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West Virginia

West Virginia

State of West Virginia

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: The state was originally the western part of Virginia.

NICKNAME: The Mountain State.

CAPITAL: Charleston.

ENTERED UNION: 20 June 1863 (35th).

SONG: "The West Virginia Hills;" "West Virginia, My Home Sweet Home;" "This Is My West Virginia."

MOTTO: Montani semper liberi (Mountaineers are always free).

COAT OF ARMS: A farmer stands to the right and a miner to the left of a large ivy-draped rock bearing the date of the state's admission to the Union. In front of the rock are two hunters' rifles upon which rests a Cap of Liberty. The state motto is beneath and the words "State of West Virginia" above.

FLAG: The flag has a white field bordered by a strip of blue, with the coat of arms in the center, wreathed by rhododendron leaves; across the top of the coat of arms are the words "State of West Virginia."

OFFICIAL SEAL: The same as the coat of arms.

BIRD: Cardinal.

FISH: Brook trout.

FLOWER: Rhododendron.

TREE: Sugar maple.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; West Virginia Day, 20 June; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November and the day following; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the eastern United States, in the South Atlantic region, West Virginia ranks 41st in size among the 50 states.

The area of West Virginia totals 24,231 sq mi (62,758 sq km), including 24,119 sq mi (62,468 sq km) of land and 112 sq mi (290 sq km) of inland water. The state extends 265 mi (426 km) e-w; its maximum n-s extension is 237 mi (381 km). West Virginia is one of the most irregularly shaped states in the United States, with two panhandles of landthe northern, narrower one separating parts of Ohio and Pennsylvania, and the eastern panhandle separating parts of Maryland and Virginia.

West Virginia is bordered on the n by Ohio (with the line formed by the Ohio River), Pennsylvania, and Maryland (with most of the line defined by the Potomac River); on the e and s by Virginia; and on the w by Kentucky and Ohio (with the line following the Ohio, Big Sandy, and Tug Fork rivers).

The total boundary length of West Virginia is 1,180 mi (1,899 km). The geographical center of the state is in the Elk River Public Hunting Area in Braxton County, 4 mi (6 km) e of Sutton.

TOPOGRAPHY

West Virginia lies within two divisions of the Appalachian Highlands. Most of the eastern panhandle, which is crossed by the Allegheny Mountains, is in the Ridge and Valley region. The remainder, or more than two-thirds of the state, is part of the Allegheny Plateau, to the west of a bold escarpment known as the Allegheny Front, and tilts toward the Ohio River.

The mean elevation of West Virginia is 1,500 ft (458 m), higher than any other state east of the Mississippi River. Its highest point, Spruce Knob, towers 4,861 ft (1,483 m) above sea level. Major lowlands lie along the rivers, especially the Potomac, Ohio, and Kanawha. A point on the Potomac River near Harpers Ferry has the lowest elevation, only 240 ft (73 m) above sea level. West Virginia has no natural lakes.

Most of the eastern panhandle drains into the Potomac River. The Ohio and its tributariesthe Monongahela, Little Kanawha, Kanawha, Guyandotte, and Big Sandydrain most of the Allegheny Plateau section. Subterranean streams have carved out numerous cavernsincluding Seneca Caverns, Smoke Hole Caverns, and Organ Cavefrom limestone beds.

During the Paleozoic era, when West Virginia was under water, a 30,000-ft (9,000-m) layer of rock streaked with rich coal deposits was laid down over much of the state. Alternately worn down and uplifted during succeeding eras, most of West Virginia is thus a plateau where rivers have carved deep valleys and gorges and given the land a rugged character.

CLIMATE

West Virginia has a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cool to cold winters. The climate of the eastern panhandle is influenced by its proximity to the Atlantic slope and is similar to that of nearby coastal areas. Mean annual temperatures vary from 56°f (13°c) in the southwest to 48°f (9°c) at higher elevations. The yearly average is 53°f (12°c). The highest recorded temperature, 112°f (44°c), was at Martinsburg on 10 July 1936; the lowest, 37°f (38°c), at Lewisburg on 30 December 1917.

Prevailing winds are from the south and west, and seldom reach hurricane or tornado force. In Charleston, average annual precipitation is about 42.9 in (108 cm) and is slightly heavier on the western slopes of the Alleghenies. Accumulations of snow may vary from about 20 in (51cm) in the western sections to more than 50 in (127 cm) in the higher mountains.

FLORA AND FAUNA

With its varied topography and climate, West Virginia provides a natural habitat for more than 3,200 species of plants in three life zones: Canadian, Alleghenian, and Carolinian. Oak, maple, poplar, walnut, hickory, birch, and such softwoods as hemlock, pine, and spruce are the common forest trees. Rhododendron, laurel, dogwood, redbud, and pussy willow are among the more than 200 flowering trees and shrubs. Rare plant species include the box huckleberry, Guyandotte beauty, and Kate's mountain clover. The Cranberry Glades, an ancient lake bed similar to a glacial bog, contains the bog rosemary and other plant species common in more northern climates. In April 2006, six plant species were listed as threatened or endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, including shale barren rock-cress, harperella, northeastern bulrush, running buffalo clover, Virginia spirea, and small whorled pogonia.

West Virginia fauna includes at least 56 species and subspecies of mammals and more than 300 types of birds. The gray wolf, puma, elk, and bison of early times have disappeared. The white-tailed (Virginia) deer and the black bear (both protected by the state) as well as the wildcat are still found in the deep timber of the Allegheny ridges; raccoons, skunks, woodchucks, opossums, gray and red foxes, squirrels, and cottontail rabbits remain numerous. Common birds include the cardinal, tufted titmouse, brown thrasher, scarlet tanager, catbird, and a diversity of sparrows, woodpeckers, swallows, and warblers. Major game birds are the wild turkey, bobwhite quail, and ruffed grouse; hawks and owls are the most common birds of prey. Notable among more than 100 species of fish are smallmouth bass, rainbow trout, and brook trout (the state fish). The copperhead and rattlesnake are both numerous and poisonous. In April 2006, 13 animal species (vertebrates and invertebrates) were listed as threatened or endangered in West Virginia, including the bald eagle, three species (gray, Indiana, and Virginia big-eared) of bat, fanshell, flat-spired three-toothed snail, and the Cheat Mountain salamander.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Major responsibility for environmental protection in West Virginia rests with the Division of Environmental Protection (DEP). The DEP was established in October 1991 and became West Virginia's leading environmental agency in July 1992, with the consolidation of the state's major environmental regulatory programs. Today, the DEP is responsible for the oversight of the state's Abandoned Mine Lands, Air Quality, Mining and Reclamation, Oil and Gas, Waste Management, and Water Resources programs. A new DEP program is the Office of Environmental Advocate. The office was created to improve public access and input into DEP functioning.

Environmental issues confronting the state of West Virginia include the restoration of about 2,000 mi (3,218 km) of streams that are being impacted by acid mine damage. To combat the problem, the state has created a Stream Restoration program, which is using a variety of treatment methods, including limestone drum technology, to improve water quality. The first treatment station is under construction in the Blackwater River watershed, with plans to construct a second station in the Middlefork River watershed. The state is in the midst of an initiative that focuses on better planning and management of West Virginia's five major watersheds. In 1996, less than 1% of West Virginia's land was designated wetlands.

The proper disposal of solid waste had been addressed through requirements for landfills to meet environmental safety standards by the end of 1994 or face closure. West Virginia also mandates that cities with populations of 10,000 or more develop recycling programs. In 2003, 102.2 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. Also in 2003, West Virginia had 154 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, nine of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including the Allegany Ballistics Laboratory of the US Navy. In 2005, the EPA spent over $1.3 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $2 million for projects involving water quality protection and control through nonpoint source program management.

POPULATION

West Virginia ranked 37th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 1,816,856 in 2005, an increase of 0.5% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, West Virginia's population grew from 1,793,477 to 1,808,344, an increase of 0.8%. The population is projected to decline to 1.76 million by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 75.4 persons per sq mi.

In 2004 the median age was 40.3, compared to the US average of 36.2. Persons under 18 years old accounted for 21.2% of the population (the national average was 25%) while 15.3% was age 65 or older (national average 12.4%).

The state's population grew rapidly in the 1880s and 1890s, as coal mining, lumbering, and railroads expanded to meet the needs of nearby industrial centers, but the pace of expansion slowed in the early 20th century. The population peaked at 2,005,552 in 1950; then mass unemployment, particularly in the coal industry, caused thousands of families to migrate to Midwestern cities. An upswing began in the 1970s.

West Virginia's major cities all have populations of less than 100,000. However, the Charleston metropolitan area had an estimated 2004 population of 307,763. The Huntington-Ashland metropolitan region, which includes parts of eastern Kentucky and southern Ohio, had an estimated population of 287,038 the same year.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Nearly all Indian inhabitants had left the state before the arrival of European settlers. In the 2000 census, about 3,606 Indians were counted. In 2004, 0.2% of the population was American Indian.

The 57,232 blacks in the state in 2000 constituted about 3.2% of the population. That percentage remained unchanged in 2004. The majority lived in industrial centers and coal-mining areas. Only 19,390 West Virginians, or 1.1% of the population, were foreign born in 2000. In 2000, there were 12,279 Hispanics and Latinos, representing 0.7% of the total population. In 2004, Hispanics or Latinos accounted for 0.8% of the total population. In 2000, there were 9,434 persons of Asian origin. In 2004, 0.6% of the population was Asian. In 2004, 0.8% of the population reported origin of two or more races. Persons reporting at least one specific an-cestry group in 2000 included 176,297 English, 253,388 Germans, 198,473 Irish, and 37,837 Dutch.

LANGUAGES

With little foreign immigration and with no effect from the original Iroquois and Cherokee Indians, West Virginia maintains Midland speech. There is a secondary contrast between the northern half and the southern half, with the former influenced by Pennsylvania and the latter by western Virginia.

The basic Midland speech sounds the /r/ after a vowel as in far and short, and has /kag/ for keg, /greezy/ for greasy, sofy instead of sofa, and nicker in place of neigh. The northern part has /yelk/ for yolk, /loom/ for loam, an /ai/ diphthong so stretched that sat and sight sound very much alike, run for creek, and teeter(totter) for seesaw. The southern half pronounces here and hear as /hyeer/, aunt and can't as /aint/ and /kaint/, and uses branch for creek, and tinter for teeter.

In 2000, 1,661,036 West Virginians97.3% of the population five years of age or over (virtually unchanged since 1990)spoke only English at home.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Indic languages" includes Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, and Romany. The category "Other Asian languages" includes Dravidian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil, and Turkish.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 1,706,931 100.0
  Speak only English 1,661,036 97.3
  Speak a language other than English 45,895 2.7
Speak a language other than English 45,895 2.7
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 17,652 1.0
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 5,693 0.3
  German 5,040 0.3
  Italian 2,815 0.2
  Chinese 1,634 0.1
  Arabic 1,563 0.1
  Japanese 1,135 0.1
  Tagalog 970 0.1
  Greek 912 0.1
  Other Indic languages 806 0.0
Other Asian languages 784 0.0
  Polish 763 0.0
  Korean 581 0.0

RELIGIONS

Throughout its history, the religiously active population in West Virginia has been overwhelmingly Protestant. Most settlers before the American Revolution were Anglicans, Presbyterians, Quakers, or members of German sects, such as Lutherans, German Reformed, Dunkers, and Mennonites. The Great Awakening had a profound effect on these settlers and they avidly embraced its evangelism, emotionalism, and emphasis on personal religious experience. Catholics were mostly immigrants from Ireland and southern and eastern Europe.

The major Protestant denominations and the number of their adherents (in 2000 except as indicated) include the American Baptist Churches USA, 108,087; the United Methodist Church, 105,879 (in 2004); the Southern Baptist Convention, 43,606; and the Presbyterian Church USA, 28,467. In 2002, the Southern Baptist Convention reported 967 newly baptized members in the state. Other fundamentalist denominations included the Churches of Christ, 24,143; the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), 21,657; and the Church of the Nazarene, 21,389. In 2004, there were about 100,648 Roman Catholics in the state. In 2000, there were an estimated 2,400 Jews and 1,528 Muslims. Over 1.1 million people (about 64% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization.

TRANSPORTATION

West Virginia has long been plagued by inadequate transportation. The first major pre-Civil War railroad line was the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O), completed to Wheeling in 1852. Later railroads, mostly built between 1880 and 1917 to tap rich coal and timber resources, also helped open up interior regions to settlement. Today, the railroads still play an important part in coal transportation. In 2003, CSX and Norfolk Southern were the state's Class I operators. In the same year, total rail mileage was 2,489 mi (4,007 km). Coal was the top commodity carried by rail that terminated and originated within the state that year. As of 2006, Amtrak provided east-west passenger service (Washington DC to Chicago) to 10 communities in the state.

In 2004, there were 37,011 mi (59,587 km) of public roads under the state system The West Virginia Turnpike was completed from Charleston to Princeton in 1955. There were some 1.3 million registered motor vehicles in the state in 2003 and 1,292,036 licensed drivers in 2004.

Major navigable inland rivers are the Ohio, Kanawha, and Monongahela. Each has locks and dams. West Virginia is home to the Port of Huntington-Tristate, the largest inland river port in the United States. Located on the Ohio River, the port handled 77.307 million tons of cargo in 2004, making it the eighth-busiest port in the United States. In 2003, waterborne shipments totaled 73.326 million tons. In 2004, West Virginia had 682 mi (1,098 km) of navigable inland waterways.

In 2005, West Virginia had a total of 126 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 75 airports, 40 heliports, 1 STOLport (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 10 seaplane bases. Yeager Airport in Charleston is the state's main air terminal. In 2004, the airport had 292,054 passenger enplanements.

HISTORY

Paleo-Indian cultures in what is now West Virginia existed some 15,000 years ago, when hunters pursued buffalo and other large game. About 7000 bc, they were supplanted by Archaic cultures, marked by pursuit of smaller game. Woodland (Adena) cultures, characterized by mound-building and agriculture, prevailed after about 1000 bc.

By the 1640s, the principal Indian claimants, the Iroquois and Cherokee, had driven out older inhabitants and made the region a vast buffer land. When European settlers arrived only a few Shaw-nee, Tuscarora, and Delaware Indian villages remained, but the area was still actively used as hunting and warring grounds, and European possession was hotly contested.

The fur trade stimulated early exploration. In 1671, Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam explored New River and gave England a claim to the Ohio Valley, to which most of West Virginia belongs. France also claimed the Ohio Valley by virtue of an alleged visit by Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, in 1669. England eventually prevailed as a result of the French and Indian War.

Unsubstantiated tradition credits Morgan Morgan, who moved to Bunker Hill in 1731, with the first settlement in the state. By 1750, several thousand settlers were living in the eastern panhandle. In 1769, following treaties with the Iroquois and Cherokee, settlers began to occupy the Greenbrier, Monongahela, and upper Ohio valleys, and movement into other interior sections continued into the Revolutionary War, although wars with Indians occurred sporadically until the 1790s. The area that is now West Virginia was part of Virginia at the time of that state's entry into the Union, 25 June 1788.

Serious differences between eastern and western Virginia developed after the War of 1812. Eastern Virginia was dominated by a slaveholding aristocracy, while small diversified farms and infant industries predominated in western Virginia. Westerners bristled under property qualifications for voting, inadequate representation in the Virginia legislature, and undemocratic county governments, as well as poor transportation, inadequate schools, inequitable taxes, and economic retardation. A constitutional convention in 182930 failed to effect changes, leaving the westerners embittered. Another convention in 185051 met the west's political demands but exacerbated economic differences.

When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, western counties remaining loyal to the Union set up the Reorganized Government and consented to the separation of present-day West Virginia from Virginia. After approval by Congress and President Lincoln, West Virginia entered the Union on 20 June 1863 as the 35th state. West Virginia won control over Jefferson and Berkeley counties in the eastern panhandle in 1871, giving it a greater share of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lines in the state.

Both Bourbon Democratic and Republican governors after the Civil War sought to improve transportation, foster immigration, and provide tax structures attractive to business. Industrialists such as Democrats Henry Gassaway Davis and Johnson N. Camden, who amassed fortunes in coal, oil, railroads, and timber, sat in the US Senate and dominated party affairs in West Virginia. Similarly, industrialists Nathan Goff Jr., and Stephen B. El-kinsDavis's son-in-lawwielded preponderant influence in the Republican Party from the 1870s until 1911. Native industrialists often collaborated with eastern interests to give the state a colonial economy dominated by absentee owners. Although Republican governors of the early 20th century were dominated by Elkins, they were attuned to Progressive ideas and were instrumental in the adoption of the direct primary, safety legislation for the coal mines, revision of corporate tax laws, and improvements in highways and education.

The Great Depression of the 1930s, from which West Virginia suffered acutely, ushered in a Democratic era. West Virginians embraced the New Deal and Fair Deal philosophies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman.

World Wars I and II produced significant changes in West Virginia, particularly through stimulation of chemical, steel, and textile industries in the Kanawha and Ohio valleys and the eastern panhandle. These industries lessened the state's dependence on extractive industries, historically the backbone of its economy, and gave cities and towns a more cosmopolitan character.

Overshadowing the economic diversification was the plight of the coal-mining areas, where, after World War II, mechanization and strip-mining displaced thousands of miners and resulted in a large exodus to other states. By 1960, West Virginia was considered one of the most economically depressed areas of the country, primarily because of conditions in the mining regions. The antipoverty programs of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations provided some relief, but much of it was temporary, as was a brief upsurge in coal mining during the late 1970s.

Over the last several decades, West Virginia's manufacturing and mining sectors have shrunk dramatically. Automation, foreign competition, and the recession of the early 1980s caused employment in steel, glass, and chemical manufacturing and in coal mining to drop by a third between 1979 and 1985, when the state had the highest rate of unemployment in the nation.

West Virginia's economy improved in the 1990s. Coal and timber production expanded, and trade and tourism were boosted by the completion of Interstate Highway 64 in 1988. The state won a number of federal projects (including the FBI's fingerprint identification division), aided by the tenure of Democrat Robert C. Byrd as chairman of the US Senate Appropriations Committee from 1988 to 1995 and from 2001 to 2003. Byrd remained ranking member on the committee as of 2005.

In 2003, Democratic governor Bob Wise called for a special session of the legislature to prevent the state Workers' Compensation Fund from going bankrupt. The system provides medical care and cash benefits for workers injured on the job. Democrat Joe Manchin III was elected the state's governor in November 2004 after Wise decided not to run for reelection. Manchin's election marked the first time two persons of the same political party have followed one another in the governor's office since 1964.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Since becoming a state, West Virginia has had two constitutions. The first, adopted in 1863, served until 1872, when the present constitution was adopted. As of January 2005, 71 amendments to this constitution had become law.

The legislature consists of a Senate with 34 members and a house of delegates with 100 members. Senators and delegates must be at least 25 and 18 years old, respectively. All legislators must be qualified voters, state citizens, and residents of their districts for at least one year before taking their seats. In addition, delegates must have been US citizens for at least one year, and a one-year resident of the state. Senators must be US citizens for at least five years, and five-year residents of their state. Senators are elected to staggered four-year terms, and delegates serve for two years. The legislature meets annually in 60-day sessions, beginning in January. Special sessions may be called by a petition signed by three-fifths of the members of each house. The legislative salary in 2004 was $15,000, unchanged from 1999.

Elected officials of the executive branch of government are the governor, secretary of state, auditor, attorney general, commissioner of agriculture, and treasurer, all elected for four-year terms. The governor, who may serve no more than two terms in succession, must be at least 30 years old, a registered voter, a citizen of the state for at least five years, and a resident for at least one. His successor is the president of the Senate (there is no lieutenant governor). As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $90,000.

Bills passed by the legislature become law when signed by the governor or left unsigned for five days when the legislature is in session (or 15 days after it has adjourned). Bills vetoed by the governor become law if passed again by a majority of the elected members of each house. Either house may propose an amendment to the state constitution. If both houses approve it by a two-thirds majority, it is submitted to the voters at the next regular election or at a special election for adoption by majority vote.

Voters in West Virginia must live in the state, be US citizens, and at least 18 years old. Restrictions apply to those convicted of certain crimes and to those judged by the court as mentally incompetent to vote.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Republican Party presided over the birth of West Virginia, but the Democrats have generally been in power for the past five decades. In 1940, a strong New Deal faction, headed by Matthew M. Neely and supported by organized labor, formed the "state-house machine," which became a dominant factor in state politics. Only two Republicans, Cecil H. Underwood (195761, 19972001) and Arch Moore Jr. (196977, 198589), have been governor since 1933. Underwood was elected in 1996, having vacated the office 35 years earlier. Democrat Bob Wise unseated Underwood in 2000. Underwood did not seek a second term; in 2004 Democrat Joe Manchin III was elected.

Democratic senator Robert C. Byrd, first elected in 1958, was reelected to his eighth term in 2000. Democratic senator John D. "Jay" Rockefeller IV, first elected in 1984, was reelected to his fourth term in 2002. Following the 2004 elections, West Virginia sent two Democrats and one Republican to the US House of Representatives. As of mid-2005, Democrats controlled both the state House and state Senate. There were 21 Democrats and 13 Republicans in the state Senate, and 68 Democrats and 32 Republicans in the state House.

West Virginia Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE W. VA. WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
**IND. candidate Ross Perot received 108,829 votes in 1992 and 71,639 in 1996
1948 8 *Truman (D) 429,188 316,251
1952 8 Stevenson (D) 453,578 419,970
1956 8 *Eisenhower (R) 381,534 449,297
1960 8 *Kennedy (D) 441,786 395,995
1964 7 *Johnson (D) 538,087 253,953
1968 7 Humphrey (D) 374,091 307,555
1972 6 *Nixon (R) 277,435 484,964
1976 6 *Carter (D) 435,914 314,760
1980 6 Carter (D) 367,462 334,206
1984 6 *Reagan (R) 328,125 405,483
1988 6 Dukakis (D) 341,016 310,065
1992** 5 *Clinton (D) 331,001 241,974
1996** 5 *Clinton (D) 327,812 233,946
2000 5 *Bush, G. W. (R) 295,497 336,475
2004 5 *Bush, G. W. (R) 326,541 423,778

Republican presidential candidates carried West Virginia in 1956, 1972, 1984, 2000, and 2004. In 2000, Republican George W. Bush received 52% of the popular vote to Democrat Al Gore's 46%; Green Party candidate Ralph Nader garnered 2% of the vote. In 2004, Bush again won the state, with 56% of the vote to Democrat John Kerry's 43%. In 2004 there were 1,169,000 registered voters. In 1998, 63% of registered voters were Democratic, 29% Republican, and 8% unaffiliated or members of other parties. The state had five electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, West Virginia had 55 counties, 234 municipal governments, 55 school districts, and 342 special districts. The chief county officials are the three commissioners, elected for six-year terms, who serve on the county court; the sheriff, assessor, county clerk, and prosecuting attorney, elected for four-year terms; and the five-member board of education, elected for six-year terms. The sheriff is the principal peace officer but also collects taxes and disburses funds of the county court and board of education. The cities, towns, and villages are divided into classes according to population. They are run by mayor and council or by council and city manager.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 60,712 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in West Virginia operates under the authority of the governor; the public safety director/secretary was designated as the state homeland security advisor.

The Department of Education determines policy for public elementary and secondary schools, and the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission governs the state's colleges and universities. The Department of Transportation is responsible for construction and operation of state roads. Services of the Department of Health and Human Resources center around treatment of alcoholism and drug abuse, mental health, environmental health services, maternal and child care, family planning, and control of communicable diseases, along with a variety of economic, medical, and social services.

In the area of public protection, the Department of Public Safety enforces criminal and traffic laws, the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management oversees civil defense and other emergency activities, and the Department of Corrections oversees prisons and other such facilities. The Public Service Commission regulates utilities. The Housing Development Fund concentrates on housing for low- and middle-income families and the elderly. The Department of Environmental Protection has the major responsibility for protection of forests, wildlife, water, and other resources, for reclamation projects, and for operation of state parks and recreational facilities.

Responsibility in labor matters is shared by the Division of Labor, Bureau of Employment Programs, Office of Miners' Health, Safety, and Training, and BrickStreet (workers' compensation plan).

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The highest court in West Virginia, the Supreme Court of Appeals, has five justices, including the chief justice, elected for 12-year terms. The court has broad discretionary appellate jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, and original jurisdiction in certain other cases.

West Virginia's general trial court is the circuit court, with 156 judges in 1999. Each circuit serves from one to four counties and has jurisdiction over civil cases in amounts that exceed $300 and criminal cases. Circuit courts also have jurisdiction over juveniles, domestic relations, and certain administrative appeals. Family law specialists conduct most domestic relations hearings.

Local courts include the county magistrate and municipal courts. Magistrate courts have original jurisdiction in criminal matters but may not convict or sentence in felony cases. All judges down to the magistrate level are popularly elected by partisan ballot. Municipal, police, or mayor's courts have authority to enforce municipal ordinances. Unlike other courts, these are not part of the unified court system. Appeals from municipal and magistrate courts are to circuit courts, and from circuit courts are to the supreme court.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 5,067 prisoners were held in West Virginia's state and federal prisons, an increase from 4,758 of 2.5% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 4,589 inmates were female, up from 405 or 13.3% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), West Virginia had an incarceration rate of 277 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, West Virginia in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 271.2 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 4,924 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 45,497 reported incidents or 2,506.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. West Virginia abolished its death penalty in 1965.

In 2003, West Virginia spent $76,290,914 on homeland security, an average of $41 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 503 active duty military personnel and 1,810 civilian personnel stationed in West Virginia. The state has no military bases, academies, or training facilities. The Naval Telecommunications Station, Sugar Grove, operated by the National Security Agency is the main receiving facility for the Navy's global high-frequency radio communications and for point-to-point circuits destined for Washington, DC, and has been mentioned as a site that intercepts all international communications entering the Eastern United States.

In 2004, defense contracts awarded West Virginia totaled about $279 million, and defense payroll outlays were $410 million.

In 2003, there were 188,101 veteran living in West Virginia, of whom 27,900 served in World War II; 23,322 in the Korean conflict; 59,857 in the Vietnam era; and 24,626 in the Gulf War. In 2004, the Veterans Administration expended more than $747 million in pensions, medical assistance, and other major veterans' benefits.

As of 31 October 2004, the West Virginia State Police employed 649 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

West Virginia has considerable national and ethnic diversity. Settlers before the Civil War consisted principally of English, German, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh immigrants, many of whom came by way of Pennsylvania. A second wave of immigration from the 1880s to the 1920s brought thousands of Italians, Poles, Austrians, and Hungarians to the coal mines and industrial towns, which also attracted many blacks from the South. In 1980, 79% of the residents of the state were born in West Virginia (fourth highest among states).

Between 1950 and 1970, West Virginia suffered a 13% loss in population, chiefly from the coal-mining areas; but between 1970 and 1980, population rose by almost 12%. According to federal estimates, the state had a net migration gain of 71,000 in the 1970s and a net migration loss of about 81,000 in the 1980s. Between 1990 and 1998, West Virginia had net gains of 8,000 in domestic migration and 3,000 in international migration. In 1998, the state admitted 375 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased by 1%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 3,691 and net internal migration was 10,518, for a net gain of 14,209 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

The West Virginia Commission on Interstate Cooperation participates in the Council of State Governments. West Virginia is a member of some 30 regional compacts, including the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation and Potomac River Basin compacts, Interstate Mining Compact Commission, Wheeling Creek Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Commission, Ohio River Basin Commission, Appalachian Regional Commission, Jennings Randolph Lake Project Compact, Southern Regional Education Board, Southern States Energy Board, and Southern Governors' Association. In fiscal year 2005, federal grants to West Virginia totaled $2.960 billion, an estimated $2.861 billion in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $3.045 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Agriculture was the backbone of West Virginia's economy until the 1890s, when extractive industries (including coal, oil, natural gas, and timber) began to play a major role. World War I stimulated important secondary industries, such as chemicals, steel, glass, and textiles. The beauty of West Virginia's mountains and forests attracted an increasing number of tourists in the 1990s, but the state's rugged topography and relative isolation from major markets continued to hamper its economic development. West Virginia did not participate substantially in the high-tech boom of the 1990s, and the long-term decline of its critical coal mining sector continued. From 1997 to 2000, output from the general services and retail trade sectors grew 19% and 13.6%, respectively, while coal mining declined 17.6%, trends that meant the loss of coal mining jobs paying more than $53,000 a year and the increase in service jobs paying $14,000 to $24,000 annually. Output from the manufacturing sector fell at the same rate as mining output (17.6%) from 1997 to 2000, although from a high base ($6.5 billion in 1997 vs. $2.4 billion from coal mining). Overall growth was sluggish in the late 1990s, reaching 3.8% in 1999 (up from 1.9% in 1998), but falling to 0.1% in 2000. In 2001, growth actually improved to 3.5%, including a 13.8% jump in output from coal mining. However, by 2002, the national economic slowdown had begun to impact West Virginia's employment, and by October 2002, there was a year-on-year losses in jobs in every state economic sector except services and government (a sector that grew 24.5% 1997 to 2001). The overall decline in employment was 0.7%, ahead of the national average of 0.4%.

In 2004, West Virginia's gross state product (GSP) was $49.454 billion, of which manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) accounted for the largest share at $5.469 billion or 11% of GSP, followed by health care and social assistance at $4.757 billion (9.6% of GSP), and the real estate sector at $4.598 billion (9.2% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 119,806 small businesses in West Virginia. Of the 36,830 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 35,621 or 96.7% were small companies. An estimated 3,937 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, down 4.6% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 5,136, down 7.5% from 2003. There were 247 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 14.8% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 600 filings per 100,000 people, ranking West Virginia 20th in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 West Virginia had a gross state product (GSP) of $54 billion which accounted for 0.4% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 41 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 West Virginia had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $25,792. This ranked 50th in the United States and was 78% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.1%. West Virginia had a total personal income (TPI) of $46,749,648,000, which ranked 39th in the United States and reflected an increase of 5.3% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 4.1%. Earnings of persons employed in West Virginia increased from $29,740,318,000 in 2003 to $31,612,176,000 in 2004, an increase of 6.3%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $32,589 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 16.1% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in West Virginia 813,700, with approximately 33,600 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.1%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 754,200. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in West Virginia was 18.2% in March 1983. The historical low was 3.8% in January 2006. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 5.1% of the labor force was employed in construction; 8.1% in manufacturing; 18.6% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4% in financial activities; 7.8% in professional and business services; 15.3% in education and health services; 9.3% in leisure and hospitality services; and 19% in government.

Important milestones in the growth of unionism were the organization of the state as District 17 of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) in 1890 and the formation of the State Federation of Labor in 1903. The coal miners fought to gain union recognition by coal companies, and instances of violence were not uncommon in the early 1900s. Wages, working conditions, and benefits for miners improved rapidly after World War II. Membership in unions in 1980 was 222,000, or 34% of the work force, compared to 47% in 1970, an indication of the UMWA's waning strength.

The BLS reported that in 2005, a total of 99,000 of West Virginia's 688,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 14.4% of those so employed, up from 14.2% in 2004, and above the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 107,000 workers (15.5%) in West Virginia were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. West Virginia is one of 28 states that does not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, West Virginia had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $5.15 per hour, which was applied to those employers with six or more employees at any one location. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 46.7% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

With estimated farm marketings of $429 million ($348 million from livestock and poultry), West Virginia ranked 46th among the 50 states in 2005. Poultry, meat animals, and dairy dominate the farm economy in the Mountain State.

Until about 1890 small, diversified farms were dominant, but, as in other states, farms have grown larger and the farm population has dropped. In 2004, the state had 3,600,000 acres (1,457,000 hectares), or 23% of its land, devoted to farming. Its 20,800 farms averaged 173 acres (70 hectares) in size. Major farm sections are the eastern panhandle, a tier of counties along the Virginia border, the upper Monongahela Valley, and the Ohio Valley. Leading crops produced in 2004 were hay, 1,062,000 tons; corn for grain, 3,799,000 bushels; corn for silage, 306,000 tons; commercial apples, 86,000,000 lb; and tobacco, 1,690,000 lb.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2005, there were an estimated 405,000 cattle and calves, valued at $315.9 million. During 2004, the state had 10,000 hogs and pigs, valued at around $1.1 million. During 2003, poultry farmers produced 357 million lb (162 million kg) of broilers valued at $121.5 million, and 92 million lb of turkey, valued at $33.1 million. The dairy industry yielded 222 million lb (101 million kg) of milk and 270 million eggs.

FISHING

West Virginia fishing has little commercial importance. In 2004, there were 34 trout farms, selling 378,000 lb (172,000 kg) of fish. In 2004, the state issued 269,727 sport fishing licenses. The White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery is located within the state. There are two state hatcheries.

FORESTRY

In 2004, West Virginia had four-fifths, or 12.1 million acres (4.9 million hectares), of its land area in forestland and, of this, 11.9 million acres (4.8 million hectares) are classified as timberland.

Despite increasing production of wood and paper products, West Virginia's total softwood and hardwood inventory has more than doubled since 1953. Sawtimber volumes average 6,500 board feet per acre. About 92% of West Virginia forest species are hardwoods, with approximately 77% of the timberland being of the oak-hickory forest type. In all, West Virginia's forests contain more than 100 species of trees.

During the early 1900s, West Virginia became a lumbering giant. From 1908 to 1911, some 1,500 mills produced up to 1.5 billion board ft of lumber annually to feed the nation's needs. By 1920, the state was first in the production of cherry and chestnut lumber and 13th in total production. After the extensive logging and resulting debris came forest fires which devastated the remaining forest resource and caused extensive soil erosion. In the early 1930s, a cooperative fire prevention program was initiated in the state and later in the early 1950s, an educational and forestry technical assistance program was created to help forest landowners manage and protect their forests. The maturing forests of West Virginia languished in their contribution to the state's economy until the 1980s when annual production, which had averaged around 350 to 450 million board ft per year, began to increase significantly.

