems of free schools for the races, “creating favorable public opinion to levy tax to support the schools, and stimulating the development of state teachers associations and normal schools.”

So successful was the Peabody effort that in 1882 Connecticut manufacturer John F. Slater, impressed with the developments, created the Slater Fund to uplift the “lately emancipated” people of the South, thus becoming the first philanthropy devoted to the education of African Americans. Through the fund’s efforts, private African American colleges and four-year high schools for African Americans were developed. The Fund stimulated vocational and industrial training and established the idea of county training schools. The Daniel Hand Fund, established in 1888, provided for the education of “needy and indigent” African Americans in the South; it was entrusted to the American Missionary Association. By 1914 the Peabody and Slater funds worked in similar areas; Peabody then transferred its assets to Slater.

Anna T. Jeanes further advanced the education of African Americans by giving $1 million to Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee Institute and Hollis B. Frissell of the Hampton Institute to strengthen rural schools for African Americans in the South in 1907. The gift established the Fund for Rudimentary Schools for Southern Negroes, known as the Jeanes Fund. Initially the Fund supported “industrial teachers” who moved from school to school in the South teaching industrial and utilitarian subjects. The concept was expanded to provide master teachers, known as “Jeanes teachers,” to supervise the African American schools. Later the program added new teaching methods, organized in-service training for teachers, and generally

improved instruction. The program lasted from 1908 until 1968, when counties took over the Jeanes teachers’ work and paid their salaries. Much of the credit for the program was due to Virginia E. Randolph, the first Jeanes teacher. In recognition of her work, the Jeanes teachers established the Virginia Randolph Fund to supplement the Jeanes Fund in 1936.

The Jeanes Fund and the Slater Fund, then working in similar areas, merged in 1937 to form the Southern Education Foundation (SEF). Later that year the Virginia Randolph Fund was incorporated into the SEF. The SEF extended the work of the predecessor funds and ensured that innovative approaches to the education of African Americans continued. From 1937 to 1950, the SEF concentrated on supporting the Jeanes teachers. It also worked with such agencies as the General Education Board (GEB), the Julius Rosenwald Fund, the Carnegie Corporation, and State Agents for Negro Schools. The GEB was a source of support for African American colleges, library collections, and, sometimes, library buildings. It also supported African American teachers and other aspects of education and welfare for African Americans. In its 31-year history, the Julius Rosenwald Fund, established in 1917, helped to build more than 5,000 rural schools for African Americans as a part of regular school systems in 15 Southern states. In various villages and counties, blacks and whites raised additional funds to support these schools. The fund also strengthened African American higher education. Early on, the Carnegie Corporation had provided grants to the Slater

and Jeanes programs. Later, the corporation built African American branches of public libraries in various cities in the South. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, several African American colleges received funds from the Carnegie Corporation and Andrew Carnegie himself to support the erection of library buildings. They included the institutions of Atlanta, Cheyney, Fisk, Howard, Tuskegee, and Wilberforce.

In addition, the SEF worked to prepare the South to resolve racial problems. When the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision was rendered in 1954, bringing about desegregation of public education, the SEF contributed to the decision by conducting studies of African American education in the South largely through support of the Ford Foundation. Its efforts to desegregate public education continued: those Southern states that failed to desegregate higher education were challenged by the lawsuit originally known as Adams v. Richardson. The SEF supported the Legal Defense Fund in litigation and helped dismantle the dual system of public education. It also supported conferences, studies, and publications dealing with desegregation of higher education. Its report Miles to Go, published in 1998, is an example of the SEF’s efforts. The study found that over two decades of efforts to desegregate higher education has left blacks in the South and elsewhere out of pace with whites in undergraduate and graduate school enrollment, rates of graduation, faculty diversity, among other areas.

Located in Atlanta since 1948, the SEF is now a public charity that has several interests including programs to increase the supply of minority teachers in the South and to strengthen African American colleges. The SEF, its predecessor agencies, and other private and public agencies, figure prominently in the history and progress of African American education.

