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Public Administration

Public Administration

The field in the United States

The field outside the United States

Trends, problems, and prospects

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The process of public administration consists of the actions involved in effecting the intent or desire of a government. It is thus the continuously active, “business” part of government, concerned with carrying out the law, as made by legislative bodies (or other authoritative agents) and interpreted by courts, through the processes of organization and management.

The field of study—putatively a science or discipline—of Public Administration focuses upon public administration as a process. (In this article, public administration is used to refer to the relevant governmental phenomena; Public Administration, to refer to the study of these phenomena.) Historically and conventionally, Public Administration has been primarily concerned with problems of how to apply or effect law faithfully, honestly, economically, and efficiently. More recently, Public Administration has become concerned with the processes by which public administration participates in creating and interpreting law—with how such creating and interpreting can be done “correctly,” “wisely,” or in the “public interest.”

As a process, public administration is as old as government. That is, as soon as there is sufficient institutional evolution and differentiation to enable one to speak of the government of a society, there are actions by which law (as an expression of government’s authoritative allocation of values) is made and actions by which an attempt, more or less successful, is made to carry the law into effect. In simple societies the objectives of public administration are simple, limited to such matters as preserving order; and the institutions or organs by which administration is carried on are simple, comparatively small, and often not completely differentiated from institutions or organs with other purposes. As societies increase in size and complexity, as governments grow larger and take on more functions, and as their institutions become more differentiated and specialized, administrative processes become more specialized and the institutions that carry on administration activities—known by such names as councils, commissions, departments, bureaus, and agencies—become large, complex, and highly differentiated.

As public administration becomes more specialized and complex, increasing attention is likely to be given to the training of persons who are to perform administrative functions, training which may be given either before or after entry into service. As the processes of administration become more complex, considerable attention also may be given to means of improvement of some part or process. Systematic education or training for performance in public administration, however, is for the most part a development of the modern era. And systematic, continuous study of ways to improve public administration and make it more efficient is an even more recent development, associated with various modern developments such as the rise of the nation-state as the dominant governmental form and the rise of science as an acceptable or characteristic way of thought. In the United States during the past generation the study of public administration has been especially intense, and this intensity of effort has resulted in a new level of self-consciousness. This is reflected in the idea that the study of public administration is sufficiently important and sufficiently autonomous to become a science or discipline in itself. The conception of a more or less autonomous science or discipline called Public Administration is primarily, if not indeed uniquely, an American idea.

Terminological difficulties. A note on terminology is in order. It is difficult to be either brief or accurate—and more difficult to be both—in speaking of Public Administration in the United States. The key terms, such as administration, execution, and management, have no precise and agreed meanings but rather overlap and conflict, and the differences in usage relate not simply to carelessness and accident but to matters of disciplinary doctrine and methodological and professional dispute. Centrally relevant is the fact that the U.S. constitution has established a threefold separation of institutions and organs, legislative, executive, and judicial, yet relates the three in a complicated fashion in which each of the three branches has functions that in a logic of strict separation would belong to the other two; and this general scheme of construction is repeated in the constitutions of the constituent states. Moreover, the word administration does not occur in the federal constitution. Thus the general question of how administration (or management) relates to executive as used in the constitution—particularly, what institutions and persons are to direct and control administration—is open to dispute. Students in Public Administration have traditionally had and expressed an antilegal bias. The preface of the first Public Administration textbook explicitly states the thesis that “the study of administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law” (White 1926). It is vitally necessary to understand that the rise of Public Administration represented an assertion that the traditional view of public administration as simply the application of legal rules was quite inadequate.

The field in the United States

In the 1950s and 1960s Public Administration changed very greatly. But the nature and significance of these changes can only be understood in terms of past doctrines and interests. For this it is necessary to sketch out the historical and institutional context for the rise of the discipline.

The first two general textbooks of Public Administration in the United States, written by L. D. White and W. F. Willoughby, were published in 1926 and 1927 respectively. In a sense these signified the birth of Public Administration as a discipline. Before these general textbooks appeared, however, there had been several decades of preparation.

Origins

Some of the framers of the U.S. constitution and some early U.S. political leaders—for example, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson—gave attention to problems of public administration and wrote on them in ways that foreshadowed later developments. Indeed, there is no sharp point in history where the story of Public Administration begins. However, an essay by the then young Woodrow Wilson (1887) is often taken as the symbolic beginning. Certainly it was a remarkable essay in its perceptiveness, persuasiveness, and influence [see the biography ofWilson].

Wilson’s basic postulate was that “it is getting to be harder to run a constitution than to frame one” ([1887] 1953, p. 67). Up to the nineteenth century, he noted, the predominant concerns of the study of governmental affairs were political philosophy, constitutional arrangements, and lawmaking. However, increasing complexities in economic and social life and a concomitant increase in governmental size and activity were forcing a change of emphasis. European countries, he observed, had begun taking very seriously the training of civil servants and the scientific study of administration. The United States should do likewise. In fact, it should study European methods, to learn from them—taking care in the borrowing of these efficient means not to borrow their monarchical or autocratic ends. The United States should rather seek to perfect its republican-democratic constitutional system through the new science: “There should be a science of administration which shall seek to straighten the paths of government, to make its business less unbusinesslike, to strengthen and purify its organization, and to crown its duties with dutifulness” (ibid.).

The rise of Public Administration as a discipline, and the reforms and changes in public administration that stimulated it and that it in turn stimulated and guided, must be understood in relation to developments in national life. Public Administration, that is, represented a response to threats to old values, an adjustment to new conditions of life. As a body of thought and techniques it has been an attempt to preserve the essential parts of the republican-democratic heritage, conceived and developed under comparatively simple rural conditions, under the extremely complex conditions posed by a large industrial nation, itself situated in an international setting of increasing complexity.

Also important to the rise of Public Administration was the rise to self-consciousness of the discipline of political science, evidenced by the creation of the American Political Science Association in 1903. It is important that almost without exception those who might be called the founding fathers of Public Administration were trained as political scientists (rather than, say, jurists or economists) and tended to view Public Administration as a part or subdiscipline of political science. American higher education generally—the modern university with its professional schools—was developing swiftly in these decades. Specialization and expertise were replacing amateurism in many realms, and the development of political science was but an aspect of a movement; the other major social sciences also were achieving differentiation and separate status in the same period.

The 1920s and 1930s

Public Administration acquired certain distinctive characteristics in the 1920s and 1930s.

Public Administration as a synthesis. As it emerged in the mid-1920s Public Administration was a confluence and mixture of three main currents. One of these was the movement for governmental reform, a movement that had been swelling for several decades, which sought to purify government and adjust its institutions to the conditions of modern, industrial, urban society. The second current was scientific management, or what often came to be called the “management movement”: the attempt, centered in private industrial enterprise but extending out from it, to apply the techniques of science to solving problems of organizing and administering with economy and efficiency. The techniques and spirit of scientific management began also to pervade governmental administration and to influence the thinking of those interested in governmental reform and improvement. Its use of the increasingly honorific term science, its promise to reduce cost and increase efficiency, and its aim of replacing ignorance and conflict with knowledge and harmony were extremely appealing to the founding fathers of Public Administration. Scientific management also influenced Public Administration through the concurrently developing discipline of business administration. The third current was the new discipline of political science, which inherited the political philosophies and governmental knowledge of the centuries but was also trying to apply science in a new and more rigorous way to politics and government. Other influences—foreign and domestic—are readily recognizable, but these three constitute the essential ingredients.

The core beliefs. The new Public Administration of the 1920s had certain core, orienting beliefs. Centrally, its leaders thought of their enterprise as an attempt to achieve the republican-democratic ends of freedom and equality by making government simultaneously strong and efficient, responsible and responsive. A program of political reform as well as a mere science of administration was involved. Against the nineteenth-century idea of dividing powers and sharing functions widely among the citizenry was posed a new formula, necessitated by the need for expertise and by modern conditions generally: concentrate power for effectiveness and then watch it closely for responsibility. Indeed, the concentration is as necessary for achieving responsibility as for effectiveness; for only if the citizen’s task is simplified and he knows whom to hold responsible, through his vote and by other means, can he make his influence felt.

In the envisaged reconciliation of “true democracy” and “true efficiency” one postulate is very important, namely, that government is analytically divisible into two different functions, or types of action: first, to decide; and second, to carry out the decision. These two types of action are identified with and by the words politics and administration, respectively. The role of public opinion, the activities of political parties, the functions of legislative bodies—these are identified with politics. Here the clash of opinion and the conflict of values are in order, and science can have only a limited role, efficiency a limited meaning. But once a decision is authoritatively made and a law enacted, then other values and techniques are primarily appropriate; this is the realm of administration. For this, economy and efficiency are the central criteria, and science is the proper method for developing the criteria.

This division of government between politics and administration had many sources—including, again, Wilson’s essay—but one especially influential book must be mentioned: Frank Goodnow’s Politics and Administration (1900). In the idiom of that day, Goodnow spoke of the “will of the state” and identified politics with the expression and administration with the execution of this will. The problem of government, as he viewed it, is to achieve harmony between the expression of the will and its execution, the alternative being conflict or paralysis. But while politics should have a certain control over administration, it should not extend to certain levels and aspects thereof, which embrace “fields of semi-scientific, gwasi-judicial and gwasi-business or commercial activity—work which has little if any influence on the expression of the true state will” (p. 85).

Goodnow made recommendations for various reforms to achieve this necessary and desirable, but limited, control of administration by politics. Goodnow himself did not identify politics simply with the legislative organs or the lawmaking process, nor administration simply with the executive branch or the process of law enforcement. However, as time passed, the student of public administration tended to identify his subject—and indeed himself—with executive institutions and processes and to presume that his subject had qualities of “hardness” lacking in politics and policy making, which made it possible to use science as the central method in study and to take efficiency as the central criterion of success in operation. [See the biography ofGoodnow.]

The period of orthodoxy. The expression orthodoxy is now often used with reference to Public Administration in the 1920s and 1930s to indicate a quality of general agreement and self-assurance. To be sure, there were differences of seemingly great import among the scholars of the day, but in retrospect certain general beliefs and interests predominated.

The early textbooks afford a summary view of the interests of the newly founded discipline. The most widely used textbook in the period was Leonard D. White’s Introduction to the Study of Public Administration (1926). In the first edition, Chapter 1 is entitled “Administration and the Modern State.” Here are set forth some of what have been designated above as core beliefs: the importance of administration in an increasingly complex and interdependent society, the necessity for efficiency, the possibility and desirability of approaching administration scientifically, and so forth.

The second textbook, W. F. Willoughby’s Principles of Public Administration (1927), differs significantly from White’s in regard to the constitutional authority to control public administration: White regards the president as the chief administrator by constitutional right, whereas Willoughby regards Congress as holding the administrative power by constitutional right, delegating it to the president or other officers at its discretion. In terms of subject matter the chief difference lies in the fact that Willoughby devotes a large part of his book to financial and budgetary aspects of administration and has a section as well dealing with “materiel”—purchasing, storage, and so forth. Textbooks appearing in the 1930s—a revision of White, and others—included treatment of governmental financial-budgetary matters and at least touched lightly on “materiel.”

The word principles in the title of Willoughby’s book indicates an important doctrinal aspect of the older Public Administration that has not yet been mentioned: It was customary to speak of “principles of (public) administration.” A principle was what one arrived at by proper and diligent study; it summed up what had been learned. At the same time, it was a guide to good and efficient administration, a light thrown by research and logic on present and future problems.

The core beliefs may now be summarized. Government is divisible into two functions or processes, decision and execution. Making decisions is the realm of politics and policy making. It is the area in which the processes of democracy are relevant—expression of opinion, voting, organization of political parties, and so forth. Executing decisions, however, which is the realm of administration, presents other problems and needs other criteria. To the processes of administration the methods of science, proved so powerful elsewhere, are relevant. The criteria here are economy and efficiency; and economy can on close analysis be viewed as an aspect of efficiency. Through scientific research of the phenomena of administration we can derive principles of administration, which simultaneously summarize what we have learned and provide formulas for the efficient conduct of administration. By this process of analysis and division we can reconcile the values of democracy with the necessities of efficiency and science in the modern world.

Criticism and transition—the 1940s

Roughly speaking, the period of so-called orthodoxy in Public Administration coincided with the years between the two world wars. In the 1940s the discipline was subjected to searching criticism of its core beliefs, and heterodoxy came to replace orthodoxy. The criticism and new orienting ideas were clearly foreshadowed in the 1930s. In 1937 a work appeared that is commonly regarded as the epitome of orthodoxy, Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther H. Gulick and Lyndall Urwick. But this work not only represented orthodoxy in its most cogent and influential form; it presented papers dealing with the psychological dimensions of administration, which were to become so important in the postwar years. Moreover, in 1936 there had appeared The Frontiers of Public Administration, a series of essays by John M. Gaus, Leonard D. White, and Marshall E. Dimock, in which these prominent figures of the orthodox period introduced points of view later to become important.

Other works of the prewar period criticizing old ideas or introducing new could be cited, but World War II diverted normal streams of scholarly activity, and it was not until the second half of the decade of the 1940s that the most influential critical works appeared. At the same time, however, it should be recognized that the war itself was important in stimulating dissatisfaction with old perspectives and encouraging new ones. Most of the university students and teachers of Public Administration either were engaged in some form of emergency administrative activity or were in some military organization, and they concluded that the textbooks of the day did not adequately describe organization and administration as they had experienced it.

