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Louisiana

Louisiana

State of Louisiana

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named in 1682 for France's King Louis XIV.

NICKNAME: The Pelican State.

CAPITAL: Baton Rouge.

ENTERED UNION: 30 April 1812 (18th).

SONG: "Give Me Louisiana;" "You are My Sunshine;" "State March Song."

MOTTO: Union, Justice, and Confidence.

FLAG: On a blue field, fringed on three sides, a white pelican feeds her three young, symbolizing the state providing for its citizens; the state motto is inscribed on a white ribbon.

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the center, a pelican and its young are as depicted on the flag; the state motto encircles the scene, and the words "State of Louisiana" surround the whole.

BIRD: Eastern brown pelican.

FISH: Crustacean: Crawfish.

FLOWER: Magnolia; Louisiana iris (wildflower).

TREE: Bald cypress.

GEM: Agate.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Mardi Gras Day, Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, February; Good Friday, Friday before Easter, March or April; Independence Day, 4 July; Huey Long's Birthday, 30 August, by proclamation of the governor; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Election Day, 1st Tuesday in November in even-numbered years; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. Legal holidays in Baton Rouge parish also include Inauguration Day, once every four years in January.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated in the western south-central United States, Louisiana ranks 31st in size among the 50 states. The total area of Louisiana is 47,751 sq mi (123,675 sq km), including 44,521 sq mi (115,309 sq km) of land and 3,230 sq mi (8,366 sq km) of inland water. The state extends 237 mi (381 km) e-w; its maximum n-s extension is 236 mi (380 km). Louisiana is shaped roughly like a boot, with the heel in the sw corner and the toe at the extreme se.

Louisiana is bordered on the n by Arkansas; on the e by Mississippi (with part of the line formed by the Mississippi River and part, in the extreme se, by the Pearl River); on the s by the Gulf of Mexico; and on the w by Texas (with part of the line passing through the Sabine River and Toledo Bend Reservoir). The state's geographic center is in Avoyelles Parish, 3 mi (5 km) se of Marksville. The total boundary length of Louisiana is 1,486 mi (2,391 km). Louisiana's total tidal shoreline is 7,721 mi (12,426 km).

TOPOGRAPHY

Louisiana lies wholly within the Gulf Coastal Plain. Alluvial lands, chiefly of the Red and Mississippi rivers, occupy the north-central third of the state. East and west of this alluvial plain are the upland districts, characterized by rolling hills sloping gently toward the coast. The coastal-delta section, in the southernmost portion of the state, consists of the Mississippi Delta and the coastal lowlands. The highest elevation in the state is Driskill Mountain at 535 ft (163 m), in Bienville Parish; the lowest, 8 ft (2 m) below sea level, in New Orleans. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 100 ft (31 m).

Louisiana has the most wetlands of all the states, about 11,000 sq mi (28,000 sq km) of floodplains and 7,800 sq mi (20,200 sq km) of coastal swamps, marshes, and estuarine waters. The largest lake, actually a coastal lagoon, is Lake Pontchartrain, with an area of more than 620 sq mi (1,600 sq km). Toledo Bend Reservoir, an artificial lake along the Louisiana-Texas border, has an area of 284 sq mi (736 sq km). The most important rivers are the Mississippi, Red, Pearl, Atchafalaya, and Sabine. Most drainage takes place through swamps between the bayous, which serve as outlets for overflowing rivers and streams. Louisiana has nearly 2,500 coastal islands covering some 2,000 sq mi (5,000 sq km).

CLIMATE

Louisiana has a relatively constant semitropical climate. Rainfall and humidity decrease, and daily temperature variations increase, with distance from the Gulf of Mexico. The normal daily temperature in New Orleans is 69°f (20°c), ranging from 53°f (11°c) in January to 82°f (27°c) in July. The all-time high temperature is 114°f (46°c), recorded at Plain Dealing on 10 August 1936; the all-time low, 16°f (27°c), was set at Minden on 13 February 1899. New Orleans has sunshine 58% of the time, and the average annual rainfall is about 61.6 in (156 cm). Snow falls occasionally in the north, but rarely in the south.

Prevailing winds are from the south or southeast. During the summer and fall, tropical storms and hurricanes frequently batter the state, especially along the coast. The 2005 hurricane season devastated much of the Gulf region, primarily through Hurricane Katrina. Katrina made landfall at Buras on 29 August 2005 as a Category 4 storm. The combination of high winds and flooding led to levee damage around New Orleans, allowing flood waters to cover about 80% of the city, with depths as high as 20 ft (6.3 m). One month later, Hurricane Rita made landfall near Johnson's Bayou as a Category 3 storm. Initial reports from Hurricane Rita alone included 119 deaths and $8 billion in damage. As of early 2006, damage assessments for Hurricane Katrina were still underway. Over 1,300 deaths had been reported, well over 1 million people were displaced, and the cost of rebuilding was estimated at over $150 billion.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Forests in Louisiana consist of four major types: shortleaf pine uplands, slash and longleaf pine flats and hills, hardwood forests in alluvial basins, and cypress and tupelo swamps. Important commercial trees also include beech, eastern red cedar, and black walnut. Among the state's wildflowers are the ground orchid and several hyacinths; two species (Louisiana quillwort and American chaffseed) were listed as endangered in April 2006. Spanish moss (actually a member of the pineapple family) grows profusely in the southern regions but is rare in the north.

Louisiana's varied habitatstidal marshes, swamps woodlands, and prairiesoffer a diversity of fauna. Deer, squirrel, rabbit, and bear are hunted as game, while muskrat, nutria, mink, opossum, bobcat, and skunk are commercially significant furbearers. Prized game birds include quail, turkey, woodcock, and various waterfowl, of which the mottled duck and wood duck are native. Coastal beaches are inhabited by sea turtles, and whales may be seen offshore. Freshwater fish include bass, crappie, and bream; red and white crawfishes are the leading commercial crustaceans. Threatened animal species include five species (green, hawksbill, Kemp's ridley, leatherback, and loggerhead) of sea turtle. In April 2006, a total of 23 species occurring within the state were on the threatened and endangered species list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These included 20 animal (vertebrates and invertebrates) and 3 plant species. Among those listed were the Louisiana black bear, bald eagle, Alabama heelsplitter, and red-cockaded woodpecker.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Louisiana's earliest and most pressing environmental problem was the chronic danger of flooding by the Mississippi River. In April and May 1927, one of the worst floods in the state's history inundated more than 1,300,000 acres (526,000 hectares) of agricultural land, left 300,000 people homeless, and would have swept away much of New Orleans had levees below the city not been dynamited. The following year, the US Congress funded construction of a system of floodways and spillways to divert water from the Mississippi when necessary. These flood control measures and dredging for oil and gas exploration created another environmental problemthe slowing of the natural flow of silt into the wetlands. As a result, salt water from the Gulf of Mexico has seeped into the wetlands.

The city of New Orleans suffered a major environmental disaster under Hurricane Katrina, which swept through the area in September 2005. High winds and flooding eventually led to a breach in the levees around New Orleans, allowing flood waters to cover about 80% of the city, with depths as high as 20 ft (6.3 m). Hundreds of homes, industries, and other public buildings were destroyed releasing a myriad of contaminants into the air, water, and soil. As of early 2006, environmental cleanup and damage assessments were still underway.

In 1984, Louisiana consolidated much of its environmental protection efforts into a new state agencyThe Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Among its responsibilities are maintenance of air and water quality, solid-waste management, hazardous waste disposal, and control of radioactive materials. According to the Louisiana Environmental Action Plan (LEAP to 2000 Project), toxic air pollution, industrial and municipal waste-water discharges, and coastal wetland loss head the list of state residents' environmental concerns. Louisiana's problem in protecting its wetlands differs from that of most other states in that its wetlands are more than wildlife refugesthey are central to the state's agriculture and fishing industries. Assessment of the environmental impact of various industries on the wetlands has been conducted under the Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Department of Natural Resources.

The two largest wildlife refuges in the state are the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, comprising 84,000 acres (34,000 hectares) in Cameron and Vermilion parishes, and the Marsh Island Refuge, 82,000 acres (33,000 hectares) of marshland in Iberia Parish. Both are managed by the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Louisiana's coastal marshes represent almost 40% of such lands in the country. Catahoula Lake, located in LaSalle and Rapides parishes, was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 1991, primarily for its role as a habitat for migratory birds. The site is managed jointly by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. In 1996, wetlands, which once covered more than half the state, accounted for about one-third of Louisiana's land.

With approximately 100 major chemical and petrochemical manufacturing and refining facilities located in Louisiana, many DEQ programs deal with the regulation of hazardous waste generation, management and disposal, and chemical releases to the air and water. Trends in air monitoring have, for example, continued to show decreases in criteria pollutants. In 1993, Louisiana became one of the first states in the nation to receive federal approval for stringent new solid waste landfill regulations, and the department has developed a Statewide Solid Waste Management Plan which encourages waste reduction. In 2003, Louisiana had 155 hazardous waste sites included in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, 11 of which were included on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant in Doyline. Nine sites were deleted from the National Priority List in 2006, but three new sites were proposed. In 2005, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $14.8 million for the state revolving loan program (in support of water quality projects) and $2.4 million for water pollution control projects in urban and agricultural settings.

In 2003, 126.8 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. Of the total river miles in the state impacted by pollution, 69% of the pollution is due to nonpoint sources such as agricultural and urban runoff. Efforts by DEQ to curb nonpoint source pollution have included the support and cooperation of the agricultural community and other state and federal agencies.

Among the most active citizen's groups on environmental issues are the League of Women Voters, the Sierra Club (Delta Chapter), and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN). Curbside recycling programs exist in 28 parishes.

POPULATION

Louisiana ranked 24th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 4,523,628 in 2005, an increase of 1.2% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Louisiana's population grew from 4,219,973 to 4,468,976, an increase of 5.9%. The population is projected to reach 4.67 million by 2015 and 4.76 million by 2025.

At the time of the 1980 census, Louisiana ranked 19th among the 50 states, with a population of 4,203,972, representing an increase of more than 15% since 1970. However, by 1990 the population was 4,219,973, representing only a 0.3% gain, and ranking had slipped to 21st. The population density in 2004 was 104.2 persons per sq mi.

In 2004 the median age was 35.2. Persons under 18 years old accounted for 25.8% of the population while 11.7% was age 65 or older.

New Orleans is the largest city, with an estimated 2004 population of 462,269, followed by Baton Rouge, 224,097; and Shreveport, 198,675. Baton Rouge, the capital, had grown with exceptional speed since 1940, when its population was 34,719; however, since 1980, the population has been decreasing. Among the state's largest metropolitan areas are New Orleans, with an estimated 1,319,589, and Baton Rouge, with 728,731.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Louisiana, most notably the Delta region, is an enclave of ethnic heterogeneity in the South. At the end of World War II, the established population of the Delta, according to descent, included blacks, French, Spanish (among them Central and South Americans and Islenos, Spanish-speaking migrants from the Canary Islands), Filipinos, Italians, Chinese, American Indians, and numerous other groups.

Blacks made up about 32.5% of the population in 2000 (the second-highest percentage among the 50 states), and were estimated to number 1,451,944. They include descendants of "free people of color," some of whom were craftsmen and rural property owners before the Civil War (a few were slaveholding plantation owners). Many of these, of mixed blood, are referred to locally as "colored Creoles" and have constituted a black elite in both urban and rural Louisiana. The black population of New Orleans constituted 67.3% of the city's residents in 2000; New Orleans elected its first black mayor, Ernest N. "Dutch" Morial, in 1977. In 2004, 33% of the state's population was black.

Two groups that have been highly identified with the culture of Louisiana are Creoles and Acadians (also called Cajuns). Both descend primarily from early French immigrants to the state, but the Cajuns trace their origins from the mainly rural people exiled from Acadia (Nova Scotia) in the 1740s, while the Creoles tend to be city people from France and, to a lesser extent, from Nova Scotia or Hispaniola. (The term "Creole" also applies to the relatively few early Spanish settlers and their descendants.) Although Acadians have intermingled with Spaniards and Germans, they still speak a French patois and retain a distinctive culture and cuisine. In 2000, 179,739 residents claimed Acadian/Cajun ancestry. In 2000, 107,738, or 2.4% of the population, were Hispanic or Latino. That figure had risen to 2.8% of the population by 2004.

At the time of the 2000 census, 115,885 Louisianians (2.6% of the population) were foreign born. France, Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom provided Louisiana with the largest ancestry groups. As of 2000, there were 25,477 American Indians in Louisiana, along with 54,758 and Asians, including 24,358 Vietnamese. Pacific Islanders numbered 1,240. In 2004, 0.6% of the population was American Indian, 1.4% Asian, and 0.8% of the population claimed origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

White settlers in Louisiana found several Indian tribes of the Caddoan confederacy, from at least five different language groups. In 1990, about 495 Louisiana residents spoke an American Indian language at home. Place-names from this heritage include Coushatta, Natchitoches, and Ouachita.

Louisiana English is predominantly Southern. Notable features of the state's speech patterns are pen and pin as sound-alikes and, in New Orleans, the so-called Brooklyn pronunciation of bird as /boyd/. A pecan sugar candy is well known as praline.

In 2000, 3,771,003 Louisiana residents90.8% of the population five years old and older (up from 89.9% in 1990)spoke only English at home.

Unique to Louisiana is a large enclave, west of New Orleans, where a variety of French called Acadian (Cajun) is the first language. From it, and from early colonial French, English has taken such words as pirogue (dugout canoe), armoire (wardrobe), boudin (blood sausage), and lagniappe (extra gift).

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "African languages" includes Amharic, Ibo, Twi, Yoruba, Bantu, Swahili, and Somali.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 4,153,367 100.0
  Speak only English 3,771,003 90.8
  Speak a language other than English 382,364 9.2
Speak a language other than English 382,364 9.2
  French (incl, Patois, Cajun) 194,314 4.7
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 105,189 2.5
  Vietnamese 23,326 0.6
  German 8,047 0.2
  Chinese 5,731 0.1
  Arabic 5,489 0.1
  French Creole 4,470 0.1
  Italian 3,730 0.1
  Tagalog 3,335 0.1
  Korean 2,402 0.1
  African languages 2,278 0.1

RELIGIONS

Spanish missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to Louisiana in the early 16th century, and many of them were killed in their attempts to convert the Indians. During the early days, the most active religious orders were the Jesuits, Capuchins, and Ursuline nuns. Until the Louisiana Purchase, the public practice of any but the Catholic religion was prohibited, and Jews were entirely banned.

Joseph Willis, a mulatto preacher who conducted prayer meetings at what is now Lafayette in 1804, organized the first Baptist church west of the Mississippi, at Bayou Chicot in 1812. In the Opelousas region, in 1806, the first Methodist church in the state was organized. The first Episcopal church was established in New Orleans in 1805, a Methodist church in 1813, a Presbyterian church in 1817, a synagogue in 1828, and a Baptist church in 1834. After the Civil War, blacks withdrew from white-dominated churches to form their own religious groups, mainly Baptist and Methodist.

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination, with 1,312,237 church members statewide in 2004; the archdiocese of New Orleans had 488,004 members that year. One of the leading Protestant denominations is the Southern Baptist Convention, with 768,587 members in 2000 and 13,391 newly baptized members reported in 2002. The United Methodist Church had about 127,059 members statewide in 2004. Other Protestant denominations (with 2000 membership data) include Assemblies of God, 49,041, and the Episcopal Church, 33,653. There were about 16,500 Jews residing in Louisiana in 2000, a majority of them in New Orleans. The Muslim community had about 13,050 members. Voodoo, in some cases blended with Christian ritual, is more widespread in Louisiana than anywhere else in the United States, although the present number of practitioners is impossible to ascertain. Over 1.8 million people (about 41.2% of the population) did not claim any religious affiliation in the 2000 survey.

TRANSPORTATION

New Orleans is a major center of domestic and international freight traffic. In volume of domestic and foreign cargo handled, however, the Port of South Louisiana, which stretches 54 miles along the Mississippi River, is the largest tonnage port in the Western Hemisphere and third in the world. Although Louisiana's roads remained poor until the 1930s, the state was one of the nation's major rail centers by the end of the 19th century, and New Orleans was one of the first cities to develop a mass transit system.

Several short-run railroads were built in Louisiana during the 1830s. The first of these, and the first rail line west of the Alleghenies, was the Pontchartrain Railroad, which opened, using horse-drawn vehicles, on 23 April 1831. New Orleans was connected with New York before the Civil War, with Chicago by 1873, and with California in 1883 via a line that subsequently became part of the Southern Pacific. Railroads soon rivaled the Mississippi River in the movement of goods to and from New Orleans. There were six Class I line-haul railroads in Louisiana in 2003. Total railroad mileage was 3,426 route mi (5,515 km), of which 2,788 miles (4,488 km) was Class I right-of-way. Chemicals that same year, were the top commodity originating in the state that were transported by rail. As of 2006, Amtrak provided connecting passenger service to Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York, carrying passengers from seven stations through the state. The New Orleans and Carrollton Railroads, a horse-drawn trolley system, began service in 1835. Fifty-nine years later, electric trolleys came into use.

Louisiana's first road-building boom began after Huey Long entered the statehouse. When Long took office in 1928, the state had no more than 300 mi (480 km) of paved roads. By 1931 there were 1,583 mi (2,548 km). At the end of 2004, Louisiana had a total of 60,941 mi (98,115 km) of public roads, most of them rural. Also that year, there were 1.926 million automobiles and 1.747 million trucks registered in the state, with 3,169,627 drivers' licenses in force.

