Skip to main content
Select Source:

Vermont

Vermont

State of Vermont

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the French words vert (green) and mont (mountain).

NICKNAME: The Green Mountain State.

CAPITAL: Montpelier.

ENTERED UNION: 4 March 1791 (14th).

SONG: "Hail Vermont."

MOTTO: Freedom and Unity.

COAT OF ARMS: Rural Vermont is represented by a pine tree in the center, three sheaves of grain on the left, and a cow on the right, with a background of fields and mountains. A deer crests the shield. Below are crossed pine branches and the state name and motto.

FLAG: The coat of arms on a field of dark blue.

OFFICIAL SEAL: Bisecting Vermont's golden seal is a row of wooded hills above the state name. The upper half has a spearhead, pine tree, cow, and two sheaves of wheat, while two more sheaves and the state motto fill the lower half.

BIRD: Hermit thrush.

FISH: Brook trout (cold water) and walleye pike (warm water).

FLOWER: Red clover.

TREE: Sugar maple.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Town Meeting Day, 1st Tuesday in March; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Bennington Battle Day, 16 August; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November and the day following; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated in the northeastern United States, Vermont is the second-largest of the six New England states, and ranks 43rd in size among the 50 states.

Vermont's total area of 9,614 sq mi (24,900 sq km) consists of 9,249 sq mi (23,955 sq km) of land and 365 sq mi (945 sq km) of inland water. Vermont's maximum e-w extension is 90 mi (145 km); its maximum n-s extension is 158 mi (254 km). The state resembles a wedge, wide and flat at the top and narrower at the bottom.

Vermont is bordered on the n by the Canadian province of Quebec; on the e by New Hampshire (separated by the Connecticut River); on the s by Massachusetts; and on the w by New York (with part of the line passing through Lake Champlain and the Poultney River).

The state's territory includes several islands and the lower part of a peninsula jutting south into Lake Champlain from the Canadian border, collectively called Grand Isle County. Vermont's total boundary length is 561 mi (903 km). Its geographic center is in Washington County, 3 mi (5 km) e of Roxbury.

TOPOGRAPHY

The Green Mountains are the most prominent topographic region in Vermont. Extending north-south from the Canadian border to the Massachusetts state line, the Green Mountains contain the state's highest peaks, including Mansfield, 4,393 ft (1,340 m), the highest point in Vermont; Killington, 4,235 ft (1,293 m); and Elbow Mountain (Warren), 4,135 ft (1,260 m). A much lower range, the Taconic Mountains, straddles the New York-Vermont border for about 80 mi (129 km). To their north is the narrow Valley of Vermont; farther north is the Champlain Valley, a lowland about 20 mi (32 km) wide between Lake Champlainsite of the state's lowest point, 95 ft (29 m) above sea leveland the Green Mountains. The Vermont piedmont is a narrow corridor of hills and valleys stretching about 100 mi (161 km) to the east of the Green Mountains. The Northeast Highlands consist of an isolated series of peaks near the New Hampshire border. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 1,000 ft (305 m).

Vermont's major inland rivers are the Missisquoi, Lamoille, and Winooski. The state includes about 66% of Lake Champlain on its western border and about 25% of Lake Memphremagog on the northern border.

CLIMATE

Burlington's normal daily average temperature is 45°f (7°c), ranging from 18°f (7°c) in January to 70°f (21°c) in July. Winters are generally colder and summer nights cooler in the higher elevations of the Green Mountains. The record high temperature for the state is 105°f (41°c), registered at Vernon on 4 July 1911; the record low, 50°f (46°c), at Bloomfield, 30 December 1933. Burlington's average annual precipitation of about 34 in (86 cm) is less than the statewide average of about 40 in (102 cm). Annual snowfall in Burlington is 76.9 in (195 cm); elsewhere in the state snowfall ranges from 55 to 65 in (140-165 cm) in the lower regions, and from 100 to 125 in (254-318 cm) in the mountain areas.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Common trees of Vermont are the commercially important sugar maple (the state tree), the butternut, white pine, and yellow birch. Other recognized flora include 15 types of conifer, 130 grasses, and 192 sedges. Two plant species, Jesup's milk-vetch and Northeastern bulrush, were endangered in 2006.

Native mammalian species include white-tailed deer, coyote, red fox, and snowshoe hare. Several species of trout are prolific. Characteristic birds include the raven (Corvus corax), gray or Canada jay, and saw-whet owl. In 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed six animal species (vertebrates and invertebrates) as threatened or endangered in Vermont, including the Indiana bat, dwarf wedgemussel, and bald eagle.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

All natural resource regulation, planning, and operation are coordinated by the Department of Environmental Conservation. The state is divided into 14 soil and water conservation districts operated by local landowners with the assistance of the state Natural Resources Conservation Council. Several dams on the Winooski and Connecticut river's drainage basins help control flooding.

Legislation enacted in 1972 bans the use of throwaway beverage containers in Vermont, in an effort to reduce roadside litter. Billboards were banned in 1968. In the 1980s and early 1990s, the effects of acid rain became a source of concern in Vermont, as in the rest of the Northeast. In 2003, 0.3 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. That year, Vermont ranked as having the least amount of toxic chemical releases of all 50 states.

By some estimates as much as 35% of Vermont's wetlands have been lost since colonization. As of 2002, about 4% of the state was designated as wetlands, and the government has established the Vermont Wetlands Conservation Strategy.

In 2003, Vermont had 56 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, 11 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including the Pine Street Canal in Burlington and the Ely Copper Mine. In 2005, the EPA spent over $4.4 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $6.4 million for the clean water state revolving fund.

POPULATION

Vermont ranked 49th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 623,050 in 2005, an increase of 2.3% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Vermont's population grew from 562,758 to 608,827, an increase of 8.2%. The population is projected to reach 673,169 by 2015 and 703,288 by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 67.2 persons per sq mi.

In 2004, the median age for Vermont residents was 40.4. In the same year, 21.7% of the populace were under age 18 while 13% was age 65 or older. The rural population increased 12% between 1970 and 1980; in the 1990s, Vermont had the highest percentage of rural dwellers in all states.

Vermont cities with the largest populations, all under 100,000, include Burlington, Rutland, and Montpelier. The Burlington-South Burlington metropolitan area had an estimated population of 204,485 in 2004.

ETHNIC GROUPS

There were 53,835 residents reporting French Canadian ancestry in 2000. These Vermonters are congregated chiefly in the northern counties and in such urban centers as Burlington, St. Albans, and Montpelier. Italians make up 6.4% of the population reporting at least one specific ancestry group. The foreign born numbered 23,2453.8% of the populationin 2000. In 2000, Hispanics and Latinos numbered 5,504, just under 1% of the total. That percentage remained roughly the same in 2004.

The 1990 census counted few non-Caucasians. There were 5,217 Asians, 3,063 blacks, and 2,420 American Indians. In 2004, 1% of the population was Asian, 0.6% black, 0.4% American Indian, and 1.1% reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

A few place-names and very few Indian-language speakers remain as evidence of the early Vermont presence of the Algonkian Mohawk tribe and of some Iroquois in the north. Vermont English, although typical of the Northern dialect, differs from that of New Hampshire in several respects, including retention of the final /r/ and use of eavestrough in place of eavespout.

In 2000, 540,767 Vermonters94.1% of the population age five and overspoke only English at home. The percent of the population who spoke only English at home remained constant from 1990 to 2000.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Scandinavian languages" includes Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 574,842 100.0
  Speak only English 540,767 94.1
  Speak a language other than English 34,075 5.9
Speak a language other than English 34,075 5.9
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 14,624 2.5
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 5,791 1.0
  German 2,612 0.5
  Serbo-Croatian 1,600 0.3
  Italian 1,198 0.2
  Polish 977 0.2
  Vietnamese 812 0.1
  Chinese 782 0.1
  Russian 554 0.1
  Scandinavian languages 415 0.1

RELIGIONS

From the early days of settlement to the present, Congregationalists (now called the United Church of Christ) have played a dominant role in the state. They were the largest Protestant denomination in the state in 2000, with 21,597 known adherents. Other major Protestant groups include the United Methodists, 19,000; Episcopalians, 9,163; and American Baptists, 8,352. The largest single religious organization in Vermont is the Roman Catholic Church, with 149,154 members in 2004. There is a small Jewish population (estimated at 5,810 in 2000), most of whom live in Burlington. Over 370,000 people (about 60.9% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization.

Vermont was the birthplace of both Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, founders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The state had 4,150 Mormons in 2006.

TRANSPORTATION

Vermont's first railroad, completed in 1849, served more as a link to Boston than as an intrastate line. It soon went into receivership, as did many other early state lines. From a high of nearly 1,100 mi (1,770 km) of track in 1910, trackage shrank to 562 rail mi (904 km) in 2003, none of it Class I line. As of that year, eight railroads were operating within the state. Glass and stone products were the top commodities shipped by rail that originated within the state, while lumber and wood products were the top commodities shipped by rail that terminated within Vermont that same year. In 2006, Amtrak provided passenger service to 11 stations in the state via its Ethan Allen (Rutland to New York City) train and its Vermonter (St. Albans to New York City to Washington DC) train.

There were 14,368 mi (23,132 km) of public streets, roads, and highways in 2004. In that same year, there were some 540,000 motor vehicles registered in the state, while there were 550,462 licensed drivers.

In 2005, Vermont had a total of 87 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 61 airports, 20 heliports, 3 STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 3 seaplane bases. Burlington International Airport is the state's major air terminal. In 2004 the airport handled 627,423 enplanements.

HISTORY

Vermont has been inhabited continuously since about 10,000 bc. Archaeological finds suggest the presence of a pre-Algonkian group along the Otter River. Algonkian-speaking Abnaki settled along Lake Champlain and in the Connecticut Valley, and Mahican settled in the southern counties between ad 1200 and 1790. In 1609, Samuel de Champlain crossed the lake that now bears his name, becoming the first European explorer of Vermont. From the 1650s to the 1760s, French, Iroquois Indians from New York, Dutch, and English passed through the state over trails connecting Montreal with Massachusetts and New York. However, few settled there. In 1666 the French built and briefly occupied Ft. Ste. Anne on Isle La Motte, and in 1690 there was a short-lived settlement at Chimney Point. Ft. Dummer, built in 1724 near present-day Brattleboro, was the first permanent settlement.

Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire, claiming that his colony extended as far west as did Massachusetts and Connecticut, had granted 131 town charters in the territory by 1764. In that year, the crown declared that New York's northeastern boundary was the Connecticut River. Owners of New Hampshire titles, fearful of losing their land, prevented New York from enforcing its jurisdiction. The Green Mountain Boys, organized by Ethan Allen in 177071, scared off the defenseless settlers under New York title and flouted New York courts.

Shortly after the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Ethan Allen's men helped capture Ft. Ticonderoga, and for two years frontiersmen fought in the northern theater. On 16 August 1777, after a skirmish at Hubbardton, a Vermont contingent routed German detachments sent by British General Burgoyne toward Benningtona battle that contributed to the general's surrender at Saratoga, New York. There were several British raids on Vermont towns during the war.

Vermont declared itself an independent republic with the name "New Connecticut" in 1777, promulgated a constitution abolishing slavery and providing universal manhood suffrage, adopted the laws of Connecticut, and confiscated Tory lands. Most Vermonters preferred to join the United States, but the dominant Allen faction, with large holdings in the northwest, needed free trade with Canada, even at the price of returning to the British Empire. Political defeat of the Allen faction in 1789 led to negotiations that settled New York's claims and secured Vermont's admission to the Union on 4 March 1791.

With 30,000 people in 1781 and nearly 220,000 in 1810, Vermont was a state of newcomers spread evenly over the hills in self-sufficient homesteads. Second-generation Vermonters developed towns and villages with water-powered mills, charcoal-fired furnaces, general stores, newspapers, craft shops, churches, and schools. Those who ran these local institutions tended to be Congregationalist in religion and successively Federalist, Whig, and Republican in party politics. Dissidents in the early 1800s included minority Protestants suffering legal and social discrimination, hardscrabble farmers, and Jacksonian Democrats.

Northwestern Vermonters smuggled to avoid the US foreign trade embargo of 1808, and widespread trade continued with Canada during the War of 1812. In September 1814, however, Vermont soldiers fought in the Battle of Plattsburgh, New York, won by Thomas Macdonough's fleet built at Vergennes the previous winter. The Mexican War (184648) was unpopular in the state, but Vermont, which had strongly opposed slavery, was an enthusiastic supporter of the Union during the Civil War.

The opening of the Champlain-Hudson Canal in 1823, and the building of the early railroad lines in 184653, made Vermont more vulnerable to western competition, caused the demise of many small farms and businesses, and stimulated emigration. The remaining farmers' purchasing power steadily increased as they held temporary advantages in wool, then in butter and cheese-making, and finally in milk production. The immigration of the Irish and French Canadians stabilized the population, and the expansion of light industry bolstered the economy.

During the 20th century, and especially after World War II, autos, buses, trucks, and planes took over most passengers and much freight from the railroads. Manufacturing, especially light industry, prospered in valley villages. Vermont's picturesque landscape began to attract city buyers of second homes. Still rural in population distribution, Vermont became increasingly suburban in outlook, as new highways made the cities and hills mutually accessible, and the state absorbed an influx of young professionals from New York and Massachusetts. Tourism thrived, especially in the Green Mountains and other ski resort areas. Longtime Vermonters, accustomed to their state's pristine beauty, were confronted in the 1980s with the question of how much development was necessary for the state's economic health. The newcomers changed the political landscape as well. Whereas Vermont had long been dominated by the Republican Party, by the mid-1980s fully a third of the electorate voted Democratic. The Democratic presidential candidate carried Vermont in the 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004 elections. In 1990, Vermont elected as its sole Congressional representative a democratic socialist, Bernie Sanders, who called for reduced limits on campaign spending, a sharply progressive income tax, national health care, and 50% cuts in military spending over five years. Sanders was reelected in 2004.

In the early 1990s Vermont had the nation's highest percentage of women in its state legislature. With two-thirds of its population living in towns of 2,500 or fewer, it was the nation's most rural state. In 1993 Vermont passed legislation barring smoking in all public buildings, including most restaurants and hotels.

Governor James H. Douglas, a Republican elected in 2002, pledged to create jobs and provide economic security to the state. He also emphasized higher education, and transportation spending. Douglas announced a substance abuse and interdiction program for Vermont's correctional facilities that would include random drug testing, including for those inmates out on furlough. Douglas was reelected to a second two-year term in 2004. In April 2005, Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont, an independent who caucuses with the Democrats, announced he would not seek reelection in 2006. Speculation was raised as to whether or not Douglas would vie with Congressman Bernie Sanders for Jeffords's seat, but Douglas later debunked this notion and declared he would seek reelection as governor in 2006.

STATE GOVERNMENT

A constitution establishing Vermont as an independent republic was adopted in 1777. The constitution that governs the state today became effective on 9 July 1793. By January 2005, that document had been amended 53 times.

The General Assembly consists of a 150-member House of Representatives and a 30-member Senate. All legislators are elected to two-year terms. Regular sessions begin in January and are not formally limited in length. Legislators must be US citizens, at least 18 years old and residents of the state for at least two years and of their districts for at least one year. In 2003 the legislative salary was $589 per week during session.

State elected officials are the governor and lieutenant governor (elected separately), treasurer, secretary of state, auditor of accounts, and attorney general, all of whom serve two-year terms. A governor must be at least 18 years of age and have been a state citizen for one year and a state resident for at least four years prior to election. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $133,162.

All bills require a majority vote in each house for passage. Bills can be vetoed by the governor, and vetoes can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of those present in each legislative house. If the governor neither vetoes nor signs a bill within five days of receiving it, it becomes law. If the legislature has adjourned, an unsigned bill dies after three days. A constitutional amendment must first be passed by a two-thirds vote in the Senate, followed by a majority in the House during the same legislative session. It must then receive majority votes in both houses before it can be submitted to the voters for approval. Amendments may only be submitted every four years.

Voters must be US citizens, at least 18 years old, and state residents.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Republican Party, which originally drew strength from powerful abolitionist sentiment, gained control of Vermont state offices in 1856 and for more than 100 years dominated state politics. No Democrat was elected governor from 1853 until 1962.

In 1984, Democrat Madeleine M. Kunin was elected as Vermont's first woman governor and only the third Democratic governor in the state's history. Kunin served as governor for three terms, followed in 1990 by Republican Richard Snelling. When Snelling died in office in August 1991, Lieutenant Governor Howard Dean, a Democrat, became governor. Dean was elected to full two-year terms in November 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000. (The state has no term limit for the office of governor.) Dean announced

Vermont Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL OVTE VERMONT WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election
**IND. candidate Ross Perot received 65,991 votes in 1992 and 31,024 votes in 1996.
1948 3 Dewey (R) 45,557 75,926
1952 3 *Eisenhower (R) 43,355 109,717
1956 3 *Eisenhower (R) 42,549 110,390
1960 3 Nixon (R) 69,186 98,131
1964 3 *Johnson (D) 108,127 54,942
1968 3 *Nixon (R) 70,255 85,142
1972 3 *Nixon (R) 68,174 117,149
1976 3 Ford (R) 77,798 100,387
1980 3 *Reagan (R) 81,891 94,598
1984 3 * Reagan (R) 95,730 135,865
1988 3 *Bush (R) 115,775 124,331
1992** 3 *Clinton (D) 133,592 88,122
1996** 3 *Clinton (D) 137,894 80,352
2000 3 Gore (D) 149,022 119,775
2004 3 Kerry (D) 184,067 121,180

in 2001 that he would not seek reelection in 2002, and in May 2002, became the first candidate to enter the race for the Democratic nomination for president in 2004. Republican James Douglas was elected governor of Vermont in 2002.

Vermont's delegation to the US House of Representatives consists of one Independent. In mid-2005, Democrats controlled the state Senate, with 21 seats out of 30. In the state House of Representatives, the Democrats held 83 seats; the Republicans had 60; and Independents had 7. Following the 2004 election, Vermont had one Independent US senator, James Jeffords, elected in 1988 as a Republican and reelected in 2000 (he switched party affiliation from the Republican Party to independent status in 2001), and one Democratic senator, Patrick Leahy, who was elected to his sixth term in 2004.

Vermont has often shown its independence in national political elections. In 1832, it was the only state to cast a plurality vote for the Anti-Masonic presidential candidate, William Wirt; in 1912, the only state besides Utah to vote for William Howard Taft; and in 1936, the only state besides Maine to prefer Alf Landon to Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 2000, Vermonters gave 51% of their presidential vote to Democratic candidate Al Gore; 41% to Republican George W. Bush; and 7% to Green Party candidate Ralph Nader. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 59% to Bush's 39%. In 2004, there were 419,000 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. The state had three electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, there were 14 counties, 47 municipal governments, 288 public school districts, and 152 special districts. In 2002, there were 237 townships. County officers, operating out of shire towns (county seats), include the probate courts judge, assistant judges of the county court, county clerk, state's attorney, high bailiff, treasurer, and sheriff. All cities have mayor-council systems. Towns are governed by selectmen, who serve staggered terms. Larger towns also have town managers. The town meeting remains an important part of government in the state: citizens gather on the first Tuesday in March each year to discuss municipal issues and elect local officials.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 25,068 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Vermont operates under executive order; the public safety director/secretary is designated as the state homeland security advisor.

Vermont's Department of Education oversees public elementary, secondary, higher education, and adult education programs. The Agency of Transportation includes the Department of Motor Vehicles, Transportation Board, and Hazardous Materials Committee. The Agency of Human Services coordinates programs for nursing homes, veterans' affairs, social welfare, employment and training, health, corrections, and parole. The Department of Housing and Community Affairs and the Agency of Commerce and Community Development administer federal housing programs and offers aid to localities. Other departments specialize in the areas of: personnel, natural resources, aging, agriculture, labor and industry, libraries, and liquor control.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Vermont's highest court is the Supreme Court, which consists of a chief justice and four associate justices. Other courts include the superior, district, family, and environmental courts, with a total of 497 judges. All judges are appointed by the governor to six-year terms, subject to Senate confirmation, from a list of qualified candidates prepared by the Judicial Nominating Board, which includes representatives of the governor, the legislature, and the Vermont bar. There are also 318 associate judges and 50 permissive associate judges.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 1,968 prisoners were held in Vermont's state and federal prisons, an increase from 1,944 of 1.2% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 143 inmates were female, up from 135 or 5.9% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Vermont had an incarceration rate of 233 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Vermont in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 112 reported incidents per 100,000 population (the third-lowest in the United States), or a total of 696 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 14,343 reported incidents or 2,308.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Vermont has no death penalty. The state's last execution took place in 1954.

In 2003, Vermont spent $60,914,924 on homeland security, an average of $95 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 60 active-duty military personnel and 613 civilian personnel stationed in Vermont. Also in 2004, the government awarded almost $452 million in defense contracts to Vermont firms, and defense payroll outlays were $140 million, the lowest in the nation.

In 2003, there were 57,802 veterans living in Vermont, of which 7,823 served in World War II; 6,808 in the Korean conflict; 18,371 during the Vietnam era; and 6,589 during the Gulf War. In 2004, the Veterans Administration expended more than $159 million in pensions, medical assistance, and other major veterans' benefits.

In 2004, the Vermont State Police employed 302 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

The earliest Vermont settlers were farmers from southern New England and New York; most were of English descent although some Dutch settlers moved to Vermont from New York. French Canadians came beginning in the 1830s; by 1850, several thousand had moved into Vermont. As milling, quarrying, and mining grew during the 19th century, other Europeans arrivedsmall groups of Italians and Scots in Barre, and Poles, Swedes, Czechs, Russians, and Austrians in the Rutland quarry areas. Irish immigrants built the railroads in the mid-19th century. Steady out-migrations during the 19th and early 20th centuries kept population increases down, and in the decades 191020 and 193040, the population dropped. During the 1960s, the population of blacks more than doubled, though they still accounted for only 0.34% of the population in 1990. Between 1970 and 1983, 45,000 migrants settled in Vermont. From 1985 to 1990, Vermont had a net gain from migration of nearly 21,400. Falling from 33.8% in 1980, Vermont's urban population in 1990 was the lowest among the states at 32.2% and fell further to 27.7% in 1996. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had net gains of 5,000 in domestic migration and 4,000 in international migration. In 1998, Vermont admitted 513 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, Vermont's overall population increased 5%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 4,359 and net internal migration was 3,530, for a net gain of 7,889 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Vermont participates in New England compacts on corrections, higher education, water pollution control, police, and radiological health protection. The state also takes part in the Connecticut River Valley Flood Control Compact, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Compact, Interstate Pest Control Compact, and Northeastern Forest Fire Protection Compact. The state has several agreements with New Hampshire regarding schools, and sewage and waste disposal. Federal grants to Vermont amounted to $1.019 billion in fiscal year 2005, fifth-lowest of all the states (Wyoming received the least amount of federal aid). In fiscal year 2006, Vermont received an estimated $1.053 billion in federal grants, and an estimated $1.080 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

During its early years of statehood, Vermont was overwhelmingly agricultural, with beef cattle, sheep, and dairying contributing greatly to the state's income. After World War II, agriculture was replaced by manufacturing and tourism as the backbone of the economy. Durable goods manufacturing (primarily electronics and machine parts), construction, wholesale and retail trade, and other service industries have shown the largest growth in employ-ment during the 1990s. Vermont's economy was little impacted by the national recession in 2001, as the growth rate of its gross state product, which had accelerated from 5.1% in 1998 to 5.3% in 1999, to 5.6% in 2000, actually improved to 5.7% in 2001. The main negative effect was an unexpected shortfall in tax revenues that followed the abrupt collapse in capital gains income, presenting Vermont, as with most states, with a state budget crisis. Payroll employment did decline, but the trough was reached by April 2002, and despite layoffs by IBM in late 2002, the state economy registered net job gains in fall 2002. Per capita income grew in the first half of 2002, and Vermont's bankruptcy rate was the lowest in New England.

In 2004, Vermont's gross state product (GSP) was $21.921 billion, of which manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) accounted for the largest share at $2.954 billion or 13.4% of GSP, followed by the real estate sector at $2.760 billion (12.5% of GSP), and healthcare and social assistance at $2.025 billion (9.2% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 74,957 small businesses in Vermont. Of the 21,335 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 20,649 or 96.8% were small companies. An estimated 2,322 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 9.4% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 2,578, down 0.2% from 2003. There were 85 business bankruptcies in 2004, up 9% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 296 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Vermont as the 49th highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 Vermont had a gross state product (GSP) of $23 billion which accounted for 0.2% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 51 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Vermont had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $31,780. This ranked 24th in the United States and was 96% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.6%. Vermont had a total personal income (TPI) of $19,742,824,000, which ranked 49th in the United States and reflected an increase of 5.8% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.3%. Earnings of persons employed in Vermont increased from $13,759,886,000 in 2003 to $14,628,555,000 in 2004, an increase of 6.3%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $45,692 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 8.8% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Vermont 360,300, with approximately 12,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.3%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 307,100. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Vermont was 9% in June 1976. The historical low was 2.2% in March 2000. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 5.5% of the labor force was employed in construction; 11.9% in manufacturing; 19.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4.2% in financial activities; 7.2% in professional and business services; 17.9% in education and health services; 10.6% in leisure and hospitality services; and 17.3% in government.

The BLS reported that in 2005, a total of 31,000 of Vermont's 287,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 10.8% of those so employed, up from 9.8% in 2004, but still below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 37,000 workers (13%) in Vermont were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Vermont is one of 28 states that does not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Vermont had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $7.25 per hour, which applied to employers with two or more employees. Beginning 1 January 2007, Vermont's state minimum wage rate was scheduled to be adjusted annually by either 5%, the percent increase of the Consumer Price Index, or the city average. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.9% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Although Vermont is one of the nation's most rural states, its agricultural income was only $561 million in 2005, 41st among the 50 states. More than 85% of that came from livestock and livestock products, especially dairy products. The leading crops in 2004 were corn for silage, 1,755,000 tons; hay, 384,000 tons; and apples, 44.5 million lb.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

The merino sheep and the Morgan horse (a breed developed in Vermont) were common sights on pastures more than a century ago, but today they have been for the most part replaced by dairy cattle. In 2003, Vermont dairy farms had around 149,000 milk cows that produced 2.64 billion lb (1.2 billion kg) of milk. In 2005, the state had an estimated 275,000 cattle and calves, valued at $357.5 million.

FISHING

Sport fishermen can find ample species of trout, perch, walleye pike, bass, and pickerel in Vermont's waters, many of which are stocked by the Department of Fish and Game. There are two national fish hatcheries in the state (Pittsford and White River). In 2004, the state issued 121,701 sport fishing licenses. There is very little commercial fishing.

FORESTRY

The Green Mountain State is covered by 4,628,000 acres (1,873,000 hectares) of forestland78% of the state's total land areamuch of it owned or leased by lumber companies. In 2004, lumber production totaled 183 million board ft.

The largest forest reserve in Vermont is the Green Mountain National Forest, with 391,862 acres (158,587 hectares) in 2005, managed by the US Forest Service.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Vermont in 2003 was $73 million, an increase from 2002 of over 3%.

According to the preliminary data for 2003, dimension stone was the state's top nonfuel minerals by value, accounting for around 40% of the state's publishable nonfuel mineral output, by value. Nationally by volume, Vermont ranked third in the production of talc and fourth in the production of dimension stone.

Preliminary data in 2003 showed that Vermont produced 98,000 metric tons of dimension stone, which was valued at $29 million. In that same year, the state produced 4.6 million metric tons of crushed stone, valued at $22.8 million, and 4.7 million metric tons of construction sand and gravel, valued at $21.2 million. Granite is quarried near Barre, and slate is found in the Southwest. The West Rutland-Proctor area has the world's largest marble reserve, the Danby quarry.