The critical ideas of the younger students were indicated by Robert A. Dahl in 1947, in an essay entitled “The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems.” The first problem arises from the “frequent impossibility of excluding normative considerations from the problems of public administration” (p. 1), as had been the intent or tendency with the politics-administration dichotomy and the accompanying focus upon scientific means to achieve efficiency. Dahl argued that we must “recognize that the study of public administration must be founded on some clarification of ends” (p. 3). The second problem arises from the “inescapable fact that a science of public administration must be a study of certain aspects of human behavior” (p. 4). He criticized the prevalent tendency to treat organization in formal, technical terms and to regard the human beings that constitute organizations more or less as “material.” The study of administration must, he argued, embrace the whole psychological man and must not presume that man is a simple machine responding only and fully to goals of self-interest narrowly conceived. The third problem concerns the conception of principles of administration. The study of Public Administration in the United States, he argued, has been too narrow, too parochial. We have hoped, he said, indeed presumed, that we were enunciating universal principles, but our study has, after all, been limited to a few examples in a few national and historical settings, and we presume too much. “The study of public administration inevitably must become a much more broadly based discipline, resting not on a narrowly defined knowledge of techniques and processes, but rather extending to the varying historical, sociological, economic and other conditioning factors …” (p. 11).

Herbert A. Simon’s Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-making Processes in Administrative Organization (1947) was probably the most important work of the 1940s. It contained a searching critique of the older Public Administration, particularly of its use of “principles.” These so-called principles, he observed, are similar to maxims of folk wisdom and, in fact, given the loose and unscientific way in which they have been derived and stated, cannot be regarded as more than proverbs.

Administrative Behavior represents the direct and vigorous impact on Public Administration of the perspectives and methodology associated with behavioralism (a movement in the social sciences aimed at a higher level of achievement by more careful study of actual behavior, using techniques whose value has been demonstrated in the physical sciences ).

According to Simon, the founders of the older Public Administration failed to appreciate many of the rigorous requirements of true scientific method, but their fundamental deficiency lay in their lack of understanding of the distinctions they had drawn. They failed to appreciate that their rough separation of politics from administration did not preclude a valuational component in many things they presumed they were treating scientifically. In fact, their principles typically represented a conflation and a confusion of the two elements of fact and value.

The philosophical-methodological concerns of the book and the more purely substantive materials (on such subjects as communication and authority) are joined centrally through the concept of decision making: “If any ’theory’ is involved, it is that decision-making is the heart of administration, and that the vocabulary of administrative theory must be derived from the logic and psychology of human choice” (Simon [1947] 1961, p. xiv). As for the psychology of human choice, Simon selected what seemed to him relevant theories from psychology and various social sciences.

Administrative Behavior was paradoxically a radical and a conservative work with respect to Public Administration. It was radical in its rejection of the politics-administration dichotomy and the simultaneous injection of the perspective of logical positivism in approaching questions of policy making and the relation of means and ends, in its proposal to adopt what was becoming a very fashionable term and set of concepts in the social sciences, decision making, into Public Administration; and in its insistence that standards of scientific rigor in Public Administration be sharply raised. At the same time, Administrative Behavior was faithful to some essential beliefs of the older Public Administration. At a time when its claim to be a science was under attack as pretentious, Simon argued forcefully that administrative phenomena are indeed the proper subjects of scientific study—if properly conceived and executed. At a time when the concept of efficiency was under criticism as too narrow and unimaginative a criterion, he carefully defined and refined the concept, made a distinction between pure and practical sciences, and argued that efficiency is a proper criterion as applied to the factual aspects of a practical science of administration. Even the sharp distinction between fact and value, while a much more subtle matter than the distinction between politics and administration, resembles the latter in the formal sense that it is a sweeping twofold division of the universe of administrative phenomena.

Main currents of recent years

Since the critical analyses of the 1940s, Public Administration as a discipline has lacked the self-confidence and coherence of the interwar period. Various approaches or emphases have competed, but none has succeeded in winning the general acceptance of scholars identified with the discipline. No new synthesis has been achieved; no new orthodoxy has replaced the old. In general, Public Administration has grown tremendously in the sense of accepting data, concepts, and perspectives from many sources, chiefly the various social sciences; but it has discarded little, and no organizing framework into which everything will fit has been achieved— or, if achieved, has not been recognized and accepted as such. There are several major currents and emphases, but these often overlap and mingle and, while separated for purposes of discussion, are not necessarily separated in particular books, courses of study, and so forth.

Continuation of the traditional. First, it should be noted that although the 1940s undoubtedly mark a period of criticism and even rejection of the discipline as it emerged in the interwar period, still there has been much continuity with the older Public Administration. Scholars and teachers have naturally varied in their rejection of the traditional and their acceptance of the new. New data and concepts were added to the old; traditional points of view were presented—but qualified and criticized. Most teachers, for example, would present the organization theory of the 1930s because of its wide acceptance and practical importance, whatever criticism they might make or whatever other concepts of organization they might introduce in addition. No teacher would speak confidently of principles of administration. Still, faced with teaching students interested in careers in public administration, he would likely find himself falling back upon some of the “managerial,” efficiency-oriented attitudes and materials of his predecessors.

Politics and policy making. The belief that the practice of administration is a technical problem focused upon efficiency in operation was characteristic of the older Public Administration. The leading students and writers of the postwar period have adopted sharply different attitudes—whatever their other differences—on this matter. It has been generally agreed that while the phenomena of politics and the amount of policy making may decrease as one moves from the top of an administrative agency to its bottom, or into some of the technical processes or functions, still they are generally present in significant degree; and at the level of chief executive or top management, where so much interest is focused, they are important matters indeed.

The results of this recognition have manifested themselves in a variety of approaches. For example, Simon’s decision-making schema attempts to include the valuational as well as the factual. Some writers, for example Paul H. Appleby (1952), have written searchingly on the interaction of politics and administration in a democracy. Some, for example Norton E. Long (1962), have concentrated more sharply on politics-in-administration, on the power factor in administration. Some, for example Emmette Redford (1958), have reflected on how the ethical or public-policy component is brought to bear on the technical component.

Development of a case method. One important development of the postwar period, closely related to the abandonment of the politics-administration dichotomy, has been the development of a case method of study and teaching. There had, indeed, been case programs earlier, but in the mid-1940s at Harvard University there were new beginnings and a development of new objectives and new techniques. An interuniversity program followed the Harvard initiative, and since 1951 the enterprise, further expanded, has operated under the title Inter-University Case Program.

Essentially, those who developed the new case style and format were dissatisfied with older Public Administration as doctrinaire and limited, failing to present and deal adequately with real public administration. As developed, the case is a narrative, an account of a particular, real administrative episode, as written after the events from information gathered from all possible sources. The perspective of the writer might be characterized as “interested but impartial observer,” but he often tries to re-create the perspective of an important participant (or participants) in the episode—a man in a situation having to make a decision. There is an effort to present the “entire situation,” i.e., everything that is relevant to the decision; and the emphasis is more on personal interaction, politics, and policy making than on technical factors.

The production of such cases has been and continues to be a major enterprise of the group of scholars who produce much of the literature in the field. Since in an important sense the focus in case writing is decision making, this might seem to join them to, or at least bring them into relationship with, Simon’s proposal to center the study of administration on decision making. In fact, however, serious philosophical-methodological differences have separated the two despite the formal use of the same term.

“Human relations,” psychology, sociology. In the late 1920s a series of famous experiments focusing upon work groups was carried out at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company (see Roethlisberger & Dickson 1939). The impact of these experiments was very great on both the study of business administration and that of public administration, though in the case of the latter the full effect was not felt until the postwar period.

The Hawthorne experiments demonstrated not only the limitations of the scientific-management approach to increased efficiency by concentration upon monetary rewards and the physical aspects of the work situation but also the importance of psychological and, more broadly, social factors. The Hawthorne experiments signaled a vogue: the “human relations” approach to management. More recently, this term has lost its appeal, as associated with certain excesses and naivete. However, the human relations movement set in train a vast amount of serious scientific research on the psycho-sociological aspects of work and administration [SeeIndustrial Relations].

The questions to which psychological research is directed are, for example: What is morale, what factors affect it, and how is it related to work effectiveness? How do factors in a worker’s perceptions and attitudes relate to the stimuli in the work situation? What factors affect the formation of face-to-face work groups, and what is their significance in administration? How does informal group life generally relate to the formal organization structure and to the official organizational goals? What are the factors involved in the phenomenon of leadership, and how do they relate to the important matter of authority? What makes for conflict, what for cooperation, between groups or organizations? [SeeLeadership.]

Research in administration by sociologists has become increasingly important during the postwar period. Only a small part of this research has taken public organizations as its focus, but this part has a high scientific relevance; and all of it has a high potential relevance. Sociology has brought many and varied concepts to administration, but most have clustered about the term bureaucracy, an ideal type set forth by Max Weber. The research findings of sociology have less obvious relevance to immediate problems of efficiency than do those of psychology, but the range of interests and techniques embraced may hold greater promise for coping with organizational problems as they relate to the whole of society. [SeeBureaucracy.] In general, however, Public Administration stands to benefit from the research interests and techniques of both psychology and sociology.

Theory of organization. In recent years there has been great scholarly and scientific interest in organization, and a resultant outpouring of essays, books, and research reports designated by the term theory of organization. It is the view of some that organization itself, as a widespread social phenomenon, warrants the full concentration of many students. There is a widely held belief that there are universals in organizational behavior, that organization can be studied simply as organization, with a resulting body of valid theory of general applicability. One group of students, identified with general systems theory, conceives of human organization as but a type or representative of a still more general phenomenon: systems (which may be biological or physical as well as social) [SeeSystems Analysis].

Some students of public administration are contributing to theory of organization; others, not identified with Public Administration, focus their research effort on public organizations. To the extent that there may be universals of organization, they are by definition relevant to public organizations. In any event, theory of organization is one of the very active areas of contemporary social science related to and contributing to Public Administration. [SeeOrganizations.]

Comparative Public Administration. Within Public Administration proper, perhaps the area of greatest current scholarly activity—and some would say of greatest promise—is the comparative study of public administration. This interest grows out of the fact that, beginning with World War n, continuing into the postwar military occupations, and accelerating with the many technical assistance programs of the United States, the United Nations, and private foundations, American students and teachers of Public Administration by the hundreds have found themselves engaged in professional work in foreign lands. This exposure to foreign, often non-Western, governmental systems and cultures has stimulated a sense of “compara-tiveness” in general, and in particular raised questions either about the appropriateness or the sheer possibility of transferring familiar administrative devices or applying what had been presumed to be good or scientific principles of administration.

The comparative study of administrative systems parallels the comparative study of political systems —comparative politics. Both movements are characterized by the comparative youth of their participants, by a general commitment to the outlooks identified with behavioralism, by an effort to be interdisciplinary in interests and techniques, and by an effort to arrive at concepts, formulas, and theories that are truly universal, bridging and embracing all cultures. [SeePolitics, Comparative.]

New technologies and techniques. Recent years have seen the rapid development of various physical devices of significance for administration and a parallel development of various systems of logical thought applicable to the practice of, and to research on, administration. The former include a range of new machines, mostly electronic, that greatly extend the range of—or replace—the hand and, particularly, the brain. These devices, of which the electronic computer in its various forms is the best known, perform certain work, particularly the storage, retrieval, and manipulation of data and the making of complex calculations, with such speed and accuracy that they open up a new range of human experience and potentialities. The sys tems of logical thought that have been newly developed for or applied in administration include certain branches of mathematics and certain quasi-mathematical systems of precise statement and reasoning.

The effect of these developments is to open new and enlarged opportunities for increasing administrative efficiency and rationality—both directly, through application of what is already known or already exists, and indirectly, through opening opportunities for new types of research on problems of organization and management. An example of direct application is operations research, which combines various specialized competences to analyze systems and solve problems. Developed in World War n as a technique for attacking certain problems in military strategy and logistics, operations research is now a speciality with an independent professional organization. Simulation is an example of the expanded potentialities for research. The new physical inventions, plus new or improved systems of logical thought, permit an unprecedented type and scale of simulation. Certain administrative situations (for example, decision-making problems) can be reproduced (simulated) in their essentials, thus helping to solve a perennial problem of social science: how to control and repeat experiments. [SeeOperations Research; Simulation.]

Many of these machines, logical systems, and what might be called social technologies, such as operations research, are now used in various branches of public administration; in some branches, such as military logistics and tax administration, they are widely used. On the whole, however, their development and use tends to center in business administration and schools of business administration. Perhaps, on the whole, they are more applicable (both presently and potentially) to business administration than to public administration. Nevertheless, increased knowledge about and use of them is on the agenda of Public Administration.

The field outside the United States

As indicated above, wherever there is government there is public administration, but Public Administration—in the sense of a more or less autonomous discipline of alleged general applicability—was conceived and developed in the United States and is still strongly identified with its place of origin and greatest acceptance. This is not to assert, however, that in countries in which the American idea and content of Public Administration is not accepted the matter of training for public administration is not taken seriously or that there may not be an application of science to the conduct of public administration.