Early in the nation's history, the Mississippi River emerged as the principal route for north-south traffic, and New Orleans soon became the South's main port. The advent of the steamboat in 1812 solved the problem of upstream navigation, which previously had required three or four months for a distance that could be covered downstream in 15 days. (Barges moved by towboats eventually supplanted steamboats as cargo carriers.) An important breakthrough in international transportation was the deepening of the channel at the mouth of the Mississippi by means of jetties, the first of which were completed in 1879. The port of New Orleans is served by more than 100 steamship lines, 20 common carrier lines, and about 100 contract carrier barge lines. The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), the first deepwater oil port in the United States, was opened in 1981. Located south of New Orleans in the Gulf of Mexico, the supertanker facility has a designed capacity of 1,400,000 barrels of oil a day. Large ports include Baton Rouge, with a tonnage of 57.082 million tons in 2004 (tenth-busiest port in the United States); New Orleans, with 78.085 million tons (seventh-busiest in the United States); and the Port of Plaquemines, with 54.404 million tons (13th busiest). The Port of South Louisiana in that same year handled 224.187 million tons was the busiest port in the United States. Louisiana in 2004 had 2,823 mile (4,545 km) of navigable inland waterways. In 2003, waterborne shipments totaled 469.461 million tons.

In 2005, Louisiana had a total of 495 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 242 airports, 237 heliports, and 16 seaplane bases. The state's busiest airport was the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. In 2004, the airport had 4,839,400 enplanements, making it the 40th-busiest airport in the United States.

HISTORY

The region now known as Louisiana is largely the creation of the Mississippi River; the process of land building still goes on in the Atchafalaya Basin and below New Orleans on the Mississippi Delta. Louisiana was never densely inhabited in prehistoric times, and at no time, probably, did as many as 15,000 Indians live inside the present boundaries of the state. The main relic of prehistoric inhabitants is the great earthwork at Poverty Point, near Marksville, but other Indian mounds are to be found in alluvial and coastal regions.

When white exploration and settlement of North America began, various tribes of Caddo Indians inhabited northwestern Louisiana, and small Tunican-speaking groups lived in the northeast. In the southwest were a number of rather primitive people of the Atakapa group; in south-central Louisiana, the Chitimacha ranged through the marshes and lowlands. Various small Muskogean tribes, related to the Choctaw, lived east of the Mississippi in the "Florida parishes," so called because they were once part of Spanish West Florida. The Natchez Indians, whose main villages were in present-day Mississippi near the city that still bears their name, fought with the French settlers in Louisiana's early history but were exterminated in the process.

Several Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of Louisiana, but Hernando de Soto was probably the first to penetrate the state's present boundaries, in 1541. Almost a century and a half passed before Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, departing from Canada, reached the mouth of the Mississippi on 9 April 1682, named the land there Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV, and claimed it for France. La Salle's later attempt at a permanent settlement failed, but in 1699 an expedition headed by Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, made a settlement on Biloxi Bay. In 1714, Louis Juchereau de St. Denis established Natchitoches, the first permanent European settlement in Louisiana; Iberville's brother, the Sieur de Bienville, established New Orleans four years later.

Louisiana did not thrive economically under French rule, either as a royal colony or, from 1712 to 1731, under the proprietorship first of Antoine Crozat and then of John Law's Company of the Indies. On the other hand, French culture was firmly implanted there, and non-French settlers, especially Germans from Switzerland and the Rhineland, were quickly Gallicized. In 1762, on the verge of losing the rest of its North American empire to Great Britain in the French and Indian War, France ceded Louisiana to Spain. Governed by Spaniards, the colony was much more prosperous, although it was a burden on the Spanish treasury. New settlersAmericans, Spaniards, Canary Islanders, and, above all, Acadian refugees from Nova Scotiaadded to the population. By 1800 there were about 50,000 inhabitants, a considerable number of them black slaves imported from Africa and the West Indies. The availability of slave labor, Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin, and Étienne de Boré's development of a granulation process for making cane sugar set the stage for future prosperity, though not under Spanish auspices. In 1800, by the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, Napoleon forced the feeble Spanish government to return Louisiana to France. Three years later, having failed to reestablish French rule and slavery in Haiti, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States to keep it from falling into the hands of Great Britain.

President Thomas Jefferson concluded what was probably the best real estate deal in history, purchasing 800,000 sq mi (2,100,000 sq km) for $15,000,000 and thus more than doubling the size of the United States at a cost of about 3 cents per acre. He made William C. C. Claiborne the governor of the huge new acquisition. The next year, that part of the purchase south of 33°N was separated from the remainder and designated the Territory of Orleans. The people of the territory then began the process of learning self-government, something with which they had had no experience under France and Spain. After the census of 1810 showed that the population had risen to 76,556, the people were authorized by Congress to draw up a state constitution. The constitutional convention met under the presidency of Julian Poydras in a coffeehouse in New Orleans and adopted, with a few changes, the constitution then in effect in Kentucky. In the meantime, in 1810, a revolt against Spain had taken place in West Florida. When the proposed Louisiana constitution reached Washington, Congress added that part of West Florida between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers to the new state, which entered the Union on 30 April 1812.

The key event in the Americanization of Louisiana was the campaign for New Orleans in December 1814 and January 1815, actually fought after the War of 1812 had ended. A force of British veterans under General Sir Edward Pakenham sailed into Lake Borgne and established itself below New Orleans at Chalmette. There they were met by detachments of Creoles, Acadians, blacks, and even Jean Lafitte's pirates, all from Louisiana, as well as Tennesseans, Kentuckians, and Choctaw Indians, with the whole army under the command of Andrew Jackson. After several preliminary battles, the British were bloodily defeated when they launched an all-out assault on Jackson's line.

From 1815 to 1861, Louisiana was one of the most prosperous states in the South, producing sugar and cotton on its rich alluvial lands and grazing hogs and cattle in the wooded hills of the north and on the prairies of the southwest. Yeoman farmers and New Orleans workers far outnumbered the wealthy planters but the planters, whose slaves made up almost half the population, dominated Louisiana politically and economically. When the secession crisis came in 1861, the planters led Louisiana into the Confederacy and, after four bloody years, to total defeat. The state suffered crippling economic losses during the Civil War, but the greatest loss was the lives of tens of thousands of young white men who died in defense of the South, and of thousands of blacks who died seeking and fighting for freedom. Louisiana did not fully recover from this disaster until the mid-20th century.

After the Civil War, radical Republican governments elected by black voters ruled the state, but declining support from the North and fierce resistance from Louisiana whites brought the Reconstruction period to an end. Black people and their few white allies lost control of state government, and most of the former slaves became laborers on sugar plantations or sharecroppers in the cotton fields. There, as the years passed, they were joined by more and more landless whites. In 1898, blacks were disfranchised almost entirely by a new state constitution drawn up primarily for that purpose. This constitution also significantly reduced the number of poorer whites who voted in Louisiana elections.

The vast majority of Louisiana whiteswhether hill farmers, Cajuns along the southern rivers and bayous, lumbermen in the yellow pine forests, or workers in New Orleanswere little better off than the black or white sharecroppers. Many economic changes had taken place: rice had become a staple crop on the southwestern prairies, and an oil boom had begun after the turn of the century. But just as before the Civil War, large landownerscombined with New Orleans bankers, businessmen, and politiciansdominated state government, effectively blocking political and social reform. The Populist movement, which succeeded in effecting some change in other southern states, was crushed in Louisiana.

Not until 1928, with the election of Huey P. Long as governor, did the winds of change strike Louisiana; having been so long delayed, they blew with gale force. The years from 1928 through 1960 could well be called the Long Era: three LongsHuey, who was assassinated in 1935; his brother Earl, who served as governor three times; and Huey's son Russell, who became a powerful US senatordominated state politics for most of the period. From a backward agricultural state, Louisiana evolved into one of the world's major petrochemical-manufacturing centers. Offshore drilling sent clusters of oil wells 60 mi (97 km) out into the Gulf. The pine lands were reforested, and soybeans provided a new source of income. What had been one of the most parsimonious states became one of the most liberal in welfare spending, care for the aged, highway building, and education. The state could afford these expanding programs because of ever-increasing revenues from oil and gas.

In the mid-1980s, a drop in world oil prices rocked Louisiana's economy, hurting the oil exploration and service industries and raising the state's unemployment rate in 1986 to 13%, the highest in the nation. For most of the 1990s, in spite of an increase in service-sector and high-tech jobs, Louisiana had more people living in poverty than any other state. Louisiana had for decades been among the nation's poorest; the percentage of residents living in poverty in 1998 was 19.1%, making it the second-poorest state in the nation. In 1999 it was reported that Louisiana also ranked second-lowest in the nation for its care of children; the report took into account such factors as infant mortality rates, teen pregnancy rates, and children who lived in poverty or lacked health care. Other problems confronting the state at the turn of the century included racial tensions, disposing of toxic wastes from the petrochemical industry, depletion of oil and gas resources, and the ongoing struggle to institute good government.

The announcement in February 1985 by Russell B. Long, senator since 1948, that he would not seek reelection, and the indictment of former Governor Edwin W. Edwards by a federal grand jury on conspiracy charges during the same month, caused turmoil in Louisiana's political arena. Edwards was defeated in 1987 by Buddy Roemer, a young, well-educated Republican who promised to clean up government. In 1989, racial tensions surfaced when white supremacist David Duke, running as a Republican, narrowly won a seat in the Louisiana state legislature. Duke later ran unsuccessfully for the US Senate and for governor, but his runs for office had raised concerns about the level of frustration of many white voters. In 1995 gubernatorial candidate Murphy "Mike" Foster, Republican, promised more Roemer-like reforms. As he faced reelection four years later, some analysts said the Bayou State had made progress in building a trustworthy and responsive government. Nevertheless, Foster was criticized for favoring the oil industry and being soft on big gambling. He still managed to win another term, claiming 64% of the vote, becoming the first Republican governor in Louisiana history to be reelected. He offered the New Orleans Saints professional football team $186.5 million in subsidies in 2002 to keep the team from moving out of the state. Foster maintained the football team had a salutary effect on Louisiana's economy.

On 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina landed on the state, in what was one of the worst natural disasters in US history. New Orleans had been evacuated, but some 150,000 people were unable to leave before the storm hit. A day after the storm appeared to have bypassed the city's center, levees were breached by the storm surge and water submerged the metropolis. Those unable to leave the city were sheltered in the Louisiana Superdome and New Orleans Convention Center; air conditioning, electricity, and running water failed, making for unsanitary and uncomfortable conditions. They were later transferred to other shelters, including the Houston Astrodome. The costs of the hurricane and flooding were exceedingly high in terms of both loss of life and economic damage: more than 1,000 people died and damages were estimated to reach $150 billion. Katrina had global economic consequences, as imports, exports, and oil suppliesincluding production, importation, and refiningwere disrupted. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security, and President George W. Bush were criticized in varying degrees for their lack of adequate response to the disaster. Race and class issues also came to the fore, as the majority of New Orleans residents unable to evacuate the city and affected by the catastrophe were poor and black.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Louisiana has had 11 constitutions (more than any other state), the latest, as of 2006, was enacted in 1974. By January 2005 it had been amended 129 times. The state legislature consists of a 39member Senate and a 105-member House of Representatives. The legislature meets annually, beginning the last Monday in March in even-numbered years and on the last Monday in April in odd-numbered years. The even-numbered year session is limited to 60 legislative days in 85 calendar days; the odd-numbered year session is limited to 45 legislative days in 60 calendar days. Special sessions may be called by a majority petition of each house, with length limited to 30 calendar days. All legislators are elected for concurrent four-year terms; they must be at least 18 years old, qualified voters, and have resided in the state for two years and in their districts for at least one year preceding election. The legislative salary in 2004 was $16,800.

Statewide elected executive officials include the governor and lieutenant governor (separately elected), secretary of state, attorney general, treasurer, commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of insurance, and commissioner of elections. All are elected for four-year terms. The governor must be a qualified elector, be at least 25 years old, and a US and Louisiana citizen for five years preceding election; after two full consecutive terms, a governor may not run for reelection. The same eligibility requirements apply to the lieutenant governor, except that there is no limit on succession to the latter office. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $94,532. Other executive agencies are the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, whose eight elected members and three appointed members serve four-year terms, and the Public Service Commission, whose five members serve for six years.

To become law, a bill must receive majority votes in both the Senate and the House and be signed by the governor, be left unsigned (for 10 days when the legislature is in session or for 20 days following the legislature's adjournment) but not vetoed by the governor, or be passed again by two-thirds votes of elected members of both houses over the governor's veto. Appropriation bills must originate in the House but may be amended by the Senate. The governor has an item veto on appropriation bills. Constitutional amendments require approval by two-thirds of the elected members of each house and ratification by a majority of the people voting on it at the next general election.

Voters in Louisiana must be US citizens, 18 years old, and state residents. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The major political organizations are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, each affiliated with the national party. However, differences in culture and economic interests have made Louisiana's politics extremely complex. Immediately following statehood, the primary political alignment was according to ethnic background, Anglo or Latin. By the 1830s, however, Louisiana politics reflected the national division of Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans, who were by mid-decade replaced by the Whigs. By and large, the Whigs were favored by the Anglo-Americans while the Democrats were favored by those of French and Spanish descent. When the Whig Party fell apart over slavery, many former Whigs supported the Native American (Know-Nothing) Party.

Louisiana was one of the three southern states whose disputed electoral votes put Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House in 1877, in return for his agreement to withdraw federal troops from the South, thus putting an end to Reconstruction. The ensuing period of Bourbon Democratic dominance in Louisiana, a time of reaction and racism in politics (though a few blacks continued to hold office), lasted until the early 1890s, when worsening economic conditions inspired Populists and Republicans to challenge Democratic rule. The attempt failed largely because Democratic landowners were able to control the ballots of their black sharecroppers and "vote" them Democrats. The recognition that it was the black vote, however well-controlled, that held the balance in Louisiana politics impelled the Democrats to seek its elimination as an electoral factor. The constitution of 1898 imposed a poll tax, a property requirement, a literacy test, and other measures that succeeded in reducing the number of registered black voters from 130,000 at the beginning of 1897 to 5,320 in March 1900 and 1,342 by 1904. White registration also declined, from 164,000 in 1897 to 92,000 in 1904, because the new constitutional requirements tended to disfranchise poor whites as well as blacks.

Between 1900 and 1920, the New Orleans Ring, or Choctaw Club, was the dominant power in state politics. Growing political discontent led 5,261 Louisianians (6.6% of those voting) to cast their ballots for the Socialist presidential candidate in 1912. A few Socialists won local office that year in Winn Parish, a center of Populist activity in the 1890s and the birthplace of Huey Long in 1893.

During his relatively brief career as a member of the Railroad Commission, governor, and US senator, Long committed government resources to public service to an extent without precedent in the state. He also succeeded in substituting for the traditional Democratic Party organization a state machine geared primarily toward loyalty to himself and, after his assassination in 1935, to the Long family name, which kept its hold on the voters despite a series of scandals that publicized the corruption of his associates. When blacks began voting in increasing numbers during the 1940s, they tended to favor Democratic candidates from the Long camp. The Longs repaid their loyalty: when race became a bitterly divisive issue in the late 1940s and 1950sLouisiana gave its presidential vote to the States' Rights "Dixiecrat" candidate in 1948the Longs supported the national Democratic ticket.

Louisiana Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE LOUISIANA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES' RIGHTS DEMOCRAT PROGRESSIVE AMERICAN IND.
*Won US presidential election.
1948 10 Truman (SRD) 136,344 72,657 204,290 3,035
1952 10 Stevenson (D) 345,027 306,925
UNPLEDGED
1956 10 *Eisenhower (R) 243,977 329,047 44,520
NAT'L STATES' RIGHTS
1960 10 *Kennedy (D) 407,339 230,980 169,572
1964 10 Goldwater (R) 387,068 509,225
1968 10 Wallace (Al) 309,615 257,535 530,300
AMERICAN COMMUNIST
1976 10 *Carter (D) 661,365 587,446 3,325 7,417 10,058
CITIZENS
1980 10 *Reagan (R) 708,453 792,856 8,240 1,584 10,333
1984 10 *Reagan (R) 651,586 1,037,299 1,876 9,502
POPULIST NEW ALLIANCE
1988 10 *Bush (R) 717,460 883,702 4,115 18,612 2,355
IND. (Perot) AMERICA FLRST
1992 9 *Clinton (D) 815,971 733,386 3,155 211,478 18,545
1996 9 *Clinton (D) 927,837 712,586 7,499 123,293
GREEN REFORM
2000 9 *Bush, G. W. (R) 792,344 927,871 2,951 20,473 14,356
THE BETTER LIFE (Nader) CONSTITUTION (Peroutka)
2004 9 *Bush, G. W. (R) 820,299 1,102,169 2,781 7,032 5,203

The 1960s and 1970s saw a resurgence of the Republican Party and the election in 1979 of David C. Treen, the state's first Republican governor since Reconstruction. Treen was succeeded by Democrat Edwin Edwards in 1983, Democrat Charles Roemer in 1987, and Edwin Edwards again in 1991. In 1995, Louisiana elected another Republican governorMurphy J. "Mike" Foster, who was reelected in 1999. Foster was unable to run for reelection in November 2003, due to term limits. In 2003, Democrat Kathleen Babineaux Blanco won the governor's election, and became Louisiana's first female governor. In 2004 there were 2,806,000 registered voters. In 1998, 62% of registered voters were Democratic, 21% Republican, and 16% unaffiliated or members of other parties.