AFRICAN AMERICAN EDUCATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

EARLY PROMOTERS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES

From its beginnings, the purpose of African American studies has been to disseminate knowledge about the social, cultural, political, and historical experiences of Africans.

One of the forerunners in the field of African American studies, theologian and educator Reverend Alexander Crummell, along with a group of African American intellectuals, founded the American Negro Academy in Washington, D.C., in 1897. The purpose of the organization was to foster scholarship and promote literature, science, and art, among African Americans. The organization’s members hoped that through the academy, an educated African American elite would shape and direct society. Crummell first conceived the idea of an American Negro Academy while a student at Cambridge University in England. The organization’s founding members included Paul Laurence Dunbar, William Sanders Scarborough, and W.E.B. Du Bois, among other noted educators. Following Crummell’s death in 1908, Du Bois was elected president of the academy.

In September of 1915, Carter G. Woodson, a Harvard Ph.D. graduate, organized the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History). The association’s primary purpose was to promote research, encourage the study of African American history, and to publish material on African American history. In 1916, the organization began publishing the Journal of Negro History, for which Woodson served as editor until his death in 1950.

Other early scholars of African American studies include: sociologist E. Franklin Frazier (1894–1963); John Edward Bruce (1856–1924); Arthur Schomburg (1874–1938), founder of the Negro Society for Historical Research (1911); and Alain Locke (1885–1954), founder of the Associates in Negro Folk Education (1934).

THE END OF LEGAL SEGREGATION IN PUBLIC EDUCATION

In the years that followed the United States Supreme Court’s 1896 ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation in public education became the general practice. Prior to the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas African American children were often subjected to inferior educational facilities. However, by the 1930s, a string of school desegregation cases reached the Court.

When Lloyd Lionel Gaines, an African American, had been refused admission to the law school of the State University of Missouri in 1936, he applied to state courts for an order to compel admission on the grounds that refusal constituted a denial of his rights under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. At that time, the state of Missouri maintained a practice of providing funds for African Americans to attend graduate and professional schools outside of the state, rather than provide facilities itself. The university defended its action by maintaining that Lincoln University, a predominantly African American institution, would eventually establish its own law school, which Gaines could then attend. Until then the state would allow him to exercise the option of pursuing his studies outside the state on a scholarship. Ruling in the case Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada in 1938, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states were required to provide equal educational facilities for African Americans within its borders.

Taking an even greater step, in 1950 the United States Supreme Court ruled that a separate law school for African Americans provided by the state of Texas violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. According to the Court, Herman Marion Sweat’s rights were violated when he was refused admission to the law school of the University of Texas on the grounds that substantially equivalent facilities were already available to African Americans at another Texas school. Ruling in the case Sweatt v. Painter, the Court ruled that the petitioner be admitted to the University of Texas Law School since “in terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the

library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior.”

In 1952, five different cases, all dealing with segregation in public schools, reached the United States Supreme Court. Four of the cases Brown v. Board of Education (out of Kansas), Briggs v. Elliott (out of South Carolina), Davis v. Prince Edward County School Board (out of Virginia), and Gebhart v. Belton (out of Delaware) were considered together; the fifth case Bolling v. Sharpe, coming out of the District of Columbia, was considered separately since the District is not a state.

After hearing initial arguments, the Court found itself unable to reach a decision. In 1953, the Court heard re-argument. Thurgood Marshall, legal consul for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, presented arguments on behalf of the African American students. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that segregation in all public education deprived minority children of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. (In the Bolling case, the Court determined that segregation violated provisions of the Fifth Amendment, since the Fourteenth Amendment is expressly directed to the states.)

AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Many African American students choose to attend Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs); these schools continue to account for a significant number of African American graduates. According to reports from the U.S. Department of Education, fall enrollment at two-year and four-year HBCUs stood at 274,212 students in 1999. In 1964, over 51 percent of all African Americans in college were still enrolled in historically African American colleges and universities. By 1970 the proportion was 28 percent; 16.5 percent by the fall of 1978; and 6.2 percent by 1998. Yet despite the decline in percentages, as recently as 1999–2000, 24 percent of all African Americans

receiving baccalaureate degrees earned them at HBCUs. In 2000, Florida A&M University was the leading producer of African Americans receiving baccalaureate degrees. Between 1991 and 1995, Fisk University was grouped with such large institutions as the University of Michigan, Harvard University, and University of California, Berkeley in the number of African American undergraduates who went on to earn doctorates from the 13 most productive schools. Xavier University in New Orleans has led all colleges and universities in the number of African American students accepted into medical school each year since 1995. The academic and historical significance of HBCUs was honored in 2001 as President George W. Bush proclaimed September 24–30, 2001, National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week.

The racial composition of some African American colleges has changed dramatically; some of these colleges now have a predominantly white student body. Mandated by court order to raise its white population to 50 percent, the enrollment at Tennessee State University in 1998 was about 30 percent white. Those historically African American institutions with predominantly white enrollments by 1998 are Lincoln University in Missouri (72 percent white), Bluefield State College in West Virginia (89 percent white), and West Virginia State University (85 percent white).

INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS

For years independent schools have been founded in order to exert greater control, ensure quality in education, and to meet the needs of African American children.

In 1932, in order to promote religious growth in the African American Muslim community, the Nation of Islam founded the University of Islam, an elementary and secondary school to educate African American Muslim children in Detroit. Clara Muhammad, wife of Elijah Muhammad, served as the school’s first instructor. In 1934 a second school was opened in Chicago; by 1965 schools were operating in Atlanta and Washington, D.C. The current system of African American Muslim schools, named for Clara Muhammad, is an outgrowth of the earlier University of Islam. There are currently 38 Sister Clara Muhammad schools in the United States.

Gertrude Wilks and other African American community leaders in East Palo Alto, California, organized the Nairobi Day School, a Saturday school in 1966. In 1969 the school became a full-time school. It closed in 1984.

Also founded as a Saturday school program in 1972, the New Concept Development Center in Chicago set out to create an educational institution which promoted self-respect, cooperation, and an awareness of African American history and culture. In 1975 public school teacher and nurse, Marva Collins founded the Westside Preparatory School in Chicago.

In recent years, the educational and social needs of urban youth, particularly African American males, have been given increased attention. Studies show that nearly 40 percent of adult African American males are functionally illiterate, and that the number of African American males incarcerated far outnumbers the number of African American males in college. Addressing these issues, large urban school systems, including Baltimore, Detroit, and Milwaukee, have attempted to create programs that focus on the needs of African American males.

Although African American students have shown improved performance on achievement tests, gaps between black and white students still exist. Progress has been made in the quality of education for African American children, yet inadequacies remain in the provision of resources for the education of African Americans. In recent years, efforts at creating alternative schools designed to meet the needs of African American children and to reflect the culture and social experiences of African Americans have received increased attention. In 1999 the Institute for Independent Education, an organization providing technical assistance to independent neighborhood schools, reported that an estimated 60,000 African American children attended independent community-based schools in the United States.

CURRENT EDUCATIONAL TRENDS

AFROCENTRISM

An educational methodology that has sparked both widespread praise and criticism is Afrocentrism. Afrocentrism is based, in part, on the belief that the ancient Greeks stole most of their great philosophical and mathematical thought from the Egyptians, an African people, that the Greek philosopher Aristotle gleaned much of his philosophy from books plundered from the Egyptian city of Alexandria, and that the notable Greek philosopher Socrates was black. Afrocentrists claim that the current educational system in America is deeply flawed and promotes white supremacy. It teaches history, arts, science, and other disciplines from a purely traditional European point of view, while African contributions to these fields of endeavor are ignored entirely or given inadequate consideration. Proponents of Afrocentrism theorize that teaching African American children from an African-centered perspective through the championing of black culture, history, and achievement will increase their feelings of self-worth and give them a greater sense of identity and ethnic pride.