ENERGY AND POWER

Because of the state's lack of fossil fuel resources, utility bills are higher in Vermont than in most states. As of 2003, Vermont had 22 electrical power service providers, of which 15 were publicly owned and two were cooperatives. Of the remainder, four were investor owned, and one was the owner of an independent generator that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were 317,126 retail customers. Of that total, 238,957 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 26,265 customers, while publicly owned providers had 51,903 customers. There was only one independent generator or "facility" customer.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 997 MW, with total production that same year at 6.027 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 10.4% came from electric utilities, with the remaining 89.6% coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 4.444 billion kWh (73.7%), came from nuclear power plants, with hydroelectric plants in second place at 1.154 billion kWh (19.1%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 6.7% of all power generated, with petroleum fired plants accounting for the remainder.

As of 2006, the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Wind-ham County was the state's sole operating nuclear power station.

Vermont has no proven reserves or production of crude oil or natural gas. There are no refineries in the state.

INDUSTRY

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Vermont's manufacturing sector covered some 13 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $9.911 billion. Of that total, computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $3.943 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $1.579 billion; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $775.845 million; machinery manufacturing at $477.558 million; and wood product manufacturing at $416.521 million.

In 2004, a total of 38,341 people in Vermont were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 24,379 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the computer and electronic product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 8,799, with 3,441 actual production workers. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing at 4,407 employees (2,778 actual production workers); food manufacturing at 3,790 employees (2,462 actual production workers); machinery manufacturing at 3,097 employees (1,983 actual production workers);and furniture and related product manufacturing with 2,396 employees (1,896 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Vermont's manufacturing sector paid $1.687 billion in wages. Of that amount, the computer and electronic product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $513.080 million. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing at $228.640 million; machinery manufacturing at $143.549 million; and food manufacturing at $123.967 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Vermont's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $1.6 billion from 869 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 519 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 303 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 47 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $1.6 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $3.1 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $328.6 million.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Vermont was listed as having 3,946 retail establishments with sales of $7.6 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: food and beverage stores (595); gasoline stations (479); miscellaneous store retailers (451); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (435); and clothing and clothing accessories stores (388). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $1.9 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $1.3 billion; gasoline stations at $797.6 million; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $757.3 million. A total of 40,105 people were employed by the retail sector in Vermont that year.

Foreign exports of Vermont manufacturers were estimated at $4.2 billion for 2005.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

The Consumer Protection Division of the Attorney General's Office handles most consumer complaints, while the Vermont Public Service Department's Consumer Affairs Division monitors utility rates, and the Agency of Human Services' Department of Aging and Disabilities protects the rights of the state's senior citizens and adults with physical disabilities.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and initiate criminal proceedings. However, the office cannot represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The Office of the Attorney General's Consumer Assistance Program has offices in Burlington and Montpelier.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Vermont had 19 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 26 state-chartered and eight federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Burlington-South Burlington market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, with 10 institutions and $3.511 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 17.3% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $1.660 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 82.7% or $7.960 billion in assets held.

The median percentage of past-due/nonaccrual loans to total loans was 1.08% as of fourth quarter 2005, down from 1.46% in 2004 and 2.01% in 2003. Regulation of Vermont's state-chartered banks and other state-chartered financial institutions is the responsibility of the Banking Division of the Department of Banking, Insurance, Securities and Healthcare Administration.

INSURANCE

In 2004, there were 324,000 individual life insurance policies in force in Vermont with a total value of about $24.7 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $38.5 billion. The average coverage amount is $76,400 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $112.8 million.

In 2003, there were 16 property and casualty and 2 life and health insurance companies domiciled in the state. In 2003, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled over $1 billion. That year, there were 2,969 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $379 million.

In 2004, 52% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 5% held individual policies, and 31% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 10% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 18% for single coverage and 21% for family coverage. The state offers a six-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were 460,571 auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000. Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage are also required. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $683.07.

SECURITIES

There are no stock or commodity exchanges in Vermont. In 2005, there were 250 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 360 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. The state is home to 14 NASDAQ companies, and has incorporated 4 NYSE-listed companies: Bluegreen Corp., Central Vermont Public Services Corp., Chittenden Corp., and Green Mountain Power Company.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The budgets for two fiscal years are submitted by the governor to the General Assembly for approval during its biennial session. The fiscal year (FY) runs from 1 July to 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $1.1 billion for resources and $1.0 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Vermont were $1.4 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Vermont was slated to receive: $5.9 million in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) funds to help the state provide health coverage to low-income, uninsured children who do not qualify for Medicaid. This funding is a 23% increase over fiscal year 2006; and $4.5 million for the HOME Investment Partnership Program to help Vermont fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership, or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. This funding is an 11% increase over fiscal year 2006.

On 5 January 2006 the federal government released $100 million in emergency contingency funds targeted to the areas with the greatest need, including $680,000 for Vermont.

TAXATION

In 2005, Vermont collected $2,243 million in tax revenues or $3,600 per capita, which placed it first among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 33.2% of the total, sales taxes 13.9%, selective sales taxes 20.8%, individual income taxes 22.3%, corporate income taxes 3.1%, and other taxes 6.7%.

As of 1 January 2006, Vermont had five individual income tax brackets ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%. The state taxes corporations at rates ranging from 7.0 to 8.9% depending on tax bracket.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $950,456,000 or $1,531 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state eighth-highest nationally. Local governments collected $502,253,000 of the total and the state government $448,203,000.

Vermont taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 1%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 7%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 119 cents per pack, which ranks 15th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Vermont taxes gasoline at 20 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Vermont citizens received $1.12 in federal spending.

VermontState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 4,302,590 6,928.49
  General revenue 3,794,824 6,110.88
    Intergovernmental revenue 1,314,916 2,117.42
    Taxes 1,766,719 2,844.96
      General sales 256,958 413.78
      Selective sales 430,637 693.46
      License taxes 98,758 159.03
      Individual income tax 429,817 692.14
      Corporate income tax 62,228 100.21
      Other taxes 488,321 786.35
    Current charges 365,920 589.24
    Miscellaneous general revenue 847,269 559.21
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue 35,279 56.81
  Insurance trust revenue 472,487 760.85
Total expenditure 3,913,616 6,302.12
  Intergovernmental expenditure 981,307 1,580.20
  Direct expenditure 2,932,309 4,721.91
    Current operation 2,313,956 3,726.18
    Capital outlay 155,818 250.91
    Insurance benefits and repayments 199,843 321.81
    Assistance and subsidies 123,631 199.08
    Interest on debt 139,061 223.93
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 623,120 1,003.41
Total expenditure 3,913,616 6,302.12
  General expenditure 3,676,138 5,919.71
    Intergovernmental expenditure 981,307 1,580.20
    Direct expenditure 2,694,831 4,339.50
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 1,482,438 2,387.18
    Public welfare 1,015,398 1,635.10
    Hospitals 14,579 23.48
    Health 92,467 148.90
    Highways 253,779 408.66
    Police protection 69,078 111.24
    Correction 93,827 151.09
    Natural resources 84,449 135.99
    Parks and recreation 12,714 20.47
    Government administration 135,824 218.72
    Interest on general debt 139,061 223.98
    Other and unallocable 282,524 454.95
  Utility expenditure 2,753 4.43
  Liquor store expenditure 34,882 56.17
  Insurance trust expenditure 199,843 321.81
Debt at end of fiscal year 2,537,139 4,058.57
Cash and security holdings 5,237,854 8,434.55

ECONOMIC POLICY

Incentives for industrial expansion include state and municipally financed industrial sites; state employment development and training funds; revenue bond financing; tax credits for investment in research and development and in capital equipment; loans and loan guarantees for construction and equipment; and financial incentives for locating plants in areas of high unemployment. There are also exemptions from inventory taxes and sales tax on new equipment and raw materials. Major economic development initiatives by the state include streamlining the environmental permit process, funding for workforce development, an aggressive business recruitment campaign, infrastructural improvements, increased financial incentives for business, and a phase out of the corporate income tax. In the mid-2000s, Vermont posted one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country, and was engaged in creating a number of programs to help maintain and create new job opportunities for residents. One such program that has proven successful is the Vermont Department of Economic Development's Vermont Training Program (VEP), which encourages expansion among industrial companies by providing training through individually tailored programs: the state covers as much as 50% of the training costs.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 5.3 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 10.6 per 1,000 population, the lowest rate in the country. The abortion rate stood at 12.7 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 90.6% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 85% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 8.3 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 222.2; cancer, 198.5; cerebrovascular diseases, 54.3; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 44.8; and diabetes, 28.2. The mortality rate from HIV infection was unavailable that year. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 2.7 per 100,000 population, one of the lowest rate in the nation. In 2002, about 52.1% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 19.9% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Vermont had 14 community hospitals with about 1,500 beds. There were about 52,000 patient admissions that year and 2.2 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 900 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,148. Also in 2003, there were about 43 certified nursing facilities in the state with 3,582 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 92.7%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 74.3% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Vermont had 363 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 892 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 348 dentists in the state.

About 26% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs in 2003; 15% were enrolled in Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 10% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $847,000.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 23,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $256. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 45,218 persons (22,355 households); the average monthly benefit was about $82.93 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $44.9 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reautho-rized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Vermont's TANF cash assistance program is called Aid to Needy Families with Children (ANFC); the work program is called Reach Up. In 2004, the state program had 12,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $42 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 110,180 Vermont residents. This number included 70,220 retired workers, 10,040 widows and widowers, 15,210 disabled workers, 5,710 spouses, and 9,000 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 17.7% of the total state population and 95.9% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $945; widows and widowers, $897; disabled workers, $848; and spouses, $452. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $455 per month; children of deceased workers, $640; and children of disabled workers, $243. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 12,915 Vermont residents, averaging $387 a month.

HOUSING

As rustic farmhouses gradually disappear, modern units (many of them vacation homes for Vermonters and out-of-staters) are being built to replace them. In 2004, there were an estimated 304,291 housing units in Vermont (one of the lowest housing stocks in the country), 249,590 of which were occupied; 73.3% were owner-occupied. About 66.3% of all units were single-family, detached homes. About 30% of all housing was built in 1939 or earlier. Fuel oil was the most common energy source for heating. It was estimated that 6,112 units lacked telephone service, 1,634 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 1,495 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.41 members.

In 2004, 3,600 new privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $154,318. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,174. Renters paid a median of $674 per month. In 2006, the state received over $7.4 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

EDUCATION

In 2004, 90.8% of Vermont residents age 25 and older were high school graduates. Some 34.2% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, surpassing the national average of 26%.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Vermont's public schools stood at 100,000. Of these, 68,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 32,000 attended high school. Approximately 95.9% of the students were white, 1.2% were black, 0.8% were Hispanic, 1.5% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.6% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 98,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 85,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 15.2% during the period 200214. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $1.19 billion or $11,128 per student, the fourth-highest among the 50 states. There were 12,218 students enrolled in 123 private schools. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Vermont scored 287 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 36,537 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 6.2% of total post-secondary enrollment. In 2005 Vermont had 27 degree-granting institutions. The state college system includes colleges at Castle-ton, Johnson, and Lyndonville, a technical college at Randolph Center, and the Community College of Vermont system with 12 branch campuses. The University of Vermont (Burlington) is a state-supported institution combining features of both a private and a state facility. Founded in 1791, it is the oldest higher educational institution in the state.

Notable private institutions include Bennington College, Champlain College (Burlington), Landmark College (Putney) serving students with ADHD and learning disabilities, Marlboro College (Marlboro), and Norwich University (Northfield), the oldest private military college in the United States. The School for International Training (Brattleboro) is the academic branch of the Experiment in International Living, a student exchange program. Other notable institutions include St. Michael's College (Winooski) and Trinity College (Burlington).

The Vermont Student Assistance Corporation offers scholarships, incentive grants, and guaranteed loans for eligible Vermont students.

ARTS

The Vermont Arts Council was founded in 1964. In 2005, the Arts Council and other Vermont arts organizations received 15 grants totaling $873,800 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The Vermont Humanities Council (VHC), founded in 1974, supports a number of literacy and history-related programs, as well as sponsors annual Humanities Camps at schools throughout the state. As of 2005 VHC offered literacy programs that included "Connections," a program geared towards teen parents and new adult readers and "Never Too Early," a program designed to teach childcare providers and parents techniques to stimulate reading. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $1,180,125 for 15 state programs.

The Vermont State Crafts Centers at Frog Hollow (Middle-bury), Burlington, and Manchester display the works of Vermont artisans. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra, in Burlington, makes extensive statewide tours including visits to several schools to promote music education. During the 2004/05 season the orchestra reached approximately 27,000 students within 193 schools. Marlboro College is the home of the summer Marlboro Music Festival, co-founded by famed pianist Rudolf Serkin, who directed the festival from 1952 to 1992. Among the summer theaters in the state are those at Dorset and Weston and the University of Vermont Shakespeare Festival. The Middlebury College Bread Loaf Writers' Conference, founded in 1926, meets each August in Ripton. The conference expected to host over 200 writers in 2006.

The Flynn Center for the Performing Arts in Burlington serves as a major performance center for the area. It is home to the Lyric Theater Company, the Vermont Symphony Orchestra, the Vermont Stage Company, and the Burlington Discover Jazz Festival. In 2005, the Flynn Center celebrated 75 years of history and 25 years of performance. Other musical performance and education venues include the Vermont Jazz Center in Brattleboro and the Vergennes Opera House, which presents concerts, films, dance, and theater presentations, and various literary readings, as well as operas.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In June 2001, Vermont had 188 public library systems, with a total of 190 libraries, of which there were three branches. For that same year, the state's public libraries held 2,731,000 volumes of books and serial publications, and had a combined circulation of 3,842,000. The system also had 78,000 audio and 655,000 video items, 3,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and eight bookmobiles. The largest academic library was at the University of Vermont, with a book stock of 1,112,121, and 4,808 periodical subscriptions. In fiscal year 2001, operating income for the state's public library system totaled $13,408,000 and included $9,323,000 from local sources and $40,000 from state sources. Operating expenditures that year came to $13,921,000 of which 64.8% was spent on staff, and 13.9% on the collection.

Vermont has 89 museums and more than 65 historic sites. Among them are the Bennington Museum, with its collection of Early American glass, pottery, furniture, and Grandma Moses paintings, and the Art Gallery-St. Johnsbury Athenaeum, featuring 19th-century American artists. The Shelburne Museum, housed in restored Early American buildings, contains collections of American primitives and Indian artifacts. The Vermont Museum, in Montpelier, features historical exhibits concerning Indians, the Revolutionary War, rural life, and railroads and industry. Old Constitution House in Windsor offers exhibits on Vermont history.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, about 95.9% of all occupied homes had telephones. In 2003, 65.5% of Vermont households had a computer and 58.1% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 82,259 high-speed lines in Vermont, 76,895 residential and 5,364 for business. There were 5 major AM and 19 major FM radio stations and seven television stations in operation in 2005.

PRESS

In 2005, there were eight daily papers and three Sunday papers. A leading daily in 2005 was the Burlington Free Press (48,524 mornings, 56,850 Sundays). Vermont Life magazine founded in 1946 is published quarterly. The paid circulation in 2005 was 57,244. Vermont Life is considered one of America's leading regional magazines, winning over 95 national and international magazine awards since 1990.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,590 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1,179 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

Associations headquartered in Vermont largely reflect the state's agricultural interests. Among these are the National Association for Gardening, the American Chestnut Foundation, the Holstein Association USA, the Composting Association of Vermont, and the Vermont Maple Industry Council, and the International Maple Syrup Institute. Professional associations are available for many fields. The Vermont Arts Council is located in Montpelier. There are several local arts organizations and historical societies as well. The Bread Loaf Writers Conference, based at Middlebury College, sponsors educational programs that attract writers from across the country.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

With the building of the first ski slopes in the 1930s (Woodstock claims the first ski area in the United States) and the development of modern highways, tourism became a major industry in Vermont. In 2001, direct spending from 13.9 million visitors totaled $2.84 billion, or 13% of the entire Vermont economy. Over 30% of all trips were day trips. The tourism and travel industry supports 63,279 jobs (21% of all jobs in the state.

Summer and fall are the most popular seasons for visitors. Fall foliage trips account for 28% of all travel. In the winter, the state's ski areas offer some of the finest skiing in the East. About 11,000 Vermonters work at a Vermont ski area. There are 52 state parks and over 100 campgrounds in the state. Historical sites, including several Revolutionary War battlefields, are popular attractions and shopping, particularly for Vermont-made products such as maple syrup, is a major activity for all visitors. Vermont has tours of the maple syrup industry. Bennington is the site of the Bennington Battle Monument and President Calvin Coolidge's homestead is in Plymouth. Vermont hosts an annual Mozart Festival from mid-July to mid-August.

SPORTS

Vermont has no major professional sports teams. A single-A minor league baseball team, the Vermont Lake Monsters, plays in Burlington. Skiing is, perhaps, the most popular participation sport, and Vermont ski areas have hosted national and international ski competitions in both Alpine and Nordic events. World Cup races have been run at Stratton Mountain, and the national cross-country championships have been held near Putney. Famous skiers Billy Kidd and Andrea Mead Lawrence, both Olympic medalists, grew up in Vermont and trained in the state.

FAMOUS VERMONTERS

Two US presidents, both of whom assumed office upon the death of their predecessors, were born in Vermont. Chester Alan Arthur (182986) became the 21st president after James A. Garfield's assassination in 1881 and finished his term. A machine politician, Arthur became a civil-service reformer in the White House. Calvin Coolidge (18721933), 28th president, was born in Plymouth Notch but pursued a political career in Massachusetts. Elected vice president in 1920, he became president on the death of Warren G. Harding in 1923 and was elected to a full term in 1924.

Other federal officeholders have included Matthew Lyon (17501822), a US representative imprisoned under the Sedition Act and reelected from a Vergennes jail; Jacob Collamer (17911865), who, after serving three terms in the US House, was US postmaster general and then a US senator; Justin Smith Morrill (181098), US representative and senator who sponsored the Morrill tariff in 1861 and the Land Grant College Act in 1862; Levi Parsons Morton (18241920), Benjamin Harrison's vice president from 1889 to 1893; George Franklin Edmunds (18281919), a US senator who helped draft the Sherman Antitrust Act; Redfield Proctor (18311908), secretary of war, US senator, state governor, and the found-er of a marble company; John Garibaldi Sargent. (18601939), Coolidge's attorney general; Warren Robinson Austin (18771963), US senator and head of the US delegation to the UN; and George David Aiken (18921984), US senator from 1941 to 1977.

Important state leaders were Thomas Chittenden (173097), leader of the Vermont republic and the state's first governor; Ethan Allen (173889), a frontier folk hero, leader of the Green Mountain Boys, and presenter of Vermont's claim to independence to the US Congress in 1778; Ira Allen (17511814), the brother of Ethan, who led the fight for statehood; Cornelius Peter Van Ness (b.New York, 17821852), who served first as Vermont chief justice and then as governor; and Erastus Fairbanks (17921864), a governor and railroad promoter.

Vermont's many businessmen and inventors include Thaddeus Fairbanks (17961886), inventor of the platform scale; Thomas Davenport (180251), inventor of the electric motor; plow and tractor manufacturer John Deere (180486); Elisha G. Otis (181161), inventor of a steam elevator and elevator safety devices; and Horace Wells (181548), inventor of laughing gas. Educator John Dewey (18591952) was born in Burlington. Donald James Cram (19192001), a professor of chemistry at the University of California at Los Angeles, was awarded a Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1987.

Robert Frost (b.California, 18741963) maintained a summer home near Ripton, where he helped found Middlebury College's Bread Loaf Writers' Conference. He was named poet laureate of Vermont in 1961. In 1992, Louise Gluck became the first Vermont woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for poetry. A famous Vermont performer is crooner and orchestra leader Rudy Vallee (Hubert Prior Rudy Vallee, 19011986).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Davis, Allen Freeman. Postcards from Vermont: A Social History, 19051945. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2002.

Husher, Helen. Off the Leash: Subversive Journeys Around Vermont. Woodstock, Vt.: Countryman Press, 1999.

Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1999.

Sherman, Michael. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Barre: Vermont Historical Society, 2004.

, and Jennie Versteeg (eds.). We Vermonters: Perspectives on the Past. Montpelier: Vermont Historical Society, 1992.

Sletcher, Michael (ed.). New England. Vol. 4 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Vermont, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT

VERMONT. What we now know as Vermont is believed to have had an Abenaki Indian presence since 9000 b.c., peaking in population during the sixteenth century. Even before direct contact with Europeans, however, Vermont's inhabitants, western Abenakis, were depleted through wars with the Iroquois and by pathogens introduced by Europeans and transmitted through eastern Abenakis from Canada. In 1609, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain became the first European to reconnoiter Vermont, sailing up the lake that bears his name and initiating an alliance between the French and the Abenakis against the English and the Iroquois Confederacy that persisted until the French were driven from North America in 1763.

During that time the struggle for North America kept the region in turmoil, and Vermont attracted few European settlers. The Abenakis, augmented by a southern New England diaspora after King Philip's War (1675–1677), joined with the French to raid southern New England settlements in the Connecticut River valley during the colonial wars. In 1724, to protect settlers from these attacks, Massachusetts erected Fort Dummer, the first British settlement in Vermont, situated near present-day Brattleboro and west of the Connecticut River. The French were simultaneously occupying the Lake Champlain valley, building forts from Isle La Motte (1666) south to Ticonderoga (1755), but, focusing on the fur trade, they made relatively little effort at colonization. By 1754, New France numbered 75,000 European settlers contrasted with 1.5 million in British America.

Land Disputes and the Revolutionary Era

The French and Indian War (1754–1763), the North American counterpart to the Seven Years' War in Europe, ended with a British victory, and what was to become Vermont fell totally under British sovereignty. The region, inaccurately mapped and sparsely settled, was plagued with conflicting charters and overlapping land claims. Royal decrees at times compounded the confusion. Shortly after a boundary dispute between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was resolved in New Hampshire's favor, New Hampshire was ordered to maintain Fort Dummer or have it restored to Massachusetts jurisdiction. Seizing upon this as having established New Hampshire's border west of the Connecticut River, New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth claimed his province's boundary extended to Lake Champlain and in 1750 issued a grant for the town of Bennington at the westernmost edge of his claim. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War he had chartered fifteen additional towns, and in 1759, after the French were driven from the Champlain valley, he resumed issuing New Hampshire patents until by 1763 they totaled 138. Meanwhile New York Province, brandishing a 1664 grant by King Charles II to his brother the Duke of York (later James II), maintained that its eastern border extended to the Connecticut River and began issuing patents more remunerative to the crown and occasionally overlapping New Hampshire's.

In 1764 a king's order in council ruled the New York border to be the west bank of the Connecticut River, placing all of modern-day Vermont under New York jurisdiction. New Hampshire titleholders interpreted "to be" to mean from the date of the order in council, thus validating land titles issued before 1764. New York contended the ruling was retroactive and attempted to eject settlers on New Hampshire grants. In 1770 the issue was argued before an Albany County court at which Ethan Allen served as agent for the Wentworth titleholders. The court dismissed New Hampshire claims, and the Wentworth title-holders responded with the Green Mountain Boys, unofficial military units led by Ethan Allen, Seth Warner, and others from western Vermont that used force and intimidation to frustrate New York's efforts at ejection. Many of the Green Mountain Boys held heavy investments in New Hampshire titles. East of the Green Mountains, where smaller landholders dominated, title disputes were resolved through payment to New York of reconfirmation fees, but other issues, particularly high court costs and debt proceedings, precipitated a March 1775 courthouse riot in Westminster that left two dead and collapsed New York authority in the Connecticut Valley.

In April, with Concord and Lexington sparking the American Revolution, New York lost any chance of reclaiming Vermont, especially when Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys, along with Benedict Arnold, stormed the British Fort Ticonderoga in New York that May, capturing cannon for the Continental army in Boston and closing the Champlain-Hudson corridor to invasion

from Canada until it was recaptured by the British. Shortly afterward the Continental Congress authorized an army regiment of Green Mountain Rangers that fought under the command of Seth Warner. In January 1777 representatives from New Hampshire Grant towns declared their independence from New York and Great Britain and in July drafted a constitution, scheduled elections, and established a government for the state of New Connecticut (estimated population 10,000), later renamed Vermont.

Despite its assertions of independence, Vermont's existence was in immediate jeopardy. That July, British general John Burgoyne, leading an army from Canada to the Hudson River, recaptured Fort Ticonderoga and sent Vermont settlers scurrying south. A rear guard detachment commanded by Seth Warner to cover the retreat from Ticonderoga was defeated at Hubbardton (the only Revolutionary War battle fought in Vermont), but in August the tide turned. New Hampshire and Vermont troops under General John Stark defeated a British force near Bennington. In September, Burgoyne surrendered his army at the Battle of Saratoga (see Saratoga Campaign).

New York's opposition to Vermont's independence and the failure of Congress to admit it as a state until 1791 induced Vermont to assume initiatives associated with a sovereign nation, most notably coining its own currency and maintaining a foreign policy. The Haldimand Negotiations (1781) were dealings with the governor-general of Canada that involved Vermont's return to the British empire in return for British promises not to invade Vermont or New York. The negotiations collapsed after General Cornwallis' defeat at Yorktown. They are still debated as either sincere negotiations or ploys by Vermont to obtain military security. Another Vermont initiative was to annex amenable border towns in western New Hampshire and eastern New York, so-called east and west unions, which aroused considerable New Hampshire, New York, and congressional displeasure. Vermont relinquished control of the towns, anticipating this would promote admission into the United States, but it was not until 4 March 1791, after Vermont "bought itself free" by paying New York $30,000 to settle disputed land titles, that it was admitted as the fourteenth state.

Statehood and Nineteenth-Century Vermont

Statehood marked the eclipse of Vermont's first generation of leaders. Thomas Chittenden, who, save for one year had served as governor from 1778, continued to serve until 1797, but his political allies were succeeded by younger men, legally trained Revolutionary War veterans and more recent settlers who poured into the state from southern New England. The census of 1791 recorded a population of 85,341 and the 1810 census 217,895. The War of 1812 put an end to Vermont's prosperity and population growth. It was the first state without an ocean port, and western Vermont was dependent upon trade with Canada down Lake Champlain. The suspension of this trade in 1808 and then by the war stimulated popular support for smuggling and political opposition to the party of Jefferson as well as the war itself. East of the Green Mountains, the Connecticut River was the principal commercial artery, linking Vermont with southern New England, but the war was no more popular in that area.

A modest prosperity was restored by the mid 1820s after the American consul in Lisbon returned to Vermont with 200 head of merino sheep. By 1840 the state boasted almost 1,690,000 merinos and preeminence among wool-producing states. Sheep grazing, which was possible on rocky uplands and less labor intensive than most other forms of agriculture, stimulated land clearing and emigration. It declined after 1840, the victim of western competition and the lowering of the protective tariff, and dairying began a steady growth. Before 1840 daughters of farm families frequently left the homesteads to work in textile mills, some as far away as New Hampshire or Massachusetts, never to return. After 1840 immigrants increasingly staffed textile mills in Vermont and elsewhere.

The Vermont economy had also been transformed by the Champlain-Hudson cut off to the Erie Canal that opened in 1823. Promoted for its potential to provide access to a wider market for Vermont produce, it instead opened Vermont to western wheat and helped redirect the state's economy toward sheep farming, textile mills, and dairying. The Champlain-Hudson cutoff also loosened western Vermont's ties to Canada and, by reducing the cost and difficulty of immigration, opened the West for settlers from Vermont.