Production increased to 600 million board ft in 1988, and 701 million board ft by 2004, with over 300 mills and manufacturing facilities. Employment in the forest industry is second only to the chemical and primary metal manufacturing industries. However, it is estimated that growth still exceeded removals by a ratio of 1.34 to 1.

The state is encouraging the professional management of its forests so they will continue to produce a sustained array of benefits, such as wood products, jobs, clean water, oxygen, scenery, and diverse recreational opportunities like hunting, hiking, and tourism.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by West Virginia in 2003 was $168 million, which was only a marginal increase over 2002.

According to preliminary USGS data for 2003, crushed stone was the state's top nonfuel mineral by value, accounting for about 39% of all nonfuel mineral output, and was followed by cement (portland and masonry), industrial sand and gravel, lime and salt. Collectively, these five commodities accounted for around 95% of all nonfuel mineral output, by value. By volume, West Virginia in 2003 was the nation's ninth leading producer of salt.

Preliminary data for 2003 showed crushed stone production as totaling 14.8 million metric tons, with a value of $65.9 million, while construction sand and gravel that year at 1.6 million metric tons, with a value of $8 million.

All of West Virginia's mines in 2003 produced either coal or industrial minerals. No metals were mined in the state. Although raw steel and primary aluminum were produced in that year, materials were acquired from other states or foreign sources. West Virginia ranked 11th out of 12 primary aluminum producing states.

ENERGY AND POWER

West Virginia has long been an important supplier of energy in the form of electric power and fossil fuels. As of 2003, West Virginia had 17 electrical power service providers, of which two were publicly owned and three were cooperatives. Of the remainder, 11 were investor owned, and one was the owner of an independent generator that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were 974,510 retail customers. Of that total, 961,675 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 9,318 customers, while publicly owned providers had 3,516 customers. There was only one independent generator or "facility" customer.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 16.124 million kW, with total production that same year at 94.711 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 67.6% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 92.468 billion kWh (97.6%), came from coal-fired plants, with hydroelectric plants in second place at 1.356 billion kWh (1.4%). Other renewable power sources, petroleum and natural gas fired plants, and plants using other types of gases accounted for the remaining output.

Major coal-mining regions lie within a north-south belt some 60 mi (97 km) wide through the central part of the state and include the Fairmount, New River-Kanawha, Pocahontas, and Logan-Mingo fields. West Virginia in 2004, had 261 producing coal mines, 109 of which were surface mines and 152 were underground. Coal production that year totaled 147,993,000 short tons, up from 139,711,000 short tons in 2003. Of the total produced in 2004, underground mines accounted for the largest share of production at 90,932,000 short tons. In 2004, West Virginia's output of coal was exceeded only by Wyoming. Recoverable coal reserves that year totaled 1.51 billion short tons. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

As of 2004, West Virginia had proven crude oil reserves of 11 million barrels, or under 1% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 4,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked 25th (24th excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and 26th (25th excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 West Virginia had 6,037 producing oil wells and accounted for less than 1% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's sole refinery had a crude oil distillation capacity of 19,400 barrels per day.

In 2004, West Virginia had 47,117 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 187.723 billion cu ft (5.33 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 3,306 billion cu ft (93.89 billion cu m).

INDUSTRY

Major industrial areas are the Kanawha, Ohio, and Monongahela valleys and the eastern panhandle. The largest industrial corporations with headquarters in West Virginia are Weirton Steel and Wheeling-Pittsburgh. Other major industrial companies with operations in West Virginia include E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Union Carbide, Ravenswood Aluminum, and Rhone Poulenc.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, West Virginia's manufacturing sector covered some 14 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $20.578 billion. Of that total, chemical manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $6.325 billion. It was followed by primary metal manufacturing at $3.379 billion; transportation equipment manufacturing at $2.538 billion; wood product manufacturing at $1.795 billion; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $1.662 billion.

In 2004, a total of 63,094 people in West Virginia were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 47,549 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the chemical manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 10,101, with 6,121 actual production workers. It was followed by primary metal manufacturing at 9,081 employees (7,110 actual production workers); wood product manufacturing at 8,782 employees (7,692 actual production workers); fabricated metal product manufacturing at 6,520 employees (5,157 actual production workers); and food manufacturing with 4,433 employees (3,105 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that West Virginia's manufacturing sector paid $2.651 billion in wages. Of that amount, the chemical manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $648.063 million. It was followed by primary metal manufacturing at $535.129 million; wood product manufacturing at $251.845 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $226.838 million; and transportation equipment manufacturing at $203.334 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, West Virginia's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $10.9 billion from 1,699 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 1,162 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 486 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 50 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $5.1 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $5.3 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $426.5 million.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, West Virginia was listed as having 7,454 retail establishments with sales of $16.7 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: gasoline stations (1,212); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,010); food and beverage stores (873); miscellaneous store retailers (863); and clothing and clothing accessories stores (646). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $4.2 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $3.1 billion; food and beverage stores at $2.1 billion; and gasoline stations at $2.06 billion. A total of 89,340 people were employed by the retail sector in West Virginia that year.

In 2005, exports of goods originating from the state had a value of $3.1 billion.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

The state Attorney General Office's, Division of Consumer Protection and Antitrust, is empowered to investigate, arbitrate, and litigate complaints by consumers alleging unfair and deceptive trade practices, and violations of the West Virginia Consumer Credit and Protection Act, the West Virginia Antitrust Act, and the Pre-need Funeral Contracts Act. There are five assistant attorneys general assigned to defend these laws.

The Public Service Commission, consisting of three members, regulates rates, charges, and services of utilities and common carriers. Since 1977, it has included one member who is supposed to represent the "average" wage earner.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil but not criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law. However, the Office cannot initiate criminal proceedings over antitrust actions.

The office of the Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Attorney General is located in Charleston.

BANKING

As of June 2005, West Virginia had 71 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, in addition to 7 state-chartered and 110 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, as of 2004, the Charleston market area ranked first for its portion of financial institution deposits in the state with $4.404 billion and second in the number of financial institutions. The Huntington-Ashland market area in that same year was first in the number of financial institutions at 25, and was second by the volume of deposits at $3.566 billion. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 9.8% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $2.234 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks col-lectively accounted for the remaining 90.2% or $20.560 billion in assets held.

The state's insured banks median return on assets (ROA) ratio (the measure of earnings in relation to all resources) was unchanged in 2005 compared to 2004, at 0.96%, but up from 0.92% for 2003. The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) stood at 4.30% in fourth quarter 2005, up from 4.23% for all of 2004 and 4.12% for all of 2003.

West VirginiaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 11,633,343 6,416.63
  General revenue 9,638,139 5,316.13
    Intergovernmental revenue 3,306,193 1,823.60
    Taxes 3,749,013 2,067.85
      General sales 1,021,365 563.36
      Selective sales 1,071,888 591.22
      License taxes 179,107 98.79
      Individual income tax 1,068,212 589.20
      Corporate income tax 181,515 100.12
      Other taxes 226,926 125.17
    Current charges 1,343,207 740.88
    Miscellaneous general revenue 1,239,726 683.80
  Utility revenue 330 .18
  Liquor store revenue 59,803 32.99
  Insurance trust revenue 1,935,071 1,067.33
Total expenditure 9,879,217 5,449.10
  Intergovernmental expenditure 1,942,069 1,071.19
  Direct expenditure 7,937,148 4,377.91
    Current operation 5,574,720 3,074.86
    Capital outlay 746,595 411.80
    Insurance benefits and repayments 1,257,883 693.81
    Assistance and subsidies 167,482 92.38
    Interest on debt 190,468 105.06
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 1,343,106 740.82
Total expenditure 9,879,217 5,449.10
  General expenditure 8,555,271 4,718.85
    Intergovernmental expenditure 1,942,069 1,071.19
    Direct expenditure 6,613,202 3,647.66
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 2,939,679 1,621.44
    Public welfare 2,294,466 1,265.56
    Hospitals 72,782 40.14
    Health 287,709 158.69
    Highways 948,901 523.39
    Police protection 58,552 32.30
    Correction 182,906 100.89
    Natural resources 185,025 102.05
    Parks and recreation 56,547 31.19
    Government administration 444,431 245.14
    Interest on general debt 190,468 105.06
    Other and unallocable 893,805 493.00
  Utility expenditure 14,800 8.16
  Liquor store expenditure 51,263 28.28
  Insurance trust expenditure 1,257,883 693.81
Debt at end of fiscal year 4,745,387 2,617.42
Cash and security holdings 12,389,391 6,833.64

Regulation of West Virginia's state-chartered banks and other state-chartered financial institutions is the responsibility of the West Virginia Division of Banking.

INSURANCE

As of 2003, there were four property and casualty companies and one life and health insurance company domiciled in the state. In 2003, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $2.3 billion. That year, there were 21,424 flood insurance policies in force in the state, at a total value of $1.8 billion. About $47 million of coverage was held through FAIR plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas.

In 2004, there were about 1.1 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of $43.7 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was $80.3 billion. The average coverage amount is $39,600 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $308.2 million.

In 2004, 47% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 3% held individual policies, and 32% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 17% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 14% for single coverage and 17% for family coverage. The state offers an 18-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 1.2 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $20,000 per individual and $40,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000 and uninsured motorist coverage. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $841.95.

SECURITIES

There are no securities exchanges in West Virginia. In 2005, there were 220 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 390 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 21 publicly traded companies within the state, with over eight NASDAQ companies and three AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had one Fortune 1,000 company; Wheeling Pittsburgh, based in Wheeling and listed on NASDAQ, ranked 943rd in the nation with revenues of over $1.5 billion.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The state constitution requires the governor to submit to the legislature within 10 days after the opening of a regular legislative session a budget for the ensuing fiscal year (FY) which runs 1 July through 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $3.9 billion for resources and $3.8 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to West Virginia were $3.7 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, West Virginia was slated to receive $35 million to build a Department of Veterans Affairs data center in Martinsburg.

TAXATION

In 2005, West Virginia collected $4,301 million in tax revenues or $2,367 per capita, which placed it 16th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 0.1% of the total, sales taxes 25.5%, selective sales taxes 24.6%, individual income taxes 27.2%, corporate income taxes 10.8%, and other taxes 11.8%.

As of 1 January 2006, West Virginia had five individual income tax brackets ranging from 3.0% to 6.5%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 9.0%.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $979,034,000 or $540 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 44th highest nationally. Local governments collected $975,664,000 of the total and the state government $3,370,000.

West Virginia taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is taxable. The tax on cigarettes is 55 cents per pack, which ranks 35th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. West Virginia taxes gasoline at 27 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, West Virginia citizens received $1.83 in federal spending, which ranks West Virginia third-highest nationally.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The West Virginia Development Office supports business and industry in the state and assists new companies with site location and employee training programs as well as with the construction of plants and access roads and the provision of essential services. The West Virginia Economic Development Authority may make loans of up to 45% of the costs of land, buildings, and equipment at low interest rates for a normal term of 15 years. Tax incentives include a credit of 10% on industrial expansion and revitalization, applicable to the business and occupations tax over a 10-year period. The Development Office helps small business by investing in venture capital companies and by offering loans for venture capital purposes. In 2006, West Virginia has trade offices in Munich, Germany and Nagoya, Japan. Workforce development has been one important focus for economic development in the state.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 8.2 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 11.5 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 6.8 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 85.8% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 87% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 of 11.8 deaths per 1,000 population was the highest rate in the nation. West Virginia also had the highest mortality rates in the nation for heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases and diabetes. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 343.5; cancer, 258.2; cerebrovascular diseases, 69.9; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 68.2; and diabetes, 47. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 1.1 per 100,000 population, the second-lowest rate in the nation after Iowa. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 5.1 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 61.2% of the population was considered overweight or obese, representing the highest percentage in the nation. As of 2004, about 26.9% of state residents were smokers, representing the second-highest percentage in the nation, after Kentucky.

In 2003, West Virginia had 57 community hospitals with about 7,800 beds. There were about 296,000 patient admissions that year and 5.8 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 4,800 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $993. Also in 2003, there were about 136 certified nursing facilities in the state with 11,152 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 89.3%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 62.5% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. West Virginia had 254 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 861 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 844 dentists in the state.

Medical education is provided by medical schools at West Virginia University and Marshall University and at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine.

About 20% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs in 2003. In 2004, 19% were enrolled in Medicare programs; this percentage was the highest in the nation. Approximately 17% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $2.2 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

Although rich in natural resources, West Virginia is a generally poor state. In 2004, about 44,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $219. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 262,442 persons (114,038 households); the average monthly benefit was about $81.94 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $258 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. West Virginia's TANF program is called West Virginia Works. In 2004, the state program had 36,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $88 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 407,460 West Virginians. This number included 205,770 retired workers, 54,610 widows and widowers, 76,340 disabled workers, 31,890 spouses, and 38,850 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 22.6% of the total state population and 92.2% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $943; widows and widowers, $858; disabled workers, $936; and spouses, $443. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $447 per month; children of deceased workers, $616; and children of disabled workers, $268. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 75,982 West Virginia residents, averaging $401 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, West Virginia had an estimated 866,944 housing units, 736,954 of which were occupied; 74% were owner-occupied (the third-highest percentage of owner-occupied units in the nation, following Minnesota and Michigan). About 70.2% of all units were single-family, detached homes; 16% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 44,343 units lacked telephone service, 3,995 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 4,267 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.40 members.

In 2004, 5,700 new privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $81,826, one of the lowest in the country. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $769, representing the lowest rate in the country. Renters paid a median of $461 per month, which was also the lowest rate in the nation. In September 2005, the state received grants of $400,000 from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $17 million in community development block grants.

EDUCATION

In 2004, 80.9% of adult West Virginians were high school graduates, below the national average of 84%. Only 15.3% had completed four or more years of college, also well below the national average of 26%.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in West Virginia's public schools stood at 282,000. Of these, 197,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 82,000 attended high school. Approximately 94.1% of the students were white, 4.6% were black, 0.5% were Hispanic, 0.6% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.1% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 279,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 255,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 9.8% during the period 200214. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $2.6 billion. There were 14,397 students enrolled in 166 private schools in fall 2003. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in West Virginia scored 269 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 93,723 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 7.2% of total postsecondary enrollment. In 2005 West Virginia had 40 degree-granting institutions including 12 public 4-year schools, 6 public 2-year schools and 10 nonprofit private 4-year schools. The state supports West Virginia University, Marshall University, and the West Virginia College of Graduate Studies (all offering graduate work), as well as three medical schools.

ARTS

The West Virginia Commission on the Arts was established in 1967 and is part of the West Virginia Division of Culture and History. In 2005, the commission and other West Virginia arts organizations received eight grants totaling $637,900 from the National Endowment for the Arts. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $578,176 for six state programs. Contributions to the arts also come from state and private sources.

West Virginia is known for the quilts, pottery, and woodwork of its mountain artisans. The Huntington Museum of Art, the Avampato Discovery Museum at the Clay Center (formerly the Sunrise Museum), and Oglebay Park in Wheeling are major art centers. The Avampato Discovery Museum was initially accredited by the American Association of Museums (AAM) in 1976 and has maintained that status as of 2003. The museum features both art and science exhibits and, since their relocation in July 2004 to the Clay Center, the museum has hosted almost 300,000 guests.

Other musical attractions include the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra in Charleston, the Charleston Ballet, Charleston Light Opera Guild, the Wheeling Symphony, and a country music program at Wheeling. The Charleston Stage Company and the Children's Theater of Charleston are also popular. As of 2005, the Charleston Light Opera Guild (founded in 1949) has produced over 150 musical theater shows. The Mountain State Art and Craft Fair is held each summer at Ripley. FestivALL Charleston began in 2005 and was designed to become an annual celebration of the arts.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In 2001, West Virginia had 97 public library systems, with a total of 177 libraries, of which there were 80 branches. In that same year, the systems had a combined 4,920,000 volumes of books and serial publications, and a combined circulation of 7,868,000. The system also had 151,000 audio and 126,000 video items, 11,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and seven bookmobiles. The largest was the Kanawha County Public Library system at Charleston, with 628,308 volumes. Of college and university libraries, the largest collection was at West Virginia University. In fiscal year 2001, operating income for the state's public library system totaled $26,844,000 and included $336,000 from federal sources and $8,302,000 from state sources.

There were 51 museums in 2000, including the State Museum and the Sunrise Museum in Charleston, and Oglebay Institute-Mansion Museum in Wheeling. Point Pleasant marks the site of a battle between colonists and Indians, and Harpers Ferry is the site of John Brown's raid. Wheeling is the location of the Oglebay's Good Children's Zoo.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, 93.2% of West Virginian homes had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 713,657 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 55.0% of West Virginia households had a computer and 47.6% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 178,242 high-speed lines in West Virginia, 166,454 residential and 11,788 for business. In 2005, broadcasting facilities included 9 major AM and 46 major FM radio stations, and 13 major television stations. Approximately 13,062 Internet domain names were registered in the state as of 2000.

PRESS

In 2005 West Virginia had 20 daily newspapers and 12 Sunday newspapers.

The following table shows leading West Virginia newspapers with their approximate 2002 circulations:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
*The Sunday edition is a combination of the Gazette and the Daily Mail.
Charleston Gazette (m,S) 68,975 84,676*
Daily Mail (e,S) 68,975 84,676*
Huntington Herald-Dispatch (m,S) 29,323 35,492
Wheeling Intelligencer/News Register (m,e,S) 33,644 39,696

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 2,300 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1,421 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

The West Virginia Coal Association is one of several statewide labor, business, and professional associations. The Black Lung Association promotes safe working conditions in coalmines and benefits for disabled miners. The Appalachian Studies Association is based in Huntington. The Hereditary Order of the Families of the Presidents and First Ladies of America, based in Sutton, was established in 2003. There are city and county historical societies throughout the state. Some counties also sponsor arts councils. The Cacapon Institute and the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition are regional environmental conservation organizations. The headquarters of the Appalachian Trail Conference is in Harpers Ferry and the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums is in Oglebay.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

In 2004, tourists spent $3.4 billion on visits to the state; in 2002, almost 23.9 million travelers visited West Virginia, representing an increase of 8.5% from 2000, with some 14.19 million visitors making day trips. Travel spending has increased every year since 2000. Tourism supports an estimated 41,000 jobs and generates $766 million in state taxes. About 250,000 whitewater rafting enthusiasts raft West Virginia waters each year, and more than 750,000 skiers venture down the slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.

Major attractions are Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, New River Gorge National River, the Naval Telecommunications Station at Sugar Grove, and White Sulphur Springs, a popular mountain golfing resort. Mountaineer casinos, with over 3,200 slot machines, attract many visitors also.

Nearly 80% of the state is covered by forest. Among the 37 state parks and state forests are Cass Scenic Railroad, which includes a restoration of an old logging line, and Prickett's Fort, with recreations of pioneer life.

SPORTS

No major professional teams are based in West Virginia, but there are minor league baseball teams in Charleston, Bluefield, and Princeton, and there is minor league hockey in Wheeling. West Virginia University's basketball team won a National Invitation Tournament championship in 1942 and was National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I runner-up in 1959. In football, West Virginia produced a string of national contenders in the late 1980s and early 1990s. West Virginia won the Peach Bowl in 1981 and played for the national championship in the 1989 Fiesta Bowl, which they lost to Notre Dame. Marshall University has also risen to the elite among college football teams, having secured a string of several Mid-American Conference champions and having won five straight bowl game appearances from 1998 to 2002.

Horse-racing tracks operate in Chester and Charles Town. Greyhound races are run in Wheeling and Charleston. Other popular sports are skiing and white-water rafting.

Professional athletes born in West Virginia include George Brett, Mary Lou Retton, and Jerry West.

FAMOUS WEST VIRGINIANS

Among West Virginians who have served in presidential cabinets are Nathan Goff Jr. (18431920), navy secretary; William L. Wilson (18431900), postmaster general; John Barton Payne (18551935), interior secretary; and Newton D. Baker (18711937), secretary of war during World War I. Lewis L. Strauss (18961974) was commerce secretary and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, and Cyrus R. Vance (19172002) served as secretary of state. John W. Davis (18731955), an ambassador to Great Britain, ran as the Democratic presidential nominee in 1924. Prominent members of the US Senate have included Matthew M. Neely (18741958), who was also governor, Harley M. Kilgore (18931956), and Robert C. Byrd (b.1917).

Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson (182463) was a leading Confederate general during the Civil War. Brigadier General Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager (b.1923), a World War II ace, became the first person to fly faster than the speed of sound.

Major state political leaders, all governors (though some have held federal offices), have been E. Willis Wilson (18441905), Henry D. Hatfield (18751962), Arch A. Moore Jr. (b.1923), and John D. "Jay" Rockefeller IV (b.New York, 1937).

The state's only Nobel Prize winner has been Pearl S. Buck (Pearl Sydenstricker, 18931973), who won the Nobel Prize for literature for her novels concerning China. Alexander Campbell (b.Ireland, 17881866), with his father, founded the Disciples of Christ Church and was president of Bethany College in West Virginia. Major labor leaders have included Walter Reuther (190770), president of the United Automobile Workers, and Arnold Miller (192385), president of the United Mine Workers.

Musicians include George Crumb (b.1929), a Pulitzer Prize-winning composer, and opera singers Eleanor Steber (191690) and Phyllis Curtin (b.1922). Melville Davisson Post (18711930) was a leading writer of mystery stories. Important writers of the modern period include Mary Lee Settle (19182005) and John Knowles (19262001). Jerry West (b.1938) was a collegiate and professional basketball star, and a pro coach after his playing days ended; Rod Hundley (b.1934) and Hal Greer (b.1936) also starred in the National Basketball Association. Mary Lou Retton (b.1968) won a gold medal in gymnastics at the 1984 Olympics. Another West Virginian of note is Anna Jarvis (18641948), founder of Mother's Day.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brisbin, Richard A. Jr., et al. (eds.). West Virginia Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Duda, Mark Damian. West Virginia Wildlife Viewing Guide. Helena, Mont.: Falcon, 1999.

Lesser, W. Hunter. Rebels at the Gate: Lee and McClellan on the Front Line of a Nation Divided. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks, 2004.

Lilly, John (ed.). Mountains of Music: West Virginia Traditional Music from Goldenseal. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: A History. 2nd ed. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1993.

Shogan, Robert. The Battle of Blair Mountain: The Story of America's Largest Labor Uprising. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2004.

Thomas, Jerry Bruce. An Appalachian New Deal: West Virginia in the Great Depression. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1998.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. West Virginia, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA

WEST VIRGINIA. The British landed on the Virginia coast in 1606 but exploration into the interior was slow. Besides curiosity, the main motivation for westward expansion was the fur trade, which played a large role in the commercial success of the colony. Sir William Berkeley, William Byrd, and Abraham Wood organized and financed a number of western expeditions. In 1671 Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam led the first expedition, organized by Abraham Wood, to travel far enough west to reach what would become the Virginia-West Virginia border. The rugged and mountainous physical characteristics of the territory earned the state the title of "the Switzerland of America." A relatively small population of Native Americans inhabited the area, the largest group of whom were the Iroquois. By 1669, the Iroquois and other groups like the Cherokees, Delawares, and Mingos used the land mostly for hunting and as a source of salt.

The first settler of record is Morgan Morgan who made his home in Berkley County at Bunker Hill in 1726. By the late 1700s, settlers, mostly Scotch-Irish and German, had penetrated the wilderness of the Allegheny Plateau. On the far western border, settlers arrived in Wirt County in 1796, and Wood County was organized in 1798. The first census reported 55,873 persons living within the borders of what would become West Virginia. By 1800 the number increased to 78,592. A number of towns incorporated during the 1780s: Lewisburg (1782), Clarksburg (1785), Morgantown (1785), Charles Town (1786), Frankfort (1787), and Middleton and West Liberty (1787). These first settlers were true pioneers entirely dependent on themselves and their environment for survival.

By the start of the nineteenth century, small industries such as saw mills, gristmills, salt manufacturing, and boatyards had started in the west. Transportation also improved and opened western Virginia for commercial pursuits. The opening of the Mississippi River meant businesses had a route around the region's mountains. Roads also developed. The 1818 Cumberland Road, from Cumberland to Wheeling, particularly benefited the west. However, it was the railroad that created the most change. As railroads penetrated through the trans-Allegheny region, populations in already settled areas doubled and even tripled, new places were settled, coal mines were opened, and other natural resources were harvested. As the region settled and became prosperous the west Virginians became more dissatisfied with the state's eastern government.

West Virginia remained part of the larger colony and then state of Virginia until the Civil War. Tension between the two regions of eastern and western Virginia was evident in the early nineteenth century. The Virginia constitution, adopted in 1776, provided the east with a number of advantages. For example, the document granted voting rights to white men owning twenty-five acres of worked land or fifty acres of unworked land, which favored the plantation culture of the east, not the small farmers of the west. The constitution also provided that slaves be taxedless than any other kind of property, which again benefited the east. To complicate matters the slave population was counted in determining representation in the state legislature. As a result of the east's dominance there was a corresponding distribution of funds. The majority of money for public works and government buildings went to the east.

In 1798 John G. Jackson, Harrison County delegate, presented the state government with a petition calling for amendments to the 1776 constitution. Although the petition was rejected, Jackson continued by writing for the Richmond Examiner with the pseudonym "A Mountaineer." His arguments became the foundation for reform. The legislature still refused to call a constitutional convention but made attempts to appease the westerners. The West, however, continued to voice their discontent and in 1828 the legislature finally agreed to a constitutional convention.

The western delegates had a number of goals including the extension of voting rights to all white men; representation based on white population; and election of county officials instead of appointment. The convention in Richmondon 5 October 1829 included past and future presidents, jurists, and an array of other statesmen. Unfortunately for the West, the convention's officers were elected using the traditional method, which meant the east had a distinct and profound advantage. Voters defeated every western goal. In response, every western delegate (except one too sick to attend) voted against the new constitution. Angered, some westerners called for immediate secession. In response the east granted some concessions over the next twenty years. However, the concessions still did not resolve the need to revise the 1776 constitution. A second convention called the Reform Convention convened in 1850. Despite the uneasy relationship between eastern and western delegates, they reached agreements on the remaining 1829 issues. The convention gave white males age twenty-one and older the right to vote; it made numerous offices elective; and it reformed the jury system.

During the 1850s the sectional troubles of the nation overshadowed Virginia's newfound harmony. Joseph Johnson, governor from 1852 to 1856, was the first popularly elected governor and also the first governor from the west. Johnson provided the western region with a real and psychological boost. Railroads continued to grow, as did commercial success. The region's population expanded and new counties formed. By the late 1850s, however, national tension over slavery began to disrupt Virginia. The two regions responded very differently to the growing sectional crisis. Westerners tended to remain moderate while the easterners were adamantly against abolition. Even after John Brown's 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry in western Virginia, the westerners remained moderate and calm, much to the chagrin of easterners who were outraged by Brown's actions.

Virginia as a whole was against secession. Even after the election of Abraham Lincoln and the secession of seven southern states in 1860 and early 1861, Virginia was still undecided. The course changed with Lincoln's call for volunteers after the 12 April 1861 firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Virginia passed a secession ordinance on 17 April by a vote of eighty-five to fifty-five. Of forty-seven western delegates, thirty-two voted against secession, eleven favored secession, and four did not vote. The western delegates hurried back to their home counties and began to organize themselves for resistance.

A number of mass town meetings were held all over the west. The most significant of these was at Clarksburg organized by John S. Carlile. The meeting called for each West Virginia county to send five of its wisest men to Wheeling. During the first Wheeling Convention, 13–15 May 1861, Carlile's group wanted to separate from Virginia immediately. A more conservative group, led by Waitman T. Willey, wanted to wait until the people had a chance to vote on the secession ordinance. After three days of growing tension Carlile agreed to wait until the referendum.

The ordinance passed 23 May 1861. The second Wheeling Convention convened 11–25 June 1861, and nullified the secession ordinance and formed the "Restored" government of Virginia. On 24 October 1861, west Virginians voted 18,408 to 781 in favor of creating a new state. The constitutional convention met from 26 November 1861 until 18 February 1862. It outlined a new government and the physical boundaries of the state. According to the U.S. Constitution, any new state must have the permission of its parent state before it can achieve statehood. West Virginia asked the Restored government at Wheeling for permission to form a new state. On 13 May 1862, the Restored governor Francis Pierpont approved the formation of a new state. The West Virginia state bill went to Congress on 29 May 1862. After debate on the slavery issue the bill passed with one amendment. The Willey Amendment was a compromise; it provided for emancipation of slaves over twenty-one and the emancipation of younger slaves when they reached twenty-one. The bill passed and President Abraham Lincoln signed it on 31 December 1862. The people of the fifty western Virginian counties voted in favor of the statehood bill on 26 March 1863, and on 20 June 1863, West Virginia officially became the thirty-fifth state. Among other names considered for it were Kanawha, Western Virginia, Allegheny, and Augusta; of the forty-four votes the name "West Virginia" received thirty.

After the Civil War, Virginia and West Virginia struggled over an issue of compensation. After a number of legal battles, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that West Virginia owed Virginia $12,393,930. The debt was paid off over time with the last installment made in 1939.

Throughout the Civil War the Union held the advantage in West Virginia. Supporters for both the Union and the Confederacy lived in West Virginia, and the war literally split families as some members fought for the North and others for the South. West Virginians also served in militias and irregular units sympathetic to the Confederacy. The fighting in the western theater was guerrilla in nature consisting of raids, arson, robbery, and intimidation.

Reconstruction was difficult for West Virginia, despite its Union loyalty. Hostility between former Confederate and Union soldiers was a serious problem. Some Confederate sympathizers continued violence causing Arthur Boreman, West Virginia's first governor, to recommend citizens organize themselves for protection. The majority of Confederate veterans, however, were not violent and in some cases federal troops were called to protect former Confederates from Unionist violence.

Another concern was that former Confederates, most of whom held Democratic views, would threaten the existence of the new state. Lincoln's reelection in 1864 lessened those fears, but his assassination in 1865 aroused them again. Governor Boreman traveled to meet with now President Andrew Johnson, who promised West Virginia his support. Boreman's administration also restricted former Confederates from holding public office and curtailed their voting rights. The laws did not relax until a new governor, William E. Stevenson, took office. By 1871, former Confederates were allowed to vote and hold office.

With restrictions removed, the Democrats slowly came to power in West Virginia, controlling the state from 1871 until 1897. The state held a constitutional convention in 1872 where sixty-six of seventy-eight members were Democrats. The new constitution omitted the word "white" from voter qualifications, placed executive power with the governor, and made changes in the judicial and legislative branches. The Democratic Party consisted of a diverse group of former Confederates, Unionists, former Whigs, and Bourbon Democrats. Republicans resumed control in 1897 and stayed in power until 1933 when Democrats regained their influence.

Sectional difference also affected the location of the state's capital. The capital was in Wheeling from 1863 until 1870. Associating the city with radical Republicanism, the Democratic legislature moved the capital to Charleston where it stayed until 1875. Charleston, however, was much smaller than Wheeling, and it was harder to reach since it did not have a railroad or an established structure for shipping. Legislators moved the capital back to Wheeling. Finally, in 1877 the legislature agreed to hold a referendum to establish a permanent capital. The voters chose among Charleston, Clarksburg, and Martinsburg; Charleston won and officially became the permanent capital of West Virginia on 1 May 1885.

In 1863 over 80 percent of West Virginians were involved in agriculture. The most important crop was corn, but wheat, oats, hay, and potatoes were also important. By the late nineteenth century, extractive industries such as coal mining, lumbering, and oil and gas production had overshadowed agriculture, taking wealth from the land without returning profit to the state.

The bituminous coal industry soared after the Civil War and climbed until the Great Depression. In 1914 coal production was 69,783,088 tons and by 1929 the production was 139,297,146 tons. The importance and place of coal in West Virginia created a new socioeconomic structure. As big business moved into the region the agrarian society became a mass of landless wage earners. Mining towns created a system of worker dependence on the company. A variety of people sought employment in West Virginia's mines, including newly freed slaves and new immigrants. As smaller coal companies consolidated into large powerful corporations they gained more and more influence over local and state governments. The vast wealth that coal mining generated went to absentee landowners who cared little about the land, environment, or people.

The United Mine Workers of America (UMWA), organized in 1890, attempted to unionize West Virginia's coal miners. The powerful companies used special police, blacklisting, and court injunctions to block the UMWA from even meeting. Miners often tried striking in hopes of securing better working conditions, which resulted in their eviction from the company-owned housing. Often tensions between miners and company guards led to violence. One of the most violent episodes, the Paint Creek Strike of 1912–1913, resulted in martial law. The other extractive industries, oil, gas, and timber, developed along similar lines. The cycle of feudalistic absenteeism and the extractive nature of West Virginia's industries ravaged the environment and left the people in poverty.

During World War I, UMWA membership increased from 7,000 members in 1913 to 50,000 members by the end of the war. World War I also brought interest in chemical and steel industries. Labor made some advances, such as a workers' compensation law, but the wartime demand and necessity of industrial goods outweighed other needs. The Great Depression hit the entire Appalachian region especially hard. A 40 percent reduction in coal production meant a rise in unemployment in an already economically depressed area. For people whose whole lives depended on the company town, the Red Cross and religious organizations were often the only places left to turn. Falling in line with the rest of the country, West Virginia began to vote out Republicans in favor of Democrats. Although at the close of World War II West Virginia shared the nation's prosperity, the state experienced a drop in population largely due to an increased use of technology. Mechanization reduced the need for employees, so people went elsewhere for work.