The doctrine of Afrocentrism is not a new phenomenon. Such notable early twentieth century African Americans as activist Marcus Garvey and scholar Carter G. Woodson were among its most ardent supporters. Today, Afrocentrism is championed by African American scholars including, most prominently, Molefi K. Asante. Others include Leonard Jeffries, Asa Hillard, and, until his death, John Henrik Clark. Some public school systems with predominantly African American enrollment, such as Atlanta, New Orleans, Cleveland, Indianapolis, New York, Oakland, and Philadelphia have introduced African-centered principles into their curriculums.

Afrocentrism is not without its critics, however. Among them is Mary Lefkowitz, a professor of humanities at Wellesley College. In her book Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (1996), Lefkowitz disagrees with the assertions of Afrocentrists that the Greeks stole their philosophical and mathematical thought from the Egyptians or that Socrates was black. She argues that Afrocentrist beliefs are based on myth and conjecture, not historical fact, and are designed to promote a political agenda. This criticism is echoed by Arthur Schlesinger, author of The Disuniting of America (1991). Schlesinger remarks that African-centered education is divisive, un-American, and promotes the teaching of inaccuracy and distorted history.

Whether one is a supporter or critic, it is clear that Afrocentrism will continue to inspire heated debate for many years to come.

EBONICS VS. STANDARD ENGLISH

Black English, considered by most linguists to be a dialectal form of English (that is, a dialect like, to pick just one example, Appalachian English), came to the forefront of discussion in 1996. The African languages that slaves brought to the United States influenced their learning and use of English. While Black English has been studied since the first half of the twentieth century, in 1996 some scholars renamed it Ebonics—a combination of the words “ebony” and “phonics.” In the 1960s and 1970s it was called Black Vernacular English (BVE); in the 1980s and 1990s it was known as African American Vernacular English (AAVE). It shares many basic characteristics with other dialects, the most important being distinct grammar and syntax patterns (dialects are learnable precisely because they are “rule based” in this sense). When the Oakland, California, school board passed a resolution in 1996 to make Ebonics “a second language” and declared that all of the teachers in the system should be trained in its grammar (and to respect it as the native form of speech spoken by many of their African American students), a storm of criticism followed nationally. Opponents contended that Black English was simply substandard grammar and, if regarded as a legitimate language, would be detrimental to African American students. As national attention spotlighted the controversy, in May 1997 the school board reaffirmed what it called its original intention: “to improve the English language acquisition and application skills of African-American students” and, as much as possible, to help students master Standard English. According to John and Russell Rickford in The Spoken Soul, the board never intended to replace Standard or mainstream English with Ebonics or any other “language” or dialect peculiar to any racial or ethnic group. In 1997 the U.S. Congress supported Oakland’s efforts by awarding the district $1 million to continue research on the linguistic and cultural resources of African American students. The perspective that The Spoken Soul embraces is that Black English is not only “the language of jazz, funk, hip-hop, and rap,” all currently popular in American culture, but is also the home dialect of many African Americans. Educators need to be aware of how and what their students actually speak in order to teach them additional, standard forms.

ABANDONING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

National debate, lawsuits, and voter reaction over the issue of affirmative action has impacted the education of African American students. Since the U.S. Supreme Court’s validation of the use of race as a factor in college and university admissions programs in the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), many race-conscious admissions policies have come under attack in courts of law. Recent decisions in federal courts cloud the issue, and may lead to another Supreme Court review of affirmative action policies at institutions of higher learning. In 2001, a decision by the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Johnson v. Board of Regents of the University of Georgia struck down the race-conscious admissions policy for freshmen at the University of Georgia. The decision mirrored a 1996 Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that invalidated a similar policy at the University of Texas Law School. On the other hand, the affirmative action admissions policy at the University of Michigan Law School was upheld by a Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in May 2002.