Training for performance of some function in the governmental bureaucracy is a prime object of the system of public education of any country, in some cases nearly the sole object. In all advanced countries there is also some sort of special or differentiated training conceived as preparation for the positions of greatest responsibility and power in public administration—although other factors, such as social class, wealth, party membership, ideological purity, and religion, obviously are likely to enter in as selective criteria. In ancient China, as in modern Great Britain, for example, the regular and officially preferred training for high administrative positions was a humanistic education.

The most commonly accepted and approved training for high position, however, has been law (at least after and apart from training in military pursuits, for military organization is often the training ground for, and a source of supply of, governmental administrators for civil as well as military functions, especially in preindustrial societies). Presumably, this practice grows naturally from the fact that the making and enforcement of law are close to the heart of government; and in widely separated times and places people who know the law and have had their minds sharpened in its study have occupied the highest positions. In Anglo-American countries of the common law, though there is an important private quality in law, there has been a notable amount of this phenomenon; and in continental Europe, with its more immediate Roman background and its civil-law experience, where law is more strongly identified with the idea of the state, the predominant approach to preparation for high position is through study of law and jurisprudence, more particularly, that branch or aspect of the law identified as administrative law. This is not to say, again, that law and only law in a technical and formal sense is all that is taught and regarded as important. While in some situations it is substantially true that public administration is deemed to start and end with a reading and application of the book of detailed legal regulations, in some countries and in some courses of study law is deemed to be only a framework and is supplemented by other materials, including not only those from accepted social sciences (particularly economics), but perhaps from the “management science” around which Public Administration is formed.

Considerable discussion has taken place during the past generation between American and Conti nental students on the question whether it is more correct and fruitful to think and speak in terms of an administrative science or the administrative sciences. The American point of view has been that it is proper to speak of a science of administration, or a science of public administration (though the implications of these two expressions are rather different). Continental students, while willing to concede the importance of administration, have tended to see it rather as a place or process in which various disciplines or sciences closely interrelate.

To some extent, this controversy reflects a formal rather than a substantive difference: curriculums prescribed by the two camps for the training of public administrators might be very similar—for example, both might include sociology and economics, and perhaps administrative law and social psychology as well. At some point, however, there would likely come a parting of the ways, with the Europeans less likely than the Americans to include materials relating to “management science,” more insistent upon materials closely related to their national experiences and traditions, particularly in regard to law.

The communist countries share the Continental legal approach to the study and practice of public administration, though their heritage was in large part through the “second Rome” of Byzantium. This approach remains very strong, although the institutions and theories of communism make for important differences in public administration, and there are other influences, for example, the fact that some of the spirit and techniques of scientific management have been absorbed into communist administration.

Trends, problems, and prospects

A review of the present situation in Public Administration should note some factors pertaining to the conduct and direction of public affairs in the United States that presumably will, or should, relate importantly to the development of the discipline—to the allocation of intellectual resources and the development of doctrines.

One factor is a continuing gradual increase in both the absolute and relative number of public employees. Approximately one in eight employed civilian persons is publicly employed, and while large numbers of these (publicly employed teachers, for example) are engaged in “line” functions, with little administrative responsibility, still the increase in numbers creates a growing problem in public administration: the increase in scale itself poses new problems for those who administer and teach administrators, and the problems are intensified by an increasingly complex technology and an increasingly complex society. For example, to the extent that functions become more differentiated, and specialization and professionalization more advanced, in such fields as health, welfare, and education, the problem is posed of where and how the teaching of administration of such functions should take place. This is a problem of physical location and organizational arrangements; but it is also a problem in the evolution of science, or at least doctrine, posing the theoretical question whether administration is a “universal,” and the practical one whether it should be taught “in general” or as related to the content of the various fields. [SeeAdministration; Civil Service.]

Other factors concern changes and trends in public administration. In its origins Public Administration was concerned with certain problems of reform, conceptualized as problems in honesty and competence, and with such problems as departmentalization, executive control, and staff services, in which efficiency and economy were prime concerns. There has been much change and addition: human relations, communications, and so forth. But it is questionable whether recent and contemporary interests are as responsive as they should be to the content and direction of present governmental activities. Taking money as the measure, we might say that Public Administration pays relatively slight attention to two areas that represent more than half of public administration, namely, education and defense. Other important developments are inadequately represented in current professional attention; for example, the urbanmetropolitan revolution in American life; the tremendous expansion of “government by contract and grant,” which has blurred the lines between the public and private sectors and between the federal and state spheres; and the rise of scientific research to the status of a pre-eminent national concern, a rise in which government at every level is involved in ways that lack even simple description and elementary understanding.

Public Administration since the 1940s obviously presents a spectacle of travail and transition, of controversy and confusion. The questions now are posed: Is Public Administration properly regarded as a discipline? Will it continue to be spelled with capital letters in connection with the organization of the intellectual life of the social sciences into curriculums, departments, professional societies, and so forth? The answer to the first of these questions is both a matter of definition and a matter of the unknowns of the future. The answer to the second is very probably positive: Public Administration as an organizing concept will continue and probably grow in importance, although there is presently discernible some tendency to merge its activities and interests with related activities and interests under the broader term public affairs.

If discipline is defined very strictly as an intellectual enterprise with a body of consistent and agreed theory, then Public Administration is not a discipline and almost certainly will not become one. But few if any social sciences, or branches or disciplines thereof, fit this description. Indeed, few if any of the physical sciences do. If discipline is defined in terms of what has been called a core of unifying beliefs, then it is quite possible that in the future one of the now competing perspectives will achieve dominance, or a new synthesis will be achieved. Meanwhile, however, it should be emphasized both that there is no agreement on what constitutes a discipline and that intellectual progress does not await tidy definitions and agreements of opinion.

In regard to the question whether Public Administration will continue as an organizing concept, present trends indicate that its extent and importance, at least in the United States, will almost certainly increase. Concomitantly, there will certainly continue to be an increase in the complexity and difficulty of the problems of public administration in an increasingly complex society and a multiplication of new sciences and technologies bearing upon the processes and problems of administration, as well as continued advances in the old. There is likely to be more, not less, attention to the problems of organizing knowledge to bring it to bear on public administration as well as more, not less, training for and in public administration; and Public Administration will probably provide the organizing framework and the usual name for the central aspects of these enterprises.

We may achieve more clarity of concepts, more agreement among opposing schools of thought, or even a new synthesis; but it is clear that the value of Public Administration for designation of a focus of inquiry and activity, for the organization of research and instruction, does not depend on these eventualities. In fact, at the present stage of development, it may be better to regard Public Administration not as a single “thing,” but as the customary and accepted collective term to designate a focus of interest and activity, in the way that the plural term the administrative sciences is used in Europe for a similar (but not identical) purpose. So used, it is analogous to engineering and medicine in indicating a unifying focus for a wide array of sciences and technologies.

The recent history of Public Administration, and its present problems and opportunities, should be viewed from the perspective of the rejection in the 1940s of the division of politics and administration. That the political process reaches deeply into public administration and that the making of public policy is an important activity of public administration have since been all but universally recognized. But the response has been varied: there is still no general agreement on what conclusions follow, what the methodological implications are, what lines of inquiry are indicated as most appropriate and fruitful, what the implications are for programs of education and training. The discipline is presently trying to find its way through the tangle of issues. Many of the issues are posed in putative dichotomies and verbal antinomies: politics and administration, political science and Public Administration, science and art, pure science and practical science, fact and value, prescription and description, administrative science and administrative sciences, diversity and similarity, absolutism and relativism, universality and uniqueness, generality and concreteness. Whether in general or in any particular case the dichotomies are properly conceived, the antinomies properly opposed, is questionable, and they undoubtedly present a tangled skein to the student. In the last analysis, however, it must be universally conceded that important problems are involved.

The two most important immediate responses to the rejection of a separation between politics and administration were the application of the case method to the study of public administration and the reformulation presented in Simon’s Administrative Behavior. These two responses were rather near the opposite ends of the spectrum of methodological possibilities.

The case approach has been motivated by a commitment to the objectives and methods of the social sciences, to be sure, but it has been shaped also by a considerable sensitivity to traditional concerns of the humanities and by a practical interest in pedagogy as against research. It sought the truth about administration by trying, dispassionately and painstakingly, to tell the story about what takes place in administration, in actual events, in context, and in all relevant dimensions. A large number of the abler students of the postwar generation in Public Administration were attracted to the case approach, and it continues to be of major importance.

The reformulation set forth in Administrative Behavior did not, paradoxically, attract many students in Public Administration—to whom it was presumably addressed—but it was and is highly regarded by students of business administration and apparently has been very influential in research in that field. Simply put, students in Public Administration were inclined to feel that Simon’s work did not describe the world of public administration as they had experienced and observed it. To a generation emancipated from the politicsadministration dichotomy, Simon’s separation of fact and value seemed but another artificial division of the universe into two realms. Simon’s commitment to a “hard” interpretation of social science, his philosophical and methodological program, were unappealing. However, younger students, more familiar with and affected by behavioralism, probably find the formulations more meaningful and appealing, and it is possible that the work thus may have a delayed, direct impact on the discipline, in addition to the indirect influence that it has already exercised.

The most significant development in Public Administration, currently engaging the attention and energies of a large number of students both young and mature, is the focusing of attention on comparative public administration and the related problems of “development administration.” This attention grows out of personal experience, is related importantly to world-wide developments that are likely to continue, and is addressed to a wide spectrum of interests from concrete policy questions to the abstractions of the pure social sciences. [SeeTechnical Assistance; see alsoForeign Aid.]

For the most part, it is the younger students in Public Administration who are active in the comparative movement, and certainly it is they who are chiefly interested in the theoretical-scientific questions. For the most part and in a general sense these younger students are behaviorally oriented; they are knowledgeable about and have a concern with the central problems of the social sciences. But the paradox noted above is further exemplified: They are not especially attracted by the formulations and interests of Simon, but find their inspiration, models, and techniques in other parts of the contemporary social sciences, most notably in the companion movement in political science—comparative politics—and in sociology.

From the point of view of the scientific study of public administration, the course of future developments would seem to rest in large measure on the respective futures of the comparative public administration movement and the administrative science point of view. By the latter is meant the outlook and research interests (including but not limited to those of Simon) that are identified in a general way with business administration: in a general way they grow out of the old scientific-management movement as modified by the Hawthorne studies; are strongly oriented historically toward efficiency and currently toward the related, but broader, “rationality” (or the even broader decision-making schema); make considerable use of mathematics; include but are not limited to the new technologies and techniques discussed above; and aspire to a science of administration in every essential way as scientific as current physical science. Administrative science as an approach or movement is closely joined with, but still distinguishable from, the theory-of-organizations movement. Both movements—particularly the theory of organizations—are sometimes concerned with “comparativeness” in some aspect, but their concern is largely with intracultural, not intercultural comparison.

In the broadest sense, the future of Public Administration is engaged with the future of political science, on the one hand, and with administrative science, on the other. It has, from its beginnings, represented a joining of certain interests of political science with the “management” movement; and it still does, granted all the additional factors, the new developments, the broadened spectra. What meaning and importance will be given to the Public in Public Administration, whether it will evaporate or remain significant, perhaps even become more significant, will depend in large part on what developments take place in political science and in the social sciences—indeed in contemporary thought—as a whole.

Dwight Waldo

[Directly related are the entriesAdministration; Civil Service; Decision Making; International Organization, article onAdministration; Power; Public Policy. Other relevant material may be found inBureaucracy; Government; Law; Organizations; Political Science.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Appleby, Paul H. 1952 Morality and Administration in Democratic Government. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press.

Dahl, R. A. 1947 The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems. Public Administration Review 7:1-11. A brief, incisive critique of “orthodoxy.”

Davy, Thomas J. 1962 Public Administration as a Field of Study in the United States. International Review of Administrative Sciences 28:63-78. -> An excellent review of trends, in which the major contemporary orientations are treated under four headings: managerial, political, psychological, and sociological.

De Grazia, Alfred 1960 The Science and Values of Administration. Administrative Science Quarterly 5:363-397, 557-582. -” Observations and conclusions by a leading behavioralist, presenting an “action” schema for the understanding of administration.

Gaus, John M.; White, Leonard D.; and Dimock, M. E. 1936 The Frontiers of Public Administration. Univ. of Chicago Press. -“An outstanding work of the period, foreshadowing later developments.

Goodnow, Frank J. 1900 Politics and Administration: A Study in Government. New York: Macmillan. -” A classic work in American political science and Public Administration.

Gulick, Luther H.; and Urwick, Lyndall (editors) (1937) 1954 Papers on the Science of Administration. New York: Institute of Public Administration. -“Regarded as the high-water mark of “orthodoxy“; much of it still interesting and relevant to present concerns.

Heady, Ferrel 1966 Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. -> Discusses the significance of comparative studies for Public Administration and relates public administration to political systems.

Landau, Martin 1962 The Concept of Decision-making in the “Field“of Public Administration. Pages 1–28 in Sidney Malick and Edward H. Van Ness (editors), Concepts and Issues in Administrative Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. -> An incisive essay, critical of present intellectual orientations and urging a sharper scientific approach centered on decision making.

Long, Norton E. 1962 The Polity. Chicago: Rand Mc-Nally.