In 2005, US senators from Louisiana were Republican David Vitter (elected in 2004) and Democrat Mary L. Landrieu (elected 1996 to replaced retiring Senator J. Bennett Johnston Jr. and reelected in 2002). Landrieu is the daughter of former New Orleans mayor Moon Landrieu. Following the 2004 elections Louisiana's delegation of US representatives consisted of two Democrats and five Republicans. In mid-2005, 24 of the state senators were Democrats and 15 were Republicans; 67 of the state representatives were Democrats and 37 were Republicans.

In 2000 and 2004, Louisianians gave Republican George W. Bush 53% and 56% of the vote, respectively in the presidential elections, while Democrat Al Gore received 45% (2000) and Dem-ocrat John Kerry received 42% (2004). The state had nine electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The ecclesiastical districts, called parishes, into which Louisiana was divided in the late 17th century remain the primary political divisions in the state, serving functions similar to those of counties in other states.

In 2005, there were 64 parishes, most of them governed by police jury (governing board). Juries range from 3 to 15 elected members. Other parish officials are the sheriff, clerk of court, assessor, and coroner. Each parish elects a school board whose members generally serve six-year terms; all other officers serve four-year terms. In 2005, there were 78 public school districts in the state.

As of 2005, Louisiana also had 302 municipal governments. Municipalities are classed by the state (based on population) as village, town, or city. Municipal officials include the mayor, chief of police, and council or board of aldermen. In 2005, Louisiana had 45 special districts established by the legislature.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 192,400 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Louisiana operates under the authority of state statute and executive order; the adjutant general is designated as the state homeland security advisor.

Louisiana's ethics laws are administered by the Board of Ethics under the Department of Civil Service. Departments focus on labor, natural resources, revenue, environmental quality, social services, state civil service, wildlife and fisheries, and youth services.

Educational services are provided through the Department of Education, which has jurisdiction over elementary, secondary, higher, and vocational-technical instruction, as well as the state schools for the visually impaired, hearing-impaired, and other handicapped children. Highways, waterways, airports, and mass transit are the province of the Department of Transportation and Development. Environmental affairs, conservation, forestry, and mineral resources are the responsibility of the Department of Natural Resources. The Motor Vehicle Office, Fire Protection Office, Emergency Preparedness Office, and Alcoholic Beverage Control Office are all within the Department of Public Safety.

Health services are administered mainly through the Department of Health and Hospitals (DHH), including Medicare, Medicaid, mental health services, services for citizens with developmental disabilities, and public health services. Such programs as supplemental food stamps, child welfare services, and services for the disabled, blind, and deaf, are administered by the Department of Social Services.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Louisiana's legal system is the only one in the United States to be based on civil or Roman law, specifically the Code Napoléon of France. Under Louisiana state law, cases may be decided by judicial interpretation of the statutes, without reference to prior court cases, whereas in other states and in the federal courts the common law prevails, and decisions are generally based on previous judicial interpretations and findings. In actual practice, Louisiana laws no longer differ radically from US common law, and most Louisiana lawyers and judges now cite previous cases in their arguments and rulings.

The highest court in Louisiana is the Supreme Court, with appellate jurisdiction. It consists of a chief justice who is chosen by seniority of service, and seven associate justices, all of them elected from six supreme court districts (the first district has two judges) for staggered 10-year terms. There are five appellate circuits in the state, each divided into three districts; the five circuits are served by 54 judges, all of them elected for overlapping 10-year terms. Each of the state's district courts serves at least one parish and has at least one district judge, elected for a six-year term; there are 222 district judges. District courts have original jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases. City courts are the principal courts of limited jurisdiction.

Louisiana may have been the first state to institute a system of leasing convict labor. Large numbers of convicts were leased, especially after the Civil War, until the practice was discontinued in the early 1900s. The abuses entailed in this system may be suggested by the fact that, of 700 convicts leased in 1882, 149 died in service.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 36,939 prisoners were held in Louisiana's state and federal prisons, an increase from 36,047 of 2.5% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 2,386 inmates were female, down from 2,405 or 0.8% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Louisiana had an incarceration rate of 816 people per 100,000 population in 2004, the highest in the United States.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Louisiana in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 638.7 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 28,844 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 199,153 reported incidents or 4,410.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Louisiana has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state has executed 27 persons, although there were no executions in 2005, or in 2006 (as of 5 May). As of 1 January 2006, Louisiana had 85 inmates on death row.

Judges may also impose sentences of hard labor.

In 2003, Louisiana spent $530,079,419 on homeland security, an average of $117 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, the US Department of Defense had 33,000 personnel in Louisiana including 22,254 active-duty military and 3,315 civilians. There was one major army installation in the state, Ft. Polk at Leesville; an Air Force base at Barksdale near Bossier City; and a naval air station and support station in the vicinity of New Orleans. During fiscal year 2004, Louisiana firms received defense contracts totaling $2.5 billion. In addition, $1.8 billion in defense payroll, including retired military pay, was paid in the state.

There were 366,957 veterans of US military service in Louisiana as of 2003, of whom 48,602 served in World War II; 37,321 in the Korean conflict; 109,441 during the Vietnam era; and 66,646 dur-ing the Persian Gulf War. Expenditures on veterans during fiscal year 2004 amounted to $1.1 billion.

As of 31 October 2004, the Louisiana State Police employed 1,199 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Louisiana was settled by an unusually diverse assortment of immigrants. The Company of the Indies, which administered Louisiana from 1717 until 1731, at first began importing French convicts, vagrants, and prostitutes because of the difficulty of finding willing colonists. Next the company turned to struggling farmers in Germany and Switzerland, who proved to be more suitable and productive settlers. The importation of slaves from Africa and the West Indies began early in the 18th century.

Attracted by generous land grants, perhaps 10,000 Acadians, or Cajunspeople of French descent who had been exiled from Nova Scotia (Acadia) during the 1740smigrated to Louisiana after the French and Indian War. They settled in the area of Lafayette and Breaux Bridge and along Bayou Lafourche and the Mississippi River. Probably the second-largest group to migrate in the late 18th century came from the British colonies and, after the Revolution, from the United States. Between 1800 and 1870, Americans settled the area north of the Red River. Small groups of Canary Islanders and Spaniards from Malaga also settled in the south, and in 179l, a number of French people fled to Louisiana during the slave insurrection on Hispaniola.

During the 1840s and 1850s, masses of Irish and German immigrants came to New Orleans. In the late 1880s, a large number of Midwestern farmers migrated to the prairies of southwestern Louisiana to become rice farmers. Louisiana did not immediately begin losing much of its black population after the Civil War. In fact, the number of blacks who migrated to Louisiana from the poorer southeastern states during the postwar years may have equaled the number of blacks who migrated before the war or were brought into the state as slaves. In 1879, however, "Kansas fever" struck blacks from the cotton country of Louisiana and Mississippi, and many of them migrated to the Wheat State; however, many later returned to their home states.

Beginning in World War II, large numbers of both black and white farm workers left Louisiana and migrated north and west. During the 1960s, the state had a net out-migration of 15% of its black population, but the trend had slowed somewhat by 1975.

Recent migration within the state has been from north to south, and from rural to urban areas, especially to Shreveport, Baton Rouge, and the suburbs of New Orleans. From 1980 to 1990, however, the state's urban population fell from 68.6% to 68.1% Overall, Louisiana suffered a net loss from migration of about 368,000 from 1940 to 1990. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 117,000 in domestic migration and a net gain of 25,000 in international migration. In 1998, 2,193 foreign immigrants arrived in Louisiana. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased 3.5%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 20,174 and net internal migration was 89,547, for a net loss of 69,373 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Among the interstate and regional efforts in which Louisiana participates are the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, Interstate Oil and Gas Compact, Interstate Compact for Juveniles, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Red River Compact, Sabine River Compact, Tangipahoa River Water way Compact, South Central Interstate Forest Fire Protection Compact, Southern Growth Policies Board, Southern Dairy Compact, Southern Rapid Rail Transit Compact, Southern States Energy Board, and Southern Regional Education Board. Federal grants to Louisiana during fiscal year 2005 amounted to $6.6 billion; that figure rose to an estimated $6.897 billion in fiscal year 2006 and an estimated $6.949 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Before the Civil War, when Louisiana was one of the most prosperous of southern states, its economy depended primarily on two then-profitable cropscotton and sugarand on its position as the anchor of the nation's principal north-south trade route. But the upheaval and destruction wrought by the war, combined with severe flood damage to cotton crops, falling cotton prices, and the removal of the federal bounty on sugar, left the economy stagnant through the end of the 19th century, although New Orleans retained its commercial importance as an exporter of cotton and grain.

With the addition of two major crops, rice and soybeans, the rebirth of the timber industry as a result of reforestation, the demand for pine for paper pulp, and most dramatically, the rise of the petrochemical industry, Louisiana's economy has regained much of its former vitality. Today, Louisiana ranks second only to Texas in the value of its mineral products.

Louisiana is primarily an industrial state, but its industries are to a large degree based on its natural resources, principally oil, natural gas, water, and timber. This reliance on a natural resource-based industrial sector has come at a price. These industries, and the state's economy, are subject to sharp commodity price swings, leading to a boom and bust cycle, particularly in the oil and natural gas sectors, as well as in those industries that are heavily reliant upon the price of oil and natural gas. A booming oil industry in the 1970s fueled an expansion in Louisiana's economy, but that expansion ended in the early 1980s, when the price of oil dropped from $37 a barrel in 1981 to $15 a barrel in 1986. Employment in oil and gas extraction consequently dropped from 100,000 to 55,000. In addition, energy-related industries such as barge building, machinery manufacturing, and rig/platform production also suffered. At the same time that oil prices dropped, natural gas prices rose, forcing a contraction in the chemical industry which uses large quantities of natural gas. Chemicals were also hurt by a leap in the exchange value of the dollar in the mid-1980s, as Louisiana exports a large part of its chemical production. A subsequent drop in the dollar's exchange value in the late 1980s and early 1990s enabled the chemical industry not only to rebound, but to expand. A higher dollar in the late 1990s once again reversed the chemical industry's growth. In an attempt to offset losses in employment, Louisiana built several riverboat casinos and a land-based casino in 1995 which added about 7,000 jobs. The oil and gas extraction sector, however, continued to grow in both absolute and relative terms. While Louisiana has also seen growth in the state's various service sectors, output from manufacturing as a percent of gross state product has decreased from 16.8% in 1997 to 7.5% in 2004. During the national recession in 2001, employment gains contin-ued in health services, lodging establishments, state services, and in the transportation and public utilities sector. In August 2005, the state, along with the city and port of New Orleans, and the oil and natural gas industries were severely affected by Hurricane Katrina, and it was expected to take years for the state to recover from the damage inflicted.

Louisiana's gross state product (GSP) in 2004 totaled $152.944 billion, of which mining (about 99% is oil and gas production) contributed $19.669 billion or 12.8% of GSP, followed by real estate at $15.354 billion (10% of GSP), and manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) at $11.522 billion (7.5% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 347,436 small businesses in Louisiana. Of the 96,084 businesses that had employees, a total of 93,742 or 97.6% were small companies. An estimated 9,875 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 6.2% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 9,668, down 20.6% from 2003. There were 622 business bankruptcies in 2004, up 24.6% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 649 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Louisiana as the 17th-highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 Louisiana had a gross state product (GSP) of $166 billion which accounted for 1.3% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 24 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Louisiana had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $27,297. This ranked 43rd in the United States and was 83% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.0%. Louisiana had a total personal income (TPI) of $123.0 billion, which ranked 25th in the United States and reflected an increase of 5.9% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 4.4%. Earnings of persons employed in Louisiana increased from $86.9 billion in 2003 to $91.3 billion in 2004, an increase of 5.1%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 2002 to 2004 in 2004 dollars was $35,523 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 17.0% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Louisiana was 1,872,700, with approximately 90,100 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.8%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 1,759,500. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Louisiana was 12.9% in September 1986. The historical low was 4.3% in February 2006. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 8.1% in manufacturing; 20.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5.3% in financial activities; 9.6% in professional and business services; 11.9% in education and health services; 9.6% in leisure and hospitality services; and 21% in government.

During the antebellum period, Louisiana had both the largest slave market in the United StatesNew Orleansand the largest slave revolt in the nation's history, in St. Charles and St. John the Baptist parishes in January 1811. New Orleans also had a relatively large free black population, and many of the slaves in the city were skilled workers, some of whom were able to earn their freedom by outside employment. Major efforts to organize Louisiana workers began after the Civil War. There were strikes in the cane fields in the early 1880s, and in the mid-1880s, the Knights of Labor began to organize the cane workers. The strike they called in 1886 was ended by hired strikebreakers, who killed at least 30 blacks. Back in New Orleans, the Knights of Labor led a general strike in 1892. The Brotherhood of Timber Workers began organizing in 1910 but had little to show for their efforts except the scars of violent conflict with the lumber-mill owners.

A right-to-work law was passed in 1976, partly as a result of violent conflict between an AFL-CIO building trades union and an independent union over whose workers would build a petrochemical plant near Lake Charles. In 1979, a police strike began in New Orleans on the eve of Mardi Gras, causing the cancellation of most of the parades, but it collapsed the following month.

The BLS reported that in 2005, a total of 114,000 of Louisiana's 1,778,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 6.4% of those so employed, down from 7.6% in 2004, and below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 132,000 workers (7.4%) in Louisiana were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Louisiana is one of 22 states with a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Louisiana did not have a state-mandated minimum wage law. Employees in that state however, were covered under federal minimum wage statutes. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.8% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

With a farm income of $2.1 billion in 200557% from cropsLouisiana ranked 34th among the 50 states. Nearly every crop grown in North America can be raised somewhere in Louisiana. In the south are strawberries, oranges, sweet potatoes, and truck crops; in the southeast, sugarcane; and in the southwest, rice and soybeans. Soybeanswhich were introduced into Louisiana after World War Iare also raised in the cotton-growing area of the northeast and in a diagonal belt running east-northwest along the Red River. Oats, alfalfa, corn, potatoes, and peaches are among the other crops grown in the north.

As of 2004, there were an estimated 27,200 farms covering 7.85 million acres (3.18 million hectares) with an average farm size of 290 acres (117 hectares). Louisiana ranked second in the United States in sugar cane production. Cash receipts for the sugar crop in 2003 amounted to $304.2 million 10,320,000 tons. Louisiana ranked third in the value of its rice production in 2004, $223.9 million for 28,522,000 hundredweight (a unit of measure equal to 100 lb); and eighth for upland cotton in 2004, $200.5 million for 885,000 bales.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In the mid-19th century, before rice production began there, southwestern Louisiana was a major cattle-raising area. Today, cattle are raised mainly in the southeast (between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers), in the north-central region, and in the west.

In 2005, there were an estimated 860,000 cattle and calves worth $670.8 million. In 2004, Louisiana had an estimated 16,000 hogs and pigs worth around $1.7 million. Dairy farmers had an estimated 43,000 milk cows, which produced 519 million lb (236 million kg) of milk in 2003. Also during 2003, poultry farmers produced an estimated 7.5 million lb (3.4 million kg) of chicken, which sold for $631,000, and an estimated 487 million eggs worth around $35.9 million.

FISHING

In 2004, Louisiana was second behind only Alaska in the size and value of its commercial landings, with nearly 1.1 billion lb (500 million kg) valued at $274.4 million. Leading ports in volume were Empire-Venice (379 million lb/172 million kg, third in the nation), Intracoastal City (301.8 million lb/137.2 million kg, fifth in the nation), and Cameron (243.1 million lb/110.5 million kg, sixth in the nation). In value, Empire-Venice was sixth in the nation with $60.2 million and Dulac-Chauvin was 11th with $42.8 million.

The most important species caught in Louisiana are shrimp, hard blue crab, and oysters. In 2004, shrimp landings in Louisiana amounted to 134.3 million lb/61 million kg), the highest in the nation. Hard blue crab landings in the state accounted for 26% of the national total. In 2002, the state commercial fleet had 8,874 boats and 2,084 vessels. In 2003, there were 90 processing and 114 wholesale plants in the state.

Louisiana produces most of the US crawfish harvest. With demand far exceeding the natural supply, crawfish farming began about 1959. In 2004, 1,126 crawfish farms covered some 118,250 acres (47,856 hectares), producing 69.5 million lb (28.1 million kg). Spring water levels of the state's Atchafalaya Basin cause the wild crawfish harvest to vary from year to year. Catfish are also cultivated in Louisiana, on 38 farms covering some 7,600 acres (3,075 hectares) in 2005, with a 2006 inventory of about 18.4 million fingerlings and 12.2 million stocker-sized catfish. Cash receipts from sales of catfish were $14.3 million in 2004.

The Natchitoches National Fish Hatchery focuses on paddlefish, striped bass, and pallid sturgeon, but also raises largemouth bass, bluegill, and catfish in limited quantities.

Louisiana had 639,139 sport fishing license holders in 2004.

FORESTRY

As of 2004, there were 14,017,000 acres (5,673,000 hectares) of forestland in Louisiana, representing over half the state's land area and 2% of all US forests. The principal forest types are loblolly and shortleaf pine in the northwest, longleaf and slash pine in the south, and hardwood in a wide area along the Mississippi River. More than 99% of Louisiana's forests are commercial timberland, over 90% of it privately owned. Lumber production totaled 1.52 billion board feet in 2004.

