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North Dakota

North Dakota

State of North Dakota

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: The state was formerly the northern section of Dakota Territory; dakota is a Siouan word meaning "allies."

NICKNAME: Peace Garden State; Flickertail State.

CAPITAL: Bismarck.

ENTERED UNION: 2 November 1889 (39th).

SONG: "North Dakota Hymn;" "Flickertail March." (march).

MOTTO: Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable.

FLAG: The flag consists of a blue field with yellow fringes; on each side is depicted an eagle with outstretched wings, holding in one talon a sheaf of arrows, in the other an olive branch, and in his beak a banner inscribed with the words "E Pluribus Unum." Below the eagle are the words "North Dakota"; above it are 13 stars surmounted by a sunburst.

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the center is an elm tree; beneath it are a sheaf of wheat, a plow, an anvil, and a bow and three arrows, and in the background a Native American chases a buffalo toward a setting sun. The depiction is surrounded by the state motto, and the words "Great Seal State of North Dakota October 1st 1889" encircle the whole.

BIRD: Western meadowlark.

FISH: Northern pike.

FLOWER: Wild prairie rose.

TREE: American elm.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, Friday before Easter, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT; 5 AM MST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the western north-central United States, North Dakota ranks 17th in size among the 50 states.

The total area of North Dakota is 70,703 sq mi (183,121 sq km), comprising 69,300 sq mi (179,487 sq km) of land and 1,403 sq mi (3,634 sq km) of inland water. Shaped roughly like a rectangle, North Dakota has three straight sides and one irregular border on the e. Its maximum length e-w is about 360 mi (580 km), its extreme width n-s about 210 mi (340 km).

North Dakota is bordered on the n by the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba; on the e by Minnesota (with the line formed by the Red River of the North); on the s by South Dakota; and on the w by Montana. The total boundary length is 1,312 mi (2,111 km). The state's geographic center is in Sheridan County, 5 mi (8 km) sw of McClusky.

TOPOGRAPHY

North Dakota straddles two major US physiographic regions: the Central Plains in the east and the Great Plains in the west. Along the eastern border is the generally flat Red River Valley, with the state's lowest point, 750 ft (229 m); this valley was once covered by the waters of a glacial lake. Most of the eastern half of North Dakota consists of the Drift Prairie, at 1,300-1,600 ft (400-500 m) above sea level. The Missouri Plateau occupies the western half of the state and has the highest point in North DakotaWhite Butte, 3,506 ft (1,069 m)in Slope County in the southwest. Separating the Missouri Plateau from the Drift Prairie is the Missouri Escarpment, which rises 400 ft (122 m) above the prairie and extends diagonally from northwest to southeast. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 1,900 ft (580 m).

North Dakota has two major rivers: the Red River of the North, flowing northward into Canada; and the Missouri River, which enters in the northwest and then flows east and, joined by the Yellowstone River, southeast into South Dakota.

CLIMATE

North Dakota lies in the northwestern continental interior of the United States. Characteristically, summers are hot, winters very cold, and rainfall sparse to moderate, with periods of drought. The average annual temperature is 40°f (4°c), ranging from 7°f (14°c) in January to 69°f (21°c) in July. The record low temperature, 60°f (51°c), was set at Parshall on 15 February 1936; the record high, 121°f (49°c), at Steele on 6 July 1936.

The average yearly precipitation was about 15.8 in (40 cm) at Bismarck. The total annual snowfall averages 41.9 in (106 cm) at Bismarck.

FLORA AND FAUNA

North Dakota is predominantly a region of prairie and plains, although the American elm, green ash, box elder, and cottonwood grow there. Cranberries, juneberries, and wild grapes are also common. Indian, blue, grama, and buffalo grasses grow on the plains; the wild prairie rose is the state flower. The western prairie fringed orchid was the only plant species classified by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened in 2006; no plant species were listed as endangered that year.

Once on the verge of extinction, the white-tailed and mule deer and pronghorn antelope have been restored. The elk and grizzly bear, both common until about 1880, had disappeared by 1900; bighorn sheep, reintroduced in 1956, are beginning to flourish. North Dakota claims more wild ducks than any other state except Alaska, and it has the largest sharptailed grouse population in the United States. Six animal species (vertebrates and invertebrates) were listed as threatened or endangered in North Dakota in April 2006, including the bald eagle, Eskimo curlew, pallid sturgeon, least tern, and whooping crane.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

North Dakota has little urban or industrial pollution. An environmental issue confronting the state in the mid-1980s and early 1990s was how to use its coal resources without damaging the land through strip mining or polluting the air with coal-fired industrial plants. Major environmental issues confronting the state are importation of non-hazardous and hazardous solid wastes for treatment or disposal, non-point surface water pollution from agricultural and native land, groundwater contamination by fuel storage tanks and by irrigation, and air pollution by energy conversion plants.

The Environmental Health Section of the North Dakota Department of Health oversees programs to ensure water and air quality. North Dakota has little urban air pollution with one exception: motor vehicle traffic is causing excess ambient carbon monoxide in an area within the city of Fargo. The major industrial sources of air contaminants within the state are seven coal-fired electrical generating plants, a coal gasification plant, a refinery, and agricultural commodity processing facilities. The ambient air quality has been in compliance with federal standards, although an epidemio-logical study has associated certain air contaminants with a higher incidence of respiratory illness among persons living in the vicinity of coal-burning plants. In 2003, 23.6 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state.

To conserve water and provide irrigation, nearly 700 dams have been built, including Garrison Dam, completed in 1960. The Garrison Diversion Project, authorized by the US Congress in 1965, was intended to draw water from Lake Sakakawea, the impoundment behind Garrison Dam. As of the 1980s, there were about 2.7 million acres of wetlands in the state. This total has been diminishing, however, by agricultural development.

Diversion of household waste to recycling grew to about nearly 15% of the waste stream. Yard wastes, household appliances, and scrap tires are also diverted for compost, recycling, or fuel, respectively. In 2003, North Dakota had 17 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, but none were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. In 2005, the EPA spent over $2.6 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $11.7 million for the water pollution control state revolving fund and $8.2 for the safe drinking water revolving fund.

POPULATION

North Dakota ranked 48th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 636,677 in 2005 a decrease of 0.9% from 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, North Dakota's population grew from 638,800 to 642,200, an increase of 0.5%. The population is projected to decrease to 620,777 by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 9.2 persons per sq mi, the fourth-lowest in the nation (after Alaska, Wyoming, and Montana). In 2004, the median age in North Dakota was 38.8; 21.9% of the populace were under age 18 while 14.7% was age 65 or older.

North Dakota is one of the most rural states in the United States, with over half of its population living outside metropolitan areas. The Fargo metropolitan area had an estimated population of 181,520 in 2004. The Bismarck metropolitan area had a population of about 97,924 and the Grand Forks area had a population of about 96,046.

ETHNIC GROUPS

As of 2000, about 92.4% of the state's population was white. The American Indian population was 31,329, or about 4.9% of the total; that percentage had increased to 5.2% by 2004. In 2000, there were some 3,916 blacks, representing 0.6% of the population. That percentage had increased to 0.7% by 2004. Among Americans of European origin, the leading groups were Germans, who made up 44% of the total population, and Norwegians, who made up 30%. Only about 1.9% of the state's population (12,114) was foreign born as of 2000, predominantly from neighboring Canada. In the same year, the Asian population totaled 3,606, with 230 Pacific Islanders. In 2000, 7,786 North Dakotans were Hispanic or Latino, representing 1.2% of the state's total population. In 2004, 1.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino, 0.7% Asian, 0.9% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

Although a few Indian words are used in the English spoken near the reservations where Ojibwa and Sioux live in North Dakota, the only general impact of Indian speech on English is in such place-names as Pembina, Mandan, Wabek, and Anamoose.

A few Norwegian food terms like lefse and lutefisk have entered the Northern dialect that is characteristic of North Dakota, and some Midland terms have intruded from the south.

In 2000, 93.7% of the population five years old or older spoke only English at home, down slightly from 92.1% in 1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Scandinavian languages" includes Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. The category "Other Native North American languages" includes Apache, Cherokee, Choctaw, Dakota, Keres, Pima, and Yupik. The category "African languages" includes Amharic, Ibo, Twi, Yoruba, Bantu, Swahili, and Somali.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 603,106 100.0
  Speak only English 565,130 93.7
  Speak a language other than English 37,976 6.3
Speak a language other than English 37,976 6.3
  German 14,931 2.5
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 8,263 1.4
  Scandinavian languages 3,193 0.5
  Other Native North American languages 2,536 0.4
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 1,597 0.3
  Other Slavic languages 1,350 0.2
  Serbo-Croatian 825 0.1
  African languages 459 0.1
  Polish 452 0.1
  Chinese 437 0.1
  Russian 331 0.1
  Tagalog 330 0.1

RELIGIONS

Most of the state population is mainline Protestant, with the leading denominations being the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 174,554 adherents (in 2000) and the Untied Methodist Church with 20,159 adherents. The Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod had about 23,720 members. The Roman Catholic Church had about 148,435 members in 2004. There were an estimate 920 Muslims and 730 Jews in the state in 2000. About 26.8% of the population did not specify a religious affiliation.

TRANSPORTATION

In 2003, there was 3,727 mi (6,000 km) of rail trackage in North Dakota. The largest railroad lines are the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) and the Soo Line. Farm products and coal accounted for most of the state originated tonnage carried by the railroads. As of 2006, Amtrak passenger service was provided to seven stations in the state via its Chicago-Seattle/Portland Empire Builder train.

There were 86,782 mi (139,719 km) of public roads, streets, and highways in North Dakota in 2004. There were also some 707,000 registered motor vehicles of all types and 461,780 licensed drivers in the state for that same year.

In 2005, North Dakota had a total of 308 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 292 airports, 15 heliports, and 1 seaplane base. Hector International Airport at Fargo is the state's main airport, with 261,872 passengers enplaned in 2004.

HISTORY

Human occupation of what is now North Dakota began about 13,000 bc in the southwestern corner of the state, which at that time was covered with lush vegetation. Drought drove away the aboriginal hunter-gatherers, and it was not until about 2,000 years ago that Indians from the more humid regions to the east moved into the easternmost third of the Dakotas. About ad 1300 the Mandan Indians brought an advanced agricultural economy up the Missouri River. They were joined by the Hidatsa and Arikara about three or four centuries later. Moving from the Minnesota forests during the 17th century, the Yanktonai Sioux occupied the southeastern quarter of the state. Their cousins west of the Missouri River, the Teton Sioux, led a nomadic life as hunters and mounted warriors. The Ojibwa, who had driven the Sioux out of Minnesota, settled in the northeast.

European penetration of the Dakotas began in 1738, when Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la Vérendrye, of Trois Riviéres in New France, traded for furs in the Red River region. Later the fur trade spread farther into the Red and Missouri river valleys, especially around Pembina, where the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company had their posts. After the Lewis and Clark expedition (180406) explored the Missouri, the American Fur Company traded there, with buffalo hides the leading commodity.

In 1812, Scottish settlers from Canada moved up the Red River to Pembina. This first white farming settlement in North Dakota also attracted numerous métis, half-breeds of mixed Indian and European ancestry. An extensive trade in furs and buffalo hides, which were transported first by heavy carts and later by steamboats, sprang up between Pembina, Ft. Garry (Winnipeg, Canada), and St. Paul, Minn.

Army movements against the Sioux during and after the Civil War brought white men into central North Dakota, which in 1861 was organized as part of the Dakota Territory, including the present-day Dakotas, Montana, and Wyoming. The signing of treaties confining the agricultural Indians to reservations, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad at Fargo in 1872, and its extension to the Missouri the following year led to the rise of homesteading on giant "bonanza farms." Settlers poured in, especially from Canada. This short-lived "Great Dakota boom" ended in the mid-1880s with drought and depressed farm prices. As many of the original American and Canadian settlers left in disgust, they were replaced by Norwegians, Germans, and other Europeans. By 1910, North Dakota, which had entered the Union in 1889, was among the leading states in percentage of foreign-born residents.

From the time of statehood onward, Republicans dominated politics in North Dakota. Their leader was Alexander McKenzie, a Canadian immigrant who built a reputation as an agent of the railroads, protecting them from regulation. Between 1898 and 1915, the "Second Boom" brought an upsurge in population and railroad construction. In politics, Republican Progressives enacted reforms, but left unsolved the basic problem of how North Dakota farmers could stand up to the powerful grain traders of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Agrarian revolt flared in 1915, when Arthur C. Townley organized the Farmers' Nonpartisan Political League. Operating through Republican Party machinery, Townley succeeded in having his gubernatorial candidate, Lynn J. Frazier, elected in 1916. State-owned enterprises were established, including the Bank of North Dakota, the Home Building Association, the Hail Insurance Department, and a mill and grain elevator. However, the league was hurt by charges of "socialism" and, after 1917, by allegations of pro-German sympathies in World War I, as well as of mismanagement. In 1921, Frazier and Attorney General William Lemke were removed from office in the nation's first recall election.

The 1920s, a period of bank failures, low farm prices, drought, and political disunity, saw the beginnings of an exodus from the state. Matters grew worse during the Great Depression. Elected governor by hard-pressed farmers in 1932, William Langer took spectacular steps to save farms from foreclosure and to raise grain prices, until a conflict with the Roosevelt administration led to his removal from office on charges that he had illegally solicited political contributions.

World War II brought a quiet prosperity to North Dakota that lasted into the following decades. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the rise of oil prices throughout the decade spurred drilling for oil, encouraged the mining of lignite for electrical generation, and led to the construction of the nation's first coal gasification plant, at a cost of $2 billion, in a lignite mining area near Beulah. In the 1980s, however, North Dakota's economy suffered a setback when oil prices dropped. In addition, a drought that began in 1987 damaged over 5.3 million acres of land by 1988 and persisted into the 1990s and early 2000s. Agricultural production was strong in early 1990s. However, severe storms and flooding in 1994 damaged about $600 million in crops. The state continues to experience extreme weather conditions.

The state's economy was boosted by the 1991 repeal of the "blue laws" enforcing the closing of all retail businesses on Sundays. Republican Governor Ed Schafer, elected in 1992 and reelected in 1996, set an aggressive plan for the state's economic development, resulting in an estimated 10% increase in the number of jobs and record-low unemployment. By 2000 Fargo boasted one of the lowest unemployment rates in the nation. Nevertheless, poverty was on the rise in the 1990s. With 15.1% of its residents living below the nationally established poverty line, North Dakota ranked as the ninth-poorest in the United States in 1998. The state had begun the decade ranked nineteenth, with a 13.7% rate. It was also one of just 15 states where child poverty was on the riseone in five children lived in poverty in 1998. However, by 200304, North Dakota had turned its poverty statistics around: the poverty rate during that two-year average was 9.7%, well below the national average of 12.6%. Per capita personal income in 2004 was $31,398, just below the US average of $32,937. In 2003, North Dakota led the nation in personal income and wage growth.

Census Bureau figures in 2000 showed the state (population 642,200) continued to be one of the least populated in the nationonly Alaska, Vermont, and Wyoming had fewer residents. Stemming the tide of North Dakotans moving out of state was a top priority. The state enjoyed the rank of safest in the nation in 1999, with only 89 crimes per 100,000 people.

As of 2005, it was illegal for unmarried couples to cohabitate in North Dakota, one of seven states to have such laws. Republican governor John Hoeven, during his second term in office, was committed to enhancing the state's business climate. In 2005, the state had a budget surplus and the budget called for tax relief through higher state funding for K-12 education, additional revenue sharing with cities and counties, tax credits for farms and businesses, and a property tax break for seniors and people with disabilities.

STATE GOVERNMENT

North Dakota is governed by the constitution of 1889, as amended (145 times by January 2005). The constitution may be amended by a majority vote in the legislature; a majority vote of the state electorate is required for ratification. Amendments may also be proposed by initiative (by petition of 4% of the state's population).

State elected officials are the governor and lieutenant governor (elected jointly), secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, three public service commissioners, and the commissioners of insurance, taxation, and agriculture. With the exception of the public service commissioners, who serve six-year terms, all terms are four years. Candidates for governor must be 30 years old, US citizens, qualified voters, and state residents for at least five years prior to election. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $85,506.

The legislature, which convenes every two years (in odd-numbered years) beginning in early January, is bicameral, with a 47-member Senate and a 94-member House of Representatives. Regular sessions are limited to 80 legislative days. The governor or a legislative council may call for a special session. All legislators must be at least 18 years old, state residents for at least one year, and qualified voters in their districts prior to election; they serve four-year terms. In 2004 legislators received a per diem salary during regular sessions of $125 per calendar day. A two-thirds vote of the elected members of each house is required to override a gubernatorial veto. Bills that are not vetoed or signed by the governor become law after three days (or after 15 days if the legislature adjourns).

Voters in North Dakota must be US citizens, at least 18 years old, and a precinct resident for at least 30 days prior to election. The state does not require voters to register. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Between 1889 and 1960, Republicans held the governorship for 58 years. North Dakota politics were not monolithic, however, for aside from the Populist and Democratic opposition, the Republican Party was itself torn by factionalism, with Progressive and Nonpartisan League challenges to the conservative, probusiness party establishment. Between 1960 and 1980, the statehouse was in Democratic hands. In the early and mid-nineties, the Republican party increased its influence at the state level, gaining dominance in both houses of the state legislature, having wrestled control of the Senate away from the Democrats in the November 1994 election. The state had 481,351 registered voters in 2002, 49% of whom turned out to vote. Following the 2004 election, the state Senate had 32 Republicans and 15 Democrats. The state House was dominated by the Republicans, who held 67 seats, while the Democrats had 27.

In the 2000 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush won 61% of the vote to Democrat Al Gore's 33%. Independent candidate Ralph Nader and Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan each received 3% of the vote. In 2004, Bush won 66% of the vote to Democratic challenger John Kerry's 33%. North Dakota had three electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

Republican John Hoeven was elected governor in 2000. North Dakota's US senators in 2003 were Kent Conrad, a Democrat elected in 1992 to fill a seat vacated by the death of Quentin D. Burdick and reelected to full terms in 1994 and 2000, and Democrat Byron Dorgan, who was also reelected for second and third terms in 1998 and 2004. Following the 2004 elections, North Dakota's sole representative to the US House was a Democrat.

North Dakota Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE N. DAKOTA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
**IND. candidate Ross Perot received 71,084 votes in 1992 and 32,515 votes in 1996.
1948 4 Dewey (R) 95,812 115,139
1952 4 *Eisenhower (R) 76,694 191,712
1956 4 *Eisenhower (R) 96,742 156,766
1960 4 Nixon (R) 123,963 154,310
1964 4 *Johnson (D) 149,784 108,207
1968 4 *Nixon (R) 94,769 138,669
1972 3 *Nixon (R) 100,384 174,109
1976 3 Ford (R) 136,078 153,470
1980 3 *Reagan (R) 79,189 193,695
1984 3 *Reagan (R) 104,429 200,336
1988 3 *Bush (R) 127,739 166,559
1992** 3 Bush (R) 99,168 136,244
1996** 3 Dole (R) 106,905 125,050
2000 3 *Bush, G. W. (R) 95,284 174,852
2004 3 *Bush, G. W. (R) 111,052 196,651

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

In 2005, North Dakota had 53 counties, 360 municipalities (all designated as cities regardless of size), 230 public school districts, and 764 special districts. In 2002, there were 1,332 special districts. Typical elected county officials are commissioners, a sheriff, a court clerk, a county judge, a county justice, and a state's attorney. Counties are divided into townships, each with its own elected administrative officers. Most municipalities operate by the mayor-council system of government.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 23,093 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in North Dakota operates under the authority of the governor; the emergency management director was designated as the state homeland security advisor.

Educational services are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Public Instruction and the Board of Higher Education; there are state schools for the deaf, blind, handicapped, and developmentally disabled. Health and welfare agencies include the State Health Department, Department of Agriculture, Department of Economic Development and Finance, Council on the Arts, Veterans Affairs Department, Department of Human Services, and Indian Affairs Commission. Agricultural services include an extensive program of experiment and extension stations.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

North Dakota has a supreme court of five justices, seven district courts with 43 justices, and a system of local (county) courts. Supreme court justices are elected for 10-year terms, district court judges for 6-year terms.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 1,327 prisoners were held in North Dakota's state and federal prisons, an increase from 1,239 of 7.1% from the previous year. As of yearend 2004, a total of 129 inmates were female, up from 113 or 14.2% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), North Dakota had an incarceration rate of 195 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, North Dakota in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 79.4 reported incidents per 100,000 population (the lowest in the United States), or a total of 504 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 12,158 reported incidents or 1,916.6 reported incidents per 100,000 people. North Dakota does not have a death penalty. It was abolished in 1973, with the last execution in that state taking place in 1930. North Dakota does provide for life without parole.

In 2003, North Dakota spent $26,679,568 on homeland security, an average of $39 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 7,840 active-duty military personnel and 1,706 civilian personnel stationed in North Dakota, the majority of whom were stationed at the Strategic Air Command bases at Minot and Grand Forks. North Dakota firms received more than $309 million in defense contract awards in 2004. Defense Department payroll outlays in that same year were $498 million.

In 2003, 55,374 veterans were living in North Dakota, including 7,558 from World War II; 6,787 from the Korean conflict; 17,850 from the Vietnam era; and 8,680 in the Persian Gulf War. A total of more than $156 million was spent on major veterans' benefit programs in the state in 2004.