Molitor, Andre 1959 The University Teaching of Social Sciences: Public Administration. Paris: UNESCO. -> A valuable world-wide review, discussing among other matters the issue of “administrative science“versus “administrative sciences.”

Molitor, Andre 1961 Public Administration Towards the Future. International Review of Administrative Sciences 27:375-384. -” Observations and estimates on present and future developments, distinguishing between developed and developing countries.

Mosher, Frederick C. 1956 Research in Public Administration: Some Notes and Suggestions. Public Administration Review 16:169-178. -“Contains valuable reflections on the status and problems of Public Administration.

Pittsburgh, University Of, Administrative Science Center 1959 Comparative Studies in Administration. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press.” See especially the Foreword and the Introduction for a statement of the administrative science point of view.

Redford, Emmette S. 1958 Ideal and Practice in Public Administration. University: Univ. of Alabama Press.

Robson, William A. 1961 The Present State of Teaching and Research in Public Administration. Public Administration (London) 39:217-222. -“A British view of current trends, rather negative regarding American theories and hopes. The journal is the main source of information on the British approach to the study of public administration.

Roethlisberger, Fritz J.; and Dickson, William J. 1939 Management and the Worker: An Account of a Research Program Conducted by the Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Works, Chicago. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press. -” A paperback edition was published in 1964 by Wiley.

Sayre, Wallace S. 1958 Premises of Public Administration: Past and Emerging. Public Administration Review 18:102-105.

Simon, Herbert A. (1947) 1961 Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-making Processes in Administrative Organization. 2d ed. New York: Macmillan. -> A seminal work, offering both a critique of accepted doctrine and a program for reconstruction.

Waldo, Dwight 1948 The Administrative State: A Study of the Political Theory of American Public Administration. New York: Ronald Press. -“A thorough historical review of the rise of Public Administration, containing also a critique of doctrines.

Waldo, Dwight 1955 The Study of Public Administration. New York: Random House; Garden City, N.Y.: Doubled ay.

Waldo, Dwight 1965 The Administrative State Revisited. Public Administration Review 25, no. 1:5-30. -” Discusses doctrinal developments and problems in Public Administration since the publication of The Administrative State in 1948.

White, Leonard D. (1926) 1955 Introduction to the Study of Public Administration. 4th ed. New York: Macmillan.

Willoughby, William F. 1927 Principles of Public Administration: With Special Reference to the National and State Governments of the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Wilson, Woodrow (1887) 1953 The Study of Administration. Pages 65–75 in Dwight Waldo (editor), Ideas and Issues in Public Administration. New York: McGraw-Hill. -“An interesting and significant historical document in Public Administration.

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Public Administration

Public Administration

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Public administration is a practice of government, an academic study, and a political reform movement. While public policy is the study of the process of making laws and government programs, public administration implements these policies and studies and seeks to improve this implementation.

The administration of King Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740) in the eighteenth century and an 1887 journal article by political scientist and future U.S. president Woodrow Wilson (1887) emphasized the need to create and use a nonpolitical, career civil service in order to implement policies more honestly and efficiently. With the rapid increase in industrialization and urbanization in the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, public administration developed further as an academic study at major universities and as a political reform movement within federal, state, and local governments. In particular, the public administration movement wanted to transform most entry-level government jobs from politically appointed positions to merit-based civil service positions determined by standardized tests and protected from improper political influence. The Pendleton Act of 1883 began merit-based testing and hiring for federal jobs, and state and local governments gradually adopted similar reforms.

During the twentieth century, public administration also wanted to apply the methods, organizations, and values of business administration to government. In particular, people who wanted to run government like a business wanted public administration, especially in local government, to be as cost efficient, productive, and professional as corporations in managing personnel, providing goods and services, and spending funds. This perspective and objective are especially evident in the city manager form of government. This is a type of government in which a city or town council hires a city manager to exercise the administrative, personnel, and budgetary powers typically exercised by elected mayors in other forms of local government. The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, the recommendations of the Brownlow and Hoover commissions, and the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 reflected similar business-like practices and values in personnel and budgetary management as they applied to the federal government. According to the book Democracy and the Public Service by Frederick C. Mosher (1968), the Brownlow commission of 1937, chaired by political scientist Louis Brownlow, and the Hoover commissions of 1949 and 1955, chaired by former president Herbert C. Hoover (18741964), respectively recommended the creation of the Executive Office of the President (EOP) in order to assist the presidents administration of the federal bureaucracy and an improvement of the relationship between political appointees and top civil servants within the executive branch.

During the 1990s, the widely read and influential book by Vice President Al Gore (b. 1948) called Reinventing Government (1993), about his work with the National Performance Review (NPR), explained and advocated the Third Way of experimenting with the greater use of nonprofit organizations to provide some public services as an alternative to the extremes of probusiness conservatism and progovernment liberalism. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the federal bureaucracy was expanded to include the Department of Homeland Security and reformed to facilitate greater communication and coordination among federal agencies and between the federal and state governments regarding terrorist-related national security, surveillance, immigration, and transportation safety issues.

SEE ALSO Administrative Law; Bureaucracy; Government; National Security; September 11, 2001

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gore, Al. 1993. Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less: The Gore Report on Reinventing Government. New York: Random House.

Johnson, William C. 1992. Public Administration: Policy, Politics, and Practice. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group. Mosher, Frederick C. 1968. Democracy and the Public Service. New York: Oxford University Press.

Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler. 1992. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. New York: Plume.

Wilson, Woodrow. 1887. The Study of Public Administration. Political Science Quarterly 2 (June): 197222.

Sean J. Savage

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public administration

public administration The bureaucratic systems and their procedures which serve the government and implement its policies. Hence also the field of study which describes and analyses policy development and policy implementation processes.

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administration, public

public administration: see administrative law.

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Public Administration

Public Administration

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To provide financial assistance to undergraduates who are studying the space sciences at universities participating in the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC).
Title of Award: Undergraduate Scholarship Program of the Alabama Space Grant Consortium Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Behavioral sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Business administration; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; International affairs and relations; Law; Natural sciences; Physical sciences; Public administration; Sociology; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 32 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students entering their junior or senior year at universities participating in the ASGC. Applicants must be studying in a field related to space, including the physical, natural, and biological sciences; engineering, education; economics; business; sociology; behavioral sciences; computer science; communications; law; international affairs; and public administration. They must be U.S. citizens and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Individuals from underrepresented groups (African Americans, Hispanic, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, Asian Americans, and women) are especially encouraged to apply. Interested students should submit a completed application with a career goal statement, personal references, a brief resume, and transcripts. Selection is based on 1) academic qualifications, 2) quality of the career goal statement, and 3) assessment of the applicant's motivation for a career in aerospace. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The member universities are University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of South Alabama, Tuskegee University, and Auburn University. Funding for this program is provided by NASA.

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Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to professionals working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a program relevant to medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 2 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate program or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected] It was established to honor past presidents of the American College of Medical Practice Executives (ACMPE), Ernest S. Moscatello, Edgar J. Saux, Charles Wallace, Robert W. "Win" Baker, the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) Academic Practice Assembly (APA), the MGMA Anesthesia Administration Assembly (AAA), and the MGMA Integrated Health Care Organizations Society (IHOS).

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To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in preparing for a career in medical group management.
Title of Award: Richard L. Davis/Barbara B. Watson National Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a program relevant to medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate college or university or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3784 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to individuals currently employed in medical group management who wish to pursue professional development on the undergraduate or graduate level.
Title of Award: Richard L. Davis Managers Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to medical group management professionals who want to pursue professional development through undergraduate or graduate education in a program relevant to medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Professionals interested in studying medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate college or university or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3785 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students who are interested in preparing for a career in medical group management.
Title of Award: Harry J. Harwick Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible are 1) graduate students enrolled in a program accredited by the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration and 2) undergraduate students enrolled in a program that is a member of the Association of University Programs in Health Administration. Applicants must be working on a degree in a program relevant to medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Along with their application, they must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate college or university or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3786 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate women in Georgia who are working on a degree in health care or health care administration.
Title of Award: Constance L. Lloyd Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women enrolled at the undergraduate or graduate level at an accredited college or university in Georgia who are working on either an administrative or clinically-related degree in the health care field. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate program or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 1993, is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3787 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to members of the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) Midwest Section who are interested in undergraduate or graduate education.
Title of Award: MGMA Midwest Section Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are individuals resident in the MGMA Midwest Section (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) who wish to work on an undergraduate or graduate degree in medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate college or university or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3788 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to members of the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) Western Section who are interested in undergraduate or graduate education.
Title of Award: MGMA Western Section Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are individuals who reside in and have been members of the MGMA Western Section (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) for at least 2 years. Applicants must wish to work on an undergraduate or graduate degree in medical practice management, including public health, business administration, health care administration, or other related areas. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate college or university or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3789 ■ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE EXECUTIVES

Attn: ACMPE Scholarship Fund Inc.
104 Inverness Terrace East
Englewood, CO 80112-5306
Tel: (303)799-1111; 877-ASK-MGMA
Fax: (303)643-4439
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mgma.com/academics/scholar.cfm
To provide financial assistance to residents of Ohio and West Virginia who are working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in health care management related to hematology or oncology.
Title of Award: Oncology Practice Alliance Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Health care services; Management; Oncology; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a program relevant to medical practice management (e.g., public health, business administration, health care administration) with a specialty in oncology or hematology. Students working on a degree in medicine, physical therapy, nursing, or other clinically-related professions are not eligible. Applicants must have been residents of Ohio or West Virginia for at least 12 months prior to applying. They must submit a letter describing their career goals and objectives relevant to medical practice management; a resume; 3 reference letters commenting on their performance, character, potential to succeed, and need for scholarship support; and either documentation indicating acceptance into an undergraduate or graduate program or academic transcripts indicating undergraduate or graduate work completed to date. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program is managed by Scholarship Program Administrators, Inc. 1201 Eighth Avenue South, P.O. Box 23737, Nashville, TN 27202-3737, (615) 320-3149, (800) 310-4053, Fax: (615) 320-3151, E-mail: [email protected]

3790 ■ AMERICAN DENTAL HYGIENISTS' ASSOCIATION

Attn: Institute for Oral Health
444 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 3400
Chicago, IL 60611
Tel: (312)440-8918
Free: 800-735-4916
Fax: (312)440-8929
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.adha.org/institute/Scholarship/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to students in a baccalaureate or graduate degree program in dental hygiene who demonstrate strong potential in public health or community dental health.
Title of Award: Irene E. Newman Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Dental hygiene; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $1,000 to $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who have completed at least 1 year in a dental hygiene program at the baccalaureate, master's, or doctoral level with a GPA of at least 3.0. Applicants must demonstrate strong potential in public health or community dental health. They must be active members of the Student American Dental Hygienists' Association (SADHA) or the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) and be able to document financial need of at least $1,500. Along with their application, they must submit a statement that covers their long-term career goals, their intended contribution to the dental hygiene profession, their professional interests, and the manner in which their degree will enhance their professional capacity. Graduate applicants must also include a description of the research in which they are involved or would like to become involved and a list of past and/or present involvement in professional and/or community activities. and full-time enrollment. Selection is based on their potential in public health or community dental health. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3791 ■ AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY

Attn: Department of Maryland
1589 Sulphur Spring Road, Suite 105
Baltimore, MD 21227
Tel: (410)242-9519
Fax: (410)242-9553
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance for college to the daughters of veterans who are Maryland residents and wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field.
Title of Award: Maryland Legion Auxiliary Children and Youth Fund Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Art; Business administration; Education; Medicine; Public administration; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible for this scholarship are Maryland senior high girls with veteran parents who wish to study arts, sciences, business, public administration, education, or a medical field other than nursing at a college or university in the state. Preference is given to children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary. Selection is based on character (30%), Americanism (20%), leadership (10%), scholarship (20%), and financial need (20%). Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3792 ■ AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION

Attn: Federal Planning Division
122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600
Chicago, IL 60603-6107 Tel: (312)431-9100
Fax: (312)431-9985
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.FedPlan.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students preparing for a career in planning, especially as it relates to activities of the federal government.
Title of Award: Federal Planning Division Annual Student Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Public administration; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students at U.S. and Canadian accredited colleges and universities. Applicants must be preparing for a career in public service, especially at the federal level, as a planner. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an essay that addresses the federal government's role in managing its lands and resources in the best interests of the United States. Selection is based primarily on the essay, which is judged on clarity of message, freshness of idea, and potential for implementation. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 2004. Information is also available from Justin Hollander, U.S. General Services Administration, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1609, New York, NY 10278, (212) 264-1622, E-mail: [email protected]

3793 ■ AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION

Attn: Planning and the Black Community Division
122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600
Chicago, IL 60603-6107
Tel: (312)431-9100
Fax: (312)431-9985
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.planning.org/blackcommunity/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to African American undergraduate students interested in majoring in planning or a related field.
Title of Award: Planning and the Black Community Division Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Geography; Public administration; Transportation; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time African American undergraduate students entering their junior or senior year. Applicants must be majoring in planning or a related field (e.g., geography, environmental sciences, public administration, transportation, or urban studies) with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. They must submit a 2-page personal statement on the importance of urban planning to the African American community and how they see themselves making a contribution to the urban planning profession. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Sigmund Shipp, Hunter College, Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021.