Railroads reached Vermont in 1848, and by 1855 there were over 500 miles of track. Designed to carry freight between Atlantic ports and the Great Lakes rather than to serve Vermont, the railroads nonetheless had a tremendous impact on the state and were the largest Vermont enterprises until the twentieth century. Thousands of Irish entered the state as construction workers, and, along with French-Canadians who worked in textile mills and on farms, constituted almost the entire immigrant population. These new immigrants, mostly Catholic, were often viewed by the almost exclusively Protestant natives as threatening American values. Their apprehensions were heightened in 1853 when the Burlington Catholic Diocese was established.

Economic and demographic disruptions spawned ferment. Vermont became virulently anti-Masonic, electing an Anti-Masonic Party governor and in 1832 becoming the only state to vote for the Anti-Mason presidential candidate (see Anti-Masonic Movements). By 1836 the Anti-Masons gave way to the newly formed Whig Party, and workingmen's associations thrived alongside religious revivals that included Millerites, whose founder was sometime Poultney resident William Miller, and John Humphrey Noyes's Perfectionist Society, founded in Putney. Mormon founders Joseph Smith and Brigham Young were Vermont natives. Temperance and antislavery, both church-rooted movements, had widespread appeal. Temperance societies dated from the 1820s, and in 1853 the state banned the manufacture and sale of liquor by a narrow vote. Not always rigidly enforced, it remained law until 1902. Antislavery enjoyed even broader support. Vermonters, evincing pride that their 1777 constitution was the first to prohibit slavery and provide universal male suffrage, championed congressional antislavery resolutions, state acts to annul fugitive slave laws, and gave rise to the Liberty Party and then the Free Soil Party, which along with the feeble Democratic Party were able to deny the Whigs popular majorities and left the election of governor to the legislature.

In 1854 state government was paralyzed by party fractionalization after passage of the nationally divisive Kansas-Nebraska Act, occurring as it did on the heels of the temperance contest and the 1853 election of a Democratic governor by a legislative coalition of Free Soilers and Democrats. In July 1854, Whigs and Free Soilers convened, agreed upon a common platform and slate of candidates, referred to themselves as Republicans, won a large popular majority, and in 1856 and 1860 led the nation in support of Republican presidential candidates. Vermont's overwhelming support for Lincoln and the Union cause accommodated a wide range of attitudes toward slavery along with an anti-southern bias. In addition to resenting such pro-southern measures as the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Vermonters blamed southern opposition for their failure to obtain a higher tariff and national banking legislation. What most united Vermonters, however, was their support for the Union.

Almost 35,000, one of four adult males, served in the army during the Civil War, and casualty rates were among the highest of any state. The war brought economic prosperity while shifting much of the burden of farm work and financial management to women. In some instances war casualties cost towns almost their entire male populations. The northernmost action of the war occurred in October 1864 when Confederate soldiers crossed the Canadian border to rob St. Albans banks. Although the St. Albans raid provoked heated diplomatic negotiation between Britain, Canada, and the United States, it had no impact on the war.

After the war, the Republican Party dominated Vermont politics. Having saved the Union and enacted a protective tariff and national banking act with critical support from Congressman Justin Morrill, Republicanism became a civic religion, escaping meaningful challenge until the second half of the twentieth century. The state frequently returned over 200 Republicans to a Vermont house (with 246 members) and all 30 of its state senators. Agriculture remained the state's major economic pursuit, with dairy farming shaping its landscape. With the advent of the refrigerated railway car, shipping cream, butter, and cheese gave way to the more lucrative marketing of fresh milk. Sustained by a treaty with Canada, the lumber industry built Burlington into one of the busiest inland ports in the nation. The machine-tool industry in the Connecticut River valley, the platform-scale works in St. Johnsbury, independent marble companies in the Rutland area (consolidated into the Vermont Marble Company by Redfield Proctor), and independent Barre granite operations along with the railroads constituted the bulk of Vermont industry.

Vermont governors, who invariably served a single two-year term, were almost always business-oriented industrialists, some of whom presided over reform administrations. Vermont's political agenda, however, was usually dominated by the legislature. With one representative from each town irrespective of population, farmers were often a legislative majority and always the largest occupational category despite declining numbers. Vermont farms could seldom support large families, and emigration was so common that by 1860 over 40 percent of native-born Vermonters lived in other states. European immigration barely kept the population constant, and while the larger communities gained population, the smaller communities declined to where it became increasingly difficult to amass the personnel and other resources to meet municipal obligations. Soon after the Civil War the legislature began voting to shift expenditures from towns to the state on a need basis. From 1890 until 1931, when a state income tax was enacted, state levies on town grand lists were applied to bolster educational, welfare, and highway resources among the poorer communities.

The Twentieth Century

Efforts to stimulate the state economy through tourism, initially undertaken by the railroads, became a government operation. As the railroad gave way to the automobile, Vermont's transportation network proved inadequate for either tourism or its internal needs. In the fall of 1927 the state suffered a disastrous flood that cost lives, wiped out homes and industrial sites, and destroyed much of the state's transportation network. Within weeks a recovery effort, planned and financed with federal support, ushered Vermont into the era of hard-surfaced roads and state debt to support improvements. Even the Great Depression, however, could not seduce Vermont from its Republican Party allegiance, although the state was an enthusiastic participant in many New Deal programs. Until 1958, Democratic challenges were usually ceremonial. The real contests were Republican primaries.

The first signs of recovery from the Great Depression appeared in 1939 in the machine-tool industry that created a boom in the Springfield area never achieved in the rest of the state, although World War II brought prosperity to most sectors of the economy along with an increased presence of organized labor among both blue-and white-collar workers. There were 1,200 killed or missing in action among the 30,000 men and women who served in the military, and returning veterans contributed mightily to Colonel Ernest Gibson's upset of the more conservative candidate in the 1946 Republican gubernatorial primary. Although more traditional Republican governors succeeded Gibson in office, the state retained his policy of implementing state and federal welfare, education, and construction programs. This policy was accelerated with the election of a Democratic governor, Philip Hoff, in 1962, and the implementation of Great Society initiatives.

In 1965 the Vermont legislature convened under court reapportionment orders. The house was reapportioned down from 246 to 150 delegates with districts determined by population. (Previously, the twenty-two largest cities and towns had housed over half the state's population and paid 64 percent of the state's income tax and 50 percent of the property tax, but elected only 9 percent of the house members.) The senate was kept at 30 members, but county lines were no longer inviolate. Without reapportionment it is unlikely Republicans would ever have lost control of the legislature. Since Hoff, the governor'soffice has alternated between parties, and in 1984, Democrats elected Madeleine Kunin, the state's first female governor. In 1964 it cast its electoral votes for a Democratic presidential candidate for the first time, and since 1992 it has been regularly in the Democratic column. Yet the state has also demonstrated a tolerance for mavericks. In 2000, Vermont's congressional delegation was made up of one Democrat senator, one Republican senator, and one Independent House member. In 2001, Senator James Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an independent, throwing the control of the Senate to the Democrats while attaining favorable poll ratings. Elections during this period have been dogged by controversy over Vermont Supreme Court decisions leading to legislation equalizing educational resources statewide and providing same-sex couples rights similar to those possessed by married couples.

The latter, labeled the Civil Union Act (2000), was the first of its kind in the nation, and observers attributed its passage to the state's evolving demography and economy. Native-owned industries have been absorbed into conglomerates, and IBM, which moved into the state in 1957, has become Vermont's largest private employer. Economic development attracted additional growth. In 2000, Vermont's population stood at 608,827, with two thirds of the growth since 1830 occurring after 1960. The interstate highway system brought Vermont to within a few hours of over 40 million urban dwellers. Tourism grew rapidly. Skiing spread from its 1930s roots to mountains and hillsides irrespective of environmental degradation or the ability of the local government to provide essential services. In 1970, Republican Governor Deane Davis gained approval of Act 250 to mandate permits requiring developers to prove the project's ecological soundness. Despite flaws and opposition, Act 250 and subsequent modifications have proven salutary.

A related effort has been made to retain Vermont's pastoral landscape of rapidly disappearing dairy farms. From 1993 to 2000 the number of dairy farms decreased from 2,500 to 1,700, with most of the decrease among farms of fewer than 100 cows. Yet because average production rose to 17,000 pounds of milk per cow per year, production increased. Some farmers participated in a 1986 federal program to curb overproduction by selling their herds to the federal government and subsequently selling their land to developers. In 1993 the National Trust for Historic Preservation designated the entire state an "endangered place." Nonetheless, farmland preservation projects that utilize differential tax rates and conservation trusts have been operating with some success.

With a population less than 609,000, Vermont is the second-smallest state in the nation, boasting the least-populated state capital and the smallest biggest city of any state. With a larger percentage of its population living in communities of fewer than 2,500 than any other state, it lays claim to being the most rural.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albers, Jan. Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont Landscape. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000.

Anderson, Elin L. We Americans: A Study of Cleavage in an American City. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937. Reprint, New York: Russell and Russell, 1967. Burlington in the 1930s.

Bassett, T. D. Seymour. The Growing Edge: Vermont Villages, 1840–1880. Montpelier: Vermont Historical Society, 1992.

Bellesiles, Michael A. Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Bryan, Frank M. Yankee Politics in Rural Vermont. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1974.

Gillies, Paul S., and D. Gregory Sanford, eds. Records of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont. Montpelier: Secretary of State, 1991.

Graffagnino, J. Kevin, Samuel B. Hand, and Gene Sessions, eds. Vermont Voices, 1609 Through the 1990s: A Documentary History of the Green Mountain State. Montpelier: Vermont Historical Society, 1999.

Kunin, Madeleine. Living a Political Life. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Ludlum, David M. Social Ferment in Vermont, 1790–1850. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1966.

Roth, Randolph A. The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Shalhope, Robert E. Bennington and the Green Mountain Boys: The Emergence of Liberal Democracy in Vermont, 1760–1850. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Sherman, Michael, ed. Vermont State Government Since 1965. Burlington: Center for Research on Vermont and Snelling Center for Government, 1999.

Samuel B.Hand

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vermont

"Vermont." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont (vərmŏnt´) [Fr.,=green mountain], New England state of the NE United States. It is bordered by New Hampshire, across the Connecticut River (E), Massachusetts (S), New York, with Lake Champlain forming almost half the border (W), and the Canadian province of Quebec (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 9,609 sq mi (24,887 sq km). Pop. (2010) 625,741, a 2.8% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Montpelier. Largest city, Burlington. Statehood, Mar. 4, 1791 (14th state). Highest pt., Mt. Mansfield, 4,393 ft (1,340 m); lowest pt., Lake Champlain, 95 ft (29 m). Nickname, Green Mountain State. Motto, Freedom and Unity. State bird, hermit thrush. State flower, red clover. State tree, sugar maple. Abbr., Vt.; VT

Geography

The forested Green Mts. constitute the dominant physiographic feature of Vermont. They consist of at least four distinct groups, all traversing the state in a generally north-south direction. Largest and most important are the Green Mts. proper, which extend down the center of the state from the Canadian border to the Massachusetts line, rising to Vermont's highest peak, Mt. Mansfield (4,393 ft/1,339 m). The Taconic Mts., occupying the southwestern portion of the state, contain Vermont's important marble deposits. East of the Green Mts. and extending from the Canadian border to somewhat below the middle of the state are the Granite Hills, so called because of their valuable stone. The fourth group, sometimes called the Red Sandrock Hills, extends along the Vermont shore of Lake Champlain. In E Vermont there are also isolated peaks or monadnocks not connected with the principal ranges.

The rivers of Vermont (the only completely inland state of New England) flow either into the Connecticut River or into Lake Champlain. The Winooski rises east of the Green Mts. and cuts directly through them to Lake Champlain. Grand Isle county, comprising several islands and a peninsula jutting down into Lake Champlain from Canada, is connected to Vermont proper by causeways.

Vermont has a short summer and a humid, continental climate, with abundant rainfall and a growing season that varies from 120 days in the Connecticut valley to 150 in the Lake Champlain region. Winter brings heavy snows, which usually cover the ground for at least three full months, but because the state's good roads are almost always kept clear, this season no longer forces complete isolation on rural communities. With its rugged terrain, much of it still heavily wooded, Vermont has limited areas of arable land, but the state is well suited to grazing (the Justin Morgan breed of horses was developed there).

Every summer thousands of vacationers are drawn by the scenic mountains and the picturesque New England villages, while climbers attempt the many accessible peaks and hikers take on the Long Trail that runs the length of the state along the Green Mt. ridge. In the winter thousands of skiers flock to the slopes at Mad River Glen, Bromley, Stowe, Stratton, and elsewhere. Montpelier is the capital, Burlington the largest city.

Economy

Dairy farming has long been dominant in Vermont agriculture, although it has declined somewhat. Apples, cheese, maple syrup, and greenhouse and nursery products are important. The state's most valuable mineral resources are stone, asbestos, sand and gravel, and talc. In the areas around Rutland and Proctor is a noted marble industry, and at Barre the famous Vermont granite is quarried and processed.

The manufacture of nonelectric machinery, machine tools, and precision instruments is important. The textile industry, once dominant in Burlington, has declined, but the manufacture of computer components, food products, pulp and paper, and plastics has helped to compensate for this loss. Cottage industries have long thrived in Vermont, making a variety of products from knitwear to ice cream, while captive insurance companies (insurance companies owned by the companies they insure) are more recent and growing industry. Tourism is also vitally important to the state economy.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Vermont is governed under a constitution adopted in 1793. The state legislature, called the general assembly, consists of a senate with 30 members and a house of representatives with 150 members, all elected to two-year terms. The governor is elected for a two-year term. In 2003, Jim Douglas, a Republican, succeeded Democrat Howard Dean, who retired after serving since 1991. Douglas was reelected in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In 2011, Democrat Peter Shumlin was elected to the post; he was reelected in 2012 and 2015. Vermont sends two senators and one representative to the U.S. Congress and has three electoral votes.

The state's traditional devotion to the Republican party was evidenced in the presidential elections of 1912 and 1936, when Vermont was one of only two states in the union that voted Republican. This has changed, however, as the state's liberalism in cultural and environmental matters has turned it away from the Republican party. Since 1991, the socialist former mayor of Burlington, Bernard Sanders (who runs as an independent), has represented Vermont in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Among Vermont's institutions of higher education are Bennington College, at Bennington; Middlebury College, at Middlebury; Marlboro College, at Marlboro; Norwich Univ., at Northfield; the School for International Training, at Brattleboro; and the Univ. of Vermont, at Burlington.

History

French Vermont

The first European known to have entered the area that is now Vermont was Samuel de Champlain, who, after beginning the colonization of Quebec, journeyed south with a Huron war party in 1609 to the beautiful lake to which he gave his name. The French did not attempt any permanent settlement until 1666, when they built a fort and a shrine to Ste Anne on the Isle La Motte in Lake Champlain. However, this and later French settlements were abandoned, and until well into the 18th cent. the region was something of a no-man's-land.

Benning Wentworth and the New Hampshire Grants

Fort Dummer, built (1724) by the English near the site of Brattleboro, is considered the first permanent settlement in what is now Vermont. However, Vermont's history may be said to have really begun in 1741, when Benning Wentworth became royal governor of New Hampshire. According to his commission New Hampshire extended west across the Merrimack River until it met "with our [i.e., the king's] other Governments." Since the English crown had never publicly proclaimed the eastern limits of the colony of New York, this vague description bred considerable confusion.

Wentworth, assuming that New York's modified boundary with Connecticut and Massachusetts (20 mi/32 km E of the Hudson River) would be extended even farther north, made (1749) the first of the New Hampshire Grants—the township called Bennington—to a group that included his relatives and friends. However, New York claimed that its boundary extended as far east as the Connecticut River, and Gov. George Clinton of New York (father of Sir Henry Clinton) promptly informed Governor Wentworth that he had no authority to make such a grant. Wentworth thereupon suggested that the dispute between New York and New Hampshire over control of Vermont be referred to the crown. The outbreak of the last of the French and Indian Wars in 1754 briefly suspended interest in the area, but after the British captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1759, Wentworth resumed granting land in the area of present Vermont.

In 1764 the British authorities upheld New York's territorial claim to Vermont. New York immediately tried to assert its jurisdiction—Wentworth's grants were declared void, and new grants (for the same lands) were issued by the New York authorities. Those who held their lands from New Hampshire resisted, and a hot controversy, long in the making, now exploded. New York and New Hampshire land speculators had the most at stake, with the New Hampshire grantees, first on the scene, having the advantage. Regional pride among the New England settlers played a large part in creating resistance to New York authority. Chief among the leaders of this resistance was Ethan Allen, who organized the Green Mountain Boys. New York courts were forcibly broken up, and armed violence was directed against New Yorkers until the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, when the British became the major threat and common enemy.

The American Revolution and Independent Vermont

At the beginning of the Revolution, Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured Ticonderoga, and Seth Warner took Crown Point. In Jan., 1777, Vermont (as its citizens were soon calling the region) proclaimed itself an independent state at a meeting in the town of Westminster. Chiefly because of the opposition of New York, the Continental Congress refused to recognize Vermont as the 14th colony or state. The convention that met at Windsor in July reaffirmed Vermont's independent status and adopted a constitution, notable especially because it was the first in the United States to provide for universal male suffrage. Thomas Chittenden was elected the first governor.

The Green Mountain Boys under Seth Warner and John Stark made an important contribution to the American cause with their victory at Bennington in Aug., 1777 (see Saratoga campaign). Later, Ethan Allen and his brother Ira Allen, acting on their own, entered into devious negotiations with British agents, possibly with the intent of annexing Vermont to Canada. The talks were inconclusive and ended when the Americans finally triumphed at Yorktown in 1781. For ten years Vermont remained an independent state, performing all the offices of a sovereign government (such as coining money, setting up post offices, naturalizing new citizens, and appointing ambassadors) and gradually becoming more and more independent.

Statehood, at Last

Not until 1791, after many delays and misunderstandings and, most important, after the dispute with New York was finally adjusted (1790) by payment of $30,000, did Vermont enter the Union. It was the first state to be admitted after the adoption of the Constitution by the 13 original states. In the next two decades Vermont had the greatest population increase in its history, from 85,425 in 1790 to 217,895 in 1810. As in the earlier days, most of the settlers migrated from S New England, and, since the more desirable lands in the river valleys were soon taken, many of them settled in the less hospitable hills.

Although the Embargo Act of 1807 aided the development of many small manufacturing establishments, it was bitterly opposed in Vermont for its disruption of the profitable trade with Canada. The War of 1812 was unpopular in Vermont as it was in the rest of New England, and during the war extensive smuggling across the Canadian border was carried on. Vermont was threatened by British invasion from Canada until U.S. troops, under Thomas Macdonough, won (1814) the battle on Lake Champlain.

At this early period in its history, Vermont, lacking an aristocracy of wealth, was the most democratic state in New England. Jeffersonian Democrats held control for most of the first quarter of the 19th cent. Beginning in the 1820s political and social life in Vermont was considerably affected by the activities of those opposed to Freemasonry, and in the presidential election of 1832 Vermont was the only state carried by William Wirt, candidate of the Anti-Masonic party. Anti-Masonry agitation was soon succeeded by even more vigorous efforts in behalf of another cause—the one against slavery.

The Mexican and Civil Wars

In the Mexican War, which it viewed as having been undertaken solely to increase slave territory, Vermont was very apathetic. However, no Northern state was more energetic in support of the Union cause in the Civil War, and Vermonters strongly favored Lincoln over Vermont-born Stephen Douglas. One of the most bizarre incidents of the war was the Confederate raid (1864) on Saint Albans, a town which, after the war, also figured in the equally bizarre attempt of the Fenians to invade Canada in the cause of Irish independence.

The Changing Economy of Vermont

The economy of the state, meanwhile, was in the midst of a series of sharp dislocations. The rise of manufacturing in towns and villages during the early 19th cent. had created a demand for foodstuffs for the nonfarming population. Consequently, commercial farming began to crowd out the subsistence farming that had predominated since the mid-18th cent. Grain and beef cattle became the chief market produce, but when the rapidly expanding West began to supply these commodities more cheaply and when wool textile mills began to spring up in S New England, Vermont turned to sheep raising.

After the Civil War, however, the sheep industry, unable to withstand the competition from the American West as well as from Australian, and South American wool, began to diminish. The rural population declined as many farmers migrated westward or turned to the apparently easier life of the cities, and abandoned farms became a common sight. The transition to dairy farming in the 20 years following the war staved off a permanent decline in Vermont's agricultural pursuits.

Since the 1960s, Vermont's economy has grown significantly with booms in the tourist industry and in exurban homebuilding and with the attraction of high-technology firms to the Burlington area. In recent years, prosperity has to some degree conflicted with concern for environmental issues. Nonetheless, the state has been active in attempts to preserve its natural beauty, enacting very strict laws regarding industrial pollution and the conservation of natural resources.

Bibliography

See Federal Writers' Project, Vermont: A Guide to the Green Mountain State (3d ed. 1968); R. N. Hill et al., comp., Vermont (1969); A. M. Hemenway, Abby Hemenway's Vermont, ed. by B. C. Morrissey from the 5-volume Vermont Historical Gazetteer of 1881 (1972); C. T. Morrissey, Vermont (1981); T. D. Bassett, Vermont: A Bibliography of Its History (1983); H. A. Meeks, Vermont's Land and Resources (1986).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT


Burlington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

Montpelier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

Rutland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545

The State in Brief

Nickname: Green Mountain State

Motto: Vermont, freedom, and unity

Flower: Red clover

Bird: Hermit thrush

Area: 9,614 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 45th)

Elevation: Ranges from 95 feet to 4,393 feet

Climate: Long, cold winters; warm summers

Admitted to Union: March 4, 1791

Capital: Montpelier

Head Official: Governor James H. Douglas (R) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 511,456

1990: 562,758

2000: 608,827

2004 estimate: 621,394

Percent change, 19902000: 8.2%

U.S. rank in 2004: 49th

Percent of residents born in state: 54.3% (2000)

Density: 65.8 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 15,600

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 589,208

Black or African American: 3,063

American Indian and Alaska Native: 2,420

Asian: 5,217

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 141

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 5,504

Other: 1,443

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 33,989

Population 5 to 19 years old: 132,268

Percent of population 65 years and over: 12.4%

Median age: 37.7 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 6,546

Total number of deaths (2003): 5,068 (infant deaths, 32)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 250

Economy

Major industries: Services, manufacturing, tourism

Unemployment rate: 3.3% (April 2005)

Per capita income: $30,534 (2003; U.S. rank: 23rd)

Median household income: $43,212 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 9.4% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: 3.69.5%

Sales tax rate: 6.0%

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont State in New England, ne USA, on the Canadian border. The state capital is Montpelier; other major cities include Burlington. The Green Mountains range ns and dominate the terrain; most of the w border of the state is formed by Lake Champlain. In 1609, Samuel de Champlain discovered the lake, but the region was not settled permanently until 1724. Land grant disputes with New Hampshire and New York persisted for many years. In 1777, Vermont declared its independence, retaining this unrecognized status until it was admitted to the Union in 1791. The region is heavily forested and arable land is limited. Dairy farming is by far the most important farming activity. Mineral resources include granite, slate, marble and asbestos. Industries: pulp and paper, food processing, computer components, machine tools. Area: 24,887sq km (9609sq mi). Pop. (2000) 608,827.

Statehood :

March 4, 1791

Nickname :

The Green Mountain State

State bird :

Hermit thrush

State flower :

Red clover

State tree :

Sugar maple

State motto :

Freedom and unity

http://gov

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT


The state of Vermont has retained its rural character throughout the history of a nation that has become increasingly urbanized and industrialized. Its quaint, natural beauty continues to attract thousands of tourists and summer residents who add greatly to the state's economy. Yet its manufacturing enterprises that make up over 50 percent of the state's revenues. Vermont has maintained its ties to the past, but has kept pace with the present.

The first European explorer of Vermont was Samuel de Champlain (15671635), who, in 1609, crossed the lake that now bears his name. From around 1650 through the 1760s, French, Dutch, English, and Iroquois Indians crossed Vermont, using trails between Montreal, Massachusetts, and New York. The first permanent settlement in the region was not established until 1724. For several decades both New York and New Hampshire claimed Vermont. Ethan Allen, a hero in the American Revolution (17751783), led a group that protested New York's claims. During the Revolution, Vermont adopted its own constitution and formed an independent republic; it was admitted to the Union in 1791.

Just before the War of 1812 (18121814) Vermonters engaged in smuggling to avoid the Embargo of 1808. The state continued trading with Canada during the war despite prohibitions on trade with Great Britain. By 1810 Vermont's population had reached 220,000, with most of the new settlers engaged in self-sufficient farming. After 1820, however, many began moving to the virgin lands of western New York, the Ohio Valley, and the trans-Mississippi region, which depleted Vermont's population. Despite an economic boost from newly built railroads, Vermont had simply run out of arable land and had overworked the available land. Vermont also had an insufficient number of manufacturing jobs, partly because the British had flooded the markets with cheaply produced cloth after the War of 1812.


The construction of the Champlain-Hudson Canal in 1823 and the railroads that were built in Vermont during the 1840s and 1850s did little to improve the state's economy, making it more vulnerable to competition from western territories. As emigration increased, however, those farmers remaining in the state were able to increase their prices for wool, butter, cheese, and milk. Irish and French-Canadian immigrants added to the population, and some light industry helped the economy to grow. By the late nineteenth century the well-known Vermont marble and granite quarries were being constructed, and the tourist industry began its steady rise into the twentieth century.

Vermonters seemed largely distant from many of the political and economic trends that gripped the nation after the American Civil War (18611865). They did not respond to the "free silver" message of presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan (18601925), nor to the Progressivism of the 1920s. The only U.S. President from Vermont, Calvin Coolidge (19231929), espoused rural conservatism. Though industrial growth occurred in towns such as Springfield, which manufactured the rifles named after the town; St. Johnsbury, where the famous St. Johnsbury scales were produced; Burlington, which boasted a number of textile mills; and quarry towns like Barre, Vermont remained primarily rural in character. In the early 1920s Vermont had the dubious honor of having more cows than people (a ratio which persisted until 1963).

The state was more forward-looking, however, in its approach to what would become a thriving tourist industry. Vermont established the first state publicity service in the nation. By 1911 it had produced its first publication, Vermont, Designed by the Creator for the Playground of the Continent. The state had recognized that its natural beauty was attracting many vacationers to its lakes, mountains, and, by the 1930s and 1940s, its ski resorts.

After World War II (19391945) both vacationers and second-home buyers flocked to Vermont over improved highways. A more suburban outlook began to pervade the state as professional people from New York and Massachusetts settled in the state. Native Vermonters wrestled with how to hold onto their rural heritage and, at the same time, embrace the economic benefits brought by the newcomers. A number of soil and water conservation measures were enacted by the state legislature, along with anti-litter and anti-bill-board regulations.

Although manufacturing is the economic lifeblood of the state, Vermont remains the nation's most rural state, with two-thirds of its population living in towns of 2,500 or fewer. In the words of historian Charles T. Morrissey, "Vermont is not where Chicago or Pittsburgh or Detroit or other large cities grew. It is not where stockyards and slaughterhouses spread along the railroad tracks, or steel mills darkened the skies with smoke. . . .Vermont has been apart from the American mainstream." Modern Vermont's primary agricultural products are livestock and dairy products, followed by corn, hay, and apples. The state is also the nation's leading producer of maple syrup.