West Virginia had few public schools before the Civil War, but advances came quickly between 1872 and World War I. West Virginia University opened 2 September 1868, in Morgantown. Still, financing schools was hard for the poor region. West Virginia did, however, establish a minimum wage for teachers: about $22 a month. Between 1910 and 1925 the state saw a surge in the growth of high schools, but the depression meant education took a backseat to survival. The 1940s and 1950s brought a wave of reforms to the educational system, including better benefits for teachers, new textbooks, merging elementary and secondary schools, and programs like Head Start and Upward Bound. Education, however, remained a problem well into the 1980s, due to financial problems in the state. In 1984 the average public teacher's salary was more than $4,000 less than the national average. Despite efforts to enact legislation to improve salaries and redesign state education financing, West Virginia's schools continued to suffer. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the state's high school and college graduation rates were the nation's lowest.

The governors during the 1960s began to initiate programs to help clean up the state's environment. William Wallace Barron created the Air Pollution Control Commission and a volunteer statewide cleanup program, and Hulett Carlson Smith's administration brought legislation to control air and stream pollution and strip mining. During the environmental movement of the 1970s, attention was finally given to the drastic impact extractive industries made on the region's land and people. Clear cutting and strip mining created pollution that ruined streams and landscapes. Government programs such as the Appalachian Regional Commission and private organizations strove to help rebuild the regions and increase money coming into the Appalachian regions with tourism. During the 1980s, West Virginia suffered severely from the recession and energy crisis. By 1984 the state had the nation's highest unemployment rate. Renewed attention helped to draw some people to the region. In 1970 the population was 1,744,237 and by 2000 the number had increased somewhat to 1,808,344 but both were still lower than the 1950 count of 2,005,552. In the year 2000 West Virginia's poverty rates remained the highest in the nation.

The population drop also cost West Virginia a congressional seat. Arch Alfred Moore Jr., governor from 1985 to 1989, developed a recovery program and tax cuts designed to attract new industries and revitalize the coal industry. While West Virginia failed to attract GM's Saturn automobile plant in 1985 (the plant went to Spring-hill, Tennessee), by 1990 over two hundred corporations were receiving tax credits and bolstering the state's economy. Jobs in the coal industry, however, continued to decline. The program of tax cuts also led to widespread corruption so severe that Moore was convicted of extortion in 1990. The next governor, William Gaston Caperton III (1989–1997), inherited the state's financial woes. To battle the long-term financial problems, he raised taxes and adopted a state lottery to no avail.

A great deal of financial help stemmed from the efforts of Senator Robert C. Byrd. In 1986 Byrd became chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and promised to bring more than $1 billion of federal projects to West Virginia by 1995; by 1992 he had exceeded that goal. Besides various highway and water projects, West Virginia also received a new federal prison and the FBI relocated its fingerprint center from Washington, D.C. to Clarksburg. The state also benefited from a new appreciation of Appalachian culture and art. Artists and novelists helped awaken the nation to West Virginia's beauty and plight while historians, sociologists, and anthropologists began to create a new body of scholarly interest and work about the region.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambler, Charles Henry. West Virginia. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1940.

Rasmussen, Barbara. Absentee Landowning and Exploitation in West Virginia, 1760–1920. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Rice, Otis. The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia Beginnings, 1730–1830. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1970.

———and Stephen W. Brown. West Virginia: A History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993.

West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Available from http://www.wvculture.org/.

Lisa A.Ennis

See alsoCivil War ; Virginia ; Virginia v. West Virginia .

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West Virginia

West Virginia, E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N, NE), Virginia (E and S), Kentucky (W) and, across the Ohio River, Ohio (NW).

Facts and Figures

Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop. (2010) 1,852,994, a 2.5% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Charleston. Statehood, June 20, 1863 (35th state). Highest pt., Spruce Knob, 4,863 ft (1,483 m); lowest pt., Potomac River, 240 ft (73 m). Nickname, Mountain State. Motto,Montani Semper Liberi [Mountaineers Are Always Free]. State bird, cardinal. State flower,Rhododendron maximum, or "Big Laurel." State tree, sugar maple. Abbr., W.Va.; WV

Geography

Nicknamed the "Mountain State," West Virginia is very hilly and rugged, with the highest mean altitude (1,500 ft/457 m) of any state E of the Mississippi. Nearly all of the state is on the Allegheny Plateau, with the jagged Virginia–West Virginia line roughly following the eastern escarpment of the plateau (known as the Allegheny Front). Extremely irregular in outline, West Virginia has two narrow projections—the Northern Panhandle, which cuts north between Ohio and Pennsylvania, and the Eastern Panhandle, which cuts east between Maryland (with the Potomac River forming the state line) and Virginia. In the Eastern Panhandle, a part of the Appalachian ridge and valley country, lie the state's lowest point (240 ft/73 m) near Harpers Ferry where the Shenandoah River joins the Potomac, as well as its highest point, Spruce Knob (4,860 ft/1,481 m).

West Virginia is well drained; its important rivers include the Tug Fork, the Big Sandy River, the New River, the Kanawha, the Little Kanawha, the Cheat, and the Monongahela, all of which find their way to the Ohio. The New River and the Kanawha combine to form the most important waterway entirely within the state. West Virginia's climate is generally of the humid continental type, with hot summers (except in the highest areas) and cool to cold winters.

West Virginia's natural beauty is spectacular, and the excellent hunting, fishing, hiking, camping, and skiing offered here form the basis of a growing tourist industry. The state has numerous state parks, public hunting areas, and state forests; Monongahela National Forest and a portion of George Washington National Forest (most of which is in Virginia) are in West Virginia. Mineral springs are scattered throughout the state, notably at the resorts of Berkeley Springs and White Sulphur Springs. Other tourist attractions include Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table) and various mounds built by ancient peoples, most notably Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville, one of the nation's largest. Charleston is the capital and largest city; Huntington is the second largest city, followed by Wheeling and Parkersburg.

Economy

Except on river-bottom lands, on a few small plateaus, and in the northern end of the rolling, fertile Valley of Virginia in the Eastern Panhandle, farming is not extensive. (The population nevertheless is predominantly rural.) Apples, peaches, hay, corn, and tobacco are the principal crops, while broiler chickens, cattle, and dairy products lead in market receipts. West Virginia has extensive natural resources; it is among the nation's leading producers of bituminous coal, although coal production has declined. Natural gas, stone, cement, salt, and oil are also important.

Utilizing these mineral resources are major glass, chemical (including synthetic textile), and high-technology industries; they are concentrated in the highly industrialized Ohio and Kanawha river valleys, with Charleston a leading center; Huntington and Parkersburg are also important. Other manufactures include primary and fabricated metals and machinery. Steel mills extend south from Pittsburgh, Pa., into the Northern Panhandle; Wheeling is a manufacturing hub there. Lumber has long been an important resource; about two thirds of the land is still forested, most of it in valuable hardwoods. Since the 1960s a number of federal offices and facilities have been built in West Virginia, and government service is a growing employment sector.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

West Virginia's first constitution was ratified in 1862. The present constitution dates from 1872. The executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The state's legislature has a senate with 34 members and a house of delegates with 100 members. The state sends two senators and three representatives to the U.S. Congress and has five electoral votes. Democrats have generally dominated West Virginia politics since the Great Depression, but in recent years Republican candidates have been more successful in the state. Gaston Caperton, elected governor in 1988 and reelected in 1992, was succeeded by Republican Cecil H. Underwood, elected in 1996, but Underwood lost to Democrat Bob Wise in 2000. In 2004, Democrat Joe Manchin was elected to the office; he was reelected in 2008. In 2011 Earl Ray Tomblin, a Democrat who became acting governor after Manchin was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2010, was elected governor; he was reelected in 2012.

The state's leading institution of higher learning is West Virginia Univ., which has its main campus at Morgantown. Other schools include the Univ. of Charleston and West Virginia Wesleyan College, at Buckhannon. West Virginia also has an extensive state college system.

History

Early Inhabitants and European Settlement

The Mound Builders were the earliest known inhabitants. When the first Europeans arrived, however, the region was for the most part unpopulated, serving as a common hunting ground (and therefore a battleground) for the settlers and Native Americans. This part of Virginia, which later became West Virginia, was penetrated by explorers and fur traders as early as the 1670s. It was cut off from the eastern regions by rugged mountains and remained uninhabited for more than a century after Virginia had thriving colonies.

What is now the Eastern Panhandle attracted the first settlers. They were Germans and Scotch-Irish, and they came not over the Blue Ridge Mts. from Virginia but rather down the valleys from Pennsylvania. German families established (c.1730) a settlement on the Potomac and named it Mecklenburg; now called Shepherdstown, it is the oldest town in the state. Homes sprang up along the rivers, but the formidable Allegheny Plateau barrier was not crossed until after the British government, concerned about French claims to the Ohio valley, granted (1749) the Ohio Company large tracts of land in the trans-Allegheny region.

Settlers began laboriously making their way over the mountains, and they eventually came into conflict with the French; this conflict was the direct cause of the French and Indian War (1754–63; see under French and Indian Wars). During the war, most settlers fled the area. They returned after the English captured Fort Duquesne in 1758 and broke the French hold on the Ohio valley. Great numbers poured back over the mountains, ignoring the British proclamation of 1763, which, in the hopes of avoiding conflict with the Native Americans, forbade settlement W of the Alleghenies.

The Native Americans resented this encroachment on their hunting grounds, and their hostility was fed by the often unjust treatment they received at the hands of settlers. The brutal murder of the family of chief James Logan provoked a series of attacks that resulted in Lord Dunmore's War (see Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl of), in which the Native Americans were decisively defeated (Oct. 10, 1774).

The American Revolution

During the American Revolution the area was invaded three times by British-led Native American forces. After the American conquest of the Northwest by an army (consisting mostly of western Virginians) under George Rogers Clark, the British and Native American threat to the area was virtually removed. Western Virginians overwhelmingly supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution; they wanted a strong federal government that would quell further conflict with the Native Americans and that would enrich commerce along the Ohio, a river of central importance to their economic life.

Growth and Estrangement from Eastern Virginia

Population growth and prosperity were spurred by the opening of the Mississippi River with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, by the resulting expansion and improvement of river-borne commerce, and by the completion (1818) of the National Road at Wheeling. The area became an increasingly important part of Virginia, but the predominance of small farms and the almost total absence of slavery were already contributing to a sense of estrangement from the eastern part of the state.

Virginia was politically dominated by the wealthy tidewater planters, who were overrepresented in the state legislature because slaves were counted in apportioning representation. As a result the western Virginians suffered from inequitable taxation, and their demands for internal improvements and public education were not met. A new Virginia constitution, ratified in 1830, brought no reforms, but another charter (1851) effected a compromise by which representation in the lower house was based on white population and under which universal white male suffrage was granted. It was not enough; tidewater domination of the state legislature continued, and the two sections were being pulled further apart by economic differences—western Virginia was becoming an industrialized coal and steel center—and by the increasing prominence of the slavery issue.

Civil War and the Creation of West Virginia

At the outset of the Civil War the northwestern counties of Virginia overwhelmingly opposed the state's ordinance of secession (Apr. 17, 1861). Unable to halt Virginia's secession from the Union, westerners in the state were quick to take advantage of a long-awaited opportunity for their own separation from Virginia. Protected by federal troops, delegates representing most of Virginia's western counties met at Wheeling on June 11, 1861, and nullified the Virginia ordinance of secession, declared the offices of the state government at Richmond to be vacated, and formed the "restored government" of Virginia, with Francis H. Pierpont as governor.

Creation of a new state was overwhelmingly approved in the referendum of Oct. 24, and in November another convention at Wheeling began to draft the state constitution that was approved in Apr., 1862. President Lincoln proclaimed (Apr. 20, 1863) admission of a new state, West Virginia, to be effective 60 days thence, and on June 20, 1863, Arthur I. Boreman was inaugurated as its first governor. Pierpont and his "restored government" of Virginia had, of course, consented to the formation of the new state, thereby technically fulfilling the requirement in the U.S. Constitution that a state consent to its own division. Pierpont continued to act as governor of occupied Virginia throughout the war.

Meanwhile, the Confederates had failed to hold on to the region militarily; Union forces, under the command of Gen. George B. McClellan and then under Gen. William S. Rosecrans, were victorious in battles at Philippi (June 3, 1861), Rich Mt. (July 11), Corrick's Ford (July 13), and Carnifax Ferry (Sept. 10). Gen. Robert E. Lee's attempt to rally the Confederate forces ended in defeat at Cheat Mt. (Sept. 12–13), and a year later Rosecrans's victory at Gauley Bridge extended Union control to the lower Kanawha valley.

The Confederates made no serious endeavor to recover the territory W of the Allegheny Front, although guerrilla attacks persisted throughout the war. The strategically important Eastern Panhandle, on the other hand, was the scene of continual fighting; not originally a part of West Virginia, it had been quickly annexed (1863) because it contained the Baltimore and Ohio RR. (West Virginia's possession of this area was confirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1871.) Of the many West Virginians who remained loyal to the old state, Virginia, the most notable was Gen. Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson; his only sister, however, was a staunch Union supporter. Such a division in allegiance was common in many families, and these divisions affected West Virginia's politics for several decades after the war.

Postwar Political Changes and the Hatfield-McCoy Feud

Slavery was abolished in 1865, but it was not until 1872 that the state allowed African Americans to vote and to hold public office. In 1866 Radical Republicans disenfranchised all persons who had aided the Confederacy, but after the Democrats came to power (which they held for 25 years thereafter), this act was annulled (1871) by the Flick Amendment.

In 1885 the capital, which had been shuttled back and forth between Wheeling and Charleston, became fixed at Charleston. Three years earlier, along the border region between West Virginia and Kentucky, there had begun the now famous Hatfield-McCoy feud, which was to encompass many killings and embroil the governors of the two states in lengthy and heated controversy. The blood of West Virginia Hatfields and Kentucky McCoys was shed until 1896.

Industrial Expansion and the Labor Movement

Of great significance to West Virginia was the state's industrial expansion in the late 19th cent. Based on rich resources and supported by the immigration of Southern blacks and northern laborers, industrialization marked a change from the largely self-sufficient economy of local communities to one of dependence on industry's profits and labor's wages. West Virginia's great chemical industry was founded during World War I when German chemicals could no longer be imported, and it was greatly expanded during World War II.

Both wars also brought unprecedented boom periods to the mines and the steel mills. The state's rapid industrialization, however, was long accompanied by serious labor problems. This was especially true in the coal mines, where wages were low and working conditions dangerous. Unionization was bitterly resisted by mine owners, and strikes throughout the latter part of the 19th cent. and the first third of the 20th cent. were often marked by serious and extended violence, particularly in 1912–13 and in 1920–21.

The Great Depression in 1930 intensified difficulties, but reform measures under the New Deal finally assured the miners their right to organize; membership in the United Mine Workers of America soared, and by 1937 labor leaders enjoyed tremendous political power in the state. During the 1950s economic weakness in the coal industry, combined with the mechanization and automation that enabled mines to operate at top efficiency with far fewer employees, were the chief factors in bringing about the highest unemployment rate in the country and a major exodus of the state's population—down 7.2% from 1950 to 1960 and another 6.2% from 1960 to 1970.

Late-Twentieth-Century Developments

Economic conditions improved during the 1960s, as federal aid poured into the state (in part owing to the rise to power in the U.S. Senate of Robert C. Byrd), and massive efforts were made to attract new industry. Since the 1960s the ravages of surface mining have been a major political issue; recently, the practice of leveling mountains and filling creeks with slag has come under fire. In the 1970s, West Virginia's coal-based economy flourished as energy prices rose dramatically; but in the 1980s energy prices fell and employment in the mines rapidly declined as West Virginia suffered through one of the worst economic periods in its history. By 1983 the state's unemployment rate had risen to 21% as its manufacturing base also slumped. West Virginia's population declined 8% from 1980 to 1990. It rose slightly from 1990 to 2000, as a modest recovery based largely on foreign investment and further development of the tourist industry took place, but the state still ranked last in U.S. housing construction.

Bibliography

See O. K. Rice, The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia Beginnings, 1780–1830 (1969); West Virginia: The State and Its People (1972); and West Virginia: A History (1985); Federal Writers' Project, West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State (1941, repr. 1980); S. B. Cohen and M. Pervical, King Coal (1984); A. Hyde, A Portrait of West Virginia (1989).

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA


Charleston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669

Huntington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681

The State in Brief

Nickname: Mountain State

Motto: Montani semper liberi (Mountaineers are always free)

Flower: Big rhododendron

Bird: Cardinal

Area: 24,230 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 41st)

Elevation: Ranges from 240 feet to 4,861 feet above sea level

Climate: Continental; humid, with hot summers and cool winters, colder in mountains

Admitted to Union: June 20, 1863

Capital: Charleston

Head Official: Governor Joe Manchin (D) (until 2009)

Population

1980: 1,950,000

1990: 1,793,477

2000: 1,808,344

2004 estimate: 1,815,354

Percent change, 19902000: 0.8%

U.S. rank in 2004: 37th

Percent of residents born in state: 74.2% (2000)

Density: 75.1 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 45,320

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 1,718,777

Black or African American: 57,232

American Indian and Alaska Native: 3,606

Asian: 9,434

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 400

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 12,279

Other: 3,107

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 101,805

Population 5 to 19 years old: 352,910

Percent of population 65 years and over: 15.3%

Median age: 38.9 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 20,817

Total number of deaths (2003): 21,102 (infant deaths, 153)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 645

Economy

Major industries: Chemicals, mining, metals, timber, oil, coal, tourism

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (December 2004)

Per capita income: $24,672 (2003; U.S. rank: 49th)

Median household income: $31,210 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 16.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 3.0% to 6.5%

Sales tax rate: 6.0%

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West Virginia

West Virginia State in the Appalachian Mountain region, e central USA; the capital is Charleston. The land is mountainous and rugged. West Virginia has two narrow projections: the Northern Panhandle extends n between Ohio and Pennsylvania; and the Eastern Panhandle cuts e between Maryland and Virginia. Harpers Ferry lies on the bank of the Potomac River, which forms much of the state's e border. The Ohio River forms most of its w border. In 1727, Germans established the first settlement at New Mecklenburg (Shepherdstown). Settlers crossing the Appalachian and Allegheny mountains led to the last of the French and Indian Wars (1754–63). The region was then part of Virginia, but political and economic disagreements, especially on slavery, arose between western Virginians and the dominant e. When Virginia seceded from the Union in May 1861, there was much opposition in the w, and it was admitted to the Union as West Virginia in 1863. Hay, tobacco, maize, and apples are the principal crops, but West Virginia also has rich mineral deposits, and is the leading US producer of bituminous coal. Some 65% of the land is forested. Industries: glass, chemicals, steel, machinery, tourism. Area: 62,629sq km (24,181sq mi). Pop. (2000) 1,825,754.

Statehood :

June 20, 1863

Nickname :

The Mountain State

State bird :

Cardinal

State flower :

Rhododendron

State tree :

Sugar maple

State motto :

Mountaineers are always free

http://www.state.wv.us

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA


West Virginia is a state full of natural beauty yet it is plagued by economic difficulties. Its rugged terrain has made communication and transportation difficult. Though blessed with coal and timber resources, it has gone through many periods of economic depression. Although the economy improved throughout the 1990s, West Virginia is still one of the nation's poorest states

In the 1640s, before European settlers reached the land, Iroquois and Cherokee Indians inhabited the area which later became West Virginia. When Europeans did arrive, Shawnees, Delawares, and Tuscaroras disputed their claims. Early explorers were fur traders, two of whom, Robert Fallam and Thomas Batts, claimed the Ohio valley for England in 1671. The French also claimed the area, not surrendered until after the French and Indian War. Several thousand settlers inhabited the eastern panhandle area of the territory by 1750. More settlement in interior sections occurred through the time of the American Revolution (17751783), though periodic skirmishes with Indians slowed the pioneers' progress. West Virginia was originally part of Virginia, which was instrumental in forming the Union in 1788.

After the War of 1812 (18121814), conflicts developed between eastern and western Virginia. Slaveholding planters dominated the eastern section while the westerners were mostly small farmers or workers in small industries. The east controlled most of the state leaving the west with unequal representation, poor roads, unfair taxes, and other evidence of economic deprivation. In addition, according to one historian, "Most parts of western Virginia were like the Shenandoah region, a true borderland between the North and the South." (John Alexander Williams) Two constitutional conventions failed to settle the differences and it was not until Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861 that West Virginia decided to side with the North and separate from Virginia, entering the Union in 1863 as the 35th state. The state did not gain control of the upper panhandle area until 1871.

Trade developed naturally along the state's rivers in towns such as Wheeling and Harpers Ferry, but traversing the mountainous terrain of West Virginia has always been a challenge. Although Wheeling was the western terminus of the National Road, other roads were slow in coming and often almost impassable. The first successful railroad to be built was the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O), completed to Wheeling in 1852. Later railroads enabled the state to gain access to its timber and coal resources and opened up areas of the interior. The Chesapeake and Ohio, completed in 1873, extended westward from the old Virginia Central to the Ohio River. At its terminus was a new town called Huntington, after the railroad magnate who had financed the line. The two panhandles at the northwestern and eastern ends of the state can be seen as West Virginia's successful attempts to hold on to two important railroad corridors.

The rapid changes brought about by the American Civil War (18611865) and by the formation of a new state had some important consequences. Industrialism moved southward and eastward along the expanding railroads and new kinds of communities arose. Lingering rivalries between unionists and secessionists, along with the difficult transitions from an agricultural to an industrial economy, often caused open conflict. In the backward mountain areas, these sometimes erupted into the legendary "mountain feuds."

After the Civil War governors of both Republican and Democratic parties worked to improve transportation, encourage immigration, and change the tax structure to encourage business. Several powerful senators from West Virginia who had made large fortunes in coal, oil, timber, and railroads held sway over party politics in the state for many years. West Virginia industrialists often cooperated with businessmen from other states, giving the state an almost colonial economy dominated by outside interests. Republican governors of the early twentieth century, notably Stephen B. Elkins, supported progressive legislation such as safety regulations for coal mines, revised corporate tax laws, and highway improvements.

The exploitation of the state's vast coal resources after 1890 would not have been possible without the state's network of railroads, especially after the completion of the Norfolk and Western. The same could be said of timber resources: From 1908 to 1911, 1,500 mills produced up to 1.5 billion board feet of lumber annually. Technological improvements in the industry, such as the band saw and the geared locomotive, helped to increase production of lumber and transportation of logs. An unfortunate consequence of this boom period was the destruction of millions of acres of virgin forest. After the 1920s a decline occurred and lumbering was again an important sector of modern West Virginia's economy.

Since 1890 the United Mine Workers of America (UMHA) had been attempting to unionize West Virginia miners, often with violent consequences. One of the most dramatic episodes in United States labor history occurred in West Virginia in 19201921. In Mingo and Logan counties, federal troops were called in to quell miners' unrest at the Baldwin-Felts mine in 1920. The so-called "Matewan Massacre" involved the deaths of ten men when the conflict got out of hand. When a union member was gunned down in 1921 by a company guard, 3,000 angry miners marched along the Kanawha River, fighting for five days on Blair Mountain with a sheriff's posse until the violence was quelled by federal authorities, who threatened to use howitzers and poison gas dropped from several U.S. Army bombers which were deployed at the Charleston airport.

The Great Depression (19291939) of the 1930s was devastating to West Virginia, with the greatest effects felt in the coal industry. Volunteer relief workers had difficulty keeping up with the needs of unemployed miners. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's (19331945) New Deal programs, in combination with private philanthropy, brought a measure of economic stability to the state and helped to make the West Virginia Democratic Party the majority party. Later political developments also increased the power of labor unions in the state, particularly the UMWA, under the leadership of the dynamic John L. Lewis.

World War I (19141918) and World War II (19391945) brought several economic changes to the state as chemical, steel, and textile industries grew up in the Kanawha and Ohio river valleys and the eastern panhandle. Decreasing the state's reliance on mining, these industries added new economic dimensions to the state and gave it a more diverse character.

After World War II, however, West Virginia's coal industry went into a state of decline. Mechanization and strip-mining caused many mineworkers to lose their jobs, and many began to immigrate to other states. In 1960 West Virginia was one of the most economically depressed states. Though antipoverty programs in the John F. Kennedy (19611963) and Lyndon B. Johnson (19631969) administrations brought some measure of relief, the state's manufacturing and mining industries had declined dramatically. In the early 1980s West Virginia experienced a serious recession, particularly in the steel, glass, chemical, and mining industries. In 1985 West Virginia had the highest unemployment rate in the nation. In 1995 the per capita personal income was still only $18,444, the second lowest in the U.S., and 16.7 percent of the population lived below the federal poverty level.

In the 1990s things improved for the state in several ways. Industrial production is still strong in the Kanawha, Ohio, and Monongahela valleys. Coal and timber production increased and the state gained a number of federal projects under the tenure of Senator Robert C. Byrd, chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee. After the completion of Interstate Highway 64, tourism has also become an important sector of the economy. West Virginia's numerous, well-maintained state parks, glassmaking centers, and historic sites such as Harpers Ferry and the Cass Scenic Railroad have attracted approximately two million visitors a year.

See also: Coal Industry, Virginia

FURTHER READING

Conley, Phil, and William Thomas Doherty. West Virginia History. Charleston, SC: Education Foundation, 1974.

Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: The State and Its People. Parsons, WV: McClain, 1972.

. West Virginia: A History, 2nd ed. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1993.

Williams, John Alexander. West Virginia: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.

Willis, Todd C., ed. West Virginia Blue Book, 1984. Charleston, SC: Jarrett, 1984.

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA

WEST VIRGINIA , state in the E. Central section of the U.S. Coal mining has been the predominant industry, but with automation the number of coal miners has declined and there has been some migration out of the state. The Jewish population has also declined. From a reported high in 1956 of 6,000, the Jewish population fell to 4,755 in 1967 and, in 2001, 2,300

out of the total population of 1,808,000. The 2001 figures for the major Jewish communities were Beckley, 120; Bluefield-Princeton, 200; Charleston, 975; Clarksburg, 110; Fairmont, 140; Morgantown 200; Parkersburg, 110; and Wheeling, 290. Jewish life in the state has been largely a coextension of the religious organization. The first congregation, Leshem Shomayim, was formed in Wheeling in 1849; Charleston's B'nai Israel was formed in 1873. West Virginia's congregations, their numbers permitting, have always tried to maintain rabbinical leadership on a regular basis. The smaller congregations, unable to do so, have, especially in the southern part of the state, welcomed Reform student rabbis. Over a period of two or three decades more than 60 such rabbis served the smaller communities.

In addition to the congregations themselves, there are congregational women's organizations in most of the communities and congregational men's organizations in a few. Both the Zionist Organization and Hadassah are represented in five of the communities. The National Council of Jewish Women has a chapter only in Charleston. Fund-raising is conducted by a Federated Jewish Charities organization in Charleston, Huntington, and Bluefield-Princeton; in Wheeling it is conducted under the auspices of a Jewish community council. In the last few years there has been a considerable influx of Jewish students from the northern cities. Morris Harvey College in Charleston has roughly 300 Jewish students; Marshall University in Huntington, 65; and West Virginia University in Morgantown, 300. The state university has a Hillel Foundation which was directed by Rabbi Herbert J. Wilner, who also served as spiritual leader of Morgantown's Congregation Tree of Life. Jews have always taken a vigorous part in public affairs. In 1957–58, Harold L. Frankel served as mayor of Huntington. Serving in the West Virginia House of Delegates (lower division of the state legislature) in the early 1970s were Ivor F. Boiarsky, Simon H. Galperin, Jr., and Leo G. Kopelman. Paul J. Kaufman was a member of the Senate. Fred H. Caplan was a member of the five-man Supreme Court of Appeals. Others serving in the previous decade in the House of Delegates were David A. Abrams, David M. Baker, Stanley E. Deutsch, and Fred H. Caplan. Rabbis, too, have been prominently involved in state affairs. Rabbi Martin Siegel of Wheeling was chairman of the West Virginia Arts and Humanities Council; Rabbi Samuel Cooper, from 1932 rabbi of Charleston's B'nai Jacob Congregation, was chairman of the West Virginia Human Rights Commission. Rabbi Samuel Volkman, rabbi of Charleston's B'nai Israel Congregation from 1952 and regional director of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations from 1957 to 1959, served as a member of the West Virginia Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

[Samuel Volkman]

There were two synagogues in Charlestown, a traditional congregation with an Orthodox rabbi and a Reform Congregation. There was a Conservative Synagogue in Clarksburg and a joint Conservative/Reform Congregation in Huntington. There were Reform Synagogues in Logan, Martinsburg, Parkersburg, Welsch, Wheeling, and Williamson

bibliography:

A.I. Shinedling, West Virginia Jewry: Origins and History, 18501958, 3 vols. (1963).

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Citation styles

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West Virginia

West Virginia

■ ALDERSON-BROADDUS COLLEGE D-9

1 College Hill Dr.
Philippi, WV 26416
Tel: (304)457-1700
Free: 800-263-1549
Fax: (304)457-6239
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ab.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A.. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1871. Setting: 170-acre rural campus. Endowment: $12.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $38,284. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7240 per student. Total enrollment: 779. Faculty: 87 (58 full-time, 29 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 480 applied, 75% were admitted. 19% from top 10% of their high school class, 45% from top quarter, 79% from top half. 27 student government officers. Full-time: 592 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 56 students, 86% women, 14% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 5 other countries, 20% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 27% 25 or older, 41% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; biological/life sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study at Mountain State Association of Colleges. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: 3 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/31.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $24,006 includes full-time tuition ($17,970), mandatory fees ($166), and college room and board ($5870). College room only: $2860. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $598 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $41.50 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 50 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 10% of eligible men and 12% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Baptist Campus Ministry, Collegiate 4-H, American Academy of Physician Assistants, S.L.I.C.E. (Students Learning in Community Education), Association of Women Students. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Festival, Opening Convocation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 758 college housing spaces available; 283 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Pickett Library with 100,000 books, 9,000 serials, 700 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $313,203. 75 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Philippi is a rural community enjoying a moderate climate ranging from balmy summers to snowy winters. There are churches of major denominations, a hospital, clinic, and more than 50 civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations active in the community. Local recreation includes swimming, bowling, theater, and major outdoor sports. Skiing and whitewater rafting are within minutes of the campus. Some part-time employment is available.

■ AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM C-17

111 West Congress St.
Charles Town, WV 25414
Tel: (304)724-6857; 877-468-6268
Admissions: (703)330-5398
Fax: (304)724-6863
Web Site: http://www.apus.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees (profile includes American Public University, American Military University and American Community College). Founded 1991. Total enrollment: 13,477. Faculty: 362 (47 full-time, 315 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 3,489 applied, 81% were admitted. Full-time: 473 students, 27% women, 73% men. Part-time: 8,557 students, 19% women, 81% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 23 other countries, 96% from out-of-state, 83% 25 or older. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: military science and technologies; security and protective services; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Independent study, distance learning, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, complete no-fee orientation. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. One-time mandatory fee: $75. Tuition: $6000 full-time, $250 per semester hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ APPALACHIAN BIBLE COLLEGE I-6

PO Box ABC
Bradley, WV 25818
Tel: (304)877-6428
Free: 800-678-9ABC
Web Site: http://www.abc.edu/

Description:

Independent nondenominational, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1950. Setting: 110-acre small town campus. Endowment: $242,376. Total enrollment: 304. 105 applied, 69% were admitted. Full-time: 238 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 66 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 8 other countries, 0% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 33% 25 or older, 12% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $12,808 includes full-time tuition ($7140), mandatory fees ($1268), and college room and board ($4400). Part-time tuition: $297 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $32 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organization: Campus Missionary Fellowship. Major annual events: Spring Music Festival, Christmas Concert, Bible Conference. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, patrols by trained security personnel. 236 college housing spaces available; 191 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. John Van Pufflen Library with 44,944 books, 985 microform titles, 347 serials, 4,268 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 7 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Bradley is a rural community enjoying temperate climate. There is a railroad line 15 miles distant, an airline 14 miles away, buses, and Highways I-77, I-64, 19, 21, and 16 to serve the community. The city has 5 churches and a Lions Club. Within walking distance is Crossroads Mall. The community provides numerous part-time employment opportunities, and enjoys all the cultural, recreational, and medical facilities of nearby Beckley.