Louisiana has one national forest, Kisatchie, with a gross area of 1,022,373 acres (413,754 hectares) within its boundaries; gross acreage of National Forest System lands in the state was 2,049,000 acres (829,000 hectares) in 2005. Near the boundaries of Kisatchie's Evangeline Unit is the Alexander State Forest, established in 1923.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Louisiana in 2003 was $331 million, an increase from 2002 of about 6%. The USGS data ranked Louisiana as 34th among the 50 states by the total value of its nonfuel mineral production, accounting for around 1% of total US output.

Salt was the state's leading nonfuel mineral commodity in 2003, accounting for about 41% of all nonfuel mineral production (by value) that year. It was followed by construction sand and gravel, which accounted for 32% of all nonfuel mineral output (by value), crushed stone, industrial sand and gravel (about 4% of output by value), and lime. According to preliminary data, the production of salt in 2003 totaled 12.1 million metric tons and was valued at $135 million, while the output of construction sand and gravel totaled 19.7 million metric tons, with a value of $107 million. Industrial sand and gravel output in 2003 totaled 529,000 metric tons and was valued at $11.8 million, according to the preliminary data. Louisiana in 2003 was the largest salt producing state in the United States.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Louisiana had 43 electrical power service providers, of which 22 were publicly owned and 13 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, five were investor owned, and three were owners of independent generators that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were 2,131,340 retail customers. Of that total, 1,611,090 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 366,208 customers, while publicly owned providers had 153,740 customers. There were 302 independent generator or "facility" customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 25.748 million kW, with total production that same year at 94.885 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 45.8% came from electric utilities, with the remainder (54.2%) coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 45.434 billion kWh (47.9%), came from natural gas fired plants, with coal-fired plants in second place at 22.888 billion kWh (24.1%) and nuclear fueled plants in third at 16.126 billion kWh (17%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 3.3%% of all power generated, with petroleum fired plants at 3.1%, plants using other types of gases at 2.8%, hydroelectric at 0.9% and "other" types of generating facilities at 0.8%.

As of 2006, Louisiana had two nuclear power plants: the River Bend plant in West Feliciana, near Baton Rouge; and the Waterford plant near Taft, in St. Charles Parish.

Oil and gas production has expanded greatly since World War II, but production reached its peak in the early 1970s and proven reserves are declining. As of 2004, Louisiana had proven crude oil reserves of 427 million barrels, or 2% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 228,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked eighth (seventh excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and fifth (fourth excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 Louisiana had 19,970 producing oil wells and accounted for 4% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's 17 refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 2,772,723 barrels per day.

In 2004, Louisiana had 20,734 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 1,357.366 billion cu ft (38.5 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 9,588 billion cu ft (272.2 billion cu m).

Louisiana in 2004, had two producing coal mines, both of which were surface operations. Coal production that year totaled 3,805,000 short tons, down from 4,028,000 short tons in 2003. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

INDUSTRY

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Louisiana's manufacturing sector covered some 19 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $124.304 billion. Of that total, petroleum and coal products manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $53.365 billion. It was followed by chemical manufacturing at $39.911 billion; transportation equipment manufacturing at $7.369 billion; food manufacturing at $6.601 billion; and paper manufacturing at $4.456 billion.

In 2004, a total of 140,985 people in Louisiana were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 103,159 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the chemical manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 22,903 with 14,458 actual production workers. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing at 19,992 employees (15,284 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing at 19,184 employees (14,788 actual production workers); food manufacturing at 17,607 employees (12,995 actual production workers); and paper manufacturing with 8,680 employees (6,964 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Louisiana's manufacturing sector paid $6.704 billion in wages. Of that amount, the chemical manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $1.630 billion. It was followed by transportation equipment manufacturing at $940.776 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $793.515 million; petroleum and coal products manufacturing at $774.905 million; and food manufacturing at $517.504 million.

The Standard Oil Refinery (now owned by Exxon) that is today the largest in North America began operations in Louisiana in 1909, the same year construction started on the state's first long-distance oil pipeline. Since then, a huge and still-growing petrochemical industry has become a dominant force in the state's economy. Other expanding industries are wood products and, especially since World War II, shipbuilding.

The principal industrial regions extend along the Mississippi River from north of Baton Rouge to New Orleans, and also include the Monroe, Shreveport, Morgan City, and Lake Charles areas.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Louisiana's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $47.1 billion from 5,904 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 3,672 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1,987 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 245 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $15.2 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $28.9 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $3.01 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Louisiana was listed as having 17,613 retail establishments with sales of $41.8 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: gasoline stations (2,545); food and beverage stores (2,336); clothing and clothing accessories stores (2,299); and motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,998). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts stores accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $11 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $7.8 billion; food and beverage stores at $5.4 billion; gasoline stations at $4.3 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $3.3 billion. A total of 228,290 people were employed by the retail sector in Louisiana that year.

Exporters located in Louisiana exported $19.2 billion in merchandise during 2005.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Consumer protection is the responsibility of the Consumer Protection Section, which is under the state's Office of the Attorney General. The section investigates and mediates consumer complaints, takes action against companies allegedly engaging in unfair business practices, distributes consumer publications, and registers multi-level marketing, telemarketing, and charitable organizations, as authorized by the state's Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices Act. However, the section does not handle the areas of insurance, banking, or utilities.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. However, the Attorney General's office cannot represent individual consumers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and represent counties, cities, and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law. However, the Office cannot file for criminal proceedings for antitrust actions.

The offices of the Consumer Protection Section of the Attorney General's Office is located in Baton Rouge. A county government office is also located in the city of Gretna.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Louisiana had 164 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 53 state-chartered and 201 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the New Or-leans-Metairie-Kenner market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, with 42 institutions and $20.066 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 8.9% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $5.986 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 91.1% or $61.010 billion in assets held.

Louisiana state-chartered banks are regulated by the Office of Financial Institutions under the Department of Economic Development. Federally chartered banks are regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

As of fourth quarter 2005, the median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans), was 4.59%, up from 4.42% in 2004 and 4.40% in 2003. Prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005 was on track to be a record year for earnings by the financial institutions based in Louisiana. However, those insured institutions located in the most heavily impacted parishes, as of early 2006 continued to report significant decreases in profits. In fourth quarter 2005, median return on assets for those parishes was 0.46%.

INSURANCE

In 2004 there were over 4.6 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of over $179 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $267 billion. The average coverage amount is $38,500 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled at about $910.6 million.

There were 58 life and health and 33 property and casualty insurance companies domiciled in the state at the end of 2003. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $7.4 billion. That year, there were 380,192 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $53.9 billion. About $1.2 billion of coverage was held in Beach and Windstorm plans and another $22.7 billion of coverage was held through FAIR plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas.

In 2004, 48% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 5% held individual policies, and 28% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 19% of residents were uninsured. Louisiana tied with four other states as having the fourth-highest percentage of uninsured residents in the nation. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 19% for single coverage. The average employee contribution for family coverage was one of the highest in the nation at 30%. The state offers a 12-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 2.6 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $10,000 per individual and $20,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $1,013.93, the sixth-highest average in the nation.

The Department of Insurance administers Louisiana's laws governing the industry.

SECURITIES

There are no securities or commodities exchanges in Louisiana. In 2005, there were 670 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 1,340 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 73 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 18 NASDAQ companies, 17 NYSE listings, and 5 AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had two Fortune 500 companies; Entergy (based in New Orleans) ranked first in the state and 218th in the nation with revenues of over $10.7 billion, followed by Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold, Inc. (New Orleans) at 480th in the nation. Shaw Group (Baton Rouge), CenturyTel (Monroe), and SCP Pool (Covington) were listed in the Fortune 1,000. SCP Pool is listed on NASDAQ and the others are listed with the NYSE.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The budget is prepared by the state executive budget director and submitted annually by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval. The fiscal year (FY) runs from 1 July through 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $7.1 billion for resources and $6.7 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Louisiana were $7.7 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Louisiana was slated to receive: $37.5 million in incremental funding for a $150 million project for the construction of the 36-mile segment of I-49 between the Arkansas State line and I-220 in Shreveport; $25 million for planning, design, and science-related efforts to restore the Louisiana coastal wetlands and barrier island ecosystem.

TAXATION

In 2005, Louisiana collected $8,639 million in tax revenues or $1,910 per capita, which placed it 36th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 0.5% of the total, sales taxes 33.1%, selective sales taxes 20.0%, individual income taxes 27.7%, corporate income taxes 4.1%, and other taxes 14.6%.

As of 1 January 2006, Louisiana had three individual income tax brackets ranging from 2% to 6%. The state taxes corporations at rates ranging from 4% to 8% depending on tax bracket.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $2.5 billion or $502 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state fifth-lowest nationally. Local governments collected $2.2 billion of the total and the state government $39.7 million.

Louisiana taxes retail sales at a rate of 4%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 6.25%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 10.25%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is exempt from state tax, but subject to local taxes. The tax on cigarettes is 36 cents per pack, which ranks 42nd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Louisiana taxes gasoline at 20 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Louisiana citizens received $1.45 in federal spending.

LouisianaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 23,730,239 5,265.20
  General revenue 19,156,139 4,250.31
    Intergovernmental revenue 6,995,885 1,552.23
    Taxes 8,030,495 1,781.78
      General sales 2,680,716 594.79
      Selective sales 1,929,796 428.18
      License taxes 429,068 95.20
      Individual income tax 2,192,038 486.36
      Corporate income tax 236,745 52.53
      Other taxes 562,132 124.72
    Current charges 2,390,841 530.47
    Miscellaneous general revenue 1,738,918 385.83
  Utility revenue 4,870 1.08
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 4,569,230 1,013.81
Total expenditure 20,471,959 4,542.26
  Intergovernmental expenditure 4,410,251 978.53
  Direct expenditure 16,061,708 3,563.72
    Current operation 11,117,933 2,466.81
    Capital outlay 1,303,178 289.15
    Insurance benefits and repayments 2,459,609 545.73
    Assistance and subsidies 501,576 111.29
    Interest on debt 679,412 150.75
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 3,754,815 833.11
Total expenditure 20,471,959 4,542.26
  General expenditure 18,007,725 3,995.50
    Intergovernmental expenditure 4,410,251 978.53
    Direct expenditure 13,597,474 3,016.97
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 6,433,899 1,427.53
    Public welfare 4,122,416 914.67
    Hospitals 1,648,253 365.71
    Health 471,892 104.70
    Highways 1,138,233 252.55
    Police protection 259,125 57.49
    Correction 608,725 135.06
    Natural resources 396,585 87.99
    Parks and recreation 214,417 47.57
    Government administration 672,278 149.16
    Interest on general debt 679,412 150.75
    Other and unallocable 1,362,490 302.31
  Utility expenditure 4,625 1.03
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 2,459,609 545.73
Debt at end of fiscal year 10,182,940 2,259.36
Cash and security holdings 43,125,998 9,568.67

ECONOMIC POLICY

The Office of Commerce and Industry in the Department of Economic Development seeks to encourage investment and create jobs in the state and to expand the markets for Louisiana products. Financial assistance services for industrial development include state and local tax incentives and state "Enterprise Zone" legislation. The Louisiana Small Business Equity Corporation and the Louisiana Minority Business Development Authority offer financial assistance. Beginning in 1999, the Louisiana Economic Development Council prepared annual reports and action plans with a view to the implementation of the state's Master Plan for Economic Development dubbed Vision 2020. The three main goals of Vision 2020 were to, by 2020, recreate Louisiana as a place where all citizens are engaged in the pursuit of knowledge; create an economy driven by technology-intensive industries, and rank among the top 10 states in standard of living indicators. Successes in 2002 were reported in providing economic development incentives, and developing infrastructure for biosciences, information technology, research and development, and education.

With the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina and the breaching of the levees in New Orleans in 2005, Louisiana was faced with an entirely new economic development scenario. In September 2005, President George W. Bush announced he would create a Gulf Opportunity Zone for Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Businesses would be able to double to $200,000 the amount they could deduct from their taxes for investments in new equipment. It would also provide a 50% bonus depreciation and make loan guarantees available. Congress passed the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act in December 2005, which provides a number of tax incentives to encourage the rebuilding of areas ravaged by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 9.5 per 1,000 live births, representing the third-highest rate in the country (following the District of Columbia and Mississippi). The birth rate in 2003 was 14.5 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 13 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 84.1% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 75% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 9.5 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 249.5; cancer, 210.6; cerebrovascular diseases, 57.9; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 37.8; and diabetes, 39.6. Louisiana had the second-highest diabetes death rate in the nation, following West Virginia. The state also had the second-highest homicide death rate at 13.5 per 100,000 population (following the District of Columbia at 40.1 per 100,000); the national average death rate by homicide is 6.1 per 100,000. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 8.1 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 22.4 per 100,000 population, the fifth-highest rate in the nation. In 2002, about 58.4% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 23.4% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Louisiana had 127 community hospitals with about 17,800 beds. There were about 690,000 patient admissions that year and 10.8 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 10,600 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,177. Also in 2003, there were about 314 certified nursing facilities in the state with 38,397 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 75.9%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 68.2% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Louisiana had 262 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 873 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 2,040 dentists in the state.

About 28% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 19% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $6.3 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 90,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $195. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 807,896 persons (318,126 households); the average monthly benefit was about $100.96 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $978.7 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Louisiana's TANF cash assistance program is called the Family Independent Temporary Assistance Program (FITAP), and the work program is called FIND Work (Family Independence Work Program). In 2004, the state program had 46,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $73 million fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 739,180 Louisiana residents. This number included 377,770 retired workers, 104,640 widows and widowers, 109,910 disabled workers, 57,750 spouses, and 89,110 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 16.4% of the total state population and 90.3% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $888; widows and widowers, $826; disabled workers, $887; and spouses, $438. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $420 per month; children of deceased workers, $563; and children of disabled workers, $253. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 169,549 Louisiana residents, averaging $391 a month. An additional $38,000 of state-administered supplemental payments were distributed to 4,797 residents.

HOUSING

The Indians of Louisiana built huts with walls made of clay kneaded with Spanish moss and covered with cypress bark or palmetto leaves. The earliest European settlers used split cypress boards filled with clay and moss; a few early 18th-century houses with clay and moss walls remain in the Natchitoches area. Examples of later architectural styles also survive, including buildings constructed of bricks between heavy cypress posts, covered with plaster; houses in the raised cottage style, supported by brick piers and usually including a wide gallery and colonettes; the Creole dwellings of the Vieux Carre in New Orleans, built of brick and characterized by balconies and French windows; and urban and plantation houses from the Greek Revival period of antebellum Louisiana.

In 2004, Louisiana had an estimated 1,919,859 housing units, of which 1,713,680 were occupied. About 66.2% were owner-occupied. An estimated 65.7% of all units were single-family, detached homes. Nearly 39% of all housing units were built between 1970 and 1989. Most units relied on utility gas or electricity for heating. It was estimated that 121,505 units lacked telephone service, 7,424 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 8,581 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.56 members.

In 2004, 23,000 privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $95,910. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $902. Renters paid a median of $540 per month. In September 2005, the state received a grant of $300,000 from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $29.3 million in community development block grants (CDGB). New Orleans received over $15.4 million in CDBG grants the same year. Also in 2006, HUD offered an additional $6.2 billion to the state in emergency funds to rebuild housing that was destroyed by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in late 2005.

EDUCATION

Most education in Louisiana was provided through private (often parochial) schools until Reconstruction. Not until Huey Long's administration, when spending for education increased greatly and free textbooks were supplied, did education become a high priority of the state. As of 2004, 78.7% of Louisianians 25 years and older had completed high school, well below the national average of 84%. Some 22.4% had completed four or more years of college, below the national average of 26%.

Integration of New Orleans public schools began in 1960; two years later, the archbishop of New Orleans required that all Catholic schools under his jurisdiction be desegregated. However, it took a federal court order in 1966 to bring about integration in public schools throughout the state. By 1980, 36% of minority students in Louisiana were in schools with less than 50% minority enrollment, and 25% were in schools with 99-100% minority enrollment.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Louisiana's public schools stood at 730,000. Of these, 537,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 194,000 attended high school. Approximately 48.5% of the students were white, 47.7% were black, 1.8% were Hispanic, 1.3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.7% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 709,000 in fall 2003 and was expected to be 707,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 3.3% during the period 2002 to 2014. Expenditures for public education in 200304 were estimated at $5.7 billion. In fall 2003, there were 140,492 students enrolled in 440 private schools. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005 eighth graders in Louisiana scored 268 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 232,140 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 34.7% of total postsecondary enrollment. As of 2005, Louisiana had 90 degree-granting institutions. There are 16 public four-year schools, 46 public two-year institutions, and 10 private four-year nonprofit institutions. The center of the state university system is Louisiana State University (LSU), founded at Baton Rouge; LSU also has campuses at Alexandria, Eunice, and Shreveport, and includes the University of New Orleans. Tulane University, founded in New Orleans in 1834, is one of the most distinguished private universities in the South, as is Loyola University, also in New Orleans. Southern University Agricultural and Mechanical System at Baton Rouge (1881) is one of the largest predominantly black universities in the country; other campuses are in New Orleans and Shreveport. Another mainly black institution is Grambling State University (1901).

The Louisiana Student Financial Assistance Commission and the Louisiana Tuition Trust Authority administer state loan, grant, and scholarship programs managed by the Louisiana Office of Student Financial Assistance. The state Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) organizes student exchanges with Quebec, Belgium, and France and aids Louisianians studying French abroad.