3794 ■ AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MILITARY COMPTROLLERS

Attn: National Awards Committee
415 North Alfred Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: (703)549-0360
Free: 800-462-5637
E-mail: a[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.asmconline.org/national/nationalawards.shtml
To provide financial assistance for continuing education to members of the American Society of Military Comptrollers (ASMC).
Title of Award: ASMC Members' Continuing Education Program Award Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Finance; Operations research; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Professional, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 15 each year: 1 at $5,000 (the Dick Vincent Scholarship), 4 at $2,500, and 10 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $5,000, $2,500, or $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants for this assistance must have been members of the society for at least 2 full years and must have been active in the local chapter at some level (board member, committee chair or member, volunteer for chapter events, etc.). They must be enrolled in or planning to enroll in an academic institution in a field of study directly related to financial resource management, including business administration, economics, public administration, computer science, or operations research related to financial management, accounting, and finance. As part of the selection process, they must submit an essay of up to 500 words on their academic and career goals and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The ASMC is open to all financial management professionals employed by the U.S. Department of Defense and Coast Guard, both civilian and military. The applicant whose service to the society is judged the most exceptional is designated the Dick Vincent Scholarship Winner.

3795 ■ AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MILITARY COMPTROLLERS

Attn: National Awards Committee
415 North Alfred Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: (703)549-0360
Free: 800-462-5637
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.asmconline.org/national/nationalawards.shtml
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors and recent graduates interested in preparing for a career in financial management.
Title of Award: ASMC National Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Finance; Operations research; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 10 each year: 5 at $2,000 and 5 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,000 or $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and to people who graduated from high school during the preceding 6 months. Applicants must be planning to enter college in a field of study directly related to financial resource management, including business administration, economics, public administration, computer science, or operations research related to financial management, accounting, and finance. They must be endorsed by a chapter of the American Society of Military Comptrollers (ASMC). Selection is based on scholastic achievement, leadership ability, extracurricular activities, career and academic goals, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The ASMC is open to all financial management professionals employed by the U.S. Department of Defense and Coast Guard, both civilian and military.

3796 ■ AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MILITARY COMPTROLLERS-MOUNT VERNON CHAPTER

Attn: Awards and Scholarships Director
P.O. Box 99
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-0099
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in the Washington, D.C. area who plan to work on an undergraduate degree related to financial management.
Title of Award: Mount Vernon Chapter Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Computer and information sciences; Economics; Finance; Operations research; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Several each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. and to recent (within the past 6 months) graduates of those high schools. Applicants must be entering a field of study directly related to financial management (business administration, economics, public administration, computer science, operations research related to financial management, accounting, and finance). Along with their application, they must submit a 250-word essay on their career and academic goals and their financial need. Selection is based on academic achievement, leadership ability, extracurricular activities, career and academic goals, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3797 ■ AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MILITARY COMPTROLLERS-WASHINGTON CHAPTER

Attn: Shirley Simpkins
P.O. Box 16237
Arlington, VA 22215-1237
Tel: (202)781-2785
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.washington-asmc.org/stuaward.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in the Washington, D.C. area who plan to work on an undergraduate degree related to financial operations.
Title of Award: Washington Chapter Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Business administration; Economics; Finance; Operations research; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 10 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. Applicants must be entering a field of study directly related to financial operations (business administration, economics, public administration, operations research related to financial management, accounting, and finance. finance). Along with their application, they must submit 3 letters of recommendation, an official transcript, and SAT scores. Selection is based on academic achievement, leadership ability, extracurricular activities, career goals, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

3798 ■ ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA WATER AGENCIES

Attn: Scholarship Program
910 K Street, Suite 100
Sacramento, CA 95814-3514
Tel: (916)441-4545
Fax: (916)325-4849
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acwa.com/news_info/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students in California who are majoring in water resources-related fields of study.
Title of Award: Association of California Water Agencies Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Public administration; Water resources Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: At least 6 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to California residents attending selected colleges and universities in the state. Applicants must be full-time students in their junior or senior year at the time of the award and majoring in a field related to or identified with water resources, including engineering, agricultural and/or urban water supply, environmental sciences, or public administration. Along with their application, they must submit 2-page essay on key water-related issues they would address if given the opportunity, why they have chosen a career in the water resources field, and how their educational and career goals relate to a future in California water resources. Selection is based on scholastic achievement, commitment to a career in the field of water resources, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must attend a college or university in California approved by the sponsor.

3799 ■ ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA WATER AGENCIES

Attn: Scholarship Program
910 K Street, Suite 100
Sacramento, CA 95814-3514
Tel: (916)441-4545
Fax: (916)325-4849
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acwa.com/news_info/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students in California who are majoring in water resources-related fields of study.
Title of Award: Clair A. Hill Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Public administration; Water resources Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be California residents attending public colleges or universities in the state. They should 1) have completed their sophomore work, 2) be full-time students in their junior or senior year at the time of the award, and 3) be majoring in a field related to or identified with water resources, including engineering, agricultural sciences, urban water supply, environmental sciences, and public administration. Selection is based on scholastic achievement, career plans, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program is administered each year by the current recipient of the Association of California Water Agencies Clair A. Hill Agency Award for Excellence, which is presented annually to a public water agency in recognition of outstanding and innovative water management programs. The winning agency generally selects a student within its service area. Funding is provided by the consulting firm CH2M Hill. Recipients must attend a branch of the University of California or the California State University system on a full-time basis.

3800 ■ BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS

Attn: Rieser Fellowship
6042 South Kimbark Avenue
Chicago, IL 60637-2806
Tel: (773)702-2555
Fax: (773)702-0725
Web Site: http://www.thebulletin.org/about_us/rieser_fellowships.htm
To provide funding to undergraduate students interested in developing a project, at home or abroad, that will enable them to investigate the role of scientists in formulating public policy and in addressing global security policy challenges.
Title of Award: Leonard M. Rieser Fellowship in Science, Technology, and Global Security Area, Field, or Subject: International affairs and relations; Public administration; Science; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3to5 each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $2,500 to $5,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at U.S. colleges and universities who are interested in exploring the connections between science, technology, global security, and public policy. Applicants must be seeking funding to 1) provide a stipend for an otherwise unpaid full-time internship; 2) underwrite the cost of travel or transportation to support academic research; 3) participate in or travel to professional conferences where they present academic research; or 4) underwrite the production costs of a special project, ranging from laboratory work to the making of a documentary film. The proposed activity may take place in the United States or abroad. Along with their application, they must submit a narrative (from 800 to 1,000 words) describing the intended use of the fellowship; a 1-page personal essay explaining how they would benefit from the fellowship and the experience being proposed; a detail project budget; and 2 letters of recommendation. Selection is based on demonstrated interest in the fields of science, technology, and public policy, international affairs, or global security policy. Science students are especially encouraged to apply. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999.

3801 ■ CALIFORNIA ADOLESCENT NUTRITION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND CULINARY ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS

2140 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 610
Berkeley, CA 94704
Tel: (510)644-1533
Free: 800-200-3131
Fax: (510)644-1535
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.canfit.org/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to minority undergraduate and graduate students who are studying nutrition, physical education or culinary arts in California.
Title of Award: CANFit Program Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Culinary arts; Education, Physical; Nutrition; Public health; Youth Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 graduate scholarships and 10 undergraduate scholarships are available each year. Funds Available: Graduate stipends are $1,000 each and undergraduate stipends are $500 per year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are American Indians/Alaska Natives, African Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Latinos/Hispanics who are enrolled in either: 1) an approved master's or doctoral graduate program in nutrition, public health nutrition, or physical education or in a preprofessional practice program approved by the American Dietetic Association at an accredited university in California; or, 2) an approved bachelor's or professional certificate program in culinary arts, nutrition, or physical education at an accredited university or college in California. Graduate student applicants must have completed at least 12 units of graduate course work and have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher; undergraduate applicants must have completed 50 semester units or the equivalent of college credits and have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher. Selection is based on financial need, academic goals, and community nutrition or physical education activities. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: A goal of the California Adolescent Nutrition and Fitness (CANFit) program is to improve the nutritional status and physical fitness of California's low-income multi-ethnic youth aged 10 to 14. By offering these scholarships, the program hopes to encourage more students to consider careers in adolescent nutrition and fitness.

3802 ■ CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION

110 South Fairfax, A11-175
Los Angeles, CA 90036
Tel: (323)634-7698
Fax: (323)571-1889
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ceha.org/awards.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduates in California interested in preparing for a career in the sciences, especially environmental health.
Title of Award: Martin Smilo Undergraduate Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Public health; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to California students who have completed at least 48 semester units of undergraduate study, including at least 12 semester units in science, with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Applicants must be enrolled full time at an accredited 4-year college or university with an intention to work on a degree and prepare for a career in science. Preference is given to students in environmental health. Along with their application, they must submit a 3-page essay on 1 of 3 assigned topics related to public health and the role of professional organizations. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Matt Fore, CEHA Awards Committee, 160 Gibson Drive, Number 17, Hollister, CA 95023, (831) 636-4035, E-mail: [email protected]

3803 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Office of the Chancellor
Attn: Lori Redfearn, Vice President
401 Golden Shore, Sixth Floor
Long Beach, CA 90802-4210
Tel: (562)951-4815
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calstate.edu/foundation/scholarship.shtml
To provide financial assistance to graduate students majoring in designated fields at campuses of the California State University (CSU) system.
Title of Award: Glenn and Dorothy Dumke Fellowship Area, Field, or Subject: Economics; History, American; Library and archival sciences; Political science; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Master's Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students working on a graduate degree at CSU campuses in public policy, American history, economics, archival management, or government.

3804 ■ CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Office of the Chancellor
Attn: Lori Redfearn, Vice President
401 Golden Shore, Sixth Floor
Long Beach, CA 90802-4210
Tel: (562)951-4815
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.calstate.edu/foundation/scholarship.shtml
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in public administration at campuses of the California State University (CSU) system.
Title of Award: Robert M. Odell Endowed Scholarship in Public Administration Area, Field, or Subject: Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year, alternating between the southern and northern regions of California Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled at the 16 CSU campuses that offer degree programs in public administration. Additional Information: This program was established in 1987 by the California Society of Municipal Finance Officers.

3805 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER JACKSON

525 East Capitol Street, Suite 5B
Jackson, MS 39201
Tel: (601)974-6044
Fax: (601)974-6045
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cfgreaterjackson.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in Mississippi who are preparing for a career in the field of public works.
Title of Award: APWA Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Environmental science; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors at public universities in Mississippi who are preparing to enter the field of public works. Applicants must have graduated from a high school in Mississippi. Eligible majors include civil engineering, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, public administration, biology, or chemistry. Selection is based on merit and need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2000, is sponsored by the Mississippi chapter of the American Public Works Association (APWA).

3806 ■ CONFERENCE OF MINORITY TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS-NEW JERSEY CHAPTER

Attn: Scholarship Committee
P.O. Box 22968
Newark, NJ 07101
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.comtonj.org/scholarshipInfo.asp
To provide financial assistance to college students from New Jersey interested in working on a degree in a field related to transportation.
Title of Award: COMTO NJ Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Protective services; Public administration; Transportation; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 1 at $1,000 and 3 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students entering or attending colleges and universities in New Jersey to major in a field related to transportation (e.g., environmental disciplines, public service, safety, transportation, urban planning). Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on why they chose a career in transportation. Selection is based on the essay, academic achievement, extracurricular and community activities, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The sponsor is the New Jersey chapter of the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials (COMTO). The national organization was founded in 1971 to promote, strengthen, and expand the roles of minorities in all aspects of transportation. This program includes the Lewis R. Rosser Scholarship, the Paul Smith Scholarship, and the Garrett Morgan Scholarship. Recipients must attend the COMTO NJ Scholarship Gala to accept the award.