As of 31 October 2004, the North Dakota Highway Patrol employed 134 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

During the late 19th century, North Dakota was largely settled by immigrants of German and Scandinavian stock. The state reached a peak population in 1930, but then suffered steady losses until well into the 1970s because of out-migration. This trend has shown some signs of abating, however. From 1980 to 1983, the state's population grew 4.3%, in part because of a net gain in migration of about 5,000 people. Also during the 1980s, the urban population grew to outnumber the rural population, rising from 48.8% to 53.3% of the total populace. From 1985 to 1990, North Dakota had a net loss of 44,142 from migration. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 30,000 in domestic migration but a net gain of 4,000 in international migration. In 1998, the state admitted 472 foreign immigrants. North Dakota's overall population decreased by 0.1% between 1990 and 1998. In the period 200005, net international migration was 3,687 and net internal migration was 18,568, for a net loss of 14,881 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

North Dakota participates in such interstate agreements as the Yellowstone River Compact, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Interstate Compact for Juveniles, and Interstate Oil and Gas Compact. A Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary Compact was ratified in 1961. Federal grants in fiscal year 2001 totaled almost $1.3 billion. Mirroring a national trend, that figure declined significantly by fiscal year 2005, to $935 million. Federal grants were estimated at $908 million in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $921 million in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

North Dakota has been and still is an important agricultural state, especially as a producer of wheat, much of which finds its way onto the world market. Many segments of the economy are affected by agriculture; for example, a substantial wholesale trade is involved in moving grain and livestock to market. Like other Midwestern farmers, North Dakotans suffered from high interest rates and a federal embargo on grain shipments to the Soviet Union in the early 1980s. Farm numbers have continued to decline, posing a threat to the vitality of the state's rural lifestyle. From 1970, 43 of North Dakota's 53 counties have lost population, and for 23 of these the population decline accelerated in the 1990s. The exodus has been aggravated by prolonged drought conditions, which in 2002 helped reduce wheat production (representing a quarter of the state's total agricultural revenues) by 24% and disrupted cattle production. Not being deeply involved in the dot.com frenzy of the 1990s, North Dakota was only slightly affected by the national recession and slowdown of 2001 and 2002. By December 2002, state unemployment which had risen to 3.6% in October, had fallen back to 3%.

Growth industries for the state include petroleum and the mining of coal, chiefly lignite. North Dakota has more coal resources than any other state. Manufacturing is concentrated to a great extent on farm products and machinery.

North Dakota's gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $22.687 billion, of which manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $2.366 billion or 10.4% of GSP, followed by health care and social assistance services at $2.069 billion (9.1% of GSP), and the real estate sector at $1.840 billion (8.1% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 59,158 small businesses in North Dakota. Of the 19,177 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 18,522 or 96.6% were small companies. An estimated 1,747 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 20% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 2,621, up 27.9% from 2003. There were 85 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 19% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 345 filings per 100,000 people, ranking North Dakota as the 46th highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 North Dakota had a gross state product (GSP) of $24 billion which accounted for 0.2% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 50 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 North Dakota had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $29,494. This ranked 37th in the United States and was 89% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.5%. North Dakota had a total personal income (TPI) of $18,767,503,000, which ranked 50th in the United States and reflected an increase of 2.8% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 4.4%. Earnings of persons employed in North Dakota increased from $14,513,974,000 in 2003 to $14,966,009,000 in 2004, an increase of 3.1%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 2002 to 2004 in 2004 dollars was $39,594 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 10.3% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in North Dakota numbered 363,900, with approximately 12,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.3%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 349,800. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in North Dakota was 6.9% in March 1983. The historical low was 2.5% in January 1998. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 5.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 10.4% in manufacturing; 21.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5.4% in financial activities; 7.7% in professional and business services; 14% in education and health services; 9.2% in leisure and hospitality services; and 21.5% in government.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 21,000 of North Dakota's 289,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 7.3% of those so employed, down from 7.7% in 2004, and below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 26,000 workers (9.2%) in North Dakota were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. North Dakota is one of 22 states with a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, North Dakota had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $5.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.8% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

North Dakota's farm marketings totaled $3.96 billion in 2005. Typically, North Dakota is the number one producer of hard spring wheat, durum wheat, sunflowers, barley, oats, flax, all dry edible beans, and pinto beans. In 2004, North Dakota led the nation in spring wheat, drum wheat, barley, dry edible beans, sun-flowers, and was second in the nation in overall wheat production. production.

The total number of farms has declined over the years as the average size of farming operations has increased. In 2004, the state had approximately 30,300 farms and ranches occupying 39.4 million acres (16 million hectares) and producing 306.5 million bushels of wheat (second after Kansas), 91.7 million bushels of barley (1st), 791.7 million lb of sunflowers, 14.1 million bushels of oats, 4.75 hundredweight of dry edible beans (1st), 120.8 million bushels of corn, 4.8 million tons of sugar beets (third), and 26.7 million hundredweight of potatoes. The average farm is 1,300 acres (526 hectares).

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

North Dakota farms and ranches had an estimated 1.7 million cattle and calves, valued at $1.83 billion in 2005. During 2004, there were around 169,000 hogs and pigs, worth $18.6 million. North Dakota farmers produced nearly 7 million lb (3.2 million kg) of sheep and lambs, which brought in $7.5 million in gross income in 2003, and nearly 29.4 million lb (13.4 million kg) of turkey were produced in that same year. North Dakota was the leading producer of honey in 2004, with 9.1 million lb (4.1 million kg), worth $31.9 million.

FISHING

There is little commercial fishing in North Dakota. The Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery produces up to 3 million northern pike and nearly 10 million walleye each year. Other species produced there and at the Valley City National Fish Hatchery include smallmouth bass, crappie, rainbow trout, lake trout, brown trout, cutthroat trout, chinook salmon, paddlefish, and pallid sturgeon. In 2004, the state issued 168,497 sport fishing licenses.

FORESTRY

The dispersed forests on the rolling prairie are not a dominant feature of the landscape; North Dakota's climate is more favorable to grassland ecosystems. At the time of settlement, native forests cov-ered about 700,000 acres (283,000 hectares). In 2004, there were 673,000 acres (272,000 hectares) of forestland, with 441,000 acres (178,000 hectares) classified as viable timberland. Agricultural clearing, inundation by reservoirs, and other land use changes have resulted in a 9% reduction in total forestland since 1954.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by North Dakota in 2003 was $37.7 million, an increase from 2002 of about 3%.

According to the preliminary data for 2003, construction sand and gravel was the state's leading nonfuel mineral by value and accounted for around 75% of all nonfuel minerals produced, by value. In second place was lime, which was followed by crushed stone.

The preliminary data for 2003 showed that a total of 10.6 million metric tons of construction sand and gravel were produced, having a value of $8.1 million. Lapidary and collectible materials such as petrified wood, agates, jasper, and flint are also found in North Dakota. The state is also a producer of leonardite, an oxidized lignite that is used for viscosity control in oil well drilling muds, as a dispersant, a soil conditioner, and as a stabilizer for ion-exchange resins.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, North Dakota had 39 electrical power service providers, of which 12 were publicly owned and 23 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, three were investor owned and one was federally operated. As of that same year there were 354,323 retail customers. Of that total, 213,027 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 130,081 customers, while publicly owned providers had 11,197 customers. There were 18 federal customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 4.644 million kW, with total production that same year at 31.322 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 99.2% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 29.427 billion kWh (94%), came from coal-fired plants, with hydroelectric plants in second place at 1.723 billion kWh (5.5%). Other renewable power sources, petroleum fired plants, and plants using other types of gases each accounted for 0.2%.

North Dakota in 2004, had four producing coal mines, all of which were surface operations. Coal production that year totaled 29,943,000 short tons, down from 30,775,000 short tons in 2003. Recoverable coal reserves in 2004 totaled 1.19 billion short tons. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

As of 2004, North Dakota had proven crude oil reserves of 389 million barrels, or over 2% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 85,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked ninth (eighth excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and tenth (ninth excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 North Dakota had 3,072 producing oil wells and accounted for 2% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's sole refinery had a crude oil distillation capacity of 58,000 barrels per day.

In 2004, North Dakota had 117 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 55.009 billion cu ft (1.56 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 417 billion cu ft (11.8 billion cu m).

INDUSTRY

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, North Dakota's manufacturing sector covered some seven product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $7.371 billion. Of that total, food manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $2.370 billion. It was followed by machinery manufacturing at $1.874 billion; computer and electronic product manufacturing at $454.510 million; wood product manufacturing at $305.188 million; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $261.463 million.

In 2004, a total of 22,027 people in North Dakota were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 16,485 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the food manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 4,902 with 3,808 actual production workers. It was followed by machinery manufacturing at 4,707 employees (3,331 actual production workers); wood product manufacturing at 1,908 employees (1,745 actual production workers); computer and electronic product manufacturing at 1,785 employees (1,192 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing at 1,573 employees (1,208 actual production workers); and fabricated metal product manufacturing with 1,417 employees (1,132 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that North Dakota's manufacturing sector paid $764.390 million in wages. Of that amount, the machinery manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $182.480 million. It was followed by food manufacturing at $159.059 million; wood product manufacturing at $68.594 million; computer and electronic product manufacturing at $66.649 million; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $55.437 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, North Dakota's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $8.8 billion from 1,485 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 751 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 691 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 43 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $2.7 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $5.4 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $627.3 million.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, North Dakota was listed as having 3,433 retail establishments with sales of $7.7 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: gasoline stations (496); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (471); building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers (432); food and beverage stores (368); and miscellaneous store retailers (353). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $2.08 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $1.1 billion; gasoline stations at $1.01 billion; and food and beverage stores at $902.4 million. A total of 41,342 people were employed by the retail sector in North Dakota that year.

Exports of North Dakota origin totaled nearly $1.2 billion in 2005, ranking the state 46th in the nation.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Allegations of consumer fraud and other illegal business practices are handled by the Consumer Protection and Antitrust Division (CPAT) of the state's Attorney General's Office. The CPAT can investigate and prosecute instances of consumer fraud, as well as mediate consumer-business disputes and educates the public on how to avoid consumer fraud.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil (but not criminal) proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law. However the Office cannot initiate criminal proceedings in antitrust cases.

The offices of the Consumer Protection and Antitrust Division are located in Bismarck.

BANKING

As of June 2005, North Dakota had 100 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 38 state-chartered and 20 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Fargo market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, with 25 institutions and $3.412 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 8.3% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $1.458 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 91.7% or $16.180 billion in assets held.

Regulation of state-chartered banks and other state-chartered financial institutions is the responsibility of the North Dakota Department of Financial Institutions and its three divisions: the Banking Division; the Credit Union Division; and the Consumer Division.

In 2004, the median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) stood at 4.15%, down from 4.17% in 2003.

INSURANCE

In 2004, North Dakota had 416,000 life insurance policies in force, worth over $38.8 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was about $56 billion. The average coverage amount is $93,500 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled over $138.3 million.

As of 2003, there were 19 property and casualty and 4 life and health insurance companies domiciled in the state. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled over $1.2 billion. That year, there were 5,136 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $685 million.

In 2004, 55% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 10% held individual policies, and 21% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 11% of residents were uninsured. North Dakota has the highest percentage of individual (non employment-based) policy holders among the fifty states. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 19% for single coverage and 27% for family coverage. The state offers a 39-week health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were 554,234 auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $25,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $565.30, which is the lowest average of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

SECURITIES

North Dakota has no securities exchanges. In 2005, there were 170 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 480 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over six publicly traded companies within the state, with over four NASDAQ companies and two NYSE listings. In 2006, the state had one Fortune 1,000 company; MDU Resources Group, listed on the NYSE and based in Bismarck, ranked 546th in the nation with revenues of over $3.4 billion.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Total expenditures for fiscal years 199597 (including federal and special funds) totaled approximately $3.6 billion, including $500 million for transportation, a total of $1.1 billion for health and human services, and a total of $1.3 billion for education. North Dakota has the only state-owned bank and state-owned mill, contributing $50 million and $3 million, respectively, to the general fund during the fiscal year 199901 biennium.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $1.1 billion for resources and $975 million for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to North Dakota were $1.5 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, North Dakota was slated to receive: $7.8 million in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) funds to help the state provide health coverage to low-income, uninsured children who do not qualify for Medicaid. This funding is a 23% increase over fiscal year 2006; $4 million for the HOME Investment Partnership Program to help North Dakota fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership, or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. This funding is a 13% increase over fiscal year 2006; and $12 million to complete the

North DakotaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 5,228,053 8,220.21
  General revenue 3,172,034 4,987.47
    Intergovernmental revenue 1,220,547 1,919.10
    Taxes 1,228,890 1,932.22
      General sales 367,304 577.52
      Selective sales 299,434 470.81
      License taxes 118,377 186.13
      Individual income tax 213,982 336.45
      Corporate income tax 49,807 78.31
      Other taxes 179,986 283.00
    Current charges 516,265 811.74
    Miscellaneous general revenue 206,332 324.42
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 2,056,019 3,232.73
Total expenditure 3,197,884 5,028.12
  Intergovernmental expenditure 613,513 964.64
  Direct expenditure 2,584,371 4,063.48
    Current operation 1,960,581 3,082.67
    Capital outlay 281,143 442.05
    Insurance benefits and repayments 223,187 350.92
    Assistance and subsidies 42,952 67.53
    Interest on debt 76,508 120.30
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 560,791 881.75
Total expenditure 3,197,884 5,028.12
  General expenditure 2,974,697 4,677.20
    Intergovernmental expenditure 613,513 964.64
    Direct expenditure 2,361,184 3,712.55
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 1,057,056 1,662.04
    Public welfare 683,035 1,073.95
    Hospitals 44,002 69.19
    Health 57,081 89.75
    Highways 385,158 605.59
    Police protection 13,866 21.80
    Correction 45,458 71.47
    Natural resources 133,888 210.52
    Parks and recreation 13,934 21.91
    Government administration 123,047 193.47
    Interest on general debt 76,508 120.30
    Other and unallocable 341,664 537.21
  Utility expenditure - -
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 223,187 350.92
Debt at end of fiscal year 1,662,390 2,613.82
Cash and security holdings 7,301,736 11,480.72

Army Corps of Engineers' urban flood damage reduction project in Grand Forks-East Grand Forks.

TAXATION

In 2005, North Dakota collected $1,403 million in tax revenues or $2,203 per capita, which placed it 21st among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 0.1% of the total; sales taxes, 29.2%; selective sales taxes, 21.3%; individual income taxes, 17.2%; corporate income taxes, 5.4%; and other taxes, 26.7%.

As of 1 January 2006, North Dakota had five individual income tax brackets ranging from 2.1 to 5.54%. The state taxes corporations at rates ranging from 2.6 to 7.0% depending on tax bracket.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $584,622,000 or $919 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 31st nationally. Local governments collected $583,144,000 of the total and the state government $1,478,000.

North Dakota taxes retail sales at a rate of 5%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 2.50%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 7.50%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 44 cents per pack, which ranks 38th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. North Dakota taxes gasoline at 23 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, North Dakota citizens received $1.73 in federal spending, which ranks the state fifth-highest nationally.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The North Dakota Economic Development and Finance Division of the Department of Commerce seeks to attract new industry, retain and expand existing industry, promote start-up businesses, and develop markets for state products. The state uses a local approach to provide business incentives, including job training, financing, and tax-abatement programs. The main operating units within the division include the Rural Development Council, Research, Marketing, and Business Development. Other divisions within the Department of Commerce focus on Community Services, Tourism and Workforce Development.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 5.8 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 12.6 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 9.9 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 87.3% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 82% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 9.6 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 255.9; cancer, 203.9; cerebrovascular diseases, 74; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 50.8; and diabetes, 33.7. North Dakota and Ohio share the distinction of having the third-highest diabetes mortality rate in the nation (following West Virginia and Louisiana). The mortality rate from HIV infection was not available in 2002. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 2.7 per 100,000 population, on of the lowest in the nation. In 2002, about 59.3% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 19.8% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, North Dakota had 40 community hospitals with about 3,600 beds. There were about 88,000 patient admissions that year and 1.8 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 2,100 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $859. Also in 2003, there were about 84 certified nursing facilities in the state with 6,582 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 93.2%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 69.6% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. North Dakota had 244 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 1,059 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 319 dentists in the state.

About 12% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs in 2003; 16% were enrolled in Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 11% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $767,000.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 13,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $226. For 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 42,204 persons (18,927 households); the average monthly benefit was about $88.21 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $44.6 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. North Dakota's TANF program is called Training, Employment, Education Management (TEEM). In 2004, the state program had 8,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $29 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 114,720 North Dakota residents. This number included 71,820 retired workers, 15,650 widows and widowers, 10,820 disabled workers, 9.330 spouses, and 7,100 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 18% of the total state population and 94.9% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $891; widows and widowers, $869; disabled workers, $840; and spouses, $447. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $489 per month; children of deceased workers, $582; and children of disabled workers, $274. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 7,966 North Dakota residents, averaging $337 a month. An additional $160,000 of state-administered supplemental payments were distributed to 355 residents.

HOUSING

In 2004, North Dakota had 300,815 housing units, 262,585 of which were occupied; 68.1% were owner-occupied. About 63.2% of all housing units were single-family, detached homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 10,860 units lacked telephone services, 1,161 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 1,825 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.32 members.

In 2004, 4,000 new privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $84,354, one of the lowest in the nation. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $902. Renters paid a median of $466 per month, representing the second-lowest rate in the nation (above West Virginia). In 2006, the state received over $4.9 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

EDUCATION

In 2004, 89.5% of North Dakota residents age 25 and older were high school graduates; 25.2% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in North Dakota's public schools stood at 104,000. Of these, 69,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 35,000 attended high school. Approximately 88% of the students were white, 1.2% were black, 1.4% were Hispanic, 0.8% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 8.5% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 102,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 94,000 by 2014, a decline of 10.2% during the period 200214. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $901 million. There were 6,209 students enrolled in 52 private schools. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in North Dakota scored 287 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 45,800 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 9.4% of total postsecondary enrollment. In 2005 North Dakota had 21 degree-granting institutions. The chief universities are the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks and North Dakota State University in Fargo. The North Dakota Student Financial Assistance Program offers scholarships for North Dakota college students, and the state Indian Scholarship Board provides aid to Native Americans attending college in the state.

ARTS

The North Dakota Council on the Arts (NDCA) was established in 1967 and is a branch of the North Dakota state government. NDCA provides grants to local artists and groups such as the Trollwood Performing Arts School and the Annual United Tribes Indian Art Expo; encourages visits by out-of-state artists and exhibitions; and provides information and other services to the general public.

In 2005, the North Dakota Council of the Arts and other North Dakota arts organizations received 9 grants totaling $647,800 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The state also provided the council with funding. In 2006, the North Dakota Humanities Council, established in 1973, provided programs that included Read North Dakota, to promote literature from and about the state, and the Great Plains Chautauqua Society. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $778,772 to six state programs.

The historic Fargo Theater presents live theatrical performances as well as films and sponsors the annual Fargo Film Festival. Fargo is also the center for the Fargo-Moorhead Opera and the Fargo-Moorhead Symphony. The Northern Plains Ballet is based in Bismarck but tours to Sioux Falls, Fargo, Billings, and Grand Forks.

Two popular musical events are the Old Time Fiddlers Contest (at Dunseith in June) and the Medora Musical (Medora, June through Labor Day); the latter features Western songs and dance.

The North Dakota Museum of Art is the official state art museum. Founded in the mid-1970s, its permanent collection focuses on, but is not exclusive to, contemporary Native American Art.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In 2001, North Dakota had 82 public library systems, with a total of 89 libraries, of which eight were branches. In that same year, North Dakota public libraries had 2,158,000 volumes of books and serial publications on their shelves, and a total circulation of 3,937,000. The system also had 61,000 audio and 51,000 video items, 7,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and 14 bookmobiles. The leading academic library was that of the University of North Dakota (Grand Forks), with 1,221,953 items. In 2001, operating income for the state's public library system totaled $8,837,000 and included $75,000 in federal funding and $565,000 in state funding. Operating expenditures that year totaled $8,185,000, of which 60.5% was spent on staff, and 19.6% on the collection.

Among the most notable of the state's 50 museums are the Art Galleries and Zoology Museum of the University of North Dakota and the North Dakota Heritage Center at Bismarck, which has an outstanding collection of Indian artifacts. Theodore Roosevelt National Park contains relics from the Elkhorn ranch where Roosevelt lived in the 1880s.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, 95.0% of North Dakota's occupied housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June 2002 there were 245,578 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 61.2% of North Dakota households had a computer and 53.2% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 56,057 high-speed lines in North Dakota, 47,278 residential and 8,799 for business. There were 28 major radio stations (10 AM, 18 FM) in 2005. As of 2005, 9 major network television stations were in operation. A total of 15,091 Internet domain names were registered in North Dakota in 2000.

PRESS

As of 2005, there were six morning dailies and four evening dailies. There were also seven Sunday papers in the state. The leading dailies were the Fargo Forum, with a daily circulation of 51,106, Sunday, 62,097; the Grand Forks Herald, 31,524 morning, 34,763 Sunday; the Minot Daily News, 20,974 morning, 21,848 Sunday; and the Bismarck Tribune, 27,620 morning, 31,081 Sunday. In addition, there were about 15 periodicals. The leading historical journal is North Dakota Horizons, a quarterly founded in 1971.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,276 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 770 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. Two of the state's largest organizations are the Friends (Service Club) and the Northwest Farm Managers Association, both headquartered in Fargo.

State organizations focusing on arts, culture, history, and the environment include Arts on the Prairie, ArtWise, the Bluegrass and Old Time Music Association of North Dakota, the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation, Fargo Garden Society, the North Dakota Council on Arts, the Badlands Conservation Alliance. and the North Dakota Wildlife Federation. The North Dakota Academy of Science is located in Grand Forks. There are at least three chapters of the Sons of Norway active in the state.

The National Sunflower Association is in Bismarck.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

North Dakota's 17 state parks received 922,434 visitors in 2003, a 5% decline over 2002. Visitors to Theodore Roosevelt National Park and other national historic sites in the state in 2003 numbered 517,356, representing a 15% increase over 2002. Some 40% of all park users come from other states and countries.

A $1.8-million tourism campaign in 2005 brought $88 million in tourism revenue to the state. Tourism is North Dakota's second-largest industry, accounting for $3 billion of economic impact.

Among the leading tourist attractions is the International Peace Garden, covering 2,200 acres (890 hectares) in North Dakota and Manitoba; it commemorates friendly relations between the United States and Canada. Ft. Abraham Lincoln State Park, south of Mandan, has been restored to evoke the 1870s, when General Custer left the area for his "last stand" against the Sioux. The most spectacular scenery in North Dakota is found in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The so-called "badlands," an integral part of the park, consist of strangely colored and intricately eroded buttes and other rock formations. Hunting and fishing are major recreational activities in North Dakota.