ARTS

The Louisiana Division of the Arts (LDOA; est. 1977), the largest arts grantmaker in the state, is an agency of the state Office of Cultural Development, Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism. In the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005, the LDOA worked with the Louisiana Partnership for the Arts to assess the impact these disasters had on the art communities. Arts projects are funded in every parish (county) in the state through the LDOA Decentralized Arts Funding Program. In 2005, Louisiana arts organizations received 24 grants totaling $1,150,100 from the National Endowment for the Arts.

The Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities was established in 1971. As of 2006, ongoing programs included "Relic: Readings in Literature and Culture" and "Prime Time Family Reading Time." In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded 17 grants totaling $2,037,337 to state organizations.

New Orleans has long been one of the most important centers of artistic activity in the South. The earliest theaters were French, and the first of these was started by refugees from Hispaniola, who put on the city's first professional theatrical performance in 1791. The American Theater, which opened in 1824, attracted many of the finest actors in America, as did the nationally famous St. Charles. Showboats traveled the Mississippi and other waterways, bringing dramas, musicals, and minstrel shows to river towns and plantations as early as the 1840s, with their heyday being the 1870s and 1880s.

Principal theaters included the New Orleans Theater of the Performing Arts, the Saenger Theater in New Orleans (one of the "grand old theaters"), the Tulane Theater, and Le Petit Theatre du Vieux Carre. Le Petit Theatre was established in 1916 and has been recognized as one of the leading community theaters in the nation. During the 200405 season Le Petit Theatre began a construction project on the main stage providing a complete orchestra pit, a new stage, and a fly loftthe stage had been unchanged since 1922. Junebug Productions is a black touring company based in New Orleans. Louisiana State University (LSU) at Baton Rouge has theaters for both opera and drama. Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Monroe, Lake Charles, and Hammond are among the cities with little theaters, and Baton Rouge, Lafayette, and Lake Charles have ballet companies. There are symphony orchestras in most of the larger cities, the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) being the best known. Although Hurricane Katrina battered the state, devastating New Orleans in 2005, the LPO returned to New Or leans with a spring concert season during March, April, and May 2006.

It is probably in music that Louisiana has made its most distinctive contributions to culture. Jazz was born in New Orleans around 1900; among its sources was the music played by brass bands at carnivals and at Negro funerals, and its immediate precursor was the highly syncopated music known as ragtime. Early jazz in the New Orleans style is called Dixieland; Louis Armstrong pioneered the transformation of jazz from the Dixieland ensemble style to a medium for solo improvisation. Traditional Dixieland has been played by performers associated with the Preservation Hall, Dixieland Hall, and the New Orleans Jazz Club. In 2005, many of the buildings that housed these organizations and clubs were either severely damaged or destroyed by the forces of Hurricane Katrina. Despite having to close buildings, groups like the Hall Jazz Band of the Preservation Hall continued touring; the Preservation Hall celebrated its 45th anniversary on tour in 2006. Equally distinctive is Cajun music, dominated by the sound of the fiddle and accordion.

Visual arts in the state flourish, especially in New Orleans, home to the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. Prompted by the devastation of Hurricane Katrina the museum showcased several special exhibits including, Come Hell and High Water: Portraits of Hurricane Katrina Survivors, New Housing Prototypes for New Orleans, and Louisiana Story: A Photographic Journey.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

For the calendar year 2001, Louisiana's 64 parishes were served by 65 public library systems, with a total of 329 libraries, of which 264 were branches. In that same year, the public library system had 10,850,000 volumes of books and serial publications on its shelves, and had a total circulation of 18,376,000. The system also had 230,000 audio and 309,000 video items, 13,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and 30 bookmobiles. The New Orleans Public Library, with 14 branches and 739,473 books, features a special collection on jazz and folk music, and the Tulane University Library (1,765,000 volumes) has special collections on jazz and Louisiana history. Among the libraries with special black-studies collections are those of Grambling State University, Southern University Agricultural and Mechanical System at Baton Rouge, Xavier University of Louisiana at New Orleans, and the Amistad Collection at Tulane University. The library of Northwestern State University at Natchitoches has special collections on Louisiana history, folklore, Indians, botany, and oral history. In 2001, operating income for the state's public library system was $112,068,000, which included $107,000 in federal funds and $6,817,000 in state funds.

As of 2000, Louisiana had 89 museums and historic sites, as well as more than 27 art collections. Leading art museums are the New Orleans Museum of Art, the Lampe Gallery in New Orleans, and the R. W. Norton Art Gallery at Shreveport. The art museum of the Louisiana Arts and Science Center at Baton Rouge is located in the renovated Old Illinois Central Railroad Station. The oldest and largest museum in the state is the Louisiana State Museum, an eight-building historic complex in the Vieux Carre. There is a military museum in Beauregard House at Chalmette National Historical Park, on the site of the Battle of New Orleans, and a Confederate Museum in New Orleans. The Bayou Folk Muse-um at Cloutierville is in the restored home of author Kate Chopin; the Longfellow-Evangeline State Commemorative Area has a historical museum on its site. Among the state's scientific museums are the Lafayette Natural History Museum, Planetarium, and Nature Station, and the Museum of Natural Science in Baton Rouge. Audubon Park and Zoological Gardens are in New Orleans. The "Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection" at LSU is an extensive collection of Louisiana history, photographs, and manuscripts.

COMMUNICATIONS

The second rural free delivery route in the United States, and the first in Louisiana, was established on 1 November 1896 at Thibodaux. As of 2004, 90.9% of Louisiana's occupied housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 2,547,153 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 52.3% of Louisiana households had a computer and 44.1% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 536,339 high-speed lines in Louisiana, 475,284 residential and 610,055 for business.

In 2005, the state had 77 major radio broadcasting stations (15 AM and 62 FM) as well as 32 television stations. In 1999, New Orleans had 629,820 television households, 76% of which had cable TV.

As of 2000, a total of 46,786 Internet domain names had been registered in Louisiana.

PRESS

At one time, New Orleans had as many as nine daily newspapers (four English, three French, one Italian, and one German), but by 1997 there was only one, the Times-Picayune. In 2005, Louisiana had a total of 15 morning dailies, 11 evening dailies, and 21 Sunday papers.

The following table shows the principal dailies with their approximate 2005 circulations:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
Baton Rouge Advocate (m,S) 87,026 115,442
New Orleans Times-Picayune (m,S) 252,799 281,374
Shreveport Times (m,S) 62,511 77,090

Two influential literary magazines originated in the state. The Southern Review was founded at Louisiana State University in the 1930s by Robert Penn Warren and Cleanth Brooks. The Tulane Drama Review, founded in 1955, moved to New York University in 1967 but is still known by its original acronym, TDR.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 3,076 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 2,085 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. Among business or professional organizations with headquarters in Louisiana are the American Shrimp Processors Association and the Southern Pine Council. Blue Key, a national honor society, has its headquarters in Metairie. The American Bone Marrow Donor Registry is based in Mandeville.

State and local organization for the arts include the Acadiana Arts Council, the Louisiana Division of the Arts, the Louisiana Historical Association, the Louisiana Preservation Alliance, the New Orleans Jazz Club, the North Central Louisiana Arts Council, and the Northeast Louisiana Arts Council.

Civil rights groups represented in the state include the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League. Especially active during the 1970s were the local branches of the American Civil Liberties Union, the Louisiana Coalition on Jails and Prisons, and its legal arm, the Southern Prisoners Defense Council, and the Fishermen's and Concerned Citizens Association of Plaquemines Parish, which organized a campaign against the continued domination of the parish by the descendants of Leander Perez, a racist judge who wielded power there for 50 years until his death in 1969.

The Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, is headquartered in Denham Springs.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

In 2000, there were 15.4 million visitors to the state of Louisiana. Initial reports for 2001 estimated a total travel-related economic impact of $9 billion, including support for 124,200 jobs. The two most popular activities for tourists were shopping and gambling. However, in 2005 Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and surrounding areas, and tourism was virtually eliminated. Because two-thirds of New Orleans was submerged, a majority of the population was forced to relocate, either temporarily or permanently. Tulane and Loyola universities were forced to cancel at least one semester of classes. Many of those students did not return. As of 2006, only the French Quarter of New Orleans was able to support some tourism. A Mardi Gras celebration was held, but it was shortened from its usual month to a week.

New Orleans is one of the major tourist attractions in the United States. Known for its fine restaurants, serving such distinctive fare as gumbo, jambalaya, crawfish, and beignets, along with an elaborate French-inspired haute cuisine, New Orleans also offers jazz clubs, the graceful buildings of the French Quarter, and a lavish carnival called Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"). Beginning on the Wednesday before Shrove Tuesday, parades and balls staged by private organizations called krewes are held almost nightly. In other towns, people celebrate Mardi Gras in their own, no less uproarious, manner. Probably the greatest attraction of Louisiana is its French heritage. Everything from French law, to the division of the state into parishes instead of counties, to the French cuisine, and to the use of the Creole language, is a major attraction to tourists.

Among the many other annual events that attract visitors to the state are the blessing of the shrimp fleet at the Louisiana Shrimp and Petroleum Festival in Morgan City on Labor Day weekend and the blessing of the cane fields during the Louisiana Sugar Cane Festival at New Iberia in September. October offers the International Rice Festival (including the Frog Derby) at Crowley, Louisiana Cotton Festival at Ville Platte (with a medieval jousting tournament), the Louisiana Yambilee Festival at Opelousas, and the Louisiana State Fair at Shreveport. Attractions of the Natchitoches Christmas Festival include 170,000 Christmas lights and spectacular fireworks displays. There are tours of plantations starting in St. Francisville. Monroe is the home of the first Coca-Cola bottler, Joseph Biedenhorn. Jean Lafitte National Historical Park has 10 miles of raised boardwalks through the Louisiana swamps and marshes from which tourists can view wildlife (especially alligators).

Louisiana's 34 state parks and recreation sites total 39,000 acres (15,800 hectares).

SPORTS

Louisiana has two major professional sports teams: the Saints of the National Football League and the Hornets of the National Basketball Association. The Hornets were formerly located in Charlotte. Both the Saints and Hornets are located in New Orleans, however, due to Hurricane Katrina, both teams were forced to play in San Antonio and Oklahoma City, respectively. The Super Bowl has been held in New Orleans six times: in 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, and 2002. It has been played in the Louisiana Superdome, the largest indoor arena in the United States.

New Orleans also has a minor league baseball team, the Zephyrs, of the Triple-A Pacific Coast League. In Shreveport, the Captains compete in the Double-A Texas League. There are several other minor league baseball and hockey teams scattered throughout the state.

During the 1850s, New Orleans was the horse-racing center of the United States, and racing is still popular in the state. The principal tracks are the Louisiana Jockey Club at the Fair Grounds in New Orleans, and Evangeline Downs at Lafayette. Gambling has long been widespread in Louisiana, particularly in the steamboat days, when races along the Mississippi drew huge wagers.

From the 1880s to World War I, New Orleans was the nation's boxing capital, and in 1893, the city was the site of the longest bout in boxing history, between Andy Bowen and Jack Burke, lasting 7 hours and 19 minutes110 roundsand ending in a draw. The TPC of Louisiana at Fairfield is a newly constructed championship-level golf course that became the home of the PGA's HP Classic in 2005.

In 1935, Tulane University inaugurated the Sugar Bowl (which they won that year for the first and only time), an annual New Year's Day event and one of the most prestigious bowl games in college football. Louisiana State University (LSU) won the Sugar Bowl in 1959, 1965, and 1968. They were named National Champions in 1958 and co-champions with USC in 2003. The LSU Tigers baseball team won the College World Series in 1991, 1993, 1996, and 1997. The LSU Tigers appeared in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Final Four in 1953, 1981, 1986, and 2006, and have had a number of famous basketball alumni, including "Pistol" Pete Maravich and Shaquille O'Neal.

Professional sports heroes Terry Bradshaw, Bill Russell, and Marshall Faulk all were born within the state's borders.

FAMOUS LOUISIANIANS

Zachary Taylor (b. Virginia, 17841850) is the only US president to whom Louisiana can lay claim. Taylor, a professional soldier who made his reputation as an Indian fighter and in the Mexican War, owned a large plantation north of Baton Rouge, which was his residence before his election to the presidency in 1848. Edward Douglass White (18451921) served first as associate justice of the US Supreme Court and then as chief justice.

Most other Louisianians who have held national office won more fame as state or confederate officials. John Slidell (b. New York, 17931871), an antebellum political leader, also played an important role in Confederate diplomacy. Judah P. Benjamin (b. West Indies, 181184), of Jewish lineage, was a US senator before the Civil War; during the conflict he held three posts in the Confederate cabinet, after which he went to England and became a leading barrister. Henry Watkins Allen (b. Virginia, 182066) was elected governor of Confederate Louisiana in 1864, after he had been maimed in battle; perhaps the best administrator in the South, he installed a system of near-socialism in Louisiana as the fortunes of the Confederacy waned. During and after the Civil War, many Louisianians won prominence as military leaders. Leonidas Polk (b. North Carolina, 180664), the state's first Episcopal bishop, became a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army and died in the Atlanta campaign. Zachary Taylor's son Richard (b. Kentucky, 182679), a sugar planter who also became a Confederate lieutenant general, is noted for his defeat of Nathaniel P. Bank's Union forces in the Red River campaign of 1864. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (181893) attained the rank of full general in the Confederate Army and later served as director of the Louisiana state lottery, one of the state's major sources of revenue at that time. In the modern era, General Claire Chennault (b. Texas, 18931958) commanded the famous "Flying Tigers" and then the US 14th Air Force in China during World War II.

Throughout the 20th century, the Longs have been the first family of Louisiana politics. Without question, the most important state officeholder in Louisiana history was Huey P. Long (18931935), a latter-day Populist who was elected to the governorship in 1928 and inaugurated a period of social and economic reform. In the process, he made himself very nearly an absolute dictator within Louisiana. After his election to the US Senate, the "King Fish" became a national figure, challenging Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal with his "Share the Wealth" plan and flamboyant oratory. Huey's brother Earl K. Long (18951960) served three times as governor. Huey's son, US Senator Russell B. Long (19182003), was chairman of the Finance Committeeand, consequently, one of the most powerful men in Congressfrom 1965 to 1980.

Also prominent in Louisiana history were Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle (b. France, 164387), who was the first to claim the region for the French crown; Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville (b. Canada, 16611706), who commanded the expedition that first established permanent settlements in the lands La Salle had claimed; his brother, Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville (b. Canada, 16801768), governor of the struggling colony and founder of New Orleans; and Bernardo de Galvez (b. Spain, 174686), who, as governor of Spanish Louisiana during the last years of the American Revolution, conquered British-held Florida in a series of brilliant campaigns. William Charles Coles Claiborne (b. Virginia, 17751817) was the last territorial and first state governor of Louisiana. The state's first Republican governor, Henry Clay Warmoth (b. Illinois, 18421932), came there as a Union officer before the end of the Civil War and was sworn in at age 26. Jean Étienne de Boré (b. France, 17411820) laid the foundation of the Louisiana sugar industry by developing a process for granulating sugar from cane; Norbert Rillieux (birthplace unknown, 180694), a free black man, developed the much more efficient vacuum pan process of refining sugar.

Andrew Victor Schally (b. Poland, 1926), a biochemist on the faculty of the Tulane University School of Medicine, shared the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1977 for his research on hormones. Among other distinguished Louisiana professionals have been historian T. Harry Williams (190979), who won the Pulitzer Prize for his biography of Huey Long; architect Henry Hobson Richardson (183886); and four doctors of medicine: public health pioneer Joseph Jones (b. Georgia, 183396), surgical innovator Rudolph Matas (18601957), surgeon and medical editor Alton V. Ochsner (b. South Dakota, 18961981), and heart specialist Michael De Bakey (b.1908).

Louisiana's important writers include George Washington Cable (18441925), an early advocate of racial justice; Kate O'Flaherty Chopin (b.Missouri, 18511904); playwright and memoirist Lillian Hellman (190584); and novelists Walker Percy (b. Alabama, 19161990); Truman Capote (192484); Ernest Gaines (b.1933), author of The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman; Shirley Ann Grau (b.1929); and John Kennedy Toole (193769), the last two being winners of the Pulitzer Prize.

Louisiana has produced two important composers, Ernest Guiraud (183792) and Louis Gottschalk (182969). Jelly Roll Morton (Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe, 18851941), Pete Fountain (b.1930), and Sidney Bechet (18971959) were important jazz musicians, and Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong (19001971) was one of the most prolific jazz innovators and popular performers in the nation. The distinctive rhythms of pianist and singer Professor Longhair (Henry Byrd, 191880) were an important influence on popular music. Other prominent Louisianians in music are gospel singer Mahalia Jackson (191172), pianist-singer-songwriter Antoine "Fats" Domino (b.1928), and pop singer Jerry Lee Lewis (b.1935).

Louisiana baseball heroes include Hall of Famer Melvin Thomas "Mel" Ott (190958) and pitcher Ron Guidry (b.1950). Terry Bradshaw (b.1948), a native of Shreveport, quarterbacked the Super Bowl champion Pittsburgh Steelers during the 1970s. Player-coach William F. "Bill" Russell (b.1934) led the Boston Celtics to 10 National Basketball Association championships between 1956 and 1969. Chess master Paul Morphy (183784) was born in New Orleans.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abrahams, Roger D. Blues for New Orleans: Mardi Gras and America's Creole Soul. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Bell, Caryn Cossé. Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 17181868. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Brinkley, Douglas. The Great Deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow, 2006.