3807 ■ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Highway Administration
Attn: National Highway Institute, HNHI-20
4600 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1553
Tel: (703)235-0538
Fax: (703)235-0593
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ddetfp.asp
To enable students to participate in research activities at facilities of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Highway Administration in the Washington, D.C. area.
Title of Award: Eisenhower Grants for Research Fellowships Area, Field, or Subject: Chemistry; Economics; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Geography; Information science and technology; Materials research/science; Operations research; Physics; Public administration; Statistics; Technology; Transportation; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 9 students participated in this program. Funds Available: Fellows receive full tuition and fees that relate to the academic credits for the approved research project and a monthly stipend of $1,450 for college seniors, $1,700 for master's students, or $2,000 for doctoral students. An allowance for travel to and from the DOT facility where the research is conducted is also provided, but selectees are responsible for their own housing accommodations. Faculty advisors are allowed 1 site review on projects over 6 months and 2 site reviews on projects over 9 months; travel and per diem are provided for those site reviews. Duration: Tenure is normally 3, 6, 9, or 12 months.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) students in their junior year of a baccalaureate program who will complete their junior year before being awarded a fellowship; 2) students in their senior year of a baccalaureate program; and 3) students who have completed their baccalaureate degree and are enrolled in a program leading to a master's, Ph.D., or equivalent degree. Applicants must be U.S. citizens enrolled in an accredited U.S. institution of higher education working on a degree full time and planning to enter the transportation profession after completing their higher education. They select 1 or more projects from a current list of research projects underway at various DOT facilities; the research will be conducted with academic supervision provided by a faculty advisor from their home university (which grants academic credit for the research project) and with technical direction provided by the DOT staff. Specific requirements for the target projects vary; most require engineering backgrounds, but others involve transportation planning, information management, public administration, physics, materials science, statistical analysis, operations research, chemistry, economics, technology transfer, urban studies, geography, and urban and regional planning. The DOT encourages students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) to apply for these grants. Selection is based on match of the student's qualifications with the proposed research project (including the student's ability to accomplish the project in the available time), recommendation letters regarding the nominee's qualifications to conduct the research, academic records (including class standing, GPA, and transcripts), and transportation work experience (if any) including the employer's endorsement. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3808 ■ ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEMS FOUNDATION

Attn: EDSF Scholarship Awards
24238 Hawthorne Boulevard
Torrance, CA 90505-6505
Tel: (310)541-1481
Fax: (310)541-4803
Web Site: http://www.edsf.org/scholarships.cf
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students interested in working with electronic documents as a career.
Title of Award: David Hoods Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Graphic art and design; Internet design and development; Marketing and distribution; Printing trades and industries; Public relations; Telecommunications systems Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors, seniors, and graduate students who demonstrate a strong interest in working with electronic documents as a career (including graphic communications, document management, document content, and/or document distribution). Special consideration is given to students interested in marketing and public relations. Applicants must submit a statement of their career goals in the field of document communications, an essay on a topic related to their view of the future of the document management and production industry, a list of current professional and college extracurricular activities and achievements, college transcripts (GPA of 3.0 or higher), samples of their creative work, and 2 letters of recommendation. Financial need is not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3809 ■ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Attn: National Center for Environmental Research
Ariel Rios Building - 3500
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460
Tel: (202)343-9862
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://es.epa.gov/ncer/P3
To provide funding to teams of undergraduate and graduate students interested in conducting a research project related to environmental sustainability.
Title of Award: P3 Award Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Energy-related areas; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Information science and technology; Public health; Transportation; Water resources Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 42 Phase I grants were awarded, of which 10 were selected to receive Phase II grants. Funds Available: Phase I grants are $10,000. Phase II grants are $75,000. Grants cover all direct and indirect costs; cost-sharing is not required. Duration: 1 year for Phase I and 1 additional year for Phase II.
Eligibility Requirements: This competition is open to teams of undergraduate and graduate students at U.S. colleges and universities who are interested in conducting a research project related to the 3 components of sustainability: people, prosperity, and the planet. Projects must address the causes, effects, extent, prevention, reduction, or elimination of air, water, or solid and hazardous waste pollution. Categories include agriculture (e.g., irrigation practices, reduction or elimination of pesticides); materials and chemicals (e.g., materials conservation, green engineering, green chemistry, biotechnology, recovery and reuse of materials); energy (e.g., reduction in air emissions, energy conservation); information technology (e.g., delivery of and access to environmental performance, technical, educational, or public health information related environmental decision making); water (e.g., quality, quantity, conservation, availability, and access); or the built environment (e.g., environmental benefits through innovative green buildings, transportation, and mobility strategies, and smart growth as it results in reduced vehicle miles traveled or reduces storm water runoff). Student teams, with a faculty advisor (who serves as the principal investigator on the grant), submit designs for Phase I of the competition. Selection of grantees is based on the extent to which the proposed project achieves the outcomes of minimizing the use and generation of hazardous substances; utilizes resources and energy effectively and efficiently; and advances the goals of economic competitiveness, human health, and environmental protection for societal benefit. Recipients of Phase I grants are then invited to apply for additional funding through a Phase I grant. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 2004. It is supported by a large number of organizations from industry, the nonprofit sector, and the federal government.

3810 ■ FLORIDA STATE ASSOCIATION OF SUPERVISORS OF ELECTIONS

c/o David H. Stafford
Escambia County Supervisor of Elections
213 Palafox Place, Suite 4
P.O. Box 12601
Pensacola, FL 32591-2601
Tel: (850)595-3900
Fax: (850)595-3914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.gotvflorida.com/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to Florida residents who are interested in majoring in business, political science, or communications in college.
Title of Award: Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Journalism; Political science; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,200 per year. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Florida who have completed 2 years of undergraduate study and are enrolled or planning to enroll full time at a 4-year college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in business administration, political science/public administration, or journalism/mass communications and have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. They must be U.S. citizens registered to vote in Florida. Along with their application, they must submit 2 letters of recommendation, a resume of high school and/or college activities, and documentation of financial need. Applications should be submitted to the student's county Supervisor of Elections. Each county's supervisor will review the applications received and select 1 finalist to be sent to the association for consideration. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the following named scholarships: the Joe Oldmixon Scholarship, the Jimmy Whitehouse Scholarship, and the Dorothy Walker Ruggles Scholarship.

3811 ■ INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE

Attn: Scholarship Program
801 Thompson Avenue, Suite 120
Rockville, MD 20852
Tel: (301)443-6197
Fax: (301)443-6048
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ihs.gov
To provide loans-for-service to American Indian and Alaska Native students enrolled in health professions and allied health professions programs.
Title of Award: Health Professions Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Counseling/Guidance; Dental hygiene; Dentistry; Health care services; Medical assisting; Medical technology; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Nursing; Nutrition; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Physical therapy; Podiatry; Psychology; Public health; Radiology; Respiratory therapy; Social work; Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awards provide a payment directly to the school for tuition and required fees; a stipend for living expenses of approximately $1,160 per month for 12 months; a lump sum to cover the costs of books, travel, and other necessary educational expenses; and up to $400 for approved tutorial costs. Upon completion of their program of study, recipients are required to provide payback service of 1 year for each year of scholarship support at the Indian Health Service, a tribal health programs, an urban Indian health program, or in private practice in a designated health professional shortage area serving a substantial number of Indians. Recipients who fail to complete their service obligation must repay all funds received (although no interest is charged). Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to American Indians and Alaska Natives who are at least high school graduates and enrolled in a full-time study program leading to a degree in a health-related professions school within the United States. Priority is given to upper-division and graduate students. Qualifying fields of study include chemical dependency counseling (bachelor's or master's degree), clinical psychology (Ph.D. only), coding specialist (certificate), counseling psychology (Ph.D. only), dental hygiene (B.S.), dentistry (D.D.S.), diagnostic radiology technology (certificate, associate, or B.S.), dietitian (B.S.), civil or environmental engineering (B.S.), environmental health (B.S.), health care administration (B.S. or M.S.), health education (B.S. or M.S.), health records (R.H.I.T. or R.H.I.A.), injury prevention specialist (certificate), medical technology (B. S.), allopathic and osteopathic medicine, nursing (A.D.N., B.S.N., or C.R. N.A), optometry, pharmacy (B.S. or Pharm.D.), physician assistant (B.S.), physical therapy (M.S. or D.P.T.), podiatry (D.P.M.), public health (M.P.H. only), public health nutrition (master's only), social work (master's only), respiratory therapy (associate), and ultrasonography. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

3812 ■ INTERNATIONAL FOODSERVICE EDITORIAL COUNCIL

P.O. Box 491
Hyde Park, NY 12538
Tel: (845)229-6973
Fax: (845)229-6993
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ifec-is-us.com
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students who are interested in preparing for a career in communications in the food service industry.
Title of Award: IFEC Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Creative writing; Culinary arts; English language and literature; Food science and technology; Food service careers; Graphic art and design; Hotel, institutional, and restaurant management; Journalism; Management; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Photography; Photography, Journalistic; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 5 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to currently-enrolled college students who are working on an associate, bachelor's, or master's degree. They must be enrolled full time and planning on a career in editorial, public relations, photography, food styling, or a related aspect of communications in the food service industry. The following food service majors are considered appropriate for this program: culinary arts; hospitality management; hotel, restaurant, and institutional management; dietetics; food science and technology; and nutrition. Applicable communications areas include journalism, English, mass communications, public relations, marketing, broadcast journalism, creative writing, graphic arts, and photography. Selection is based on academic record, character references, and demonstrated financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

3813 ■ KOSTER INSURANCE AGENCY

Attn: Scholarship
500 Victory Road
Quincy, MA 02171
Tel: (617)770-9889
Free: 800-457-5599
Fax: (617)479-0860
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.kosterweb.com/about/scholarship_main.php
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students working on a degree in a health-related field.
Title of Award: Koster Insurance Health Careers Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Biological and clinical sciences; Chemistry; Dentistry; Health care services; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Physical therapy; Physiology; Public health; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 5 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduates entering their second-to-last or final year of study in a health-related field, including (but not limited to) pre-medicine, nursing, public and community health, physical therapy, occupational therapy, pharmacy, biology, chemistry, physiology, social work, dentistry, and optometry. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay describing their personal goals, including their reasons for preparing for a career in health care. Selection is based on motivation to pursue a career in health care, academic excellence, dedication to community service, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 2001.

3814 ■ PAPA OLA LOKAHI, INC.

Attn: Native Hawaiian Health Scholarship Program
345 Queen Street, Suite 706
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)585-8944
Fax: (808)585-8081
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nhhsp.org
To provide scholarship/loans to Native Hawaiians for training in the health professions in exchange for service in a federally-designated health professional shortage area (HPSA) or other facility for Native Hawaiians.
Title of Award: Native Hawaiian Health Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Dental hygiene; Dentistry; Family/Marital therapy; Health care services; Medical assisting; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Midwifery; Nursing; Nursing, Psychiatric; Psychiatry; Psychology; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending upon the funding available. Since the program began, 151 scholars have received support. Funds Available: Full coverage of tuition and fees is paid directly to the health professional school. A stipend, current set at $1,157 per month, is paid directly to the scholar. This is a scholarship/loan program. Participants are obligated to provide full-time clinical primary health care services to populations in 1) a Native Hawaiian Health Care System, or 2) an HPSA in Hawaii, medically underserved area (MUA), or another area or facility in Hawaii designated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Participants owe 1 year of service in the National Health Service Corps for each full or partial year of support received under this program. The minimum service obligation is 2 years. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed for up to 3 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be Native Hawaiians training in allopathic or osteopathic medicine, dentistry, clinical psychology, registered nursing, nurse midwifery, psychiatric nursing, public health/community nursing, social work, dental hygiene, physician assistant, public health, marriage and family therapy, or primary care nurse practitioner. They may be studying in any state. Recipients must agree to serve in a designated health-care facility in Hawaii upon completion of training. First priority is given to former scholars who have completed their previous service obligation and are seeking another year of support. Second priority is given to applicants who appear to have characteristics that increase the probability they will continue to serve underserved Native Hawaiians after the completion of their service obligations. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program, which began in 1991, is administered by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, through a contract with Papa Ola Lokahi, Inc.

3815 ■ MARYLAND HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

Attn: Office of Student Financial Assistance
839 Bestgate Road, Suite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401-3013
Tel: (410)260-4563
Free: 800-974-1024
Fax: (410)974-5376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mhec.state.md.us/financialAid/ProgramDescriptions/prog_WDS.asp
To provide scholarship/loans to Maryland residents interested in a career in public service.
Title of Award: William Donald Schaefer Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: General studies/Field of study not specified; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The amount of the award is equal to tuition and fees at a Maryland postsecondary institution, to a maximum of $8,550. The total amount of all state awards may not exceed the cost of attendance as determined by the school's financial aid office or $17,800, whichever is less. Within 1 year of graduation, recipients must provide 1 year of public service in Maryland for each year of financial aid received under this program; failure to comply with that service obligation will require them to repay the scholarship money with interest. Public service is defined as employment in government at any level, public interest organizations, public schools, and nonprofit organizations. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years provided the recipient continues to meet eligibility requirements.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maryland who are high school seniors, full-time undergraduates, or full-time graduate students. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll at a 2-year or 4-year Maryland college or university. They may major in any field, but they must enroll in courses of study, training, or other educational activities that are designed to prepare individuals for a career in public service. Financial need is considered. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

3816 ■ MISSOURI BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S FOUNDATION, INC.

P.O. Box 338
Carthage, MO 64836-0338
Web Site: http://www.bpwmo.org/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to members of the Missouri Federation of Business and Professional Women (BPW Missouri) who are interested in working on a college degree leading to public service.
Title of Award: Judge Hazel Palmer General Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Public service Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to BPW Missouri members who have been accepted into an accredited program or course of study to work on a degree leading to public service. Along with their application, they must submit brief statements on the following: their achievements and/or specific recognitions in their field of endeavor; professional and/or civic affiliations; present and long-range career goals; how they plan to participate in and contribute to their community upon completion of their program of study; why they feel they would make a good recipient; and any special circumstances that may have influenced their ability to continue or complete their education. They must also demonstrate financial need and U.S. citizenship. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Pat Henderson, Scholarship Committee Chair, P.O. Box 296, Hillsboro, MO 63050, (636) 789-2119.

3817 ■ NATIONAL DAIRY PROMOTION AND RESEARCH BOARD

c/o Dairy Management Inc.
10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900
Rosemont, IL 60018-5616 Tel: (847)803-2000
Fax: (847)803-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dairycheckoff.com/DairyCheckoff/about/scholarship.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in fields related to the dairy industry.
Title of Award: NDPRB Undergraduate Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Communications; Dairy science; Economics; Education; Food science and technology; Journalism; Marketing and distribution; Nutrition; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship at $2,500 and 19 other scholarships at $1,500. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500 or $1,500. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors enrolled in college and university programs that emphasize dairy. Eligible majors include agricultural education, business, communications and/or public relations, economics, food science, journalism, marketing, and nutrition. Fields related to production (e.g., animal science) are not eligible. Selection is based on academic performance; interest in a career in dairy; involvement in extracurricular activities, especially those relating to dairy; and evidence of leadership ability, initiative, character, and integrity. The applicant who is judged most outstanding is awarded the James H. Loper Jr. Memorial Scholarship. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Dairy Management Inc. manages this program on behalf of the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (NDPRB).