■ BETHANY COLLEGE

Main St.
Bethany, WV 26032
Tel: (304)829-7000
Free: 800-922-7611
Admissions: (304)829-7611
Fax: (304)829-7142
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bethanywv.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1840. Setting: 1,600-acre rural campus with easy access to Pittsburgh. Endowment: $42 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4873 per student. Total enrollment: 902. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 859 applied, 75% were admitted. 11% from top 10% of their high school class, 28% from top quarter, 58% from top half. 1 National Merit Scholar, 17 class presidents, 13 valedictorians, 67 student government officers. Full-time: 895 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 7 students, 86% women, 14% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 20 other countries, 73% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 4% black, 0.2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 2% 25 or older, 88% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; psychology. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, internships. Off campus study at members of the East Central College Consortium. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, documentation of student involvement, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,520 includes full-time tuition ($15,750) and college room and board ($7770). College room only: $4000.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 38 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 40% of eligible men and 45% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Board of Governors, Outdoor Club, Model United Nations, Public Relations Society, International Student Association. Major annual events: Homecoming, Mardi Gras, Spring Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. T. W. Phillips Memorial Library with 130,696 books, 116,065 microform titles, 785 serials, 3,101 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $449,182. 136 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BLUEFIELD STATE COLLEGE L-6

219 Rock St.
Bluefield, WV 24701-2198
Tel: (304)327-4000
Free: 800-654-7798
Admissions: (304)327-4567
Fax: (304)327-7747
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of Higher Education Policy Commission System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1895. Setting: 45-acre small town campus. Endowment: $7.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3498 per student. Total enrollment: 1,708. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 615 applied, 96% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 27% from top quarter, 71% from top half. 38 class presidents, 3 valedictorians, 3 student government officers. Full-time: 1,400 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 308 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 21 states and territories, 11 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 11% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 46% 25 or older, 13% transferred in. Retention: 58% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; health professions and related sciences; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3410 full-time, $142 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7014 full-time, $292 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, program, and reciprocity agreements.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 35 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 8% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Phi Eta Sigma, Student Nurses Association, Student Government Association, Minorities on the Move. Major annual events: homecoming, Greek Week, Black History Month. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols. College housing not available. Hardway Library with 76,391 books, 706,413 microform titles, 2,453 serials, 341 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $283,454. 358 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

At the foot of the East River Mountain, high in the Appalachian chain, Bluefield is situated at the southern tip of West Virginia, bordering on the Virginia state line. The city is the commercial and industrial center for the surrounding area. The climate is temperate with a mean annual temperature of 53.7 degrees and an average rainfall of 38.52 inches. Due to a high altitude and low humidity, the city known as"Nature's Air Conditioned City." Bluefield is accessible by airlines, bus lines, and major highways. There are many churches representing most denominations, community health facilities, and major civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations to serve the community. Local recreation includes nearby Bluestone Reservoir and lakes for fishing, swimming, and boating; municipal swimming pools, golf, a football stadium, tennis courts, softball, and Little Theatre group.

■ COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF SHEPHERD B-16

400 West Stephen St.
Martinsburg, WV 25401
Tel: (304)260-4380
Fax: (304)260-4376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.shepherd.edu/ctcweb/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 1,711. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 29:1. 333 applied, 99% were admitted. Full-time: 427 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 1,284 students, 62% women, 38% men. 40% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 8% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.2% international.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2944 full-time, $123 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8542 full-time, $355 per credit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Social organizations: national fraternities.

■ COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY H-5

Montgomery, WV 25136
Tel: (304)442-3149; 888-554-8324
Admissions: (304)442-3167
Web Site: http://ctc.wvutech.edu/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 645.

■ CONCORD UNIVERSITY K-6

Vermillion St., PO Box 1000
Athens, WV 24712-1000
Tel: (304)384-3115; 888-384-5249
Admissions: (304)384-5248
Fax: (304)384-9044
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.concord.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of State College System of West Virginia. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1872. Setting: 100-acre rural campus. Endowment: $19.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6397 per student. Total enrollment: 3,015. Faculty: 185 (97 full-time, 88 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 2,227 applied, 67% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 74% from top half. 12 valedictorians, 127 student government officers. Full-time: 2,444 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 508 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 15 other countries, 15% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 18% 25 or older, 39% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview, ACT. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 1/15 for nonresidents. Notification: continuous, 3/1 for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3872 full-time, $160 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8646 full-time, $359 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5796. College room only: $2966.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 13 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 20% of eligible men and 25% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Board, student government, student-run publications, music groups, student union activities board. Major annual events: Homecoming, Mt. Lion Festival, Graduation. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,163 college housing spaces available; 1,018 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. J. Frank Marsh Library with 150,151 books, 268,451 microform titles, 227 serials, 4,060 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $490,196. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in the mountains in a quiet rural area, this is an excellent atmosphere for students. The climate is moderate with cool summers. Local recreation includes good hunting and fishing. Pipestem State Park and Winterplace Ski Resort are located nearby.

■ DAVIS & ELKINS COLLEGE E-10

100 Campus Dr.
Elkins, WV 26241-3996
Tel: (304)637-1900
Free: 800-624-3157
Admissions: (304)637-1974
Fax: (304)637-1800
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.davisandelkins.edu/

Description:

Independent Presbyterian, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1904. Setting: 170-acre small town campus. Endowment: $16.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5629 per student. Total enrollment: 624. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 840 applied, 55% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 25% from top quarter, 59% from top half. 7 class presidents, 1 valedictorian, 26 student government officers. Full-time: 560 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 64 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 15 other countries, 31% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 44% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; social sciences. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, interview. Required for some: essay, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $22,936 includes full-time tuition ($16,312), mandatory fees ($520), and college room and board ($6104). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $525 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 42 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 14% of eligible men and 14% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Beta Alpha Beta, campus radio station, Student Nurses Association, Student Education Association, International Student Organization. Major annual events: Parents' Weekend, Homecoming, Alumni Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, late night security personnel. 572 college housing spaces available; 320 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Booth Library with 225,816 books, 219,947 microform titles, 2,339 serials, 6,240 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $277,103. 101 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Elkins is located in the foothills of the Alleghenies and is the headquarters for the nearby Monongahela National Forest. The community is accessible by auto and airline. The climate is temperate. Elkins has several churches of various denominations, a hospital, YMCA, and major civic and fraternal organizations. The nearby national forest offers excellent trout streams, hunting, camping, 4 modern ski resorts, and bathing beaches. An annual autumn State Forest Festival is held here. Part-time employment is limited.

■ EASTERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE D-13

HC 65 Box 402
Moorefield, WV 26836
Tel: (304)434-8000; 877-982-2322
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eastern.wvnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1999. Setting: rural campus. Total enrollment: 882. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 104 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 68 students, 81% women, 19% men. Part-time: 814 students, 66% women, 34% men. 0.4% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 3% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $1704 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6822 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ FAIRMONT STATE COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-9

1201 Locust Ave.
Fairmont, WV 26554
Tel: (304)367-4892
Free: 800-641-5678
Fax: (304)367-4692
Web Site: http://www.fscwv.edu/fsctc/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Administratively affiliated with Fairmont State College. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Setting: 90-acre small town campus. Endowment: $91,000. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1834. Total enrollment: 3,355. 1,267 applied, 88% were admitted. Full-time: 1,878 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 1,477 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 11 states and territories, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 15% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for health career programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: SAT or ACT. Recommended: high school transcript, minimum 2.25 high school GPA. Required for some: ACT COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. 600 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04.

■ FAIRMONT STATE UNIVERSITY B-9

1201 Locust Ave.
Fairmont, WV 26554
Tel: (304)367-4000
Free: 800-641-5678
Admissions: (304)367-4702
Fax: (304)367-4789
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fairmontstate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of State College System of West Virginia. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1865. Setting: 80-acre small town campus. Endowment: $8.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $27,016. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2837 per student. Total enrollment: 7,759. Faculty: 535 (220 full-time, 315 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 3,008 applied, 75% were admitted. 12% from top 10% of their high school class, 25% from top quarter, 66% from top half. 7 valedictorians. Full-time: 5,534 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 1,986 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 23 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 4% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 26% 25 or older, 6% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 6/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4218 full-time, $155 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8808 full-time, $331 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $194 full-time, $177 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5674. College room only: $2814.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 46 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities; 1% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Alpha Phi Omega, Circle K, Society for Non-traditional Students, Criminal Justice Club, Honors Association. Major annual events: Homecoming, Student Leadership Conference, Alcohol Awareness Week. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, controlled dormitory access. 1,183 college housing spaces available; 983 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Musick Library with 276,722 books, 27,211 microform titles, 883 serials, 2,066 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $936,519. 1,300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The College's 80-acre campus, with its twelve major buildings, is attractively located in Fairmont, West Virginia. Approximately ninety miles south of Pittsburgh on Interstate 79, Fairmont, with a population of about 20,000, is the county seat of Marion County.

■ GLENVILLE STATE COLLEGE E-7

200 High St.
Glenville, WV 26351-1200
Tel: (304)462-7361
Admissions: (304)462-4128
Fax: (304)462-8619
Web Site: http://www.glenville.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1872. Setting: 331-acre rural campus. Endowment: $5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5241. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7895 per student. Total enrollment: 1,392. 1,154 applied, 100% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 27% from top quarter, 66% from top half. Students come from 21 states and territories, 4 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 18% 25 or older, 33% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, completion of college-preparatory program, SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3628 full-time, $151.17 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8640 full-time, $360 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5150. College room only: $2500. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band. Social organizations: 25 open to all; national fraternities, local fraternities, local sororities; 2% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Percussion Ensemble, Band, Choir, Fellowship of Christian Athletes. Major annual events: homecoming, GSC Week, Convocation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 596 college housing spaces available; 430 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Robert F. Kidd Library with 125,240 books, 605,783 microform titles, 11,676 serials, 2,677 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $361,793. 232 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Glenville is located in the approximate geographical center of the state. Interstate 79 passes within 15 miles of the campus. Glenville has 5 churches, a modern clinic, motel, and several civic and fraternal organizations. Within the area there are facilities for hunting, fishing, golf, baseball, softball. A state park is located 6 miles away. Job opportunities are available. An annual West Virginia Folk Festival is held each year in June.

■ HUNTINGTON JUNIOR COLLEGE G-2

900 Fifth Ave.
Huntington, WV 25701-2004
Tel: (304)697-7550
Fax: (304)697-7554
Web Site: http://www.huntingtonjuniorcollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees. Founded 1936. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 700. 40% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available. 1,900 books and 35 serials. 60 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY B-9

2000 Green River Dr.
Fairmont, WV 26554-9790
Tel: (304)534-5677; 888-406-8324
Fax: (304)534-5669
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://iadtwv.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1971.

■ MARSHALL COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE G-2

One John Marshall Dr.
Huntington, WV 25755
Tel: (304)696-6282
Admissions: (304)696-3160
Web Site: http://www.marshall.edu/ctc/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Community and Technical College System of West Virginia. Administratively affiliated with Marshall University. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Endowment: $142,700. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2749 per student. Total enrollment: 2,589. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 27:1. 695 applied, 99% were admitted. Full-time: 1,305 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 1,284 students, 28% women, 72% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 3 other countries, 19% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 6% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 55% 25 or older, 7% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: SAT, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $2814 full-time, $118 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8142 full-time, $340 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $6272. College room only: $3496.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. 2,200 college housing spaces available. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. John Deaver Drinko Library plus 2 others with 478,274 books, 972,106 microform titles, 5,314 serials, 24,759 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 1,854 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MARSHALL UNIVERSITY G-2

One John Marshall Dr.
Huntington, WV 25755
Tel: (304)696-3170
Admissions: (304)696-3160
Fax: (304)696-3135
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.marshall.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University System of West Virginia. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1837. Setting: 70-acre urban campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $14.6 million. Total enrollment: 13,988. Faculty: 722 (469 full-time, 253 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 2,412 applied, 82% were admitted. Full-time: 8,190 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 1,651 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 41 states and territories, 29 other countries, 18% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 18% 25 or older, 20% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $3932 full-time, $155.75 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,634 full-time, $423.25 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6272. College room only: $3496. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 75 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 8% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Campus Crusade for Christ, Gamma Beta Phi, The International Students' Organization, Newman Association, Phi Alpha Theta. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Fest, Independence Daze. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,200 college housing spaces available. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. John Deaver Drinko Library plus 2 others with 478,274 books, 972,106 microform titles, 5,314 serials, 24,759 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.4 million. 1,854 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Huntington is a busy river terminal and serves as the shipping point for millions of tons of coal mined annually from the great bituminous fields to the south of the city. It is also the center of a large natural gas and oil-producing area. The annual mean temperature is 56.6 degrees with an annual rainfall of 41.8 inches. The community is accessed by bus, rail, and air. There are medical facilities, a public library, YMCA, YWCA, and over 140 churches of various denominations serving the area. Recreation includes municipal swimming pools, roller skating rinks, golf, tennis, bowling, boating, the Memorial Field House, theatres, and the Huntington Civic Center which attracts top entertainment. Part-time employment is available.

■ MOUNTAIN STATE COLLEGE C-4

1508 Spring St.
Parkersburg, WV 26101-3993
Tel: (304)485-5487
Free: 800-841-0201
Fax: (304)485-3524
Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.org/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1888. Setting: small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7765 per student. Total enrollment: 166. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. Full-time: 166 students, 83% women, 17% men. 0% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 55% 25 or older. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: interview, CPAt. Entrance: minimally difficult.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $7050 full-time. Mandatory fees: $115 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ MOUNTAIN STATE UNIVERSITY J-6

Box 9003
Beckley, WV 25802-9003
Tel: (304)253-7351
Free: 800-766-6067
Admissions: (304)929-1358
Fax: (304)253-5072
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1933. Setting: 7-acre small town campus. Endowment: $8.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2705 per student. Total enrollment: 4,404. Faculty: 316 (79 full-time, 237 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 1,224 applied, 100% were admitted. 2% from top 10% of their high school class, 13% from top quarter, 40% from top half. Full-time: 2,954 students, 64% women, 36% men. Part-time: 1,024 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 47 states and territories, 24 other countries, 25% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 10% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 67% 25 or older, 4% live on campus, 17% transferred in. Retention: 51% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; security and protective services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $12,876 includes full-time tuition ($5700), mandatory fees ($1650), and college room and board ($5526). College room only: $2810. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $190 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $55 per credit. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 15 open to all; local fraternities; 5% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Christian Organization, Astronomy Club, creative writing group, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Student Support Group, Student Government Association. Major annual events: Halloween Party, Black History Month, Super Bowl Party. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, night patrols by security. 192 college housing spaces available; 160 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Mountain State University Library with 93,527 books, 1,416 microform titles, 7,030 serials, 1,931 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $401,657. 97 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY G-4

5514 Big Tyler Rd.
Cross Lanes, WV 25313-1390
Tel: (304)776-6290; 888-741-4271
Web Site: http://www.nitschools.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Part of Corinthian Schools, Inc. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1938. Setting: small town campus. Total enrollment: 520. Students come from 4 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 30% 25 or older. Core. Advanced placement, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. College housing not available. 140 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NEW RIVER COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE J-6

167 Dye Dr.
Beckley, WV 25801
Tel: (304)255-5821
Admissions: (304)647-6564
Web Site: http://www.nrctc.org/

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 1,600.

■ OHIO VALLEY UNIVERSITY C-5

One Campus View Dr.
Vienna, WV 26105-8000
Tel: (304)865-6000; 877-446-8668
Admissions: (304)865-6203
Fax: (304)865-6001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ovu.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with Church of Christ. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1960. Setting: 299-acre small town campus. Endowment: $965,736. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,743 per student. Total enrollment: 542. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 512 applied, 48% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 32% from top quarter, 57% from top half. 2 valedictorians, 21 student government officers. Full-time: 508 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 34 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 12 other countries, 35% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 4% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 77% 25 or older, 60% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 74% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: recommendations. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadlines: 8/15, 9/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 10/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $18,972 includes full-time tuition ($11,700), mandatory fees ($1392), and college room and board ($5880). College room only: $3080. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $400 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $58 per credit hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 15 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 76% of eligible men and 75% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Mission Club, Women for Christ, SIFE, Ambassadors, Black Student Union. Major annual events: Expressions, Winter Banquet, Spring Banquet. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. 400 college housing spaces available; 247 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Icy Belle Library with 34,000 books, 48,279 microform titles, 455 serials, 6,303 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $157,799. 34 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ POTOMAC STATE COLLEGE OF WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY B-13

Fort Ave.
Keyser, WV 26726-2698
Tel: (304)788-6800
Free: 800-262-7332
Admissions: (304)788-6820
Fax: (304)788-6939
Web Site: http://www.potomacstatecollege.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1901. Setting: 616-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7443 per student. Total enrollment: 1,330. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 8% from top quarter, 54% from top half. Students come from 17 states and territories, 2 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 13% 25 or older, 35% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for state residents. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2328 full-time, $98 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7872 full-time, $329 per credit hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $4914. College room only: $2340. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 17 open to all. Most popular organizations: student newspaper, Circle K Club, Agriculture and Forestry Club, Business Club, Community Chorus. Major annual events: Homecoming, multicultural festival, Heritage Days. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Shipper Library with 44,197 books, 51,796 microform titles, 304 serials, 23,395 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $209,933. 113 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

During the Civil War, the country around Keyser was a frequent battleground. The community was a supply point for, alternately, the Union Army and the Confederate forces. It changed hands 14 times in 4 years of war. The climate is temperate. There are churches of many denominations, libraries, a hospital and various civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations serving the area. The city has good shopping facilities and is accessible by railroad, buses, and U.S. Highways 48,50 and 220. Residence Halls provide student housing. Part-time employment is available. Local recreation includes hunting, boating, fishing, golf, swimming, skiing, and tennis.

■ SALEM INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY C-8

223 West Main St., PO Box 500
Salem, WV 26426-0500
Tel: (304)782-5011
Free: 800-283-4562
Admissions: (304)782-5336
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.salemiu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1888. Setting: 300-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 568. 251 applied, 99% were admitted. 11% from top 10% of their high school class, 33% from top quarter, 59% from top half. 1 valedictorian. Full-time: 359 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 84 students, 40% women, 60% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 17 other countries, 56% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 8% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 39% international, 11% 25 or older, 64% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: modular. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, part-time degree program, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at West Virginia Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.00 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 25 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 30% of eligible men and 30% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: National Honor Society, Humanics Student Association, Equestrian Club, Alpha Phi Omega Service Fraternity, LIGHT. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fling, Winterfest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 644 college housing spaces available; 244 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through junior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Benedum Library with 179,918 books, 278,224 microform titles, 398 serials, 827 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $179,788. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Tucked into a quiet valley, Salem-Teikyo University is surrounded by the scenic mountains for which West Virginia is known. Nearby parks provide excellent hiking, biking, white water rafting, skiing and fishing locations. Although the atmosphere is rural, students are within minutes of shopping malls, cinemas, fine restaurants, and the Benedum Airport. There is easy access to metropolitan areas such as Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., and New York.

■ SHEPHERD UNIVERSITY

PO Box 3210
Shepherdstown, WV 25443-3210
Tel: (304)876-5000
Free: 800-344-5231
Admissions: (304)876-5212
Fax: (304)876-5165
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.shepherd.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1871. Setting: 320-acre small town campus with easy access to Washington, DC. Endowment: $20.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3201 per student. Total enrollment: 3,901. Faculty: 253 (109 full-time, 144 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 1,593 applied, 93% were admitted. Full-time: 2,949 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 860 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 49 states and territories, 21 other countries, 36% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 26% 25 or older, 25% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; education; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 11/15 for early action. Notification: continuous until 8/15, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4046 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,618 full-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6020. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 42 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 6% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Program Board, Student Community Services, United Brothers, Common Ground. Major annual events: homecoming, Shepfest, Midnight Breakfast. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,019 college housing spaces available; 1,000 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Ruth Scarborough Library with 183,197 books, 245,794 microform titles, 918 serials, 11,393 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.3 million. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Shepherdstown is a small town of about 5,000 located near Martinsburg, Charles Town and Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and Hagerstown, Maryland. The town was established by English and German farmers who had crossed the river from Maryland before 1730. There are many historic sites in the area. The climate is temperate and the community is reached by State Route 45. There are 10 churches, 4 libraries, and 4 hospitals nearby. Some part-time employment is available in the surrounding area.

■ SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Dempsey Branch Rd., PO Box 2900
Mount Gay, WV 25637-2900
Tel: (304)792-7160
Fax: (304)792-7096
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of State College System of West Virginia. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1971. Setting: 23-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 1,982. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 875 applied, 100% were admitted. 3% from top 10% of their high school class, 10% from top quarter, 28% from top half. Full-time: 1,257 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 725 students, 75% women, 25% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 12% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 2% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 38% 25 or older, 7% transferred in. Retention: 0% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, medical laboratory technology, radiological technology programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1634 full-time, $68 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6486 full-time, $270 per credit hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 70,576 books and 233 serials. 92 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON G-4

2300 MacCorkle Ave., SE
Charleston, WV 25304-1099
Tel: (304)357-4800
Free: 800-995-GOUC
Admissions: (304)357-4750
Fax: (304)357-4781
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ucwv.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1888. Setting: 40-acre urban campus. Endowment: $27.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5669 per student. Total enrollment: 1,006. Faculty: 99 (60 full-time, 39 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 1,124 applied, 96% were admitted. 25% from top 10% of their high school class, 50% from top quarter, 76% from top half. Full-time: 852 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 135 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 24 other countries, 32% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 6% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 8% international, 25% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 17% transferred in. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; business/marketing; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.25 high school GPA, minimum scores ACT 19; SAT 900, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, recommendations. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents. Notification: continuous, continuous for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $27,600 includes full-time tuition ($20,200) and college room and board ($7400). College room only: $4175. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $380 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $75 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 46 open to all; national fraternities, local sororities; 4% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Activities Board, American Society of Interior Designers, Student Government Association, Capitol Association of Nursing Students, International Student Organization. Major annual events: Governor's Cup Regatta, Homecoming, Family Weekend. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, radio connection to city police and ambulance. 515 college housing spaces available; 422 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Schoenbaum Library with 111,264 books, 144,984 microform titles, 2,011 serials, 2,505 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $351,066. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Charleston, with a metropolitan population of 280,000, is the state capital, as well as the cultural, social, political, and economic center of West Virginia. Located in the Kanawha Valley, near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, it offers scenic tranquility as well as the convenience and excitement of a modern city. Downtown Charleston, just a 5-minute drive from campus, offers social and cultural opportunities that can be found only in a large city.

■ VALLEY COLLEGE B-16

287 Aikens Center
Martinsburg, WV 25401
Tel: (304)263-0979
Fax: (304)263-2413
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.valleycollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1983. Setting: suburban campus. Total enrollment: 47. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. Full-time: 47 students, 94% women, 6% men. 4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 13% black. Calendar: continuous.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript, interview.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $7200 full-time, $225 per credit part-time.

■ WEST LIBERTY STATE COLLEGE C-2

PO Box 295
West Liberty, WV 26074
Tel: (304)336-5000
Free: 800-732-6204
Admissions: (304)336-8076
Fax: (304)336-8285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wlsc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1837. Setting: 290-acre rural campus with easy access to Pittsburgh. Endowment: $6.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $95,308. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3734 per student. Total enrollment: 2,246. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 1,202 applied, 98% were admitted. 6% from top 10% of their high school class, 33% from top quarter, 58% from top half. Full-time: 1,974 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 267 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 5 other countries, 30% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 3% black, 0.2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 16% 25 or older, 45% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Warwood Center, Wheeling WV.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3686 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9054 full-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time. College room and board: $5456. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 6% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Delta Sigma Pi, Student Senate, Drama Club, Students in Free Enterprise. Major annual events: Homecoming, Greek Week, Spring Concert. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 1,300 college housing spaces available; 938 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Paul N. Elbin Library plus 1 other with 194,715 books, 124,000 microform titles, 485 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $376,993. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

West Liberty is located 10 miles from the city limits of Wheeling. There are 2 Protestant churches and a visiting priest for Catholic students. Famous Oglebay Park, 6 miles from the campus, is used for recreation. Job opportunities are good in the area. There are dormitories, campus health services, and an infirmary for students. Fraternities and sororities are prominent here.

■ WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (NUTTER FORT) C-9

116 Pennsylvania Ave.
Nutter Fort, WV 26301
Tel: (304)624-7695
Fax: (304)622-2149
Web Site: http://www.stratuswave.com/~wvbc/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (WHEELING) C-1

1052 Main St.
Wheeling, WV 26003
Tel: (304)232-0361
Fax: (304)232-0363
Web Site: http://www.stratuswave.com/~wvbc/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1881. Setting: 5-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 78. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. 12 applied, 100% were admitted. 0% from out-of-state, 50% 25 or older.

Costs Per Year:

Tuition: $15,500 per degree program.

■ WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (BRIDGEPORT) C-9

176 Thompson Dr.
Bridgeport, WV 26330
Tel: (304)363-8824
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1922. Setting: 3-acre small town campus. 60 applied, 100% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 70% from top half. 40% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 550 books and 3 serials. 18 computers available on campus for general student use.

■ WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (CHARLESTON) G-4

1000 Virginia St. East
Charleston, WV 25301-2817
Tel: (304)345-2820
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees. Founded 1892. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 230. 130 applied, 100% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 10% from top quarter, 20% from top half. Students come from 6 states and territories, 40% 25 or older. Advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 1,300 books and 40 serials. 75 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (MORGANTOWN) B-10

148 Willey St.
Morgantown, WV 26505-5521
Tel: (304)296-8282
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees (also offers non-degree programs with significant enrollment not reflected in profile). Founded 1922. Setting: small town campus with easy access to Pittsburgh. Students come from 2 states and territories, 1 other country, 70% 25 or older. Core. Adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript, interview. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 12 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ WEST VIRGINIA NORTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE C-1

1704 Market St.
Wheeling, WV 26003-3699
Tel: (304)233-5900
Fax: (304)233-5900
Web Site: http://www.northern.wvnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: small town campus with easy access to Pittsburgh. Endowment: $700,706. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3021 per student. Total enrollment: 2,842. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 788 applied, 53% were admitted. 2% from top 10% of their high school class, 11% from top quarter, 40% from top half. Full-time: 1,421 students, 68% women, 32% men. Part-time: 1,421 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 17% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 3% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 94% 25 or older, 8% transferred in. Retention: 51% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for health science programs. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $1752 full-time, $73 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5592 full-time, $233 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: security personnel during evening and night classes. College housing not available. Wheeling B and O Campus Library plus 2 others with 36,650 books, 8 microform titles, 188 serials, 3,495 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $83,294. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Wheeling, one of the country's most liveable small cities, is a one-hour drive from Pittsburgh, PA, and a two-hour drive from Columbus, OH. It is in a central area of approximately 150,000 people. Many cultural and recreational facilities are available, including 1,500-acre Oglebay Park and 250-acre Wheeling Park. Excellent local recreation areas provide opportunities for camping, hiking, skiing, swimming, golf, and other such activities.

■ WEST VIRGINIA STATE COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Thomas W. Cole, Jr., Complex
PO Box 1000
Institute, WV 25112
Tel: (304)766-3118
Free: 800-987-2112
Admissions: (304)766-3033
Web Site: http://fozzy.wvsc.edu/ctc/index.html

Description:

County-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 1,609. 7% from out-of-state.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $3222 full-time, $110 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7400 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to class time, course level, and program. College room and board: $4720. College room only: $2200. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

■ WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Post Office Box 1000
Institute, WV 25112-1000
Tel: (304)766-3000
Free: 800-987-2112
Admissions: (304)766-3221
Fax: (304)766-4158
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvstateu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of State College System of West Virginia. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1891. Setting: 90-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 3,491. Faculty: 194 (120 full-time, 74 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 23:1. 862 applied, 50% were admitted. Full-time: 2,396 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 1,059 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 32 states and territories, 4 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 15% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 37% 25 or older, 7% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/11. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3528 full-time, $147 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8104 full-time, $338 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room and board: $4850. College room only: $2200. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 22 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Major annual event: homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Drain-Jordan Library with 228,026 books, 63,047 microform titles, 513 serials, 4,468 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC.

Community Environment:

Institute is a suburb of Charleston and is reached by railroad, bus lines, feeder airlines, and a local transit system. There are churches of major denominations and community services in the easily accessible neighboring community. Part-time employment is available.

■ WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY B-10

University Ave.
Morgantown, WV 26506
Tel: (304)293-0111
Free: 800-344-9881
Admissions: (304)293-2121
Fax: (304)293-3080
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1867. Setting: 913-acre small town campus with easy access to Pittsburgh. Endowment: $386.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $81.1 million. Total enrollment: 26,051. Faculty: 1,120 (785 full-time, 335 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 10,957 applied, 92% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 74% from top half. Full-time: 18,449 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 1,061 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 59 other countries, 42% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 4% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 7% 25 or older, 27% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Academic Common Market, Garrett County Community College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, minimum 2.25 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $4164 full-time, $176 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,874 full-time, $538 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6342. College room only: $3348. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 270 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 5% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Residential Hall Association, Gamma Beta Phi, Alpha Beta Phi. Major annual events: Mountaineer Week, Fall Fest, Parents' Weekend. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 4,876 college housing spaces available; 4,639 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Wise Library plus 9 others with 1.7 million books, 2.9 million microform titles, 9,107 serials, 46,488 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $11.9 million. 2,500 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

West Virginia University's main campus is located in Morgantown, a small city of 30,000 in the Appalachian Mountains on West Virginia's northern border. Although the state is rural and the community quiet, Greater Morgantown is within easy traveling distance, on modern interstate highways, of the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh, about 70 miles north, and Baltimore and Washington, D.C., about 200 miles to the east. The community has churches of various denominations, two hospitals, a city library, and various civic and fraternal organizations. Local recreation is available through the city's park system which includes several municipal pools and an ice skating rink. The area has golf courses, 1,800-acre Cheat Lake, whitewater rafting, and nearby Cooper's Rock State Forest. A half dozen snow skiing areas are within easy driving distance, as are some of the best remaining wilderness areas in the eastern United States.

■ WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY H-5

405 Fayette Pike
Montgomery, WV 25136
Tel: (304)442-3071; 888-554-8324
Admissions: (304)442-3167
Fax: (304)442-3097
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvutech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University System of West Virginia. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1895. Setting: 200-acre small town campus with easy access to Charleston. Endowment: $5.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6688 per student. Total enrollment: 2,468. 1,191 applied, 74% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 21% from top quarter, 58% from top half. 8 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,702 students, 37% women, 63% men. Part-time: 733 students, 46% women, 54% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 23 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 8% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 28% 25 or older, 26% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 60% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for state residents. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 42 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 9% of eligible men and 8% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Christian Student Union, Alpha Phi Omega. Major annual events: homecoming, open house, Family Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 776 college housing spaces available; 433 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Vining Library plus 1 other with 166,292 books, 431,948 microform titles, 605 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $654,628. 625 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The community has nearby plants that include the world's largest producer of ferro alloys for steel and a steam-produced electric power plant. Montgomery may be reached by bus lines and Amtrak.

■ WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY AT PARKERSBURG C-4

300 Campus Dr.
Parkersburg, WV 26104-8647
Tel: (304)424-8000
Admissions: (304)424-8222
Web Site: http://www.wvup.edu/

Description:

State-supported, primarily 2-year, coed. Administratively affiliated with West Virginia University. Awards certificates, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 140-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2958 per student. Total enrollment: 3,722. 663 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 2,148 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 1,574 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 0.5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.03% international, 44% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, bachelor of science degree programs, surgical technology, paramedic science. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2280 full-time, $95 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6024 full-time, $251 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to degree level and reciprocity agreements.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. WVUP Library plus 1 other with 41,300 books, 248 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $317,256. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ WEST VIRGINIA WESLEYAN COLLEGE D-9

59 College Ave.
Buckhannon, WV 26201
Tel: (304)473-8000
Free: 800-722-9933
Fax: (304)472-2571
Web Site: http://www.wvwc.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with United Methodist Church. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 80-acre small town campus. Endowment: $40.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4615 per student. Total enrollment: 1,408. Faculty: 160 (80 full-time, 80 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 1,268 applied, 77% were admitted. 23% from top 10% of their high school class, 53% from top quarter, 81% from top half. 17 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,332 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 34 students, 53% women, 47% men. Students come from 36 states and territories, 14 other countries, 45% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 2% 25 or older, 80% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Mountain State Association of Colleges. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early decision, early action, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, recommendations, interview. Required for some: SAT Subject Tests. Placement: SAT or ACT required for some. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 7/1, 12/1 for early decision, 10/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 1/31 for early decision, 10/20 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $26,800 includes full-time tuition ($20,250), mandatory fees ($1000), and college room and board ($5550). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 75 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 26% of eligible men and 25% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Campus Activities Board, Environmental Club, American Marketing Club, Wesleyan Ambassadors. Major annual events: Founders' Day/Homecoming, Festival of Lessons and Carols, Spring Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,160 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. A. M. Pfeiffer Library with 91,061 books, 23,142 microform titles, 2,462 serials, 7,605 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page.

Community Environment:

Buckhannon is a rural community supported by agriculture, coal, natural gas, and local industries. The climate is temperate with an average annual temperature of 53 degrees. Bus and airlines are accessible 25 miles distant at Clarksburg. The community has a public library, restaurants, hotels, churches of most denominations, 1 hospital, and a YWCA. Part-time employment is available. Buckhannon is the home of the West Virginia Strawberry Festival. Local recreation includes hunting, fishing, boating, skiing, white-water rafting, and most outdoor sports. Civic, fraternal, and veterans' organizations are active in the area.

■ WHEELING JESUIT UNIVERSITY C-1

316 Washington Ave.
Wheeling, WV 26003-6295
Tel: (304)243-2000
Free: 800-624-6992
Fax: (304)243-2397
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wju.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic (Jesuit), comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1954. Setting: 65-acre suburban campus with easy access to Pittsburgh, PA. Endowment: $15.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9477 per student. Total enrollment: 1,699. 1,157 applied, 75% were admitted. 26% from top 10% of their high school class, 29% from top quarter, 90% from top half. Full-time: 1,049 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 183 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 17 other countries, 62% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 21% 25 or older, 78% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Bethany College, Belmont Technical College, members of the Jesuit Student Exchange. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $27,800 includes full-time tuition ($20,890), mandatory fees ($460), and college room and board ($6450). College room only: $3070. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, gender, and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $540 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $465 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to class time and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 50 open to all; 25% of eligible men and 40% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government, Student Senate, Campus Activity Board, Inter Hall Council, Campus Ministry. Major annual events: play production, Fall/Spring Formal. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,000 college housing spaces available; 700 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Bishop Hodges Library plus 1 other with 153,590 books, 127,773 microform titles, 512 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $455,897. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Wheeling, one of the country's most liveable small cities, is a one-hour drive from Pittsburgh, PA and a two-hour drive from Columbus, OH. In a central area of approximately 150,000 people, many cultural and recreational facilities are available for golf, camping, hiking, skiing, and swimming, including 1,500-acre Oglebay Park and 250-acre Wheeling Park.