Calhoun, Milburn. Louisiana Almanac, 200607. Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing Co., 2006.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Fairclough, Adam. Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 19151972. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

Ferris, William (ed.). The South. Vol. 7 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Hogue, James Keith. Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Jobb, Dean. The Cajuns: A People's Story of Exile and Triumph. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Levinson, Sanford, and Bartholomew Sparrow (eds.). The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion, 18031898. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.

McAuliffe, Emily. Louisiana Facts and Symbols. Mankato, Minn.: Hilltop Books, 1999.

Norman, Corrie E., and Don S. Armentrout (eds.). Religion in the Contemporary South: Changes, Continuities, and Contexts. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

Tregle, Joseph George. Louisiana in the Age of Jackson: A Clash of Cultures and Personalities. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Louisiana, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

Worth, Richard. Voices from Colonial America. Louisiana, 16821803. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2005.

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA

LOUISIANA, a southeastern state bordered on the west by the Sabine River, Texas, and Oklahoma; on the north by Arkansas; to the east by the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers and the state of Mississippi; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana's French and Spanish history endowed the state with a rich and unique cultural heritage, while its geographic location at the mouth of the Mississippi River profoundly affected its historical development.

The Colonial Period

Humans reached present-day Louisiana some ten thousand years ago, at the end of the last ice age. By approximately 1,000 b.c., the area's Paleo-Indian peoples had constructed systems of large, earthen mounds that still exist at Poverty Point and elsewhere in the state. At the time of European contact, Louisiana's Indian population included the Caddos, Attakapas, Muskegons, Natchez, Chitimachas, and Tunicas. During the eighteenth century, other Indian groups from the British colonies to the east, such as the Choctaws, relocated in Louisiana.

During the sixteenth century, Spanish conquistadores, including Hernando De Soto, explored present-day Louisiana but did not settle it. European colonization of Louisiana began as an extension of French Canada, established as a fur-trading center in the early seventeenth century. As the century progressed, French control extended throughout the Great Lakes region. In 1672, Father Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi River as far south as Arkansas, heightening interest in a Gulf Coast colony. By the early 1680s, the French nobleman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, attempted to realize the French vision of a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River anchoring a central North American empire. Retracing Marquette's route in spring 1682, La Salle arrived at the river's mouth in early April. He claimed the entire Mississippi basin for France and named the area Louisiana for King Louis XIV. In 1684, La Salle attempted to establish a permanent colony, but his ill-fated expedition failed to locate the Mississippi River from the open sea and landed in present-day Texas. The settlement foundered, and in 1687 La Salle's own men murdered him.

Not until the late 1690s did France again attempt to establish a colony in Louisiana. This time the leader was the Canadian nobleman and French military officer Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville. Joined by his brother Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, and succeeding where La Salle had failed, Iberville located the Mississippi River from the open sea in spring 1699 and established a series of coastal settlements during the next several years. Whereas Iberville did not spend much time in Louisiana, succumbing to yellow fever in 1706, Bienville participated in colonial affairs for the next forty years, serving as military governor several times and founding New Orleans in 1718.

Initially a royal colony, Louisiana soon burdened the treasury and in 1712 became a proprietary colony under Antoine Crozat, who failed to make the colony profitable and in 1717 relinquished his charter. The crown then selected the Scotsman John Law as the new proprietor. An innovative financier, Law devised a plan in which the Royal Bank of France would underwrite Louisiana through Law's Company of the Indies. This Mississippi Bubble burst in the early 1720s, and Law fled France. A reorganized Company of the Indies led Louisiana to modest growth, but prosperity eluded the colony. The company surrendered its charter in 1731, and Louisiana remained a royal colony until French rule ended.

Louisiana's relatively late founding, semitropical climate, and undeserved reputation as a refuge for undesirables inhibited population growth. The oldest permanent European settlement in present-day Louisiana, Natchitoches, was founded in 1714. During the 1720s, several hundred German and Swiss immigrants settled along what is still called the Mississippi River's "German Coast." Baton Rouge was also founded in the 1720s but languished until the 1760s. Despite slow demographic growth, a distinct group of Creoles—native-born descendants of European settlers—eventually emerged, but by the 1760s, only about 5,000 whites inhabited Louisiana.

Problems of government compounded those of population. Louisiana chronically suffered from neglect by France and from lack of regular communication. Unclear lines of authority led to frequent quarrels among officials. Most importantly, as the product of an absolute monarchy, Louisiana failed to develop representative institutions, such as a colonial legislature, that could limit either the prerogatives or the abuses of royal appointed officials. Consequently, corruption and centralized power have historically characterized Louisiana government.

The 1763 Peace of Paris ended the French and Indian War and compelled France to relinquish its North American empire. France surrendered Louisiana east of the Mississippi River to England, and land west of the river to Spain, a French ally. Word of Spanish rule prompted discontent in New Orleans, a situation worsened by delay and confusion over the formal transfer of power. Resentment increased until 1768, when New Orleans revolted against Spanish rule. Authorities suppressed the insurrection the next year and executed several leaders.

Despite this difficult transition, Spanish Louisiana enjoyed stability and progress. Effective governors provided strong leadership, and generous land grants encouraged immigration. The free white population increased to more than 20,000 by 1800 and displayed much ethnic diversity, as Spaniards, Canary Islanders, Britons, Americans, Acadian exiles (today's Cajuns), and refugees from the French Revolution of the 1790s settled in Louisiana. The Spanish colony also enjoyed economic growth. The main crops during French rule had been tobacco and indigo, which brought little profit. During the 1790s, invention of the cotton gin and production of sugar in Louisiana precipitated an economic revolution.

Slave labor drove the new economic prosperity. Under French rule the colony's slave population had been small, about 4,000 by the early 1760s, and ethnically unified, as most slaves originated from West Africa's Sene-gambia region. Under Spanish rule the slave population increased to more than 16,000 and displayed ethnic complexity, as slaves were imported from various points throughout Africa. By the late eighteenth century, a distinct "Afro-Creole" culture combining African, Indian, and European influences had developed.

During the American Revolution, with Spain aiding the colonies, Governor Bernardo de Galvez led attacks against British East and West Florida that secured Spanish control of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Gulf of Mexico. After American independence, tensions grew between Spain and the United States over American access to the Mississippi River and the northern border of West Florida. These issues were resolved in 1795 with Pinckney's Treaty, in which Spain acquiesced to American demands.

Napoleon Bonaparte's 1799 ascension to power in France revived dreams of a French New World empire, and the following year Napoleon forced Spain to retro-cede Louisiana. News of this development prompted President Thomas Jefferson to initiate negotiations for the purchase of New Orleans. Talks went slowly, but by April 1803, Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana to the United States, resulting in the Louisiana Purchase Treaty.

The Nineteenth Century

American acquisition of Louisiana provoked Creole resentment and confronted the United States with the challenge of incorporating territory and people from outside the British tradition. Jefferson appointed W. C. C. Claiborne territorial governor and granted him broad powers to handle this unprecedented situation. Americans and their slaves swarmed into Louisiana: between 1803 and 1820 the white population increased from 21,000 to 73,000, and the slave population from 13,000 to 34,000. This migration transformed the Creoles into a distinct minority and sparked Anglo-Creole conflict over language, legal traditions, religion, and cultural practices. Although the Creoles eventually became reconciled to American rule, tensions lingered for many years.

In 1804, Congress created the Territory of Orleans—the future state of Louisiana—and later authorized election of a territorial legislature, which divided the territory into parishes (counties) and created local government. In 1810, the overwhelmingly American residents of Spanish West Florida rebelled and petitioned for U.S. annexation. Congress granted the request, and the area west of the Pearl River became part of the Territory of Orleans. The next year, Congress authorized a constitutional convention, half the delegates to which were Creoles, indicating their accommodation to American rule and republican government. Louisiana's 1812 constitution was a conservative document, reflecting its framers' suspicion of direct democracy and their belief in private property as the basis for citizenship. Congress admitted Louisiana as the eighteenth state on 30 April 1812, and Claiborne was elected the first governor, demonstrating further Creole reconciliation. Louisiana's geographical boundaries were finalized with the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty, which set the boundary between the United States and Spanish Mexico and defined Louisiana's western border.

Soon after Louisiana's statehood, the United States declared war on Britain. The War of 1812 culminated with General Andrew Jackson's victory in the Battle of New Orleans, which occurred before news of an armistice arrived from Europe. Jackson's triumph made him a national hero and guaranteed American westward expansion, but many New Orleanians resented Jackson for his declaring martial law and for his enlisting free black men to fight. Nonetheless, the Place des Armes was later renamed Jackson Square in his honor.

Before the Whig and Democratic parties emerged nationally during the late 1820s, state politics revolved around Louisiana's cultural, geographic, and economic divisions: Anglo-Creole, north-south, cotton-sugar, city-country. Organized parties partially redefined political alignments. Sugar planters, New Orleans professionals, and personal opponents of Jackson supported the Whigs, while cotton planters, the New Orleans working classes, and small farmers endorsed the Democrats. Louisiana's economic and demographic growth between 1820 and 1840 exacerbated political divisions and made the 1812 constitution obsolete. The white population grew from 73,000 to 158,000, while the slave population jumped from nearly 70,000 to more than 168,000. Much of northern Louisiana—previously sparsely populated—was settled, cotton and sugar production mushroomed, and New Orleans became a major commercial center. These changes, combined with the nationwide advance of Jacksonian Democracy, prompted Democratic calls for political reform, which the Whigs initially resisted but assented to by the early 1840s. The 1845 constitution heralded Jacksonian Democracy by inaugurating universal manhood suffrage, reining in the power of banks and corporations, and moving the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge, which was closer to the state's geographic center.

Before the Civil War, free African Americans further enhanced Louisiana's uniqueness. Resulting from Spanish manumission law, miscegenation, and the arrival of several thousand free-black refugees fleeing the Haitian slave revolt of the 1790s, Louisiana's free-black population was the Deep South's largest, peaking in 1840 at more than 25,000. Although relegated to second-class citizenship and largely impoverished, the free people of color nonetheless included a racially mixed elite, also called "Creoles," many of whom were French-speaking, wealthy, educated, and active in cultural and intellectual circles. After 1840, legal restrictions on manumission caused a decline in the number of free black people, who nonetheless would provide important leadership within the black community after the abolition of slavery.

The question of slavery consumed the nation during the 1850s, and, following Abraham Lincoln's election as president in 1860, Louisiana seceded on 26 January 1861, the sixth state to do so. By late April 1862, federal forces had captured New Orleans, and the city became a Unionist and Republican stronghold during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The Union triumph also prompted thousands of slaves to flee from nearby plantations and to seek protection from occupying federal forces, thereby helping to redefine the Civil War as a war against slavery. Under Lincoln's wartime Reconstruction plan, a Unionist state government was formed in early 1864 that formally abolished slavery. However, Confederate troops defeated a Union attempt to capture the Confederate state capital at Shreveport in 1864, and Louisiana remained politically and militarily divided until the war ended.

The Confederacy's defeat brought Reconstruction to the South. Even by the standards of the time, Louisiana was rife with violence. The New Orleans riot of 30 July 1866, in which white mobs killed black and white Republicans, helped scuttle President Andrew Johnson's restoration plan. The 1868 constitution instituted black suffrage and brought the Republican Party to power. Republicans attempted to fashion a biracial coalition that would implement economic and political reforms and achieve racial equality, but they could not overcome corruption, factionalism, and violent white opposition. The 1873 Colfax massacre, in which more than one hundred black men were slain, was the bloodiest event in the Reconstruction South and resulted in a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that undermined federal enforcement of black civil rights. By 1876, Louisiana Republicans were in retreat, and the state's electoral votes were contested in that year's presidential election, a dispute decided by the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction and returned Louisiana Democrats to power.

Reconstruction's demise inaugurated the state's Bourbon period, characterized by the rule of a wealthy, reactionary oligarchy that retained power until the 1920s and relegated Louisiana to economic underdevelopment. White supremacy, fiscal conservatism, electoral fraud, and contempt for the public good were the hallmarks of Bourbon rule, as even the modest gains of Reconstruction, such as creation of a state education system, were undone. Nothing reflected the Bourbon mindset better than the notorious Louisiana lottery, the corrupting influence of which attracted national opprobrium, and the convict-lease system, which sometimes subjected the overwhelmingly black inmates to annual mortality rates of twenty percent. The Bourbons' crowning achievements were the segregationist laws enacted during the 1890s, the blatant electoral fraud that prevented a Populist-Republican coalition from taking power in 1896, and the property and literacy requirements and poll tax provision of the 1898 constitution that deprived almost all blacks, and thousands of poor whites, of the right to vote, thus completely overturning Reconstruction. The U.S. Supreme Court's 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which sanctioned legal segregation, originated as a challenge to Louisiana's 1890 law requiring racially segregated accommodations on railroad cars in the state.

The Twentieth Century

The history of Louisiana was profoundly altered with the 1901 discovery of oil in the state. For the rest of the century, Louisiana's economic fortunes were pinned to those of the oil industry. The Progressive movement of the early twentieth century brought little change to Louisiana, dominated as it was by the Bourbon elite, except for implementation of the severance tax—a tax on natural resources that are "severed" from the earth—and creation of the white party primary system.

Louisiana experienced a political revolution with the 1928 election of Huey P. Long as governor. Long employed populistic rhetoric in appealing to the common people and in promising to unseat the entrenched elites. As governor and, after 1932, as United States senator, Long oversaw a vast expansion in public works and social services, building roads, bridges, schools, and hospitals, and providing free medical care and textbooks, all funded by increases in the severance tax and the state's bonded debt. In 1934, Long created the Share-the-Wealth movement, with its motto "Every Man a King," in which he promised to tax the wealthy in order to provide economic security for all American families. Intended as an alternative to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Share-the-Wealth won over millions of impoverished Americans and raised the possibility of Long challenging Roosevelt's 1936 reelection. However, Long's undemocratic methods, which included using the state's coercive power to stifle political dissent, combined with his presidential aspirations, provoked opposition and heightened fears of his becoming an American dictator. Long was assassinated in September 1935, allegedly by a political opponent, although controversy has continued to surround this event. Long left an ambiguous legacy: he improved daily life for common people, but his dictatorial tactics, corrupt practices, and centralization of power were in keeping with Louisiana traditions, and, despite Long's successes, Louisiana remained amongst the nation's poorest states.

For the next twenty-five years, contests between Longite and anti-Longite—or reform—factions of the Democratic Party characterized Louisiana politics. In 1939, a series of exposés revealing widespread corruption sent many leading Longites to prison and brought the reformers to power. Between 1940 and 1948, the reformers continued the popular public works and social services of Longism while also implementing changes, including civil service, designed to end Longism's abuses. Military spending during World War II and, later, the expansion of the petrochemical industry along the Mississippi River financed much of the reform program. In 1940, war games known as the Louisiana Maneuvers greatly improved U.S. military preparedness, and during the war, the New Orleans businessman Andrew Jackson Higgins designed and built military transport boats that proved essential to the Allied war effort.

From 1948 to 1960, Earl K. Long, Huey's younger brother and himself a formidable historical figure, dominated Louisiana politics. Long, who finished the unexpired gubernatorial term of Richard Leche, 1939–1940, quickly became a political power in his own right. During two nonconsecutive gubernatorial terms (1948–1952, 1956–1960), Earl Long continued the public works and social services aspects of Longism; he also engaged in some of Longism's abuses but nothing near those of his brother.

Earl Long was also progressive on the question of race. As the civil rights movement gained momentum after World War II, and as the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision invalidated segregated schools, Earl Long strongly supported black civil rights by permitting black voter registration, ensuring that black people benefited from his economic programs, and trying to persuade white Louisianians to abandon segregation. Despite these efforts, white support for legal segregation remained strong, and the desegregation of public schools and of Louisiana as a whole proceeded slowly. Legal segregation had been dismantled in Louisiana by the early 1970s, but as the twentieth century ended, desegregation in certain local school systems, including Baton Rouge, remained under federal court supervision.

During the last third of the twentieth century, Louisiana experienced some of the same trends that affected the rest of the South, including the reemergence of the Republican Party, suburbanization, and cultural homogenization, but the state also continued to be plagued by many of its traditional difficulties, including political corruption and economic underdevelopment. Louisiana's fortunes during these years were greatly reflected in those of Edwin W. Edwards, who served an unprecedented four full gubernatorial terms (1972–1980, 1984–1988, 1992– 1996). The charismatic Edwards followed in the populistic, big-government traditions of Longism while involving himself in many legally questionable activities. Edwards's first two terms witnessed major increases in state spending, financed by oil revenues, but the 1980s oil bust had devastating consequences for Louisiana's economy and for Edwards's third term. Edwards won a fourth term in 1992, but only because his opponent was David Duke, a former member of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party whose meteoric political rise was propelled by economic distress and white resentment. After the 1980s, the state government slowly weaned itself off oil as its primary source of revenue, a process helped by the adoption of a state lottery and legalized gambling during the early 1990s and by the national economic growth of the following years. Nonetheless, the state's regressive tax system—sales taxes became the main sources of revenue while the popular homestead exemption enables most homeowners to pay little or no property taxes—resulted in chronic funding problems. Louisiana's 2000 population of 4,468,976 marked only a 5.9 percent increase from 1990, less than half the national increase of 13.1 percent, and the early twenty-first century witnessed a continuing "brain drain," as many of the state's younger, educated residents pursued better economic opportunities elsewhere.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hair, William Ivy. Bourbonism and Agrarian Protest: Louisiana Politics, 1877–1900. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Kurtz, Michael L., and Morgan D. Peoples. Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Sanson, Jerry Purvis. Louisiana during World War II: Politics and Society: 1939–1945. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

Sitterson, J. Carlyle. Sugar Country: The Cane Sugar Industry in the South, 1753–1950. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. 1953.