In a number of states, voter initiatives and executive action have dealt race-conscious admissions policies more setbacks. Voters in California passed Proposition 209 in 1996. The law banned the use of race as a consideration for acceptance to the state’s universities. Washington voters passed a similar measure, Initiative 200, in 1998, and Jeb Bush, governor of Florida, instituted the “One Florida Initiative” in 2000. The effects of such measures can be severe in the drop in enrollment of African American students at state institutions of higher learning. A 2002 NAACP Education Department report, “NAACP Call for Action in Education,” points out that following the passage of California’s Proposition 209, only one African American student enrolled in a class of more than 300 at the University of California, Berkeley’s school of law in 1999. The same year, only two black students were among the entering law school class at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Advocates of race-conscious admission policies, Derek Bok and William G. Bowen, completed a major study that challenges much of the conservative thinking about affirmative action. In their findings, published in the book The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions (1998), the two scholars studied race-conscious admissions in elite higher education and confirmed that such practices “create the backbone of the black middle class.”

Some mainstream institutions have seen a decrease in the number of black students enrolled and responded by developing plans to rebuild that enrollment. That was seen, for example, in Kentucky, where over a third of college-bound African American students chose the University of Louisville over the University of Kentucky. This caused some state lawmakers and faculty at the University of Kentucky to question the university’s commitment to diversity. The university responded by adding a scholarship program to increase diversity on campus. The City University of New York (CUNY) launched a systemwide African American Male Initiative aimed “to improve the success and retention of the Black men on its 11 senior-college campuses.” Similar initiatives followed in the University System of Georgia and elsewhere. Although affirmative action organizations stifle such programs, the initiatives are viewed many leaders as well-intentioned.

VOUCHER SYSTEMS AND CHARTER SCHOOLS

Some educators regard voucher programs and charter schools as “logical parts of a broad educational mix.” The voucher idea originated 40 years ago; it aimed to permit students to transfer from failing public schools to successful private schools. Critics feared, however, that the brightest students, both black and white, would be drawn away, leaving the inner-city schools, in terms of characteristics, African American and poor. They also raised questions about the use of public funds in private institutions, particularly those maintained and operated by churches or religious organizations. Voucher systems have been initiated in a handful of cities, including Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Detroit, and are being considered in about half of the 50 states. The voucher programs that are operational serve low-income, largely African American and Hispanic American children. In July 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court validated the constitutionality of Ohio’s voucher program, opening the door for the wider use of school voucher programs throughout the nation.

Charter schools, or independent public schools, may be established by parents, community groups, local or state school boards, colleges and universities, or other individuals or groups. Some charter schools were once private schools, others were converted from existing public schools, and still others are newly established educational institutions. Generally, the schools report directly to the state and bypass local unions or other traditional bureaucracy. They are schools of choice for students and teachers; therefore, they must operate with the highest regard for equity and academic excellence. Supporters have little faith in traditional education systems and look to the charter schools as a viable solution to the problems of public school education. They see charter schools as a means of providing inner-city children the kind of education that students receive in the affluent suburbs. Some educators and parents see the charter school movement as another threat to public school education. By 2001, however, 37 states and the District of Columbia had passed charter school laws.

SINGLE-GENDER SCHOOLS AND RACE-BASED ENROLLMENT

The nation has seen a number of single-gender schools opened in recent years. One such school opened in the fall of 1996, when the Young Women’s Leadership School, an experimental public school for girls, opened in East Harlem. It emphasizes mathematics and science, subjects in which girls often lag behind boys in performance. The school originally provided for 56 seventh-grade girls, and had expanded to 360 students in grades 7–12 by the year 2000. Advocates of the school based the need on studies that showed that girls, particularly from poor communities, performed better when boys were not present. Some groups, such as the New York Civil Liberties Union, challenged the school, however, arguing that it would violate the U.S. Constitution, as well as the Federal statutory law. The group has challenged plans for other single-gender, single-race schools for young African American men in New York, Detroit, and Milwaukee.