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West Virginia

West Virginia

ALDERSON-BROADDUS COLLEGE

1 College Hill Dr.
Philippi, WV 26416
Tel: (304)457-1700
Free: 800-263-1549
Fax: (304)457-6239
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ab.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Stephen Markwood
Registrar: Saundra Hoxie
Admissions: Kimberly N. Klaus
Financial Aid: Brian Weingart
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A. Scores: 84.61% SAT V 400+; 76.92% SAT M 400+; 55.05% ACT 18-23; 30.28% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 75 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $24,006 includes full-time tuition ($17,970), mandatory fees ($166), and college room and board ($5870). College room only: $2860. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $598 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $41.50 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 592, PT 56, Grad 131 Faculty: FT 58, PT 29 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 90 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 41 Library Holdings: 100,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer M; Softball W; Volleyball W

AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

111 West Congress St.
Charles Town, WV 25414
Tel: (304)724-6857; 877-468-6268
Admissions: (703)330-5398
Fax: (304)724-6863
Web Site: http://www.apus.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Karen Powell
Registrar: Melanie Winter
Admissions: Lyn Geer
Financial Aid: Teresa Reed
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed % Accepted: 81 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. One-time mandatory fee: $75. Tuition: $6000 full-time, $250 per semester hour part-time. Calendar System: Trimester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 473, PT 8,557, Grad 4,447 Faculty: FT 47, PT 315 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Credit Hours For Degree: 63 semester hours, Associates; 120 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: DETC

APPALACHIAN BIBLE COLLEGE

PO Box ABC
Bradley, WV 25818
Tel: (304)877-6428
Free: 800-678-9ABC
Web Site: http://www.abc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Daniel L. Anderson
Registrar: Dr. Jerry F. Knoblet
Admissions: Angela J. Harding
Financial Aid: Shirley C. Carfrey
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: nondenominational Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $12,808 includes full-time tuition ($7140), mandatory fees ($1268), and college room and board ($4400). Part-time tuition: $297 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $32 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 238, PT 66 Faculty: FT 11, PT 7 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 89 Library Holdings: 44,944 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 credit hours, Associates; 126 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Soccer M; Volleyball W

BETHANY COLLEGE

Main St.
Bethany, WV 26032
Tel: (304)829-7000
Free: 800-922-7611
Admissions: (304)829-7611
Fax: (304)829-7142
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bethanywv.edu/
President/CEO: G.T. "Buck" Smith
Registrar: Sandra Neel
Admissions: Wray Blair
Financial Aid: Jeffrey J. DeRubbo
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Scores: 87% SAT V 400+; 89% SAT M 400+; 55% ACT 18-23; 26% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 75 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,520 includes full-time tuition ($15,750) and college room and board ($7770). College room only: $4000. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: 4-1-4, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 895, PT 7 Faculty: FT 63, PT 23 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 91 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 88 Library Holdings: 130,696 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Weight Lifting M

BLUEFIELD STATE COLLEGE

219 Rock St.
Bluefield, WV 24701-2198
Tel: (304)327-4000
Free: 800-654-7798
Admissions: (304)327-4567
Fax: (304)327-7747
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Albert L. Walker
Registrar: Ray Mull
Admissions: John C. Cardwell
Financial Aid: Thomas Isle
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Higher Education Policy Commission System Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 89% SAT M 400+; 51% ACT 18-23; 12% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 96 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3410 full-time, $142 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7014 full-time, $292 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, program, and reciprocity agreements. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,400, PT 308 Faculty: FT 79, PT 64 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 Library Holdings: 76,391 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ABET, AACN, ACBSP, JRCERT, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis M & W

COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF SHEPHERD

400 West Stephen St.
Martinsburg, WV 25401
Tel: (304)260-4380
Fax: (304)260-4376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.shepherd.edu/ctcweb/
President/CEO: Dr. Peter A. Checkovich
Admissions: Leslie C. See
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 32.88% ACT 18-23; 1.37% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Application Fee: $35.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2944 full-time, $123 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8542 full-time, $355 per credit part-time. Enrollment: FT 427, PT 1,284 Faculty: FT 13, PT 57 Student-Faculty Ratio: 29:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT

COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Montgomery, WV 25136
Tel: (304)442-3149; 888-554-8324
Admissions: (304)442-3167
Web Site: http://ctc.wvutech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jo Harris
Admissions: Lisa Graham
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed

CONCORD UNIVERSITY

Vermillion St., PO Box 1000
Athens, WV 24712-1000
Tel: (304)384-3115; 888-384-5249
Admissions: (304)384-5248
Fax: (304)384-9044
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.concord.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jerry L. Beasley
Registrar: Carolyn Cox
Admissions: Michael Curry
Financial Aid: Patricia Harmon
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: State College System of West Virginia Scores: 86% SAT V 400+; 81% SAT M 400+; 55% ACT 18-23; 21% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 67 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3872 full-time, $160 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8646 full-time, $359 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5796. College room only: $2966. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,444, PT 508, Grad 63 Faculty: FT 97, PT 88 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 39 Library Holdings: 150,151 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

DAVIS & ELKINS COLLEGE

100 Campus Dr.
Elkins, WV 26241-3996
Tel: (304)637-1900
Free: 800-624-3157
Admissions: (304)637-1974
Fax: (304)637-1800
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.davisandelkins.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. G. Thomas Mann
Registrar: Dr. Laurence B. McArthur
Admissions: Renee Heckel
Financial Aid: Susan George
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Presbyterian Scores: 90% SAT V 400+; 82% SAT M 400+; 54% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 55 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $22,936 includes full-time tuition ($16,312), mandatory fees ($520), and college room and board ($6104). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $525 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: 4-1-4, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 560, PT 64 Faculty: FT 44, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 79 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 43 Library Holdings: 225,816 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates; 124 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NAST, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

EASTERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

HC 65 Box 402
Moorefield, WV 26836
Tel: (304)434-8000; 877-982-2322
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eastern.wvnet.edu/
President/CEO: Linda S. Dunn
Admissions: Sharon Bungard
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $1704 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6822 full-time. Calendar System: Semester Enrollment: FT 68, PT 814 Faculty: FT 1, PT 40 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools

FAIRMONT STATE COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE

1201 Locust Ave.
Fairmont, WV 26554
Tel: (304)367-4892
Free: 800-641-5678
Fax: (304)367-4692
Web Site: http://www.fscwv.edu/fsctc/
President/CEO: Dr. Dan Bradley
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Fairmont State College Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,878, PT 1,477 Faculty: FT 42, PT 200 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Professional Accreditation: ACF, AHIMA, APTA, NAACLS, NLN

FAIRMONT STATE UNIVERSITY

1201 Locust Ave.
Fairmont, WV 26554
Tel: (304)367-4000
Free: 800-641-5678
Admissions: (304)367-4702
Fax: (304)367-4789
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fairmontstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Daniel J. Bradley
Admissions: Steve Leadman
Financial Aid: Sandra Oerly-Bennett
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: State College System of West Virginia Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 6% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 75 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: June 15 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4218 full-time, $155 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8808 full-time, $331 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $194 full-time, $177 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5674. College room only: $2814. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,534, PT 1,986, Grad 239 Faculty: FT 220, PT 315 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 69 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 6 Library Holdings: 276,722 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 128 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, AACN, AAFCS, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

GLENVILLE STATE COLLEGE

200 High St.
Glenville, WV 26351-1200
Tel: (304)462-7361
Admissions: (304)462-4128
Fax: (304)462-8619
Web Site: http://www.glenville.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert N. Freeman
Registrar: Dr. Marty Armentrout
Admissions: Michelle Wicks
Financial Aid: Karen Lay
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Scores: 68.9% SAT V 400+; 66.6% SAT M 400+; 53.2% ACT 18-23; 11.7% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3628 full-time, $151.17 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8640 full-time, $360 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5150. College room only: $2500. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 53, PT 41 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 73 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 33 Library Holdings: 125,240 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

HUNTINGTON JUNIOR COLLEGE

900 Fifth Ave.
Huntington, WV 25701-2004
Tel: (304)697-7550
Fax: (304)697-7554
Web Site: http://www.huntingtonjuniorcollege.com/
President/CEO: Carolyn Smith
Admissions: James Garrett
Financial Aid: Darlene Cummings
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Available Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 1,900 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 108 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE

INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY

2000 Green River Dr.
Fairmont, WV 26554-9790
Tel: (304)534-5677; 888-406-8324
Fax: (304)534-5669
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://iadtwv.com/
Admissions: Dennis A. Hirsh
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: ACICS

MARSHALL COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

One John Marshall Dr.
Huntington, WV 25755
Tel: (304)696-6282
Admissions: (304)696-3160
Web Site: http://www.marshall.edu/ctc/
Admissions: Tammy Johnson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Marshall University; Community and Technical College System of West Virginia Scores: 72% SAT V 400+; 63% SAT M 400+; 30% ACT 18-23; 7% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $2814 full-time, $118 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8142 full-time, $340 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $6272. College room only: $3496. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,305, PT 1,284 Faculty: FT 35, PT 88 Student-Faculty Ratio: 27:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I Library Holdings: 478,274 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAMAE

MARSHALL UNIVERSITY

One John Marshall Dr.
Huntington, WV 25755
Tel: (304)696-3170
Admissions: (304)696-3160
Fax: (304)696-3135
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.marshall.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Dan Angel
Registrar: Roberta Ferguson
Admissions: Barbara Tarter
Financial Aid: Jack Toney
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University System of West Virginia Scores: 96% SAT V 400+; 94% SAT M 400+; 62% ACT 18-23; 27% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 82 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $3932 full-time, $155.75 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,634 full-time, $423.25 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6272. College room only: $3496. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 8,190, PT 1,651, Grad 3,934 Faculty: FT 469, PT 253 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 55 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 478,274 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 69 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAFCS, AANA, ADtA, AHIMA, APTA, ASLHA, ACBSP, CSWE, JRCEPAT, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NASM, NCATE, NLN, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M; Rugby M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

MOUNTAIN STATE COLLEGE

1508 Spring St.
Parkersburg, WV 26101-3993
Tel: (304)485-5487
Free: 800-841-0201
Fax: (304)485-3524
Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.org/
President/CEO: Judith Sutton
Registrar: Nancy Hudson
Admissions: Linda Craig
Financial Aid: Faye Waggoner
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Tuition: $7050 full-time. Mandatory fees: $115 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter Enrollment: FT 166 Faculty: FT 7, PT 4 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: Other Professional Accreditation: ACICS

MOUNTAIN STATE UNIVERSITY

Box 9003
Beckley, WV 25802-9003
Tel: (304)253-7351
Free: 800-766-6067
Admissions: (304)929-1358
Fax: (304)253-5072
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles H. Polk
Registrar: Rebecca Hall
Admissions: Alexandria Stone
Financial Aid: Sue Pack
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 90% SAT M 400+; 55.1% ACT 18-23; 9.2% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $12,876 includes full-time tuition ($5700), mandatory fees ($1650), and college room and board ($5526). College room only: $2810. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $190 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $55 per credit. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,954, PT 1,024, Grad 426 Faculty: FT 79, PT 237 Student-Faculty Ratio: 23:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 69 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 3 Library Holdings: 93,527 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, AANA, AOTA, APTA, CARC, CSWE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M; Softball W; Volleyball W

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

5514 Big Tyler Rd.
Cross Lanes, WV 25313-1390
Tel: (304)776-6290; 888-741-4271
Web Site: http://www.nitschools.com/
President/CEO: John Pullen
Admissions: Karen Wilkinson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Corinthian Schools, Inc Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 520 Faculty: FT 15, PT 12 Credit Hours For Degree: 15 units, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

NEW RIVER COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

167 Dye Dr.
Beckley, WV 25801
Tel: (304)255-5821
Admissions: (304)647-6564
Web Site: http://www.nrctc.org/
President/CEO: Dr. David Perkins
Admissions: Michael Palm
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Faculty: FT 23

OHIO VALLEY UNIVERSITY

One Campus View Dr.
Vienna, WV 26105-8000
Tel: (304)865-6000; 877-446-8668
Admissions: (304)865-6203
Fax: (304)865-6001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ovu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert W. Stephens
Admissions: Rob Dudley
Financial Aid: Margie Lyons
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Church of Christ Scores: 93% SAT V 400+; 95% SAT M 400+; 52% ACT 18-23; 19% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 48 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $18,972 includes full-time tuition ($11,700), mandatory fees ($1392), and college room and board ($5880). College room only: $3080. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $400 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $58 per credit hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 508, PT 34 Faculty: FT 25, PT 35 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 78 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 60 Library Holdings: 34,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Air Force Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

POTOMAC STATE COLLEGE OF WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

Fort Ave. Keyser, WV 26726-2698
Tel: (304)788-6800
Free: 800-262-7332
Admissions: (304)788-6820
Fax: (304)788-6939
Web Site: http://www.potomacstatecollege.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Kerry S. Odell
Registrar: Beth Little
Admissions: Beth Little
Financial Aid: Beth Little
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Scores: 72% SAT V 400+; 66% SAT M 400+; 50% ACT 18-23; 9% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2328 full-time, $98 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7872 full-time, $329 per credit hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $4914. College room only: $2340. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and location. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 842, PT 488 Faculty: FT 35, PT 60 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 44,197 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

SALEM INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

223 West Main St., PO Box 500
Salem, WV 26426-0500
Tel: (304)782-5011
Free: 800-283-4562
Admissions: (304)782-5336
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.salemiu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard Ferrin
Registrar: Cynthia Calise
Admissions: Thomas White
Financial Aid: Charlotte Lake
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 77% SAT V 400+; 90% SAT M 400+; 53% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Miscellaneous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 359, PT 84, Grad 125 Faculty: FT 33, PT 16 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 38 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 64 Library Holdings: 179,918 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACBSP Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Golf M; Soccer M; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W; Water Polo M & W

SHEPHERD UNIVERSITY

PO Box 3210
Shepherdstown, WV 25443-3210
Tel: (304)876-5000
Free: 800-344-5231
Admissions: (304)876-5212
Fax: (304)876-5165
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.shepherd.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David L. Dunlop
Registrar: Tracy Seffers
Admissions: Kimberly C. Scranage
Financial Aid: Elizabeth Sturm
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Scores: 95.1% SAT V 400+; 97.79% SAT M 400+; 66.37% ACT 18-23; 28.75% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 93 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4046 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,618 full-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6020. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,949, PT 860, Grad 92 Faculty: FT 109, PT 144 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 48 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 183,197 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Dempsey Branch Rd., PO Box 2900
Mount Gay, WV 25637-2900
Tel: (304)792-7160
Fax: (304)792-7096
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu/
President/CEO: Joanne Tomblin
Registrar: James P. Owens
Admissions: Roy Simmons
Financial Aid: Cindy Whitlock
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: State College System of West Virginia % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1634 full-time, $68 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6486 full-time, $270 per credit hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,257, PT 725 Faculty: FT 66, PT 100 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Library Holdings: 70,576 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN

UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON

2300 MacCorkle Ave., SE
Charleston, WV 25304-1099
Tel: (304)357-4800
Free: 800-995-GOUC
Admissions: (304)357-4750
Fax: (304)357-4781
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ucwv.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Edwin H. Welch
Registrar: Alan Belcher
Admissions: Brad Parrish
Financial Aid: Janet Ruge
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 89% SAT V 400+; 86% SAT M 400+; 49% ACT 18-23; 33% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 96 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $27,600 includes full-time tuition ($20,200) and college room and board ($7400). College room only: $4175. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $380 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $75 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 852, PT 135, Grad 19 Faculty: FT 60, PT 39 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 81 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Library Holdings: 111,264 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: CARC, JRCERT, JRCEPAT, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

VALLEY COLLEGE

287 Aikens Center
Martinsburg, WV 25401
Tel: (304)263-0979
Fax: (304)263-2413
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.valleycollege.com/
President/CEO: Anne Ganse
Admissions: Gail Kennedy
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Costs Per Year: Tuition: $7200 full-time, $225 per credit part-time. Calendar System: Continuous Enrollment: FT 47 Faculty: FT 4, PT 2 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST LIBERTY STATE COLLEGE

PO Box 295
West Liberty, WV 26074
Tel: (304)336-5000
Free: 800-732-6204
Admissions: (304)336-8076
Fax: (304)336-8285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wlsc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard H. Owens
Registrar: Scott A. Cook
Admissions: Brenda M. King
Financial Aid: Scott A. Cook
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Scores: 85% SAT V 400+; 75% SAT M 400+; 54% ACT 18-23; 11% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 98 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3686 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9054 full-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time. College room and board: $5456. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,974, PT 267, Grad 5 Faculty: FT 100, PT 61 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 67 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 45 Library Holdings: 194,715 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 77 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ADA, NAACLS, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (NUTTER FORT)

116 Pennsylvania Ave.
Nutter Fort, WV 26301
Tel: (304)624-7695
Fax: (304)622-2149
Web Site: http://www.stratuswave.com/~wvbc/
Type: Two-Year College
Sex: Coed Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (WHEELING)

1052 Main St.
Wheeling, WV 26003
Tel: (304)232-0361
Fax: (304)232-0363
Web Site: http://www.stratuswave.com/~wvbc/
President/CEO: Teddy Tarr
Admissions: Karen D. Shaw
Financial Aid: Brenda Mathers
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Costs Per Year: Tuition: $15,500 per degree program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter Faculty: FT 0, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (BRIDGEPORT)

176 Thompson Dr.
Bridgeport, WV 26330
Tel: (304)363-8824
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/
President/CEO: Sharon Stephens
Registrar: Delores Farend
Admissions: Rosemary Liberto
Financial Aid: Regina Murphy
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 7, PT 0 Library Holdings: 550 Credit Hours For Degree: 98 quarter hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (CHARLESTON)

1000 Virginia St. East
Charleston, WV 25301-2817
Tel: (304)345-2820
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/
President/CEO: Thomas Crouse
Registrar: Jennifer Bias
Admissions: Thomas Crouse
Financial Aid: Bonnie Shumate
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Available Library Holdings: 1,300 Credit Hours For Degree: 90 quarter hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (MORGANTOWN)

148 Willey St.
Morgantown, WV 26505-5521
Tel: (304)296-8282
Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com/
President/CEO: Stephen A. Callen
Registrar: Patricia Callen
Admissions: Patricia A. Callen
Financial Aid: Patricia Callen
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Quarter Faculty: FT 7, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Credit Hours For Degree: 92 quarter hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WEST VIRGINIA NORTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

1704 Market St.
Wheeling, WV 26003-3699
Tel: (304)233-5900
Fax: (304)233-5900
Web Site: http://www.northern.wvnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. John Hunter
Admissions: Janet Fike
Financial Aid: Cindy Hudak
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 77.8% SAT V 400+; 77.8% SAT M 400+; 53.4% ACT 18-23; 6.8% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 53 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $1752 full-time, $73 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5592 full-time, $233 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,421, PT 1,421 Faculty: FT 55, PT 95 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Library Holdings: 36,650 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ACF, AHIMA, CARC, NAACLS, NLN

WEST VIRGINIA STATE COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Thomas W. Cole, Jr., Complex
PO Box 1000
Institute, WV 25112
Tel: (304)766-3118
Free: 800-987-2112
Admissions: (304)766-3033
Web Site: http://fozzy.wvsc.edu/ctc/index.html
Admissions: Tyreno N. Sowell, Sr.
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $3222 full-time, $110 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7400 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to class time, course level, and program. College room and board: $4720. College room only: $2200. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Faculty: FT 26, PT 67 Professional Accreditation: JRCNMT

WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Post Office Box 1000
Institute, WV 25112-1000
Tel: (304)766-3000
Free: 800-987-2112
Admissions: (304)766-3221
Fax: (304)766-4158
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvstateu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Hazo W. Carter, Jr.
Registrar: Dr. John L. Fuller
Admissions: Tryreno Sowell, Sr.
Financial Aid: Mary E. Blizzard
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: State College System of West Virginia % Accepted: 50 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Deadline: August 11 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3528 full-time, $147 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8104 full-time, $338 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room and board: $4850. College room only: $2200. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,396, PT 1,059, Grad 36 Faculty: FT 120, PT 74 Student-Faculty Ratio: 23:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT I % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 7 Library Holdings: 228,026 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, CSWE, NCATE, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

University Ave.
Morgantown, WV 26506
Tel: (304)293-0111
Free: 800-344-9881
Admissions: (304)293-2121
Fax: (304)293-3080
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvu.edu/
President/CEO: David C. Hardesty, Jr.
Registrar: Steve A. Taylor
Admissions: Cheng H. Khoo
Financial Aid: Kaye C. Widney
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Scores: 97.2% SAT V 400+; 97.8% SAT M 400+; 49.3% ACT 18-23; 38% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 92 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $4164 full-time, $176 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,874 full-time, $538 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $6342. College room only: $3348. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 18,449, PT 1,061, Grad 5,151 Faculty: FT 785, PT 335 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 50 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 26 Library Holdings: 1,741,627 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AACN, ABA, ACPhE, ACA, ADA, ADtA, AOTA, APTA, APA, ASLA, ASLHA, AClPE, AALS, CEPH, CORE, CSWE, FIDER JRCEPAT, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NAST, NCATE, NRPA, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Crew W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Gymnastics W; Riflery M & W; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis W; Track and Field W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

405 Fayette Pike
Montgomery, WV 25136
Tel: (304)442-3071; 888-554-8324
Admissions: (304)442-3167
Fax: (304)442-3097
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wvutech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Galan Janeksela
Registrar: Lisa Graham
Admissions: Lisa Graham
Financial Aid: Nina Morton
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University System of West Virginia Scores: 75% SAT V 400+; 82% SAT M 400+; 55% ACT 18-23; 14% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,702, PT 733, Grad 33 Faculty: FT 119, PT 57 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 54 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 26 Library Holdings: 166,292 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, ADA, CARC Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY AT PARKERSBURG

300 Campus Dr.
Parkersburg, WV 26104-8647
Tel: (304)424-8000
Admissions: (304)424-8222
Web Site: http://www.wvup.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Marie Foster Gnage
Admissions: Cecelia Malhotra
Financial Aid: August Kafer
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: West Virginia University Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 80% SAT M 400+; 45% ACT 18-23; 9% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $2280 full-time, $95 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6024 full-time, $251 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to degree level and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to degree level and reciprocity agreements. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,148, PT 1,574 Faculty: FT 85, PT 124 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 41,300 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NLN

WEST VIRGINIA WESLEYAN COLLEGE

59 College Ave.
Buckhannon, WV 26201
Tel: (304)473-8000
Free: 800-722-9933
Fax: (304)472-2571
Web Site: http://www.wvwc.edu/
President/CEO: William R. Haden
Registrar: Linda W. Winspear
Financial Aid: Robert N. Skinner
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Church Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 93.4% SAT M 400+; 53% ACT 18-23; 39% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 77 Admission Plans: Early Action; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $26,800 includes full-time tuition ($20,250), mandatory fees ($1000), and college room and board ($5550). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,332, PT 34, Grad 42 Faculty: FT 80, PT 80 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 74 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 80 Library Holdings: 91,061 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AAFCS, JRCEPAT, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

WHEELING JESUIT UNIVERSITY

316 Washington Ave.
Wheeling, WV 26003-6295
Tel: (304)243-2000
Free: 800-624-6992
Fax: (304)243-2397
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wju.edu/
President/CEO: Fr. Joseph Hacala, SJ
Registrar: Chad Carter
Admissions: Carol Descak
Financial Aid: Christie Tomczyk
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic (Jesuit) Scores: 94.3% SAT V 400+; 95% SAT M 400+; 55% ACT 18-23; 35% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $27,800 includes full-time tuition ($20,890), mandatory fees ($460), and college room and board ($6450). College room only: $3070. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, gender, and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $540 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $465 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to class time and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,049, PT 183, Grad 374 Faculty: FT 72, PT 2 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 77 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 78 Library Holdings: 153,590 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACN, APTA, ACBSP, CARC, JRCNMT Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

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West Virginia

West Virginia

ALDERSON-BROADDUS COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Science, AB

Creative Writing, B

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Emergency Medical Services, M

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Community Services, B

Finance, B

General Studies, A

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Sciences, AB

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physician Assistant, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

African Studies, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Army JROTC/ROTC, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business and Personal/Financial Services Marketing Operations, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

General Studies, A

History, B

Information Technology, B

Latin American Studies, B

Management Science, B

Military and Defense Studies, M

Philosophy, B

Political Science and Government, M

Psychology, B

Public Administration, BM

Public Health, M

Securities Services Administration/Management, M

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Work and Family Studies, B

APPALACHIAN BIBLE COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Theology/Theological Studies, AB

BETHANY COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, B

Horse Husbandry/Equine Science and Management, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Social Work, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

BLUEFIELD STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, AB

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, AB

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Biological and Physical Sciences, AB

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Commerce, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Communications Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Corrections, AB

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

General Studies, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, AB

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Mining Technology/Technician, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Psychology, A

Social Sciences, B

COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF SHEPHERD

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business, Management, Marketing, and Related Support Services, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Design and Visual Communications, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

General Studies, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Automotive Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Corrections, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, A

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

CONCORD UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Teacher Education, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Computer Science, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Geography, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Library Science, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Special Products Marketing Operations, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, B

DAVIS & ELKINS COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Accounting and Business/Management, A

Art Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminology, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Forestry, B

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, AB

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Marketing, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Management Information Systems and Services, AB

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Sciences, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, B

EASTERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

General Studies, A

Heavy/Industrial Equipment Maintenance Technologies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Science Technologies/Technicians, A

FAIRMONT STATE COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Aeronautical/Aerospace Engineering Technology/Technician, A

American Sign Language (ASL), A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Communications Technology/Technician, A

Drafting/Design Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Finance, A

Food Service, Waiter/Waitress, and Dining Room Management/Manager, A

General Studies, A

Graphic Communications, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physician Assistant, A

FAIRMONT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, AB

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art Teacher Education, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, AB

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, AB

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, AB

Community Organization and Advocacy, A

Computer Science, B

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Consumer Merchandising/Retailing Management, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, AB

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering Technology, AB

English Language and Literature, B

Family and Consumer Economics and Related Services, AB

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fashion Merchandising, A

Finance, AB

French Language and Literature, B

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, AB

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

History, B

Human Services, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, AB

Information Science/Studies, A

Institutional Food Workers, A

Interior Design, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, AB

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Real Estate, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, A

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, B

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

GLENVILLE STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Behavioral Sciences, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, AB

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

HUNTINGTON JUNIOR COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Court Reporting/Court Reporter, A

Dental Assisting/Assistant, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

MARSHALL COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business/Commerce, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Dental Laboratory Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Finance, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Interior Design, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Manufacturing Technology/Technician, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Medical Transcription/Transcriptionist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Physical Science Technologies/Technicians, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Science Technologies/Technicians, A

MARSHALL UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Adult and Continuing Education Administration, B

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, M

Allopathic Medicine, P

Anthropology, M

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BM

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, M

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, BM

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, BMO

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, BM

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, BM

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forensic Science and Technology, M

General Studies, B

Geography, BM

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health Education, M

Health Services Administration, M

History, BM

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, BM

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, M

Information Science/Studies, M

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, BM

Management of Technology, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, M

Mathematics, BM

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, M

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, BM

Political Science and Government, BM

Psychology, BMD

Reading Teacher Education, MO

School Psychology, O

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Special Education and Teaching, M

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Systems Science and Theory, B

Vocational and Technical Education, M

MOUNTAIN STATE COLLEGE

Accounting and Business/Management, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Medical Transcription/Transcriptionist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

MOUNTAIN STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, AB

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Behavioral Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Commerce, AB

Computer Science, AB

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, AB

Criminology, M

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, AB

Diagnostic Medical Sonography/Sonographer and Ultrasound Technician, AB

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, B

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, A

Environmental Studies, AB

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Forensic Science and Technology, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, AB

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, B

Human Resources Management and Services, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, AB

Information Technology, A

Interdisciplinary Studies, AM

Law and Legal Studies, AB

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Library Science, AB

Logistics and Materials Management, B

Management Science, AB

Management Strategy and Policy, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics and Computer Science, B

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Natural Resources and Conservation, B

Non-Profit/Public/Organizational Management, B

Nurse Anesthetist, MO

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, M

Nursing Education, M

Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene, B

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Office Management and Supervision, A

Organizational Behavior Studies, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Physician Assistant, M

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Health Education and Promotion, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, AB

Secondary Education and Teaching, A

Social Work, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, A

Tourism and Travel Services Marketing Operations, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

NEW RIVER COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business/Commerce, A

Communications Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Psychology, A

OHIO VALLEY UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Business Administration and Management, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Professional Studies, A

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Science Technologies/Technicians, A

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

POTOMAC STATE COLLEGE OF WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Economics, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Agricultural Teacher Education, A

Agriculture, A

Agronomy and Crop Science, A

Animal Sciences, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Managerial Economics, A

Chemistry, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Forestry, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Geology/Earth Science, A

History, A

Horticultural Science, A

Information Technology, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Social Work, A

Sociology, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, A

SALEM INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

Airline/Commercial/Professional Pilot and Flight Crew, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

BioTechnology, M

Business Administration and Management, AB

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Environmental Studies, B

Equestrian/Equine Studies, B

Human Services, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Management, M

Mass Communication/Media Studies, AB

Mathematics, B

Molecular Biology, BM

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Psychology, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Radio and Television, AB

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, AB

SHEPHERD UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Economics, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

General Studies, B

History, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Communications Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Engineering Technology, A

Finance, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON

Accounting, AB

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, BM

Chemistry, B

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Finance, B

General Studies, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Policy Analysis, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

VALLEY COLLEGE

Business Administration and Management, A

WEST LIBERTY STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Banking and Financial Support Services, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, AB

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Sociology, B

WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (WHEELING)

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (BRIDGEPORT)

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (CHARLESTON)

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Law and Legal Studies, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (MORGANTOWN)

Accounting, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

WEST VIRGINIA NORTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Institutional Food Workers, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Social Work, A

Word Processing, A

WEST VIRGINIA STATE COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Architectural Drafting and Architectural CAD/CADD, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Behavioral Sciences, A

Business Administration, Management and Operations, A

CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician, A

Chemical Technology/Technician, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Electrical/Electronics Maintenance and Repair Technology, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

General Studies, A

Gerontology, A

Health Services/Allied Health/Health Sciences, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Marketing, A

Meteorology, A

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, A

WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, AB

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising, A

Applied Mathematics, B

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, AB

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

BioTechnology, M

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemical Engineering, A

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, AB

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Economics, B

Education, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Fashion Merchandising, A

Finance, A

Gerontology, A

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, B

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Music Teacher Education, B

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Engineering, A

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, B

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Advertising, B

Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, BMD

African Studies, MD

African-American/Black Studies, MD

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Allopathic Medicine, PO

American/United States Studies/Civilization, MD

Analytical Chemistry, MD

Anatomy, MD

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, B

Applied Mathematics, MD

Applied Physics, MD

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, M

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, M

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Bacteriology, MD

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Cancer Biology/Oncology, MDO

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MD

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, M

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Child and Family Studies, M

Civil Engineering, BMD

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, MD

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, M

Communication Theory, M

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Community Health and Preventive Medicine, M

Comparative Literature, M

Composition, MD

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, B

Computer Engineering, BD

Computer Science, BMD

Condensed Matter Physics, MD

Corporate and Organizational Communication, M

Counseling Psychology, MD

Criminalistics and Criminal Science, B

Curriculum and Instruction, MD

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, B

Dentistry, P

Developmental Biology and Embryology, MD

Developmental Psychology, D

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

East Asian Studies, MD

Economics, MD

Education, MD

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Multiple Disabilities, M

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Administration and Supervision, MD

Educational Leadership and Administration, MD

Educational Psychology, MD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, MD

English as a Second Language, M

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, M

Environmental and Occupational Health, D

Environmental Biology, MD

Environmental Education, M

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Policy and Resource Management, M

Environmental Studies, B

Evolutionary Biology, MD

Exercise and Sports Science, MD

Exercise Physiology, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, M

Food Science and Technology, MD

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

Forest Management/Forest Resources Management, B

Forestry, BMD

French Language and Literature, M

General Studies, B

Genetics, MD

Geographic Information Systems, MD

Geography, BMD

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geophysics and Seismology, MD

German Language and Literature, M

Graphic Design, M

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Promotion, M

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, M

History, BMD

History of Science and Technology, MD

Horticultural Science, M

Human Genetics, MD

Human Services, M

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, MD

Immunology, MD

Industrial and Labor Relations, M

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial Hygiene, M

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Inorganic Chemistry, MD

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Affairs, M

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, BM

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Landscape Architecture, B

Latin American Studies, M

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Legal and Justice Studies, M

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Liberal Studies, M

Linguistics, M

Marketing, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MD

Microbiology, MD

Mineral/Mining Engineering, MD

Mining and Mineral Engineering, B

Molecular Biology, MD

Music, BMD

Music History, Literature, and Theory, M

Music Teacher Education, MD

Music Theory and Composition, M

Natural Resources and Conservation, D

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, BD

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, MD

Nursing, MDO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, M

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, BM

Oral and Dental Sciences, M

Organic Chemistry, MD

Orthodontics, M

Painting, M

Paleontology, MD

Parasitology, MD

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Performance, MD

Petroleum Engineering, BMD

Pharmaceutical Administration, MD

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MDO

Pharmacology, MD

Pharmacy, MDP

Philosophy, B

Physical Chemistry, MD

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMD

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BM

Physics, BMD

Physiology, MD

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, M

Plant Sciences, BMD

Plasma and High-Temperature Physics, MD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Printmaking, M

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, MO

Public Health, M

Public Policy Analysis, MD

Reading Teacher Education, M

Recreation and Park Management, M

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Reproductive Biology, MD

Safety Engineering, M

Sculpture, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Work, BM

Sociology, BM

Software Engineering, M

Spanish Language and Literature, M

Special Education and Teaching, MD

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, BM

Sport Psychology, MD

Statistics, M

Theater, M

Theoretical Chemistry, MD

Theoretical Physics, MD

Toxicology, MD

Urban and Regional Planning, MD

Urban Planning, M

Veterinary Sciences, M

Virology, MD

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Vocational and Technical Education, MD

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, B

Writing, M

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Accounting, B

Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemical Engineering, B

Chemistry, B

City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning, B

Civil Engineering, B

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Community Organization and Advocacy, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, B

Computer Science, B

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

Engineering Physics, B

Engineering Technology, B

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Labor and Industrial Relations, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Public Administration, B

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY AT PARKERSBURG

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, AB

Chemical Engineering, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Finance, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Social Work, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

WEST VIRGINIA WESLEYAN COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, B

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering Mechanics, B

Engineering Physics, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Painting, B

Philosophy, B

Philosophy and Religious Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

WHEELING JESUIT UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia, B

Education, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management Science, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BD

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, M

Theology/Theological Studies, B

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Stan Hopkins, Contact
Division of Technical and Adult Education Services
1900 Kanawha Blvd., E.
Bldg. 6, Rm. 221
Charleston, WV 25305-0330
(304)558-2346

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

For specific information, contact the West Virginia State Department of Education, address above.