Mining is another profitable sector of Vermont's economy. It quarries granite and slate, is home to the world's largest marble reserve, and produces crushed stone, construction sand, and gravel. Dimension stone is the state's leading mineral commodity, making up slightly less than 50 percent of the state's total mineral production value. While these rural enterprises are important to the state, employment in recent decades has increased the most in manufacturing including such products as: electronics and machine parts. However, construction, wholesale and retail trade, and other service industries have also thrived. The state's per capita income in the mid-1990s was just over $22,000, which ranked thirtieth in the nation.


FURTHER READING

Bassett, T.D. S. Vermont. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1983.

Crockett, Walter H. History of Vermont. 5 vols. New York: Century, 1921.

Hill, Ralph Nading. Vermont: A Special World. Montpelier: Vermont Life, 1969.

Morrissey, Charles T. Vermont: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1981.

Sherman, Micheal, and Jennie Versteeg, eds. We Vermonters: Perspectives on the Past. Montpelier: Vermont Historical Society, 1992.

vermont is part of the modern world despite its rural landscape and the currier and ives imagery projected from the garish sides of maple syrup tins.

charles d. morrissey, vermont: a bicentennial history, 1981

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermontacquaint, ain't, attaint, complaint, constraint, distraint, faint, feint, paint, plaint, quaint, restraint, saint, taint •spray-paint • greasepaint • warpaint •asquint, bint, clint, dint, flint, glint, hint, imprint, lint, mint, misprint, print, quint, skint, splint, sprint, squint, stint, tint •Septuagint • skinflint • catmint •varmint • spearmint • calamint •peppermint • enprint • screen print •offprint • blueprint • newsprint •footprint • thumbprint • fingerprint •monotint • mezzotint • aquatint •pint • Geraint •Comte, conte, font, fount, pont, quant, Vermont, want •Delfont • vicomte • Frémont •piedmont • Beaumont • Hellespont •passant • poste restante •avaunt, daunt, flaunt, gaunt, haunt, jaunt, taunt, vaunt

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vermont

"Vermont." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

■ BENNINGTON COLLEGE P-3

One College Dr.
Bennington, VT 05201
Tel: (802)442-5401
Free: 800-833-6845
Admissions: (802)440-4312
Fax: (802)447-4269
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bennington.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: 550-acre small town campus with easy access to Albany. Endowment: $11.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $15,258 per student. Total enrollment: 725. Faculty: 90 (66 full-time, 24 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 723 applied, 62% were admitted. 30% from top 10% of their high school class, 74% from top quarter, 99% from top half. Full-time: 567 students, 66% women, 34% men. Part-time: 4 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 43 states and territories, 18 other countries, 98% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 2% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 0% 25 or older, 98% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 87% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; English; social sciences. Calendar: semesters plus winter work term in January and February. ESL program, services for LD students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, graded analytic paper. Recommended: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/3, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 1/3 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $41,890 includes full-time tuition ($32,700), mandatory fees ($870), and college room and board ($8320). College room only: $4460. Part-time tuition: $1050 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 26 open to all. Most popular organizations: literary magazine, Amnesty International, Campus Activities Board, film society, student newspaper. Major annual events: Ben Belitt Lecture, Sunfest, Spring Ball. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 610 college housing spaces available; 602 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Crossett Library plus 2 others with 128,413 books, 6,155 microform titles, 250 serials, 40,219 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $534,376. 61 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Situated on 550 acres in the foothills of Vermont's Green Mountains, Bennington College is a short drive from some of the region's top ski resorts. The College is four miles from the village of Bennington and one mile from North Bennington. Twenty miles to the south is Williamstown, MA, and the Berkshires, home to the nationally renowned museums The Clark Institute and MASSMoCA, while featuring such esteemed performing arts venues as the Williamstown Theatre Festival, Jacob's Pillow, and Tanglewood. Twenty miles north is Manchester, VT, and its fine restaurants and shopping, as well as a state-of-the-art ice skating rink. Approximately 40 miles to the west is Albany, NY, which provides numerous amenities as well as rail transportation to Boston, New York City, and elsewhere. Local historical sites include the Bennington Museum, Bennington Battle Monument, and Old First Church, where poet Robert Frost is buried.

■ BURLINGTON COLLEGE E-3

95 North Ave.
Burlington, VT 05401-2998
Tel: (802)862-9616
Free: 800-862-9616
Fax: (802)658-0071
Web Site: http://www.burlcol.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Endowment: $76,000. Total enrollment: 241. 46 applied, 72% were admitted. Full-time: 117 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 124 students, 58% women, 42% men. Students come from 23 states and territories, 1 other country, 45% from out-of-state, 46% 25 or older, 6% live on campus, 23% transferred in. Retention: 60% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at University of Vermont, Champlain College, Saint Michael's College, Community College of Vermont, Institute for Social Ecology. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for Associate degree only. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $15,600 full-time, $515 per credit hour part-time. College room only: $4500.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organization: Student Association. Major annual event: graduation. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 16 college housing spaces available; 15 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Burlington College Library with 5,700 books, 80 serials, 1,050 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $95,702. 21 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

With five other colleges in the area, Burlington offers a wealth of cultural, economic and recreational opportunities, but still offers a friendly, small-city ambiance. Human-scale neighborhoods, and the college's governance structure itself, give students the chance to get involved, and make a difference.

■ CASTLETON STATE COLLEGE K-3

Castleton, VT 05735
Tel: (802)468-5611
Free: 800-639-8521
Admissions: (802)468-1213
Fax: (802)468-1476
Web Site: http://www.castleton.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Vermont State Colleges System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1787. Setting: 160-acre rural campus. Endowment: $4.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $17,206. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4566 per student. Total enrollment: 2,392. Faculty: 201 (89 full-time, 112 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 1,715 applied, 79% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 20% from top quarter, 57% from top half. Full-time: 1,684 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 207 students, 78% women, 22% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 34% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 16% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; visual and performing arts; parks and recreation. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Green Mountain College, other Vermont state colleges. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. One-time mandatory fee: $195. State resident tuition: $6648 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,376 full-time, $599 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $180 full-time. College room and board: $6942.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 40 open to all. Most popular organizations: student radio station, community service, women's issues organization, rugby, snowboarding. Major annual events: Soundings, Spring Weekend, Fall Festival. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 800 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Calvin Coolidge Library with 166,011 books, 545,361 microform titles, 739 serials, 3,420 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $771,318. 225 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Adjacent to outstanding ski and summer resorts, the area is rural and surrounded by Vermont's beautiful lakes and mountains.

■ CHAMPLAIN COLLEGE E-3

PO Box 670
Burlington, VT 05402-0670
Tel: (802)860-2700
Free: 800-570-5858
Admissions: (802)860-2727
Fax: (802)862-2772
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.champlain.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1878. Setting: 21-acre suburban campus with easy access to Montreal, Canada. Endowment: $7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6303 per student. Total enrollment: 2,529. Faculty: 258 (68 full-time, 190 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 1,850 applied, 64% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 35% from top quarter, 85% from top half. Full-time: 1,757 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 715 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 26 other countries, 70% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 5% 25 or older, 41% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 82% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; computer and information sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, interview. Required for some: SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $24,605 includes full-time tuition ($14,660), mandatory fees ($250), and college room and board ($9695). College room only: $5855. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $420 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 25 open to all. Most popular organizations: Diversity Champlain, International Club, community service organization, Champlain Players (theater group), Outing Club/Skiing Snowboarding Club. Major annual events: Parents' Weekend, Halloween Masquerade Dance, Spring Meltdown. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 680 students; 780 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Miller Information Commons with 60,000 books, 19,200 microform titles, 270 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $486,244. 260 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Burlington offers the best of both worlds: the excitement of life in the city and the tranquility and recreational splendor of the northern Vermont countryside. Three blocks from the Champlain campus, the Church Street Marketplace provides an exciting collection of more than 100 shops, services, and restaurants. Within one hour's drive are five major ski resorts: Stowe, Sugarbush, Bolton Valley, Mad River Glen, and Smugglers' Notch.

■ COLLEGE OF ST. JOSEPH K-4

71 Clement Rd.
Rutland, VT 05701-3899
Tel: (802)773-5900
Web Site: http://www.csj.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1950. Setting: 90-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3592 per student. Total enrollment: 450. Faculty: 68 (11 full-time, 57 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 157 applied, 68% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 29% from top quarter, 34% from top half. Students come from 12 states and territories, 44% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 4% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 46% 25 or older, 31% live on campus. Retention: 61% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $22,050 includes full-time tuition ($14,650), mandatory fees ($250), and college room and board ($7150). Part-time tuition: $245 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $45 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 15 open to all; 20% of eligible men and 25% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Human Services Club, Campus Ministry Club, Psi Chi, Ambassadors, chorus. Major annual events: Spring Fling, Fall Formal, Oktoberfest. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 150 college housing spaces available; 82 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. St. Joseph Library plus 1 other with 75,000 books, 19,600 microform titles, 3,000 serials, 5,800 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $131,748. 30 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Rutland, though a small city of 30,000, is the third largest city in Vermont. All forms of commercial transportation are available. The community includes churches, a hospital, library, museum, community concert series, and a number of civic and service organizations. Recreational areas provide facilities for boating, swimming, fishing, camping, horseback riding, hunting, mountain climbing, and cross-country and alpine skiing at nearby Pico and Killington Ski areas. Rutland is the headquarters for the Green Mountain National Forest.

■ COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF VERMONT E-5

PO Box 120
Waterbury, VT 05676-0120
Tel: (802)241-3535
Admissions: (802)865-4422
Web Site: http://www.ccv.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Vermont State Colleges System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: rural campus. Total enrollment: 5,801. 602 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 16 states and territories, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.2% international, 60% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Placement: ACCUPLACER required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $3912 full-time, $163 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7824 full-time, $326 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $50 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. Vermont Community and Technical College Library with an OPAC. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ GODDARD COLLEGE F-7

123 Pitkin Rd.
Plainfield, VT 05667-9432
Tel: (802)454-8311
Free: 800-906-8312
Fax: (802)454-1029
Web Site: http://www.goddard.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1938. Setting: 250-acre rural campus. Endowment: $932,377. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $120,000. Total enrollment: 560. Faculty: 74 (2 full-time, 72 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 13 applied, 92% were admitted. Full-time: 165 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 1 other country, 82% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 68% 25 or older, 27% transferred in. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Council of Independent Colleges.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Tuition: $9806 full-time. Mandatory fees: $900 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual events: senior presentations, Work Day. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, patrols by trained security personnel 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. College housing not available. Eliot Pratt Center with 70,000 books, 17 serials, 300 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $206,452. 27 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in the Upper Valley of Winooski River, this rural setting has the typical beauty of northern New England surrounded by the lower ranges of the Green Mountains. Winters are cold with heavy snow for good skiing. Opportunities are few for part-time employment.

■ GREEN MOUNTAIN COLLEGE L-2

One College Circle
Poultney, VT 05764-1199
Tel: (802)287-8000
Free: 800-776-6675
Admissions: (802)287-8207
Fax: (802)287-8099
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.greenmtn.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with United Methodist Church. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1834. Setting: 155-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $71,905. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5000 per student. Total enrollment: 696. Faculty: 65 (41 full-time, 24 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 927 applied, 91% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 24% from top quarter, 50% from top half. Full-time: 665 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 31 students, 42% women, 58% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 14 other countries, 87% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 26% 25 or older, 85% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; liberal arts/general studies; natural resources/environmental science; parks and recreation. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Castleton State College. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $29,894 includes full-time tuition ($21,604), mandatory fees ($600), and college room and board ($7690). College room only: $4700. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $720 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 32 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student National Education Association, Student Government Association, Outing Club, Inter-Cultural Club, Peer Majors Club. Major annual events: Parents' Weekend, Annual Holiday Party, Earth Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 600 college housing spaces available; 483 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Griswold Library with 73,400 books, 58,725 microform titles, 273 serials, 4,600 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $316,960. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Poultney is in a small town community with a typical New England climate. Train and bus stations and airport are within 20 minutes. Lake Saint Catherine provides facilities for water sports, and other facilities in nearby areas offer winter sports. Pico and Killington Ski resorts, as well as 4 other major ski resorts.

■ JOHNSON STATE COLLEGE D-5

337 College Hill
Johnson, VT 05656-9405
Tel: (802)635-2356
Free: 800-635-2356
Admissions: (802)635-1219
Fax: (802)635-1230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.johnsonstatecollege.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Vermont State Colleges System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1828. Setting: 350-acre rural campus with easy access to Montreal. Endowment: $769,100. Total enrollment: 1,866. Faculty: 143 (54 full-time, 89 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 770 applied, 95% were admitted. 1% from top 10% of their high school class, 8% from top quarter, 41% from top half. Full-time: 1,022 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 544 students, 77% women, 23% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 4 other countries, 26% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.2% international, 33% 25 or older, 57% live on campus, 12% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; psychology; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Vermont State Colleges System, National Student Exchange. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $6722 full-time, $280 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,524 full-time, $605 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $184 full-time, $8 per credit part-time. College room and board: $6910. College room only: $6132.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 35 open to all. Most popular organizations: SERVE (Break Away, Habitat for Humanity), Outing Club, snowboarding, Earth Action Club, Gay-Straight Alliance. Major annual events: Fall Fest, major concerts, May Day/Spring Fling. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 516 college housing spaces available; 425 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Library and Learning Center with 100,053 books, 180,158 microform titles, 522 serials, 7,200 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 131 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The 350-acre hilltop campus of Johnson State is home for more than 1,500 students. Its location, in the heart of the Green Mountains, places it just minutes away from some of the East's finest skiing and snowboarding at Stowe and Smuggler's Notch. Students have access to our on-campus snowboard park. Its modern facilities include one of the finest performing arts centers in northern New England.

■ LANDMARK COLLEGE P-6

River Rd. South
Putney, VT 05346
Tel: (802)387-4767
Admissions: (802)387-6716
Fax: (802)387-4779
Web Site: http://www.landmark.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1983. Setting: 125-acre rural campus. Endowment: $3.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $406,865. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $15,396 per student. Total enrollment: 371. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 4:1. 339 applied, 72% were admitted. Full-time: 233 students, 21% women, 79% men. Part-time: 138 students, 31% women, 69% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 11 other countries, 92% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 5% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 7% 25 or older, 94% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 48% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, interview, diagnosis of LD and/or AD/HD, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III and Nelson Denny Reading Test. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $75. One-time mandatory fee: $1850. Comprehensive fee: $46,470 includes full-time tuition ($38,500), mandatory fees ($770), and college room and board ($7200). College room only: $3600.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 22 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Campus Activities Board, Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, Jazz Band Club, Cultural Diversity Club. Major annual events: Charity Casino Night, Spring Fest, Dorm Wars. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 424 college housing spaces available; 360 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Landmark College Library with 30,066 books, 20 microform titles, 135 serials, and 1,555 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $315,935. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LYNDON STATE COLLEGE D-9

PO Box 919
Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919
Tel: (802)626-6200
Free: 800-225-1998
Admissions: (802)626-6413
Fax: (802)626-6335
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lyndonstate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Vermont State Colleges System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1911. Setting: 175-acre rural campus. Endowment: $1.8 million. Total enrollment: 1,319. Faculty: 145 (59 full-time, 86 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 994 applied, 94% were admitted. 12% from top 10% of their high school class, 22% from top quarter, 69% from top half. Full-time: 1,140 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 133 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 15 other countries, 40% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 18% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $6312 full-time, $263 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,632 full-time, $568 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $172 full-time, $8 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $6674. College room only: $3974. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 22 open to all. Most popular organizations: American Meteorological Society, ASSIST (A Society of Students in Service Together), Student Senate, Campus Activities Board, Outing Club. Major annual events: Winter Weekend, Spring Weekend, Winter Ball. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 550 college housing spaces available; 540 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Samuel Read Hall Library with 109,629 books, 32,327 microform titles, 16,468 serials, 4,541 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 125 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Lyndon is a rural community in the northeastern part of Vermont with community facilities that include churches of major denominations, civic and service organizations, a library, two hospitals, and good shopping areas. A ski resort at Burke Mountain and Jay Peak provide facilities for skiing and other winter sports.

■ MARLBORO COLLEGE P-5

PO Box A, South Rd.
Marlboro, VT 05344
Tel: (802)257-4333
Free: 800-343-0049
Admissions: (802)258-9261
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.marlboro.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 350-acre rural campus. Endowment: $19.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $11,890 per student. Total enrollment: 387. Faculty: 50 (36 full-time, 14 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 497 applied, 58% were admitted. 24% from top 10% of their high school class, 58% from top quarter, 95% from top half. Full-time: 327 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 13 students, 46% women, 54% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 5 other countries, 88% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 10% 25 or older, 82% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; English; biological/life sciences. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study at Brattleboro School of Music, School for International Training. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, graded expository essay, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 2/15, 11/15 for early decision, 1/15 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision, 2/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $35,980 includes full-time tuition ($26,940), mandatory fees ($850), and college room and board ($8190). College room only: $4540. Part-time tuition: $890 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 25 open to all. Most popular organizations: Theater Club, outdoor program, Fencing Club, Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Alliance, women's chorus. Major annual events: Fall Rites Cabaret, Broomball Tournament, Convocation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 264 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Rice Memorial Library with 65,000 books, 5,519 microform titles, 275 serials, 778 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $226,000. 47 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Marlboro is located on the scenic Molly Stark Trail near Hogback Mountain which offers a panoramic view of the area. Recreational activities include canoeing, kayaking, cross country skiing, hiking, rock climbing, and biking. The Marlboro Summer Music Festival is an annual event.

■ MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE H-3

Middlebury, VT 05753-6002
Tel: (802)443-5000
Admissions: (802)443-3000
Fax: (802)443-2056
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.middlebury.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1800. Setting: 350-acre small town campus. Endowment: $664.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.5 million. Total enrollment: 2,455. Faculty: 300 (254 full-time, 46 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 9:1. 5,254 applied, 24% were admitted. 84% from top 10% of their high school class, 96% from top quarter, 99% from top half. 57 class presidents. Full-time: 2,420 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 35 students, 49% women, 51% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 67 other countries, 93% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 3% black, 7% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 9% international, 0% 25 or older, 97% live on campus, 0.1% transferred in. Retention: 94% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; family and consumer sciences; interdisciplinary studies. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Swarthmore College, Berea College, Bucknell University, Eckerd College, St. Olaf College, American University, Williams College (Mystic Seaport Program), Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT, three tests to include: a writing test, a quantitative test, and an area of the applicant's choice. Recommended: interview. Entrance: most difficult. Application deadlines: 1/1, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 12/15 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $42,120.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 95 open to all. Most popular organizations: Volunteer Service Organization, International Students Organization, Mountain Club, Activities Board, WRMC radio. Major annual events: Senior Week, Winter Carnival, Student Concert Series. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,350 college housing spaces available; 2,290 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through junior year. Option: coed housing available. Main Library plus 3 others with 853,000 books, 386,576 microform titles, 2,908 serials, 33,288 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5.6 million. 494 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Middlebury, population 8,000, is located between Burlington and Rutland. Churches, libraries, and various civic and service organizations serve the community. The college's Bread Loaf Mountain is nearby and has facilities for skiing and other winter sports. The College owns and operates an 18-hole golf course, an alpine ski area, and 2 cross-country ski areas. Other sports facilities in the area provide for tennis and horseback riding. Lake Champlain and Green Mountain National Forest are nearby and provide numerous additional facilities.

■ NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE F-6

250 Main St.
Montpelier, VT 05602-9720
Tel: (802)223-6324; 877-223-6324
Fax: (802)223-0634
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.neci.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1980. Setting: small town campus. Endowment: $291,550. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5000 per student. Total enrollment: 606. 426 applied, 24% were admitted. Full-time: 606 students, 26% women, 74% men. Students come from 49 states and territories, 93% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 2% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 32% 25 or older, 80% live on campus. Core. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, interview. Required for some: minimum TOEFL scores for foreign students. Placement: SAT recommended. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Comprehensive fee: $28,365 includes full-time tuition ($21,500), mandatory fees ($450), and college room and board ($6415). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level, program, and student level.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 10 open to all; 75% of eligible men and 25% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: American Culinary Federation, Toastmasters, Ice Carving Club. Major annual events: skiing trips, annual chef vs. student softball games and bbq, talent show. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, Mod patrols in the evening. 270 college housing spaces available; 260 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. New England Culinary Institute Library with 2,400 books, 30 serials, 35 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $12,000. 14 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE AT ESSEX E-3

48 1/2 Park St.
Essex Junction, VT 05452
Tel: (802)872-3400
Admissions: (802)223-6324
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.neci.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Endowment: $336,943. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6000 per student. Total enrollment: 501. 229 applied, 78% were admitted. Full-time: 501 students, 32% women, 68% men. 72% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, interview, minimum TOEFL scores for foreign students. Required for some: 2 recommendations.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Comprehensive fee: $33,830 includes full-time tuition ($23,835), mandatory fees ($3430), and college room and board ($6565).

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling.

■ NORWICH UNIVERSITY G-5

158 Harmon Dr.
Northfield, VT 05663
Tel: (802)485-2000
Free: 800-468-6679
Admissions: (802)485-2013
Fax: (802)485-2580
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.norwich.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1819. Setting: 1,125-acre small town campus with easy access to Burlington. Endowment: $110.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $53,956. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4912 per student. Total enrollment: 2,707. Faculty: 272 (139 full-time, 133 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 1,472 applied, 91% were admitted. 8% from top 10% of their high school class, 20% from top quarter, 43% from top half. Students come from 41 states and territories, 10 other countries, 74% from out-of-state, 23% 25 or older, 84% live on campus. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Naval, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview, SAT Subject Tests. Required for some: essay, portfolio. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 11/15 for early decision. Notification: continuous, 12/15 for early decision.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 45 open to all. Most popular organizations: Rugby Club, National Eagle Scout Association, Mountain and Cold Weather Company, Outing Club, band. Major annual events: Regimental Ball Weekend, Junior Weekend, Homecoming/Alumni Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Kreitzberg Library with 280,000 books, 99,100 microform titles, 904 serials, 1,501 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $837,080. 142 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

A rural community in the central section of Vermont, Northfield is 11 miles south of Montpelier, the state capital. Rail, bus and air transportation is available. Recreational activities include skiing, hiking, bicycling, fishing, and hunting.

■ SAINT MICHAEL'S COLLEGE D-3

One Winooski Park
Colchester, VT 05439
Tel: (802)654-2000
Free: 800-762-8000
Admissions: (802)654-3000
Fax: (802)654-2242
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.smcvt.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1904. Setting: 440-acre small town campus with easy access to Montreal. Endowment: $60.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $176,209. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9018 per student. Total enrollment: 2,474. Faculty: 217 (150 full-time, 67 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 2,924 applied, 72% were admitted. 26% from top 10% of their high school class, 58% from top quarter, 88% from top half. 5 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,945 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 61 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 14 other countries, 77% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 2% 25 or older, 93% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 88% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; psychology; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study at Washington Semester. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 2/1, 11/1 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 12/31 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $35,505 includes full-time tuition ($28,280), mandatory fees ($235), and college room and board ($6990). Part-time tuition: $945 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 50 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Association, Mobilization of Volunteer Efforts (MOVE), student radio station, wilderness program, student newspaper. Major annual events: Family Weekend, Martin Luther King, Jr. Convocation, Spring Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, bicycle patrols. 1,827 college housing spaces available; 1,755 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Durick Library with 210,811 books, 123,970 microform titles, 1,533 serials, 8,044 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.4 million. 233 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN VERMONT COLLEGE P-3

982 Mansion Dr.
Bennington, VT 05201-6002
Tel: (802)442-5427
Free: 800-378-2782
Admissions: (802)447-6304
Fax: (802)447-4695
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.svc.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1926. Setting: 371-acre small town campus with easy access to Albany. Endowment: $1.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2920 per student. Total enrollment: 390. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 373 applied, 71% were admitted. 0% from top 10% of their high school class, 5% from top quarter, 35% from top half. Full-time: 323 students, 68% women, 32% men. Part-time: 67 students, 76% women, 24% men. Students come from 3 other countries, 58% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 4% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 29% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; security and protective services; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $21,317 includes full-time tuition ($14,373) and college room and board ($6944). College room only: $3230. Part-time tuition: $399 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 13 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Men's and Women's Rugby Club, Community Action Club, Mountaineer Cheerleaders, Madhatters Club (drama). Major annual events: Family Weekend, Holiday Dance, Awards Banquet. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 237 college housing spaces available; 208 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Southern Vermont College Library with 26,000 books, 80 microform titles, 250 serials, 500 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $132,878. 35 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Bennington College.

■ STERLING COLLEGE D-7

PO Box 72
Craftsbury Common, VT 05827-0072
Tel: (802)586-7711
Free: 800-648-3591
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sterlingcollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1958. Setting: 430-acre rural campus. Endowment: $640,859. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $41,038. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9235 per student. Total enrollment: 98. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 4:1. 55 applied, 65% were admitted. 0% from top 10% of their high school class, 0% from top quarter, 29% from top half. Full-time: 90 students, 32% women, 68% men. Part-time: 8 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 20 states and territories, 86% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 12% 25 or older, 77% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: natural resources/environmental science; agriculture; parks and recreation. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 12/15 for early action. Notification: continuous until 8/30, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $23,286 includes full-time tuition ($16,600), mandatory fees ($350), and college room and board ($6336). College room only: $2860. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $520 per credit. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organizations: Outing Club, Timbersports Team, Student Life Organization, Art Club. Major annual events: Contra Dances, Harvest Barbeque, May Day Festival. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols. 100 college housing spaces available; 71 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Brown Library plus 1 other with 10,000 books, 397 serials, 520 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $80,996. 15 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT E-3

Burlington, VT 05405
Tel: (802)656-3131
Admissions: (802)656-3370
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uvm.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1791. Setting: 425-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $261.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $101.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $18,670 per student. Total enrollment: 11,597. Faculty: 723 (560 full-time, 163 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 13,015 applied, 80% were admitted. 21% from top 10% of their high school class, 55% from top quarter, 91% from top half. 27 valedictorians. Full-time: 8,652 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 1,207 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 30 other countries, 63% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 5% 25 or older, 52% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 88% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; business/marketing; psychology. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: 2 recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 1/15, 11/1 for early action. Notification: 3/31, 12/15 for early action. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. State resident tuition: $9452 full-time, $394 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $23,638 full-time, $985 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1296 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $7332. College room only: $4936. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 100 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities; 7% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Volunteers in Action, Outing Club, club sports. Major annual events: Springfest, Homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,977 college housing spaces available; 3,900 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Bailey-Howe Library plus 3 others with 2.4 million books, 1.9 million microform titles, 20,216 serials, 36,531 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $10.3 million. 685 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Burlington is Vermont's largest city and, while the University is a significant resource, the city has many cultural, recreational, and social offerings. Burlington is a tourist and business center with a rich history and significant business development.