Taylor, Joe Gray. Negro Slavery in Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Historical Association, 1963.

———. Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863–1877. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1974.

———. Louisiana: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.

Tregle, Joseph G. Louisiana in the Age of Jackson: A Clash of Cultures and Personalities. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

Wall, Bennett H., ed. Louisiana: A History. 4th ed. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2002.

Williams, T. Harry. Huey Long. New York: Knopf, 1969.

Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963.

John.Rodrigue

See alsoBourbons ; New Orleans ; Orleans, Territory of ; Share-the-Wealth Movements ; andvol. 9:Police Regulations of Saint Landry Parish, Louisiana .

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Louisiana

Louisiana (ləwē´zēăn´ə, lōōē´–), state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi River forming about half of the border (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Texas (W), and Arkansas (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 48,523 sq mi (125,675 sq km). Pop. (2010) 4,533,372, a 1.4% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Baton Rouge. Largest city, New Orleans. Statehood, Apr. 30, 1812 (18th state). Highest pt., Driskill Mt., 535 ft (163 m); lowest pt., New Orleans, 5 ft (2 m) below sea level. Nickname, Pelican State. Motto, Union, Justice and Confidence. State bird, Eastern brown pelican. State flower, magnolia. State tree, cypress. Abbr., La.; LA

Geography

A low country on the Gulf coastal plain and the Mississippi alluvial plain, Louisiana rises in uplands near Arkansas only to some 535 ft (163 m). The rainy coast country contains marshes and fertile delta lands; inland are rolling pine hills and prairies. The Mississippi dominates the many waterways, but there are other rivers (e.g., the Red River, the Ouachita, the Atchafalaya, and the Calcasieu) and the coast is threaded by many slow-moving bayous (e.g., the Teche, the Macon, and the Lafourche). There are lagoons such as Lake Ponchartrain, oxbow lakes made by Mississippi River cutoffs, and other lakes where the slow streams are clogged. A variety of recreational facilities makes the state an excellent vacationland; some of its lakes (e.g., Pontchartrain) have been highly developed as resort areas, and there is superb hunting and fishing throughout much of the region.

Economy

Louisiana's climate (subtropical in the south and temperate in the north) and rich alluvial soil make the state one of the nation's leading producers of sweet potatoes, rice, and sugarcane. Other major commodities are soybeans, cotton, and dairy products, and strawberries, corn, hay, pecans, and truck vegetables are produced in quantity. Fishing is a major industry; shrimp, menhaden, and oysters are principal catches. Louisiana is a leading fur-trapping state; its marshes (7,409 sq mi/19,189 sq km of the state's area is underwater) supply most of the country's muskrat furs. Pelts are also obtained from mink, nutria, coypus, opossums, otter, and raccoon.

The state has great mineral wealth. It leads the nation in the production of salt and sulfur, and it ranks high in the production of crude petroleum (of which many deposits are offshore), natural gas, and natural-gas liquids. Timber is plentiful; forests cover almost 50% of the land area. The state rapidly industrialized in the 1960s and 70s and has giant oil refineries, petrochemical plants, foundries, and lumber and paper mills. Other industries produce foods, transportation equipment, and electronic equipment. Four of the ten busiest U.S. ports—New Orleans, South Louisiana, Baton Rouge, and Plaquemines—line the lower Mississippi River.

Tourism is increasingly important to the state economy; New Orleans is the major attraction with its history, nightlife, and Old World charm. The largest city in Louisiana, it is especially noted for its picturesque French quarter, which has many celebrated restaurants, and for the Mardi Gras—perhaps the most famous festival in the United States—held annually since 1838.

Baton Rouge is the capital and the second largest city. Other major cities are Shreveport, Lake Charles, Kenner, and Lafayette. Louisiana is rich in tradition and legend. Four different groups have contributed to its unique heritage: the Creoles, descendants of the original Spanish and French colonists; the Cajuns, whose French ancestors were expelled from Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) by the British in 1755; the American cotton planters; and the African Americans who worked to create much of Louisiana's wealth and whose music, especially, has swept the world. Along the rivers and bayous overhung with Spanish moss, some old mansions remain, recalling the elegance and splendor of antebellum days. Plantation tours from Baton Rouge and Natchitoches are popular, while the Cajun country west of New Orleans also attracts visitors—most particularly to the area around St. Martinville and Lafayette.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Louisiana has had 11 constitutions since it was admitted to the union in 1812. Its present constitution (1975) replaced the constitution of 1921, which had been amended more than 500 times. The state's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term and allowed one reelection. Louisiana's bicameral legislature has a senate with 39 members and a house of representatives with 105 members, all elected for four-year terms. Louisiana is the only state to call its counties parishes, a holdover from the Spanish religious divisions. The state elects two senators and six representatives to the U.S. Congress and has eight electoral votes.

Almost solidly Democratic between 1877 and the 1990s, Louisiana has had a more turbulent political climate in recent years; in 1990 former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke made a strong showing as an unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Senate. In 1987, Edwin E. Edwards was defeated in his reelection bid by a conservative Democrat (who later switched to the Republican party), Buddy Roemer. Before Roemer's conversion, all but one of Louisiana's governors since 1877 had been Democratic. In the 1991 gubernatorial election, Roemer finished behind Edwards and Duke, who faced each other in a runoff, which Edwards won. He retired in 1995 and was succeeded by conservative Republican Mike Foster, who was reelected in 1999. Kathleen Blanco, a conservative Democrat, became the first woman to be elected governor in 2003. Politically damaged by the post-Katrina turmoil she did not run in 2007, and Bobby Jindal, a Republican and the son of Indian immigrants, was elected governor, becoming the first nonwhite to win the post.

Among the state's more prominent institutions of higher learning are Tulane Univ., the Univ. of New Orleans, Dillard Univ., Southern Univ., and Loyola Univ., all at New Orleans; Louisiana State Univ. and Agricultural and Mechanical College, mainly at Baton Rouge; the Univ. of Louisiana at Lafayette; Grambling State Univ., at Grambling; and Louisiana Tech Univ., at Ruston.

History

Early Louisiana

Louisiana has a long and varied history. The region was possibly visited by Cabeza de Vaca and his fellow survivors of a Spanish expedition of 1528, and it was certainly seen by some of De Soto's men (1541–42). In 1682, La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed for France all of the land drained by that river and its tributaries, naming it Louisiana after Louis XIV. Europeans did not permanently settle there until 1699, when Pierre le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville, founded a settlement near Biloxi. This settlement became the seat of government for Louisiana, an enormous territory embracing the entire Mississippi drainage basin.

In 1702, Iberville's brother, the sieur de Bienville, was appointed governor and moved the territorial government to Fort Louis on the Mobile River. This colony was later moved (1710) to the present site of Mobile (Alabama), and Mobile became the capital of Louisiana. French missionaries and fur traders explored some of the vast territory, and Natchitoches (the oldest settlement within the present boundaries of the state of Louisiana) grew from a French military and trading post established (c.1714) to protect the Red River area from the Spanish.

In order to increase the value of the colony, France granted (1712) a monopoly of commercial privileges, which in 1717 passed to a company organized by John Law. The promise of riches under Law's Mississippi Scheme brought many settlers to Louisiana, and a large number of them remained even after his scheme had collapsed. New Orleans was founded in 1718, and in 1723 the capital was transferred there. Large numbers of Africans were brought in as slaves, and the Code Noir, adopted in 1724, provided for the rigid control of their lives and the protection of the whites.

Spanish Louisiana

The last conflict (1754–63) of the French and Indian Wars was ending disastrously for the French, and in order to keep the entire Louisiana territory from falling into the hands of the British, the French secretly ceded (by the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1762) the area W of the Mississippi and the "Isle of Orleans" to Spain. By the Treaty of Paris (1763; see Paris, Treaty of), Great Britain gained control of all Louisiana E of the Mississippi except the "Isle of Orleans" ; these changes were announced in 1764.

The French colonists resisted the new Spanish rule, but were subdued and finally Spanish mercantilistic monopoly of trade was instituted. During the Spanish years agriculture flourished with the cultivation of rice and sugarcane, and New Orleans grew as a major port and trading center. The Spanish government welcomed thousands of Acadians (see Acadia), known there as Cajuns, and they settled what came to be known as the Cajun country. During the American Revolution, New Orleans was a center for Spanish aid to the colonies. After Spain declared war on Great Britain in 1779, Louisiana's governor, Bernardo de Gálvez, became an active ally of the revolutionists, capturing Baton Rouge and Natchez (1779), Mobile (1780), and Pensacola (1781).

After the war Louisiana's control of the great inland trade route, the Mississippi, led to heated controversy with the Americans. In the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800), Napoleon I forced the retrocession of the territory to France. Revelation of this treaty caused profound concern in the United States. President Jefferson attempted to purchase the "Isle of Orleans" from France. To the surprise of the American representatives in France, Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana to the United States (see Louisiana Purchase).

Statehood

The United States took possession in 1803, and in 1804 the territory was divided into two parts. The southern part, which was called the Territory of Orleans, was admitted to the Union in 1812 as the state of Louisiana. In 1811 a brief slave uprising upriver from New Orleans was brutally crushed. Settlement (1819) of the West Florida Controversy gave Louisiana the area between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers, which formerly had been part of Florida. After statehood French and Spanish influence remained, not only in the Creole and Cajun societies but also in the civil law (based on French and Spanish codes) and in the division of the state into parishes rather than counties. In the early years of the 19th cent. the diverse people of Louisiana—the French, the Spanish, the Germans, and Isleños brought by Gálvez from the Canary Islands—united behind Andrew Jackson to defeat (1815) the British at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. (The battle site is contained in Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve; see National Parks and Monuments, table.)

With settlers pouring in from other Southern states, great sugar and cotton plantations developed rapidly in the fertile lowlands, and the less productive uplands were also settled. The state capital was moved several times, finally to Baton Rouge in 1849. The advent of steam propulsion on the Mississippi (the first steamboat to navigate the river arrived in New Orleans in 1812) was a boon to the state's economy; by 1840, New Orleans was the nation's second largest port. Plantation owners, with their large landholdings and many slaves (more than half the population) dominated politics and largely controlled the state.

The Civil War and Its Aftermath

On Jan. 26, 1861, Louisiana seceded from the Union and six weeks later joined the Confederacy. The fall of New Orleans to David G. Farragut in 1862 prefaced the detested military occupation under Gen. B. F. Butler. Occupied Louisiana was a proving ground for Lincoln's moderate restoration program, but after Lincoln's assassination radical Republicans seized control and Louisiana suffered greatly during Reconstruction. The Ku Klux Klan was particularly active from 1866 to 1871. In the election of 1872 the radical Republican candidate for governor lost but was installed with the help of federal troops. Reconstruction in Louisiana finally ended with the disputed presidential election of 1876, when Louisiana's electoral votes were "traded" to the Republicans (whose candidate was Rutherford B. Hayes) in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the state. Francis R. T. Nicholls, a Democrat, became governor of Louisiana, and white control of the state was reestablished.

Economic recovery was slow. The disrupted plantation system was largely replaced by farm tenancy and sharecropping. The decline of steamboat traffic was offset somewhat by new railroad building and the opening of the Mississippi River for oceangoing vessels from New Orleans to the sea (a feat accomplished by James B. Eads). Mississippi floods constituted a serious problem, and levee building increased after the flood of 1882; it was only after the disastrous flood of 1927, however, that the federal government undertook a vast control system. The water resources development program encompasses flood control, navigation, drainage, and irrigation.

The pattern of Louisiana's economy was changed by the discovery of oil and natural gas in the early 1900s, and industries began to grow on the basis of cheap fuel and cheap labor. Medical advances helped to curb the yellow-fever epidemics that had periodically disrupted the state.

Huey Long and His Legacy

Industrial growth and the continuing woes of the tenant farmers did not alter control of the state by "Bourbon" Democrats, but in 1928 a virtual revolution occurred when Huey P. Long was elected governor. His almost dictatorial rule, detested by liberals across the nation, brought material progress at the cost of widespread official corruption. Long withstood all outside pressures, including the opposition of President F. D. Roosevelt's administration. After his assassination in 1935 (he had resigned the governorship in 1931 to become a U.S. Senator but had retained control over the state), his political heirs made their peace with the New Deal, and federal funds, withheld during Long's last years, poured into the state.

In 1948, Huey's brother, Earl Long, invoking the memory of his dead brother (still regarded by many as a savior and a martyr), gained the governorship. In addition, Huey's son Russell was elected to the U.S. Senate and served for 38 years until he retired in 1986. In 1956, Earl Long was again elected governor, but his second term was marked by scandal and controversy.

Civil Rights, Disasters, and Diversification

About one third of Louisianans are African American, and their struggle for civil rights has been long and bitter. The move toward integration following the 1954 Supreme Court ruling against racial segregation in public schools was difficult, and continuing resistance to social change is reflected in the careers of David Duke and others.

Hurricanes and flooding are recurrent dangers for the state. In 1965, Hurricane Betsy killed 74 and caused property damage in excess of $1 billion. In 1969, Hurricane Camille was even more destructive, ravaging Louisiana and neighboring states and killing 256 people. In Apr., 1973, the Mississippi River rose to its highest level recorded in Louisiana and, with its tributaries, flooded more than 10% of the state.

Louisiana enjoyed an oil boom in the early 1980s but then suffered following the 1986 collapse of oil prices. The state's unemployment rate rose to the highest in the nation, and economic distress grew. The slump placed a great burden on the tourist industry and led to increased efforts to diversify the economy. The state's recent environmental woes have largely arisen from the fact that natural erosion, oil exploitation, and river control projects have severely degraded its freshwater marshlands, especially in the delta of the Mississippi.

In 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated parts of the state, especially around New Orleans and along the Gulf Coast; as a result, it was estimated that some 240,000 people subsequently left Louisiana, largely from New Orleans, and the state and the city have only gradually regained those losses. A blowout of a deep offshore oil well in 2010 led to the largest oil spill in U.S. history and polluted portions of the state's E Gulf Coast, in most cases affecting areas that had been hit hard by Katrina.

Bibliography

Louisiana's distinctive life and customs have been portrayed in the works of G. W. Cable, L. Hearn, C. E. A. Gayarré, and G. King. See also J. D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana (1963); S. H. Lockett, Louisiana As It Is (1969); P. H. Howard, Political Tendencies in Louisiana (1971); P. Lewis, New Orleans (1976); C. E. O'Neill, Louisiana: A History (1984); E. A. Davis, Louisiana (1985); C. Word, Ghosts Along the Bayou (1988); F. B. Kniffen and S. B. Hilliard, Louisiana: Its Land and People (1988).

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA


Baton Rouge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

New Orleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

The State in Brief

Nickname: Pelican State

Motto: Union, justice, and confidence

Flower: Magnolia

Bird: Eastern brown pelican

Area: 51,839.7 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 31st)

Elevation: Ranges from eight feet below sea level to 535 feet above sea level

Climate: Subtropical and humid, with long, hot summers and short, mild winters

Admitted to Union: April 30, 1812

Capital: Baton Rouge

Head Official: Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) (until 2008)

Population

1980: 4,206,000

1990: 4,220,164

2000: 4,468,976

2004 estimate: 4,515,770

Percent change, 19902000: 5.9%

U.S. rank in 2004: 24th

Percent of residents born in state: 79.4% (2000)

Density: 102.6 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 228,528

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 2,856,161

Black or African American: 1,451,944

American Indian and Alaska Native: 25,477

Asian: 54,758

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 1,240

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 107,738

Other: 31,131

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 317,392

Population 5 to 19 years old: 1,050,637

Percent of population 65 years and over: 11.6%

Median age: 34 years (2000)

Vital statistics

Total number of births (2003): 65,020

Total number of deaths (2003): 42,676 (infant deaths,596)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 7,592

Economy

Major industries: Chemicals, construction, mining, transportation equipment, trade, government, manufacturing

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (December 2004)

Per capita income: $26,048 (2003; U.S. rank: 44th)

Median household income: $34,307 (3-year average,2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 16.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 2.0% to 6.0%

Sales tax rate: 4.0% (food sales exempt)

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Louisiana

Louisiana State on the Gulf of Mexico, s central USA; the capital is Baton Rouge. In 1699 the French colony of Louisiana was founded. It was later ceded to Spain but regained by France in 1800. In the Louisiana Purchase (1803) Napoleon sold the state to the USA. In 1861, it joined the Confederacy, being readmitted to the Union in 1868. The discovery of oil and natural gas in the early 20th century provided a great boost to the economy. Racial discrimination left the large African-American community (32% of the population) politically powerless until the 1960s. Louisiana consists of two main regions: the Mississippi alluvial plain and the Gulf coastal plain. The Mississippi Delta in the se covers c.33,700sq km (13,000sq mi), about 25% of the state's total area. The tidal shoreline is 12,426km (7721mi) long. Nearly 15% of the state is marshland. North of the marshes, prairies stretch to the Texas border. Almost half the state is forested. Louisiana has a subtropical climate. Low-lying land and heavy rainfall make it prone to flooding. It is a leading producer of soya beans, sweet potatoes, rice, and sugar cane. Fishing is a major industry, particularly shrimps and crayfish. Louisiana is second only to Texas in US mineral production. Petroleum and coal account for more than 95% of mining income. Area: 125,674sq km (48,523sq mi). Pop. (2000) 4,468,976.