BECKLEY

Academy of Careers And Technology

390 Stanaford Rd., Beckley, WV 25801. Trade and Technical. Contact: Terry Farley, Adult Program Coordinator, (304)256-4615, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://wvact.net. Public. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,724. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Beckley Beauty Academy, Inc.

109 S. Fayette St., Beckley, WV 25801. Cosmetology, Other. Founded 1976. Contact: R. Saunders, (304)253-8326, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $7,100 plus $400 books and supplies for cosmetology; $1,100 plus $400 books and supplies for nail technology. Enrollment: men 5, women 64. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr)

Bluefield State College (Beckley Campus)

Harper Industrial Park, 167 Dye Dr., Beckley, WV 25801. Two-Year College, Other. Contact: James A. Nelson, Jr., Dir., Institutional & Media Relations, (304)255-5812, 800-344-8892, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,410 per year in-state; $7,014 per out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; JRCERT; NLNAC; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Mining Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

Mountain State University

PO Box 9003, Beckley, WV 25802-9003. Other. Founded 1933. Contact: Alexandria (Tandy) Stone, Dean of Enrollment Management, (304)929-4636, (304)929-1703, 800-766-6067, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $6,750 per year. Enrollment: Total 2,807. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABHES; APTA; JRCEDMS; AAMAE; JRCRTE; JRCERT; NLNAC; ARCEST; CAAHEP; ACF; CAPTE; CSWE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Aviation Management; Aviation Technology; Business, International; Business Law; Computer Networking; Computer Science; Conservation & Environmental Science; Crime Scene Technology; Criminal Justice; Culinary Arts; Education; Engineering; Entrepreneurship; Fire Science; General Studies; Geriatric Care; Hazardous Waste Technology; Health Care & Management; Health Information Technology; Hospitality; Human Services; Information Sciences Technology; Internet Technologies; Liberal Arts; Management; Marketing; Mass Communications; Medical Assistant; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Office Administration; Paralegal; Paramedic; Physical Therapy Aide; Physicians Assistant; Radiologic Technology; Recreation Leadership; Recreation Therapy; Respiratory Therapy; Science; Surgical Technology; Technological Studies; Ultrasonography; Web Development

Valley College of Technology

713 S. Oakwood Ave., Beckley, WV 25801-5968. Business. Founded 1983. Contact: Nicolas H. Diehl, Exec.Dir., (304)252-9547, 888-535-3276, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.vct.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $5,575-$6,475. Enrollment: Total 180. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACCET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (720 Hr); Business Administration (1440 Hr); Business Technology (780 Hr); Secretarial, General (720 Hr); Secretarial, Legal (720 Hr); Secretarial, Medical (720 Hr)

BLUEFIELD

Bluefield Regional Medical Center

500 Cherry St., Bluefield, WV 24701. Allied Medical. Founded 1946. Contact: James E. Gibberson II, (304)327-1596, (304)327-1575, Fax: (304)327-1591. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Year. Tuition: $1,500 plus cost of books. Enrollment: Total 6. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Curriculum: Medical Laboratory Technology (1 Yr)

Bluefield State College (Bluefield)

219 Rock St., Bluefield, WV 24701-2198. Two-Year College, Other. Founded 1895. Contact: James A. Nelson, Jr., Dir., Institutional & Media Relations, (304)327-4000, (304)327-4065, 800-344-8892, Fax: (304)325-7747, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,410 per year in-state; $7,014 per out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 3,506. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; JRCERT; NLNAC; NCATE; CCNE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Mining Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

BRADLEY

Appalachian Bible College

PO Box ABC, Bradley, WV 25818. Other. Founded 1950. Contact: Dr. Charles Bethel, Professor, (304)877-6428, 800-678-9ABC, Fax: (304)877-5082, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.abc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $8,040 per year. Enrollment: Total 238. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABHE; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Bible Study (1 Yr); Minister (4 Yr); Missions (4 Yr); Music (4 Yr)

BUCKHANNON

Fred W. Eberle Technical Center

Rte. 5, Box 2, Buckhannon, WV 26201. Trade and Technical. Founded 1968. Contact: Michael Cutright, Dir., (304)472-1259, Web Site: http://fetc.upsh.tec.wv.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 350. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Computer Networking; Construction Technology; Electrical Technology; Forestry Technology; Health Aide; Masonry; Mechanics, Diesel; Nursing, Practical; Truck Driving; Welding Technology

CHARLESTON

Carver Career & Technical Education Center

4799 Midland Dr., Charleston, WV 25306. Trade and Technical. Founded 1970. Contact: James Casdorph, Principal, (304)348-1965, Fax: (304)348-1938, Web Site: http://kcs.kana.kl2.wv.us/carver. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1.25 per clock hour. Enrollment: Total 502. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agricultural Science (10 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (11 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (10 Mo); Automotive Technology (10 Mo); Building Construction Technology (10 Mo); Computer Technology (10 Mo); Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Culinary Arts (36 Mo); Dental Assisting (10 Mo); Drafting Technology (10 Mo); Electrical Technology (11 Mo); Environmental Technology (10 Mo); Health Occupations (10 Mo); Manicurist (400 Hr); Medical Transcription (11 Mo); Pharmacy Technician (6 Mo); Plumbing (10 Mo); Respiratory Therapy (22 Mo); Surgical Technology (22 Mo); Welding Technology (11 Mo)

Charleston School of Beauty Culture, Inc.

210 Capitol St., Charleston, WV 25301. Cosmetology. Founded 1957. Contact: Judy C. Hall, Dir., (304)346-9603, Fax: (304)346-1681, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.csbcwv.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,225 - $7,600 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 80. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Barbering (300-2000Hr); Cosmetology (500-2000Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr)

Garnet Career Center

422 Dickinson St., Charleston, WV 25301. Trade and Technical. Founded 1955. Contact: Dr. Sharon Miller, Principal, (304)348-6195, Web Site: http://kcs.kana.k12.wv.us/garnet/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1.25 per contact hour. Enrollment: men 50, women 150. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1-2 Yr); Data Processing Business (1 Yr); English As A Second Language; Health Aide (20 Wk); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Secretarial, General (1 Yr); Word Processing (1 Yr)

University of Charleston

2300 MacCorkle Ave., SE, Charleston, WV 25304-9954. Other. Founded 1888. Contact: Brad Parrish, Associate VP for Enrollment, (304)357-4750, (304)357-4763, 800-995-4682, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ucwv.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $10,100 per semester. Enrollment: Total 771. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: JRCRTE; CAAHEP; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (4 Yr); Sports Medicine

West Virginia Junior College

1000 Virginia St., E, Charleston, WV 25301. Two-Year College. Founded 1892. Contact: T. A. Crouse, (304)345-2820, 800-924-5208, Fax: (304)345-1425, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wvjc.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $239/credit hour. Enrollment: Total 100. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Legal Assistant (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (1 Yr); Office Administration (1 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr)

CLARKSBURG

HRDE-Stanley Technical Institute (Clarksburg)

120 S.Linden Ave., Clarksburg, WV 26301-2270. Trade and Technical. Contact: Homer Kincaid, Dir., (304)296-8223, (304)623-6367. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $13,637 including books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 23. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Computer Science (1500 Hr); Construction Technology (1500 Hr)

United Hospital Center Diagnostic Training Programs

PO Box 1680, Clarksburg, WV 26302-1680. Allied Medical. Founded 1963. Contact: Rosemary Trupo, R.B.A, R.T., RDMS, (304)624-2895, Fax: (304)624-2856, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $6,000 for Radiologic Technology; $3,000 for Diag Med Sonography. Enrollment: men 6, women 19. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

United Technical Center School of Practical Nursing

Rt 3 Box 43C, Clarksburg, WV 26301. Business, Nursing, Trade and Technical. Founded 1966. Contact: Monica Iaquinta, (304)624-3280, Fax: (304)622-6138. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Year. Tuition: $2,300. Enrollment: Total 27. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Health Aide (20 Mo); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Nursing, Vocational

COLFAX

Brenda White School of Real Estate

PO Box 38, Colfax, WV 26566. Trade and Technical. Founded 1987. Contact: Brenda White, Pres., (304)363-2150, Fax: (304)366-0021, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.whiterealestate2000.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $335. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Real Estate Broker (90 Hr); Real Estate Sales License (90 Hr)

CROSS LANES

National Institute of Technology

5514 Big Tyler Rd., Cross Lanes, WV 25313. Trade and Technical. Founded 1968. Contact: Karen Wilkinson, (304)776-6290, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies per program. Enrollment: Total 765. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Electronics & Computer Technology (1540 Hr); Massage Therapy (72 Hr); Medical Assistant (960 Hr); Pharmacy Technician (720 Hr); Security Training (560 Hr)

DANVILLE

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Boone/Lincoln Campus)

3505 Daniel Boone Pkwy, Danville, WV 25053. Trade and Technical. Contact: Ron Thompson, Campus Dir., (304)369-2952, (866)798-2821, Fax: (304)369-2954, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

DELBARTON

Mingo County Career Center

Box 247, Delbarton, WV 25670. Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: Nancy Sloan, (304)475-3347, Fax: (304)475-3797. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 326, women 81. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Building Construction Technology (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (2 Yr); High School Diploma; Nurses Aide (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (1 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr); Word Processing (1 Yr)

DUNBAR

Ben Franklin Career Center

500 28th St., Dunbar, WV 25064. Trade and Technical. Contact: Tom Owens, Principal, (304)766-0369, Fax: (304)766-0371, Web Site: http://bfcc.kana.tec.wv.us. Public. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,650 11-month course; $1350 9-month course. Enrollment: men 391, women 131. Degrees awarded: Associate. Financial aid available. Placement service available.

ELKINS

Computer Training Center

212 Davis Ave, Elkins, WV 26241. Business. Founded 1989. Contact: Hollis C. Vance, Dir., (304)637-4141, 800-636-0295, Fax: (304)637-4141, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: None. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Data Entry; Office, General; Typing; Word Processing

FAIRMONT

Fairmont State University

1201 Locust Ave., Fairmont, WV 26554. Other, Two-Year College. Founded 1867. Contact: Steve Leadman, Dir. of Admissions & Recruiting, (304)367-4892, 800-641-5678, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.fscwv.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,750/semester in-state; $3,867/semester out-of-state. Enrollment: men 3,067, women 3,749. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Architectural Technology (2 Yr); Aviation Maintenance Technology (2 Yr); Avionics (2 Yr); Banking (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Clerical, General (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 Yr); Engineering Technology, Electronic (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Fashion Design & Illustration (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Finance (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); Health Information Technology (2 Yr); Information Systems (2 Yr); Interior Decoration (2 Yr); Interior Design (2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Veterinary Assistant (2 Yr)

OIC Training Academy

120 Jackson St., Fairmont, WV 26554. Allied Medical. Founded 1975. Contact: Thelma Ford, Exec.Dir, (304)366-8142, 888-999-1602, Fax: (304)366-8143, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.oicwv.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (900 Hr); Computer Information Science (600 Hr); Dental Assisting (900 Hr); Health Aide (100 Hr); Medical Assistant (900 Hr); Medical Office Management (900 Hr); Medical Technology - Phlebotomy (60 Hr); Medical Transcription (900 Hr); Nurses Aide (300 Hr); Pharmacy Technician (600 Hr); Secretarial, General (600-900 Hr); Secretarial, Legal (600-900 Hr); Secretarial, Medical (600-900 Hr)

FARMINGTON

Marion County Technical Center

2 N. Marion Dr., Farmington, WV 26571. Trade and Technical. Founded 1966. Contact: Linda Collins, Vocational Liaison, (304)986-3590, Fax: (304)986-3440, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mctconline.com; Matthew Call, Dean of Students. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Free tuition. $50 Registration Fee per yr., plus fees. Enrollment: men 52, women 2. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automotive Collision Repair (10 Mo); Automotive Technology (10 Mo); Building Construction Technology (10 Mo); Computer Aided Drafting (10 Mo); Electrical Technology (10 Mo); Food Service & Management (10 Mo); Machine Technology (10 Mo); Maintenance, Building (10 Mo); Masonry (10 Mo); Medical Assistant (10 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (10 Mo); Welding Technology (10 Mo)

FRAZIERS BOTTOM

Mountaineer Technical School

201 Whitehall Rd., Fraziers Bottom, WV 25082-9529. Trade and Technical. Founded 1989. Contact: Tom Curry, (304)937-2788, Fax: (304)937-2780. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $3,895. Enrollment: Total 140. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Truck Driving (8 Wk)

GLEN DALE

B. M. Spurr School of Practical Nursing

800 Wheeling Ave., Glen Dale, WV 26038. Nursing. Founded 1951. Contact: Carol A. Storm, M.S.N., APRN, BC, (304)843-3255. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $1,600 plus $650 books and supplies. Enrollment: women 22. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (1501)

GLENVILLE

Glenville State College

200 High St., Glenville, WV 26351. Other. Founded 1872. Contact: Michelle Wicks, Admissions Office, (304)462-7361, 800-924-2010, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.glenville.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,276/year in-state; $7,854/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 1,136. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCATE; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Surveying (2 Yr)

HINTON

HRDE-Stanley Technical Institute (Hinton)

320 1/2 2nd St, Hinton, WV 25951. Trade and Technical. (304)296-8223. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $6,548. Enrollment: men 2, women 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Computer Science (720 Hr)

HUNTINGTON

Cabell County Career Technology Center

1035 Norway Ave., Huntington, WV 25705. Trade and Technical. Founded 1981. Contact: Robert E. McClain, Jr., (304)528-5106, (304)528-5120. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $1,800 in-state; $1,800 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 455. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (12 Mo); Automotive Service (12 Mo); Automotive Technology (12 Mo); Bank Management (10 Wk); Data Processing (10 Mo); Electronics Technology (12 Mo); Interior Decoration (10 Mo); Machinist, General (12 Mo); Medical Office Management (10 Mo); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Word Processing (10 Mo)

Huntington Junior College

900 5th Ave., Huntington, WV 25701. Two-Year College. Founded 1939. Contact: Carolyn Smith, Dir., (304)697-7550, 800-344-4522, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://huntingtonjuniorcollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 700. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (18 Mo); Business Management (18 Mo); Computer Technology (18 Mo); Court Reporting (24-30 Mo); Dental Assisting (12 Mo); Medical Assistant (18 Mo); Office Administration (12-18 Mo)

Marshall University Community and Technical College

1 John Marshall Dr., Huntington, WV 25701. Two-Year College. Founded 1975. Contact: Dr. Vicki L. Riley, President, (304)696-6282, Web Site: http://www.marshall.edu/ctc. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1,310/metro semester in-state, $342/semester out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 2,000. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Accounting, Specialist (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Aviation Technology (2 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Yr); Computer Technology (1 Yr); Court Reporting (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Industrial Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (2 Yr); Interior Design (2 Yr); Legal Assistant (2 Yr); Machinist, General (2 Yr); Management (1 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Media Technology (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Medical Record Technology (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Paramedic (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Plumbing (2 Yr); Police Science (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Retail Management (2 Yr); Security Training (1 Yr); Technological Studies (2 Yr)

St. Mary's Medical Center School of Radiography

2900 1st Ave., Huntington, WV 25702. Allied Medical. Founded 1964. Contact: Rita Fisher, M.S.Ed, R.T.(R), (304)526-1259, (304)526-8224, Fax: (304)526-6030, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.stmarys.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $2,000/year. Enrollment: men 9, women 30. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

INSTITUTE

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Kanawha Valley Instructional Site)

Barron Dr., Bldg E, PO Box 1004, Institute, WV 25112. Trade and Technical. (304)766-2665, (866)798-2821, Fax: (304)766-3504, Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

West Virginia State University

PO Box 1000, Institute, WV 25112-1000. Other. Founded 1891. Contact: Tryino Sowell, Sr., Dir. Admissions, (304)766-3221, (304)766-3033, 800-987-2112, Fax: (304)766-5182, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wvstateu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Advertising (2 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Chemical Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Dental Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Drafting, Architectural (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Management (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Nuclear Medical Technology (2 Yr); Sales (2 Yr); Secretarial, Executive (2 Yr); Secretarial, Legal (2 Yr)

West Virginia University Institute of Technology

106 Ferrell Hall, Institute, WV 25112-1000. Two-Year College. Founded 1895. Contact: Lisa B. Graham, Dir. of Admissions, (304)766-3033, 888-554-8324, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wvutech.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,786/year in-state; $9,486/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 2,468. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Automotive Service (2 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Mechanical Technology (2 Yr); Office Technology (1 Yr); Printing Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr)

KEYSER

Potomac State College of West Virginia University

1 Grand Central Park, Ste. 2090, Keyser, WV 26726. Two-Year College. Contact: Kerry S. Odell, Provost, (304)788-6800, (304)788-6820, 800-262-7332, Fax: (304)788-6939, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] wvu.edu, Web Site: http://www.potomacstatecollege.edu; Beth E. Little, Dir. of Enrollment Services, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,238 in-state; $7,572 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate.

LEWISBURG

Bluefield State College (Greenbrier Campus)

101 Church St., Lewisburg, WV 24901. Two-Year College, Other. Contact: James A. Nelson, Jr., Dir., Institutional & Media Relations, (304)647-6560, 800-344-8892, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,410 per year in-state; $7,014 per out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; JRCERT; NLNAC; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Mining Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

LOGAN

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Dental Hygiene Clinic - Logan Regional Medical Life Services Center)

601 Holden Rd., Logan, WV 25601. Trade and Technical.(304)239-3137, (866)798-2821, Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCAHLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP; NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dental Hygiene (2 Yr)

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Logan Downtown Annex)

300 Main St., Logan, WV 25601. Trade and Technical.(304)792-7234, (866)798-2821, Fax: (304)792-7239, Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

Willis Vocational Center

3 Mile Curve, Logan, WV 25601. Trade and Technical. Founded 1977. Contact: Peggy Vance, (304)752-4687. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 650, women 60. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (1 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Carpentry; Cook & Stewards Training; Drafting Technology; Electricity, Industrial; Electronics Technology; Graphic Arts; Machine Shop; Mechanics, Diesel; Mining Technology (2 Wk); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Welding Technology; Word Processing (10 Mo)

MARTINSBURG

International Beauty School

201 W. King St., Martinsburg, WV 25401. Cosmetology. Founded 1965. (304)263-4929, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.internationalbeautyschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $9,500 plus $500 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 4, women 50. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr)

James Rumsey Technical Institute

3274 Hedgesville Rd., Martinsburg, WV 25401-0259. Trade and Technical. Founded 1966. Contact: Vicki Jenkins, Principal/Dir., (304)754-7925, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.jamesrumsey.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1,800-$2,350. Enrollment: men 98, women 77. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NATEF. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (11 Mo); Auto Mechanics (11 Mo); Child Care & Guidance (10 Mo); Commercial Art (10 Mo); Culinary Arts (11 Mo); Electrical Technology (11 Mo); Machine Technology (10 Mo); Masonry (10 Mo); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Office Technology (11 Mo); Truck Driving (12 Wk); Warehouse Management (10 Mo)

Valley College of Technology

287 Aikens Center, Martinsburg, WV 25401. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1983. Contact: Leslie C. See, (304)263-0979, 888-535-3276, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.vct.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies by program. Enrollment: Total 124. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (68 Wk); Office Technology (33-41 Wk)

MORGANTOWN

Monongalia County Vocational Technical Center

1000 Mississippi St., Morgantown, WV 26501. Trade and Technical. Founded 1968. Contact: Lezlie Lough, (304)291-9240, Fax: (304)291-9247, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 42, women 66. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet.y Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Computer Technology (1 Yr); Construction Technology (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (2 Yr); Drafting, Engineering (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Food Preparation & Service (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (1 Yr); Health Aide (2 Yr); Health Occupations (2 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (1 Yr); Maintenance, Building (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

Morgantown Beauty College

276 Walnut St., Morgantown, WV 26505. Cosmetology, Other. Founded 1946. Contact: Michael Sodomick, (304)292-8475, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://morgantownbeautycollege.homestead.com/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,068-$9,000 per program. Enrollment: men 8, women 60. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Barbering (500 Hr); Beauty (600 Hr); Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr); Massage Therapy (600 Hr)

West Virginia Career College, Inc.

148 Willey St., Morgantown, WV 26505. Business. Founded 1922. Contact: Patricia A. Callen, Dir., (304)296-8282, Fax: (304)296-5612. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 192. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (12 Mo); Business Administration (18 Mo); Legal Assistant (18 Mo); Medical Assistant (18 Mo); Secretarial, Legal (12 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (12 Mo)

West Virginia University Hospital Sch of Rad Techn

Medical Ctr Dr., Morgantown, WV 26506-8062. Contact: Bruce McClymmonds, President, (304)598-4251, Web Site: http://www.wvuhradtech.com. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $3,200. Enrollment: Total 18. Degrees awarded: Associate.

West Virginia University School of Medicine

Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, PO Box 9100, Morgantown, WV 26506-9100. Other. Contact: Beth Ann McCormick, Admissions Coordinator, (304)293-6607, (304)293-1439, 800-344-9881, Fax: (304)293-6627, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/som. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Enrollment: Total 23,000. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: CAPTE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Technology (2 Yr); Nuclear Medical Technology (1 Yr); Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy Technology (3 Yr); Radiation Therapy Technology (1 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Ultrasonography (1 Yr)

MOUNT GAY

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Logan Campus)

2900 Dempsey Branch Rd., PO Box 2900, Mount Gay, WV 25637. Two-Year College. Founded 1971. Contact: Randy Skeens, Campus Manager, (304)792-7098, (866)798-2821, Fax: (304)792-7046, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 2,580. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

PARKERSBURG

HRDE-Stanley Technical Institute (Parkersburg)

800 Camden Ave, Parkersburg, WV 26103. Trade and Technical. (304)296-8223. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $13,637. Enrollment: men 6, women 17. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Computer Science (1500 Hr)

Mountain State College

Spring and 16th St., Parkersburg, WV 26101-3993. Business, Two-Year College. Founded 1888. Contact: Judith Sutton, (304)485-5487, 800-841-0201, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mountainstate.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $7,100 per year. Enrollment: Total 131. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Advanced; Administrative Assistant; Computer Information Science; Computer Servicing - Theory & Systems; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Legal Technology; Medical Assistant; Medical Transcription; Secretarial, Medical; Travel & Tourism; Word Processing

West Virginia University at Parkersburg

300 Campus Dr., Parkersburg, WV 26104-8647. Other. Founded 1961. Contact: Violet Mosser, New Students/Welcome Center, (304)424-8000, (304)424-8200, 800-982-9887, Fax: (304)424-8315, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wvup.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 1,428, women 2,415. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Architectural Design Technology; Business Administration; Business Technology; Computer Science; Computer Technology; Criminal Justice; Data Processing; Drafting Technology; Early Childhood Education; Electronic Engineering Technology; Engineering Technology, Mechanical; Environmental Technology; Industrial Maintenance; Journalism; Manufacturing Technology; Mechanical Drafting; Mechanical Technology; Nursing, R.N.; Paramedic; Secretarial, General; Social Work Technology; Surgical Technology; Technological Studies; Welding Technology

Wood County School of Practical Nursing

1515 Blizzard Dr., Parkersburg, WV 26101. Nursing. Founded 1966. Contact: Tina Hawley, (304)420-9651, Fax: (304)485-1048, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $2,000 in-state; $2,300 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 35. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical

PRINCETON

Mercer County Technical Education Center - School of Practical Nursing

1397 Stafford Dr., Princeton, WV 24740. Nursing, Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: Sandra D. Thompson, R.N., M.S., (304)425-9551, (304)425-7460, Fax: (304)425-0833, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,600. Enrollment: men 3, women 29. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (12 Mo)

ST. ALBANS

Mountaineer Beauty College

700 6th Ave., PO Box 547, St. Albans, WV 25177. Cosmetology. Founded 1991. Contact: Toni Madia, Owner/Instructor, (304)727-9999, Fax: (304)727-8149, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.webmbc.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $7,000 plus $600 for cosmetology; $1,200 plus $400 for nail technology. Enrollment: men 10, women 62. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Nail Technology (400 Hr)

SAULSVILLE

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Wyoming/McDowell Campus)

Rt. 97, Saulsville, WV 25876. Two-Year College. Founded 1971. Contact: Dr. Thomas W. Nuckols, Campus Dir., (304)294-8346, Fax: (304)294-8534, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Enrollment: men 753, women 1,918. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCAHLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

SHEPHERDSTOWN

Shepherd University

P.O. Box 3210, Shepherdstown, WV 25443-3210. Other. Founded 1871. Contact: Kimberly C. Scranage, Dir. of Admissions, (304)876-5000, 800-344-5231, Fax: (304)876-3101, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.shepherd.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $4,046/year, in-state; $10,618/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 4,600. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NASM; NCATE; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (4 Yr); Art (4 Yr); Banking (2 Yr); Business (2 Yr); Business Administration (4 Yr); Communications Technology (4 Yr); Computer Information Science (4 Yr); Computer Programming (4 Yr); Computer Science (4 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (4 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (4 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (4 Yr); Fire Fighting (4 Yr); Fire Science (2 Yr); Graphic Design (4 Yr); Home Economics (4 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (2 Yr); Journalism (4 Yr); Language Arts (4 Yr); Management (4 Yr); Marketing (4 Yr); Mathematics (4 Yr); Music (4 Yr); Music Instructor (4 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Painting (4 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Personnel Management (4 Yr); Photography (2 Yr); Physical Education (4 Yr); Recreation Leadership (4 Yr); Sculpture (4 Yr); Small Business Management (4 Yr); Sports Management (4 Yr)

SUMMERSVILLE

Bluefield State College (Nicholas Campus)

6101 Webster Rd., Summersville, WV 26651. Two-Year College, Other. Contact: James A. Nelson, Jr., Dir., Institutional & Media Relations, (304)872-5812, 800-344-8892, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,410 per year in-state; $7,014 per out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; JRCERT; NLNAC; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Mining Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

VIENNA

Ohio Valley University

1 Campus View Dr., Vienna, WV 26105-8000. Other. Founded 1960. Contact: Dr. C. Joy Jones, Provost, (304)865-6000, (304)865-6001, 877-446-8668, Fax: (304)865-6001, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ovu.edu/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $12,012 per year. Enrollment: Total 472. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; IACBE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Bible Study; Business Administration; Education; Handicapped, Special Education; Human Services; Information Sciences Technology; Liberal Arts; Management; Marketing; Minister; Missions; Personnel Management; Science

WAVERLY

Meredith Manor International Equestrian Centre

Rte. 1, Box 66, Waverly, WV 26184. Trade and Technical. Founded 1963. Contact: Faith F. Meredith, Dir., (304)679-3128, 800-679-2603, E-mail: faith. [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.meredithmanor.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 5, women 63. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Horse Management; Horsemanship

WEIRTON

West Virginia Northern Community College - Weirton

150 Park Ave., Weirton, WV 26062-3741. Two-Year College. Founded 1972. Contact: Dr. Jim Bull, Campus Dir., (304)723-2210, E-mail: [email protected] wvnet.edu, Web Site: http://www.northern.wvnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $73 per credit hr, in-state; $233 per credit out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 3,000. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Appliance Repair (1 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (1 Yr); Computer Operations (1 Yr); Culinary Arts (2 Yr); Data Entry (1 Yr); Electro-Mechanical Technology (2 Yr); Hospitality (2 Yr); Human Services (1 Yr); Industrial Technology (1 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Medical Office Management (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Recreation Administration (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Secretarial, Correspondence (1 Yr); Small Business Management (1 Yr)

WELCH

Bluefield State College (Welch Campus)

Mt. View High School, 950 Mount View Rd., Welch, WV 24801. Two-Year College, Other. Contact: James A. Nelson, Jr., Dir., Institutional & Media Relations, (304)436-4003, 800-344-8892, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluefieldstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,410 per year in-state; $7,014 per out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; JRCERT; NLNAC; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Mining Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

McDowell County Career Technology

1 Stadium Dr., Welch, WV 24801. Trade and Technical, Business, Nursing. Contact: Ron Estep, Director, (304)436-3488, Fax: (304)436-8063. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Enrollment: men 250, women 250. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Certificate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics; Carpentry; Computer Operations; Correctional Science; Electricity, Industrial; Health Technology; Machine Shop; Nursing, Practical; Office Technology

WEST LIBERTY

West Liberty State College

PO Box 295, West Liberty, WV 26074-0295. Other. Founded 1837. Contact: Donna Howard, Admissions Assistant, (304)336-8035, (304)336-8076, 800-732-6204, Fax: (304)336-8403, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wlsc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,374/year in-state; $7,790/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 2,374. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ADA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dental Hygiene

WHEELING

Ohio Valley General Hospital

200 Eoff St., Wheeling, WV 26003. Allied Medical.(304)234-0123, Web Site: http://www.ohiovalleymedicalcenter.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Other. Tuition: None required. Enrollment: Total 16. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Curriculum: Laboratory Assistant, Certified; Radiologic Technology

Scott College of Cosmetology

1502 Market St., Wheeling, WV 26003. Cosmetology. Founded 1991. Contact: Randi K. Smith, (304)232-7798, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $8,500 plus $800 books and supplies for cosmetology; $1,750 plus $400 books and supplies for nail technology. Enrollment: men 2, women 68. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr)

West Virginia Business College-Wheeling

1052 Main St., Wheeling, WV 26003. Business. Contact: Karen D. Shaw, Dir., (304)232-0361, Web Site: http://www.wvbc.edu. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $7,500 in-state; $7,500 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

WILLIAMSON

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (Williamson Campus)

1601 Armory Dr., Williamson, WV 25661. Trade and Technical. Contact: Rita Roberson, Campus Manager, (304)235-6046, (866)798-2821, Fax: (304)235-6042, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.southern.wvnet.edu. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Tuition: $71 per credit hour in-state; $276 per credit hour out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC; JRCERT; ACCSCT; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Applied Science (1 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Child Development (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1-2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Health Occupations (1 Yr); Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

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West Virginia

West Virginia

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous West Virginians

40 Bibliography

State of West Virginia

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: The state was originally the western part of Virginia.

NICKNAME : The Mountain State.

CAPITAL: Charleston.

ENTERED UNION: 20 June 1863 (35th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: The same as the coat of arms.

FLAG: The flag has a white field bordered by a strip of blue, with the coat of arms in the center, wreathed by rhododendron leaves; across the top of the coat of arms are the words “State of West Virginia.”

COAT OF ARMS: A farmer stands to the right and a miner to the left of a large ivy-draped rock bearing the date of the state’s admission to the Union. In front of the rock are two hunters’ rifles upon which rests a Cap of Liberty. The state motto is beneath and the words “State of West Virginia” above.

MOTTO: Montani semper liberi (Mountaineers are always free).

SONG: “The West Virginia Hills;” “West Virginia, My Home Sweet Home;” “This Is My West Virginia.”

COLORS: Old gold and blue.

FLOWER: Rhododendron.

TREE: Sugar maple.

ANIMAL: Black bear.

BIRD: Cardinal.

FISH: Brook trout.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; West Virginia Day, 20 June; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November and the day following; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in the South Atlantic region of the eastern United States, West Virginia ranks 41st in size among the 50 states. The area of West Virginia totals 24,231 square miles (62,758 square kilometers), including 24,119 square miles (62,468 square kilometers) of land and 112 square miles (290 square kilometers) of inland water. The state extends 265 miles (426 kilometers) from east to west and 237 miles (381 kilometers) from north to south. Its total boundary length is 1,180 miles (1,899 kilometers).