■ VERMONT TECHNICAL COLLEGE H-6

PO Box 500
Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500
Tel: (802)728-1000
Free: 800-442-VTC1
Admissions: (802)728-1244
Fax: (802)728-1390
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vtc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of Vermont State Colleges System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1866. Setting: 544-acre rural campus. Endowment: $4.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $130,612. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7268 per student. Total enrollment: 1,356. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 742 applied, 70% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 25% from top quarter, 75% from top half. 1 National Merit Scholar, 3 class presidents, 6 valedictorians, 40 student government officers. Full-time: 1,033 students, 37% women, 63% men. Part-time: 323 students, 49% women, 51% men. Students come from 12 states and territories, 20% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 32% 25 or older, 66% live on campus, 14% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering technologies; business/marketing; architecture. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, recommendations, interview, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview, SAT, SAT or ACT, nursing exam. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Area resident tuition: $7680 full-time. State resident tuition: $11,544 full-time, $320 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,640 full-time, $610 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $246 full-time, $50 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program. College room and board: $6674. College room only: $3974. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run radio station. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: ASVTC (student government), Hockey Club, student radio station, American Institute of Architecture Students, Golf Club. Major annual events: Fall Festival, Winter Carnival, Spring Fling. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 550 college housing spaces available; 540 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Hartness Library with 59,480 books, 5,920 microform titles, 1,156 serials, 4,122 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $663,127. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Randolph Center is a rural area, four miles from Randolph. A library, hospital, churches, shopping facilities, and several civic and service organizations serve the town. Outdoor sports include golf, fishing, hunting, skiing, ice skating, and tennis.

■ WOODBURY COLLEGE F-6

660 Elm St.
Montpelier, VT 05602
Tel: (802)229-0516
Fax: (802)229-2141
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.woodbury-college.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 8-acre small town campus. Endowment: $71,024. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4700 per student. Total enrollment: 138. Full-time: 99 students, 82% women, 18% men. Part-time: 39 students, 87% women, 13% men. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 2% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 90% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for mediation/conflict management program. Option: electronic application. Required: essay, interview. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual event: Community Meeting. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Woodbury College Library with 2,782 books and 2 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $12,000. 10 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-6

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-6

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

BENNINGTON COLLEGE

One College Dr.
Bennington, VT 05201
Tel: (802)442-5401
Free: 800-833-6845
Admissions: (802)440-4312
Fax: (802)447-4269
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bennington.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Elizabeth Coleman
Registrar: Rosemary Odell
Admissions: Ken Himmelman
Financial Aid: Meg Woolmington
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 12% ACT 18-23; 68% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 62 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 03 Application Fee: $60.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $41,890 includes full-time tuition ($32,700), mandatory fees ($870), and college room and board ($8320). College room only: $4460. Part-time tuition: $1050 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 567, PT 4, Grad 154 Faculty: FT 66, PT 24 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 69 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 98 Library Holdings: 128,413 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credits, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M & W; Basketball M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball M & W

BURLINGTON COLLEGE

95 North Ave.
Burlington, VT 05401-2998
Tel: (802)862-9616
Free: 800-862-9616
Fax: (802)658-0071
Web Site: http://www.burlcol.edu/
President/CEO: Mary Clancy
Registrar: Mira Shea
Admissions: Cathleen Sullivan
Financial Aid: Karen Lapan
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Tuition: $15,600 full-time, $515 per credit hour part-time. College room only: $4500. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 117, PT 124 Faculty: PT 68 Student-Faculty Ratio: 8:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 6 Library Holdings: 5,700 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

CASTLETON STATE COLLEGE

Castleton, VT 05735
Tel: (802)468-5611
Free: 800-639-8521
Admissions: (802)468-1213
Fax: (802)468-1476
Web Site: http://www.castleton.edu/
President/CEO: David Wolk
Registrar: Lori Patten
Admissions: Maurice Ouimet
Financial Aid: Audrey Reed
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Vermont State Colleges System Scores: 90% SAT V 400+; 90% SAT M 400+; 50% ACT 18-23; 20% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 79 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. One-time mandatory fee: $195. State resident tuition: $6648 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,376 full-time, $599 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $180 full-time. College room and board: $6942. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,684, PT 207, Grad 501 Faculty: FT 89, PT 112 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Library Holdings: 166,011 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 122 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: CSWE, JRCEPAT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Field Hockey W; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

CHAMPLAIN COLLEGE

PO Box 670
Burlington, VT 05402-0670
Tel: (802)860-2700
Free: 800-570-5858
Admissions: (802)860-2727
Fax: (802)862-2772
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.champlain.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Roger H. Perry
Registrar: Rebecca Peterson
Admissions: Dr. Mary Kay Kennedy
Financial Aid: David Myette
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed % Accepted: 64 Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $24,605 includes full-time tuition ($14,660), mandatory fees ($250), and college room and board ($9695). College room only: $5855. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $420 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,757, PT 715, Grad 57 Faculty: FT 68, PT 190 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 41 Library Holdings: 60,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: CARC, JRCERT

COLLEGE OF ST. JOSEPH

71 Clement Rd.
Rutland, VT 05701-3899
Tel: (802)773-5900
Web Site: http://www.csj.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Frank G. Miglorie, Jr.
Registrar: Patricia Miglorie
Financial Aid: Yvonne Payrits
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 87% SAT V 400+; 89% SAT M 400+; 100% ACT 18-23 % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $22,050 includes full-time tuition ($14,650), mandatory fees ($250), and college room and board ($7150). Part-time tuition: $245 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $45 per term. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 11, PT 57 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 91 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 31 Library Holdings: 75,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 127 credits, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W

COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF VERMONT

PO Box 120
Waterbury, VT 05676-0120
Tel: (802)241-3535
Admissions: (802)865-4422
Web Site: http://www.ccv.edu/
President/CEO: Timothy J. Donovan
Registrar: Nancy Severance
Admissions: Susan Henry
Financial Aid: Pam Chisholm
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Vermont State Colleges System Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $3912 full-time, $163 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7824 full-time, $326 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $50 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 0, PT 635 Exams: Other Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates

GODDARD COLLEGE

123 Pitkin Rd.
Plainfield, VT 05667-9432
Tel: (802)454-8311
Free: 800-906-8312
Fax: (802)454-1029
Web Site: http://www.goddard.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Mark Schulman
Registrar: Josh Castle
Admissions: Brenda Hawkins
Financial Aid: Beverly Jene
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed % Accepted: 92 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. Tuition: $9806 full-time. Mandatory fees: $900 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 165, Grad 395 Faculty: FT 2, PT 72 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 70 Library Holdings: 70,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors

GREEN MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

One College Circle
Poultney, VT 05764-1199
Tel: (802)287-8000
Free: 800-776-6675
Admissions: (802)287-8207
Fax: (802)287-8099
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.greenmtn.edu/
President/CEO: John F. Brennan
Registrar: Aleta Holden
Admissions: Joel Wincowski
Financial Aid: Wendy Ellis
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Church Scores: 88% SAT V 400+; 78% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 91 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $29,894 includes full-time tuition ($21,604), mandatory fees ($600), and college room and board ($7690). College room only: $4700. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $720 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 665, PT 31 Faculty: FT 41, PT 24 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 81 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 85 Library Holdings: 73,400 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Lacrosse M; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

JOHNSON STATE COLLEGE

337 College Hill
Johnson, VT 05656-9405
Tel: (802)635-2356
Free: 800-635-2356
Admissions: (802)635-1219
Fax: (802)635-1230
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.johnsonstatecollege.edu/
President/CEO: Barbara E. Murphy
Registrar: Manuela Mangiafico
Admissions: Penny P. Howrigan
Financial Aid: Penny Howrigan
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Vermont State Colleges System Scores: 86% SAT V 400+; 84% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 95 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $6722 full-time, $280 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,524 full-time, $605 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $184 full-time, $8 per credit part-time. College room and board: $6910. College room only: $6132. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,022, PT 544, Grad 258 Faculty: FT 54, PT 89 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 57 Library Holdings: 100,053 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Lacrosse M; Rugby M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

LANDMARK COLLEGE

River Rd. South
Putney, VT 05346
Tel: (802)387-4767
Admissions: (802)387-6716
Fax: (802)387-4779
Web Site: http://www.landmark.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lynda J. Katz
Registrar: Karen Damian
Admissions: Dale Herold
Financial Aid: Catherine Mullins
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 72 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $75.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $75. One-time mandatory fee: $1850. Comprehensive fee: $46,470 includes full-time tuition ($38,500), mandatory fees ($770), and college room and board ($7200). College room only: $3600. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 233, PT 138 Faculty: FT 95, PT 2 Student-Faculty Ratio: 4:1 Exams: Other % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 94 Library Holdings: 30,066 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Rock Climb-ing M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W

LYNDON STATE COLLEGE

PO Box 919
Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919
Tel: (802)626-6200
Free: 800-225-1998
Admissions: (802)626-6413
Fax: (802)626-6335
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lyndonstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Carol A. Moore
Registrar: Debra Hale
Admissions: Michelle McCaffrey
Financial Aid: Tanya Bradley
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Vermont State Colleges System Scores: 76.79% SAT V 400+; 73.5% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 94 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. State resident tuition: $6312 full-time, $263 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,632 full-time, $568 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $172 full-time, $8 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $6674. College room only: $3974. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,140, PT 133, Grad 46 Faculty: FT 59, PT 86 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Library Holdings: 109,629 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credit hours, Associates; 122 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Air Force Professional Accreditation: NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

MARLBORO COLLEGE

PO Box A, South Rd.
Marlboro, VT 05344
Tel: (802)257-4333
Free: 800-343-0049
Admissions: (802)258-9261
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.marlboro.edu/
President/CEO: Ellen McCulloch-Lovell
Registrar: Valerie Abrahamsen
Admissions: Alan E. Young
Financial Aid: Julie Richardson
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 95% SAT M 400+; 2% ACT 18-23; 13% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: February 15 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled applicants with curriculum documentation: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $35,980 includes full-time tuition ($26,940), mandatory fees ($850), and college room and board ($8190). College room only: $4540. Part-time tuition: $890 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 327, PT 13, Grad 29 Faculty: FT 36, PT 14 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 75 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 82 Library Holdings: 65,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Soccer M & W

MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE

Middlebury, VT 05753-6002
Tel: (802)443-5000
Admissions: (802)443-3000
Fax: (802)443-2056
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.middlebury.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ronald D. Liebowitz
Registrar: Kathryn Weiss
Admissions: Robert Clagett
Financial Aid: Robert Donaghey
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 1% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 24 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 01 Application Fee: $55.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $42,120. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: 4-1-4, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,420, PT 35 Faculty: FT 254, PT 46 Student-Faculty Ratio: 9:1 Exams: Other, SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 43 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 97 Library Holdings: 853,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 36 courses, Bachelors ROTC: Army Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Squash W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE

250 Main St.
Montpelier, VT 05602-9720
Tel: (802)223-6324; 877-223-6324
Fax: (802)223-0634
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.neci.edu/
President/CEO: Francis Voigt
Registrar: Susan Griswold
Admissions: Dawn Hayward
Financial Aid: Jim Hutton
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Comprehensive fee: $28,365 includes full-time tuition ($21,500), mandatory fees ($450), and college room and board ($6415). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level, program, and student level. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 606 Faculty: FT 68, PT 16 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Exams: SAT I % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 80 Library Holdings: 2,400 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 92 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE AT ESSEX

48 1/2 Park St.
Essex Junction, VT 05452
Tel: (802)872-3400
Admissions: (802)223-6324
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.neci.edu/
President/CEO: Francis Voigt
Admissions: Sherri Gilmore
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 78 Application Fee: $0.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Comprehensive fee: $33,830 includes full-time tuition ($23,835), mandatory fees ($3430), and college room and board ($6565). Calendar System: Quarter Enrollment: FT 501 Faculty: FT 65, PT 11 Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

NORWICH UNIVERSITY

158 Harmon Dr.
Northfield, VT 05663
Tel: (802)485-2000
Free: 800-468-6679
Admissions: (802)485-2013
Fax: (802)485-2580
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.norwich.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard Schneider
Registrar: Frances Burstein
Admissions: Karen McGrath
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 90% SAT V 400+; 89% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 91 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 139, PT 133 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 84 Library Holdings: 280,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABET, ACBSP, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Fencing M & W; Football M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M; Riflery M & W; Rugby M & W; Sailing M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W; Weight Lifting M & W; Wrestling M

SAINT MICHAEL'S COLLEGE

One Winooski Park
Colchester, VT 05439
Tel: (802)654-2000
Free: 800-762-8000
Admissions: (802)654-3000
Fax: (802)654-2242
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.smcvt.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Marc vanderHeyden
Registrar: John D. Sheehey
Admissions: Jerry E. Flanagan
Financial Aid: Nelberta Lunde
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 99% SAT M 400+; 44% ACT 18-23; 47% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 72 Admission Plans: Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: February 01 Application Fee: $45.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $35,505 includes full-time tuition ($28,280), mandatory fees ($235), and college room and board ($6990). Part-time tuition: $945 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,945, PT 61, Grad 468 Faculty: FT 150, PT 67 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 66 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 93 Library Holdings: 210,811 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

SOUTHERN VERMONT COLLEGE

982 Mansion Dr.
Bennington, VT 05201-6002
Tel: (802)442-5427
Free: 800-378-2782
Admissions: (802)447-6304
Fax: (802)447-4695
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.svc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Barbara P. Sirvis
Registrar: Adam Emerson
Admissions: Kathleen James
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 82% SAT V 400+; 69% SAT M 400+; 61% ACT 18-23; 15% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 71 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $21,317 includes full-time tuition ($14,373) and college room and board ($6944). College room only: $3230. Part-time tuition: $399 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 323, PT 67 Faculty: FT 21, PT 24 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Library Holdings: 26,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Rugby M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

STERLING COLLEGE

PO Box 72
Craftsbury Common, VT 05827-0072
Tel: (802)586-7711
Free: 800-648-3591
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sterlingcollege.edu/
President/CEO: John E. Williamson
Registrar: Laurie Laggner
Admissions: Gwyn Harris
Financial Aid: Barbara Stuart
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 65 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled students may submit a portfolio of educational and life experiences: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $23,286 includes full-time tuition ($16,600), mandatory fees ($350), and college room and board ($6336). College room only: $2860. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $520 per credit. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 90, PT 8 Faculty: FT 15, PT 30 Student-Faculty Ratio: 4:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 69 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 77 Library Holdings: 10,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT

Burlington, VT 05405
Tel: (802)656-3131
Admissions: (802)656-3370
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uvm.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Daniel M. Fogel
Registrar: Keith P. Williams
Admissions: Donald M. Honeman
Financial Aid: Donald M. Honeman
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 99% SAT M 400+; 35% ACT 18-23; 56% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 80 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 15 Application Fee: $45.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $45. State resident tuition: $9452 full-time, $394 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $23,638 full-time, $985 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1296 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $7332. College room only: $4936. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 8,652, PT 1,207, Grad 1,332 Faculty: FT 560, PT 163 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 57 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 52 Library Holdings: 2,410,250 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 122 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACA, ADA, APTA, APA, ASC, ASLHA, CSWE, JRCEPAT, JRCNMT, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NCATE, NLN, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Fencing M & W; Field Hockey W; Gymnastics M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M & W; Sailing M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Table Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball M & W; Water Polo M & W

VERMONT TECHNICAL COLLEGE

PO Box 500
Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500
Tel: (802)728-1000
Free: 800-442-VTC1
Admissions: (802)728-1244
Fax: (802)728-1390
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vtc.edu/
President/CEO: Allan S. Rodgers
Registrar: Michael Dempsey
Admissions: Dwight A. Cross
Financial Aid: Catherine McCullough
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Vermont State Colleges System Scores: 87% SAT V 400+; 93% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 70 Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Area resident tuition: $7680 full-time. State resident tuition: $11,544 full-time, $320 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,640 full-time, $610 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $246 full-time, $50 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program. College room and board: $6674. College room only: $3974. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,033, PT 323 Faculty: FT 78, PT 61 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 77 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 66 Library Holdings: 59,480 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 130 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball M & W

WOODBURY COLLEGE

660 Elm St.
Montpelier, VT 05602
Tel: (802)229-0516
Fax: (802)229-2141
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.woodbury-college.edu/
President/CEO: Lawrence H. Mandell, Esq
Registrar: Jody Maunsell
Admissions: Kathleen Moore
Financial Aid: Marcy Spaulding
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Trimester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 99, PT 39 Faculty: FT 15, PT 29 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 91 Library Holdings: 2,782 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-5

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-5

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

BENNINGTON COLLEGE

Acting, B

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, O

American Government and Politics (United States), B

American History (United States), B

American Literature (United States), B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, B

Anthropology, B

Architecture, B

Art Education, M

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Astronomy, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Chinese Language and Literature, B

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Computer Science, B

Creative Writing, B

Dance, BM

Design and Visual Communications, B

Directing and Theatrical Production, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Ecology, B

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English, M

English Composition, B

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

English Literature (British and Commonwealth), B

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Studies, B

European History, B

European Studies/Civilization, B

Evolutionary Biology, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, BM

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

French Language and Literature, BM

Gay/Lesbian Studies, B

History, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Intermedia/Multimedia, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

International/Global Studies, B

Italian Studies, B

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Jazz/Jazz Studies, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, M

Music, BM

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, M

Music Theory and Composition, B

Musicology and Ethnomusicology, B

Painting, B

Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, B

Philosophy, B

Photography, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Playwriting and Screenwriting, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Printmaking, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Sculpture, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

Theater, M

Theatre Literature, History and Criticism, B

Violin, Viola, Guitar and Other Stringed Instruments, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Voice and Opera, B

Women's Studies, B

Writing, M

Zoology/Animal Biology, B

BURLINGTON COLLEGE

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, B

Art/Art Studies, General, AB

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, AB

City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning, B

Comparative Literature, B

Film/Cinema Studies, AB

Human Services, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, AB

Interdisciplinary Studies, AB

Land Use Planning and Management/Development, B

Latin American Studies, B

Law and Legal Studies, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, B

Photographic and Film/Video Technology/Technician and Assistant, A

Psychology, B

Women's Studies, B

CASTLETON STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, B

American Literature (United States), B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Commerce, A

Chemistry, A

Comparative Literature, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Criminology, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Developmental and Child Psychology, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, MO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MO

Environmental Studies, B

Finance, B

Forensic Psychology, M

General Studies, A

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health and Physical Education, B

History, B

Journalism, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Sciences, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Psychology, BM

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Radio and Television, B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MO

CHAMPLAIN COLLEGE

Accounting, AB

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, AB

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business/Commerce, AB

Commercial and Advertising Art, AB

Communication and Media Studies, AB

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, AB

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Computer and Information Systems Security, AB

Computer Graphics, AB

Computer Software and Media Applications, B

Computer Software Engineering, B

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, AB

Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, AB

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, AB

Design and Visual Communications, AB

Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia, AB

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

Graphic Design, AB

Hospitality Administration/Management, AB

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, AB

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, AB

Human Services, AB

Information Science/Studies, AB

Intermedia/Multimedia, AB

International Business/Trade/Commerce, AB

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management of Technology, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, AB

Pre-Law Studies, B

Professional Studies, B

Public Relations, Advertising, and Applied Communication, AB

Public Relations/Image Management, AB

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, AB

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, AB

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, AB

System Administration/Administrator, B

System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager, AB

Technical and Business Writing, B

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, AB

Tourism and Travel Services Management, AB

Tourism and Travel Services Marketing Operations, AB

Tourism Promotion Operations, AB

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, AB

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, AB

COLLEGE OF ST. JOSEPH

Accounting, AB

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Clinical Psychology, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Community Psychology, M

Counseling Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Finance, B

History, B

Human Services, B

Information Science/Studies, AB

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Psychology, BM

Reading Teacher Education, M

School Psychology, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Special Education and Teaching, BM

COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF VERMONT

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Development, A

Community Organization and Advocacy, A

Computer Science, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Education, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Social Sciences, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

GODDARD COLLEGE

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Comparative and Interdisciplinary Arts, M

Counseling Psychology, M

Education, M

Environmental Studies, M

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Health Promotion, M

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, M

Interdisciplinary Studies, BM

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Nutritional Sciences, B

Writing, M

GREEN MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

Anthropology, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Arts Management, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Creative Writing, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Philosophy, B

Psychology, B

Resort Management, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

JOHNSON STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, AB

Acting, B

Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Medical Systems, B

Anthropology, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business/Commerce, B

Comparative Literature, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Creative Writing, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dance, B

Drama and Dance Teacher Education, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, BM

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Psychology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

General Studies, A

Health and Physical Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, AB

Jazz/Jazz Studies, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Management Information Systems and Services, AB

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, B

Painting, M

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Sculpture, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, A

Tourism and Travel Services Management, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

LANDMARK COLLEGE

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

LYNDON STATE COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, A

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Computer Science, A

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Education, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, A

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, AB

Health and Physical Education, B

Journalism, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Psychology, B

Radio and Television, B

Radio and Television Broadcasting Technology/Technician, A

Reading Teacher Education, BM

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

MARLBORO COLLEGE

African Studies, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anthropology, B

Applied Mathematics, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Astronomy, B

Astrophysics, B

Behavioral Sciences, B

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology, B

Central/Middle and Eastern European Studies, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Education, MO

Computer Science, BM

Creative Writing, B

Dance, B

Developmental and Child Psychology, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

East Asian Studies, B

Ecology, B

Economics, B

Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Studies, B

Ethnic and Cultural Studies, B

Ethnic, Cultural Minority, and Gender Studies, B

European Studies/Civilization, B

Experimental Psychology, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, M

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Economics, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Internet and Interactive Multimedia, M

Italian Language and Literature, B

Latin American Studies, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Linguistics, B

Management, M

Mathematics, B

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, B

Modern Greek Language and Literature, B

Modern Languages, B

Molecular Biology, B

Music, B

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, B

Natural Sciences, B

Philosophy, B

Photography, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Portuguese Language and Literature, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Romance Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Russian Studies, B

Sculpture, B

Social Sciences, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Women's Studies, B

MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE

American Literature (United States), B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Central/Middle and Eastern European Studies, B

Chemistry, B

Chinese Language and Literature, B

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Computer Science, B

Dance, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

East Asian Studies, B

Economics, B

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

European Studies/Civilization, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, BMD

Geography, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, BMD

History, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Italian Language and Literature, BMD

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Latin American Studies, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mathematics, B

Modern Languages, B

Molecular Biology, B

Music, B

Neuroscience, B

Philosophy, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Russian Language and Literature, BMD

Russian Studies, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, BMD

Women's Studies, B

NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE

Baking and Pastry Arts/Baker/Pastry Chef, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Restaurant, Culinary, and Catering Management/Manager, AB

NEW ENGLAND CULINARY INSTITUTE AT ESSEX

Baking and Pastry Arts/Baker/Pastry Chef, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, AB

NORWICH UNIVERSITY

Architecture, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemical Technology/Technician, B

Chemistry, B

Civil Engineering, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminology, M

Economics, B

Educational/Instructional Media Design, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Affairs, M

International Business/Trade/Commerce, M

International Relations and Affairs, B

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

SAINT MICHAEL'S COLLEGE

Accounting, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Art Education, O

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Chemistry, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Psychology, M

Computer Science, B

Curriculum and Instruction, MO

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, BMO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, MO

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English as a Second Language, MO

English Language and Literature, B

French Language and Literature, B

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Journalism, B

Mathematics, B

Modern Languages, B

Music, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Sciences, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MO

Theology and Religious Vocations, MO

SOUTHERN VERMONT COLLEGE

Business Administration and Management, AB

Child Development, A

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, B

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, AB

Human Services, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Pre-Law Studies, B

Psychology, B

STERLING COLLEGE

Administration of Special Education, B

Agricultural and Domestic Animals Services, AB

Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Breeding, AB

Agricultural Animal Breeding, AB

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Communication/Journalism, B

Agricultural Production Operations, AB

Agricultural Public Services, AB

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, AB

Agriculture, Agriculture Operations and Related Sciences, AB

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Animal Health, AB

Animal Nutrition, AB

Animal Sciences, AB

Animal Training, B

Animal/Livestock Husbandry and Production, AB

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, AB

Area, Ethnic, Cultural, and Gender Studies, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, AB

Canadian Studies, B

Conservation Biology, B

Crop Production, AB

Cultural Resource Management and Policy Analysis, B

Curriculum and Instruction, B

Dairy Husbandry and Production, AB

Dairy Science, B

Ecology, AB

Ecology, Evolution, Systematics and Population Biology, B

Education, B

Educational Leadership and Administration, B

Educational, Instructional, and Curriculum Supervision, B

Energy Management and Systems Technology/Technician, B

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Design/Architecture, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, B

Environmental Studies, AB

Equestrian/Equine Studies, B

Ethnic, Cultural Minority, and Gender Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, AB

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, B

Fishing and Fisheries Sciences and Management, AB

Forest Management/Forest Resources Management, AB

Forest Resources Production and Management, AB

Forest Sciences and Biology, AB

Forestry, AB

Greenhouse Operations and Management, AB

Horse Husbandry/Equine Science and Management, B

Horticultural Science, B

Intercultural/Multicultural and Diversity Studies, B

International Agriculture, B

International and Comparative Education, B

International/Global Studies, B

Land Use Planning and Management/Development, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Livestock Management, AB

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, AB

Natural Resources and Conservation, AB

Natural Resources Conservation and Research, AB

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, AB

Natural Sciences, AB

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management, AB

Plant Sciences, AB

Poultry Science, B

Range Science and Management, AB

Scandinavian Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social and Philosophical Foundations of Education, B

Soil Science and Agronomy, AB

Soil Sciences, AB

Solar Energy Technology/Technician, B

Systems Science and Theory, B

Waldorf/Steiner Teacher Education, B

Water, Wetlands, and Marine Resources Management, B

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, AB

Wildlife Biology, B

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, B

UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, MD

Allopathic Medicine, PO

Anatomy, DO

Ancient/Classical Greek Language and Literature, B

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, B

Applied Economics, BM

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Business Services, B

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, BMDO

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Engineering, M

Biophysics, MDO

Biostatistics, M

Botany/Plant Biology, BMD

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Canadian Studies, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MD

Chemistry, BMD

Child and Family Studies, M

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, BM

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, D

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, BMD

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Consumer Economics, M

Counseling Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dairy Husbandry and Production, B

Development Economics and International Development, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Economics, B

Education, BMD

Education/Teaching of Individuals in Early Childhood Special Education Programs, B

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, MD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

Engineering/Industrial Management, B

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Sciences, B

Environmental Studies, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

European Studies/Civilization, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, BM

Forestry, B

French Language and Literature, BM

Geography, B

Geology/Earth Science, BM

German Language and Literature, BM

Historic Preservation and Conservation, M

History, BM

Horticultural Science, MD

Industrial Engineering, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Italian Studies, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Latin American Studies, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Materials Sciences, MD

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Microbiology, MDO

Molecular Biology, BMD

Molecular Genetics, BMDO

Molecular Physiology, MDO

Movement Therapy and Movement Education, B

Music, B

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, BMD

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, MD

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, DO

Neuroscience, DO

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, BM

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, MO

Pharmacology, MDO

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, D

Physics, BM

Plant Sciences, BMD

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BD

Public Administration, M

Public Relations, Advertising, and Applied Communication, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Russian Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Work, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Statistics, BM

Wildlife Biology, B

Women's Studies, B

Zoology/Animal Biology, B

VERMONT TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Agribusiness, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Automotive Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, AB

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Computer Software Engineering, AB

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Construction Management, A

Dairy Science, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, B

Information Technology, B

Landscaping and Groundskeeping, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

WOODBURY COLLEGE

Community Psychology, AB

General Studies, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, AB

Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, A

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-4

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-4

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Charles Stander, Contact
Career and Workforce Development
State Office Bldg.
120 State St.
Montpelier, VT 05620-2501
(802)828-5136

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

The State Board of Education is the sole agency responsible for vocational education in Vermont. The State Board exercises final authority in determining policy, procedure, criteria, and controls federal funds for public vocational and technical programs. Private trade, technical, and business schools offering only certificate programs are not required to register with the State Department of Education. Aeronautical schools must register with the Vermont Agency of Transportation. Barber and cosmetology schools must register with the Secretary of State's office.

