As Elizabethan London grew, the demand for water outstripped supply, prompting Sir Hugh Myddleton
to construct an artificial waterway from Ware in Hertfordshire (1609–13). Fed by the Chadwell spring, thirteen wells, and small tributaries, its 39-mile meander terminated at the New River Head, near King's Cross Road; it included over 40 sluices and two long aqueducts made from timber troughs lined with lead. Water distribution in the city was via some 400 miles of wooden pipes, some of which, despite leakage, were still in use about 1800. Subsequently straightened and shortened, it now ends at Stoke Newington waterworks.
A. S. Hargreaves
New River, c.320 mi (510 km) long, rising in the Blue Ridge, NW N.C. It flows NE through SW Virginia, then NW into West Virginia where it joins with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River. It is used extensively to generate electricity. Bluestone Dam (completed 1952), near Hinton, W.Va., provides flood control and power, and its reservoir extends 36 mi (58 km) upstream. The New River Bridge, built across the River Gorge, is the largest steel-arch bridge in the United States.