SPORTS

There are no major professional sports teams in North Dakota. In collegiate football, the University of North Dakota Fighting Sioux and the North Dakota State University Bison compete in the North Central Conference. The University of North Dakota competes in collegiate ice hockey, winning National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships in 1959, 1963, 1980, 1982, 1987, 1997, and 2000.

Other annual sporting events include the PWT Championship (a walleye fishing tournament) in Bismarck in September, and several rodeos throughout the state. Former New York Yankee slugger Roger Maris grew up in Fargo, North Dakota.

FAMOUS NORTH DAKOTANS

Preeminent among North Dakota politicians known to the nation was Gerald P. Nye (b.Wisconsin, 18921971), a US senator and a leading isolationist opponent of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy, as was Senator William Langer (18861959). Another prominent senator, Porter J. McCumber (18581933), supported President Woodrow Wilson in the League of Nations battle. US Representative William Lemke (18781950) sponsored farm-relief legislation and in 1936 ran for US president on the Union Party ticket. Usher L. Burdick (18791960), a maverick isolationist and champion of the American Indian, served 18 years in the US House of Representatives.

Vilhjalmur Stefansson (b.Canada, 18791962) recorded in numerous books his explorations and experiments in the high Arctic. Orin G. Libby (18641952) made a significant contribution to the study of American history. Other North Dakota-nurtured writers and commentators include Maxwell Anderson (b.Pennsylvania, 18881959), a Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright; Edward K. Thompson (Minnesota, 190796), editor of Life magazine and founder-editor of Smithsonian; radio and television commentator Eric Severeid (19121992); and novelist Larry Woiwode (b.1941).

To the entertainment world North Dakota has contributed band leaders Harold Bachman (18921972), Lawrence Welk (190392), and Tommy Tucker (Gerald Duppler, 190889); jazz vocalist Peggy Lee (Norma Delores Egstrom, b.1920) and country singer Lynn Anderson (b.1947); and actresses Dorothy Stickney (190098) and Angie Dickinson (Angeline Brown, b.1931).

Sports personalities associated with the state include outfielder Roger Maris (193485), who in 1961 broke Babe Ruth's record for home runs in one season.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barbour, Barton H. Fort Union and the Upper Missouri Fur Trade. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

DeLorme Mapping Company. North Dakota Atlas & Gazetteer: Topo Maps of the Entire State: Back Roads, Outdoor Recreation. Yarmouth, Me.: DeLorme, 1999.

Hintz, Martin. North Dakota. New York: Children's Press, 2000.

Hoover, Herbert T. The Sioux and Other Native American Cultures of the Dakotas: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

McMacken, Robin. The Dakotas: Off the Beaten Path. Old Say-brook, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 1998.

Ostler, Jeffrey. The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Parzybok, Tye W. Weather Extremes in the West. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press, 2005.

Preston, Thomas. Great Plains: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Vol. 4 in The Double Eagle Guide to 1,000 Great Western Recreation Destinations. Billings, Mont.: Discovery Publications, 2003.

Raaen, Aagot. Grass of the Earth: Immigrant Life in Dakota Country. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1994.

Rees, Amanda (ed.). The Great Plains Region. Vol. 1 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. North Dakota, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA

NORTH DAKOTA, a state with an area of 70,665 square miles, is bounded by the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan to the north, Montana to the west, and South Dakota to the south. The meandering Red River of the North forms the state's eastern border with Minnesota. The state's topography is as varied as it is beautiful. Pembina, the lowest point at 792 feet above sea-level, is situated in North Dakota's northeast corner. To the west, the fertile farms give way to prairies teeming with migratory waterfowl and rolling hills along the Sheyenne, Missouri, and Knife Rivers. In western North Dakota, vast grasslands, plateaus, and multicolored Badlands

dot the landscape, and the state's highest point, White Butte, rises 3,506 feet above sea-level.

Colonial Origins

When Europeans first arrived on the northern Plains during the eighteenth century, they encountered the agricultural Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara, who lived in earth lodge villages near the Missouri River. The Chippewa or Ojibway resided to the east in the Turtle and Pembina Mountains. The seminomadic Assiniboine, Cree, Cheyenne, and Dakota or Lakota (called "Sioux" by their enemies) depended upon the bison for their survival. Although the acquisition of the horse transformed these groups into seminomadic buffalo hunters by 1750, they also established commercial ties with traders.

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Vérendrye, the first known European to reach present-day North Dakota, visited the region in 1738 during his futile search for a Northwest Passage. The race for colonies, which sparked several armed conflicts, ultimately delayed European settlement of the Northern Plains. In fact, Great Britain, France, and Spain each claimed the Dakotas at some point during the eighteenth century. In 1763, following Britain's victory in the French and Indian War, England acquired France's North American holdings, including the Red River valley, which England later surrendered to the United States in 1818.

From 1762 until 1800, Spain controlled all lands drained by the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Napoleon Bonaparte regained this territory for France in 1800, only to sell it to the United States on 2 May 1803. Following Senate approval of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804, President Thomas Jefferson dispatched Meriwether Louis and William Clark to explore the region. The Corps of Discovery's subsequent two-year expedition, much of which was spent in North Dakota at Fort Mandan, revealed a land teaming with abundant game and peaceful natives. Trappers eager to accumulate wealth rushed in. By 1827, the Upper Missouri Outfit monopolized the business. Sadly, the fur trade unleashed a series of devastating epidemics that decimated the region's Natives beginning in 1837.

Dakota Territory and Statehood

Violence erupted across the northern Plains when white settlement increased after the creation on 2 March 1861 of the Dakota Territory, an area initially encompassing the two Dakotas and parts of Montana and Wyoming. The subsequent Homestead Act of 1862, a law offering pioneers 160 acres of free or inexpensive land, accelerated settlement. That same year, Dakota warriors attacked Fort Abercrombie, the first military fort established in present-day North Dakota. General Alfred Sully's subsequent victories at the battles of Whitestone Hill and Killdeer Mountain created conditions fostering white settlement by 1868.

Construction of the westbound Northern Pacific Railway and gold-hungry miners sparked more bloody conflicts during the 1870s. Weakened by disease and hunger, many tribal groups accepted the government's offer of permanent reservations. Lakota warriors, led by Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Crazy Horse, remained defiant. Only the destruction of the bison herds forced Sitting Bull, the last holdout, to surrender at Fort Buford in northwestern Dakota Territory in 1881. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, many of the state's 35,228 American Indians lived on one of five reservations: Spirit Lake, Fort Berthold, Standing Rock, Turtle Mountain, and Lake Traverse.

Political Trends

Alexander McKenzie, the Northern Pacific's political agent in northern Dakota, demonstrated the power of outside corporate interests when he conspired with Nehemiah Ordway, the corrupt Republican governor of the Dakota Territory, in 1883 to transfer the territorial capital from Yankton to Bismarck, a town located on the railroad's main line. Hard feelings regarding the relocation motivated residents of southern Dakota Territory to push for the creation of two separate states. On 2 November 1889, President Benjamin Harrison signed legislation admitting both North Dakota and South Dakota into the Union.

Populists, who dominated state politics during the depression years of the early 1890s, fought government corruption. Seeking to strengthen their position, they joined forces with Democrats in 1892 to elect Governor Eli Shortridge. Although defeated by McKenzie's powerful Republican machine in 1894, the reformers had forced the railroads to reduce their rates. When political bosses continued to ignore calls for reform, George Win-ship, the editor of the Grand Forks Herald, founded the Good Government League in 1905. The following year, angry voters elected "Honest" John Burke, the state's first Democratic governor. New movements, particularly the American Society of Equity and the North Dakota Socialist Party, continued to fight outside predatory interests. The progressives' direct appeals to voters tired of corruption produced several changes, including cooperative rural grain elevators, direct primaries, the initiative and referendum, workers' compensation laws, and laws regulating monopolies.

The revolt against out-of-state banks, railroads, and grain interests culminated in Arthur C. Townley's establishment of the Nonpartisan League in 1915. Progressives eager to improve services and to eliminate corruption from government elected Lynn J. Frazier governor in 1918. Frightened conservatives responded by establishing the Independent Voters Association to fight the Non-partisan League, its candidates, and its proposals. The economic downturn of the 1920s ultimately ended the Nonpartisan League's political power but not its legacy. Despite fierce opposition, reformers created the Bank of North Dakota and the State Mill and Elevator. Remarkably, both state-owned businesses survived into the twenty-first century.

The economic catastrophe of the 1920s and 1930s united citizens in a campaign to eliminate the crooked practices that drove them into bankruptcy. The North Dakota Farmers' Union, established in 1927, became more militant as the depression worsened. William Langer became governor in 1933, and that year he reacted to the farmers' plight by imposing a moratorium on mortgage foreclosure sales. Hoping to drive up commodity prices, Langer also issued an embargo on the shipment of grain and beef from North Dakota. A federal investigation, however, threatened to derail the political maverick's career. The sham trial that followed resulted in the governor's conviction and removal from office in 1934. Langer, whose conviction was overturned following a lengthy legal battle, was reelected governor in 1936 as an independent.

The explosive politics of the Great Depression evolved into a modern political tug-of-war between two parties. The Republicans, led by Fred G. Aandahl and Milton R. Young, dominated the state's post–World War II politics. Liberals, responding to the Republican dominance of the 1940s and 1950s, joined forces. The tactic produced positive results when, in 1958, Quentin N. Burdick became North Dakota's first Democratic congressman. Two years later, a Democrat, William L. Guy, was elected governor, a post Democrats occupied until 1981.

During the 1980s, Republicans reasserted their political clout. After 1986, when Democrats gained control of the state senate for the first time, Republicans piled up impressive electoral victories. By 2000, Republicans once again dominated both branches of the state legislature. Despite the popularity of Republicans, however, North Dakotans, leery of entrusting too much power to one party, subsequently elected an all-Democratic congressional delegation.

Economic and Population Trends

Pacification of the region's Indians, coupled with the completion of new railways, attracted 100,000 new settlers to Dakota Territory between 1879 and 1886. By 1890, North Dakota's population had reached 190,983. Bonanza farms, extensive operations exceeding 3,000 acres, helped popularize North Dakota's bounty. A series of harsh winters, floods, and drought later drove many pioneers away. A second wave of settlers from 1898 to 1915, mostly Scandinavians and Germans, increased the state's resident population to 646,872 by 1920.

A twenty-year depression, compounded by prolonged drought, began in 1921. Hardship and out-migration followed as 40,000 residents fled the state, dubbed "the Too Much Mistake, " during the 1930s. Favorable weather conditions and wartime demand for commodities triggered an economic recovery. By 1974 increased global demands produced record-breaking commodity prices. Within two years, however, slumping grain sales and plummeting wheat prices drove many farmers into bankruptcy. Agricultural price supports became a necessary means of survival for many farmers. During the 1990s, weak international demand for American commodities produced even lower prices. The Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, which replaced price supports with a fixed and slowly declining subsidy, aggravated the situation. Not surprisingly, the decline of the state's family farms continued.

While North Dakota's reliance on agriculture declined, the state remained a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, barley, sunflower seeds, canola, and flaxseed. The success of producer-owned cooperatives, particularly the Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative and the Dakota Pasta Growers Association, became encouraging. In addition, the growth of the state's food processing and agricultural equipment manufacturing industries helped revive North Dakota's slumping agricultural economy.

The energy sector, notably coal and oil, has played a critical role in the state's economy. The discovery of high-grade oil near Tioga on 4 April 1951 initiated the state's petroleum industry. The energy crisis of the 1970s revitalized western North Dakota's crude oil operations. A decade later, the oil boom peaked with 52.7 million barrels of crude oil production in 1984. By 1992, production had dropped to 32.9 million barrels. However, international trends, particularly rising energy costs and the uncertain production policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), rekindled interest in the nation's ninth largest oil-producing state.

The state's bountiful lignite coal deposits also attracted investors. Following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, corporations built several generating facilities and launched huge strip-mining operations in the state. Exporting two thirds of its power production, North Dakota became a major supplier of electrical power. The quest for alternative sources of energy also produced the country's first coal-to-synthetic natural gas conversion facility near Beulah in 1983.

North Dakota's industrial structure differs from other states. North Dakota relies heavily upon government employment, with 21 percent of all workers classified as government employees versus just 15 percent nationwide. Unlike other states, North Dakota's manufacturing sector employs a mere 7 percent of the state's workers, half the national average. In addition, agriculture's role in the state economy is five times as large as the national average, with farm production accounting for 7.6 percent of the state's total economic output. When farm-related industries, such as food processing and transportation and distribution of food products, are factored in, this figure rises to 13 percent.

Recognizing the danger of relying too heavily on the boom-and-bust cycles of the state's leading industries, North Dakotans have implemented measures to diversify the state's economy. As a result, the percentage of residents in private nonfarm employment increased 26.8 percent between 1990 and 1998, nearly doubling the national average of 15.7 percent during the same period. Motivated by the success of Fargo's Microsoft Great Plains Business Solutions, politicians also lured information technology businesses to the state by touting North Dakota's affordable utilities, high quality of life, educated workforce, low taxes, and right-to-work laws. The economy also benefited from a booming service sector industry consisting of bank service centers, travel agencies, computer technical support facilities, and health care management companies.

Tourism also became a fast-growing industry. History buffs enjoy the state's abundance of museums, historic trading posts, and military forts. The International Peace Garden and the rugged Badlands also attract visitors. The legalization of casino gambling on the state's American Indian reservations in 1992 and 1993 fueled tremendous growth in amusement and recreation services across the state, and the booming gaming industry brought economic development to the reservation communities. Outdoor enthusiasts, eager to take advantage of the state's unpolluted environment, arrived in growing numbers.

While economic diversification remained central to North Dakota's development, legislators recognized the need to attract new residents. Following a massive influx of Europeans during the 1920s, the state's population peaked at 680,845 in 1930. By 1950, the resident population had dipped to 619,636. In 1970, the state's population reached a modern low of 617,792. The 1980 census counted 652,717 residents, marking the state's first population gain since 1930. The 1990 census, however, enumerated only 638,800 residents, and by 2000 that number had increased to only 642,200 people. North Dakota's Hispanic and American Indian populations increased during the 1990s.

Census numbers also point to the continuing decline of rural North Dakota. While the 1990 census revealed that the state's urban population had eclipsed the rural population, the 2000 census revealed that only six of the state's fifty-three counties gained population during the 1990s. Amazingly half of the counties lost 10 percent of their residents during the decade, a fact attributed to the slumping agricultural economy and out-migration to Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, and Minot.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the residents of North Dakota continued to reap the benefits of their reform-minded predecessors, who established a system of government that limited corruption in politics by empowering the people with a direct share in the decision-making process. Although they frequently disagreed, North Dakotans wanted to solve the thorny issues that most threatened their state, including halting the out-migration of young people, promoting rural economic development, and diversifying an economy historically tied to the volatile agriculture and energy sectors.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bochert, John R. America's Northern Heartland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Danbom, David B. Born in the Country: A History of Rural America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

———. "North Dakota: The Most Midwestern State." In Heart Land: Comparative Histories of the Midwestern States. Edited by James H. Madison. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Howard, Thomas W., ed. The North Dakota Political Tradition. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1981.

Kraenzel, Carl Frederick. The Great Plains in Transition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955.

Lamar, Howard Roberts. Dakota Territory, 1861–1889: A Study of Frontier Politics. Rev. ed. Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1997. The definitive history of Dakota Territory politics.

Lindgren, H. Elaine. Land in Her Own Name: Women as Homesteaders in North Dakota. Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1991.

Newgard, Thomas P., William C. Sherman, and John Guerrero. African-Americans in North Dakota: Sources and Assessments. Bismarck, N.Dak.: University of Mary Press, 1994.

Robinson, Elwyn B. History of North Dakota. Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1995.

Schneider, Mary Jane. North Dakota Indians: An Introduction. 2d ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1994.

Tweton, D. Jerome, and Theodore B. Jellif. North Dakota: The Heritage of a People. Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1976.

Wilkins, Robert P., and Wynona H. Wilkins. North Dakota: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1977.

JonBrudvig

See alsoDakota Territory ; Great Plains ; Populism ; South Dakota ; Tribes: Great Plains .

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North Dakota

North Dakota, state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Minnesota, across the Red River of the North (E), South Dakota (S), Montana (W), and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 70,665 sq mi (183,022 sq km). Pop. (2010) 672,591, a 4.7% increase from the 2000 census. Capital, Bismarck. Largest city, Fargo. Statehood, Nov. 2, 1889 (39th state), simultaneously with South Dakota. Highest pt., White Butte, 3,506 ft (1,069 m); lowest pt., Red River, 750 ft (229 m). Nicknames, Sioux State; Flickertail State. Motto, Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable. State bird, Western meadowlark. State flower, wild prairie rose. State tree, American elm. Abbr., N.Dak.; ND

Geography

Situated in the geographical center of North America, North Dakota is subject to the extremes of a continental climate. Semiarid conditions prevail in the western half of the state, but in the east an average annual rainfall of 22 in. (55 cm), much of it falling in the crop-growing spring and summer months, enables the rich soil to yield abundantly. North Dakota is one of the most rural states in the nation; the cities and towns supply the needs of neighboring farms, and industry is largely devoted to the processing of agricultural products.

The eastern half of the state is in the central lowlands, a belt of black earth covered in spring by the soft green of sprouting grain and later by the bronze of flowering wheat or the blue of flax. Along the banks of the Red River lies a wedge of land, c.40 mi (60 km) wide at the Canadian border and tapering to 10 mi (16 km) in the south, that is the floor of the former glacial Lake Agassiz. Treeless, except along the rivers, and without surface rocks, this flat land was transformed into the bonanza wheat fields of the 1870s and 80s, with farms ranging in size from 3,000 to 65,000 acres (1,200–26,000 hectares). Today the average farm in the Red River valley is about 450 acres (180 hectares); the state average is about 1,300 acres (525 hectares). Its major crop, wheat, is varied with such crops as flax and seed potatoes.

To the west of the valley a series of escarpments rises some 300 ft (91 m) to meet the drift prairies, where rolling hills, scattered lakes, and occasional moraines form a pleasant and fertile countryside. The productivity of the soil makes North Dakota a leader in wheat (ranking second in the nation), barley, sugar beets, oats, soybeans, and sunflowers. In income earned, however, cattle and cattle products exceed all the crops except wheat.

In the western part of the state a combination of unfavorable topography and scant rainfall precludes intensive cultivation except in the river valleys. An area some 50 mi (80 km) E of the Missouri River is a farm and grazing belt, separated from the drift prairies by the Missouri escarpment. Westward from the Missouri rolls an irregular plateau, covered with short prairie grasses and cut by deep gullies. Where wind and rain have eroded the hillsides there are unusual formations of sand and clay, glowing in yellows, reds, browns, and grays. Along the Little Missouri this section is called the Badlands, so named because the region (once described as "hell with the fires out" ) was difficult to traverse in early days. Situated there, where from 1883 to 1886 the young Theodore Roosevelt spent part of each year ranching, are the three units of the Theodore Roosevelt National Park. Bismarck, on the eastern bank of the Missouri River, is the capital and Fargo is the largest city.

Economy

On the plateau cattle graze, finding shelter in the many ravines, and large ranges are an economic necessity. In the northwestern area of the state oil was discovered in 1951, and petroleum is now North Dakota's leading mineral product, ahead of sand and gravel, lime, and salt. There are also natural-gas fields. Underlying the western counties are lignite reserves; close to the lignite beds are deposits of clay of such varied types that they serve as both construction and pottery materials.

Despite mineral production and some manufacturing, agriculture continues to be North Dakota's principal pursuit, and the processing of grain, meat, and dairy products is vital to such cities as Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot, and Bismarck. The Missouri and Red rivers, once the major transportation routes, are more important now for their irrigation potential. Several dams have been built, notably Garrison Dam, and a number of federal reclamation projects have been completed as part of the Missouri River basin project. There has also been reforestation. With such attractions as the Badlands, the International Peace Garden on the Canadian border, and recreational facilities provided by reservoirs (resulting from dam building in the 1950s), tourism has become North Dakota's third-ranking source of income, behind agriculture and mineral production.

Government and Higher Education

The state is governed under its 1889 constitution, often amended. The legislature consists of 49 senators and 98 representatives. The governor is elected for a four-year term; Republican Edward Schafer, elected in 1992 and reelected in 1996, was succeeded by fellow Republican John Hoeven, elected in 2000 and reelected in 2004 and 2008. Lt. Gov. Jack Dalrymple succeeded Hoeven when the latter resigned in 2010; he was elected to the office in 2012. North Dakota elects two U.S. senators and one representative; it has three electoral votes.

The state's institutions of higher education include Jamestown College, at Jamestown; North Dakota State Univ., at Fargo; and the Univ. of North Dakota, at Grand Forks.

History

Native Americans and the Fur Traders

The first farmers in the region of whom there is definite knowledge were Native Americans of the Mandan tribe. Other agricultural tribes were the Arikara and the Hidatsa. Seminomadic and nomadic tribes were the Cheyenne, Cree, Sioux, Assiniboin, Crow, and Ojibwa (Chippewa).

With the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 the northwestern half of North Dakota became part of the United States. The southeastern half was acquired from Great Britain in 1818 when the international line with Canada was fixed at the 49th parallel. Earlier the Lewis and Clark expedition had wintered (1804–5) with the Mandan and the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company had established trading posts in the Red River valley. These ventures introduced an industry that dominated the region for more than half a century. Within that era the buffalo vanished from the plains and the beaver from the rivers.

From its post at Fort Union, which was established in 1828, John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company gradually gained monopolistic control for a time over the region's trade. Supply and transport were greatly facilitated when a paddlewheel steamer, the Yellowstone, inaugurated steamboat travel on the turbulent upper Missouri in 1832. Additional transportation was provided by the supply caravans of Red River carts, which went westward across the Minnesota prairies and returned to the Mississippi loaded with valuable pelts. In 1837, the introduction of smallpox by settlers decimated the Mandan tribe.

Early Settlers and the Sioux

An attempt at agricultural colonization was made at Pembina in 1812 (see Red River Settlement), but the first permanent farming community was not established until 1851, when another group settled at Pembina. This was still the only farm settlement in the future state in 1851 when the Dakota Territory was organized. The territory included lands that would eventually became North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming.