BENNINGTON

Vermont Technical College, Putnam Memorial School of Practical Nursing

150 Hospital Dr., Bennington, VT 05201. Nursing. Founded 1946. Contact: Patricia Menchini, Nursing Program Dir., (802)442-8811, Fax: (802)447-5218, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.vtc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: varies. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (10 Mo)

BRATTLEBORO

Vermont Technical College - Thompson/Brattleboro Campus

11 University Way, Ste. 7, Brattleboro, VT 05301-3669. Nursing. Founded 1907. Contact: Julia Williams, Site Director, (802)254-5570, (802)254-5516, 800-442-8821, Fax: (802)254-6356, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.vtc.vsc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $7,186/year in-state, $13,670/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 40. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (11 Mo); Nursing, R.N. (10 Mo)

BURLINGTON

Burlington Technical Center

52 Institute Rd., Burlington, VT 05401-2721. Trade and Technical. Contact: Mark Aliquo, Dir., (802)864-8436, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://burlingtontech.org; Sandy Simonds, Admissions Office, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,200. Degrees awarded: Certificate.

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

106 Rowell Bldg., Burlington, VT 05405. Allied Medical, Other. Founded 1791. Contact: Tacy Lincoln, (802)656-3858, Fax: (802)656-2191, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 475. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ADA; APTA; JRCERT; NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Laboratory Technology (4 Yr); Nuclear Medical Technology (4 Yr); Nursing, Practical (4 Yr); Physical Therapy Technology; Radiation Therapy Technology (4 Yr)

Fletcher Allen Health Care School of Cytotechnology

111 Colchester Ave., Burlington, VT 05401. Allied Medical. Founded 1970. Contact: Sandra Giroux, Program Dir., (802)847-5133, Fax: (802)847-3632, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.fahc.org/cytoschool. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $7,000 plus books. Enrollment: Total 7. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cytotechnology (1 Yr)

Vermont College of Cosmetology (Burlington)

187 Pearl St., Burlington, VT 05401. Cosmetology. Founded 1964. Contact: C.S. Sudol, Jr., (802)863-4666, 800-698-4661, Fax: (802)658-4297, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,500. Enrollment: men 1, women 46. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology

CASTLETON

Castleton State College

86 Seminary St., Castleton, VT 05735. Other. Founded 1787. Contact: Gary Rogers, Admissions, (802)468-5611, (802)468-1213, 800-639-8521, Fax: (802)468-5237, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.castleton.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $6,312/year in-state; $13,802/year out of state. Enrollment: Total 1,601. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Business Administration; Communications Technology; Computer Programming; Criminal Justice; Geology; Nursing, R.N.

CRAFTSBURY COMMON

Sterling College

PO Box 72, Craftsbury Common, VT 05827. Business. Founded 1958. Contact: Gwyn Harris, Dir. of Admissions, (802)586-7711, 800-648-3591, Fax: (802)586-2596, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sterlingcollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $15,834 including room and board. Enrollment: men 57, women 35. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Conservation & Environmental Science (1 Yr); Environmental Technology (1 Yr); Resource Management (2 Yr)

ESSEX JUNCTION

New England Culinary Institute At Essex

5 Franklin Street, Essex Junction, VT 05452. Contact: Francis Voigt, Chief executive officer, (802)223-6324, Web Site: http://www.neci.edu. Private. Housing available. Term: Other. Tuition: $20,995 in-state; $20,995 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 55.

HYDE PARK

Green Mountain Technology & Career Center

Rte. 15 West, Hyde Park, VT 05655. Trade and Technical. Contact: Michael S. Markarian, VP, Education Foundation, (802)888-4447, Web Site: http://www.nefi.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning (96 Hr); Gas Technology (80 Hr); Hazardous Waste Technology; Oil Heat Technology (4 Wk); Refrigeration Technology (4 Hr)

JOHNSON

Johnson State College

337 College Hill Rd., Johnson, VT 05656. Other. Founded 1828. Contact: Drew Farrell, Associate Dir. of Admissions, (802)635-2356, 800-635-2356, Fax: (802)635-2145, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.johnsonstatecollege.edu; Web Site: http://www.johnsonstatecollege.edu/contact/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $4,600/year in-state, $10,800/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 1,024. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Computer Business Systems Technology (2 Yr); Mathematics

MONTPELIER

New England Culinary Institute

250 Main St., Box 1255, Montpelier, VT 05602. Trade and Technical. Founded 1980. Contact: Sherri Gilmore, Dir. of Admissions, (802)223-6324, 877-223-6324, Fax: (802)223-3280, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.neci.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $20,285. Enrollment: men 443, women 198. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cooking, Commercial; Culinary Arts; Food Service & Management

Woodbury College

660 Elm St., Montpelier, VT 05602. Trade and Technical. Founded 1975. Contact: Kathleen Moore, Admissions Dir., (802)229-0516, 800-639-6039, Fax: (802)229-2141, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.woodbury-college.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: FY04-05 - $14,250. Enrollment: Total 160. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NEASC. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Human Services (1-4 Yr); Mediation (1 Yr); Paralegal (1-4 Yr)

PUTNEY

Landmark College

River Rd. South, Putney, VT 05346. Two-Year College. Contact: Lynda J. Katz, President, (802)387-4767, (802)387-6718, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.landmark.edu. Private. Coed. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $36,000 in-state; $36,000 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 88.

RANDOLPH CENTER

Vermont Technical College

PO Box 500, Randolph Center, VT 05061. Two-Year College, Other. Founded 1866. Contact: Linda Lucas, Academic Dean, (802)728-1245, 800-442-8821, Fax: (802)728-1390, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.vtc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $7,502/year in-state, $13,986/year out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 956. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agribusiness Technology (2 Yr); Architectural Technology (4 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Computer Engineering (2-4 Yr); Construction Management (2 Yr); Dairy Technology (2 Yr); E-Commerce (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Electro-Mechanical Technology (4 Yr); Electronic Engineering Technology (4 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Landscape Architecture (2 Yr); Management (4 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (1-2 Yr); Small Business Management (1 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr); Veterinary Technology (2 Yr)

RUTLAND

New England School of Radiologic Technology

160 Allen St., Rutland, VT 05701. Allied Medical. Founded 1952. Contact: Deborah A. Bazinet, R.T., B.S., (802)747-1712, Fax: (802)747-6200, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.rrmc.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $5,000. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

ST. ALBANS

National Distance Education Center

PO Box 846, St. Albans, VT 05478. Correspondence. Founded 1978. Contact: Janie Gregory, (802)524-2223, 800-493-4114, Fax: (802)524-2053, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dlilearn.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies with program. Enrollment: Total 35. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Bookkeeping; Medical Transcription; Paralegal; Pharmacy Technician; Secretarial, Automation; Secretarial, Legal

ST. JOHNSBURY

Community College of Vermont

1197 Main St., Ste. 3, St. Johnsbury, VT 05819-2240. Two-Year College. Contact: Liz Williams, Coordinator of Academic Services, (802)241-3535, Fax: (802)748-5014, Web Site: http://www.ccv.vsc.edu. Public. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,696 in-state; $7,392 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

SOUTH BURLINGTON

O'Brien's Training Center

1475 Shelburne Rd., South Burlington, VT 05403. Cosmetology. Founded 1965. Contact: Anne Orr, (802)658-9591, 888-658-9490, Fax: (802)860-0230, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Other. Tuition: $12,150 including materials. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (10 Mo); Manicurist (4 Wk)

WARREN

Sugarbush Soaring

Warren Sugarbush Airport, Box 123, Warren, VT 05674. Flight and Ground. (802)496-2290, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sugarbush.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Accreditation: FAA. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Glider Rating

WHITE RIVER JUNCTION

Hartford Career & Technical Center

1 Saunders Ave., White River Junction, VT 05001. Trade and Technical. Contact: Michael S. Markarian, VP, Education Foundation, (413)781-7822, Web Site: http://www.nefi.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning (96 Hr); Gas Technology (80 Hr); Hazardous Waste Technology; Oil Heat Technology (4 Wk); Refrigeration Technology (4 Hr)

WILLISTON

Vermont College of Cosmetology (Williston)

400 Cornerstone Dr., Ste. 220, Williston, VT 05495. Cosmetology. Contact: Rita Jutras, Dir., (802)879-4811, 800-698-4661, Fax: (802)879-8611, Web Site: http://www.vtcollegeofcosmo.com; Web Site: http://www.vtcollegeofcosmo.com/contactus.cfm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $3,600-$12,670 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 29. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Nail Technology (400 Hr)

Vermont Technical College Nursing Program

101 Lawrence Place, Williston, VT 05495. Nursing. Founded 1957. Contact: Peg Laughlin, Dir. of Nursing, (802)879-2323, Fax: (802)879-2327, Web Site: http://www.vtc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $9,000. Enrollment: Total 35. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nursing, Practical (46 Wk)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-3

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-3

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT

VERMONT , New England state, estimated population (2004), 621,394; estimated Jewish population, 5,500. Vermont was the 14th State of the Union, admitted in 1791. Although there were no known Jews living in Vermont until after George Washington's administration, there are documented instances prior to the American Revolution of Jews speculating in Vermont lands with no intention of settlement. The earliest known Jew to settle in Vermont was Joshua Vita Montefiore, a pamphleteer and author of several books on commercial law, who was an indigent uncle of Sir Moses *Montefiore. Settling in St. Albans, Vermont, in 1835, he continued to maintain some Jewish observances while raising his large family as Protestants. He died and was buried in St. Albans in 1845. After 1840 the large migration of German Jews to the United States seeped into northern Vermont to where there were few towns that did not have at least one Jew or Jewish family.

Shortly after the Civil War, a Jewish community was established in Poultney, Vermont. As a thriving center of the slate industry it had attracted Jewish merchants as well as transient peddlers seeking fellow Jews for minyanim (prayer quorums) and social opportunities. Poultney acquired Vermont's first Jewish cemetery in 1873 and supported a house of worship and a shoḥet. The Jewish community survived until circa 1906 when its Jewish population relocated to Rutland and provided the seedbed for the Rutland Jewish community.

In 1880 a concentration of Jewish families appeared in Burlington, Vermont, the largest city in the state, then a lumber center on the east shore of Lake Champlain. Weekly services were held in Burlington in rented quarters until 1885, when Congregation Ohavi Zedek was formally established and shortly thereafter a synagogue built. Burlington's rabbi was Israel *Rosenberg, who accepted the pulpit in 1909 and served as community rabbi, filling the pulpit of Burlington's three synagogues and building a Hebrew Free School. He left Burlington in 1911 to become the head of the Agudath Rabbonim in New York City. Vermont's longest tenured rabbi was Max Wall who came to Ohavi Zedek directly from military service in 1946 and served until his retirement in 1987. Under Rabbi Wall's guidance, the congregation evolved from largely Yiddish speaking to English speaking and built the synagogue building in which it is presently quartered.

Burlington remains the site of Vermont's largest Jewish community (3,000) with the conservative Ohavi Zadek the largest congregation closely followed by the Reform synagogue Temple Sinai. Burlington also boasts a highly visible Chabad movement. After 1905 Jewish congregations were organized in other communities. Although congregations in St. Albans and Newport no longer exist, Bennington, Brattleboro, Manchester, Rutland, Middlebury, St. Johnsbury, Stowe, Woodstock-Waitsfield, and Montpelier now boast organized Jewish communities. Other illustrations of an increased Jewish presence in the state include establishment of Jewish Lights, a publishing firm in Woodstock; a prominent Holocaust Studies program at the University of Vermont, which was the home for a generation of the preeminent scholar Raul *Hilberg; and the Rabbi Max Wall Lecture Series at St. Michael's College in Colchester. From 1985 to 1991 Madeleine *Kunin was the governor of Vermont, the first Jewish woman in the U.S. to hold such a position, and during the Clinton administration was ambassador to Switzerland during the dispute over Holocaust victim's bank accounts, when much to her amazement she found that the list of account holders included her grandfather.

bibliography:

B. Postal and L. Kappman, Jewish Tourist's Guide to the U.S. (1954), 615–9; L.M. Friedman, in: ajhsp, 40 (1950/51), 119–34; Myron Samuelson, The Story of the Jewish Community of Burlington Vermont (1976).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Vermonters

40 Bibliography

State of Vermont

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the French words vert (green) and mont (mountain).

NICKNAME : The Green Mountain State.

CAPITAL: Montpelier.

ENTERED UNION: 4 March 1791 (14th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: Bisecting Vermont’s golden seal is a row of wooded hills above the state name. The upper half has a spearhead, pine tree, cow, and two sheaves of wheat, while two more sheaves and the state motto fill the lower half.

FLAG: The coat of arms on a field of dark blue.

COAT OF ARMS: Rural Vermont is represented by a pine tree in the center, three sheaves of grain on the left, and a cow on the right, with a background of fields and mountains. A deer crests the shield. Below are crossed pine branches and the state name and motto.

MOTTO: Freedom and Unity.

SONG: “Hail Vermont.”

FLOWER: Red clover.

TREE: Sugar maple.

ANIMAL: Morgan horse.

BIRD: Hermit thrush.

FISH: Brook trout (cold water) and walleye pike (warm water).

INSECT: Honeybee.

BEVERAGE: Milk.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January;

Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Town Meeting Day, 1st Tuesday in March; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Bennington Battle Day, 16 August; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November and the day following; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Situated in the northeastern United States, Vermont is the second largest of the six New England states, and ranks 43rd in size among the 50 states. Vermont’s total area is 9,614 square miles (24,900 square kilometers), including 9,249 square miles (23,955 square kilometers) of land and 365 square miles (945 square kilometers) of inland water. Its maximum east–west extension is 90 miles (145 kilometers). Its maximum north–south extension is 158 miles (254 kilometers). Vermont’s total boundary length is 561 miles (903 kilometers). The state’s territory includes several islands and the lower part of a peninsula jutting south into Lake Champlain.

2 Topography

The Green Mountains are Vermont’s most prominent physical feature. Extending north–south from the Canadian border to the Massachusetts state line, the Green Mountains contain the highest peaks, including Mansfield at 4,393 feet (1,340 meters), the highest point in Vermont. A much lower range, the Taconic Mountains, straddles the New York–Vermont border for about 80 miles (129 kilometers). To the north is the narrow Valley of Vermont and farther north is the Champlain Valley, a lowland between Lake Champlain (site of the state’s lowest point, 95 feet/29 meters above sea level) and the Green Mountains. The Vermont piedmont is a narrow corridor of hills and valleys stretching to the east of the Green Mountains. The Northeast Highlands consist of an isolated series of peaks near the New Hampshire border.

Vermont’s major inland rivers are the Missisquoi, Lamoille, and Winooski. The state includes about 66% of Lake Champlain on its western border and about 25% of Lake Memphremagog on the northern border.

3 Climate

In Burlington, mean temperatures range from 18°f (-7°c) in January to 70°f (21°c) in July. Winters are generally colder and summer nights cooler in the higher elevations of the Green Mountains. The record high temperature for the state is 105°f (41°c), registered at Vernon

Vermont Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:623,908
Population change, 2000–06:2.5%
Hispanic or Latino†:0.9%
Population by race
One race:98.6%
White:96.6%
Black or African American:0.5%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.2%
Asian:1.1%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.0%
Some other race:0.2%
Two or more races:1.4%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Burlington38,531-0.9
Rutland17,046-1.4
South Burlington16,9937.5
Barre9,128-1.8
Essex Junction8,8412.9
Montpelier8,003-0.4
St. Albans7,476-2.3
Winooski6,353-3.2
Newport5,2074.0
Northfield3,157-1.6

on 4 July 1911. The record low, -50°f (-46°c), occurred at Bloomfield on 30 December 1933.

The average annual precipitation is 40 inches (102 centimeters). Annual snowfall ranges from 55 inches (140 centimeters) in the lowlands to 125 inches (254 and 318 centimeters) in the mountain areas.

4 Plants and Animals

Common trees of Vermont include the commercially important sugar maple (the state tree), ash, butternut, white pine, and the poplar. Other native plants include 15 types of conifer, 192 sedges, and 130 grasses. In 2006, two plant species, Jesup’s milk-vetch and Northeastern bulrush, were endangered.

Native mammals include coyote, red fox, and snowshoe hare. Characteristic birds include the raven and Canada jay. In 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed six animal species as threatened or endangered in Vermont, including the Indiana bat, dwarf wedgemussel, and bald eagle.

5 Environmental Protection

All natural resource regulation, planning, and operation are coordinated by the Department of Environmental Conservation. Several dams on the Winooski and Connecticut rivers help control flooding of the river basins. Legislation enacted in 1972 bans the use of throwaway beverage containers in Vermont, in an effort to

Vermont Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population608,827100.0
One race601,49298.8
Two races6,9381.1
White and Black or African American9220.2
White and American Indian/Alaska Native3,4840.6
White and Asian1,0610.2
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander75
White and some other race9430.2
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native97
Black or African American and Asian38
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander8
Black or African American and some other race69
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian21
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander2
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race55
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander29
Asian and some other race126
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race8
Three or more races3970.1

reduce roadside litter. Billboards were banned in 1968.

In 2003, Vermont had 56 hazardous waste sites listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database, 11 of which were on the National Priorities List in 2006. By some estimates as much as 35% of Vermont’s wetlands have been lost since colonization. As of 2002, about 4% of the state was designated as wetlands and the government had established the Vermont Wetlands Conservation Strategy.

6 Population

In 2006, Vermont ranked 49th among the 50 states in population with an estimated total of 623,908 residents. The population was projected to reach 703,288 by 2025. The median age in 2004 was 40.4 years. In 2005, about 13% of all residents were 65 or older while 22% were 18 or younger.

In 2005, the largest cities in Vermont were Burlington, Rutland, and Montpelier, all of which had less than 40,000 residents.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, there were 53,835 residents in Vermont reporting French Canadian ancestry. Italians make up 6.4% of the population. Hispanics and Latinos numbered 5,504, about 1% of the total. There were approximately 5,217 Asians, 3,063 black Americans, and 2,420 Native Americans. About 23,245 residents (3.8% of the population) were foreign born.

8 Languages

Vermont English, although typical of the Northern dialect, differs from that of New Hampshire in several respects, including retention of the final r and use of eavestrough in place of eavespout or gutters. In 2000, 94.1% of the population age five and over spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home and the number of speakers included French, 14,624, and Spanish, 5,791.

9 Religions

Congregationalists (now called the United Church of Christ) have played a dominant role in the state. In 2000, they were the largest Protestant denomination in the state, with 21,597 known adherents. Other major Protestant groups included the United Methodists, 19,000; Episcopalians, 9,163; and American Baptists, 8,352. The largest single religious organization in Vermont is the Roman Catholic Church, with 149,154 members in 2004. There is a small Jewish population estimated at 5,810 residents in 2000.

Vermont was the birthplace of both Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, founders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The state had 4,150 Mormons in 2006. Over 370,000 people (about 60.9% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization in 2000.

10 Transportation

In 2003, there were 562 rail miles (904 kilometers) of track operated by ten railroads. In 2006, Amtrak provided passenger service to 11 stations in the state.

There were 14,368 miles (23,132 kilometers) of public streets, roads, and highways in 2004. A total of approximately 540,000 motor vehicles were registered in 2004, when there were 550,462 licensed drivers.

In 2005, Vermont had 61 airports. Burlington International Airport is the state’s major air terminal.

11 History

Algonquian-speaking Abnaki settled along Lake Champlain and in the Connecticut Valley, and Mahican settled in the southern counties of what is now Vermont between 1200 and 1790. The region, however, had shown evidence of continuous habitation for the last 10,000 years. In 1609, Samuel de Champlain became the first European explorer of Vermont. From the mid-17th to the mid-18th centuries, there was regular traffic through the state and attempts at settlement by the French. Fort Dummer, built in 1724 near present-day Brattleboro, was the first permanent settlement.

Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire, claiming that his colony extended as far west as did Massachusetts and Connecticut, had granted 131 town charters in the territory by 1764. In that year, the crown declared that New York’s northeastern boundary was the Connecticut River. Owners of New Hampshire titles, fearful of losing their land, prevented New York from enforcing its jurisdiction. The Green Mountain Boys, organized by Ethan Allen in 1770–71, scared off the defenseless settlers under the New York title and scorned the New York courts.

Shortly after the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Ethan Allen’s Green Mountain Boys helped capture Fort Ticonderoga. There were several British raids on Vermont towns during the war. After the Revolution, most Vermonters wanted to join the United States, but members of the dominant Allen faction refused in order to protect their large landholdings. Vermont declared itself an independent republic with the name “New Connecticut.” Following the political defeat of Allen and his followers in 1789, Vermont sought statehood and was admitted to the Union on 4 March 1791.

State Development Vermonters of the next generation developed towns and villages with water-powered mills, charcoal-fired furnaces, general stores, newspapers, craft shops, churches, and schools. In the War of 1812, Vermont soldiers fought in the Battle of Plattsburgh, New York. The Mexican War (1846–48) was unpopular in the state, but Vermont, which had strongly opposed slavery, was an enthusiastic supporter of the Union during the Civil War.

The opening of the Champlain–Hudson Canal in 1823, and the building of the early railroad lines in 1846–53, made Vermont more vulnerable to competition from the West, destroying many small farms and businesses. Immigration by the Irish and French Canadians, however, soon stabilized the population and the expansion of light industry bolstered the economy.

During the 20th century and especially after World War II, manufacturing prospered in valley villages, and Vermont’s picturesque landscape began to attract city buyers of second homes. New highways made the cities and rural areas more accessible, and Vermont absorbed an influx of young professionals from New York and Massachusetts.

Longtime Vermonters enjoy their state’s natural beauty. As of 2000 Vermont was the nation’s most rural state. Two-thirds of Vermonters lived in towns with 2,500 people or less. In 1993 Vermont passed legislation barring smoking in all public buildings.

In 2003 former Vermont governor Howard Dean launched a campaign to become the Democratic candidate for president in the 2004 election. He failed to achieve that goal, but in 2005 was elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee.

12 State Government

The general assembly consists of a 150-member house of representatives and a 30-member senate. State elective officials include the governor, lieutenant governor (elected separately), treasurer, and secretary of state. All bills require a majority vote in each house for passage. Bills can be vetoed by the governor, and vetoes can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each legislative house.

The legislative salary as of December 2004 was $589 per week and the governor’s salary in 2002 was $133,162.

13 Political Parties

The Republican Party gained control of Vermont state offices in 1856 and kept it for more than

Vermont Governors: 1778–2007

Anti–Mason Democrat – Anti–Mason Dem
Democratic Republican – Dem-Rep
National Republican – Nat-Rep
1778–1789Thomas Chittenden
1789–1790Moses RobinsonDem-Rep
1790–1797Thomas Chittenden
1797Paul BrighamDem-Rep
1797–1807Isaac TichenorFederalist
1807–1808Israel SmithDem-Rep
1808–1809Isaac TichenorFederalist
1809–1913Jonas GalushaDem-Rep
1813–1815Martin ChittendenFederalist
1815–1820Jonas GalushaDem-Rep
1820–1823Richard SkinnerDem-Rep
1823–1826Cornelius P. Van NessDem-Rep
1826–1828Ezra ButlerDem-Rep
1828–1831Samuel Chandler CraftsNat-Rep
1831–1835William Adams PalmerAnti–Mason Dem
1835–1841Silas Hemenway JennisonWhig
1841–1843Charles PaineWhig
1843–1844John MattocksWhig
1844–1846William SladeWhig
1846–1848Horace EatonWhig
1848–1850Carlos CoolidgeWhig
1850–1852Charles Kilborn WilliamsWhig
1852–1853Erastus FairbanksWhig
1853–1854John Staniford RobinsonDemocrat
1854–1856Stephen RoyceWhig, Republican
1856–1858Ryland FletcherKnow Nothing
1858–1860Hiland HallRepublican
1860–1861Erastus FairbanksWhig
1861–1863Frederick HolbrookWhig Republican
1863–1865John Gregory SmithRepublican
1865–1867Paul Dillingham, Jr.Republican
1867–1869John Boardman PageRepublican
1869–1870Peter Thacher WashburnRepublican
1870George Whitman HendeeRepublican
1870–1872John Wolcott StewartRepublican
1872–1874Julius ConverseRepublican
1874–1876Asahel PeckRepublican
1876–1878Horace FairbanksRepublican
1878–1880Redfield Proctor, Sr.Republican
1880–1882Roswell FarnhamRepublican
1882–1884John Lester BarstowRepublican
1884–1886Samuel Everett PingreeRepublican
1886–1888Ebenezer Jolls OrmsbeeRepublican
1888–1890William Paul DillinghamRepublican
1890–1892Carroll Smalley PageRepublican
1892–1894Levi Knight FullerRepublican
1894–1896Urban Andrain WoodburyRepublican
1896–1898Josiah GroutRepublican
1898–1900Edward Curtis SmithRepublican
1900–1902William Wallace StickneyRepublican
1902–1904John Griffith McCulloughRepublican
1904–1906Charles James BellRepublican
1906–1908Fletcher Dutton ProctorRepublican
1908–1910George Herbert ProutyRepublican
1910–1912John Abner MeadRepublican
1912–1915Allen Miller FletcherRepublican
1915–1917Charles Winslow GatesRepublican
1917–1919Horace French GrahamRepublican
1919–1921Percival Wood ClementRepublican
1921–1923James HartnessRepublican
1923–1925Redfield Proctor, Jr.Republican
1925–1927Frankin Swift BillingsRepublican
1927–1931John Eliakim WeeksRepublican
1931–1935Stanley Calef WilsonRepublican
1935–1937Charles Manley SmithRepublican
1937–1941George David AikenRepublican
1941–1945William Henry WillsRepublican
1945–1947Mortimer Robinson ProctorRepublican
1947–1950Ernest William Gibson, Jr.Republican
1950–1951Harold John ArthurRepublican
1951–1955Lee Earl EmersonRepublican
1955–1959Joseph Blaine JohnsonRepublican
1959–1961Robert Theodore StaffordRepublican
1961–1963Frank Ray Keyser, Jr.Republican
1963–1969Philip Henderson HoffDemocrat
1969–1973Deane Chandler DavisRepublican
1973–1977Thomas Paul SalmonDemocrat
1977–1985Richard Arkwright SnellingRepublican
1985–1991Madeleine May KuninDemocrat
1991Richard Arkwright SnellingRepublican
1991–2002Howard Dean, MDDemocrat
2002–James DouglasRepublican

100 years. No Democrat was elected governor from 1853 until 1962.

In 2004 there were 419,000 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. Democrat Howard Dean was elected governor in 1992, and was reelected in 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000. (The state has no term limit for the office of governor.) Although Dean gained early support in his run for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2003, he withdrew from the race in early 2004. He later became the chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Republican James Douglas was elected governor of Vermont in 2002, and reelected in 2004 and 2006.

Following the 2006 midterm elections, Democrats controlled the state senate, with 23 seats out of 30. In the state house of representatives, the Democrats held 93 seats; the Republicans had 49; and Independents had 8 seats. Sixty women won election to the state legislature in 2006, or 33.3%. Democratic US Senator Patrick Leahy was elected to his sixth term in 2004. In 2001, Senator James Jeffords, after winning reelection in 2000 as a Republican, became an Independent. His move stunned the nation and shifted control of the evenly divided Senate to the Democrats. (In 2002, however, control of the Senate shifted to the Republicans.) Jeffords announced his retirement in 2005. In 2006, veteran Congressman Bernie Sanders, an Independent, ran for and won the seat in the US Senate vacated by Jeffords. He planned to caucus with the Democrats. Vermont’s delegation to the House of Representatives consisted of one Democrat, Peter Welch as of 2006.