2 Topography

Most of West Virginia’s eastern panhandle, crossed by the Allegheny Mountains, is in the Ridge and Valley region of the Appalachian Highlands. The remainder is part of the Allegheny Plateau. The state’s highest point, Spruce Knob, towers 4,861 feet (1,483 meters) above sea level. Major lowlands lie along the rivers, especially the Potomac, Ohio, and Kanawha. A point on the Potomac River near Harpers Ferry has the lowest elevation, only 240 feet (73 meters) above sea level. West Virginia has no natural lakes. Subterranean streams have carved out numerous caverns—including Seneca Caverns, Smoke Hole Caverns, and Organ Cave—from limestone beds.

3 Climate

West Virginia has a humid continental climate with hot summers and cool to cold winters. The climate of the eastern panhandle is influenced by its proximity to the Atlantic slope and is similar to that of nearby coastal areas. Mean annual temperatures vary from 56°f (13°c) in the southwest to 48°f (9°c) in higher elevations. The highest recorded temperature is 112°f (44°c), set at Martinsburg on 10 July 1936. The lowest temperature, -37°f (-38°c), occurred at Lewisburg on 30 December 1917.

In Charleston, the annual average precipitation is 42.9 inches (108 centimeters). Average annual snowfall throughout the state ranges from 20 inches (51 centimeters) in the west to 50 inches (127 centimeters) in the higher mountains.

West Virginia Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:1,818,470
Population change, 2000–06:0.6%
Hispanic or Latino†:0.6%
Population by race
One race:98.9%
White:95.0%
Black or African American:3.1%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.1%
Asian:0.4%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.1%
Some other race:0.2%
Two or more races:1.1%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Charleston51,176-4.2
Huntington49,198-4.4
Parkersburg32,020-3.3
Wheeling29,639-5.7
Morgantown28,2925.5
Weirton19,544-4.2
Fairmont19,049-0.3
Beckley16,936-1.8
Clarksburg16,439-1.8
Martinsburg15,9966.8

4 Plants and Animals

West Virginia provides a natural habitat for more than 3,200 species of plants. Oak, maple, poplar, and softwoods such as hemlock and pine are common forest trees in West Virginia. Rhododendron, dogwood, and pussy willow are among the more than 200 flowering trees and shrubs. The Cranberry Glades, an ancient lake bed similar to a glacial bog, contains the bog rosemary and other plant species common in more northern climates. In 2006, six plant species were listed as endangered, including shale barren rock-cress, harperella, northeastern bulrush, and running buffalo clover. The Virginia spirea and small whorled pogonia were the two species listed as threatened that year.

The white-tailed (Virginia) deer, black bear, and wildcat are still found in the deep timber of the Allegheny ridges. Common birds include the cardinal, scarlet tanager, and catbird. Major game birds are the wild turkey, bobwhite quail, and ruffed grouse. Notable among more than 100 species of fish are smallmouth bass, rainbow trout, and brook trout (the state fish). The copperhead and rattlesnake are both numerous and poisonous.

In 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed 13 animal species as threatened or endangered in West Virginia, including the bald eagle, three species (gray, Indiana, and Virginia big-eared) of bat, fanshell, flat-spired three-toothed snail, and the Cheat Mountain salamander.

5 Environmental Protection

The Division of Environmental Protection (DEP) was established in October 1991 and became West Virginia’s leading environmental agency in July 1992, with the consolidation of the state’s major environmental regulatory programs. A new DEP program is the Office of Environmental Advocate. The office was created to improve public access and input into DEP functioning.

Environmental issues confronting the state of West Virginia include the restoration of about 2,000 miles (3,218 kilometers) of streams impacted by acid mine damage. To combat the problem, the state has created a Stream Restoration program, which is using a variety of treatment methods to improve water quality. The first treatment station is under construction in the Blackwater River watershed, with plans to construct a second station in the Middlefork River watershed. The state is in the midst of an initiative to focus on better planning and management of West Virginia’s five major watersheds. In 1996, less than 1% of West Virginia’s land was designated wetlands.

West Virginia mandates that cities with populations of 10,000 or more must develop recycling programs. In 2003, West Virginia had 154 hazardous waste sites listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database, nine of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006.

6 Population

In 2006, West Virginia ranked 37th among the 50 states in population with an estimated total of 1,818,470. The population is projected to decline to 1.76 million by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 75.4 persons per square mile (29.1 persons per square kilometer). The state has one of the oldest populations in the country. The median age in 2004 was 40.3 years, compared to the national average of 36.2. In 2005, about

West Virginia Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population1,808,344100.0
One race1,792,55699.1
Two races14,8460.8
White and Black or African American4,1590.2
White and American Indian/Alaska Native5,9660.3
White and Asian1,7040.1
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander214
White and some other race1,6900.1
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native367
Black or African American and Asian142
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander27
Black or African American and some other race228
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian35
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander9
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race52
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander66
Asian and some other race167
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race20
Three or more races9420.1

15% of all residents were 65 or older, while 21% were 18 or younger.

In 2005, Charleston had an estimated 51,176 residents. Other major cities include Huntington, Parkersburg, and Wheeling, all of which have populations less than 50,000 people.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, about 3,606 Native Americans were living in West Virginia. About 57,232 residents were black Americans. There were 12,279 Hispanics and Latinos and 9,434 persons of Asian origin. Only 19,390 West Virginians, or 1.1% of the population, were foreign born. Of those European descendents who reported at least one specific ancestry group, 176,297 were English, 253,388 were German, 198,473 were Irish, and 37,837 were Dutch.

In 2006, estimates indicated that 3.1% of the population was black. Hispanics and Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans each accounted for less than 1% of the population.

8 Languages

West Virginia generally maintains Midland speech, but there are speech differences between the northern and southern halves of the state. For instance, in the northern part, the words sat and sight sound very much alike and specific terms include run for creek and teetertotter for seesaw. In the southern half, can’t and aunt rhyme with paint, a creek is called a branch, and tinter means teeter.

In 2000, 97.3% of the population five years of age or over spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home, and the number of persons who spoke them, included Spanish, 17,652; French, 5,693; and German, 5,040.

9 Religions

Throughout its history, West Virginia has been overwhelmingly Protestant. Most settlers before the American Revolution were Anglicans, Presbyterians, Quakers, or members of German sects, such as Lutherans, German Reformed, Dunkers, and Mennonites. The Great Awakening had a profound effect on these settlers and they avidly embraced its evangelism, emotionalism, and emphasis on personal religious experience.

In 2000, the major Protestant denominations and the number of their adherents were the American Baptist Churches USA, 108,087; the Southern Baptist Convention, 43,606; and the Presbyterian Church USA, 28,467. In 2004, the United Methodist Church had about 105,879 members. In 2000, smaller fundamentalist denominations included the Churches of Christ, 24,143; the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), 21,657; and the Church of the Nazarene, 21,389. The Roman Catholic population was 100,648 in 2004. There were an estimated 2,400 Jews and 1,528 Muslims in 2000. Over 1.1 million people (about 64% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization.

10 Transportation

The first major pre-Civil War railroad line was the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O), completed to Wheeling in 1852. Today, the railroads still play an important part in coal transportation. In 2003, CSX, and Norfolk Southern were the state’s Class I operators. In the same year, total rail mileage was 2,489 miles (4,007 kilometers). As of 2006, Amtrak provided passenger service to 10 communities.

In 2004, there were 37,011 miles (59,587 kilometers) of public roads under the state system. The West Virginia Turnpike was completed from Charleston to Princeton in 1955. There were 1.3 million registered motor vehicles in the state in 2003 and 1,292,036 licensed drivers. The state ran 17 public transit systems in the mid-1990s.

Major navigable inland rivers are the Ohio, Kanawha, and Monongahela. Each has locks and dams. In the mid-1990s, West Virginia had 67 airports, 29 heliports, and 10 seaplane bases. Yeager Airport in Charleston is the state’s main air terminal.

11 History

When European settlers arrived in present-day West Virginia, only a few Shawnee, Tuscarora, and Delaware Native American villages remained, but the area was still actively used as hunting and warring grounds, and European possession was hotly contested.

The fur trade stimulated early exploration by both the English and French. England eventually prevailed as a result of the French and Indian War. It is thought that the first settlement was founded at Bunker Hill in 1731. By 1750, several

thousand settlers were living in the eastern panhandle, and there was movement into the Greenbriar, Monongahela, and the upper Ohio River valleys after 1769, although wars with the Native Americans occurred sporadically until the 1790s. The area that is now West Virginia was part of Virginia at the time of that state’s entry into the Union on 25 June 1788.

Serious differences between eastern and western Virginia developed after the War of 1812. Eastern Virginia was dominated by large farms that used slave labor, while small diversified farms and infant industries predominated in western Virginia. Westerners resented property qualifications for voting, inadequate representation in the Virginia legislature, and undemocratic county governments, and were dissatisfied with the quality of government operations. In 1859, abolitionist John Brown led a raid at Harpers Ferry, seizing the US Armory. Brown was convicted and hanged for treason, which made him a hero for the antislavery movement.

Statehood When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, western counties remaining loyal to the Union set up the Reorganized Government and consented to the separation of present West Virginia from Virginia. After approval by Congress and President Lincoln, West Virginia entered the Union on 20 June 1863 as the 35th state.

Both Bourbon (conservative) Democratic and Republican governors after the Civil War sought to improve transportation, foster immigration,

West Virginia Governors: 1863–2007

1863–1869Arthur Inghram BoremanRepublican
1869Daniel Duane FarnsworthRepublican
1869–1871William Erskine StevensonRepublican
1871–1877John Jeremiah JacobDem/Indep
1877–1881Henry Mason MatthewsDemocrat
1881–1885Jacob Beeson JacksonDemocrat
1885–1889Emanuel Willis WilsonDemocrat
1889–1893Aretas Brooks FlemingDemocrat
1893–1897William Alexander MacCorkleDemocrat
1897–1901George Wesley AtkinsonRepublican
1901–1905Albert Blakeslee WhiteRepublican
1905–1909William Mercer Owens DawsonRep.
1909–1913William Ellsworth GlasscockRepublican
1913–1917Henry Drury HatfieldRepublican
1917–1921John Jacob CornwellDemocrat
1921–1925Ephraim Franklin MorganRepublican
1925–1929Howard Mason GoreRepublican
1929–1933William Gustavus ConleyRepublican
1933–1937Herman Guy KumpDemocrat
1937–1941Homer Adams HoltDemocrat
1941–1945Matthew Mansfield NeelyDemocrat
1945–1949Clarence Watson MeadowsDemocrat
1949–1953Okey Leonidas PattesonDemocrat
1953–1957William Casey MarlandDemocrat
1957–1961Cecil Harland UnderwoodRepublican
1961–1965William Wallace BarronDemocrat
1965–1969Hulett Carlson SmithDemocrat
1969–1977Arch Alfred Moore, Jr.Republican
1977–1985John Davidson Rockefeller IVDemocrat
1985–1989Arch Alfred Moore, Jr.Republican
1989–1997Gaston CapertonDemocrat
1997–2000Cecil UnderwoodRepublican
2000–2004Bob WiseDemocrat
2004–Joe Manchin IIIDemocrat
Democrat/Independent–Dem/Indep

and provide tax structures attractive to business. Republican governors of the early 20th century, attuned to Progressive ideas, were instrumental in the adoption of the direct primary, safety legislation for the coal mines, revision of corporate tax laws, and improvements in highways and education.

The Great Depression of the 1930s, from which West Virginia suffered acutely, ushered in a Democratic era. West Virginians embraced the liberal philosophies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. World Wars I and II produced significant changes in the state, particularly through stimulation of the chemical, steel, and textile industries, which lessened its dependence on mining, historically the backbone of its economy.

After World War II After World War II, mechanization and strip mining displaced thousands of miners and resulted in a large exodus to other states. By 1960, West Virginia was considered one of the most economically depressed areas of the country, primarily because of conditions in the mining regions. Antipoverty programs of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations provided some relief, but much of it was temporary.

Over the next several decades, West Virginia’s manufacturing and mining sectors shrank dramatically. Automation, foreign competition, and the recession of the early 1980s caused employment in steel, glass, chemical manufacturing, and coal mining to drop by one-third between 1979 and 1985. On the other hand, tourism, centered on skiing and whitewater rafting, provided West Virginia with a growing source of income.

The same technological advances which forced a restructuring of the economy produced social change. Electronic communications largely eliminated the cultural isolation long felt by West Virginia residents. In the 1990s, the state won a number of federal projects, including the FBI’s fingerprint identification division, aided by the tenure of Senator Robert C. Byrd, who was chairman of the US Senate Appropriations Committee from 1988 to 1995 and from 2001 to 2005.

In 2002, West Virginia began programs to attract retirees to the state. In 2004, Democrat Joe Manchin III was elected as governor to replace Bob Wise, who chose not to run for reelection that year. Manchin’s election marked the first time that two persons of the same political party have followed one another in the governor’s office since 1964.

12 State Government

Since becoming a state, West Virginia has had two constitutions. The 1872 constitution had been amended 71 times as of January 2005. The legislature consists of a senate with 34 members and a house of delegates with 100 members. Senators serve four-year terms, and delegates serve two-year terms. Elected officials of the executive branch of government include the governor, secretary of state, auditor, and attorney general. There is no lieutenant governor. Bills passed by the legislature become law when signed by the governor. Those the governor vetoes may become law if repassed by majorities of both house memberships—except for revenue and appropriations bills, which require a two-thirds majority of both houses.

The legislative salary in 2004 was $15,000 and the governor’s salary was $90,000.

13 Political Parties

The Republican Party presided over the birth of West Virginia, but the Democrats have generally been in power for the past five decades. In 2004, there were 1,169,000 registered voters. In 1998, 63% of registered voters were Democratic, 29% Republican, and 8% unaffiliated or members of other parties. Since the 1930s, Republican presidential

West Virginia Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR WEST VIRGINIA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
* Won US presidential election.
** Independent candidate Ross Perot received 108,829 votes in 1992 and 71,639 votes in 1996.
1948*Truman (D)429,188316,251
1952Stevenson (D)453,578419,970
1956*Eisenhower (R)381,534449,297
1960*Kennedy (D)441,786395,995
1964*Johnson (D)538,087253,953
1968Humphrey (D)374,091307,555
1972*Nixon (R)277,435484,964
1976*Carter (D)435,914314,760
1980Carter (D)367,462334,206
1984*Reagan (R)328,125405,483
1988Dukakis (D)341,016310,065
1992***Clinton (D)331,001241,974
1996***Clinton (D)327,812233,946
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)295,497336,475
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)326,541423,778

candidates have carried West Virginia only in 1956, 1972, 1984, 2000, and 2004. The state is even more firmly Democratic in elections for other offices. Robert Byrd, who has served in the US Senate since 1959 and was majority leader from 1977 to 1980, is a Democrat and was reelected to his ninth term in the Senate in 2006. Senator John D. Rockefeller IV, reelected to his fourth term in 2002, is also a Democrat. Following the 2006 midterm elections, West Virginia’s US Representatives consisted of two Democrats and one Republican. Following the 2006 elections, there were 23 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the state senate, and 72 Democrats and 28 Republicans in the state house. Twenty-one women were elected to the state legislature in the 2006 elections, or 15.7%. In 2004, Democrat Joe Manchin III was elected governor to replace fellow Democrat Bob Wise.

In 2000, Republican George W. Bush received 52% of the popular vote to Democrat Al Gore’s 46%. In 2004, Bush won 56% of the vote while Democratic challenger John Kerry won 43%.

14 Local Government

West Virginia has 55 counties. The chief county officials are the three commissioners, who serve on the county court; the sheriff, assessor, county clerk, and prosecuting attorney; and the five-member board of education. There were 234 cities, towns, and villages as of 2005. There were 55 public school districts and 342 special districts in 2005.

15 Judicial System

The highest court in West Virginia, the supreme court of appeals, has five justices, including the chief justice. The court has broad appeals jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, and original jurisdiction in certain other cases. West Virginia’s general trial court is the circuit court. Circuit courts had jurisdiction over juvenile, domestic relations, and administrative proceedings. Local courts include the county magistrate and municipal courts.

The state’s violent crime rate in 2004 was 271.2 reported incidents per 100,000 persons. Crimes against property were reported at a rate of about 2,506.2 per 100,000 people.

As of December 2004, prisoners in state or federal correctional facilities totaled 5,067. The state abolished the death penalty in 1965.

16 Migration

West Virginia has considerable national and ethnic diversity. Settlers before the Civil War consisted principally of English, German, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh immigrants, many of whom came by way of Pennsylvania. A second wave of immigration from the 1880s to the 1920s brought thousands of Italians, Poles, Austrians, and Hungarians to the coal mines and industrial towns, which also attracted many blacks from the South.

Between 1990 and 1998, West Virginia had net gains of 8,000 in domestic migration and 3,000 in international migration. In the period 1995–2000, some 138,487 people moved into the state and 149,241 moved out, for a net loss of 10,754, many of whom moved to Ohio. For the period 2000–05, net international migration was 3,691 and net internal migration was 10,518 for a net gain of 14,209 people.

17 Economy

Agriculture was the backbone of West Virginia’s economy until the 1890s, when coal, oil, natural gas, and timber began to play a major role. World War I stimulated important industries such as chemicals, steel, glass, and textiles. The beauty of West Virginia’s mountains and forests has attracted an increasing number of tourists, but the state’s rugged terrain and relative isolation from major markets continue to hamper its economic development.

West Virginia did not participate substantially in the high technology boom of the 1990s, even as the long-term decline of its coal mining industry continued. The 2001 national recession had a negative impact on every area of the economy except services and government.

In 2004, about 3,937 new businesses were established while 5,136 businesses were closed.

18 Income

In 2005, West Virginia had a gross state product (GSP) of $54 billion, ranking 41st among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In 2004, West Virginia ranked 50th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $25,792. The three-year average median household income for 2002–04 was $32,589 compared to the national average of $44,473. For the same period, 16.1% of the population lived below the federal poverty level, compared to the national average of 12.4%.

19 Industry

Known for its rich natural resources and strong industrial presence, the value of shipments by manufacturers in 2004 totaled $20 billion. Major industries included organic chemicals, primary metals, fabricated metal products, and lumber and wood products.

Major industrial areas are the Kanawha, Ohio, and Monongahela valleys and the eastern panhandle. The largest industrial corporations with headquarters in West Virginia are Weirton Steel and Wheeling-Pittsburgh. Other major industrial companies with operations in West Virginia include E.I. du Pont de Nemours, Union Carbide, Ravenswood Aluminum, and Rhone Poulenc.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in West Virginia numbered 813,700, with approximately 33,600 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.1%, compared to the national average of 4.7%. In 2006, 5.1% of the labor force was employed in construction; 8.1% in manufacturing; 18.6% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4% in financial activities; 7.8% in professional and business services; 15.3% in education and health services; 9.3% in leisure and hospitality services, and 19% in government.

Important milestones in the growth of unionism were the organization of the state as District 17 of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) in 1890 and the formation of the State Federation of Labor in 1903. The coal miners fought to gain union recognition by coal companies and instances of violence were not uncommon in the early 1900s. Wages, working conditions, and benefits for miners improved rapidly after World War II.

In 2005, 99,000 of West Virginia’s 688,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions, representing 14.4% of those so employed. The national average was 12%.

21 Agriculture

With estimated farm marketings of $429 million ($348 million from livestock and poultry), West Virginia ranked 46th among the 50 states in 2005. Poultry, meat animals, and dairy dominate the farm economy in the Mountain State.

In 2004, the state had 3.6 million acres (1.4 million hectares), or 23% of its land, devoted to farming. Its 20,800 farms averaged 173 acres (70 hectares) in size. Major farm sections are the eastern panhandle, a tier of counties along the Virginia border, the upper Monongahela Valley, and the Ohio Valley. Leading crops produced in 2004 were hay (1 million tons), corn for grain (3.7 million bushels), corn for silage (306,000 tons), commercial apples, and tobacco.

22 Domesticated Animals

In 2005, there were an estimated 405,000 cattle and calves, valued at $315.9 million. During 2004, the state had 10,000 hogs and pigs, valued at around $1.1 million. During 2003, poultry farmers produced 357 million pounds (162 million kilograms) of broilers valued at $121.5 million, and 92 million pounds of turkey (41.7 million kilograms), valued at $33.1 million. The dairy industry yielded 222 million pounds (101 million kilograms) of milk and 270 million eggs.

23 Fishing

West Virginia fishing has little commercial importance. In 2004, there were 34 trout farms selling 378,000 pounds (172,000 kilograms) of fish. In 2004, the state issued 269,727 sport fishing licenses. The White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery is located within the state, as are two state hatcheries.

24 Forestry

In 2004, West Virginia had four-fifths or 12.1 million acres (4.9 million hectares) of its land area in forestland and of this, 11.9 million acres (4.8 million hectares) were classified as timber-land. Sawtimber volume averaged 6,500 board feet per acre. About 92% of West Virginia forest species are hardwoods, with approximately 77% of the timberland being of the oak-hickory forest type. In all, West Virginia’s forests contain more than 100 species of trees.

Timber production increased from 600 million board feet in 1988 to 701 million board feet in 2004. Employment in the forest industry is second only to the chemical and primary metal manufacturing industries.

The state is encouraging the professional management of its forests so they will continue to produce a sustained array of benefits, such as wood products, jobs, clean water, oxygen, scenery, and diverse recreational opportunities like hunting, hiking, and tourism.

25 Mining

The value of nonfuel mineral production in 2003 was about $168 million. Crushed stone accounted for about 39% of the state’s total value of nonfuel minerals. Construction sand and gravel production was 1.6 million short tons, worth $8 million.

26 Energy and Power

West Virginia has long been an important supplier of energy in the form of electric power and fossil fuels. In 2003, production of electric energy was 94.7 billion kilowatt hours, of which nearly 97.6% was produced by coal-fired steam units.

Major coal mining regions lie within a north–south belt some 60 miles (97 kilometers) wide through the central part of the state and include the Fairmount, New River-Kanawha, Pocahontas, and Logan-Mingo fields. In 2004, coal production totaled 147.9 million tons. Recoverable coal reserves in 2004 were estimated at 1.51 billion tons. Also in 2004, West Virginia produced 4,000 barrels per day of oil and 187.7 billion cubic feet (5.33 billion cubic meters) of marketed gas. Proved crude oil reserves in 2004 totaled 11 million barrels. Natural gas reserves totaled 3.3 trillion cubic feet (93.6 billion cubic meters).

27 Commerce

Wholesale sales totaled $10.9 billion in 2002; retail sales were also $16.7 billion in the same year. In 2005, West Virginia exported $3.1 billion in products originating within the state.

28 Public Finance

The governor is responsible for submitting a budget to the legislature each year. The fiscal year is from 1 July to June 30. In 2004, revenues totaled $11.6 billion and expenditures amounted to $9.8 billion. The highest general expenditures were for education ($2.9 billion), public welfare ($2.2 billion), and highways ($948,901). The state’s outstanding debt totaled $4.7 billion, or $2,617.42 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

Personal income taxes range from 3.0% to 6.5% in five tax brackets. The corporate income tax is 9% and consumer sales taxes are 6% on goods and services. Counties and localities mainly tax real estate and personal property. There are selective (excise) taxes on items such as gasoline and cigarettes.

The state collected $4.3 billion in taxes in 2005, of which 27.2% came from individual income taxes, 25.5% from the general sales tax, 24.6% from selective sales taxes, and 10.8% from corporate income taxes. In 2005, West Virginia ranked 16th among the states in terms of per capita tax burden, which amounted to about $2,367 per person, compared to the national average of $2,192 per person.

In 2005, West Virginia’s infant mortality rate was 8.2 per 1,000 live births. The overall death rate was 11.8 per 1,000 population in 2003, the highest in the nation. In 2002, West Virginia had the highest mortality rates in the nation for heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Death rates that year for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) included heart disease, 343.5; cancer, 258.2; cerebrovascular diseases, 69.9; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 68.2; and diabetes, 47. The death rate for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported at 1.1 per 100,000, the second-lowest rate in the nation after Iowa. In 2004, the reported acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases rate was at about 5.1 per 100,000. Pneumoconiosis (black lung) is an occupational hazard among coal miners. In 2004, 26.9% of West Virginia residents were smokers.

West Virginia’s 57 community hospitals had 7,800 beds in 2003. The average expense for hospital care was $993 per inpatient day in 2003. There were 254 physicians per 100,000 residents in 2004 and 861 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of about 844 dentists in the state. In 2004, at least 17% of West Virginia’s residents were uninsured.

Medical education is provided by medical schools at West Virginia University and Marshall University and at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine.

31 Housing

In 2004, West Virginia had an estimated 866,944 housing units, 736,954 of which were occupied; 74% were owner-occupied. About 70.1% of all units were single-family, detached homes; 16% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 44,343 units lacked telephone service, 3,995 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 4,267 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.4 people.

In 2004, 5,700 new privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $81,826, one of the lowest in the country. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $769, while renters paid a median of $461 per month.

32 Education

West Virginia has generally ranked below national standards in education. In 2004, 80.9% of adult West Virginians were high school graduates and only 15.3% had completed four or more years of college.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 282,000 in fall 2002. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $2.6 billion. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 14,397.

As of fall 2002, there were 92,723 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, West Virginia had 40 degree-granting institutions. The state supports West Virginia University, Marshall University, and the West Virginia College of Graduate Studies (all offering graduate work), as well as 3 medical schools. There are 10 private colleges.

33 Arts

West Virginia is known for the quilts, pottery, and woodwork of its mountain artisans. Huntington Galleries, the Sunrise Foundation at Charleston, and Oglebay Park in Wheeling are major art centers. The Clay Center for the Arts and Sciences at Charleston includes a performing arts center that hosts the annual Stretched Strings Festival. Other musical attractions include the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra in Charleston, the Charleston Ballet, Charleston Light Opera Guild, the Wheeling Symphony, and a country music program at Wheeling. The Charleston Stage Company and the Children’s Theater of Charleston are also popular. The Mountain State Art and Craft Fair is held each summer at Ripley.

The West Virginia Department of Education’s Division of Culture and History sponsors many programs with the help of state and federal funds. The West Virginia Humanities Council sponsors an active speaker’s bureau and the History Alive! program. The state has about 150 arts associations and 30 local arts groups.

In 2005, West Virginia arts organizations received eight grants totaling $637,900 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The same year, the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded six grants totaling $578,176 for state programs.

34 Libraries and Museums

In 2001, West Virginia’s public libraries had 4,929,000 volumes in 97 public library systems with a combined circulation of 7.8 million. The largest library system is the Kanawha County Public Library system at Charleston, with 628,308 volumes. Of college and university libraries, the largest collection was at West Virginia University.

There were 51 museums in the state in 2000, including the State Museum and the Sunrise Museum in Charleston, and Oglebay Institute-Mansion Museum in Wheeling. Point Pleasant marks the site of a battle between colonists and Native Americans, and Harpers Ferry is the site of John Brown’s raid. Wheeling is the location of the Oglebay’s Good Children’s Zoo.

35 Communications

In 2004, some 93.2% of West Virginia’s occupied households had telephones. The same year, there were about 713,657 mobile phone subscribers. In 2003, about 55% of all households had a personal computer and 47.6% had access o the Internet. Approximately 13,062 Internet domain names were registered in the state by the year 2000.

In 2005, broadcasting facilities included 9 major AM and 46 major FM radio stations, as well as 13 major television stations.

36 Press

In 2005, West Virginia had 20 daily newspapers and 12 Sunday newspapers. Leading West Virginia newspapers with their approximate 2004 daily circulations were the Charleston Gazette (68,975 daily), the Charleston Daily Mail (68,975 daily) and the Huntington Herald-Dispatch (29,323 daily, 35,492 Sunday). The Charleston Gazette and Daily Mail are combined on Sundays with a circulation of 84,676.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2002, almost 23.9 million travelers visited West Virginia. Direct travel spending in 2004 was about $3.4 billion.

About 250,000 whitewater rafting enthusiasts visit West Virginia waters each year and more than 750,000 skiers venture down the slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. Major attractions are Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Canaan Valley State Park in Tucker County, and White Sulphur Springs, a popular mountain resort.

There are 37 state parks and forests, including Cass Scenic Railroad, which includes a restoration of an old logging line, and Prickett’s Fort, with recreations of pioneer life.

38 Sports

No major league professional teams are based in West Virginia, but there are minor league baseball teams in Charleston, Bluefield, and Princeton, and there is minor league hockey in Wheeling. In college football, West Virginia produced a string of national contenders in the late 1980s and early 1990s. West Virginia University won the Peach Bowl in 1981 and played for the national championship in the 1989 Fiesta Bowl, which they lost to Notre Dame. Marshall University has also risen to the elite among college football teams, having won five straight bowl game appearances from 1998 to 2002.

Horse racing tracks operate in Chester and Charles Town. Greyhound races are run in Wheeling and Charleston. Other popular sports are skiing and whitewater rafting.

39 Famous West Virginians

Newton D. Baker (1871–1937) was secretary of war during World War I. Lewis L. Strauss (1896–1974) was commerce secretary and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, and Cyrus R. Vance (1917–2002) served as secretary of state. John W. Davis (1873–1955), an ambassador to Great Britain, ran as the Democratic presidential nominee in 1924. Prominent members of the US Senate have included Robert C. Byrd (b.1917) and John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV (b.New York, 1937).

Major state political leaders, all governors (though some have held federal offices), have been E. Willis Wilson (1844–1905), Henry D. Hatfield (1875–1962), and Arch A. Moore Jr. (b.1923).

Brigadier General Charles E. “Chuck” Yeager (b.1923), a World War II ace, became the first person to fly faster than the speed of sound.

The state’s only Nobel Prize winner was Pearl S. Buck (Pearl Sydenstricker, 1893–1973), who won the Nobel Prize for literature for her novels about China. Alexander Campbell (b.Ireland, 1788–1866), with his father, founded the Disciples of Christ Church. Major labor leaders have included Walter Reuther (1907–1970), president of the United Automobile Workers; and Arnold Miller (1923–1985), president of the United Mine Workers.

Entertainers include musician George Crumb (b.1929), a Pulitzer Prize-winning composer; opera singers Eleanor Steber (1916–1990) and Phyllis Curtin (b.1922); and comedy actor Don Knotts (b.1924). Important writers of the modern period include Mary Lee Settle (1918–2005) and John Knowles (1926–2001).

Baseball great George Brett (b.1953) was born in the state; Jerry West (b.1938) was a collegiate and professional basketball star, and a pro coach after his playing days ended; Rod Hundley (b.1934) and Hal Greer (b.1936) also starred in the National Basketball Association. Mary Lou Retton (b.1968) won a gold medal in gymnastics at the 1984 Olympics. Another West Virginian of note is Anna Jarvis (1864–1948), founder of Mother’s Day.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. West Virginia. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

Fenney, Kathy. West Virginia Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Heinrichs, Ann. West Virginia. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2004.

Murray, Julie. West Virginia. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

WEB SITES

State of West Virginia. WV.gov: Your Official West Virginia State Web Portal. www.wv.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

West Virginia Division of Culture and History. www.wvculture.org (accessed March 1, 2007).

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West Virginia

West Virginia

West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, as the thirty-fifth state. Located in the South Atlantic region of the eastern United States, West Virginia is surrounded by Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia , and Kentucky .

Historians believe the first white settlement in West Virginia was established at Bunker Hill in 1731. At the time, West Virginia was still part of Virginia. After the War of 1812 (1812–15), Virginia was divided by conflict over slavery . Eastern Virginia supported slavery because it was a region of plantations (large farms that grow one primary crop) that relied heavily on slave labor. Western Virginia, comprised of small farms and industries still in their infancy, opposed slavery.

In 1861 Virginia seceded from the Union even though the western counties remained loyal to the Union. Virginia agreed to let those counties split from the state, and those counties became the state of West Virginia in 1863.

West Virginia suffered mightily, as did many states, throughout the economic depression of the 1930s. Both World War I (1914–18) and World War II (1939–45) changed the state's economy by stimulating the chemical, steel, and textile industries. West Virginia was once a state that relied on its natural resources like coal, oil, and natural gas for revenue. After World War II, many residents left as their jobs were replaced by mechanization. By 1960, West Virginia had one of the most depressed economies in the United States. Manufacturing and mining continued to shrink throughout the next several decades.

West Virginia was home to slightly more than 1.8 million people in 2006, with a predominantly (95 percent) white population. Of the remaining 5 percent, 3.1 percent were African American. The largest percentage (29 percent) of West Virginians were between the ages of forty-five and sixty-four.

While other regions of the United States profited heartily from the high technology boom of the 1990s, West Virginia did not. Its primary industries in the early twenty-first century were chemicals, metals, lumber, and wood. Millions of tourists visit West Virginia to enjoy its thirty-seven state parks and forests. The Appalachian Mountains provide challenging ski slopes for skiers and snowboarders.

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West Virginia

WEST VIRGINIA

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West Virginia

West Virginia

Montani semper liberi (Mountaineers are always free).

At a Glance

Name: West Virginia was once part of Virginia, which was named for England's Queen Elizabeth I. She was known as the Virgin Queen because she never married.

Nickname: Mountain State

Capital: Charleston

Size: 24,231 sq. mi. (62,759 sq km)

Population: 1,808,344

Statehood: West Virginia became the 35th state on June 20, 1863.

Electoral votes: 5 (2004)

U.S. representatives: 3 (until 2003)

State tree: sugar maple

State flower: big rhododendron

State animal: black bear

Highest point: Spruce Knob, 4,861 ft. (1,482 m)

The Place

West Virginia is an eastern state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. West Virginia is irregularly shaped because most of its borders follow natural features such as rivers and mountains. A narrow strip of land called the Northern Panhandle runs northward between Ohio and Pennsylvania, while the Eastern Panhandle runs north-eastward between Maryland and Virginia.