Several military posts had been established starting in 1857 to protect travelers and railroad workers. Even when free land was opened in 1863 and the Northern Pacific RR was chartered in 1864, concern with the Civil War and the eruption of open warfare with Native Americans discouraged any appreciable settlement. Gen. Alfred H. Sully joined Gen. Henry H. Sibley of Minnesota in campaigns against the Sioux in 1863–66. A treaty was signed in 1868. In 1876, after gold was discovered on Native American land in the Black Hills, the unwillingness of the whites to respect treaty agreements led to further war, and the force of George A. Custer was annihilated at the battle of the Little Bighorn in present-day Montana. Ultimately, however, the Sioux under Chief Sitting Bull fled to Canada, where they surrendered voluntarily; they were returned to reservations in the United States.

Immigration and Agrarian Discontent

The first cattle ranch in North Dakota was established in 1878. With the construction of railroads in the 1870s and 80s, thousands of European immigrants, principally Scandinavians, Germans, and Czechs, arrived. They worked the land on their own homesteads or on the large Eastern-financed bonanza wheat fields of the low central prairies. Borrowing the idea from Europe, they founded agricultural cooperatives.

Local politics were rapidly reduced to a struggle between the agrarian groups and the corporate interests. Alexander McKenzie of the Northern Pacific was for many years the most important figure in the state. Republicans held the elective offices. Agrarian groups formed the Farmers' Alliance and in 1892, three years after North Dakota had achieved statehood, the Farmers' Alliance combined with the Democrats and Populists to elect Eli Shortridge, a Populist, as governor. Later, when the success of the La Follette Progressives in Wisconsin encouraged the growth of the Republican Progressive movement in North Dakota, a fusion with the Democrats elected "Honest John" Burke as governor for three terms (1906–12).

The Nonpartisan League

Much of the agrarian discontent was focused on marketing practices of the large grain interests. Although many small cooperative grain elevators were established, they did not prove effective, and the farmers pressed for state-owned grain elevators. When this movement failed in the legislature of 1915, the Nonpartisan League, directed in North Dakota by Arthur C. Townley, was organized on a platform that included state ownership of terminal elevators and flour mills, state inspection of grain and grain dockage, relief of farm improvements from taxation, and rural credit banks operated at cost.

Working primarily with the Republican party because it was the majority party in North Dakota, the league captured the state legislature in 1919 and proceeded to enact virtually its entire platform. This included the establishment of an industrial commission to manage state-owned enterprises and the creation of the Bank of North Dakota to handle public funds and provide low-cost rural credit. The right of recall was also enacted, by which voters could remove an elected official. However, the reforms were disappointing in operation.

Dissension arose within the league, and the Independent Voters Association was organized to represent the conservative Republican position. The industrial commission was accused of maladministration, and the provision of recall was exercised three times, the first against Gov. L. J. Frazier in 1921. William Langer, who had been active with both the Nonpartisan League and the Independent Voters Association, was elected governor in 1932 running as a Nonpartisan. Langer was convicted on a federal charge of misconduct in office in 1934, although the conviction was later reversed. Langer again became governor in 1936, running as an individual candidate and not on the ticket of either party; subsequently he was elected to the U.S. Senate four times.

Present-day North Dakota

The state's heavy dependence on wheat and petroleum has made it unusually vulnerable to fluctuations in those markets; North Dakota has undergone a number of booms and busts in its petroleum industry. Red River flooding in 1997 devastated Grand Forks, adding to economic problems. In recent years North Dakota has become more urbanized, and telecommunications and high-tech manufacturing have created jobs, but between 1990 and 2000 it had the slowest rate of population growth of all the states.

Bibliography

See E. L. Waldo, Dakota: An Informal Study of Territorial Days (2d ed. 1936); Federal Writers' Project, North Dakota: A Guide to the North Prairie State (1938, rev. ed. 1980); M. E. Kazeck, North Dakota (1956); E. B. Robinson, History of North Dakota (1966); L. R. Goodman and R. J. Eidem, Atlas of North Dakota (1976); F. M. Berg, Ethnic Heritage in North Dakota (1983).

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA


Bismarck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Fargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

Grand Forks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

The State in Brief

Nickname: Flickertail State; Sioux State; Peace Garden State

Motto: Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable

Flower: Wild prairie rose

Bird: Western meadowlark

Area: 70,699 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 19th)

Elevation: Ranges from 750 feet to 3,506 feet above sea level

Climate: Continental, with a wide variety of temperatures; brief, hot summers; winter blizzards; semi-arid in the west and 22 inches average rainfall in the east

Admitted to Union: November 2, 1889

Capital: Bismarck

Head Official: Governor John Hoeven (R) (until 2008)

Population

1980: 653,000

1990: 638,800

2000: 642,200

2004 estimate: 634,366

Percent change, 19902000: 0.5%

U.S. rank in 2004: 48th

Percent of residents born in state: 72.5% (2000)

Density: 9.3 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,258

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 593,181

Black or African American: 3,916

American Indian and Alaska Native: 31,329

Asian: 3,606

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 230

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 7,786

Other: 2,540

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 39,400

Population 5 to 19 years old: 144,064

Percent of population 65 years and over: 14.7%

Median age: 36.2 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 7,938

Total number of deaths (2003): 6,090 (infant deaths, 57)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 57

Economy

Major industries: Agriculture, manufacturing, mining

Unemployment rate: 3.2% (April 2005)

Per capita income: $28,521 (2003; U.S. rank: 35)

Median household income: $38,212 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 11.7% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 2.1% to 5.54%

Sales tax rate: 5.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)

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North Dakota

North Dakota State in n central USA, on the Canadian border; the capital is Bismarck. French explorers first visited the region in 1738. The USA acquired the w half of the area from France in the Louisiana Purchase (1803), and the rest from Britain in 1818 when the boundary with Canada was fixed. Dakota was divided into North and South Dakota in 1889. The region is low-lying and drained by the Missouri and Red rivers. Wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflowers and flaxseed are the chief crops. Cattle rearing is the most important economic activity. Area: 183,022sq km (70,665sq mi). Pop. (2000) 642,200.

Statehood :

November 2, 1889

Nickname :

The Flickertail State

State bird :

Western meadowlark

State flower :

Wild prairie rose

State tree :

American elm

State motto :

Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable

http://discovernd.com

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA

As a surveyor for the North West Company (Canada) in 1797, David Thompson was the first to describe part of what is presently North Dakota. Thompson completed the task of mapping the main travel routes through Canadian and United States territory. He also recorded details of the land and described Indians he encountered along the way.

In 1801 the first long-term trading post was set up at Pembina, and it became the center for the first white settlers in the state. Locally, trading furs provided the economic base for early settlers. It also became big business abroad as American trading companies competed with British-Canadian companies for control of the fur trade business. After the Lewis and Clark Expedition was completed, the fur business soared in North Dakota. Because trading furs became more lucrative as more companies were established, John Jacob Astor (17631848), founder of one of the biggest fur trading companies in the United States, convinced the American government to pass a law prohibiting other countries from trading with the Indians.

In the 1800s demand for furs was great and traders in the west could answer the call. Fur trading flourished into the 1850s as Astor built the first steamboat to run on the upper Missouri River. (It could carry 144 tons of goods.) Soon after, more trade routes were established including a major trade route that was opened for cart caravans between St. Paul, Minnesota, and what is now Walhalla, North Dakota. St. Paul merchants offered $1,000 to the man who would open more trade markets by putting a steamboat on the Red River. In 1859 Anson Northrup received $2,000 for dismantling a small boat he had launched on the Crow River; using 32 teams of oxen, he hauled it to the Red River and successfully launched it there.

Dakota became a territory in 1861. Some settlers traveled west to Dakota to take advantage of the Homestead Act, which was passed by Congress in 1862. This bill gave free land to those who would work on the land for five years and plant crops. In 1864 Congress gave Northern Pacific Railroad 50 million acres in Dakota to lay tracks from Minnesota to the West Coast. Unfortunately, funds ran out after a few years and the project was not completed until 1881. In the 1870s and 1880s the development of other modes of transportation made it easier for settlers to move west. Steamboats, stagecoaches, and ox-drawn wagons brought hundreds of thousands of people to Dakota in the ten-year period between 1880 and 1890. European immigrants also began to settle in Dakota. However, life on the plains was not easy. The dry summers, forest fires, spring floods, and winter blizzards made every day life extremely difficult.

In 1870 wheat became a major source of revenue in the state. A new milling process was developed for spring wheat, a northern crop that was planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. When the wheat was ground the bran was separated from the flour. Also the railroad companies started up "bonanza farms" that covered thousands of acres of land and produced tons of wheat. A land agent for the Northern Pacific persuaded railroad president George W. Cass and a director, Benjamin Cheney, to purchase more than 13,000 acres for a bonanza farm. This enterprise, and more than 90 others like it, became very successful. The farms were owned by businessmen and were managed by foremen or superintendents. New settlers took advantage of the opportunity to work the farms or to start their own, smaller farms.

Though bonanza farming was successful, it also caused land prices to increase. To turn a substantial profit, many owners sold the farms when they knew they could get the highest price. However, in 1890 a depression caused wheat prices to fall drastically; most of the larger farms had to be broken up and sold in smaller parcels.

While farmers were tending wheat, cattle ranching started to take hold in the 1880s. Among the first was a business built by the Marquis de Mores, a Frenchman trying to make his fortune in Dakota. Instead of shipping live herds to markets in the East, the marquis devised a plan to slaughter his cattle on the range and send the beef to market. In the first year, the marquis was very successful, but he overextended himself and had to go back to France, leaving a $1 million debt behind. Other ranchers in the area had difficulties as wellgrasshoppers and fire destroyed the grass in 1886. As a result many ranchers pulled out of the area.

During the late 1880s, Dakota's territorial governor, Nehemiah Ordway, and his friend, Alexander McKenzie, were major political bosses who protected the financial interests of the railroad, banks, lumber and insurance companies ahead of the interests of the people. Along with special interest groups, they were opposed to Dakota's bid for statehood. However, after a new (state) constitution was approved, North Dakota and South Dakota became states on November 2, 1889.

The first action taken by the state's new government was to pass laws regulating railroads and grain businesses. For the next two decades Dakota worked hard to establish a stable economy. More railroad lines were built to serve more towns because the price paid for crops was good. In order to gain more control over wheat marketing, farmers formed cooperatives. These groups of farmers, who worked together to try to reduce the costs of transportation and storage costs and to get fair market prices for their wheat had little success.

Another attempt at fair trade was made by Arthur C. Townley, who developed a powerful farmer's organization called the Nonpartisan League (NPL). A popular organization, it became 40,000 members strong in one year. The NPL called for state-owned businesses such as banks to offer low-interest loans to assist farmers; they also favored grain inspectors to maintain consistent standards. Many voters opposed what they called "state socialism," but in 1918 NPL candidates took over state leadership. The League continued in state politics through the 1950s. Reforms that were achieved under the NPL included tax breaks for farmers, funds for schools, and a better process for grading grain. However, despite NPL reforms, the Great Depression (19291939) caused banks to close, farmers to lose their land, and widespread unemployment in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

In the 1940s the economy began to pick up again with the construction of the Garrison Dam. The project relieved flooding along the Missouri, produced hydroelectricity, and provided irrigation for farms. In 1951 another major event took place that would bring new money to the state. Oil was discovered on the Clarence Iverson farm. An oil boom brought oil companies and prospectors flocking to the area. Although production from these wells declined in the 1960s and 1970s, new oil wells were discovered in the late 1970s. The OPEC oil embargo of 1973 and the rise of oil prices throughout the decade encouraged additional drilling and supported another oil boom. However, the state's economy suffered in the 1980s when oil prices dropped and a drought that started in 1987, continued into the 1990smore than 5.3 million acres of land were damaged. While the agricultural production was strong in the 1980s and early 1990s, more than $600 million in crops were damaged from severe storms and flooding in 1994.

The 1995 median household income in North Dakota was $29,089; twelve percent of all North Dakotans lived below the federal poverty level.

See also: John Jacob Astor, Bonanza Farming, Homestead Act, Lewis and Clark Expedition


FURTHER READING

Berg, Francie M. North Dakota: Land of Changing Seasons. Hettinger, ND: Flying Diamond Books, 1977.

Grabowski, John F. The Great Plains: Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1992.

Krummer, Patricia K. North Dakota. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1999.

Norris, Kathleen. Dakota: A Spiritual Biography. New York: Ticker and Fields, 1993.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998, s.v. "North Dakota."

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N.Dak.

N.Dak. • abbr. North Dakota.

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA

NORTH DAKOTA , state located in the upper Midwestern part of the U.S. The total population (2004) of 634,366, includes fewer than 500 Jews.

History

At least 800 Jewish individuals filed for land between 1880 and 1916. They generally settled in clusters. Many were aided by the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society. In addition several of the earliest settlements, Painted Woods and Devils Lake, were aided by synagogues located in Minnesota's Twin Cities. Homesteaders endured great hardships such as plagues of grasshoppers, prairie fires, blizzards and drought. Most left after acquiring full land title (generally five years). A number settled in market towns along the two railroads that crossed the state and where they operated general stores.

By 1889 the country's growing railroad industry lured people to the eastern community of Grand Forks. A permanent congregation was established in 1892. It was from the pulpit of B'nai Israel Synagogue that President William McKinley urged the Jews to participate in the war with Spain. The city of Fargo also grew near the turn of the century and by 1896 a synagogue was chartered there. The Jews of North Dakota are engaged mainly in retailing. A few, such as Fargo Mayor Herschel Lashkowitz, and Federal Judge Myron Bright, distinguished themselves in politics.

Jews also settled in larger towns such as Fargo, Grand Forks, Bismarck, and Minot where they established synagogues and other elements of Jewish communal life. They have also been included in civic life. One rabbi in particular deserves mention: Benjamin Papermaster was sent to North Dakota by the Chief Rabbi of the Kovno Yeshiva, serving in

Grand Forks from 1891 to 1934. He was also the circuit-riding rabbi for the state, circumcising babies, officiating at weddings and funerals, and even slaughtering cattle. Today, Fargo and Grand Forks rely on student rabbis. In the 1960s the Jewish population of Fargo was some 500 people; it has declined as young people leave and do not return.

bibliography:

W. Sherman, "The Jews," in: Plains Folk: North Dakota's Ethnic History.

[Linda M. Schlof (2nd ed.)]

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North Dakota

North Dakota

■ AAKERS BUSINESS COLLEGE H-16

4012 19th Ave., SW
Fargo, ND 58103
Tel: (701)277-3889
Free: 800-817-0009
Fax: (701)277-5604
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aakers-college.com/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1902. Total enrollment: 577. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. Full-time: 320 students, 79% women, 21% men. Part-time: 257 students, 79% women, 21% men. 24% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0.2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadlines: 10/3, 10/3 for nonresidents, 4/1 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Tuition: $2535 full-time, $845 per course part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student services: student support group, student senate.

■ BISMARCK STATE COLLEGE H-8

PO Box 5587
Bismarck, ND 58506-5587
Tel: (701)224-5400
Free: 800-445-5073
Admissions: (701)224-5426
Fax: (701)224-5643
Web Site: http://www.bismarckstate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1939. Setting: 100-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 3,541. 1,050 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 2,329 students, 44% women, 56% men. Part-time: 1,212 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 11 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 32% 25 or older, 8% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3356 full-time, $92.89 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8009 full-time, $248.02 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time, $22.40 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $4288.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 14 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Drama Club, Art Club, Anime Club. Major annual events: Fall Fantasy Week, Snow Fest Week. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 212 college housing spaces available. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Bismarck State College Library with 69,142 books, 1,458 microform titles, 374 serials, 6,518 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 420 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Bismarck, North Dakota's capital city, is the second largest city with a population of 50,000. Because of its central location, modern shopping centers and Civic Center, the city hosts many state and national conventions. Bismarck is considered the cultural, business and educational center of western and central North Dakota. It is also the medical center for the region with two modern medical centers and clinics. Bismarck has a large city library, a State Historical Library, and numerous libraries related to state and federal offices; a city orchestra, civic chorus, and amateur drama club; and many churches representing various denominations. The city has many parks and recreation areas, a city zoo, three golf courses, and clubs for a variety of recreational activities. The Missouri River and nearby Lake Sakakawea offer boating, fishing and other water sports. Bismarck has transportation service from several major air carriers, commuter airlines, and bus lines. Interstate 94 and U.S. Highway 83 meet in Bismarck. The city has a pleasant summer climate and moderate to severe winters.

■ CANKDESKA CIKANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 269
Fort Totten, ND 58335-0269
Tel: (701)766-4415
Admissions: (701)766-1342
Fax: (701)766-4077
Web Site: http://www.littlehoop.edu/

Description:

Federally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 1-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 168. Students come from 5 states and territories, 30% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Placement: TABE required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/22. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 7,500 books and 48 serials. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DICKINSON STATE UNIVERSITY H-4

291 Campus Dr.
Dickinson, ND 58601-4896
Tel: (701)483-2507
Free: 800-279-4295
Admissions: (701)483-2331
Fax: (701)483-2006
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dsu.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1918. Setting: 100-acre small town campus. Endowment: $4.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3586 per student. Total enrollment: 2,516. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 555 applied, 99% were admitted. 4% from top 10% of their high school class, 17% from top quarter, 50% from top half. Full-time: 1,755 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 761 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 23 other countries, 29% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 7% international, 22% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for all United States students. Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, medical history, proof of measles-rubella shot, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4154 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9712 full-time. Mandatory fees: $825 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $3694. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 50 open to all; 5% of women are members. Most popular organizations: Rodeo Club, Blue Hawk Brigade, chorale, Business Club, Navigators. Major annual events: Homecoming Week, Sure Beats Winter Week, Back to School Week. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. 592 college housing spaces available; 577 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Stoxen Library with 105,713 books, 8,924 microform titles, 823 serials, 5,411 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $446,251. 216 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Dickinson, population 16,500, is approximately 95 miles from the state capital of Bismarck and is a shipping point for lignite coal, oil, grain, dairy products, meat products, and livestock. Nearby Patterson Lake and Recreational Area and Theodore Roosevelt National Park provide ample opportunities for outdoor sports and activities.

■ FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE D-4

PO Box 490
New Town, ND 58763-0490
Tel: (701)627-4738
Admissions: (701)627-3665
Fax: (701)627-3609
Web Site: http://www.fbcc.bia.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: small town campus. Total enrollment: 416. 4% from top 10% of their high school class, 20% from top quarter, 50% from top half. 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at University of North Dakota, Minot State University.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Tuition: $2640 full-time, $110 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $600 full-time, $25 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 10,000 books and 300 serials. 100 computers available on campus for general student use.

■ JAMESTOWN COLLEGE H-12

6000 College Ln.
Jamestown, ND 58405
Tel: (701)252-3467
Free: 800-336-2554
Fax: (701)253-4318
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jc.edu/

Description:

Independent Presbyterian, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1883. Setting: 107-acre small town campus. Endowment: $19.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4800 per student. Total enrollment: 1,026. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,026 applied, 98% were admitted. 16% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 69% from top half. Full-time: 960 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 66 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 16 other countries, 42% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 10% 25 or older, 61% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, minimum ACT score of 18 or minimum SAT score of 850, SAT or ACT. Required for some: recommendations, minimum ACT score of 18 or minimum SAT score of 850. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $14,890 includes full-time tuition ($10,550) and college room and board ($4340). College room only: $1850. Part-time tuition: $295 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 34 open to all. Most popular organizations: Jimmie Ambassadors, Student Activities Committee, Nursing Students' Association, Students of Service, Student Senate. Major annual events: homecoming, Family Weekend, Jimmie Jive Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 714 college housing spaces available; 592 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Raugust Library with 121,382 books, 9,380 microform titles, 630 serials, 6,137 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $309,669. 440 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

In the valley of the James River, Jamestown (population 16,800) was originally the site of Fort Seward, which was established in 1872. Jamestown is located in southeastern North Dakota and is provided transportation by bus lines, air, and major highways. The community has churches, one hospital, a library, two radio stations, and two shopping centers. Parks in the general area provide outdoor recreation facilities. There are several active civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations in Jamestown.

■ LAKE REGION STATE COLLEGE D-12

1801 College Dr. North
Devils Lake, ND 58301-1598
Tel: (701)662-1600
Free: 800-443-1313
Admissions: (701)662-1513
Fax: (701)662-1570
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lrsc.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1941. Setting: 120-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.2 million. Total enrollment: 1,471. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 164 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 409 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 1,062 students, 57% women, 43% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 12 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 8% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 21% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, freshman honors college, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, immunizations, SAT or ACT, COMPASS. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2550 full-time, $133 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2550 full-time, $133 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $783 full-time. College room and board: $3790.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group. Social organizations: 12 open to all. Most popular organizations: DECA, drama, SOTA (Students Other than Average), Student Senate, Computer Club. Major annual events: Orientation week, Snow Daze, Spring Blast. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, controlled dormitory access. 200 college housing spaces available; 22 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Paul Hoghaug Library plus 1 other with 42,000 books, 200 serials, 2,000 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $97,585. 275 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

A center of scenic, historical and recreational attractions, Devils Lake (population 7,782) was named for the largest natural body of water in the state. There are scenic drives, a golf course, a skiway, and camping and recreation facilities at nearby Shelvers Grove, Roosevelt Park, and Lakewood Park. The area is noted for its abundance of ducks and geese. The city has churches of various denominations, hospitals and clinics, a library, six motels, and various civic, fraternal and veteran's organizations. Local recreational facilities include a theatre, baseball, golf, football, bowling alley, swimming pools, hockey, skating, curling, skiing, parks, and playgrounds. Part-time employment is available.

■ MAYVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY F-15

330 3rd St., NE
Mayville, ND 58257-1299
Tel: (701)786-2301
Free: 800-437-4104
Admissions: (701)788-5222
Fax: (701)786-4748
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mayvillestate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1889. Setting: 60-acre rural campus. Endowment: $1.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4452 per student. Total enrollment: 912. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 307 applied, 68% were admitted. 31% from top quarter of their high school class, 57% from top half. Full-time: 625 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 287 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 16 other countries, 28% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 3% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 5% 25 or older, 43% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 58% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; computer and information sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents. Notification: 1/1, 1/1 for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3300 full-time, $137.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8811 full-time, $367.14 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1643 full-time, $68.45 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $3724. College room only: $1524. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 17 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Activities Council, Student Education Association, Health and Physical Education Club, Campus Crusade, Student Ambassadors. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fling. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: controlled dormitory access. 400 college housing spaces available; 288 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Byrnes-Quanbeck Library plus 1 other with 71,595 books, 12,530 microform titles, 599 serials, 20,679 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $226,691.