3818 ■ NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION

Attn: Fire Safety Educational Memorial Fund Committee
1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02169-7471
Tel: (617)984-7244
Fax: (617)984-7222
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nfpa.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in fire service or public administration programs.
Title of Award: George D. Miller Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Fires and fire prevention; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Colleges and universities in the United States and Canada are invited to nominate up to 2 undergraduate or graduate students enrolled in a fire service or public administration program. Nominees must exhibit scholastic achievement, leadership qualities, concern for others (volunteerism), and intent to prepare for a career in fire service or public administration Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This fund was established in 2001.

3819NATIONAL NAVAL OFFICERS ASSOCIATION-WASHINGTON, D.C. CHAPTER

Attn: Scholarship Program
2701 Park Center Drive, B704
Alexandria, VA 22302
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dcnnoa.org
To provide financial assistance to African American high school seniors from the Washington, D.C. area who are interested in majoring in designated fields in college.
Title of Award: DCNNOA/Advanced Concepts and Technologies Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Computer and information sciences; Political science; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to African American seniors at high schools in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area who plan to enroll full time at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university. Applicants must be planning to major in governmental affairs, political science, or computer science. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and be U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Selection is based on academic achievement, community involvement, interpersonal and leadership skills, creativity, drive, and maturity. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are not required to join or affiliate with the military in any way. This program is sponsored by Advanced Concepts and Technologies, Inc.

3820 ■ NEW JERSEY HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION

Attn: Health Research and Educational Trust
760 Alexander Road
P.O. Box 1
Princeton, NJ 08543-0001
Tel: (609)275-4224
Fax: (609)452-8097
Web Site: http://www.njha.com/hret/scholarship.aspx
To provide financial assistance to New Jersey residents working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a health-related field.
Title of Award: Health Research and Educational Trust Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Health care services; Nursing; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 2 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New Jersey enrolled in an upper-division or graduate program in hospital or health care administration, public administration, nursing, or other allied health profession. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay (on which 50% of the selection is based) describing their academic plans for the future. Minorities and women are especially encouraged to apply. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year. Additional Information: This program began in 1983.

3821 ■ NEW YORK STATE LEGION PRESS ASSOCIATION

c/o Scholarship Chairman
American Legion (NYSLPA)
P.O. Box 650
East Aurora, NY 14052
To provide financial assistance to the children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary in New York who are interested in careers in communications.
Title of Award: New York State Legion Press Association Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; Graphic art and design; Journalism; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to New York residents who are the children of members of the American Legion or American Legion Auxiliary, or members of the Sons of the American Legion, or junior members of the American Legion Auxiliary, or graduates of the New York Boys State or Girls State. Applicants must be entering or attending an accredited 4-year college or university, working on a degree in communications (including public relations, journalism, reprographics, newspaper design or management, or other related fields acceptable to the scholarship committee). Along with their application, they must submit a 500-word essay on why they chose the field of communications as a future vocation. Financial need and class standing are not considered. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

3822 ■ NORTH CAROLINA STATE EDUCATION ASSISTANCE AUTHORITY

Attn: Scholarship and Grant Services
10 T.W. Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 14223
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-4223
Tel: (919)549-8614
Free: 800-700-1775
Fax: (919)549-8481
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ncseaa.edu
To provide loans and loans-for-service to North Carolina residents who are interested in preparing for a career in health, science, or mathematics.
Title of Award: North Carolina Student Loan Program for Health, Science, and Mathematics Area, Field, or Subject: Allied health; Dentistry; Medicine; Nursing; Optometry; Public health; Social work Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, a total of 497 students were receiving $3,238,569 in support through this program. Funds Available: Maximum loans are $3,000 per year for associate degree and certificate programs, $5,000 per year for baccalaureate degree/certificate programs, $6,500 per year for master's degree programs, or $8,500 per year for health/professional doctoral programs. The maximum amount that any student can borrow through this program is $58,000. The interest rate is 4% while the borrowers are attending school and from 10 to 15% after they leave school. Cash repayments must begin 90 days or less after completion of course work and training. Under specified conditions, certain loan recipients in qualifying disciplines may have their loans canceled through service in North Carolina. Duration: 1 year; renewable for 1 additional year for diploma, associate, certificate, and master's degree programs, for 2 additional years for baccalaureate degree programs, or for 3 additional years for doctoral programs.
Eligibility Requirements: North Carolina residents are eligible to apply for this program if they have been accepted as full-time students in an accredited associate, baccalaureate, master's, or doctoral program leading to a degree in 1 of the following areas: allied health (including audiology/communications assistant, cytotechnology, dental hygiene, diagnostic medical sonographer, imaging technologist, medical technology, nuclear medicine technologist, occupational therapy/assistant, physician assistant, physical therapy/assistant, radiation therapist, radiography, respiratory therapy, and speech language pathology); clinical psychology (Ph.D. level only); dentistry; dietetics and nutrition (graduate level only); mathematics education; medicine (including chiropractic medicine, emergency medicine, family medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, osteopathic medicine, pediatrics, podiatry, primary care medicine, and psychiatry); nursing (including anesthetist, family nurse practitioner, nursing administration, general nursing, and midwifery); optometry; pharmacy; public health (graduate level only); science education (including biology, chemistry, communications and technologies, computer and information sciences, engineering, and physical science); social work (graduate level only); and veterinary medicine. U.S. citizenship is required. Selection is based on academic progress, financial ability of sureties to repay all loans and accrued interest in case of applicant's default, applicant's willingness to work in underserved areas of the state or in disciplines for which there is a shortage of professionals, applicant's willingness to comply with all program regulations, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend a North Carolina postsecondary institution or an eligible out-of-state institution. This program was formerly known as the North Carolina Medical Student Loan Program.

3823 ■ OAK RIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

Attn: Science and Engineering Education
P.O. Box 117
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
Tel: (865)576-8239
Fax: (865)241-5219
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm
To provide financial assistance and summer research experience to undergraduate students who are working on a degree in a field of interest to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Title of Award: Department of Homeland Security Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Communications; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Information science and technology; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Physical sciences; Psychology; Public administration; Religion; Social sciences; Writing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 50 each year. Funds Available: This program provides a stipend of $1,000 per month during the academic year and $5,000 for the internship plus full payment of tuition and mandatory fees. Duration: 2 academic years plus 10 weeks during the intervening summer.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1) full-time students who are in their second year of college attendance as of the application deadline; and 2) part-time students who have completed at least 45 but no more than 60 semester hours as of the application deadline. Applicants must be majoring in the agricultural sciences, biological and life sciences, computer and information sciences, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, psychology, social sciences, or selected humanities (religious studies, cultural studies, public policy, advocacy, communications, or science writing). They must have a GPA of 3.3 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 2 statements on 1) their educational and professional goals, the kinds of research they are interested in conducting, specific questions that interest them, and how they became interested in them; and 2) how they think their interests, talents, and initiative would contribute to make the homeland safer and secure. Selection is based on those statements, academic record, references, and SAT or ACT scores, As part of their program, they must be interested in participating in summer research and development activities at a DHS-designated facility. U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 2003, is funded by DHS and administered by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). Recipients must enroll full time.

3824 ■ OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Director of Scholarship and Grant Programs
655 Research Parkway, Suite 200
P.O. Box 108850
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-8850
Tel: (405)225-9239
Free: 800-858-1840
Fax: (405)225-9230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.okhighered.org/student-center/financial-aid/nigh.shtml
To provide financial assistance for college to residents in Oklahoma who are interested in a career in public service.
Title of Award: George and Donna Nigh Public Service Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Oklahoma who are enrolled full time in an undergraduate program at a public or private college or university in the state. Applicants must be enrolled in a degree program leading to a career in public service (as determined by the institution). Selection is based on academic achievement, including GPA, class rank, national awards, scholastic achievement, honors, teachers' recommendations, and participation in extracurricular activities. Each participating college or university may nominate 1 student each year. Additional Information: This program, established in 1999, operates in conjunction with the George and Donna Nigh Institute, Downtown College Consortium, 120 North Robinson, Suite 500 C, Oklahoma City, OK 73102, (405) 319-3085, E-mail: [email protected] Scholarship recipients participate in seminars on public service offered by the Institute.

3825 ■ OREGON STUDENT ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

Attn: Grants and Scholarships Division
1500 Valley River Drive, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401-2146
Tel: (541)687-7395
Free: 800-452-8807
Fax: (541)687-7419
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.osac.state.or.us
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to residents of Oregon who are interested in preparing for a public health career.
Title of Award: Lawrence R. Foster Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Medical assisting; Medical technology; Nursing; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 6 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipend amounts vary; recently, they were at least $4,167. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Oregon who are attending a 4-year college or university in any state to prepare for a career in public health (not private practice). First preference is given to applicants who are either working in public health or enrolled as graduate students in that field. Second preference is given to undergraduates entering the junior or senior year of a health program, including nursing, medical technology, and physician assistant. A general preference is given to applicants from diverse cultures. Along with their application, they must submit a 1- to 2-page essay on their interest, experience, and future plans for a public health career Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is administered by the Oregon Student Assistance Commission (OSAC) with funds provided by the Oregon Community Foundation, 1221 S.W. Yamhill, Suite 100, Portland, OR 97205, (503) 227-6846, Fax: (503) 274-7771.

3826 ■ PACIFICARE FOUNDATION

3100 Lake Center Drive
P.O. Box 25186
Santa Ana, CA 92799
Tel: (714)825-5233
Web Site: http://www.pacificare.com
To provide financial assistance to Latino high school seniors in designated states planning to major in a health care field in college.
Title of Award: PacifiCare Latino Health Scholars Program Area, Field, or Subject: Health care services; Medical technology; Medicine; Nursing; Pharmaceutical sciences; Psychology; Public health Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 50 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. Applicants must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, be fluent in Spanish, and have been accepted as a full-time student at a university, community college, or accredited technical college. Their proposed field of study must relate to health care, including (but not limited to) nursing, medical interpretation, health claims examiner, health information technology programs, pharmacy technician, public health, psychology, or pre-medical studies. Along with their application, they must submit a 2-page essay (in both English and Spanish) on their personal and academic accomplishments, community involvement, volunteer and leadership activities, academic plans, and the reason they want a career in the health care field. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2003.

3827 ■ PUBLIC RELATIONS SOCIETY OF AMERICA-PUGET SOUND CHAPTER

c/o Diane Beins
1006 Industry Drive
Seattle, WA 98188-4801
Tel: (206)623-8632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prsapugetsound.org/cayton
To provide financial assistance to minority upper-classmen from Washington who are interested in preparing for a career in public relations.
Title of Award: Horace and Susie Revels Cayton Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are members of minority groups, defined as African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Applicants must be juniors or seniors attending a college in Washington or Washington students (who graduated from a Washington high school or whose parents live in the state year-round) attending college elsewhere. They must be able to demonstrate aptitude in public relations and related courses, activities, and/or internships. Along with their application, they must submit a description of their career goals and the skills that are most important in general to a public relations career (15 points in the selection process); a description of their activities in communications in class, on campus, in the community, or during internships, including 3 samples of their work (15 points); a statement on the value of public relations to an organization (10 points); a description of any barriers, financial or otherwise, they have encountered in pursuing their academic or personal goals and how they have addressed them (15 points); a discussion of their heritage, and how their cultural background and/or the discrimination they may have experienced has impacted them (15 points); a certified transcript (15 points); and 2 or more letters of recommendation (15 points). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1992.

3828 ■ PUBLIC RELATIONS SOCIETY OF AMERICA-PUGET SOUND CHAPTER

c/o Diane Beins
1006 Industry Drive
Seattle, WA 98188-4801
Tel: (206)623-8632
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prsapugetsound.org/heet
To provide financial assistance to upper-classmen in Washington who are interested in preparing for a career in public relations.
Title of Award: Sally Heet Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are enrolled as juniors or seniors at colleges and universities in Washington. Applicants must be preparing for a career in public relations. They must be able to demonstrate aptitude in public relations and related courses, activities, and/or internships. Along with their application, they must submit a description of their career goals and the skills that are most important in general to a public relations career (20 points in the selection process); a description of their activities in communications in class, on campus, in the community, or during internships, including 3 samples of their work (30 points); a statement on the value of public relations to an organization (10 points); a certified transcript (20 points); and 2 or more letters of recommendation (20 points). Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1986.