Vermont has often shown its independence in national political elections. In 2000, the state gave 51% of the vote to Democratic nominee Al Gore and 41% to Republican George W. Bush. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 59% of the vote in Vermont to President Bush’s 39%.

14 Local Government

As of 2005, there were 14 counties, 47 municipal governments, and 237 townships in Vermont, as well as 288 public school districts and 152 special districts. County officers, operating out of shire towns (county seats), include the probate courts judge, county clerk, state’s attorney, and

Vermont Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR VERMONT WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
* Won US presidential election.
** Independent candidate Ross Perot received 65,991 votes in 1992 and 31,024 votes in 1996.
1948Dewey (R)45,55775,926
1952*Eisenhower (R)43,299109,717
1956*Eisenhower (R)42,540110,390
1960Nixon (R)69,18698,131
1964*Johnson (D)108,12754,942
1968*Nixon (R)70,25585,142
1972*Nixon (R)68,174117,149
1976Ford (R)77,798100,387
1980*Reagan (R)81,89194,598
1984*Reagan (R)95,730135,865
1988*Bush (R)115,775124,331
1992***Clinton (D)133,59288,122
1996***Clinton (D)137,98480,532
2000Gore (D)149,022119,775
2004Kerry (D)184,067121,180

treasurer. All cities have mayor-council systems. Towns are governed by selectmen; larger towns also have town managers. The town meeting remains an important part of government in the state.

15 Judicial System

Vermont’s highest court is the supreme court, which consists of a chief justice and four associate justices. Other courts include the superior and district courts. There are also 318 associate judges and 50 permissive associate judges. Crime rates in nearly every category are far below the national average. Vermont has no death penalty. As of 31 December 2004, a total of 1,968 prisoners were being held in Vermont’s state and federal prisons.

16 Migration

The earliest Vermont settlers were farmers from southern New England and New York. Most were of English descent although some Dutch settlers moved to Vermont from New York. French Canadians came beginning in the 1830s. As milling, quarrying, and mining grew during the 19th century, other Europeans arrived—small groups of Italians and Scots in Barre, and Poles, Swedes, Czechs, Russians, and Austrians in the Rutland quarry areas. Irish immigrants built the railroads in the mid-19th century. Steady out-migrations during the 19th and early 20th centuries kept population increases down.

Between 1990 and 1998, the state had net gains of 5,000 in domestic migration and 4,000 in international migration. In the period 2000–05, net international migration was 4,359 and net internal migration was 3,530, for a net gain of 7,889 people.

17 Economy

After World War II, agriculture was replaced by manufacturing and tourism as the backbone of the economy. Durable goods manufacturing (primarily electronics and machine parts), construction, wholesale and retail trade, and other service industries showed the largest growth in employment during the 1990s. Vermont’s economy was little impacted by the 2001 national recession, as the growth rate improved from 5.1% in 1998 to 5.7% in 2001.

In 2004, Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) was $21.92 billion, of which manufacturing accounted for $2.9 billion (13.4% of GSP), followed by the real estate sector at $2.7 billion (12.5% of GSP), and healthcare and social assistance at $2 billion (9.2% of GSP).

18 Income

In 2004, Vermont ranked 24th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $31,780 (the national average was $33,050). Vermont’s gross state product (GSP) in 2005 was $23 billion, lowest (51st) among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The median annual household income for 2002–04 was $45,692 compared to the national average of $44,473. For the period 2002–04, an estimated 8.8% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to 12.4% nationwide.

19 Industry

The value of shipped manufactured goods was $9.9 billion in 2004—a figure important to the state’s economy, though very small by national standards. Leading industry groups were electrical and electronic equipment, food products, printing and publishing, paper and allied products, fabricated metal products, and industrial machinery and equipment. Scales, machine tools, and electronic components are important manufactured items.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Vermont numbered 360,300, with approximately 12,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.3%, compared to the national average of 4.7%. In April 2006, 5.5% of the labor force was employed in construction; 11.9% in manufacturing; 19.5% in trade, transportation,

and public utilities; 4.2% in financial activities; 7.2% in professional and business services; 17.9% in education and health services; 10.6% in leisure and hospitality services; and 17.3% in government.

In 2005, 31,000 of Vermont’s 287,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions, representing 10.8% of those so employed. The national average was 12%.

21 Agriculture

Although Vermont is one of the nation’s most rural states, its agricultural income was only $561 million in 2005, 41st among the 50 states. More than 85% of the income came from livestock and livestock products, especially dairy products. The leading crops in 2004 were corn for silage, hay, and apples.

22 Domesticated Animals

The merino sheep and the Morgan horse (a breed developed in Vermont) were common sights on pastures more than a century ago, but today they have been for the most part replaced by dairy cattle. In 2003, Vermont dairy farms had around 149,000 milk cows that produced 2.64 billion pounds (1.2 billion kilograms) of milk. In 2005, the state had an estimated 275,000 cattle and calves, valued at $357.5 million.

23 Fishing

Sport fishermen can find ample species of trout, perch, walleye pike, bass, and pickerel in Vermont’s waters, many of which are stocked by the Department of Fish and Game. There are two national fish hatcheries in the state (Pittsford and White River). In 2004, the state issued 121,701 sport fishing licenses. There is very little commercial fishing.

24 Forestry

The Green Mountain State is covered by 4,628,000 acres (1,873,000 hectares) of forestland, which is 78% of the state’s total land area. Much of it is owned or leased by lumber companies. In 2004, lumber production totaled 183 million board feet.

The largest forest reserve in Vermont is the Green Mountain National Forest, with 391,862 acres (158,587 hectares) in 2005. It is managed by the US Forest Service.

25 Mining

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Vermont in 20031 was estimated to be $73 million. According to preliminary figures, the leading mineral commodity, in terms of value, was dimension stone ($29 million for 98,000 metric tons), which accounted for around 40% of the state’s total nonfuel mineral value. Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the other leading commodities produced. Nationally, the state ranked fourth in the production of dimension stone and third in talc. Granite is quarried near Barre and slate is found in the Southwest. The West Rutland–Proctor area has the world’s largest marble reserve, at the Danby quarry.

26 Energy and Power

Because of the state’s lack of fossil fuel resources, utility bills are higher in Vermont than in most states. During 2003, generating capability by the state’s electrical generating plants totaled 997,000 kilowatts, producing 6 billion kilowatt hours of power. More than 73.7% of all power was produced by the state’s Vermont Yankee power plant in Windham County. Hydroelectric plants produced 19.1% of all power, with other renewable power sources accounting for 6.7% of all power generated. In 2000, Vermont’s total per capita energy consumption was 270 million Btu (68 million kilocalories), ranking it 43rd among the 50 states.

27 Commerce

Wholesale sales totaled $1.6 billion in 2002; retail sales were $7.6 billion. Foreign exports of Vermont manufacturers were estimated at $4.2 billion for 2005.

28 Public Finance

The budgets for two fiscal years are submitted by the governor to the Vermont General Assembly for approval during its biennial session. The fiscal year runs from 1 July to 30 June.

The total revenues for 2004 were $4.3 billion. Expenditures were $3.9 billion. The highest general expenditures were for education ($1.48 billion), public welfare ($1.0 billion), and highways ($253 million). The total debt was $2.5 billion, or $4,085.57 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

In 2006, the Vermont’s personal income tax had the highest thresholds in the country. The five-bracket schedule ranged from 3.6% to 9.5%. Corporations are taxed at rates ranging from 7% to 8.9% The state sales and use tax rate is 6%, with basics, including food and medicines, exempted, and local sales taxes limited to 1%. The state also imposes a full array of excise taxes covering motor fuels, tobacco products, insurance premiums, public utilities, alcoholic beverages, parimutuels, and other selected items.

The state collected $2.24 billion in taxes in 2005, of which 33.2% came from state property taxes, 22.3% from individual income taxes, 20.8% from selective sales taxes, 13.9% from the general sales tax, 3.1% from corporate income taxes, and 6.7% from other taxes.

In October 2005, the infant mortality rate was 5.3 per 1,000 live births. The crude death rate in 2003 was 8.3 deaths per 1,000 people. Heart disease was the leading cause of death in 2005, at a rate of 222.2 per 100,000 population. In 2004, 19.9% of residents 18 years of age of Vermont smoked. The state’s HIV-related mortality rate was unavailable that year.

Vermont’s 14 community hospitals had approximately 1,500 beds in 2003. The average expense for community hospital care was $1,148 per inpatient day in 2003. In 2004, Vermont had 363 doctors per 100,000 residents, and 892 nurses per 100,000 residents in 2005. In 2004, about 10% of the population was uninsured.

31 Housing

As rustic farmhouses gradually disappear, modern units (many of them vacation homes for Vermonters and nonresidents) are being built to replace them. In 2004, there were an estimated 304,291 housing units in Vermont (one of the lowest housing stocks in the country), 249,590 of which were occupied; 73.3% were owner-occupied. About 66.3% of all units were single-family, detached homes. About 30% of all housing was built in 1939 or earlier. Fuel oil was the most common energy source for heating. It was estimated that 6,112 units lacked telephone service, 1,634 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 1,495 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.41 people.

In 2004, some 3,600 new privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $154,318. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,174. Renters paid a median of $674 per month.

32 Education

In 2004, 90.8% of Vermont residents age 25 and older were high school graduates and 34.2% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 100,000 in fall 2002 but was expected to drop to 85,000 by fall 2014. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $1.19 billion. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 12,218.

As of fall 2002, there were 36,537 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, Vermont had 27 degree-granting institutions. The state college system includes colleges at Castleton, Johnson, and Lyndonville; a technical college at Randolph Center; and the Community College of Vermont system with 12 branch campuses. The University of Vermont is a state-supported institution combining features of both a private and a state facility. Founded in 1791, it is the oldest higher educational institution in the state.

Notable private institutions include Bennington College, Champlain College, Landmark College (serving students with ADHD and learning disabilities), Marlboro College, and Norwich University, the oldest private military college in the United States. The School for International Training is the academic branch of the Experiment in International Living, a student exchange program. Other notable institutions include St. Michael’s College and Trinity College.

33 Arts

The Vermont State Crafts Centers at Frog Hollow (Middlebury), Burlington, and Manchester display the works of Vermont artisans. Marlboro College is the home of the summer Marlboro Music Festival, cofounded by famed pianist Rudolf Serkin, who directed the festival from 1952 to 1992. Among the summer theaters in the state are those at Dorset and Weston and the University of Vermont Shakespeare Festival. The Middlebury College Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference, founded in 1926, meets each August in Ripton.

The Flynn Center for the Performing Arts in Burlington serves as a major performance center for the area. It is home to the Lyric Stage, the Vermont Symphony Orchestra, the Vermont Stage Company, and the Burlington Discover Jazz Festival. Other musical performance and education venues include the Vermont Jazz Center in Brattleboro and the Vergennes Opera House, which presents concerts, films, dance and theater presentations, and various literary readings, as well as operas.

The Vermont Council on the Arts supports a number of programs with the help of state and federal funds. The Vermont Humanities Council supports literacy and history-related programs, as well as sponsoring annual Humanities Camps at schools throughout the state.

34 Libraries and Museums

During 2001, the state’s public libraries held 2.73 million volumes and had a combined circulation of 3.84 million. The largest academic library was at the University of Vermont (Burlington), with a book stock of over 1 million and 4,808 periodical subscriptions.

Vermont has 89 museums and more than 65 historic sites. Among them are the Bennington Museum, with its collection of Early American glass, pottery, furniture, and Grandma Moses paintings; and the Art Gallery–St. Johnsbury Athenaeum, featuring 19th-century American artists. The Shelburne Museum, housed in restored Early American buildings, contains collections of American primitives and Native American artifacts. The Vermont Museum, in Montpelier, features historical exhibits concerning Native Americans, the Revolutionary War, rural life, and railroads and industry. Old Constitution House in Windsor offers exhibits on Vermont history.

35 Communications

In 2004, about 95.9% of Vermont’s occupied households had telephones. In 2003, 65.5% of Vermont households had a computer and 58.1% had Internet access. In 2005, there were 5 major AM and 19 major FM radio stations, as well as 7 major television stations.

36 Press

In 2005, there were eight daily papers, and three Sunday papers in the state. The leading daily was the Burlington Free Press (48,524 mornings; 56,850 Sundays). Vermont Life magazine is published quarterly.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

With the building of the first ski slopes in the 1930s and the development of modern highways, tourism became a major industry in Vermont. In 2001, direct spending from about 13.9 million visitors totaled $2.84 billion. The tourism and travel industry supports 63,279 jobs (21% of all jobs in the state).

Summer and fall are the most popular seasons for visitors. Fall foliage trips account for about 28% of all travel. In the winter, the state’s ski areas offer some of the finest skiing in the East. There are 52 state parks and over 100 campgrounds in the state. Historical sites, including several Revolutionary War battlefields, are popular attractions but shopping, particularly for Vermont-made products such as maple syrup, is a major activity for all visitors.

38 Sports

Vermont has no major league professional sports teams. Skiing is, perhaps, the most popular participation sport. Vermont ski areas have hosted national and international ski competitions in both Alpine and Nordic events. World Cup races have been run at Stratton Mountain and the national cross country championships have been held near Putney.

39 Famous Vermonters

Two US presidents, both of whom assumed office on the death of their predecessors, were born in Vermont. Chester Alan Arthur (1829–1886) became the 21st president after James A. Garfield’s assassination in 1881 and finished Garfield’s term. Calvin Coolidge (1872–1933), 28th president, became president on the death of Warren G. Harding in 1923 and was elected to a full term in 1924.

Important state leaders were Ethan Allen (1738–1789), a frontier folk hero and leader of the Green Mountain Boys; and Ira Allen (1751–1814), the brother of Ethan, who led the fight for statehood.

Vermont’s many entrepreneurs and inventors include plow and tractor manufacturer John Deere (1804–1886); and Elisha G. Otis (1811–1861), inventor of a steam elevator.

Robert Frost (b.California, 1874–1963) maintained a summer home near Ripton, where he helped found Middlebury College’s Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference. In 1992, Louise Gluck (b.1943) became the first Vermont woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for poetry.

Skiers Billy Kidd (b.1943) and Andrea Mead Lawrence (b.1932), both Olympic medalists, grew up in Vermont and trained in the state.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. Vermont. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

Elish, Dan. Vermont. 2nd ed. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006.

Feeney, Kathy. Vermont Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Heinrichs, Ann. Vermont. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2004.

Murray, Julie. Vermont. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

WEB SITES

State of Vermont. Vermont.gov: The Official Portal of Vermont. www.vermont.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

Vermont Department of Tourism and Marketing. Vermont Vacation.com www.travel-vermont.com (accessed March 1, 2007).

Visit New England. Vermont. www.visit-vermont.com (accessed March 1, 2007).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, 5th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, 5th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, 5th ed.. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

Vermont entered the Union on March 4, 1791, as the fourteenth state. Located in New England, in the northeastern United States, Vermont is bordered by Canada, New Hampshire, Massachusetts , and New York . With a total area of 9,614 square miles (24,900 square kilometers), in size it ranks forty-third of the fifty states. It is the second-least-populous state, after Wyoming .

The Abenaki and Iroquois tribes once inhabited the area that is now Vermont. The first European explorer to visit the region was the French Samuel de Champlain (c.1567–1635), in 1609. He discovered the lake later named Lake Champlain. France claimed Vermont, establishing forts and settlements. The British established their first permanent settlement near present-day Brattleboro in 1724. Following France's loss to Britain in the French and Indian War (1754–63), Britain took control of Vermont.

The British attacked several Vermont towns during the American Revolution (1775–83). The American patriot Ethan Allen (1738–1789) and his militia, the Green Mountain Boys, captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775.

Vermont was home to small farms and businesses in those early days. Once the Champlain-Hudson Canal was built in 1823, the state was vulnerable to competition from the west. After World War II (1939–45), manufacturing prospered as highway systems made the rural areas more accessible. Vermont experienced an influx of young professionals from New York and Massachusetts.

In spite of development, Vermont was the nation's most rural state even at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of its residents lived in towns of 2,500 people or fewer. The state capital is Montpelier, and its largest city is Burlington.

Vermont's total population in 2006 was 623,908, 43 percent of which were aged forty-five and older. Nearly 97 percent of the population was white.

Even as the nation's most rural state, Vermont ranked forty-first among the fifty states in terms of agricultural income in 2005. The economy relied on manufacturing for its stability, as well as industries such as electrical and electronic equipment, food products, and printing and publishing. It is the nation's leading producer of maple syrup.

Tourism is a major industry for Vermont as well, with ski resorts and historical sites major attractions. About 28 percent of all travel to the state takes place in autumn, when visitors can enjoy the brilliant colors of fall foliage. Vermont is home to fifty-two state parks and more than one hundred campgrounds.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-2

"Vermont." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-2

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-2

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-2

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

Freedom and unity.

At a Glance

Name: Vermont is a combination of the French words vert and mont, which mean "green" and "mountain."

Nickname: Green Mountain State

Capital: Montpelier

Size: 9,615 sq. mi. (24,903 sq km)

Population: 608,827

Statehood: Vermont became the 14th state on March 4, 1791.

Electoral votes: 3 (2004)

U.S. representatives: 1 (until 2003)

State tree: sugar maple

State flower: red clover

State bird: hermit thrush

Highest point: Mount Mansfield, 4,393 ft. (1,339 m)

The Place

Although Vermont is the only New England state without a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, about half of Vermont is bordered by water. The Connecticut River forms Vermont's eastern border, and Lake Champlain, the largest lake in New England, forms much of Vermont's western border. Several islands in Lake Champlain are part of Vermont, and the valley that surrounds the lake has some of Vermont's richest farmland.

The Green Mountains, located in the center of the state, have deposits of granite, marble, slate, and talc. Vermont's tallest peaks are in the Green Mountains. Northeastern Vermont has mountains made of granite, and southwestern Vermont is covered by a small extension of the Taconic Mountains, which extend into Massachusetts.

About three-quarters of Vermont's land is forested. The climate is cold, with short, cool summers and long, snowy winters. Vermont's mountains are usually cooler and receive more snow than the rest of the state.

The Past

Before the arrival of white settlers, Vermont was the home of several tribes of Algonquian and Iroquois, who fought with each other for control of the region. In 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain was the first European to reach present-day Vermont. In 1690, Jacobus de Warm and troops of British soldiers established a fort at Chimney Point, near Middlebury. Vermont's location, between the French colonies in present-day Canada and England's American colonies, made it an important strategic point. English colonists from Massachusetts moved into the Vermont region in 1724 and built Fort Dummer to guard Massachusetts from French and Native American attacks.

Vermont: Facts and Firsts

  1. Vermont, which was once part of New Hampshire and New York, was the first state admitted to the Union after the original 13 colonies.
  2. Montpelier, with a population of less than 9,000 people, is the smallest state capital in the United States. It is also the only capital without a McDonald's restaurant.
  3. Vermont produces nearly 3 billion pounds of milk annually.
  4. During the 1890s, writer Rudyard Kipling lived in Vermont.
  5. Vermont produces more maple syrup, monument granite, and marble than any other state.

In the mid-1770s, during the French and Indian Wars, the French and their Native American allies were defeated, and the English took firm control of Vermont. Both New York and New Hampshire fought for the right to settle Vermont, but in 1775, the Revolutionary War broke out and settlers from both states joined forces to fight the English.

During the war, Vermont's Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen, were a strong fighting force. After the Revolution, Vermont was an independent republic called New Connecticut. In 1791, the area was admitted to the Union as the 14th state.

A canal built in 1823 connected Lake Champlain with the Hudson River in New York. Vermont farmers quickly became rich raising sheep and shipping their wool all over the country. After the Civil War, however, Vermont's agriculture declined as farmers left to settle farming territories in the Midwest or to work in city factories.

During the late 1800s, industry expanded, and Burlington developed into an important port city where lumber from Canada was shipped to the West. Tourism also flourished as resorts and vacation camps were built. In 1911, Vermont became the first state to have an official bureau of tourism.

Vermont: State Smart

Vermont is home to the oldest coral reef in the United States. It was left behind by a shallow sea more than 480 million years ago, when North America was still close to the equator.

Vermont's industry grew even more during World War II, as factories produced supplies for the U.S. military. Several small corporations moved into Vermont after the war, and the 1950s and 1960s were a time of industrial and urban expansion. Tourism continued to be extremely important to the state's economy.

Many Vermonters were concerned about the growth of manufacturing and tourist activities in the state; they wanted to maintain Vermont's rural identity. In 1970, Vermont passed one of the first laws that allowed a state's government to prevent industrial and tourist development.

The Present

Vermont's government has worked to preserve Vermont's natural beauty and rural character. Today, Vermont has the third-smallest population in the United States, larger than only Alaska and Wyoming. It has the smallest percentage of people living in cities, because much of Vermont's economy depends on agriculture.

Tourism is centered in the Green Mountains region, which attracts millions of vacationers from New York and the other New England states annually. Service industries, which supply health care, dining, and hotel accommodations to visitors, contribute significantly to Vermont's economy.

Vermont residents disagree on how much of Vermont should be opened to new businesses and industries. Some Vermonters have urged the state to allow new business development, and growth of Vermont's manufacturing industries has resulted. The IBM Corporation, which produces computers and electrical equipment, has a large factory in Burlington. Other factories make batteries, ovens, transformers, books, newspapers, metal products, and machine tools.

Born in Vermont

  1. Chester A. Arthur , U.S. president
  2. Orson Bean (Dallas Frederick Burrows) , actor
  3. Calvin Coolidge , U.S. president
  4. George Dewey , admiral
  5. John Dewey , philosopher and educator
  6. Stephen A. Douglas , politician
  7. James Fisk , financial speculator
  8. Richard Morris Hunt , architect
  9. William Morris Hunt , artist
  10. Elisha Otis , inventor
  11. Joseph Smith , religious leader
  12. Henry Wells , pioneer expressman
  13. Brigham Young , religious leader

Attempts to retain Vermont's rural character have also been successful. The state is famous for agricultural products, especially maple syrup, and dairy products such as cheddar cheese and ice cream.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Blackbirch Kid's Visual Reference of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Blackbirch Kid's Visual Reference of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Blackbirch Kid's Visual Reference of the United States. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

VERMONT

Upon achieving statehood in 1791, Vermont became the first addition to the original thirteen states. Objections from New York prevented Vermont's admission to the Union until then. Vermont originated in resistance to the authority of colonial New York. By the time of its admission to the Union, Vermont was riven by the deep ideological and political divisions that characterized it through the 1820s.

In the mid-eighteenth century, the colonial governments of New Hampshire and New York issued competing land grants to the territory that became Vermont. The French and Indian War (1754–1763) eliminated the western Abenaki, an Algonquianspeaking group, as an obstacle to white settlement. Despite a ruling by the Privy Council in London in 1764 that appeared to invalidate New Hampshire's grants, migrants acting on them arrived in increasing numbers during the 1760s. Resistance to New York's jurisdiction was strongest in western Vermont, which was largely settled by farmers from western New England and the Hudson River valley. These settlers were a mix of devout New Lights, veterans of earlier Hudson Valley "rent wars," and deistic political radicals such as Ethan Allen and Matthew Lyon. The southwestern town of Bennington was the base for the informal militia known as the Green Mountain Boys, which harassed New York officials and grant holders.

Increasing cooperation between Vermont's eastern and western areas made possible Vermont's declaration of independence in 1777. Because Congress rejected Vermont's request for admission as a state, it spent the war delicately situated between the United States and British Canada. Meanwhile, Vermont adopted a radical constitution in 1777 that, among other provisions, abolished slavery, making Vermont the first political entity in North America to do so. At the time, African Americans constituted less than 1 percent of Vermont's population.

Vermont remained reluctantly independent until 1791, a fragile experiment in republican government operated by common men. The most important political figure in the state's early history was Thomas Chittenden, a farmer with limited education who advocated Jeffersonian principles. Chittenden was governor, with the exception of one year, from 1778 to 1797. Vermont's survival was threatened in the 1780s, on the one hand by mob actions of discontented farmers, and on the other by arriving gentry harboring contempt for democracy. Vermont's survival was not fully assured until New York dropped its objections to Vermont's admission in return for a payment of thirty thousand dollars.

Vermont's population grew faster than any other state's in the 1790s, increasing from 85,341 in 1790 to 154,465 in 1800. Most migrants came from New England, with a scattering of Irish and French Canadians in its northern reaches. By then Vermont state politics were bitterly divided, with Federalists achieving a tenuous supremacy after 1800. Towns and communities across the state were similarly the scenes of clashes between Jeffersonian and Federalist principles and parties. Dissension between the two worldviews, which played out in such areas of life as theology, educational policy, and commercial practices, deepened and took on new dimensions with the opening of the Champlain Canal in 1823. The canal dramatically altered Vermont's economy, redirecting it to the south and demanding greater market participation. This "market revolution" ended the early phases of Vermont's history, with the state's population rising to 280,652 by 1830.

See alsoDemocratic Republicans; Federalist Party; Transportation: Canals and Waterways .

bibliography

Shalhope, Robert E. Bennington and the Green Mountain Boys: The Emergence of Liberal Democracy in Vermont, 1760–1850. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Sherman, Michael, Gene Sessions, and P. Jeffrey Potash. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Barre: Vermont Historical Society, 2004.

Paul Searls

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-1

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-1

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-0

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont

"Vermont." College Blue Book. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

VERMONT. Vermont was a largely unsurveyed wilderness in the mid-eighteenth century, except for Fort Dummer in the southeast and some Abenaki villages to the north. The area was claimed by New York, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, but none of these provinces seemed interested in settling the region, even after New Hampshire's Governor Benning Wentworth granted a patent for a township in 1749, which he named Bennington in his own honor. By 1764, over the strenuous objections of New York's government, Wentworth had issued the rights to 129 townships west of the Connecticut River, and settlement had begun in what became known as the New Hampshire Grants. That same year the king issued a royal proclamation setting the Connecticut River as the border between New Hampshire and New York, thereby officially voiding the existence of all the Grants towns. New York immediately began carving the region up into large land grants shared among the province's leading families. In 1770 the Green Mountain Boys under Ethan Allen started resisting the civil power of New York. Royal Governor William Tryon and then Patriot Governor George Clinton opposed the Grants' claims to sovereignty, but without success. General Philip Schuyler of New York sided with his government, which was one of the reasons why New Englanders resented being under his command during the Revolution. In 1777 the Grants declared independence, becoming the state of Vermont. New York consistently opposed the new state, with Governor Clinton twice threatening to abandon the Revolution if Congress recognized Vermont. In 1790 New York formally relinquished claim to the region, and in 1791 Vermont became the fourteenth state.

SEE ALSO Allen, Ethan; Skene, Philip; Tryon, William.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bellesiles, Michael A. Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

                              revised by Michael Bellesiles

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-0

"Vermont." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Vermont

Vermont

Allen (Ethan) Farm Site and Grave
American Precision Museum
Bennington
Button Mold Bay and Arnold Bay
Chimney Point
Crown Point Military Road
Fort Drummer
Hands Cove
Hubbardton Battlefield
Hyde Log Cabin
Isle La Motte
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum
Montpelier
Mount Independence Site
Old Constitution House
Royalton Raid Site

The region that became the fourteenth state in 1791 was a battlefield of conflicting land claims during the colonial and Revolutionary War periods. New York fought to maintain possession of the New Hampshire Grants, not giving up until 1789. And local leaders, notably Ethan Allen and his brother Ira, engaged in highly questionable negotiations with British authorities in Canada to secure Vermont's survival. The American Revolution in Vermont was therefore a matter of continuing the struggle for local independence against New York while participating in the war against the British. Vermonters revealed considerably more aptitude in the former arena. After their capture of Fort Ticonderoga, New York, the Green Mountain Boys fell far short of distinguishing themselves in the invasion of Canada and in their subsequent rear-guard action at Hubbardton (see hubbardton battlefield). The latter was the only battle of the Revolution in Vermont, though there were a number of skirmishes. The Vermonters succeeded at securing a fragile truce on the northern frontier in the last four years of the war and in producing the most democratic constitution of its age, the first to establish universal male suffrage and to end slavery.