Community Environment:

Mayville and its twin community, Portland, have a combined population of 4,000 in this rural farming area between Grand Forks and Fargo, North Dakota. The local community offers a city library, many churches, a modern hospital, medical clinic, and dental and optometry offices. A modern business district is also present with air transportation available at airports in Grand Forks and Fargo. A small airport is also located in the community. Housing off campus is abundant, with many choices of apartments, duplexes, and single-family dwellings. Recreational facilities are available for camping, hiking, fishing, golf, skiing, swimming, and horseshoes; a theatre and parks are also available.

■ MEDCENTER ONE COLLEGE OF NURSING H-8

512 North 7th St.
Bismarck, ND 58501-4494
Tel: (701)323-6271
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://medcenterone.com/college/nursing.htm

Description:

Independent, upper-level, coed. Administratively affiliated with Medcenter One Health Systems. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1988. Setting: 15-acre small town campus. Endowment: $119,113. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $19,679 per student. Total enrollment: 88. 66 applied, 77% were admitted. Full-time: 86 students, 94% women, 6% men. Part-time: 2 students, 100% women. Students come from 6 states and territories, 6% from out-of-state, 6% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 34% 25 or older, 11% live on campus, 52% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time entering class returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Honors program, independent study, internships.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Tuition: $8400 full-time, $350 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $751 full-time, $5.25 per credit part-time, $499 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room only: $1800.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 2 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Body Organization, Student Nurses Association. Major annual events: Christmas Party, Annual Picnic, Awards Banquet. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service. 29 college housing spaces available; 10 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. Q & R/Medcenter One Health Sciences Library plus 1 other with 28,470 books, 56 microform titles, 331 serials, 1,467 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $139,026. 17 computers available on campus for general student use.

■ MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY D-7

500 University Ave. West
Minot, ND 58707-0002
Tel: (701)858-3000
Free: 800-777-0750
Admissions: (701)858-3822
Fax: (701)839-6933
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.minotstateu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1913. Setting: 103-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. Total enrollment: 3,797. Faculty: 273 (172 full-time, 101 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 645 applied, 85% were admitted. Full-time: 2,473 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 1,074 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 21 other countries, 11% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 22% 25 or older, 13% live on campus, 14% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.75 high school GPA. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3460 full-time, $144.17 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9238 full-time, $384.93 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $632 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to class time, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4460. College room only: $2240. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student ND Education Association, Minot State Club of Physical Education, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Residence Hall Association, National Student Speech and Hearing Association. Major annual events: Homecoming Week, Welcome Week, Final Frenzy Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: controlled dormitory access, patrols by trained security personnel. 643 college housing spaces available; 506 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Gordon B. Olson Library with 420,971 books, 709,857 microform titles, 752 serials, 11,073 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 460 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Minot, population 35,000, began as a tent town of the Great Northern Railroad and now contains the electronic freight classification Gavin Yard. It grew so rapidly that it was called the"Magic City." Today it is a trade center for an area including part of Canada and Montana, as well as northern North Dakota. The town lies within the eastern boundaries of oil-rich Williston Basin and is surrounded by a number of lignite strip mines. The area has good highways, rail, bus, and air lines. Minot has many churches and active civic and fraternal organizations. Part-time job opportunities are available for students.

■ MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY-BOTTINEAU CAMPUS B-9

105 Simrall Blvd.
Bottineau, ND 58318-1198
Tel: (701)228-2277
Free: 800-542-6866
Admissions: (701)228-5451
Fax: (701)228-5499
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.misu-b.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1906. Setting: 35-acre rural campus. Endowment: $1 million. Total enrollment: 620. 298 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 387 students, 41% women, 59% men. Part-time: 233 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 1 other country, 13% from out-of-state, 5% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 14% 25 or older, 45% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Minot State University, Minot Air Force Base.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Wildlife Club, Paul Bunyan Club, Horticulture Club, DECA. Major annual events: Smokey's Week, Luau Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: controlled dormitory access. 293 college housing spaces available; 180 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Minot State University-Bottineau Library plus 1 other with 45,000 books, 5,000 microform titles, 250 serials, 800 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 60 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NORTH DAKOTA STATE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE J-17

800 North Sixth St.
Wahpeton, ND 58076
Tel: (701)671-2401
Free: 800-342-4325
Admissions: (701)671-2189
Fax: (701)671-2332
Web Site: http://www.ndscs.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1903. Setting: 125-acre rural campus. Endowment: $4000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3757 per student. Total enrollment: 2,468. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. Full-time: 1,954 students, 33% women, 67% men. Part-time: 514 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 54 states and territories, 11 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 18% 25 or older, 56% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3757 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9197 full-time. College room and board: $4638.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band. Social organizations: 3 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Health Advisory Club, Drama Club, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Cultural Diversity, Habitat for Humanity. Major annual events: Homecoming, Agawasie Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,600 college housing spaces available; 1,052 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Mildred Johnson Library with 124,508 books, 61,787 microform titles, 852 serials, 4,178 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $183,748. 450 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Wahpeton (population 9,300) is located at the origin of the Red River in southeastern North Dakota. The city is served by a bus line, and U.S. Highway 75, Interstates 29 and 94 and State Highways 13 & 81.

■ NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY H-16

1301 North University Ave.
Fargo, ND 58105
Tel: (701)231-8011
Free: 800-488-NDSU
Admissions: (701)231-8643
Fax: (701)231-8802
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ndsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1890. Setting: 2,100-acre urban campus. Endowment: $369,573. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4998 per student. Total enrollment: 12,099. Faculty: 616 (525 full-time, 91 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 4,007 applied, 84% were admitted. 18% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 75% from top half. 3 National Merit Scholars, 100 valedictorians. Full-time: 9,410 students, 45% women, 55% men. Part-time: 1,086 students, 49% women, 51% men. Students come from 44 states and territories, 67 other countries, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 8% 25 or older, 29% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering; business/marketing; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Tri-College University-Concordia College, Moorhead, MN, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. One-time mandatory fee: $45. Area resident tuition: $4360 full-time, $181.67 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,641 full-time, $485.04 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $904 full-time, $37.65 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $5130. College room only: $2070. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 218 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 4% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Saddle and Sirloin, Habitat for Humanity, Residence Hall Association, Juggling Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, International Students Week, Spring Blast. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 2,870 students; 3,052 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. North Dakota State University Library plus 3 others with 303,274 books, 168,008 microform titles, 4,497 serials, 2,757 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.5 million. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

North Dakota's largest city at 90,599, Fargo is the largest distribution point between Minneapolis and Spokane. Fargo-Moorhead as seen designated as one of the top ten All-American cities for 2000. The metropolitan area has over a hundred manufacturing plants producing agricultural machinery, feed, fertilizers, foodstuffs, and dairy products. In addition, the community contains the largest medical complex between Minneapolis and the West Coast. Recreation facilities in the city's 765-acre park system include three golf courses, a winter sports building, and four swimming pools. There are part-time employment opportunities for students.

■ SITTING BULL COLLEGE K-8

1341 92nd St.
Fort Yates, ND 58538-9701
Tel: (701)854-3861
Admissions: (701)854-3864
Fax: (701)854-3403
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sittingbull.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: rural campus. Endowment: $541,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2001 per student. Total enrollment: 214. 63 applied, 100% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 50% from top half. 2 class presidents, 2 valedictorians, 10 student government officers. Students come from 2 states and territories, 35% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, medical questionnaire. Placement: TABE required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/6. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: student government, Future Teachers, Ikce Oyate Culture Club, Phi Beta Lambda, Ski Club. Major annual events: homecoming, Thanksgiving Dinner, Student Awards Night. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Sitting Bull College Library with 10,000 books, 130 serials, and an OPAC. 16 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ TRINITY BIBLE COLLEGE K-13

50 South 6th Ave.
Ellendale, ND 58436-7150
Tel: (701)349-3621; 888-TBC-2DAY
Fax: (701)349-5443
Web Site: http://www.trinitybiblecollege.edu/

Description:

Independent Assemblies of God, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1948. Setting: 28-acre rural campus. Endowment: $539,057. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2793 per student. Total enrollment: 307. 234 applied, 50% were admitted. Full-time: 272 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 35 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 77% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 18% 25 or older, 69% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, health form, evidence of Christian conversion, ACT. Required for some: interview, SAT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run radio station. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: GAP, Youth Ministry, Inner City Ministry, Fine Arts Club, Children's Ministry. Major annual events: College Days, Spring Missions Convention, Spiritual Emphasis Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 269 college housing spaces available; 185 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through junior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Graham Library with 67,868 books, 5,873 microform titles, 227 serials, and 2,258 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $91,908. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Ellendale is a rural community (population 1,967) just north of the South Dakota border and 62 miles south of Jamestown on U.S. Highway 281.

■ TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-10

Box 340
Belcourt, ND 58316-0340
Tel: (701)477-7862
Admissions: (701)477-5605
Fax: (701)477-7807
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.turtle-mountain.cc.nd.us/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 10-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 579. 102 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 378 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 201 students, 73% women, 27% men. 0% from out-of-state, 75% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Most popular organization: student government. Major annual events: College Awareness Week, Student Picnic, Annual Pow-Wow. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Turtle Mountain Community College Library with 20,500 books, 150 serials, and an OPAC. 147 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNITED TRIBES TECHNICAL COLLEGE H-8

3315 University Dr.
Bismarck, ND 58504-7596
Tel: (701)255-3285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uttc.edu/

Description:

Federally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1969. Setting: 105-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 885. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 8:1. 179 applied, 84% were admitted. Full-time: 635 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 250 students, 73% women, 27% men. 75% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 0.2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. One-time mandatory fee: $100. Comprehensive fee: $6580 includes full-time tuition ($2800), mandatory fees ($780), and college room and board ($3000). Part-time tuition: $87.50 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Major annual events: basketball games, Parent Breakfast. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. United Tribes Technical College Library plus 1 other with 6,000 books, 86 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 210 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF MARY H-8

7500 University Dr.
Bismarck, ND 58504-9652
Tel: (701)255-7500
Free: 800-288-6279
Admissions: (701)355-8191
Fax: (701)255-7687
Web Site: http://www.umary.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1959. Setting: 107-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $13 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4378 per student. Total enrollment: 2,758. Faculty: 349 (100 full-time, 249 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 1,040 applied, 86% were admitted. 16% from top 10% of their high school class, 44% from top quarter, 80% from top half. 27 valedictorians. Full-time: 2,044 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 153 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 19 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 25% 25 or older, 35% live on campus, 12% transferred in. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: 4-4-1. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $15,374 includes full-time tuition ($11,100), mandatory fees ($224), and college room and board ($4050). College room only: $1750. Part-time tuition: $350 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $7 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Student Social Workers Association, Nursing Student Organization, Student Education Association, Fellowship of Christian Athletes. Major annual event: homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. 776 college housing spaces available; 730 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. University of Mary Library with 65,842 books, 1,040 microform titles, 584 serials, 6,849 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $421,669. 233 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Bismarck, North Dakota's capital city, is the second largest city with a population of 48,000. Because of its central location, modern shopping centers and Civic Center, the city hosts many state and national conventions. Bismarck is considered the cultural, business and educational center of western and central North Dakota. It is also the medical center for the region with two modern medical centers and clinics. Bismarck has a large city library, a State Historical Library, and numerous libraries related to state and federal offices; a city orchestra, civic chorus, and amateur drama club; and many churches representing various denominations. The city has many parks and recreation areas, a city zoo, three golf courses, and clubs for a variety of recreational activities. The Missouri River and nearby Lake Sakakawea offer boating, fishing and other water sports. Bismarck has transportation service from several major air carriers, commuter airlines, and bus lines. Interstate 94 and U.S. Highway 83 meet in Bismarck. The city has a pleasant summer climate and moderate to severe winters.

■ UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA E-16

Grand Forks, ND 58202
Tel: (701)777-2011
Free: 800-CALL UND
Admissions: (701)777-4463
Fax: (701)777-3650
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.und.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1883. Setting: 543-acre small town campus. Endowment: $8.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $31.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9710 per student. Total enrollment: 12,954. Faculty: 825 (668 full-time, 157 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 3,749 applied, 73% were admitted. 16% from top 10% of their high school class, 38% from top quarter, 72% from top half. 3 National Merit Scholars, 65 valedictorians. Full-time: 9,364 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 1,134 students, 44% women, 56% men. Students come from 56 states and territories, 37 other countries, 47% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 12% 25 or older, 31% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4390 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,722 full-time. Mandatory fees: $937 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4787. College room only: $1979. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 250 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 8% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: student government, National Society of Collegiate Scholars, Association of Residence Halls, University of North Dakota Indian Association, Sioux Crew. Major annual events: Spring Fest, Homecoming, Feast of Nations. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, emergency telephones. 3,311 college housing spaces available; 3,152 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Chester Fritz Library plus 2 others with 925,367 books, 1.6 million microform titles, 18,955 serials, 19,048 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5.7 million. 1,100 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ VALLEY CITY STATE UNIVERSITY H-14

101 College St., SW
Valley City, ND 58072
Tel: (701)845-7990
Free: 800-532-8641
Admissions: (701)845-7204
Fax: (701)845-7245
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vcsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 55-acre small town campus. Endowment: $593,346. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5402 per student. Total enrollment: 1,035. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 256 applied, 94% were admitted. 6% from top 10% of their high school class, 22% from top quarter, 53% from top half. Full-time: 783 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 230 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 8 other countries, 25% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 5% international, 22% 25 or older, 32% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; computer and information sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, self-designed majors, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at North Dakota State University, Mayville State University.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3656 full-time, $114.25 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9761 full-time, $305.05 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1504 full-time. College room and board: $4694. College room only: $2080. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 18 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 2% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: departmental clubs, Fellowship of Christian Athletes. Major annual event: music and theater productions. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: controlled dormitory access. 435 college housing spaces available; 297 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Allen Memorial Library with 94,450 books, 59,000 microform titles, 7,500 serials, 15,300 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $372,473. 925 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Valley City, in the Sheyenne River Valley, is the home of the North Dakota Winter Show, a statewide agricultural fair held in the first week in March. The area is served by buses, railroad, and Interstate Highways 94, 10, and 52.

■ WILLISTON STATE COLLEGE D-2

Box 1326
Williston, ND 58802-1326
Tel: (701)774-4200; 888-863-9455
Admissions: (701)774-4554
Fax: (701)774-4211
Web Site: http://www.wsc.nodak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of North Dakota University System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1957. Setting: 80-acre small town campus. Endowment: $52,200. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4642 per student. Total enrollment: 947. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 540 applied, 98% were admitted. Full-time: 557 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 390 students, 83% women, 17% men. Students come from 9 states and territories, 3 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 5% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 28% 25 or older, 13% live on campus, 84% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Off campus study at Lake Region State College.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for practical nursing and physical therapist assistant programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2073 full-time, $79.76 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3111 full-time, $119.64 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $575 full-time, $22.11 per credit part-time. College room and board: $3500. College room only: $1000.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 17 open to all; national sororities; 2% of women are members. Most popular organizations: PTK, PBL, Student Senate, VICA, Student Nurses Association. Major annual events: Winter Carnival, Graduation, Halloween Dance. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: controlled dormitory access. 90 college housing spaces available; 20 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Williston State College Library with 16,218 books, 14 microform titles, 214 serials, 475 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 70 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Midway between two dams, Fort Peck in Montana and Garrison in North Dakota, Williston has been a railroad and distributing center since its earliest days. In the farming and stock-raising region of the oil-rich Williston Basin, the city has more than 1,000 producing wells within its trade territory. This is a rural community with temperate climate. The area is served by bus, rail, and air lines. Good U.S. Highways intersect the city. Community services include 24 churches representing 18 denominations, a public library, museum, community concert association, modern hospital, and clinics. There are also various civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations here. Local recreation includes theaters, a drive-in, golf clubs, bowling alley, tennis courts, baseball stadium, several softball complexes, and excellent fishing in Garrison Reservoir and the Missouri River.

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North Dakota

North Dakota

AAKERS BUSINESS COLLEGE

4012 19th Ave., SW
Fargo, ND 58103
Tel: (701)277-3889
Free: 800-817-0009
Fax: (701)277-5604
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aakers-college.com/
President/CEO: Betty Largent
Admissions: Elizabeth Largent
Financial Aid: Debora Murray
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Deadline: October 03 Application Fee: $60.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. Tuition: $2535 full-time, $845 per course part-time. Calendar System: Quarter Enrollment: FT 320, PT 257 Faculty: FT 8, PT 18 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Professional Accreditation: ACICS

BISMARCK STATE COLLEGE

PO Box 5587
Bismarck, ND 58506-5587
Tel: (701)224-5400
Free: 800-445-5073
Admissions: (701)224-5426
Fax: (701)224-5643
Web Site: http://www.bismarckstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Donna Thigpen
Registrar: Tom Leno
Admissions: Karla Gabriel
Financial Aid: Jeff Jacobs
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3356 full-time, $92.89 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8009 full-time, $248.02 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time, $22.40 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $4288. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,329, PT 1,212 Faculty: FT 107, PT 144 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 8 Library Holdings: 69,142 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, JRCEMT, NAACLS Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Golf M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

CANKDESKA CIKANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 269
Fort Totten, ND 58335-0269
Tel: (701)766-4415
Admissions: (701)766-1342
Fax: (701)766-4077
Web Site: http://www.littlehoop.edu/
President/CEO: Erich Longie
Registrar: Heather Lawrence
Admissions: Ermen Brown, Jr.
Financial Aid: Clayton Blueshield
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 5, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 7,500 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 61 credits, Associates

DICKINSON STATE UNIVERSITY

291 Campus Dr.
Dickinson, ND 58601-4896
Tel: (701)483-2507
Free: 800-279-4295
Admissions: (701)483-2331
Fax: (701)483-2006
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dsu.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lee A. Vickers
Registrar: Marshall R. Melbye
Admissions: Marshall Melbye
Financial Aid: Sandy L. Klein
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 88% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 53% ACT 18-23; 21% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 99 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4154 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9712 full-time. Mandatory fees: $825 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $3694. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,755, PT 761 Faculty: FT 93, PT 112 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 105,713 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Badminton M & W; Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 490
New Town, ND 58763-0490
Tel: (701)627-4738
Admissions: (701)627-3665
Fax: (701)627-3609
Web Site: http://www.fbcc.bia.edu/
President/CEO: Elizabeth Demaray
Registrar: Russell Mason, Jr.
Admissions: Russell Mason, Jr.
Financial Aid: Gerrianne Bird Bear
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For those who demonstrate ability to benefit from program: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Tuition: $2640 full-time, $110 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $600 full-time, $25 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 12, PT 30 Library Holdings: 10,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W

JAMESTOWN COLLEGE

6000 College Ln.
Jamestown, ND 58405
Tel: (701)252-3467
Free: 800-336-2554
Fax: (701)253-4318
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jerry Combee
Registrar: JoDee Rasmusson
Admissions: Carol Schmeichel
Financial Aid: Carol Schmeichel
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Presbyterian Scores: 64% ACT 18-23; 28% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 98 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled applicants: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $14,890 includes full-time tuition ($10,550) and college room and board ($4340). College room only: $1850. Part-time tuition: $295 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 960, PT 66 Faculty: FT 58, PT 20 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 81 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 61 Library Holdings: 121,382 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; SoccerW; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

LAKE REGION STATE COLLEGE

1801 College Dr.
North Devils Lake, ND 58301-1598
Tel: (701)662-1600
Free: 800-443-1313
Admissions: (701)662-1513
Fax: (701)662-1570
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lrsc.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Sharon L. Etemad
Registrar: Judith Lee
Admissions: Laurel Goulding
Financial Aid: Katie Nettell
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2550 full-time, $133 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2550 full-time, $133 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $783 full-time. College room and board: $3790. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 409, PT 1,062 Faculty: FT 30, PT 76 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 42,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W

MAYVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY

330 3rd St., NE
Mayville, ND 58257-1299
Tel: (701)786-2301
Free: 800-437-4104
Admissions: (701)788-5222
Fax: (701)786-4748
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mayvillestate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Pamela Balch
Registrar: Mary K. Iverson
Admissions: Cherine Heckman
Financial Aid: Betty Schumacher
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 52% ACT 18-23; 13% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3300 full-time, $137.50 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8811 full-time, $367.14 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1643 full-time, $68.45 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $3724. College room only: $1524. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 625, PT 287 Faculty: FT 37, PT 37 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 65 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 43 Library Holdings: 71,595 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 120 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

MEDCENTER ONE COLLEGE OF NURSING

512 North 7th St.
Bismarck, ND 58501-4494
Tel: (701)323-6271
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://medcenterone.com/college/nursing.htm
President/CEO: Dr. Karen Latham
Registrar: Janell Thomas
Admissions: Mary Smith
Financial Aid: Janell Thomas
Type: Two-Year Upper Division Sex: Coed Affiliation: Medcenter One Health Systems Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. Tuition: $8400 full-time, $350 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $751 full-time, $5.25 per credit part-time, $499 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room only: $1800. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 86, PT 2 Faculty: FT 10, PT 2 Student-Faculty Ratio: 9:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 73 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 11 Library Holdings: 28,470 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NLN

MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY

500 University Ave.
West Minot, ND 58707-0002
Tel: (701)858-3000
Free: 800-777-0750
Admissions: (701)858-3822
Fax: (701)839-6933
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.minotstateu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David Fuller
Registrar: Lisa Johnson
Admissions: Stephanie Witwer
Financial Aid: Dale Gehring
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 66.3% ACT 18-23; 28.1% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 85 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3460 full-time, $144.17 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9238 full-time, $384.93 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $632 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time, course load, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition varies according to class time, location, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4460. College room only: $2240. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,473, PT 1,074, Grad 250 Faculty: FT 172, PT 101 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 13 Library Holdings: 420,971 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ASLHA, CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY-BOTTINEAU CAMPUS