3829 ■ RHODE ISLAND FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Coordinator
One Union Station
Providence, RI 02903
Tel: (401)274-4564
Fax: (401)331-8085
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rifoundation.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of Rhode Island who are enrolled in college to prepare for a career in advertising.
Title of Award: J.D. Edsal Advertising Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Broadcasting; Filmmaking; Graphic art and design; Marketing and distribution; Public relations; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Rhode Island who are enrolled full time as undergraduates at the sophomore level or above. Applicants must be preparing for a career in advertising and majoring in a related field (e.g., broadcast production, graphic design, interactive film, marketing, public relations, television, or video). Along with their application, they must submit an essay (up to 300 words) on the impact they would like to have on the advertising industry. Financial need is also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

3830 ■ SURFRIDER FOUNDATION

Attn: Pratte Scholarship
P.O. Box 6010
San Clemente, CA 92674-6010
Tel: (949)492-8170
Fax: (949)492-8142
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.surfrider.org
To provide financial assistance to members of the Surfrider Foundation working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in an environmental field.
Title of Award: Thomas Pratte Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Marine biology; Natural resources; Oceanography; Public administration; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 3 each year: 1 for a student at each academic level. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 for an undergraduate, $3,000 for a master's degree student, and $5,000 for a doctoral student. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members of the foundation working on an undergraduate, master's, or doctoral degree in a field consistent with the foundation's mission, including (but not limited to) oceanography, marine affairs, environmental sciences, public policy, community planning, or natural resources. Applicants must be enrolled at an accredited college or university in the United States or Puerto Rico as an upper-division or graduate student. Undergraduates must have a GPA of 3.4 or higher and graduate students 3.6 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a personal statement describing their career goals, volunteer activities, work, or summer plans as they pertain to the coastal environmental issues relevant to the foundation and its mission; and 2) a description of their current research and how it relates to the foundation's stated mission and environmental programs. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This foundation, established in 1984 by a group of surfers, is a nonprofit environmental grassroots organization dedicated to the protection and preservation of the world's waves, oceans, and beaches. It currently has 50,000 members with 60 chapters in 22 states.

3831 ■ TEXAS FEDERATION OF BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S FOUNDATION, INC.

Attn: TFBPW Foundation
803 Forest Ridge Drive, Suite 207
Bedford, TX 76022
Tel: (817)283-0862
Fax: (817)283-0872
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: http://www.bpwtx.org/foundation.asp
To provide financial assistance to women in Texas who are preparing to enter selected professions.
Title of Award: Hermine Dalkowitz Tobolowsky Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: History; Law; Political science; Public administration; Women's studies Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women in Texas who are interested in attending school to prepare for a career in law, public service, government, political science, or women's history. Applicants must have completed at least 2 semesters of study at an accredited college or university in Texas, have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and be U.S. citizens. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1995.

3832 ■ TEXAS HIGHER EDUCATION COORDINATING BOARD

Attn: Hinson-Hazlewood College Student Loan Program
1200 East Anderson Lane
P.O. Box 12788, Capitol Station
Austin, TX 78711-2788
Tel: (512)427-6340
Free: 800-242-3062
Fax: (512)427-6423
E-mail: [email protected] Web Site: http://www.hhloans.com
To provide educational loans to students in Texas in health-related degree programs.
Title of Award: Hinson-Hazlewood Health Education Loan Program Area, Field, or Subject: Dentistry; Health care services; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Nursing; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Podiatry; Public health; Veterinary science and medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The maximum annual loan is $12,500 for pharmacy, nursing, allied health, and public health students; or $20,000 for medicine, dentistry, optometry, osteopathy, podiatry, or veterinary medicine students. The origination fee is 3%. After a grace period of 9 months, repayment must be completed within 25 years at a minimum monthly payment of $50. The current interest rate is 5.25% which begins to accrue immediately, even while the student is in school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years. The maximum total loan is $50,000 for pharmacy, nursing, allied health, and public health students or $80,000 for medicine, dentistry, optometry, osteopathy, podiatry, or veterinary medicine students.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who qualify as Texas residents and meet the academic requirements of a public or private college or university in the state. Applicants must be enrolled at least half time in a course of study leading to 1) a doctoral degree in medicine, dentistry, optometry, osteopathy, podiatry, or veterinary medicine; 2) a bachelor's or master's degree in pharmacy; 3) a graduate or equivalent degree in public health; or 4) an associate, bachelor's, or graduate degree in nursing or allied health fields. They must be able to demonstrate financial need and enroll full time. U.S. citizenship is required. Additional Information: Applications must be submitted through the financial aid office at the college or university attended. This program is part of the Hinton-Hazelwood College Student Loan Program (HHCSLP).

3833 ■ HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION

Attn: Executive Secretary
712 Jackson Place, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202)395-4831
Fax: (202)395-6995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.truman.gov
To provide grants-for-service for graduate school to current college juniors who are interested in preparing for a career in public service.
Title of Award: Harry S. Truman Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Biological and clinical sciences; Economics; Education; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; History; International affairs and relations; Law; Physical sciences; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Public service; Social sciences; Technology Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: 70 to 75 each year: a) 1 "state" scholarship is available to a qualified resident nominee in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Islands (Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); and b) up to 25 at-large scholars. Funds Available: The program provides up to $30,000, including up to $15,000 for the first year of graduate study and up to $15,000 for the final year of graduate study. Duration: Support is provided for the first and last year of graduate study.
Eligibility Requirements: Students must be nominated to be considered for this program. Nominees must be full-time students with junior standing at a 4-year institution, committed to a career in government or public service, in the upper quarter of their class, and U.S. citizens or nationals. Each participating institution may nominate up to 4 candidates (and up to 3 additional students who completed their first 2 years at a community college); community colleges and other 2-year institutions may nominate former students who are enrolled as full-time students with junior-level academic standing at accredited 4-year institutions. Selection is based on extent and quality of community service and government involvement, academic performance, leadership record, suitability of the nominee's proposed program of study for a career in public service, and writing and analytical skills. Priority is given to candidates who plan to enroll in a graduate program that specifically trains them for a career in public service, including government at any level, uniformed services, public interest organizations, nongovernmental research and/or educational organizations, public and private schools, and public service oriented nonprofit organizations. The fields of study may include agriculture, biology, engineering, environmental management, physical and social sciences, and technology policy, as well as such traditional fields as economics, education, government, history, international relations, law, nonprofit management, political science, public administration, public health, and public policy. Interviews are required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend graduate school in the United States or in foreign countries. Scholars are required to work in public service for 3 of the 7 years following completion of a graduate degree program funded by this program. Scholars who do not meet this service requirement, or who fail to provide timely proof to the foundation of such employment, will be required to repay funds received, along with interest.

3834 ■ MORRIS K. UDALL FOUNDATION

130 South Scott Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85701-1922
Tel: (520)670-5529
Fax: (520)670-5530
Web Site: http://www.udall.gov/scholarship
To provide financial assistance to 1) college sophomores and juniors who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy.
Title of Award: Morris K. Udall Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Economics; Education; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Health care services; Native American studies; Natural resources; Political science; Public administration; Public health; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 80 scholarships and 50 honorable mentions are awarded each year. Funds Available: The maximum stipend for scholarship winners is $5,000 per year. Funds are to be used for tuition, fees, books, and room and board. Honorable mention stipends are $350. Duration: 1 year; recipients nominated as sophomores may be renominated in their junior year.
Eligibility Requirements: Each 2-year and 4-year college and university in the United States and its possessions may nominate up to 6 sophomores or juniors from either or both categories of this program: 1) students who intend to prepare for a career in environmental public policy, and 2) Native American and Alaska Native students who intend to prepare for a career in health care or tribal public policy. For the first category, the program seeks future leaders across a wide spectrum of environmental fields, such as policy, engineering, science, education, urban planning and renewal, business, health, justice, and economics. For the second category, the program seeks future Native American and Alaska Native leaders in public and community health care, tribal government, and public policy affecting Native American communities, including land and resource management, economic development, and education. Nominees must be U.S. citizens, nationals, or permanent residents with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an 800-word essay discussing a significant public speech, legislative act, or public policy statement by former Congressman Morris K. Udall and its impact on their field of study, interests, and career goals. Selection is based on demonstrated commitment to 1) environmental issues through substantial commitment to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, research, community service, or public service; or 2) tribal public policy or Native American health through substantial contributions to and participation in 1 or more of the following: campus activities, tribal involvement, community or public service, or research; a course of study and proposed career likely to lead to position where nominee can make significant contributions to the shaping of environmental, tribal public policy, or Native American health care issues, whether through scientific advances, public or political service, or community action; and leadership, character, desire to make a difference, and general well-roundedness. Deadline for Receipt: Faculty representatives must submit their nominations by early March of each year.

3835 ■ WATTS CHARITY ASSOCIATION, INC.

6245 Bristol Parkway, Suite 224
Culver City, CA 90230
Tel: (323)671-0394
Fax: (323)778-2613
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://4watts.tripod.com/id5.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division college students interested in health, civil rights, or administration.
Title of Award: Royce R. Watts Sr. Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Business administration; Civil rights; Health care services; Human rights; Medicine; Public administration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens of African American descent who are enrolled full time as a college or university junior. Applicants must have an interest in health and pre-medicine, community activities and civil rights, or administration. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, be between 17 and 24 years of age, and be able to demonstrate that they intend to continue their education for at least 2 years. Along with their application, they must submit 1) a 1-paragraph statement on why they should be awarded a Watts Foundation scholarship, and 2) a 1- to 2-page essay on a specific type of cancer, based either on how it has impacted their life or on researched information. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year. Additional Information: Royce R. Watts, Sr. established the Watts Charity Association after he learned he had cancer in 2001.

3836 ■ WESTERN INTERSTATE COMMISSION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Student Exchange Programs
3035 Center Green Drive
P.O. Box 9752
Boulder, CO 80301-9752
Tel: (303)541-0210
Fax: (303)541-0291
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wiche.edu/sep/psep
To underwrite some of the cost of out-of-state professional schooling for students in selected western states.
Title of Award: Professional Student Exchange Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Dentistry; Library and archival sciences; Medical assisting; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Physical therapy; Podiatry; Public health; Veterinary science and medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The assistance consists of reduced levels of tuition, usually resident tuition in public institutions or reduced standard tuition at private schools. The home state pays a support fee to the admitting school to help cover the cost of the recipient's education. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of 13 western states who are interested in pursuing professional study at selected out-of-state institutions, usually because those fields of study are not available in their home states. The eligible programs, and the states whose residents are eligible, presently include: 1) architecture (master's degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona. California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, or Washington); 2) dentistry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, or Washington; 3) library studies (master's degree), for residents of New Mexico and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Hawaii, or Washington; 4) medicine, for residents of Montana and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, or Utah; 5) nursing (graduate degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Hawaii, North Dakota, or Oregon; 6) occupational therapy (bachelors' or master's degree), for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 7) optometry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California or Oregon; 8) osteopathic medicine, for residents of Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona or California; 9) pharmacy, for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Nevada, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, or Wyoming; 10) physical therapy (master's or doctoral degree), for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 11) physician assistant, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Nevada, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 12) podiatry, for residents of Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at a designated institution in California; 13) public health, for residents of Montana and New Mexico, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, or Washington; and 14) veterinary medicine, for residents of Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, Oregon, or Washington. The financial status of the applicants is not considered. Interested students must apply for admission and for PSEP assistance directly from the institution of their choice. They must be certified by their state of residence to become an exchange student and be seeking enrollment at the first professional degree level. Deadline for Receipt: In most states, the deadline for receiving completed applications for certification is in October. After obtaining certification, students must still apply to the school of their choice, which also sets its own deadline.

3837 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: College-to-Work Program
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100 Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/work.html
To provide financial assistance and work experience to students majoring in fields related to communications at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Manitowoc American Red Cross College-to-Work Program Area, Field, or Subject: Communications; English language and literature; General studies/Field of study not specified; Graphic art and design; Public relations Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipends are $3,500 for the scholarship and $1,500 for the internship. Duration: 1 year for the scholarship; 10 weeks for the internship.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at private colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be interested in an internship at the Manitowoc/Calumet County Chapter of the American Red Cross in Manitowoc. Preference is given to 1) students attending Lakeland College or Silver Lake College; 2) residents of Manitowoc County attending another WFIC member institution; and 3) students majoring in communications, English, graphic design, or public relations. Along with their application, they must submit a 1-page essay that includes why they are applying for the internship, why they have selected their major and what interests them about it, why they are attending their chosen college or university, and their future career objectives. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The other WFIC schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is sponsored by the Manitowoc/Calumet County Chapter of the American Red Cross. The WFIC's College-to-Work Program includes a number of other financial assistance and work experience programs aimed at eligible students interested in majoring in fields related to communications, journalism, media, and related fields, including the Post-Crescent College-to-Work Program and Reporter College-to-Work Program.

3838 ■ WOMEN'S OVERSEAS SERVICE LEAGUE

P.O. Box 7124
Washington, DC 20044-7124
To provide financial assistance for college to women who are planning a military or other public service career.
Title of Award: Women's Overseas Service League Scholarships for Women Area, Field, or Subject: General studies/Field of study not specified; Public service Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to women who are committed to a military or other public service career. Applicants must have completed at least 12 semester or 18 quarter hours of postsecondary study with at a GPA of 2.5 or higher. They must be working on an academic degree (the program may be professional or technical in nature) and must agree to enroll for at least 6 semester or 9 quarter hours of study each academic period. Along with their application, they must submit an official transcript, a 1-page description of career goals, 3 current letters of reference, and a brief statement describing sources of financial support and the need for scholarship assistance. They must also provide information on their educational background, employment experience, civic and volunteer activities, and expected degree completion date. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: The Women's Overseas Service League is a national organization of women who have served overseas in or with the armed forces.

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