The Battle of Bennington took place in New York, and credit for the victory is appropriately shared with New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The town of Bennington figured conspicuously in the strategy of the campaign, the Vermont militia played an active role in the battle, and Seth Warner arrived with his Green Mountain Regiment to clinch the victory. It is no poor reflection on the Green Mountain State that it was too thinly populated during the Revolution (approximately thirty thousand people in 1780) to play a central role in the winning of American independence.

Because so much of Vermont's natural beauty remains unspoiled, however, visiting its few historic landmarks of the colonial and Revolutionary periods is exceptionally enjoyable. There are great opportunities for boaters, campers, and hikers who are willing to do their historical homework in advance. You can see the Hubbardton Battlefield from a car seat, but the Crown Point Military Road and the sites along the Vermont shore of Lake Champlain from Button Mold Bay to Chimney Point offer highly rewarding opportunities for outdoorsmen and -women.

A good starting place for information on Vermont's Revolutionary War history is the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation. A branch of the Department of Housing and Community Affairs, this state-operated agency is located in the National Life Building at 6 National Life Drive in Montpelier. (Mailing address: Drawer 20, Montpelier, Vt. 05602.) Phone: (802) 828-3211. The department demonstrates Vermont's commitment to its rich past by offering particulars on a wide range of themes, including a series of historical enrichment programs that cover Revolutionary War topics. The Vermont Historical Society's main office and library are located at 60 Washington Street, Barre, Vt. 05641. Website: www.vermonthistory.org; phone: (802) 479-8500. Its museum is located in the Pavilion Building at 109 State Street in Montpelier. Phone: (802) 828-2291. Both are excellent sources for the history of Vermont in the Revolutionary period.

Allen (Ethan) Farm Site and Grave

Allen (Ethan) Farm Site and Grave, Burlington, Lake Champlain, Chittenden County. Vermont's largest city is Burlington, an industrial and communications center of nearly 40,000 people. Burlington was chartered in 1763 but not permanently settled until 1783. The armed schooner Liberty, which figured prominently in Revolutionary War events on Lake Champlain, was built on the Winooski River at Burlington in 1772. Settlers arrived the next year, but most of them left in 1775 to join Ethan Allen's Green Mountain Boys, and most of the rest retreated with Patriot forces before the British counter-offensive of 1776 from Canada. The pioneers returned in 1783 to establish the present city.

Ethan Allen and his brother Ira were landowners in the adjacent town of Colchester. Ethan Allen died (1789) only two years after permanently establishing his home in the latter town. A granite shaft, a statue representation of Allen, was erected in 1855 near his grave in Green Mountain Cemetery on Colchester Avenue. Winooski Park, on Vt. Route 127 about 2.5 miles from the center of Burlington, includes the farmhouse that he had built for his second wife, Fanny, in 1785. It is the place of Allen's death. The site is now the Ethan Allen Homestead Museum. Open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and Sunday, 1 to 4 p.m. Phone (802) 865-4556. A stone tower offers commanding panoramic views of the area from the bluff on which Ethan Allen Park is located.

A helpful online source for this listing is www.historiclakes.org. Another pertinent historical authority is the Chittenden County Historical Society. Phone: (802) 658-1047. The Society has published a three-volume set, Historic Guide to Burlington Neighborhoods.

American Precision Museum

American Precision Museum, Windsor. An unusual museum located in the original Robbins and Lawrence Armory, this museum has historic guns and machinery on display. Open daily late May through October, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Take Exit 9 off I-91 and turn left onto Route 5, which becomes Windsor's Main Street. The museum is at 196 Main Street. Phone: (802) 674-5781.

Bennington

Bennington and vicinity, Bennington County. The Bennington Battlefield is in New York, but in and around the present town of Bennington, Vermont, are several significant landmarks associated with that important Patriot victory. Other sites pertain to Vermont history before and after the Revolution.

The Bennington Battle Monument is classified among the "Sites Also Noted" by the National Survey of 1964. It stands on a hill in Old Bennington where the Patriots had erected a small building that was the objective of the British raiders who came to grief in the Battle of Bennington. When built in 1887 to 1891, the 306-foot granite obelisk was the tallest battle monument in the world, and three states are viewable from its observation deck. Elevator service has been added, and the upper lookout chamber provides a beautiful view over country mostly unspoiled by modern development. An excellent diorama of the battle is in the base of the monument, near the door to the elevator. The road (Monument Avenue) leading to the monument from Vt. 9 is lined by handsome houses on large lots. On the northeast corner of Monument Avenue and Vt. 9 is a polished granite pedestal topped by a large bronze statue of an animal that is supposed to pass for a catamount, Vermont's extinct state animal (the last of which is stuffed in the Vermont Historical Society's Museum on State Street). It marks the site—45 feet to the east—of the Catamount Tavern. In this structure, built about 1769 and destroyed by fire in 1871, the local Council of Safety held its meetings (1777–1778), and Ethan Allen met with the Green Mountain Boys to plan their skirmishes with New York authorities (1770–1781) and their capture of Fort Ticonderoga (1775). Known simply as Landlord (Stephen) Fay's House, later as the Green Mountain Tavern, it was not called Catamount Tavern until about the time of the Civil War, after it had long been converted to a private residence.

North of the battle monument, directly across from the granite monument to Seth Warner, is a bronze statue of General Stark. The statue, designed in 1889 by American sculptor Jon Rogers, portrays the general in an aggressive fighting pose. The statue was donated and erected in 2000.

Old First Church, "Vermont's Colonial Shrine," is on Monument Avenue (Vt. 9) a short distance southeast of the Catamount Tavern marker. The present structure (1805), one of the most beautiful in New England, is on the site of the first meetinghouse in which the territory's first church was organized. To the rear are graves of Patriots and their enemies (British, Canadian, and German) who died of wounds after the Battle of Bennington. Also buried in the cemetery is poet Robert Frost, whose wishes were "to be placed in surroundings that would never change." Members of the First Congregational Church, as it was then called, were early advocates of abolition and equality. They demonstrated that they were more than just talk in 1780 when they invited the Revolutionary War veteran Reverend Lemuel Haynes to be their minister. Haynes thus became the first African American minister to a white congregation in American history. He was also the first African American awarded an honorary degree when Vermont's Middlebury College awarded him an M.A. in 1804. (Middlebury awarded the first degree to a black student in 1823 when Alexander Twilight earned his B.A. Twilight became the nation's first black legislator in 1836.) The church is still in use as a house of worship. Phone: (802) 447-1223.

The Bennington Museum, just down the hill from the church and highly conspicuous on the south side of Vt. 9 (West Main Street), has a number of important Revolutionary War items and a disturbing statue of Abraham Lincoln out front. In a class by itself, and considered to be the most precious item in this outstanding regional museum, is the Bennington Flag. Once believed by many authorities to be the oldest surviving Stars and Stripes, it allegedly was used by the Bennington militia in the historic battle just over the border. Tradition further holds that it was raised by the grandfather of President Millard Fillmore. The last Fillmore owner presented it to the local historical association in 1926. The majestic flag remained inside its carry box until 1995, when it was examined for authentic age. Experts discovered that the Bennington Flag was constructed of machine-spun fibers, making its earliest possible date of origin 1810. The Bennington Flag is 10 by 5.5 feet with a white "76" in the union. It is exhibited dramatically in a frame at the end of the long hall that houses the museum's military collection. Also exhibited is the field of General Stark's personal flag that he took into battle. Near it is one of the four brass cannon of French origin captured from the Germans. These little 3-pounders were captured by Wolfe at Quebec in 1759, taken by the Patriots at Bennington (where only John Stark himself knew how to shoot them), surrendered by General William Hull at Detroit in 1812, and retaken by the Americans the next year at Niagara. The museum's Battle of Bennington Gallery has a number of important firearms and historical relics of the Revolutionary era. (American glass, Bennington pottery, toys and dolls, household items, furniture, and paintings comprise the bulk of the collection. The Grandma Moses exhibit draws visitors in by the transcontinental busloads.)

It is not easy for the informed visitor to trace the route of Patriot forces from Old Bennington Battlefield, some 8 miles to the northwest. Although much of the route is along the Walloomsac River, once disfigured by industrial development but now reclaimed by nature, you will find it well worthwhile to pick your way along it.

The best point of departure is the entrance to Bennington College on Vt. 67A, about a mile from this highway's junction with U.S. 7 northwest of modern Bennington. A drive up the winding road that zigzags through the college grounds will provide a fine panorama of the ground covered by the Patriots in their march to the battlefield, but you will need to know what to look for.

The Silk Road runs along the eastern base of the high ground on which Bennington College is located. (By following this southeast from the entrance to the College on Vt. 67A for 0.9 mile you will hit Vail Road and circle eastward to the Bennington Battle Monument.) From east to west are three historic covered bridges along the Walloomsac that figured in the preliminaries of the battle of 1777. The Silk Road bridge (called Robinson Bridge) is near the entrance to the college. Continue 0.3 mile southwest on Vt. 67A from the latter entrance and turn left to reach the Paper Mill Bridge. Cross this and bear right, along the line of the river, for 1.3 miles through somewhat undeveloped country to the Bert Henry Bridge. En route look for a virtually hidden marker on the right (0.4 mile short of the Henry Bridge) that indicates the site of the Breakenridge home, "Birthplace of Vermont." Destroyed in 1889—only the cellar hole remains—this was the scene of the successful and bloodless resistance of Vermont settlers in July 1771 to an attempt by three hundred New Yorkers to evict them. (This marker is hard to see until you are right on it.)

The Seth Warner House site, indicated by a highway marker, is now occupied by a modern frame house of colonial style (saltbox). It is midway between the Henry Bridge and the "birthplace" site. Seth Warner was a leader of the Green Mountain Boys, having settled in this area in 1763 as a young man of twenty. He took part in the capture of Ticonderoga in 1775. Warner and Ethan Allen then arranged for incorporation of their band into the Continental army as a battalion of seven companies under Warner's command. As a lieutenant colonel he took part in the Canada operations, in which his regiment was decimated. Promoted to colonel, Warner and a few of his officers raised a new force to replace the original Green Mountain Regiment. Surprised and badly defeated at Hubbardton Battlefield (7 July 1777), the rough-and-ready Green Mountain Regiment under Warner reinforced General Stark in the final phase of the Battle of Bennington, clinching the victory. Warner became a militia general (March 1778) and remained in the Continental army as a regimental commander, but because of failing health saw little active service after 1777. He retired in January 1783 at the age of forty and died the day after Christmas 1784.

The site of Stark's encampment during the period 14 to 16 August, before the battle, is now an open hillside in picturesque farm country on a secondary road midway between the Warner House site (near Henry Bridge) and the junction of this road with Vt. 67. (It is exactly 1 mile from the latter point.) A simple monument is inscribed with the dubious quotation: "There are the redcoats and they are ours or this night Molly Stark sleeps a widow." (See also stark house under New Hampshire.) A splendid panorama to the west is provided by the site, which is undeveloped.

From the junction of this country road on the left bank of the river and Vt. 67 you will find the site of the Baum House by driving toward the New York-Vermont state line and the battlefield. The house site is marked on a dangerous curve in the highway just 0.2 mile from the road junction previously mentioned, and 0.35 mile from the state line. Here the German commander Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum died of his wounds and was buried. The location of his grave is not known.

There are many interesting landmarks associated with the Battle of Bennington, and the area surrounding the battlefield remains largely undeveloped. The entire site is under the management of the Division for Historical Preservation. Phone: (802) 447-0550.

Bennington Battlefield

Bennington Battlefield. See under new york.

Button Mold Bay and Arnold Bay

Button Mold Bay and Arnold Bay, Lake Champlain, Addison County. The place where Benedict Arnold abandoned the major surviving portion of his fleet after the Battle of Valcour Bay, New York, is a tiny cove in what today is called Button Bay. Generally unspoiled, it survives in the 253-acre Button Bay State Park. But no effort has so far been made to mark or interpret the history of the site where Arnold ran the Congress and four smaller vessels aground on 13 October 1776 and burned them with their colors flying. From here Arnold and two hundred men made their way to Crown Point, ending one of the most gallant military exploits of the Revolution.

The park is most easily reached by taking the highway from Vergennes toward Basin Harbor and then going south on the road to Panton. Phone: (802) 475-2377.

Chimney Point

Chimney Point, Lake Champlain, Addison County. So called because only chimneys of the old settlement remained standing after the Mohawk raid in 1760, Chimney Point was a well-known landmark during the colonial and Revolutionary War eras. Champlain visited the promontory after his fight with the Iroquois in 1609. Jacobus De Warm built a small fort here as early as 1690, having headed a French expedition to this point from Albany. De Warm's fort was rebuilt in 1730 by a small group of French settlers, but the site was abandoned in 1759 on threat of Indian attack and the houses were destroyed the next year. The Barnes House (open) is on the site of the French fort and incorporates one 2.5-foot-thick wall of that structure. The house's great oven is believed to be another vestige of Fort de Pieux. The keel and ribs of Benedict Arnold's Congress galley are exhibited along with other relics.

The John Strong Mansion is on Vt. 17 about 1 mile north of Chimney Point. John Strong built a house here that was burned by General von Riedesel's left wing of Burgoyne's offensive in 1777. Strong, a militia general, put up a fine federal mansion in 1795 on the site of his original house. The brick house has interesting interiors: a beautiful entrance hall spanned by a wide arch, a great kitchen fireplace, and corkscrew hinges on some doors. The massive chimney has a hiding place that would accommodate half a dozen people. Five generations of the family lived in the Strong Mansion before the DAR acquired it in 1934 and restored it as a house museum, which is open on Saturday and Sunday from Memorial Day through Labor Day, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Phone: (802) 759-2309. The house is conspicuous from the highway.

During the Seven Years' War, Chimney Point was fortified by the British as the terminus of the Crown Point Military Road. Near the Champlain Bridge are markers to this effect.

Colchester

Colchester. Seeallen (ethan) farm site and grave.

Crown Point Military Road

Crown Point Military Road, Springfield to Chimney Point. When the British under Lord Jeffery Amherst drove the French from Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1759 it was not foreseen that the strategic importance of those places in the Colonial Wars had ended. With the British conquest of Canada, sealed by the Treaty of 1763, Lake Champlain was no longer a military avenue of approach for enemy expeditions into the thirteen British colonies to the south. But Amherst could not count on this when he took the French positions on Lake Champlain, and he consequently planned major military construction to strengthen the British position in the region. Part of this was the road from the vicinity of Chimney Point, opposite Crown Point, diagonally across the Hampshire Grants (now Vermont) to Fort Number Four (now Charlestown, New Hampshire) in the Connecticut River Valley. The valley was an abundant source of provisions (even more important during the Revolution than during the Colonial Wars), and the new road opened a new line of communications with the port of Boston.

Like so many military projects, the Crown Point Road turned out to be relatively unimportant militarily but of tremendous value economically. It opened large regions for settlement. Curiously, the trace of the road finished in 1760 was not followed by subsequent builders, and most of this pioneer highway can be traced only because it has been mapped in an admirable program now directed by the Crown Point Road Association. Their work has followed that of others, notably the DAR, who placed markers earlier. Some sections of the old road are hiking trails. Other portions are barely discernible paths through the woods, some sections have been plowed under or built over, and a few short stretches are town roads.

A second edition of the pamphlet "Historical Markers on the Crown Point Road" was published by the Association. In addition to brief historical data, old and modern maps, and photographs of many markers, the pamphlet gives the location and text of the sixty-six markers in place as of 1965.

Copies of the booklet and information about the Association are available by contacting the Association at 51 Eden Street in Proctor, Vt. 05765, or by calling (802) 459-2837.

Fort Drummer

Fort Drummer (lost site), near Brattleboro, Connecticut River, Windham County. The first permanent English settlement in Vermont was established by Massachusetts in 1724 when Fort Drummer was built just south of today's Brattleboro. The first commander was Captain Timothy Dwight, whose son became president of Yale. Forty-three English soldiers and twelve Mohawk Indians formed the fort's initial garrison. Contemporary drawings have survived of the 180-foot-square fort of yellow pine. It was dismantled in 1763 and the site was covered by the backed-up waters of the river after the Vernon Dam was constructed. A granite marker, giving the history of the fort, is 2,200 feet northwest of the site flooded in 1928. Fort Dummer State Park overlooks the site. The park is on Old Guilford Road outside Brattleboro and can be reached by taking Exit 1 from I-91 and following the signs. Phone: (802) 254-2610.

Hands Cove

Hands Cove, Lake Champlain, Addison County. Figuring in the Patriot capture of Fort Ticonderoga, New York, in 1775 (under New York see ticonderoga), Hands Cove shows on modern topographical maps about 0.5 mile north of Larrabees Point, a terminus of the ancient Ticonderoga Ferry. Four miles in a straight line northeast is the Hands Cove Monument in Shoreham village (intersection of Vt. 74 and 22A).

Hubbardton Battlefield

Hubbardton Battlefield, near Hubbardton, 18 miles northwest of Rutland, Rutland County. About one thousand Americans under Colonels Seth Warner, Nathan Hale (not the same as the Nathan Hale who was hanged as a spy), and Ebenezer Francis, covering the rear of General Arthur St. Clair's column in the retreat from Ticonderoga, were surprised and beaten in an action here on 7 July 1777.

After a hard march through rugged country in oppressively hot weather, St. Clair passed the two-house settlement of Hubbardton (now East Hubbardton) and marched another 6 miles south to bivouac at Castleton. N From here he intended to continue with the 2,500 men in his column to Skenesboro (now Whitehall, New York), where he hoped to find that his remaining 400 to 500 troops and heavy equipment had been successfully moved by boat from Ticonderoga.

Lieutenant Colonel Seth Warner, controversial leader of the Green Mountain Regiment, was ordered to wait at Hubbardton with his 150 men until the rear-guard regiments caught up, and then to lead them to Castleton. The troops had covered about 25 miles that day over primitive trails and hilly country in midsummer weather, and they were demoralized about their defeat at Ticonderoga. Probably Warner and the other two regimental commanders figured everybody needed a good night's sleep and that this was no time to harass the troops about being good combat soldiers. When night fell on the American camp at Hubbardton on 6 July the regiments of Francis and Hale had joined Warner's regiment.

Burgoyne had detected the American departure from Ticonderoga and had quickly taken up the pursuit. He himself led the chase by water to Skenesboro, and he ordered General Simon Fraser to march quickly to overtake St. Clair's column. Fraser's advance corps of 750 elite troops left Mount Independence (opposite Ticonderoga) at 4 a.m. on 6 July, only two hours after St. Clair. He was followed by General Riedesel, who brought his own regiment and Breymann's advance corps. Riedesel caught up with Fraser at about 1 p.m., and the two commanders agreed that Fraser should move a few more miles and camp at the site of modern Hubbardton. The Germans would bivouac a short distance to the rear, and both would resume the advance at 3:00 the next morning.

During the night Indian scouts found Warner's camp, which turned out to be just over the next range of hills from where Fraser had stopped. The British made plans for an attack at dawn. Hale's New Hampshire regiment was having breakfast when Fraser hit it at 4:40 a.m. This body of troops was routed, apparently without firing a shot in its own defense, and Hale himself was captured with seventy of his men.

Warner's men and the Massachusetts regiment of Colonel Francis had little time to react, but they dropped twenty-one of the enemy with their first volley. The British and Americans formed their lines of battle in the rocky, wooded terrain. The American left flank was anchored on the slopes of a 1,200-foot rise now known as Zion Hill, and the British commander quickly identified this as key terrain. Fraser therefore started building up strength on this flank for an envelopment, and to do this he thinned out his own left flank.

Inexperienced in frontier warfare (and not having such a good night's sleep, perhaps), the British were getting the worst of the battle when up came Riedesel with his Germans. Best remembered as the husband of the lady who followed him to America with their three daughters and wrote the famous memoirs of their six years' experience, this General Baron von Riedesel (1738–1800) was somebody to write about. Hearing the sound of battle, he had rushed forward with the faster-moving jaegers and grenadiers of his column, sending the jaegers straight against the American right flank, starting the grenadiers on an envelopment of that flank, and ordering his main body to come up on the double. As an Old World touch, he sent his own regiment forward singing to the music of its band. This was too much for the Massachusetts regiment. They held their own against the jaegers for about ten minutes, but then their colonel, Francis, was killed, the grenadiers came crashing through the brush toward their flank, and they started giving ground.

The Green Mountain Regiment was left to face the onslaught alone. Hit by a bayonet attack, it responded with alacrity to Colonel Warner's order to "Scatter and meet me at Manchester."

In his War of the Revolution, Christopher Ward says that the two-hour action at Hubbardton was as bloody as Waterloo in proportion to the forces engaged. Almost one-third of the Americans were captured, and more than 40 were killed. The other side lost about 35 killed and 150 wounded. Most of the remaining two-thirds of the American forces were able to regroup at Manchester, from where Warner led his regiment to action at the Battle of Bennington.

The site of the battle, the only one fought during the Revolution on Vermont soil, is preserved in the Hubbardton Battlefield Sate Park, which is open from Memorial Day to Columbus Day, 10:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday through Friday. Phone: (802) 273-2282. A diorama of the battle is available in the park's visitors center, and a path across the field brings visitors to benches on a ridge above the valley where the military road came through. Looking east, there are wonderful views of the Green Mountains, and to the west one can see the Taconic Mountains of New York.

Hyde Log Cabin

Hyde Log Cabin, on U.S. Route 2 just north of the town of Grand Isle. The home of the two Jedediah Hydes, father and son. The elder, Captain Jedediah Hyde, fought at Bunker Hill and served in Captain William Coit's Connecticut Grenadiers. His son, Jedediah Hyde, Jr., was a member of Captain Rufus Putnam's Corps of Engineers. After the Battle of Bennington, Hyde the younger picked up a surveyor's compass and a theodolite from the spoils captured from the German troops. He used these tools when he surveyed Grand Isle after he and his father moved to this cabin in 1783. The house reamined in the Hyde family for 150 years. Today it is owned by the state and contains numerous items from the Revolutionary period. Open 4 July through Labor Day, Thursday through Monday, 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Phone: (802) 828-3051.

Isle La Motte

Isle La Motte, Lake Champlain, Grand Isle County. Strategically situated on the Lake Champlain-Lake George waterway, this place is named for Captain La Mothe, who built a shrine here in 1665 or 1666 and established a settlement that proved to be short-lived. The site of the French Fort Ste. Anne, built in 1666 for a garrison of three hundred men but soon abandoned, is marked by cedars and rock mounds that trace its outline. The Shrine of Ste. Anne survives as a small chapel in a grove of pines. The island of about 11,000 acres is accessible by highway and is of exceptional interest geologically (fossil coral reef).

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Basin Harbor. A unique museum devoted to the naval history of Lake Champlain, which devotes particular attention to the Revolutionary era. Visitors can explore a working replica of Benedict Arnold's 1776 54-foot square-rigged gunboat, the Philadelphia. In addition to exhibits on eighteenth-century shipbuilding and demonstrations by artisans, the museum has a display on the naval defense of Lake Champlain and another on "The Revolutionary War in the Champlain Valley." The museum is located 7 miles west of Vergennes off Route 22A on Basin Harbor Road. Open May through October daily, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Phone: (802) 475-2022.

Montpelier

Montpelier. With just eight thousand people, Montpelier is the nation's least populous state capital. It is also the only one without a single fast-food restaurant. The State Capitol on State Street is hard to miss, with its gold dome dominating the beautiful setting. In addition to the famous statue of Ethan Allen, the capitol building boasts two brass cannon captured from the Germans at the Battle of Bennington in 1777. As you face the capitol, the Vermont Historical Society Museum is to your immediate right. For the serious scholar, it is hard to surpass the Vermont State Archives, which are probably the best run in the nation; the Redstone Building, 26 Terrace Street; phone: (802) 828-2363.

Mount Independence Site

Mount Independence Site, Lake Champlain opposite Fort Ticonderoga, New York, Addison County. At the time of the Revolution it was not covered by the heavy vegetation there now, and Mount Independence was quite bare. Clearing had been done to provide better fields of observation and to furnish timber for the important ship-fitting operations at the site.

In the article on Ticonderoga (see under new york) is a sketch of Mount Independence's role in the Revolution and a mention of the exceptionally fine model to be seen in the museum of Fort Ticonderoga. The Mount Independence site is operated by the state, which maintains several hiking trails through the remains of the old military grounds. The National Historic Landmark encompasses the remains of the fort built by an estimated ten to twelve thousand American troops in 1776, which some claim was the largest built by the Patriots during the Revolution. The fort was named in honor of the recent Declaration of Independence. In addition to the fortification ruins, there are remains and explanatory displays of the stockade, blockhouse, barracks, gun batteries, and hospital scattered over this 300-acre site. In 2005 the state added a wheelchair accessible trail. The visitors center's museum examines military life at the fort and includes many artifacts recovered during recent archaeological excavations. Special events, including military reenactments, are scheduled throughout the season that runs from late May until October. It is open from late May through the end of October daily from 9:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Phone: (802) 759-2412. Take Route 73 west from Orwell, turning at the first left. A marker on Route 22A in Orwell notes the route of the Mount Independence Military Road built during the construction of the fort on Mount Independence. In nearby Shoreham one can take the MV Carillon for a cruise on Lake Champlain with narration about the several Revolutionary War sites on the lake. Phone: (802) 897-5331.

Old Constitution House

Old Constitution House, Windsor, Windsor County. Delegates met at Windsor starting on 4 June 1777 to adopt a constitution for the "free and independent state of Vermont." (Settlers of the Hampshire Grants had declared their independence earlier in the year.) For the final phase of their deliberations the delegates met in the frame house dating from about 1760 and operated as a tavern by Elijah West. Tradition has it that the news of Seth Warner's defeat at Hubbardton Battlefield arrived just as the final reading of the new constitution was taking place on 8 July, and that only a violent thunderstorm kept the legislators together long enough to vote on the document. The final product of their labor was a document startling for its democratic clarity: outlawing slavery, establishing the right of all adult men to vote, and creating a public school system. (The first of these schools was built in 1785 in Norwich, where there is a historical marker on Route 5.) The pub has since been dubbed the Old Constitution House and, naturally, "the Birthplace of Vermont." (Another "birthplace" is near Bennington.) The site, including its museum artifacts, is owned and operated by the state's Division of Historic Sites. It is a house museum with a good collection pertaining to Vermont's early history. (A republic until 1791 because of New York's refusal to acknowledge the loss of this territory, Vermont finally joined the Union as the fourteenth state in that year.) Take Exits 8 or 9 off I-91 and drive into Windsor. The house is at 16 North Main Street (U.S. 5) and is open Wednesday through Sunday from late May into October. Phone: (802) 672-3773.

Royalton Raid Site

Royalton Raid Site, Route 14 in the town of Royalton. On 16 October 1780 more than two hundred Indians (primarily Mohawk) led by a British officer surprised the town of Royalton on Vermont's remote northern frontier. They killed two people and took thirty-two prisoners before setting fire to Royalton. The Indians took their captives back to Canada, where they were ransomed for $8 a head.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Vermont." Landmarks of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vermont." Landmarks of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/defense/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

"Vermont." Landmarks of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/defense/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vermont

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.