105 Simrall Blvd.
Bottineau, ND 58318-1198
Tel: (701)228-2277
Free: 800-542-6866
Admissions: (701)228-5451
Fax: (701)228-5499
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.misu-b.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Kenneth Grosz
Registrar: Paula Berg
Admissions: Paula Berg
Financial Aid: Diane Christenson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 387, PT 233 Faculty: FT 26, PT 18 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 45 Library Holdings: 45,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 61 credits, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Ice Hockey M; Volleyball W

NORTH DAKOTA STATE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE

800 North Sixth St.
Wahpeton, ND 58076
Tel: (701)671-2401
Free: 800-342-4325
Admissions: (701)671-2189
Fax: (701)671-2332
Web Site: http://www.ndscs.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Sharon Y. Hart
Admissions: Karen Reilly
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 48% ACT 18-23; 10% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3757 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9197 full-time. College room and board: $4638. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,954, PT 514 Faculty: FT 127, PT 13 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 56 Library Holdings: 124,508 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ADA, AHIMA, AOTA, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Football M; Volleyball W

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY

1301 North University Ave.
Fargo, ND 58105
Tel: (701)231-8011
Free: 800-488-NDSU
Admissions: (701)231-8643
Fax: (701)231-8802
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ndsu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Joseph A. Chapman
Registrar: Dr. Catherine Wold-McCormick
Admissions: Dr. Kate Haugen
Financial Aid: James Kennedy
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 37% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 84 Application Deadline: August 15 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. One-time mandatory fee: $45. Area resident tuition: $4360 full-time, $181.67 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,641 full-time, $485.04 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $904 full-time, $37.65 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $5130. College room only: $2070. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,410, PT 1,086, Grad 1,603 Faculty: FT 525, PT 91 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 28 Library Holdings: 303,274 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 122 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAMFT, AACN, AAFCS, ACCE, ACPhE, ACA, ADtA, ASLA, CARC, FIDER, JRCEPAT, NASAD, NASM, NAST, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Archery M & W; Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M; Riflery M & W; Rugby M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W; Wrestling M

SITTING BULL COLLEGE

1341 92nd St.
Fort Yates, ND 58538-9701
Tel: (701)854-3861
Admissions: (701)854-3864
Fax: (701)854-3403
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sittingbull.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ron His Horse Is Thunder
Registrar: Melody Azure
Admissions: Melody Silk
Financial Aid: Donna Seaboy
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Faculty: FT 16, PT 16 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 10,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 67 credit hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W

TRINITY BIBLE COLLEGE

50 South 6th Ave.
Ellendale, ND 58436-7150
Tel: (701)349-3621; 888-TBC-2DAY
Fax: (701)349-5443
Web Site: http://www.trinitybiblecollege.edu/
President/CEO: Rev. Dennis Niles
Registrar: Laura Gerling
Admissions: Rev. Steve Tvedt
Financial Aid: Don Flaherty
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Assemblies of God Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 272, PT 35 Faculty: FT 29, PT 9 Student-Faculty Ratio: 8:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 96 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 69 Library Holdings: 67,868 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 128 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Box 340
Belcourt, ND 58316-0340
Tel: (701)477-7862
Admissions: (701)477-5605
Fax: (701)477-7807
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.turtle-mountain.cc.nd.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Gerald E. Monette
Registrar: Anita Parisien-Frederick
Admissions: Joni LaFontaine
Financial Aid: Wanda Laducer
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 378, PT 201 Faculty: FT 21, PT 21 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 20,500 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates

UNITED TRIBES TECHNICAL COLLEGE

3315 University Dr.
Bismarck, ND 58504-7596
Tel: (701)255-3285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uttc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David Gipp
Registrar: Joetta McLeod
Admissions: Vivian Gillett
Financial Aid: Robert Parisien
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 84 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. One-time mandatory fee: $100. Comprehensive fee: $6580 includes full-time tuition ($2800), mandatory fees ($780), and college room and board ($3000). Part-time tuition: $87.50 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 635, PT 250 Faculty: FT 49, PT 14 Student-Faculty Ratio: 8:1 Library Holdings: 6,000 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AHIMA Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M; Cross-Country Running M & W

UNIVERSITY OF MARY

7500 University Dr.
Bismarck, ND 58504-9652
Tel: (701)255-7500
Free: 800-288-6279
Admissions: (701)355-8191
Fax: (701)255-7687
Web Site: http://www.umary.edu/
President/CEO: Sr. Thomas Welder
Registrar: Janine Thull
Admissions: Dr. Dave Hebinger
Financial Aid: Dave Hanson
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 58% ACT 18-23; 33% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 86 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $15,374 includes full-time tuition ($11,100), mandatory fees ($224), and college room and board ($4050). College room only: $1750. Part-time tuition: $350 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $7 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Miscellaneous, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,044, PT 153, Grad 561 Faculty: FT 100, PT 249 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 65,842 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACN, AOTA, APTA, CARC, CSWE, JRCEPAT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

Grand Forks, ND 58202
Tel: (701)777-2011
Free: 800-CALL UND
Admissions: (701)777-4463
Fax: (701)777-3650
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.und.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles Kupchella
Registrar: Dr. Nancy Krogh
Admissions: Kenton Pauls
Financial Aid: Robin Holden
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 54% ACT 18-23; 38% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 73 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $4390 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,722 full-time. Mandatory fees: $937 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4787. College room only: $1979. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,364, PT 1,134, Grad 1,996 Faculty: FT 668, PT 157 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 54 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 31 Library Holdings: 925,367 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 125 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AACN, AANA, ABA, ADtA, AOTA, APTA, APA, ASC, ASLHA, AALS, CAA, CSWE, JRCEPAT, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NAIT, NASAD, NASM NAST, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

VALLEY CITY STATE UNIVERSITY

101 College St., SW
Valley City, ND 58072
Tel: (701)845-7990
Free: 800-532-8641
Admissions: (701)845-7204
Fax: (701)845-7245
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vcsu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ellen-Earle Chaffee
Admissions: Dan Klein
Financial Aid: Betty Schumacher
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 90% SAT M 400+; 59.5% ACT 18-23;18.4% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 94 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $3656 full-time, $114.25 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9761 full-time, $305.05 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1504 full-time. College room and board: $4694. College room only: $2080. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 783, PT 230, Grad 22 Faculty: FT 55, PT 22 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 60 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 32 Library Holdings: 94,450 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Softball W; Volleyball W

WILLISTON STATE COLLEGE

Box 1326
Williston, ND 58802-1326
Tel: (701)774-4200; 888-863-9455
Admissions: (701)774-4554
Fax: (701)774-4211
Web Site: http://www.wsc.nodak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Joseph E. McCann
Registrar: Jan Solem
Admissions: Jan Solem
Financial Aid: Lynn Hagen-Aaberg
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: North Dakota University System % Accepted: 98 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $2073 full-time, $79.76 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3111 full-time, $119.64 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $575 full-time, $22.11 per credit part-time. College room and board: $3500. College room only: $1000. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 557, PT 390 Faculty: FT 26, PT 67 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 13 Library Holdings: 16,218 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: APTA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Volleyball W

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North Dakota

North Dakota

AAKERS BUSINESS COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Business Administration and Management, AB

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Health Services/Allied Health/Health Sciences, A

Human Resources Management and Services, A

Law and Legal Studies, A

BISMARCK STATE COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Energy Management and Systems Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Lineworker, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

CANKDESKA CIKANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Computer Science, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

English Language and Literature, A

Geography, A

Health Teacher Education, A

History, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

DICKINSON STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, AB

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, AB

Finance, B

Geography, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

History, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Environmental Studies, A

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Human Services, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

JAMESTOWN COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Actuarial Science, B

Applied Mathematics, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Counseling Psychology, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Educational Leadership and Administration, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Composition, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Financial Planning and Services, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

LAKE REGION STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Computer Programming, Vendor/Product Certification, A

Computer Science, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, A

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, A

Executive Assistant/Executive Secretary, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Information Technology, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marketing Research, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nurse/Nursing Assistant/Aide and Patient Care Assistant, A

Office Management and Supervision, A

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, A

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, A

Small Business Administration/Management, A

Technical Teacher Education, A

MAYVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, AB

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, B

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

General Studies, B

Geography Teacher Education, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health and Physical Education/Fitness, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History Teacher Education, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Office Management and Supervision, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

MEDCENTER ONE COLLEGE OF NURSING

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Disorders, BM

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia, B

Economics, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Hearing Impairments, Including Deafness, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Mental Retardation, B

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Speech or Language Impairments, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, B

German Language Teacher Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, BM

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Psychology, B

Radio and Television, B

School Psychology, O

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, ABM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, B

MINOT STATE UNIVERSITY-BOTTINEAU CAMPUS

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Business Services, A

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Engineering, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Executive Assistant/Executive Secretary, A

Forestry, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Greenhouse Operations and Management, A

Horticultural Science, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Information Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Office Management/Administration, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Natural Resources and Conservation, A

Ornamental Horticulture, A

Receptionist, A

Surveying Engineering, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Turf and Turfgrass Management, A

Water Quality and Wastewater Treatment Management and Recycling Technology/Technician, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

NORTH DAKOTA STATE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Agricultural Production Operations, A

Agricultural/Farm Supplies Retailing and Wholesaling, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Foodservice Systems Administration/Management, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Electronics Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Shop Technology/Assistant, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Pharmacy Technician/Assistant, A

Psychiatric/Mental Health Services Technician, A

Small Engine Mechanics and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Technical Teacher Education, A

Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Technologies, A

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Agribusiness, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Engineering, MD

Agricultural Mechanization, B

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agricultural/Biological Engineering and Bioengineering, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Animal Sciences, BMD

Apparel and Textiles, B

Applied Mathematics, MD

Architecture, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, MD

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biosystems Engineering, MD

BioTechnology, B

Botany/Plant Biology, BMD

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Cell Biology and Anatomy, D

Chemistry, BMD

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child and Family Studies, MD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, MD

Communication and Media Studies, MD

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, BMDO

Conservation Biology, MD

Construction Engineering, B

Construction Management, B

Corrections and Criminal Justice, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MD

Criminology, MD

Crop Production, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Ecology, MD

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Entomology, MD

Environmental Design/Architecture, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Sciences, MD

Equestrian/Equine Studies, B

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Facilities Planning and Management, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, M

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, MD

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

Genomic Sciences, MD

Geology/Earth Science, B

Gerontology, D

Health Teacher Education, B

History, BMD

History Teacher Education, B

Horticultural Science, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Human Development, D

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Interior Design, B

International/Global Studies, B

Landscape Architecture, B

Logistics and Materials Management, D

Manufacturing Engineering, BMD

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BM

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Mechanics, MD

Microbiology, BMD

Molecular Biology, MD

Molecular Pathology, D

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, BMD

Music Teacher Education, BM

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, BMD

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, M

Operations Research, M

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, D

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MD

Pharmacy, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, BMD

Physics Teacher Education, B

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, MD

Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management, B

Plant Sciences, MD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Polymer/Plastics Engineering, BMD

Psychology, BMD

Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Range Science and Management, MD

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Security and Protective Services, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, BMD

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Sociology, BM

Software Engineering, MDO

Soil Science and Agronomy, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Speech and Interpersonal Communication, M

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, BM

Statistics, BMDO

Transportation/Transportation Management, D

Turf and Turfgrass Management, B

Veterinary Sciences, MD

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, B

Zoology/Animal Biology, BMD

SITTING BULL COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agribusiness, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Education, A

Environmental Studies, A

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Human Services, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Social Work, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

TRINITY BIBLE COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, AB

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Business Administration and Management, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Finance, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Music, A

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, B

TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Science, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

English Language and Literature, A

Environmental Studies, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

History, A

Human Services, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Pharmacy, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Social Sciences, A

Social Work, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

UNITED TRIBES TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

Community Health and Preventive Medicine, A

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, A

Construction Trades, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

Education, A

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, A

Environmental Sciences, A

Fine Arts and Art Studies, A

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

UNIVERSITY OF MARY

Accounting, AB

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Corporate Communications, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Education, M

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Mental Retardation, B

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering Science, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

General Studies, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, M

History Teacher Education, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Management Science, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, M

Nursing Education, M

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, M

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, MD

Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

Accounting, B

Accounting and Finance, B

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, B

Air Traffic Controller, B

Allopathic Medicine, PO

American Indian/Native American Studies, B

Anatomy, MD

Anthropology, B

Applied Economics, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, BM

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Aviation, M

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, B

Banking and Financial Support Services, B

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, BMDO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Botany/Plant Biology, MD

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemical Engineering, BM

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, BM

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Laboratory Sciences, M

Clinical Psychology, D

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Science and Allied Professions, B

Communication and Media Studies, MD

Communication Disorders, BMD

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, BM

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Counseling Psychology, MD

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, D

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Ecology, MD

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Educational Measurement and Evaluation, D

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical Engineering, M

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMD

Engineering and Applied Sciences, D

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, MD

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, B

Environmental Biology, MD

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, M

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Experimental Psychology, D

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, MD

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Genetics, MD

Geography, BM

Geological Engineering, M

Geological/Geophysical Engineering, B

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geosciences, MD

German Language and Literature, B

Graphic Design, B

History, BMD

Human Services, B

Immunology, MD

Industrial and Manufacturing Management, M

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International/Global Studies, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, M

Law and Legal Studies, P

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Linguistics, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, BM

Microbiology, MD

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, BM

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Music Therapy/Therapist, B

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, B

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, M

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Pharmacology, MD

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BMD

Physician Assistant, M

Physics, BMD

Physiology, MD

Planetary Astronomy and Science, M

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, M

Reading Teacher Education, M

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Sales and Marketing Operations/Marketing and Distribution Teacher Education, B

Scandinavian Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, D

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, BM

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MD

Theater, M

Vocational and Technical Education, M

Wildlife Biology, B

VALLEY CITY STATE UNIVERSITY

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Office Management and Supervision, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Engineering, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Technical Teacher Education, B

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

WILLISTON STATE COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agriculture, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Transcription/Transcriptionist, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Ray Hintz, Information Technology Supervisor
Department of Career and Technical Education
600 E. Blvd. Ave.
Dept. 270
Bismarck, ND 58505-0610
(701)328-2259

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

Postsecondary Educational Institution Definitions. Postsecondary educational institution includes, but is not limited to, an academic, vocational, technical, home study, business, professional, or other school, college, or university, or other organization or person, offering educational credentials, or offering instruction or educational services (primarily to persons who have completed or terminated their secondary education or who are beyond the age of compulsory high school attendance) for attainment of educational, professional, or vocational objectives.

Refund of Tuition Fees. Postsecondary educational institutions shall refund tuition and other charges when written notice of cancellation is given by the student in accordance with the following schedule:

  1. When notice is received prior to, or within seven days after completion of the first day of instruction, or after receipt of the first correspondence lesson by the institution, all tuition and other charges except twenty-five dollars thereof shall be refunded to the student.
  2. When notice is received prior to, or within thirty days after completion of the first day of instruction, or prior to the completion of one-fourth of the educational services, all tuition and other charges except twenty-five percent thereof shall be refunded to the student.
  3. When notice is received upon or after completion of one-fourth of the educational services, but prior to the completion of one-half of the educational services, all tuition and other charges except fifty percent thereof shall be refunded to the student.
  4. When notice is received upon or after the completion of fifty percent of the educational services, no tuition or other charges shall be refunded to the student.

The provisions of this section shall not prejudice the right of any student to recovery in an action against any postsecondary educational institution for breach of contract or fraud.

Negotiation of Promissory Instruments. No postsecondary educational institution shall negotiate any promissory instrument received as payment for tuition or other charges prior to the completion of one-half of the educational services. Any instrument negotiated in violation of this section shall be voidable by the maker, drawer, or endorser of the instrument.

Cancellation of Contract for Instruction. Any person shall have the right for any cause to rescind, revoke, or cancel a contract for educational services at any postsecondary educational institution within seven days after entering into such contract without incurring any tort or contract liability. In such event, postsecondary educational institution may retain the amount of tuition and other charges as set forth and described above in Refund of Tuition Fees. Additional Information. Please write to the Director and Executive Officer for specific information on Definitions; Exemptions; Board Powers and Duties; Minimum Standards; Prohibition; Remedy of Defrauded Student; Board Review; Violations, Civil Penalty and Criminal Penalty; Jurisdiction of Courts; and Enforcement.

BELCOURT

Turtle Mountain Community College

PO Box 340, Belcourt, ND 58316. Two-Year College. Founded 1972. Contact: Anita Frederick, Dean of Student Srvc., (701)477-7862, Fax: (701)477-7892, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.tm.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,776 per year. Enrollment: Total 894. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Machine (9 Mo); Auto Mechanics (18 Mo); Building Trades (11 Mo); Clerk, Stenographer (9 Mo); Clerk, Typist (9 Mo); Early Childhood Education (18 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (18 Mo); Entrepreneurship (9 Mo); Health Care & Management (6 Mo); Management (18 Mo); Medical Record Technology (18 Mo); Secretarial, Administrative (18 Mo); Welding Technology (10 Mo); Word Processing (9 Mo)

BISMARCK

Aakers Business College (Bismark)

1701 East Century Ave., Bismarck, ND 58503. Business. Founded 1902. Contact: Mike Heitkamp, Dir. of Admissions, (701)530-9600, 877-530-9600, Fax: (701)530-9604, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.aakers.edu; Shannon Balerud, Admission Rep., E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $10,166; $8,010 room and board. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Advanced (12-18 Mo); Accounting, Automated (18-24 Mo); Accounting, Junior (18-24 Mo); Business Management (18-24 Mo); Legal Administration (12-21 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (12 Mo); Medical Office Management (15-21 Mo); Medical Transcription (12 Mo); Network Support (15-24 Mo); Secretarial, General (12-15 Mo); Secretarial, Legal (12 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (18-24 Mo); Travel & Transportation Management (18-24 Mo)

Bismarck State College

1500 Edwards Ave., PO Box 5587, Bismarck, ND 58506-5587. Two-Year College. Founded 1939. Contact: Dr. Drake Carter, Associate VP for Academic Affairs, (701)224-5545, (701)224-5400, 800-445-5073, Fax: (701)224-5552, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bismarckstate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $107 per credit ND resident; $133/credit MN resident; $129 contiguous states; $253 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 2,287. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NATEF; NCA-HLC; CAAHEP; NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (1 or 2 Yr); Agribusiness (2 Yr); Agricultural Science (2 Yr); Art (2 Yr); Automotive Collision Repair (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (1 Yr); Biological Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Education (2 Yr); Business Technology (1 or 2 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Commercial Art (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Dental Technology (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Electric Transmission Systems Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 or 2 Yr); Energy Management (2 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Engineering Aide (2 Yr); Farm Management Technology (2 Yr); Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (1 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (1-2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Journalism (2 Yr); Laboratory Assistant, Certified (2 Yr); Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Language (2 Yr); Liberal Arts (2 Yr); Management (2 Yr); Medical Technology - Phlebotomy (1 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Nuclear Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (1 or 2 Yr); Paramedic (1 or 2 Yr); Power Lineman (1 Yr); Power Plant Mechanics (2 Yr); Process Plant Technology (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr); Theatre Arts (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

Medcenter One Health Systems School of Radiologic Technology

300 N. 7th St., Bismarck, ND 58506-5525. Allied Medical. Founded 1918. Contact: Cindy Hanson, Program Director, (701)323-5470, Fax: (701)323-5479, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: Paid to college/university of attendance. Enrollment: Total 5. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

R D Hairstyling College, Inc.

124 N. 4th St, Bismarck, ND 58501-4001. Cosmetology. Founded 1973. Contact: Dwight Grismer, (701)223-8804, 800-767-5079, Fax: (701)222-2237, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.rdhairstylingcollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $3,195-$10,000 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 40. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1800-2100H); Cosmetology Instructor (1 Yr); Cosmetology - Refresher; Manicurist (350 Hr)

St. Alexius Medical Center/University of Mary

900 East & Broadway, Bismarck, ND 58506-5510. Allied Medical. Founded 1950. Contact: Dan Johannes, B.S., R.T.(R), (701)530-7750, (701)530-7751, Fax: (701)530-5523, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.st.alexius.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Enrollment: Total 16. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

United Tribes Technical College

3315 University Dr., Bismarck, ND 58504-7565. Nursing. Founded 1969. Contact: Dr. David Gipp, Pres., (701)255-3285, Fax: (701)530-0647, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.uttc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $3,565. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (18 Mo); Carpentry (9 Mo); Clerical, General (9 Mo); Electrical Construction (9 Mo); Food Service & Management (12 Mo); Medical Record Technology (22 Mo); Nursing, Practical (22 Mo); Plumbing (9 Mo); Police Science (9 Mo); Welding, Combination (9 Mo)

University of Mary

7500 University Dr, Bismarck, ND 58504. Other. Founded 1959. Contact: Sister Thomas Welder, Pres., (701)255-7500, 800-408-6279, Fax: (701)255-7687, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.umary.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $10,817. Enrollment: Total 2,071. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Drug Abuse Counseling (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (3 Yr)

BOTTINEAU

Minot State University, Bottineau

105 Simrall Blvd., Bottineau, ND 58318. Two-Year College. Founded 1906. Contact: Paula Berg, Associate Dean for Student Affairs, (701)228-5426, 800-542-6866, Fax: (701)228-5499, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.misu-b.nodak.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,554 resident; $5,964 non-resident; $2,953 contig. states; $3,282 room/board. Enrollment: Total 620. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma, Certificate. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology; Administrative Assistant; Business; Computer Business Systems Technology; Computer Networking; Environmental Technology; Fisheries & Wildlife Management; Forestry Technology; Horticulture; Horticulture, Ornamental; Landscape Architecture; Landscaping; Marketing Management; Medical Office Management; Receptionist; Secretarial, Medical; Water Quality Control; Web Development

DEVILS LAKE

Lake Region State College

1801 College Dr., N., Devils Lake, ND 58301-1598. Two-Year College. Founded 1941. Contact: Dr. Randall R. Fixen, Dir. of Counseling and Housing, (701)662-1600, (701)662-1514, 800-443-1313, Fax: (701)662-1570, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.lrsc.nodak.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,550 max per year, resident and non-resident; $3,729 MN reciprocity. Enrollment: Total 421. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (1 Yr); Legal Assistant (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Mechanics, Diesel (1 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (1 Yr)

DICKINSON

Dickinson State University

291 Campus Dr., Dickinson, ND 58601. Other. Founded 1918. Contact: Marshall Melbye, (701)483-2535, (701)483-2507, 800-279-4295, Fax: (701)483-2409, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] nodak.edu, Web Site: http://www.dickinsonstate.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $92/credit, resident; $219 non-residents; $111 SD, MT, SK, MB residents; $99 MN residents. Enrollment: Total 2,479. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: NCATE; NLNAC; NCAHLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (2 Yr); Agribusiness - Marketing (2 Yr); Farm Management Technology (1 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (2 Yr); Secretarial, Legal (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr)

ELLENDALE

Trinity Bible College

50 S. 6th Ave., Ellendale, ND 58436. Other. Founded 1948. Contact: Dr. Michael L. Dusing, VP of Academic Affairs, (701)349-3621, 800-523-1603, Fax: (701)349-5443, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://trinitybiblecollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $8,880 per year; $4,222 per year room and board; $1,688 fees. Enrollment: Total 307. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABHE; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Bible Study (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr)

FARGO

Aakers Business College (Fargo)

4012 19th Ave. SW, Fargo, ND 58103. Business. Founded 1902. Contact: John Wilson, Dir. of Admissions, (701)277-3889, 800-817-0009, Fax: (701)277-5604, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.aakers.edu; Linda Froehlich, Admission Rep., E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $10,166; $8,010 room and board. Enrollment: Total 722. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Advanced (12-18 Mo); Accounting, Automated (18-24 Mo); Accounting, Junior (18-24 Mo); Business Management (18-24 Mo); Legal Administration (15-21 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (12 Mo); Medical Office Management (15-21 Mo); Medical Transcription (12 Mo); Network Support (15-24 Mo); Secretarial, General (12-15 Mo); Secretarial, Legal (12 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (18-24 Mo); Travel & Transportation Management (18-24 Mo)

Josef's School of Hair Design, Inc.