Nearly a half-century after Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, segregated public schools continue. Evidence of racial isolation in urban schools, as seen in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1997, led the state’s highest court to issue a mandate to desegregate the schools. Under the order, racially isolated students in urban schools are able to enroll in predominantly white suburban schools on a space-available plan. The Connecticut decision seems to be running counter to the current trend to abandon racial “quotas” in schools, where predominance of one race is not necessarily grounds for legal relief unless the cause lies in segregation patterns of the past. The concern over affirmative action, however, is shifting from colleges and universities to public school districts. Districts that adopted voluntary desegregation plans, such as those in Montgomery County, Maryland, and Arlington, Virginia, wonder if they can continue race-conscious policies.

Desegregation orders imposed by the courts decades earlier are being lifted. In such cities as Nashville, Tennessee; Oklahoma City; Denver; Wilmington, Delaware; Cleveland; and in 2007 in Little Rock, courts have declared that past segregation practices have been remedied and judicial monitoring is no longer needed. A U.S. Supreme Court decision on June 28, 2007, struck down school integration plans in Louisville and Seattle, halting enrollment in public schools based on race.

AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADERSHIP INITIATIVES

A growing trend in education is a focus on leadership programs, whether or not they are gender-based. The North Carolina Community College System recently held a Conference on African American Males in Education as the community’s response to the African-American male’s success in post-secondary education. Historically Black Colleges and Universities have become more concerned about leadership training for their administrators. One HBCU, Hampton University, has offered leadership training for seven years by sponsoring an executive leadership summit called “On the Road to the Presidency.” That program is designed for newly-appointed college presidents and chancellors, provosts, vice presidents, deans, and others in executive posts. Other leadership training programs have been held or are operational at such HBCUs as Bennett College for Women, Fisk University, and Morehouse College.

ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATORS, AND SCHOLARS

(To locate biographical profiles more readily, please consult the index at the back of the book.)

MOLEFI K. ASANTE (1942– ) Scholar

Molefi Kete Asante was born Arthur Lee Smith Jr. on August 14, 1942, in Valdosta, Georgia. His name was legally changed to Molefi Kete Asante in 1973. In 1962, Asante graduated with an associate’s degree from Southwestern Christian College. He graduated cum laude with a B.A. from Oklahoma Christian College in 1964, received an M.A. from Pepperdine University in 1965, and a Ph.D. from UCLA in 1968.

Asante has taught speech and communications at many universities in the United States. He was an instructor at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona (1966– 1967) and California State University at Northridge (1967). In 1968 he accepted an assistant professorship at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana, where he remained until 1969 when he began teaching at UCLA. There he advanced from assistant to associate professor of speech and also served as the director of the Center for Afro-American Studies (1970–1973). In 1973 he accepted the position of professor of communications at the State University of New York. He soon became department chairman, a position he held until 1979 when he became a visiting professor at Howard University in Washington, D.C. (1979–1980). In 1981 and 1982, he was a Fulbright professor at the Zimbabwe Institute of Mass Communications. Since 1980, he has been a professor at Temple University in Philadelphia in the Department of African American Studies.

Asante is a prolific author with over 33 books dealing with both communication theory and the African American experience. Some of his titles include: Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change (1980); African Culture: The Rhythms of Unity (1985); The Afrocentric Idea (1987); Afrocentricity (1987); Kemet, Afrocentricity and Knowledge (1990); The Historical and Cultural Atlas of African-Americans (1991); Colored, on White Campus: The Education of a Racial World (1992); Fury in the Wilderness (1993); African American History: A Journey of Liberation (1995); African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources (1996); The African-American Atlas: Black History and Culture (1998); The African American Book of Names and Their Meanings (1999); The Painful Demise of Eurocentrism: An Afrocentric Response to Critics (1999); The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten (2000); and (co-editor with Eungjun Min) Socio-Cultural Conflict Between African American and Korean American (2000); Erasing Racism (2003), Race, Rhetoric, & Identity (2005), The History of Africa (2007).