West Virginia is known as the Mountain State because so little of its land is flat. In fact, West Virginia is one of the most rugged states in the East. The Appalachian Mountains cover all of the eastern and central parts of West Virginia, which was once the mountainous western half of Virginia. The Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains run through eastern West Virginia.

The western third of West Virginia is made up of rolling hills and narrow valleys. West Virginia's western river valleys have the most fertile soil in the state, as well as deposits of natural gas and petroleum. The Ohio River flows along the state's western boundary with Ohio.

West Virginia's summers are warm; the valleys are typically warmer than the mountainous areas. Rainfall is plentiful throughout the state and sometimes causes flash floods that damage homes and property in lower valleys. The mountains sometimes get as much as 100 inches (250 cm) of snow in a year.

The Past

Around 14,000 years ago, various groups of Native Americans hunted large animals such as bear and deer in the West Virginia area. In later times, native peoples such as the Woodland built large earthen burial mounds. By the 1700s, when European settlers reached West Virginia, disease and warfare had killed many of the Native Americans there.

The first European settlers who came to present-day West Virginia were searching for new farmland, but in 1742, explorers discovered the area's large coal beds, and settlers began moving to the land to mine the coal. During the Revolutionary War, Native American tribes frequently raided these white settlements. After the American Revolution and the War of 1812, manufacturing expanded as West Virginians began to produce items they had formerly bought from England, such as iron.

West Virginia: Facts and Firsts

  1. West Virginia has an average altitude of 1,500 feet (457 m), the highest average altitude east of the Mississippi.
  2. Forests cover almost 80 percent of West Virginia.
  3. West Virginia is home to the world's largest sycamore tree, on the Back Fork of the Elk River in Webster Springs.
  4. West Virginia is the only state that became independent by declaration of the president of the United States.
  5. West Virginia was the first state to implement a sales tax on the goods it sold and traded. The tax went into effect June 1, 1921.
  6. West Virginia has the oldest population in the United States. The state's median age is nearly 39.

In 1788, the Virginia Colony, which included West Virginia, became a state. In the decades that followed, present-day West Virginia became increasingly unlike eastern Virginia. While the eastern region was dominated by large cotton plantations that relied on slave labor, western Virginia was made up of small family farms. The eastern plantation owners controlled the state's government and promoted policies that hurt the western farmers.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861 and Virginia decided to withdraw from the Union, residents of western Virginia called for an official separation. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln declared West Virginia a separate, official state. West Virginia remained in the Union, although some natives, such as Confederate general Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, stayed loyal to the South.

After the Civil War, West Virginia's mining industry exploded, and the state became a leading producer of coal, oil, and natural gas. Manufacturers made chemicals, glass, iron, and steel from these resources. In the early 1900s, the coal mining industry experienced labor problems as poorly paid workers fought with mine owners to form unions for better wages

West Virginia: State Smart

The New River Gorge Bridge in Fayetteville is the world's longest single-span steel arch bridge. Its arch length is 1,700 feet (518 m). The bridge's height is 876 feet (267 m) above the New River, making it the second-highest bridge in the country.

West Virginia's manufacturers produced supplies for World War II during the 1940s, but after the war, the mining industry again declined. Factories stopped using coal for power and new mining techniques reduced the need for workers. These trends combined to put many of West Virginia's miners out of work. West Virginia's population decreased as workers left the state to look for jobs. The decline continued until the 1970s, when government programs aided West Virginia's economy, and an international oil shortage helped the coal industry. The gains of the 1970s were reversed in the 1980s, however, when coal prices fell and unemployment rose. The 1990s brought some improvement, as the timber and tourism industries became more profitable and federal projects created jobs in the state.

The Present

Today, most of West Virginia's revenue comes from the service industry, which includes schools, restaurants, hotels, and retail trade. In the past, West Virginia's economy was heavily dependent on mining. Because of downturns in the coal industry, many West Virginians lost their jobs, and the state received little tax revenue. Since the 1960s, the federal government has provided assistance to West Virginia to improve health services, schools, and transportation.

West Virginia has started to expand some industries and encourage new business growth. Manufacturing plants in cities along the Ohio River use coal to make iron and steel. Factories in the Kanawha and Ohio River Valleys produce chemicals, and both DuPont and General Electric have large plants in the western Ohio Valley. Other factories use West Virginia's deposits of sand and gravel to make glassware and pottery.

Agriculture is an important economic activity, and about a quarter of the state is farmland. Broilers, or young chickens, are West Virginia's most important agricultural product.

Born in West Virginia

  1. George Brett , athlete
  2. Pearl S. Buck , author
  3. Homer Hickam Jr. , engineer and author
  4. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson , Confederate general (was Virginia at that time)
  5. John S. Knight , publisher
  6. Don Knotts , actor
  7. Dwight Whitney Morrow , banker and diplomat
  8. Mary Lou Retton , gymnast
  9. Walter Reuther , labor leader
  10. Eleanor Steber , opera singer
  11. Lewis L. Strauss , naval officer and scientist
  12. Cyrus Vance , secretary of state
  13. Jerry West , basketball player and coach
  14. Charles "Chuck" Yeager , test pilot and air force general

To further balance its economy, West Virginia has encouraged the development of tourism, and the state's lakes, forests, mountains, and historic towns have become popular with visitors.

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West Virginia

West Virginia

ALDERSON-BROADDUS COLLEGE D-9
AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM C-17
APPALACHIAN BIBLE COLLEGE I-6
BETHANY COLLEGE
BLUEFIELD STATE COLLEGE L-6
COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF SHEPHERD B-16
COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY H-5
CONCORD UNIVERSITY K-6
DAVIS & ELKINS COLLEGE E-10
EASTERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE D-13
FAIRMONT STATE COMMUNITY & TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-9
FAIRMONT STATE UNIVERSITY B-9
GLENVILLE STATE COLLEGE E-7
HUNTINGTON JUNIOR COLLEGE G-2
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY B-9
MARSHALL COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE G-2
MARSHALL UNIVERSITY G-2
MOUNTAIN STATE COLLEGE C-4
MOUNTAIN STATE UNIVERSITY J-6
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY G-4
NEW RIVER COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE J-6
OHIO VALLEY COLLEGE C-5
POTOMAC STATE COLLEGE OF WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY B-13
SALEM INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY C-8
SHEPHERD UNIVERSITY
SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE
UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON G-4
VALLEY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY B-16
WEST LIBERTY STATE COLLEGE C-2
WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (NUTTER FORT) C-9
WEST VIRGINIA BUSINESS COLLEGE (WHEELING) C-1
WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (BRIDGEPORT) C-9
WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (CHARLESTON) G-4
WEST VIRGINIA JUNIOR COLLEGE (MORGANTOWN) B-10
WEST VIRGINIA NORTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE C-1
WEST VIRGINIA STATE COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE
WEST VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY B-10
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY H-5
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY AT PARKERSBURG C-4
WEST VIRGINIA WESLEYAN COLLEGE D-9
WHEELING JESUIT UNIVERSITY C-1

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West Virginia

West Virginia

Charles Town
Fort Ashby Restoration
Logan Massacre Site
Point Pleasant Battlefield
Prato Rio (Charles Lee Home)
Stephen House
Traveler's Rest (Horatio Gates Home)
Washington's Lands
Wheeling (Fort Henry)

To get the proper historical perspective on West Virginia in the colonial era and the Revolution, it is helpful to start with a map. The present boundary between West Virginia and Pennsylvania was agreed to in 1779. West Virginia separated from Virginia during the Civil War, and its northeastern panhandle includes the lower end of the strategic Shenandoah Valley.

Hence the colonial history of West Virginia is the history of the Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania frontiers. Its people were involved in the disputes over the Forks of the Ohio (see under pennsylvania), the Seven Years' War of 1754 to 1763 that followed, and Pontiac's War of 1763 to 1764. All these events were important to West Virginia not only because of the fighting but also because of the direct bearing these events had on settlement (see fort ashby restoration and washington's lands for further background).

Dunmore's War of 1774 can be considered to have started at the Logan Massacre Site and to have ended at the Point Pleasant Battlefield.

When the Revolution started in 1775 there were approximately twenty to thirty thousand white men, women, and children in what became West Virginia. These men had informal training in border warfare, and during the Revolution the "Berkeley [County] Riflemen" became famous as rangers along with their counterparts from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia.

Homes of three prominent generals of the Revolution, Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, and Adam Stephen, have survived in the lower Shenandoah (see prato rio, stephen house, and traveler's rest). Landmarks associated with other major figures are identified by highway markers, many of which are mentioned in the following sections.

Like other border regions, during the Revolution western Virginia performed the useful function of absorbing the raids of Indians and Loyalists from British bases in Canada. In the Ohio Valley these came primarily from Detroit, and most of them hit the Kentucky settlements, but several major attacks were repulsed at Wheeling.

The state has many associations with George Rogers Clark, who explored the Ohio and Great Kanawha Rivers in 1772. At the Little Kanawha in 1774 he was preparing to move into Kentucky with a party of about ninety men recruited for the most part in western Virginia when his plans were delayed by Dunmore's War. After serving as a captain in this conflict he was a surveyor for the Ohio Company in Kentucky. In 1778 he stopped at Point Pleasant on his way down the Ohio to conquer the Old Northwest (see fort kaskaskia under Illinois and vincennes under Indiana).

Daniel Boone was a scout for the Virginia militia moving down the Great Kanawha to the Point Pleasant Battlefield in 1774. After the Revolution he suffered a series of heartbreaking personal reverses, eventually losing all his large holdings in Kentucky because the titles were found to be defective. During part of this period (1788–1795), he lived near Charleston and at Point Pleasant, operating a trading post at the latter place around 1790 to 1791 and representing Kanawha County in the Virginia assembly. (See also boone home under Missouri.)

In the period of Indian resistance that persisted long after the Revolution, the settlers of western Virginia continued to build frontier fortifications and fight off serious raids. Many highway markers, not included in this guide, pertain to these actions.

The West Virginia Department of Archives and History publishes an excellent guide to the state's nearly one thousand historical highway markers. It is titled Marking Our Past. Last updated in 2002, this 210-page book gives locations arranged by county, full inscriptions of the markers, more than one hundred photographs, and a history of the state's highway marker program, which began in 1937. This book can be purchased from the website or by mail ($15) from West Virginia Archives and History, The Cultural Center, 1900 Kanawha Boulevard East, Charleston, W.V. 25305. Phone: (304) 558-0230. The Department of Archives and History is part of West Virginia's Division of Culture and History and its website, www.wvculture.org, is extremely informative regarding the state's colonial past. The department encompasses almost every aspect of history and landmark preservation within the state, including the State Historical Society. The department's general phone number for information is (304) 558-0220.

West Virginia has a very rich history concerning the travel, property ownership, and family tree of George Washington. A website that merits exploration is www.washingtonheritagetrail.org. This site furnishes information on numerous self-guided tours, including the 112-mile scenic Washington Trail Tour. In addition, it gives details on many noteworthy colonial and Revolutionary-era landmarks.

Charles Town

Charles Town and vicinity, Jefferson County. A few miles west of Harpers Ferry, this picturesque region is remarkable for the surprisingly large concentration of historic colonial homes that survive in a fine state of preservation. Close to Charles Town are (these are each outlined separately later in the chapter) Prato Rio (off State Route 48) and Traveler's Rest (off County Route 1). Both of these were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1972. In nearby Martinsburg is the Stephen House (309 East John Street, open weekends, 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. for tours). These three places were the homes (albeit briefly) of Major Generals Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, and Adam Stephen.

The Charles Town racetrack has grown from its colonial origins into two flourishing modern facilities. The courthouse stands on land donated by Charles Washington, and the present structure incorporates the original one-room house of 1801. John Brown, captured at nearby Harpers Ferry, was tried here in 1859. The Jefferson County Museum Building (1965) houses the old Charles Town library, the county chamber of commerce, and a collection of exhibits pertaining primarily to the Civil War era.

The area has many homes of George Washington's brothers and their descendants. Surviving Washington houses are private, but they may be viewed from the outside. The most famous ones have been opened for the annual house and garden tour. These are:

Harewood, 3 miles west of Charles Town on W.Va. 51. Built by George Washington's brother Samuel around 1770, this large, two-story, limestone structure of Georgian style is noted for the plain dignity of its exterior and interior. The native pine paneling of the drawing room is exceptionally fine. While Lucy Payne Washington was mistress of Harewood, her sister Dolley and James Madison were married in this drawing room. A wing on the north is a modern addition that matches the original wing on the south. Samuel Washington's office and the family graveyard are on the grounds. This is a private residence and is still owned by a descendent of the Washington family.

Happy Retreat (Mordington), in Charles Town on Mordington Avenue at Blakeley Place. Charles Town is named for another brother of George Washington, Charles, who laid the town out in 1786 on 80 acres of his land. In 1780 he built the two wings of the house he called Happy Retreat, but the stone kitchen and adjoining smokehouse probably are older. The house was completed in 1837 by Judge Isaac Douglas and renamed Mordington, for his home in Scotland. (Since 1945 it has been known by the original name.) On the grounds is an octagonal schoolhouse resembling the one at Mount Vernon, but the stone slave quarters and barn have disappeared. Charles Washington was buried on the estate in 1799, and a DAR marker is on the supposed location of his grave. Privately owned.

Blakeley, 2.5 miles southwest of Charles Town. This fine house was built in 1820 by John Augustine Washington II, grandson of George Washington's brother John Augustine. John II moved to Mount Vernon (see under virginia) when he inherited it from Bushrod Washington. (John III sold Mount Vernon in 1858.) Blakeley is a private home in a beautiful rural setting. It is reached from Charles Town by driving south on U.S. 350 for about 2.5 miles, then west for about 1.5 miles. The house will be on your left (south). Privately owned.

St. George's Chapel ruins are marked on W.Va. 51 about 1.5 miles west of Charles Town near the entrance to another old estate, Piedmont. The chapel was completed in 1769 and used by local families, including the Washingtons.

Local information is available through the Jefferson County Chamber of Commerce. Phone: (304) 725-2055. Another good source is the small but informative Jefferson County Museum, 200 East Washington Street. Phone: (304) 725-8628. The museum is also the starting point and information area for a self-guided walking tour of Historic Charles Town.

Fort Ashby Restoration

Fort Ashby Restoration, town of Fort Ashby, Mineral County. Frontiersmen flowed across the Alleghenies into Indian territories after 1750 in such numbers that a wave of resistance was unleashed. Virginia authorities, concerned about maintaining their claim to this region and halting French expansion into the Ohio country, first sent George Washington to warn the French to pull back. Then they started building a system of fortifications and raising additional troops to protect the fort builders. After Braddock's Defeat in July 1775, the twenty-three-year-old Washington spent two years as commander of some seven hundred militia attempting to defend a frontier about 350 miles long. In 1755 and 1756 a chain of nearly one hundred forts existed. These varied from simple blockhouses to more elaborate military works; they stretched from Fort Cumberland on the Potomac (see under maryland) through the South Branch and Greenbrier Valleys. Many of these forts were manned during the Revolution and later. The booklet West Virginia Highway Markers (see West Virginia introduction) names more than seventy forts in the state, most of them associated with the period through the Revolution.

Fort Ashby is the only one of those structures that has survived. It was built in 1755 by Lieutenant John Bacon and garrisoned with twenty-one men. In August 1756 the place was attacked by French and Indians, who defeated a ranger company under Lieutenant Robert Rutherford. The fort is named for Colonel John Ashby, a frontier soldier who commanded here during and after the Revolution. Troops under General Morgan camped here in 1794 during the Whiskey Rebellion.

As restored in 1939 by the WPA, Fort Ashby is a large log cabin on a stone foundation with a ridged roof providing a commodious attic. Its most striking feature is a huge chimney built 14 feet wide and 4 feet thick. Well-marked, the site is at the junction of W.Va. 28 and 46 in the town of Fort Ashby. The fort is owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Logan Massacre Site

Logan Massacre Site, Ohio River opposite the mouth of Yellow Creek (Ohio), Hancock County. The Indian war that ended on the Point Pleasant Battlefield was touched off by the treacherous murder of thirteen unsuspecting Mingo Indians by white frontiersmen led by Daniel Greathouse at "Logan's Camp," or "Baker's Cabin," on 30 April 1774. In a famous speech, Soyechtowa, generally known as Chief Logan, concluded with the words "Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one!" Logan satisfied himself by personally killing thirteen settlers in retaliation, but the violence between whites and Indians persisted. Controversy over the slaughter continues to this day.

Yellow Creek survives as a geographical name in Ohio, so there is no problem in locating the massacre site on the map. But the area has been devastated by floods in recent years, and it is difficult to locate this site on the ground today. The state highway marker is not much help, being about 6 miles east of the river on W.Va. 2 near U.S. 30 and stating that the massacre was "at this point." The map in Scribner's Atlas of American History places "Baker's Cabin Massacre, April 30" on the east bank of the Ohio River directly opposite the mouth of Yellow Creek. The National Survey has "Logan Massacre Site" among its "Sites Also Noted," but puts it in Ohio County. This is almost certainly an error.

Point Pleasant Battlefield

Point Pleasant Battlefield, city of Point Pleasant. The victory of the Virginians over the Indians in the pitched battle at this place on 10 October 1774 in Dunmore's (or Cresap's) War accelerated the settlement of Kentucky. Provoked by a series of atrocities that culminated in the Logan Massacre, the Shawnee moved to defend themselves in June 1774. Governor Dunmore of Virginia established headquarters at Pittsburgh, prepared to move down the Ohio with about two thousand militia, and ordered Colonel Andrew Lewis to lead a column of militia from southwest Virginia down the Kanawha River to its junction with the Ohio at Point Pleasant.

About 1,000 Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot (Huron), and Ottawa under Shawnee Chief Cornstalk attacked the 1,100 Virginians under Lewis at Point Pleasant early in the morning of 10 October. The battle raged until late afternoon before the Indians withdrew and left the Virginians in possession of the bloody field. Burying a brother and about fifty others, Lewis linked up with Lord Dunmore near the location of modern Chillicothe, Ohio. Chief Cornstalk sued for peace.

Most of the battlefield is covered by the modern city, but a portion is included in the 4-acre Tu-Endie-Wei Point Pleasant Battle Monument State Park. (Tu-Endie Wei means "the point between two rivers.") The park is located a mile north of the intersection of U.S. 35 and State Route 2, and is open dawn to dusk. Phone: (304) 675-0869. A tavern dating from 1796 is maintained here as a museum, and an 84-foot granite shaft commemorates the battle. There are graves of:

Ann Bailey (1742–1825). A frontier heroine, she was born in Liverpool and came to America in 1761. Her first husband survived Braddock's Massacre and was killed in the Battle of Point Pleasant. Ann thereupon assumed male garb and became a noted scout and messenger. Her second husband was John Bailey. The legend of "Mad Ann" grew as she performed amazing feats along the frontier and had narrow escapes from the Indians. Her most famous exploit was in making a solitary ride of 200 miles in three days from Fort Lee, on the site of Charleston, West Virginia, to Fort Savannah, on the site of Lewisburg, West Virginia, to get a supply of gunpowder that saved the fort in 1791. (The site of Fort Lee in Charleston is marked by a plaque in front of 1202 East Kanawha Boulevard.)

Charles Lewis. Youngest son of the founder of Staunton, Virginia, he was killed under his brother's command at Point Pleasant. He is identified as a colonel. The site of Fort Lewis, his stockaded home more vulgarly known as "Lewis' Hog Pen," is in the vicinity of Hot Springs and Warm Springs, Virginia, both of which are within his former frontier holdings (Va. Guide, 512).

Chief Cornstalk (c. 1720–1777). He returned to Point Pleasant with his son three years after the battle to warn the settlers that he might be forced by his tribe to renew hostilities. Held hostage, he and his son were then killed in retribution for the death of a white settler.

Another interesting burial is marked in the park. It is where Céloron de Blainville in 1749 buried one of the lead plates claiming the Ohio Valley for France.

The Point Pleasant historic site is near the bridges that span the Ohio River and the mouth of the Great Kanawha. It was here that the final phase of the all-day battle took place; other landmarks of the battle are obscured by the city of Point Pleasant.

Point Pleasant was visited by Washington in 1770 (see washington's lands). George Rogers Clark explored the region in 1772 and was here two years later when Dunmore's War disrupted his plans to lead a large party into Kentucky. Clark served as a militia captain in the operations that followed. In 1778 he stopped at Point Pleasant before continuing down the Ohio to become the conqueror of the Old Northwest. The site of Daniel Boone's trading post of 1790 is marked at City Park on U.S. 35 (see introduction).

Prato Rio (Charles Lee Home)

Prato Rio (Charles Lee Home), Leetown, Jefferson County. As the home of General Charles Lee (1731–1782), a major figure in the Revolution and one of its most colorful personalities, this primitive stone house will be of exceptional interest to serious students of early-American history.

Charles Lee attended school in England and Switzerland before joining his father's regiment as an ensign in 1747. He knew the American frontier well. After taking part in Braddock's Expedition of 1755 he went to the Mohawk Valley, purchased a captain's commission, married the daughter of a Seneca chief, and was badly wounded at Ticonderoga in 1758 but recovered sufficiently to take part in the capture of Fort Niagara and Montreal (1759–1760). Before being retired on half-pay in November 1763 he served with distinction in Portugal under Burgoyne. During much of the period 1765 to 1771 he was a soldier of fortune with the Polish army, becoming intimate with King Stanislaus Poniatowski, advancing to the grade of major general, and fighting the Turks.

In 1773 Lee came to America, immediately aligned himself with the rebel element, and went to work setting himself up for high military command in the coming war with England. As part of this program, Lee bought an estate in what was then Berkeley County in Virginia, now Jefferson County, West Virginia. On 17 June 1775 he became a major general in the new Continental army, subordinate in rank only to Washington and Artemas Ward. The latter faded quickly into obscurity, and Lee appeared to be a strong contender for Washington's position.

By amazing coincidence, another candidate, also an Englishman, had settled a few miles from Lee's estate and at about the same time. This was Horatio Gates (see traveler's rest).

Lee ruined himself in the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, in June 1778. This was his first real test as a combat commander, and he failed spectacularly. But it was his subsequent conduct that resulted in his conviction by a court-martial, suspension from duty for a year, and subsequent dismissal. During his suspension he lived at Prato Rio from July 1779 to mid-January 1780. He then moved to Philadelphia, where he died in 1782.

The name Prato Rio harks back to Lee's service in Portugal and means "near the river." Lee bought the property from Jacob Hite, and the simple little stone cottage—typically Pennsylvania German with its stoop and two front doors—is believed to have been built by the first white settler of the Shenandoah Valley, Joist Hite, for one of his sons. The original portion is one and a half stories with small-paned windows and outside end chimneys. Lee bought it in 1775 at the urging of Horatio Gates, and it is said that the three suspended generals, Lee, Gates, and Adam Stephen (see stephen house), met frequently at Prato Rio. In the WPA's West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State, the story is told of their toasting each other as "Lee, who was cashiered … because when he should have advanced he retreated," "Gates, who was cashiered because when he should have retreated he advanced," and "Stephen, who was cashiered because when he might have advanced or retreated he did neither." (References are to Lee at Monmouth, New Jersey, Gates at Camden, South Carolina, and Stephen at Germantown, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) This story is certainly apocryphal, especially as Gates was not cashiered from the Continental army.

At Prato Rio, Lee cultivated his famous eccentricities, living in seclusion with his Italian bodyguard, slaves, hounds, and horses. The unpartitioned ground floor of his house was divided by chalk lines into quarters (quite literally), one for the kitchen, one for guns and riding equipment, one for his library, and the other for his bed.

Prato Rio is easy to spot, being on a slight rise alongside the road (Route 48) from Leetown to Middleway and a few hundred feet southwest of Leetown. The latter is on most highway maps. A national fish hatchery near Leetown occupies land that was part of Lee's estate. The historic house is currently a private residence.

Stephen House

Stephen House, 309 East John Street, Martinsburg, Berkeley County. On a rocky hill of the town he founded in 1778 (after being court-martialed out of the Continental army) is the severely rectilinear and unadorned stone house built by General Adam Stephen in 1789.

Born in Scotland in 1718, Stephen had been educated at the Universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh before serving in the Royal Navy as a surgeon (1746–1747). He came to America and practiced medicine in Fredericksburg, Virginia until 1754. After this he fought on the frontier in the Seven Years' War, achieving the rank of brigadier general of militia and being closely associated with Washington.

As early as 1750 Stephen had bought land in what is now Jefferson County, West Virginia, and in 1770 he acquired 255 acres farther west on the site of Martinsburg, with the intention of establishing a town. In 1773 he added 563 acres to his homesite, but during the next four years he spent most of his time as a military commander in Dunmore's War of 1774 and in the Continental army.

All the evidence indicates that Stephen was a highly unreliable combat commander. D. S. Freeman in his biography of Washington points out that when Washington discovered that Stephen had almost ruined his plans for surprising the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey the day after Christmas 1776, "it was almost as if Fate had brought Stephen to the Delaware to mock him—Stephen, his one-time political rival, who had been suspected in the old days [of 1763] of making theatrical moves of no military value" (Washington, III, 98; and IV, 313 and 313n).

Nevertheless promoted to major general (an exalted rank during the Revolution), Stephen continued to build a reputation for sending his troops on misguided missions and then submitting false reports of their successes. The end came when his brigade collided with that of General Anthony Wayne in order to precipitate the debacle at Germantown, Pennsylvania on 4 October 1777. A court-martial convicted Stephen of conduct unbecoming an officer, including drunkenness, and he was dismissed from the service in November 1777.

Back on the frontier, however, he continued to be a major force until his death in 1791, shortly after completing the house that stands today as an important historic landmark. Now restored (open 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. on weekends for tours), the house is of native limestone with four rooms on each of the two main floors. The grounds slope to Tuscarora Creek. In 1959 the property was acquired by the city, and various organizations have since collaborated in its development.

Traveler's Rest (Horatio Gates Home)

Traveler's Rest (Horatio Gates Home), near Kearneysville, Jefferson County. Now being restored as a private home and not open to the public, this historic house was occupied off and on for eighteen years by General Horatio Gates (1728–1806).

A British professional soldier, Gates had become a close friend of Washington's during the disastrous expedition under Braddock toward Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was badly wounded in the decisive action. After more service in North America and the West Indies, he retired on half-pay in England (1765–1772) rather than accept further assignment in the colonies. In 1772 he returned with his wife and son after receiving a letter from Washington about land being available on the Virginia frontier, where Washington's brothers had settled.

Gates considered himself a victim of English society. Technically he belonged to the upper class, but was not at ease there because of his servant-class antecedents. He apparently saw in becoming an American the opportunity to gain social stature as a member of the landed gentry while striking back at the system he resented. Be that as it may, Gates became an early hero of the Patriot cause and was tremendously valuable because of his professional military ability as an administrator. His good fortune in his new world hit its peak when he got command of the Northern Department just as the tide was turning against Burgoyne's offensive in 1777. Horatio Gates thus became the victor of Saratoga when Washington's military record was approaching a near-fatal low. A growing sentiment that Gates should replace Washington as commander in chief did not lead to anything other than an intensification of partisan politics.

Gates blundered at Camden, South Carolina, one of the worst American defeats of the Revolution (the fall of Charleston costing the Americans far more). The general withdrew to Traveler's Rest in December 1780. Here he received a distinguished delegation from the Virginia House of Delegates, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and Thomas Nelson being in the committee sent to inform him that the House had voted unanimously that no reverse could obliterate the glory of his previous services.

Throughout 1781 Gates kept up a correspondence with Washington and Congress, requesting an official inquiry. He spent most of April and May in Philadelphia on the same business. In August 1782 Congress finally informed Gates that it had dropped all plans of making the inquiry previously directed (5 October 1780), and ordered him to report to Washington at Newburgh, New York. Thus Gates was able to rehabilitate himself in the last days of the Revolution, rendering loyal and valuable support to Washington in the "Newburgh Conspiracy."

He returned home in 1783 and remained there until 1790. But the problem of slavery became too great for his inbred feelings of social equality, and he then moved to a farm on Manhattan. On the plot of land now bounded by Second and Park Avenues between 23rd and 30th Streets, he lived the last sixteen years of his life.

Traveler's Rest is a two-and-one-half-story limestone house with end chimneys and center porch. The "ground floor" is more a raised basement, and a flight of about ten steps leads to the porch and the fortresslike front door with its iron-strap hinges and gigantic lock.

To reach the site from Kearneysville (W.Va. 9), drive 0.6 mile southwest on the prolongation of Route 48 (toward Leetown and Middleway), turn right on the unimproved road, and continue 0.4 mile to the driveway leading to Traveler's Rest. It is currently a private residence.

Washington's Lands

Washington's Lands. Seven state highway markers refer to the large pieces of choice land acquired by Washington between 1750 and 1784. Three tracts are below Charleston on the Great Kanawha River, with markers at Dunbar Bridge (the Mouth of Tyler Creek Tract of 2,950 acres, extending more than 6 miles along the river), at St. Albans (the Cole River Tract of 2,000 acres, extending more than 5 miles along the Cole and Kanawha Rivers), and at Bancroft (the Poca River Tract of 7,276 acres, extending more than 12 miles along the Kanawha).

Three other tracts along the Ohio River are marked on W.Va. 2 at Pleasant View (the Millwood Tract of 4,395 acres, stretching more than 5 miles along the river), at Lubeck (3 miles east of Washington's Bottom, 2,314 acres with a river frontage of 5 miles), and at Round Bottom (587 acres patented by Washington in 1784).

Washington's first acquisition in West Virginia, surveyed by him in 1750, was where his brother later founded Charles Town. At this place is a marker referring to this "Bullskin," or Rock Hall Tract, which he eventually expanded to 2,233 acres.

Washington's appetite for land speculation was remarkable even for that time in American history. It developed early, when he became a surveyor for Lord Fairfax (1748), but was enhanced by military service on the frontier and the custom of granting land to veterans. William Crawford (1732–1782) remained a close friend and associate of Washington's after their first meeting on the frontier in 1749. He became Washington's agent in scouting for "valuable lands" in the Ohio Valley in defiance of the Proclamation of 1763 that prohibited settlement west of the mountains. As restrictions were lifted on the eve of the American Revolution, Washington made a canoe trip down the Ohio late in 1770. Starting off with his old friend and associate Dr. James Craik (1730–1814) and picking up Crawford at Fort Pitt, Washington drifted 250 miles through an extensive wilderness, carefully avoiding any notice of Indian habitation.

The region that struck Washington as being the Eldorado he sought was the peninsula formed by the lower 50 miles of the Great Kanawha River and the wide loop of the Ohio above the mouth of that river (now Point Pleasant). Washington and Craik carefully selected the specific parcels they personally wanted when the promised land grants were made. Although Washington was eventually to receive 30,000 acres here, he never saw the lands again. But many scholars now suggest that a number of his political decisions were guided by an interest in protecting his vast western land claims.

Wheeling (Fort Henry)

Wheeling (Fort Henry), Ohio River, Ohio County. When Captain Pierre-Joseph Céloron de Blainville led his expedition down the Ohio in 1749 to claim this vast region officially for France, he buried lead plates at a number of strategic points. One such place, later known as the Forks of Wheeling Creek (a highway marker is at the intersection of U.S. 40 and W.Va. 88), is now the manufacturing center of Wheeling (an Indian name). The Treaty of Fort Stanwix (see under new york) opened this territory for settlement. Ebenezer Zane and his brothers had already explored along the Ohio, and in 1769 they became the first permanent white settlers on the site of Wheeling. Their families arrived the next year from the vicinity of what is now Moorefield, on the south branch of the Potomac in Hardy County, West Virginia. Later in 1770 George Washington came through the infant settlement, with Dr. James Craik and William Crawford, prospecting for land speculations. Washington described the area of Zane's settlement in his journal before continuing on down the Ohio to the mouth of the Great Kanawha River (see washington's lands).

William Crawford was back at the site of Wheeling in 1774, this time to build a fort during Dunmore's War. Initially called Fort Fincastle in honor of Lord Dunmore (one of whose titles was viscount Fincastle), it was renamed in 1776 for Patrick Henry.

Fort Henry was the primary objective of many raids during the Revolution from the British base at Detroit. The first major attack, 31 August to 1 September 1777, was by about 400 Indians and Loyalists. Before settlers could take refuge in the fort, 23 of its 42-man garrison were killed. Reinforcements from nearby Fort Van Meter fought their way through and forced the raiders to withdraw, but the settlement of 25 cabins was burned. The noted Indian fighter Major Samuel McCulloch made his famous "leap" down a high bank into Wheeling Creek to escape pursuers after he was cut off from the relief column he was leading.

The last attack, which may technically be called the last battle of the Revolution, was the successful defense of Fort Henry during the period 11 to 13 September 1782. Some 250 Indians and 40 Loyalists participated in this operation, which was commanded by British officers. During one of these sieges the sister of Ebenezer Zane, Betty, volunteered to leave the fort and get a keg of powder from her brother's cabin. Taking advantage of the Indians' astonishment at seeing a woman stroll from the fort to the cabin, some 60 yards away, she then raced safely back with the powder.

Wheeling is an industrial city where no colonial charm remains. It extends a better effort of preservation toward its Civil War past. Highway markers at 12th and Chapline Streets (W.Va. 2 and U.S. 40 and 250) summarize the actions of 1777 and 1782. The site of the fort is marked by a bronze plaque on a stone nearby, on Main Street between 11th and Ohio Streets. The site of Fort Van Meter is marked northwest of Oglebay Park on the Consolidated School Grounds (Greggsville, Clinton, and Potomac Road). For information on these sites and on Wheeling's Civil War history, contact the Wheeling Convention and Visitors Bureau. Phone: (800) 828-3097.

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