627 NP Ave., Fargo, ND 58102. Cosmetology. Founded 1960. Contact: Carol Fugere, (701)235-0011, 800-201-0012, Fax: (701)235-3969, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://josefsschoolofhairdesign.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,100 plus $336 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 3, women 134. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1800 Hr)

MeritCare School of Clinical Laboratory Science

737 Broadway, No. 4, Fargo, ND 58102. Allied Medical. Founded 1953. Contact: Alice Hawley, (701)234-2482, (701)234-2116, 800-437-4010, Fax: (701)234-2403, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Technology (1 Yr)

Meritcare School of Radiology

720 4th St., N., Fargo, ND 58122. Allied Medical. Founded 1965. Contact: Mary Jo Bergman, (701)234-4205, Fax: (701)234-4248, E-mail: mary.jo. [email protected], Web Site: http://meritcare.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Depends on the campus of enrollment. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology

Moler Barber College of Hairstyling

16 S. 8th St., Fargo, ND 58103-1805. Barber. Founded 1923. Contact: Mary Cannon, (701)232-6773, Fax: (701)232-6773, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $4,975 plus $855 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 2, women 6. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Barbering (1550 Hr)

NDSU/Meritcare Hospital, Respiratory Care Program

720 N. 4th St, PO Box 118, Fargo, ND 58122-0118. Allied Medical. Founded 1989. Contact: Gary Brown, Program Dir., (701)234-5191, (701)234-6147, Fax: (701)234-6942, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/rc/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,500. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Respiratory Therapy (4 Yr)

FORT TOTTEN

Cankdeska Cikana Community College

PO Box 269, Fort Totten, ND 58335. Two-Year College. Contact: Cynthia Lindquist, President, (701)766-4415, (701)766-1342, Fax: (701)766-4077, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.littlehoop.edu/cccc/home.html. Public. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,040 in-state; $2,040 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Curriculum: Esthetician (600 Hr)

FORT YATES

Sitting Bull Community College

1341 92nd St., Fort Yates, ND 58538. Business. Contact: Melody Azure, Registrar, (701)854-3861, Fax: (701)854-3403, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sittingbull.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,540. Enrollment: Total 461. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NCAHLC. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Clerical, General (9 Mo); Human Services (2 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Secretarial, Advanced (2 Yr)

GRAND FORKS

ELS Language Centers

University of North Dakota, 2951 2nd Ave. N, PO Box 8390, Grand Forks, ND 58203. Other. Founded 1961. Contact: Jill Shafer, Center Dir., (701)777-6785, Fax: (701)777-6786, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.els.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $1,395 intensive; $1,045 semi-intensive. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: English As A Second Language (3-4 Wk)

GFK Flight Support

2467 Air Cargo Dr., Grand Forks, ND 58203. Flight and Ground. Founded 1994. Contact: Brent Seifert, (701)772-5504, 800-435-3587, Fax: (701)772-8917, Web Site: http://www.flygfk.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Enrollment: men 300, women 300. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Basic Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane

Josef's School of Hair Design

2011 S. Washington, Grand Forks, ND 58201. Cosmetology. Founded 1960. Contact: Heather Ostrowski, (701)772-2728, 800-201-0012, Fax: (701)772-3645. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Year. Tuition: $7,100 plus $336 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 90. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1800 Hr)

JAMESTOWN

Jamestown Styling Academy

PO Box 464, Jamestown, ND 58402-0464. Cosmetology. Founded 1999. Contact: Carol Robertson, (701)252-8700, (701)320-9009. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,670 cosmetology; $2,250 manicurist. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1800 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (480 Hr); Manicurist (350 Hr)

MAYVILLE

Mayville State University

330 Third St. NE, Mayville, ND 58257. Other. Founded 1889. Contact: Pamela Balch, Pres., (701)788-4842, (701)788-4774, 800-437-4104, Fax: (701)788-4748, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mayvillestate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,300 in-state, $3,700 for MN; $4,125 contiguous states; $8,8813 out-of-state, $4,950 Western undergraduate exchange. Enrollment: Total 668. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Management (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Secretarial, Administrative (2 Yr)

MINOT

Headquarters Academy of Hair Design

108 S. Main St, Minot, ND 58701-3914. Cosmetology. Founded 1982. Contact: Lloyd Roll, Dir. of Admissions, (701)852-8329, 800-891-5135, Fax: (701)839-6407, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,425 plus $195 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 40. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1800 Hr)

Minot State University

500 University Ave., W., Minot, ND 58707. Other. Founded 1913. Contact: Dr. Lisa Johnson, Admissions, (701)858-3000, (701)858-3350, 800-777-0750, Fax: (701)858-3111, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.minotstateu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,712/year resident. Enrollment: Total 2,466. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Secretarial, Legal (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr)

Pietsch Aircraft

2216 N. Broadway, Minot, ND 58703. Flight and Ground. Contact: Warren Pietsch, Owner, (701)852-4092, Fax: (701)852-5343, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://pietschaircraft.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Accreditation: FAA. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Basic Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Primary Flying

Trinity Medical Center

1 Burdick Expressway, Minot, ND 58701. Allied Medical. Contact: Deb Hornvacher, Dir., (701)857-5620, Fax: (701)857-5245, Web Site: http://www.trinityhealth.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Curriculum: Medical Technology (12 Mo); Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

NEW TOWN

Fort Berthold Community College

220 8th Ave. N, PO Box 490, New Town, ND 58763. Two-Year College. Founded 1973. Contact: Susan Paulson, Dean of Students, (701)627-4738, Fax: (701)627-3609, Web Site: http://www.fbcc.bia.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $80/credit, up to 12 credits. Enrollment: men 96, women 189. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Carpentry (9 Mo); Clerical, General (9 Mo); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (2 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Ranch & Farm Management (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (9 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr)

WAHPETON

North Dakota State College of Science

800 6th St. N., Wahpeton, ND 58076-0002. Two-Year College. Founded 1903. Contact: Paula Berg, Associate Dean for Student Affairs, (701)671-2125, 800-342-4325, Fax: (701)671-2126, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ndscs.nodak.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,516/semester (average) ND residents; $8,542/semester out-of-state; varies with agreements with other states. Enrollment: Total 2,400. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: AOTA; CAAHEP; NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Agribusiness - Marketing (18 Mo); Agri-Engineering & Mechanics; Agri-Power Equipment; Air Conditioning & Heating (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Auto Mechanics - Diesel; Auto Mechanics - Tune Up; Auto Parts Management; Auto Parts Specialist; Business Administration; Business Management; Civil Engineering Technology; Communications Technology; Computer Operator (9 Mo); Computer Programming; Computer Technology (18 Mo); Culinary Arts (18 Mo); Dental Assisting; Dental Hygiene; Drafting, Architectural (18 Mo); Electrical Technology; Electronics, Industrial; Electronics Technology; Instrumentation Technology; Insurance, General; Machine Tool & Die (18 Mo); Machine Tool & Die Design; Machinist, Advanced; Machinist, General; Management; Marketing; Mechanical Drafting; Mechanics, Diesel; Medical Record Technology; Moldmaking (18 Mo); Nursing, Practical; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Office, General; Plumbing; Real Estate, Commercial; Recreational Vehicle Repair; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical; Sheet Metal; Small Engine Repair; Stenography, General; Supermarket Management; Technician, Electronic Service (18 Mo); Welding Technology; Word Processing

WILLISTON

Williston State College

1410 University Ave., PO Box 1326, Williston, ND 58802-1326. Two-Year College. Founded 1961. Contact: Jan Solem, (701)774-4200, 888-863-9455, Fax: (701)774-4211, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wsc.nodak.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $102/credit ND and contiguous states; $122 MN resident; $142 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 603. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC; CAPTE; ASHA; COMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Diesel Technology (2 Yr); Entrepreneurship (1-2 Yr); General Studies (1-2 Yr); Health Care & Management (1-2 Yr); Marketing Management (1-2 Yr); Massage Therapy (1-2 Yr); Medical Transcription (1-2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr)

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North Dakota

North Dakota

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous North Dakotans

40 Bibliography

State of North Dakota

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: The state was formerly the northern section of Dakota Territory; dakota is a Siouan word meaning “allies.”

NICKNAME : Peace Garden State; Flickertail State.

CAPITAL: Bismarck.

ENTERED UNION: 2 November 1889 (39th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the center is an elm tree; beneath it are a sheaf of wheat, a plow, an anvil, and a bow and three arrows, and in the background a Native American chases a buffalo toward a setting sun. The depiction is surrounded by the state motto, and the words “Great Seal State of North Dakota October 1st 1889” encircle the whole.

FLAG: The flag consists of a blue field with yellow fringes; on each side is depicted an eagle with outstretched wings, holding in one talon a sheaf of arrows, in the other an olive branch, and in his beak a banner inscribed with the words “E Pluribus Unum.” Below the eagle are the words “North Dakota”; above it are 13 stars surmounted by a sunburst.

MOTTO: Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable.

SONG: “North Dakota Hymn;” “Flickertail March” (march).

FLOWER: Wild prairie rose.

TREE: American elm.

BIRD: Western meadowlark.

FISH: Northern pike.

FOSSIL: Teredo petrified wood.

BEVERAGE: Milk.

GRASS: Western wheatgrass.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, Friday before Easter, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT; 5 AM MST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in the western north-central United States, North Dakota ranks 17th in size among the 50 states. Its total area is 70,703 square miles (183,121 square kilometers), including 69,300 square miles (179,487 square kilometers) of land and 1,403 square miles (3,634 square kilometers) of inland water. Its maximum length from east to west is about 360 miles (580 kilometers). Its extreme width from north to south is about 210 miles (340 kilometers). The total boundary length is 1,312 miles (2,111 kilometers).

2 Topography

North Dakota straddles two major US geographic regions: the Central Plains in the east and the Great Plains in the west. Along the eastern border is the generally flat Red River Valley, with the state’s lowest point, 750 feet (229 miles). Most of the eastern half of North Dakota consists of the Drift Prairie. The Missouri Plateau occupies the western half of the state and has the highest point in North Dakota, White Butte, at 3,506 feet (1,069 meters) in the southwest. Separating the Missouri Plateau from the Drift Prairie is the Missouri Escarpment, which rises 400 feet (122 meters) above the prairie and extends diagonally from northwest to southeast.

North Dakota has two major rivers: the Red River of the north, flowing northward into Canada; and the Missouri River, which enters in the northwest and then flows east and, joined by the Yellowstone River, southeast into South Dakota.

3 Climate

The climate in North Dakota is continental with hot summers, very cold winters, and sparse to moderate rainfall. The average annual temperature ranges from 7°f (-14°c) in January to 69°f (21°c) in July. The record low temperature, -60°f (-51°c), was set in Parshall on 15 February 1936. The record high, 121°f (49°c), was set at Steele on 6 July 1936. The average annual precipitation in Bismarck is about 15.8 inches (40 centimeters).

North Dakota Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:635,867
Population change, 2000–06:-1.0%
Hispanic or Latino†:1.4%
Population by race
One race:98.8%
White:91.5%
Black or African American:0.8%
American Indian /Alaska Native:4.9%
Asian:0.9%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.1%
Some other race:0.6%
Two or more races:1.2%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Fargo90,6720.1
Bismarck57,3773.3
Grand Forks49,7921.0
Minot34,984-4.3
West Fargo19,48730.4
Mandan17,2253.0
Dickinson15,666-2.1
Jamestown14,826-4.5
Williston12,193-2.5
Wahpeton8,220-4.3

The total annual snowfall in Bismarck averages 41.9 inches (106 centimeters).

4 Plants and Animals

North Dakota is predominantly a region of prairie and plains spread with Indian, blue, and buffalo grasses. The wild prairie rose is the state flower. American elm, green ash, and cottonwood grow as well and cranberries, juneberries, and wild grapes. The western prairie fringed orchid was the only plant species classified as threatened in 2006. No plant species were listed as endangered that year.

The white-tailed and mule deer and prong-horn antelope populations have been restored from dwindling numbers. North Dakota has the largest sharptailed grouse population in the United States and has more wild ducks that any other state except Alaska. In 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed six animal species as threatened or endangered in North Dakota, including the bald eagle, Eskimo curlew, pallid sturgeon, least tern, and whooping crane.

5 Environmental Protection

Major environmental issues confronting the state are importation of nonhazardous and hazardous solid wastes for treatment or disposal; nonpoint surface water pollution from agricultural and native land; groundwater contamination by fuel storage tanks and by irrigation; and air pollution by energy conversion plants.

The Environmental Health Section of the North Dakota Department of Health oversees programs to ensure water and air quality. North Dakota has little urban air pollution with one exception: motor vehicle traffic is causing excess ambient carbon monoxide in an area within the city of Fargo. The major industrial sources of air contaminants within the state are seven coal-fired electrical generating plants, a coal gasification plant, a refinery, and agricultural commodity processing facilities.

To conserve water and provide irrigation, nearly 700 dams have been built, including Garrison Dam, completed in 1960.

About 15% of all household waste is recycled. Yard waste, household appliances, and scrap tires are also diverted for compost, recycling, or fuel. In 2003, North Dakota had 17 hazardous waste sites listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database, but none was on the National Priorities List as of 2006.

North Dakota Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population642,200100.0
One race634,80298.8
Two races7,0371.1
White and Black or African American8120.1
White and American Indian/Alaska Native3,3680.5
White and Asian9800.2
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander93
White and some other race1,1420.2
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native150
Black or African American and Asian69
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander20
Black or African American and some other race168
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian61
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander17
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race65
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander36
Asian and some other race54
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race2
Three or more races3610.1

6 Population

In 2006, North Dakota ranked 48th population in the United States with an estimated total of 635,867 residents. The population is projected to decrease to 620,777 by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 9.2 persons per square mile (3.5 persons per square kilometer), the fourth-lowest in the nation. In 2004, the median age was 38.8 years. In 2005, about 14% of all residents were 65 years old or older and about 23% were 18 or younger.

In 2005, Fargo had a population of about 90,672, with the population of the metropolitan area about twice that. Bismarck had a population of about 57,377, and Grand Forks, 49,792.

7 Ethnic Groups

As of 2000, about 93% of the state’s population was white. The Native American population was 31,329, or about 5% of the total, and there were about 3,916 black Americans, representing about 1% of the population. Among Americans of European origin, the leading groups were Germans (44%) and Norwegians (30%). The Asian population totaled 3,606, with 230 Pacific Islanders. About 7,786 North Dakotans were Hispanic or Latino. Only about 1.9% of the state’s population was foreign born as of 2000, predominantly from neighboring Canada.

In 2006, about 4.9% of the population was Native American and 1.4% of the population was Hispanic or Latino. Asians and blacks each accounted for less than 1% of the population.

8 Languages

A few Norwegian food terms like lefse and lutefisk have entered the Northern dialect that is characteristic of North Dakota, and some Midland terms have intruded from the South. In 2000, 93.7% of the population five years old or older spoke only English at home. German, the next most frequently used language, was spoken by 14,931 residents and 8,263 residents spoke Spanish as their primary language.

9 Religions

Most of the state population is mainline Protestant, with the leading denominations being the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (with 174,554 adherents in 2000) and the United Methodist Church with 20,159 adherents. The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod had about 23,720 members. The Roman Catholic Church had about 148,435 members in 2004. There were an estimated 920 Muslims and 730 Jews in the state in 2000. About 26.8% of the population were not counted as members of any religious organization.

10 Transportation

In 2003, there were 3,727 miles (6,000 kilometers) of rail trackage in North Dakota. The largest railroad lines are the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe (BNSF) and the Soo Line. Amtrak passenger service was provided by the Chicago–Seattle/Portland route.

There were 86,782 miles (139,719 kilometers) of public roads, streets, and highways in North Dakota in 2004. There were also 707,000 registered motor vehicles and 461,780 licensed drivers in the state.

In 2005, there were 292 airports and 15 heliports in North Dakota. More than 261,872 passengers were boarded at Hector International Airport at Fargo in 2004.

11 History

In the 17th century, present-day North Dakota was inhabited by the Yanktonai Sioux, in the southeastern quarter of the state; the Teton Sioux west of the Missouri River; and the Ojibwa, in the northeast. European penetration of the Dakotas began in 1738, when the Frenchman Pierre Gaultier de Varennes Sieur de la Vérendrye, traded for furs in the Red River region. After the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804–06) explored the Missouri River, the American Fur Company traded there, with buffalo hides as the leading commodity.

In 1812, Scottish settlers from Canada moved up the Red River to Pembina. This first white farming settlement in North Dakota also attracted numerous métis, persons of mixed Native American and European ancestry. An extensive trade in furs and buffalo hides, which were transported first by heavy carts and later by steamboats, sprang up between Pembina, Fort Garry (Winnipeg, Canada), and St. Paul, Minnesota.

In 1861 North Dakota was organized as part of the Dakota Territory, including the present-day Dakotas, Montana, and Wyoming. The confinement of Native Americans to reservations and the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad at Fargo in 1872 led to the rise of homesteading, as settlers poured in. This short-lived “Great Dakota boom” ended in the mid-1880s with drought and depressed farm prices. As many of the original American and Canadian settlers left, they were replaced by Norwegians, Germans, and other Europeans. By 1910, North Dakota, which had entered the Union in 1889, was among the leading states in percentage of foreign-born residents.

Between 1898 and 1915, the “Second Boom” brought an upsurge in population and railroad construction. The 1920s, a period of bank failures, low farm prices, drought, and political disunity, saw the beginnings of an exodus from the state. Matters grew even worse during the depression of the 1930s. William Langer was elected governor by hard-pressed farmers in 1932, and he sought to raise grain prices in order to save farms from foreclosure. World War II brought a quiet prosperity to North Dakota that lasted into the following decades.

The Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the rise of oil prices throughout the decade spurred drilling for oil, encouraged the mining of lignite for electrical generation, and led to the construction of the nation’s first coal gasification plant.

But when oil prices dropped in the 1980s, North Dakota’s economy suffered a setback. In addition, a drought that began in 1987 damaged over 5.3 million acres of land and persisted into the 1990s. The state continued to be hit by extreme weather, including storms and flooding in 1994, followed by years of drought, then by floods in 2000.

In 1991 the state repealed the laws that required retail businesses to be closed on Sundays. Republican governor Ed Schafer, elected in 1992 and reelected in 1996, set an aggressive plan for the state’s economic development. By 2000 Fargo boasted one of the lowest unemployment rates in the nation. That year, Republican John Hoeven was elected governor (and was reelected in 2004). By 2003, the poverty rate had dropped from 15% in the 1990s to 9.7%, below the national average of 12.6%. Also in 2003, the state led the nation in personal income and wage growth. In 2005, the state had a budget surplus and plans were being made for tax relief programs.

12 State Government

Statewide elected officials include governor and lieutenant governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, and attorney general. Commissioners are also elected for the state’s agriculture, insurance, labor, taxation, and public services departments. The legislature has two chambers, with a 47-member senate and a 94-member house of representatives. A two-thirds vote of the elected members of each house is required to override a governor’s veto.

In 2004, legislators received a salary of $125 per day during regular legislative sessions and the governor received $85,506 per year.

13 Political Parties

Republicans held the governorship for 58 years between 1889 and 1960. From 1960 to 1980, the statehouse was in Democratic hands. In the early and mid-1990s, the Republican Party increased its influence at the state level.

In November 2000, North Dakotans cast 61% of the total popular vote for Republican George W. Bush and 33% for Democrat Al Gore. Republican John Hoeven won the governorship that year. In 2004, Bush won 66% of

North Dakota Governors: 1889–2007

1889–1891John MillerRepublican
1891–1892Andrew Horace BurkeRepublican
1892–1895Eli C. D. ShortridgeIndependent
1895–1897Roger AllinRepublican
1897–1898Frank Arlington BriggsRepublican
1898–1899Joseph McMurray DevineRepublican
1899–1901Frederick Bartlett FancherRepublican
1901–1905Frank WhiteRepublican
1905–1907Elmore Yocum SarlesRepublican
1907–1913John BurkeDemocrat
1913–1917Louis Benjamin HannaRepublican
1917–1921Lynn Joseph FrazierRepublican
1921–1927Ragnvald Anderson NestosRepublican
1927–1928Arthur Gustov SorlieRepublican
1928–1929Walter Jeremiah MaddockRepublican
1929–1933George F. ShaferRepublican
1933–1934William LangerIndependent
1934–1935Ole H. OlsonRepublican
1935Thomas Hilliard MoodieDemocrat
1935–1937Walter WelfordRepublican
1937–1939William LangerIndependent
1939–1945John MosesDemocrat
1945–1951Fred George AandahlRepublican
1951–1957Clarence Norman BrunsdaleRepublican
1957–1961John Edward DavisRepublican
1961–1973William Lewis GuyDemocrat
1973–1981Arthur Albert LinkDemocrat
1981–1985Allen Ingvar OlsonRepublican
1985–1993George SinnerDemocrat
1993–2001Edward Thomas SchaferRepublican
2001–John HoevenRepublican

the vote and the Democratic challenger John Kerry won 33%.