Asante is also a founding editor of the Journal of Black Studies and has been a member of the advisory board of the Black Law Journal (1971–1973) and Race Relations Abstract (1973–1977). Asante has also served as the vice president for the National Council of Black Studies and the African Heritage Studies Association.

HOUSTON BAKER. SEELITERATURE CHAPTER.

MARIA LOUISE BALDWIN (1856–1922) Educator

Born on September 13, 1856, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Maria Louise Baldwin was one of the most distinguished educators in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. She was the principal of the Agassiz school in Cambridge, where children of affluent and established white families attended—a rarity for a woman and an African American.

Educated in Cambridge, Baldwin taught first in Chestertown, Maryland, and then was appointed teacher in Agassiz Grammar School. Eventually she taught all grades in the school—from first to the seventh—and in 1889 was promoted to school principal. In 1916, a new school was erected with more grades added and Baldwin’s position was changed to master. She strengthened her credentials by enrolling in courses at nearby Harvard University. She remained at Agassiz until 1922.

Baldwin lectured throughout the country on such luminaries as Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson and on women’s suffrage, poetry, and history. During one of her lectures, she collapsed at Boston’s Copley Plaza Hotel on January 9, 1922, and died suddenly. The entire nation mourned her death. About a year later, Aggasiz school recognized her by unveiling a tablet created in her memory. Other memorials followed, including the naming in her honor of the Aggasiz school auditorium and a women’s residence center at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

LERONE BENNETT JR. (1928– ) Scholar

Born on October 17, 1928, in Clarksdale, Mississippi, Lerone Bennett Jr. was educated at Morehouse College, receiving an A.B. in 1949. Bennett worked for the Atlanta Daily World, and Jet magazine before joining Ebony magazine in 1954. He was named executive editor in 1987. Beyond these positions though, Bennett has achieved fame for his essays and other writings.

His 1962 book Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America made him one of the best-known and most influential African American historians of the twentieth century. Before the Mayflower was revised in 1982 and has been reprinted several times. Bennett’s 1964 biography of Morehouse College classmate Martin Luther King Jr., What Manner of Man, was welcomed as an evenhanded analysis of the African American leader’s life and his role in fundamentally changing the nature of racial dynamics in the United States. Also in 1964, Bennett published The Negro Mood and Other Essays, a collection of essays that demonstrated a sharper editorial bite than his previous works. Probing such issues as the failed integration of African Americans into American life and the ways in which African Americans are denied the fruits of society, Bennett takes aim at the white liberal establishment for ignoring the accomplishments of African Americans and for just mouthing the words of racial justice rather acting on that creed. Bennett has also produced a number of other works including Pioneers in Protest (1968), The Shaping of Black America (1974), and Wade in the Water: Great Moments in Black History (1979).

Bennett served as a visiting professor at Northwestern University in 1968–1969. In addition, he was a senior fellow of the Institute of the Black World in 1969. In 2002 Bennett won an American Book Award for lifetime achievement from the American Book Association.

MARY MCLEOD BETHUNE (1875–1955) Founder, Educator

Born on July 10, 1875, near Mayesville, South Carolina, Mary McLeod received a sporadic education in local schools. She eventually received a scholarship and studied for seven years at the Scotia Seminary in Concord, North Carolina. In 1893 she went on to study at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago in lieu of a missionary position in Africa. In 1895 she began teaching at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia. Between 1900 and 1904, she taught in Sumter, Georgia, and Palatka, Florida.

In 1904 she founded her own school in Daytona Beach, Florida—the Daytona Educational and Industrial School for Negro Girls. John D. Rockefeller became an early admirer and supporter of the school after hearing a performance by its choir. Bethune went on to found the Tomoka Missions and, in 1911, the McLeod Hospital. In 1922 her school merged with the Cookman Institute to become Bethune-Cookman College.

Bethune’s work received national attention, and she served on two conferences under President Herbert Hoover. In 1936 President Franklin Roosevelt appointed her director of the Division of Neg