North Dakota’s US senators are Kent Conrad, a Democrat reelected to a third term in 2006, and Democrat Byron Dorgan, reelected to a third term in 2004. North Dakota’s sole representative to the US House is a Democrat. Following the 2006 elections, the state senate had 26 Republicans and 21 Democrats. The state house was dominated by Republicans, who held 61 seats, while the Democrats had 33. Twenty-three women were elected to the state legislature in 2006, or 16.3%. The state had 481,351 registered voters in 2002.

14 Local Government

North Dakota in 2005 had 53 counties, 360 municipalities designated as cities, 230 public school districts, and 764 special districts. Typical elected county officials are the sheriff, court clerk, county judge, and county justice. Most municipalities use the mayor-council system of government.

15 Judicial System

North Dakota has a supreme court of five justices, seven district courts, and a system of local (county) courts. The state’s violent crime rate in 2004 was 79.4 reported incidents per 100,000 persons. Crimes against property were reported at a rate of about 1,916.6 per 100,000 people. State and federal correctional facilities had 1,327 prisoners in 2004. North Dakota does not have a death penalty; it was abolished in 1973 and the last execution took place in 1930.

16 Migration

During the late 19th century, North Dakota was largely settled by immigrants of German and Scandinavian stock. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 30,000 in domestic migration but a net gain of 4,000 in international migration. In the period 1995–2000, some 60,252 people moved into the state and 85,459 moved out, for a net loss of 25,207, many of whom moved to Minnesota. For the period 2000–05, net international migration was 3,687 and net internal migration was -18,568 for a net loss of 14,881 people.

17 Economy

North Dakota has been and still is an important agricultural state, especially as a producer of wheat, much of which finds its way onto the world market. Many segments of the economy are affected by agriculture. Farm numbers have continued to decline, however, posing a threat to the state’s rural lifestyle. Long periods of drought have plagued North Dakota. In 2002, wheat production (representing a quarter of the state’s total agricultural revenues) fell by 24% and cattle production was disrupted. North Dakota was only slightly affected by the national recession and slowdown of 2001 and 2002.

Growth industries for the state include petroleum and the mining of coal, chiefly lignite, North Dakota has more coal resources than any other state. Manufacturing is concentrated on farm products and machinery.

In 2004, an estimated 1,747 new businesses were established while about 2,621 businesses were closed.

18 Income

In 2005, North Dakota had a gross state product (GSP) of $24 billion, ranking 50th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In 2004, North Dakota ranked 37th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $29,494; the national average was $33,050. The average median household income for 2002–04, was $35,594 compared to the national average of $44,473. For the same period, 10.3% of the population lived below the federal poverty level, compared to the national average of 12.4%.

North Dakota Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR N. DAKOTA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
** Independent candidate Ross Perot received 71,084 votes in 1992 and 32,515 votes in 1996.
1948Dewey (R)95,812115,139
1952*Eisenhower (R)76,694191,712
1956*Eisenhower (R)96,742156,766
1960Nixon (R)123,963154,310
1964*Johnson (D)149,784108,207
1968*Nixon (R)94,769138,669
1972*Nixon (R)100,384174,109
1976Ford (R)136,078153,470
1980*Reagan (R)79,189193,695
1984*Reagan (R)104,429200,336
1988*Bush (R)127,739166,559
1992**Bush (R)99,168136,244
1996**Dole (R)106,905125,050
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)95,284174,852
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)111,052196,651

19 Industry

By number of employees, the leading manufacturing industries in North Dakota are food products, industrial machinery, wood products, computer electronic equipment, and transportation equipment. Shipments of manufactured goods were valued at nearly $7.3 billion in 2004.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the labor force in North Dakota numbered 363,900, with approximately 12,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.3%, compared to the national average of 4.7%. In 2006, 5.6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 10.4% in manufacturing; 21.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5.4% in financial activities; 7.7% in professional and business services; 14% in education

and health services; 9.2% in leisure and hospitality services, and 21.5% in government.

In 2005, 21,000 of North Dakota’s 289,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions, representing 7.3%, below the national average of 12%.

21 Agriculture

North Dakota’s farm marketing totaled $3.96 billion in 2005. In 2004, North Dakota led the nation in spring wheat, drum wheat, barley, dry edible beans, sunflowers, and was second in the nation in overall wheat production.

In 2004, the state had approximately 30,300 farms and ranches occupying 39.4 million acres (16 million hectares). Crop production included 306.5 million bushels of wheat, 91.7 million bushels of barley (first in the nation), 791.7 million pounds of sunflowers, 14.1 million bushels of oats, 4.75 hundredweight of dry edible beans (first in the nation), 120.8 million bushels of corn, 4.8 million tons of sugar beets, and 26.7 million hundredweight of potatoes. The average farm is 1,300 acres (526 hectares).

22 Domesticated Animals

North Dakota farms and ranches had an estimated 1.7 million cattle and calves, valued at $1.83 billion in 2005. During 2004, there were around 169,000 hogs and pigs, worth $18.6 million. North Dakota farmers produced nearly 7 million pounds (3.2 million kilograms) of sheep and lambs, which brought in $7.5 million in gross income in 2003 and nearly 29.4 million pounds (13.4 million kilograms) of turkey. In 2004, North Dakota was the leading producer of honey, with 9.1 million pounds (4.1 million kilograms) worth $31.9 million.

23 Fishing

There is little commercial fishing in North Dakota. The Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery produces up to 3 million northern pike and nearly 10 million walleye each year. Other species produced there and at the Valley City National Fish Hatchery include small-mouth bass, crappie, rainbow trout, lake trout, brown trout, cutthroat trout, chinook salmon, paddlefish, and pallid sturgeon. In 2004, the state issued 168,497 sport fishing licenses.

24 Forestry

At the time of settlement, native forests covered about 700,000 acres (283,000 hectares). In 2004, there were 673,000 acres (272,000 hectares) of forestland, with 441,000 acres (178,000 hectares) classified as viable timberland. Agricultural clearing, inundation by reservoirs, and other land use changes have resulted in a 9% reduction in total forestland since 1954.

25 Mining

The value of nonfuel minerals produced in North Dakota in 2003 was about $37.7 million. Construction sand and gravel accounted for about 75% of the total value, followed by lime and crushed stone. Lapidary and collectible materials such as petrified wood, agates, jasper, and flint are also found in North Dakota.

26 Energy and Power

Power stations in North Dakota (utility and nonutility) generated 31.3 billion kilowatt hours of electricity in 2003. Coal fired plants accounted for 94% of production. Recoverable coal reserves totaled 1.19 billion tons in 2004. when North Dakota produced 29.9 million tons of coal. Proven crude oil reserves in 2004 totaled 389 million barrels. Production was at 85,000 barrels per day that year. Also in 2004, natural gas reserves totaled over 417 billion cubic feet (11.8 billion cubic meters). Marketed gas production was 55 billion cubic feet (1.56 billion cubic meters).

27 Commerce

North Dakota’s wholesale sales for 2002 totaled $8.8 billion; retail sales totaled $7.7. The leading types of retail establishments were gasoline stations, motor vehicle and auto parts dealers, and building and garden equipment and supplies dealers. Exports of goods originating in the state totaled $1.2 billion in 2005, ranking the state 46th in the nation.

28 Public Finance

Total revenues for 2004 were $5.2 billion and expenditures were $3.1 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($1 billion), public welfare ($683 million), and highways ($385 million). North Dakota had an outstanding debt of $1.6 billion, or about $2,613.82 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

The state’s five-bracket personal income schedule ranges from 2.1% to 5.54%. The corporate income tax schedule ranges from 2.6% to 7%. The state sales and use tax rate is 5%. Local sales taxes range from 0 to 2.5%. The state also imposes a full array of excise taxes covering motor fuels, tobacco products, and other selected items.

Total state tax collections in North Dakota in 2005 were $1.4 billion, of which 29.2% was generated by the state general sales and use tax, 21.3% by selective sales tax, 17.2% by personal income taxes, 5.4% by the corporate income tax, and the remainder from other taxes. The tax burden amounted to about $2,203 per person, ranking the state at 21st in the country for per capita tax burden, compared to the national average of $2,192 per person.

In 2005, the infant mortality rate was 5.8 per 1,000 population. The crude death rate was 9.6 per 1,000 population in 2003. In 2004, 19.8% of North Dakota residents were smokers. Death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) included heart disease, 255.9; cancer, 203.9; cerebrovascular diseases, 74; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 50.8; and diabetes, 33.7. North Dakota and Ohio share the distinction of having the third-highest diabetes mortality rate in the nation (following West Virginia and Louisiana). In 2004, the reported acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases rate was at about 2.7 per 100,000.

North Dakota’s 40 community hospitals had 3,600 beds in 2003. The average expense for hospital care was $859 per day. There were 244 physicians per 100,000 residents in 2004 and 1,059 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 319 dentists in the state. In 2004, about 11% of North Dakota’s residents were uninsured.

31 Housing

In 2004, North Dakota had 300,815 housing units, 262,585 of which were occupied; 68.1% were owner-occupied. About 63.2% of all housing units were single-family, detached homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 10,860 units lacked telephone services, 1,161 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 1,825 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.32 people.

In 2004, 4,000 new privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $83,354, one of the lowest in the nation. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $902, while renters paid a median of $466 per month, representing the second-lowest rate in the nation (after West Virginia).

32 Education

In 2004, 89.5% of North Dakota residents age 25 and older were high school graduates and 25.2% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 104,000 in fall 2002. Enrollment in nonpublic schools in fall 2003 was 6,209. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $901 million.

As of fall 2002, there were 45,800 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, North Dakota had 21 degree-granting institutions. The chief universities are the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks and North Dakota State University in Fargo.

33 Arts

The North Dakota Council on the Arts, a branch of the North Dakota state government, provides grants to local artists and groups, encourages visits by nonresident artists and exhibitions, and provides information and other services to the general public. The North Dakota Humanities Council was established in 1973. In 2005, North Dakota arts organizations received nine grants totaling $647,800 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The same year, the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded six grants totaling $778,772 for state programs.

The historic Fargo Theater presents live theatrical performances, as well as films, and sponsors the annual Fargo Film Festival. Fargo is also the center for the Fargo-Moorhead Opera and the Fargo-Moorhead Symphony. The Northern Plains Ballet is based in Bismarck, but tours Sioux Falls, Fargo, Billings, and Grand Forks.

Two popular musical events are the Old Time Fiddlers Contest (at Dunseith in June) and the Medora Musical (Medora, June through Labor Day); the latter features Western songs and dance.

34 Libraries and Museums

During 2001, North Dakota had 82 public library systems with a total of 89 libraries. In the same year, the state public libraries had 2,158,000 volumes of books and serial publications with a total circulation of 3,937,000. The leading academic library was that of the University of North Dakota (Grand Forks). Among the most notable of the state’s 50 museums are the Art Galleries and Zoology Museum of the University of North Dakota, and the North Dakota Heritage Center at Bismarck, which has an outstanding collection of Native American artifacts. Theodore Roosevelt National Park contains relics from the Elkhorn ranch where Roosevelt lived in the 1880s.

35 Communications

In 2004, 95% of North Dakota’s occupied housing units had telephones. In 2002, there were 245,578 mobile phone subscribers. In 2003, about 61.2% of all households had a personal computer and 53.2% had Internet access. In 2005, there were 28 major radio stations (10 AM, 18 FM) and 9 major network television stations. A total of 15,091 Internet domain names were registered in North Dakota in 2000.

36 Press

As of 2005, there were six morning dailies, four evening dailies, and seven Sunday papers in the state. The leading dailies were the Fargo Forum, with a daily circulation of 51,106, and 62,097 on Sunday; the Grand Forks Herald, 31,524 mornings, 34,763 Sunday; the Minot Daily News, 20,974 mornings, 21,848 Sunday; and the Bismarck Tribune, 27,620, morning, 30,081 Sunday. In addition, there were about 15 periodicals.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

North Dakota’s 17 state parks and other state recreational areas received 922.434 visitors in 2003. Nearly 40% of all park users come from other states and countries.

Among the leading tourist attractions is the International Peace Garden, commemorating friendly relations between the United States and Canada. The most spectacular scenery in North Dakota is part of the Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The Badlands, an integral part of the park, consist of strangely colored and interestingly eroded rock formations. Hunting and fishing are major recreational activities in the state.

38 Sports

There are no major professional sports teams in North Dakota. In collegiate football, the University of North Dakota Fighting Sioux and the North Dakota State University Bison compete in the North Central Conference. The University of North Dakota also competes in collegiate ice hockey, winning National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships seven times, most recently in 2000.

Other annual sporting events include the PWT Championship (a walleye fishing tournament) in Bismarck in September and several rodeos throughout the state. Former New York Yankee slugger Roger Maris grew up in Fargo, North Dakota.

39 Famous North Dakotans

Among North Dakota politicians known to the nation was Gerald P. Nye (b.Wisconsin, 1892–1971), a US senator and a leading isolationist opponent of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s foreign policy, as was Senator William Langer (1886–1959). Another prominent senator, Porter J. McCumber (1858–1933), supported President Woodrow Wilson in the League of Nations battle. Usher L. Burdick (1879–1960), a champion of Native Americans, served 18 years in the US House of Representatives.

North Dakota-related writers and commentators include Vilhjalmur Stefansson (b.Canada, 1879–1962), who recorded in numerous books his explorations and experiments in the high Arctic; playwright Maxwell Anderson (b.Pennsylvania, 1888–1959), who won the Pulitzer Prize; Edward K. Thompson (b.Minnesota, 1907–1996), editor of Life magazine and founder-editor of Smithsonian; and novelists Louis L’Amour (1908–1988) and Larry Woiwode (b.1941).

To the entertainment world North Dakota has contributed band leaders Lawrence Welk (1903–1992) and Tommy Tucker (Gerald Duppler, 1908–1989); jazz vocalist Peggy Lee (Norma Delores Egstrom, b.1920–2002) and country singer Lynn Anderson (b.1947); and actress Angie Dickinson (Angeline Brown, b.1931). Sports personalities associated with the state include outfielder Roger Maris (1934–1985), who in 1961 broke Babe Ruth’s record for the number of home runs in one season. The Maris record was broken in 1998 by Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Gisbon, Karen Bush. North Dakota Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2003.

Heinrichs, Ann. North Dakota. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2004.

Hintz, Martin. North Dakota. New York: Children’s Press, 2000.

Murray, Julie. North Dakota. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Severin, E. Hoover. North Dakota. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

WEB SITES

State of North Dakota. North Dakota: Official Portal for North Dakota State Government. www.nd.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

North Dakota Tourism. North Dakota. Lengendary. www.ndtourism.com (accessed March 1, 2007).

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North Dakota

North Dakota

North Dakota joined the Union as the thirty-ninth state on November 2, 1889. With a total area of 70,703 square miles (183,121 square kilometers), it is the nineteenth-largest state. North Dakota lies in the western part of the northcentral United States and is bordered by South Dakota , Montana , Minnesota , and Canada.

Sioux and Ojibwa tribes lived in present-day North Dakota in the seventeenth century. European fur traders came to the region in 1738, and in the early nineteenth century the American Fur Company traded there as well.

Scottish settlers moved to North Dakota in 1812 and established the first white farming settlement. Soon, people of mixed ancestry, particularly Native American and European, joined the Scots. By 1872, most Native Americans were confined to reservations, and white settlers began arriving in large numbers. This was called the Great Dakota Boom, and it ended in the mid-1880s.

A drought chased away many of the original settlers, but they were replaced by Norwegians, Germans, and other European immigrants to whom the federal government had promised the opportunity to thrive if only they worked hard. The Second Boom occurred between 1898 and 1915.

Hardship and recovery

The 1920s brought more drought, bank failures, and political conflict, all of which led to a decrease in the state's population as residents packed their few possessions and moved in hopes of a better life elsewhere. The Great Depression (1929–41) made matters worse, but the postwar economy after World War II (1939–45) allowed North Dakota to prosper for several decades.

North Dakota suffered yet another drought that began in 1987 and lasted well into the 1990s. More than 5 million acres of land were destroyed or damaged, and flooding followed the drought in 1994. After that came more drought, again followed by floods in 2000.

North Dakota in 2006 claimed 635,867 residents, 91.5 percent of them white, 4.9 percent American Indian or Alaska Native, and 1.4 percent Latino or Hispanic. Twenty-seven percent of residents were between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four, and another 29 percent were between the ages of forty-five and sixty-four. Although English was the primary language, some residents spoke German or Spanish as their primary language.

Despite the extreme weather conditions, North Dakota has always been and remains primarily an agricultural state. Wheat production represented one-fourth of the state's total agricultural revenues in the early twenty-first century. Coal mining and oil drilling were industries that experienced growth in the state toward the start of the twenty-first century. The leading industries in the state included industrial machinery, food and wood products, and computer electronic equipment.

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North Dakota

NORTH DAKOTA

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North Dakota

North Dakota

Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

At a Glance

Name: Dakota is a Sioux word that means "friends" or "allies."

Nicknames: Sioux State, Flickertail State, Peace Garden State, Rough Rider State

Capital: Bismarck

Size: 70,704 sq. mi. (13,123 sq km)

Population: 642,200

Statehood: North Dakota became the 39th state on November 2, 1889.

Electoral votes: 3 (2004)

U.S. representatives: 1 (until 2003)

State tree: American elm

State flower: wild prairie rose

State fish: northern pike

Highest point: White Butte, 3,506 ft. (1,069 m)

The Place

North Dakota is an agricultural state in the Midwest. It is located in the geographic center of North America and borders Canada. The fertile Red River Valley, which lies in the bed of an ancient glacial lake, Lake Agassiz, is located in the eastern part of the state along the Minnesota border. A large plain, flattened and carved by glaciers 11,500 years ago, is located in the west. Southwestern North Dakota is part of the Great Plains region that extends from Canada to Texas. This hilly highland area is primarily used for grazing cattle.

North Dakota's most prominent rivers are the Missouri and the Red Rivers. The Badlands region of the Little Missouri River is located in southwestern North Dakota. This 190-mile (306-km) -long stretch of land is a sandstone, shale, and clay valley carved out by the movement of water and wind. Buttes, domes, pyramids, and other natural formations rise from the floor of the valley.

The climate of North Dakota is warm, dry, and pleasant in the summer but can be snowy and harsh in the winter. The southeast region of the state receives the most rain and snow, while the western region receives the least.

Western North Dakota has large deposits of petroleum and one of the largest beds of lignite coal in the world. North Dakota also has large amounts of sand and clay.

North Dakota: Facts and Firsts

  1. The geographic center of North America is near Rugby.
  2. Milk is the official beverage of North Dakota.
  3. The largest state-owned sheep research center in the United States is at North Dakota State University's research station in Hettinger.
  4. More sunflowers are grown in North Dakota than in any other state.

The Past

North Dakota was once the home of legendary Native American leaders Sitting Bull and Gall. North Dakota was first claimed by France (as part of its Canadian land) and later by Spain. Like much of the Midwest, North Dakota was reclaimed by the French in 1800. The United States bought most of the area from France in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase, then acquired the rest of North Dakota from England in 1818.

At that time, the area was sparsely populated and had very few European settlers. In 1863, the U.S government opened the Dakota Territory to homesteading, and settlers were given free land in the territory if they agreed to farm it. Angry Sioux tribes started to attack settlers' villages. These attacks did not end until 1881, when Sioux leader Sitting Bull voluntarily surrendered to the U.S. Army. Several families from the East bought huge farms and became rich on the profits they made from growing wheat. Soon, other settlers came to try to profit from farming. Transportation in the region improved with the construction of railroads, and more people were able to travel to North Dakota to settle the land. In 1889, North Dakota was admitted into the Union. North Dakota's population expanded rapidly after statehood. Farming continued to grow until the Great Depression of the 1930s, when low food prices hurt North Dakota's agricultural economy. The economy recovered during World War II, however, when North Dakota farms supplied the U.S. military with food.

North Dakota: State Smart

North Dakota has the world's largest cow statue, Salem Sue, which stands more than 38 feet (11.6 m) high. North Dakota also has the world's largest buffalo statue, which weighs 60 tons.

During the late 1940s, low food prices and advances in machinery left many farm workers jobless. Some people moved to cities to find work, which increased North Dakota's urban population.

The Present

During the 1980s and 1990s, the government sought to attract new, nonagricultural industries to the state. North Dakota's economy, however, remains more dependent on agriculture than any other state's except South Dakota's. About 90 percent of North Dakota's area is farmland. The state's farms produce flaxseed, sunflowers, barley, oats, and sugar beets. North Dakota also produces more honey than any other state.

Agricultural jobs are less available as machinery performs more and more of the work. North Dakota has tried hard to attract a larger variety of businesses and industries, but its location—far from east–west trade routes and other densely populated areas—has hurt the effort.

Besides agriculture, North Dakota's economy relies on key industries such as food processing and the manufacture of farm equipment and machinery. Coal, oil, and natural gas production help to balance the state's economy.

Born in North Dakota

  1. Warren Christopher , statesman
  2. Angie Dickinson , actress
  3. Carl Ben Eielson , aviator and explorer
  4. Dr. Leon O. Jacobson , researcher and educator
  5. Louis L'Amour , author
  6. Peggy Lee , singer
  7. Eric Sevareid , television commentator
  8. Edward K. Thompson , magazine editor
  9. Lawrence Welk , band leader

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North Dakota

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North Dakota

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North Dakota

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