Statehood :

April 30, 1812

Nickname :

Pelican State

State bird :

Brown pelican

State flower :

Magnolia

State tree :

Bald cypress

State motto :

Union, Justice and Confidence

http://www.state.la.us

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA


Natural resources and farming hold a significant place in Louisiana's economic history. However, the cultural spice of New Orleans has added to the state's economic base by setting the city apart from any other cities in the world and, over the years, making it a unique tourist attraction.

Indians were the first known inhabitants within Louisiana, living in small pockets. Spanish and French explorers navigated the Gulf of Mexico even before Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle named the land at the mouth of the Mississippi River Louisiana. He did so in honor of King Louis XIV, claiming the land for France in 1682. In the 1700s the French began developing settlements in Louisiana and in 1722 New Orleans was established as Louisiana's capital. These early French settlers started tobacco and indigo farms and brought in slaves from Africa and the West Indies to work them.

Louisiana was not particularly prosperous under French rule, however French culture did take hold. In 1762 France ceded Louisiana to Spain during the French and Indian War (17541763). The area fared very well under Spanish rule as American settlers and immigrants from Spain and the Canary Islands relocated to the area. The Spaniards also brought black slaves, but there were also many "free people of color" in Louisiana. However the largest number of immigrants were French-speaking Acadian refugees from Nova Scotia who were driven from their homes by the British during the war with France. Their descendants are now known as Cajun. The mixture of these early Spanish, French, and black cultures became the unique and colorful Louisiana of today.

In 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte forced Spain to return Louisiana to France. Three years later Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States for $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson's (18011809) real estate deal doubled the size of the United States with a cash outlay of about 3 cents per acre.

In the early 1800s Louisiana saw an influx of immigrants from surrounding southern states. On April 30, 1812, Congress approved Louisiana's bid for state-hood. Between 1815 and 1861 Louisiana's sugar and cotton production made it one of the most prosperous states in the south. The state was also an important location on the inland north and south water route. Steamboats traveling the Mississippi River transported goods such as cotton, grain, and sugarcane to New Orleans, where it was trans-shipped on ocean-going vessels. This assured the city's commercial and strategic importance.

Wealthy planters in Louisiana depended on slave labor. In 1860 there were more than 330,000 black slaves, nearly half of Louisiana's total population. At that time the north no longer allowed slavery and when Abraham Lincoln (18611865) became president of the United States in 1861, southerners feared he would outlaw slavery in the south as well. The planters in Louisiana held the majority of economic and political power. Their influence led the state to secede from the union with ten other states and form a separate country called the Confederate States of America, thus beginning the American Civil War (18601865). In 1865 the South surrendered having suffered disastrous losses; the war ended, and all slaves were freed. When the Civil War was over, however, opportunities for freed blacks were limited, and former slaves returned as laborers to sugar plantations and cotton fields, which they farmed "for shares," (they rented the land and paid in shares of the crop) along with poor whites.

In the 1880s irrigation systems allowed farmers to plant rice, and midwestern farmers migrated to southwestern Louisiana to become rice farmers. In the meantime, lumber and flour mills were started; oil and natural gas were discovered; and railroads were built.

However, in 1898 a new constitution was drawn up that took voting rights away from blacks as well as many poor whites. Large landowners, businessmen, and politicians controlled the government and resisted social reform, which meant that the small farmers and the urban working class, both white and black, did not share in the general prosperity.

In the late 1920s the Great Depression (19291939) caused banks and factories to close around the country and many people lost their jobs. When Huey Long was elected governor of Louisiana in 1928 he based his campaign on the problems in the economy and the growing inequality between the state's citizens. He also campaigned against the Standard Oil Company's high-handed dealings. Although he did not really challenge the racial segregation of the South, he did talk more about class than about race, and he advocated social and economic reforms, such as some improvements in education and health care, for African Americans. Huey Long was an ambitious, talented, and very popular politician who initially supported Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal program of governmental aid to victims of the Depression. However, he turned against Roosevelt and would probably have split the Democratic vote in the 1936 election had he not been assassinated in 1935.

The state's economy gradually pulled out of the Depression with the development of offshore drilling, reforesting, and soybean farming. Many residents were put to work building roads and bridges. Louisiana became one of the world's leading petrochemical manufacturing centers with oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. After World War II (19391945) started, additional jobs were created as ships were built for the Navy in New Orleans.

In the 1970s much of the revenue from the high oil prices was put to work to improve the state's schools and highways. But in the mid-1980s world oil prices dropped, which hurt Louisiana's economy. Energy-related industries, such as machinery manufacturing, also suffered. In 1986 unemployment in the state, especially for women, was the highest in the nation at 13 percent. In the 1990s Louisiana had more people living in poverty than any other state.

In 1992 Louisiana tried to revitalize its economy by legalizing riverboat and casino gambling. This effort created thousands of jobs and also helped attract more than 20 million tourists annually. In the 1990s the service industry was the leading employer. While chemicals were the leading product in Louisiana in 1995, others, such as fertilizer, soap, paint, plastic, ships, airplanes, paper, and praline candy, were also growing. At the same time crops grown in Louisiana included soybeans, rice, cotton, sugarcane, and sweet potatoes. Shipping and transportation was also significant because the Port of South Louisiana, the busiest port in the United States in 1995, handled nearly 400 billion pounds of cargo annually.

While the average household income in 1997 was $34,400, the distribution of that income was skewed. In 1995 nearly 20 percent of Louisiana residents were below the federal poverty level, while eight percent had a disposable income greater than $75,000, including 1.7 percent whose disposable incomes were greater than $125,000.

See also: Huey Long, New Orleans, Plantations, Petroleum Industry, Sharecropping


FURTHER READING

Davis, Edwin A. Louisiana, the Pelican State. Baton Rouge, LA: State University Press, 1975.

Dryer, Edward, Lyle Saxon, and Robert Tallant. Gumbo Ya-Ya. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc, 1984.

Thompson, Kathleen. In "Louisiana." Portrait of America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 1996.

Wall, Bennett H. Louisiana, A History. Arlington Heights, IL: Forum Press, 1990.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1998, s.v. "Louisiana."

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Louisiana

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA

LOUISIANA , south-central U.S. state at the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 2001 its population was estimated at 4,470,000 including about 15,000 Jews. The largest Jewish communities are Greater *New Orleans, which includes Metairie and the North Shore (13,000), Shreveport (1,100), and Baton Rouge, the state capital (1,200); there are also organized communities in Alexandria, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Monroe, and New Iberia. Jewish welfare federations function in New Orleans (1913), Alexandria (1938), Monroe (1938), and Shreveport (1941).There are approximately 18 congregations in the state; about 13 rabbis served these congregations. Many of the other congregations are served by student rabbis.

Early New Orleans

It has generally been assumed that the Louisiana Code Noir, or Black Code, promulgated in Paris in 1724 and excluding settlement by Jews and the practice of any religion other than Catholicism in the French colony of Louisiana, discouraged the immigration of Jews to the area.

Although there were transient Jews in the colony, the first recorded settler was Isaac Rodriguez Monsanto, a Dutch-born merchant who had taken his brothers and sisters to Curaçao before moving his headquarters to New Orleans in 1757. Between 1757 and 1769 Monsanto conducted successful business operations with settlers and merchants throughout Louisiana, the Illinois country, Atlantic and Caribbean ports, and Europe. In 1769, when Monsanto and his family and associates were expelled from New Orleans under the rigorous Spanish rule of Governor Alejandro O'Reilly, who invoked the first provision of the Code Noir for their expulsion, the Monsantos took refuge in British West Florida, but all gradually filtered back into Spanish Louisiana. The Monsantos, born Jewish, all participated in the rituals of the Protestant and Catholic churches without baptism.

Judah *Touro arrived in New Orleans from Boston in late 1801 or early 1802 and became, through diligence and his simple manner of living, a wealthy man. He was indifferent to Judaism until late in life, when he was persuaded by Gershom Kursheedt, the first truly religious Jew in the city, to build a synagogue for the second New Orleans congregation, Nefutzoth Yehudah, or Dispersed of Judah, organized in 1845. Other early settlers were equally unconcerned about the preservation of Jewish identity.

Of the approximately 15 Jews who were in New Orleans in January 1815, when the battle for the city between American forces, led by General Andrew Jackson, and the British took place, at least ten and possibly 11 had some part in the action. Touro suffered a near-fatal wound. Of these 15, seven remained bachelors, seven intermarried, and one, Manis Jacobs, married a Christian woman after his first (Jewish) wife died. It was Manis Jacobs who became the first president of Shaarei Chassed or Gates of Mercy (1827), the first congregation in Louisiana and indeed anywhere in the Mississippi Valley south of Cincinnati. This congregation, Sephardi at the outset, later became Ashkenazi as increasing numbers of Jews arrived in the town from the German-speaking lands. But Jewish religious life did not prosper in New Orleans. The wealthiest men did not support any of the three congregations in existence by 1850. (Gates of Prayer Congregation was established in the Lafayette suburb of New Orleans in January of that year.) Touro's building of a synagogue did not inspire others to do likewise. Intermarriage continued apace in New Orleans, perhaps more than in any major city in the United States.

German Jews at the port of New Orleans fanned out from that city into more rural areas and became peddlers and artisans. Significant numbers of Jews were country merchants and traders in small Louisiana towns before the Civil War. They established benevolent societies, cemeteries, or congregations

in Alexandria (1854), Donaldsonville (1856), Baton Rouge (1858), and Monroe (1861). But the most significant Jewish institution in Louisiana was the Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans of New Orleans (1854), one of the earliest agencies of its kind in the United States. Made necessary by frequent epidemics of yellow fever and cholera in the New Orleans area, this association was supported from its inception by assimilated Jews who demonstrated no other concern with their Jewish identity. The free-wheeling atmosphere of the state, dominated by New Orleans, encouraged the full participation and integration of Jews; there was then little anti-Jewish prejudice, which seems to have gained momentum only in the late 19th century. Among Louisiana's notable assimilated Jews were U.S. Senator Judah P. *Benjamin (1853–61); Henry M. Hyams, Benjamin's cousin, lieutenant governor of Louisiana in 1859; and Dr. Edwin Warren Moise, speaker of the Louisiana legislature at the same time and later state attorney general. It was apparently no accident that each of these men intermarried. In 1872, the first Rex, King of Carnival, was Louis J. Salomon, a great-grandson of Haym *Salomon, the well-known Revolutionary War patriot.

The Civil War and After

More than 200 Louisiana Jews are known by name to have served in the Confederate forces, but the true number is probably three times that large. Three of these men, S.M. Hymans, Edwin I. Kursheedt, and Leon R. Marks, achieved the rank of colonel. Benjamin Franklin Jonas, served as a private; he became the second Louisiana Jew to serve in the U.S. Senate (1879–85). Dr. Joseph Bensadon, who was the first medical director of Touro Infirmary (1854), was a surgeon in the Confederate army from 1862 to 1865.

The distinctive leader of the Jews of New Orleans after the Civil War was Rabbi James K. *Gutheim, who before the war served as Reverend at Dispersed of Judah then moved to Gates of Mercy soon after the war's end. He encouraged the growing Reform movement within the congregation, but, when proposed reforms in the liturgy he recommended in 1868 caused an uproar, he accepted the position of Reader at Temple Emanuel in New York City. He returned to New Orleans four years later in response to the creation of Temple Sinai, a new Reform congregation organized by his followers from Gates of Mercy.

Rabbi Isaac Leucht, who followed Gutheim to the pulpit at Shaarei Chassed, also became the rabbi when Gates of Mercy and Dispersed of Judah amalgamated in 1881. Leucht began calling the merged congregation Touro Synagogue, in memory of the philanthropist whose largesse assisted both congregations in their formative years. He assisted in relief work during the yellow fever epidemic of 1878, as well as in civic work; and he was a bridge to the gentile community, serving as president of the Red Cross Society and a member of the State Board of Education.

In 1882 the Hebrew Foreign Mission Society of New Orleans, in conjunction with the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society, sponsored an agricultural colony of Russian Jews at Sicily Island in Catahoula Parish. But the project failed when the Mississippi River overflowed and flooded the entire area that year.

Jewish Life in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Beginning in the mid-19th century, Jewish merchants and traders organized communities throughout the state. The largest, except for New Orleans, was Shreveport, where a synagogue, Har El, was founded in 1859 and an Orthodox congregation was organized in 1892. One of the marks of the development of intolerance was a local ordinance (1873) prohibiting Jews from opening their stores on Sunday. Zionist, B'nai B'rith, and other communal organizations were formed, and in 1914 the Reform temple was dedicated. A Shreveport attorney, Sidney Herold, in 1915 successfully persuaded the State Court of Appeals to prohibit the reading of the Bible in public schools.

Baton Rouge, the state capital, had Jewish settlers in the early 19th century, but not until 1868 was their number sufficient to form the small congregation which became B'nai Israel in 1879. In Alexandria a Young Men's Hebrew Association was organized in 1882, and the city had Reform and Orthodox synagogues. Jewish communities appeared in Morgan City in 1875, in Opelousas in 1877, and in Lake Charles in 1895. In Bogalusa, an Orthodox congregation was organized in 1925. Communities also functioned in Plaquemine (1856–1932), St. Francisville (1877–1905), and Bastrop (1877–1923). Bastrop and other small communities are served by the United Jewish Charities of Northeast Louisiana, organized in 1938 in Monroe. From 1915 to 1933 Mendel Silber of New Orleans ministered to congregations in New Iberia, Morgan City, and Plaquemine.

In the 20th century movement from smaller to larger communities occurred among Louisiana Jews. Moreover, the total population of Louisiana Jewry declined somewhat after 1940, when there were about 16,000 Jews in the state. But despite the continuing small proportion of Jews in the state population, many Louisiana Jews have attained statewide or national prominence, including the 19th-century philanthropist Isidore *Newman; civic leader Julius Weis; Isaac Delgado, a charter member of the Louisiana Sugar Exchange who contributed to the art museum and Charity Hospital memorial building; the actress Adah Isaacs *Menken; U.S. congressman Adolph Meier (1891–1908); and state legislators George Joel Ginsberg (1928–32), who sought the impeachment of Governor Huey P. Long before the State Senate in 1929, and Norman Bauer, speaker of the House of Representatives in 1942. Henry A. Lazarus was a member of the state Supreme Court (1880) and Emile Godchaux (1909–18), Max Dinkelspiel (1919–24), and I.D. Moor served on the state Court of Appeals. Alexandria, Monroe, Crowley, Donaldsonville, and Morgan City have elected Jewish mayors, and many Jews have served as school board members and presidents. Jews have prospered financially in Louisiana, and the Jewish professional and managerial classes have grown significantly since 1940.

[Bertram Wallace Korn and

Edward L. Greenstein]

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, the general population of Greater New Orleans has gone from approximately one million to about half that number. In Orleans Parish the population has fallen from 475,000 to less than 100,000. While most of the synagogues received some repairable damage, Congregation Beth Israel, the only congregation in the city that offered twice daily services before the hurricane, was inundated with ten feet of water. All of their Torahs were damaged and had to be buried. The members of the Jewish community have scattered to Houston, Dallas, Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Lafayette and points in between. When and whether they will return remains to be seen.

[Catherine Kahn and

Irwin Lachoff (2nd ed.)]

bibliography:

L. Shpall, Jews in Louisiana (1936); B. Kaplan, Eternal Stranger (1957), 39–43; B. Lemann, Lemann Family of Louisiana (1965); B. Korn, Early Jews of New Orleans (1969); Louisiana Historical Records Survey, Inventory of Jewish Congregations and Organizations (1941); A.P. Nasatir and L. Shpall, in: ajhsq, 53:1 (1963), 3–43.

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Louisiana

Louisiana ★ 1987

A belle of the Old South tries to get back the family plantation by romancing the new owner, even though she loves someone else. Oh, and then the Civil War breaks out. 130m/C VHS . Ian Charleson, Margot Kidder, Victor Lanoux, Len Cariou, Lloyd Bochner; D: Philippe de Broca. TV

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Louisiana

Louisiana

■ BATON ROUGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE I-9

5310 Florida Blvd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Tel: (225)216-8000
Free: 800-601-4558
Admissions: (225)216-8700
Fax: (225)216-8100
Web Site: http://www.brcc.cc.la.us/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1995. Total enrollment: 5,761. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $1656 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4464 full-time. Mandatory fees: $432 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

■ BATON ROUGE SCHOOL OF COMPUTERS I-9

10425 Plaza Americana
Baton Rouge, LA 70816
Tel: (504)923-2525
Fax: (504)923-2979
Web Site: http://www.brsc.net/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1979.

■ BLUE CLIFF COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE I-6

100 Asma Blvd., Ste. 350
Lafayette, LA 70508-3862
Tel: (504)456-3141
Web Site: http://www.bluecliffcollege.com

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ BLUE CLIFF COLLEGE-SHREVEPORT B-2

200 N. Thomas Dr., Ste. A
Shreveport, LA 71107-6520
Tel: (504)456-3141
Web Site: http://www.bluecliffcollege.com

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ BOSSIER PARISH COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-2

2719 Airline Dr. North
Bossier City, LA 71111-5801
Tel: (318)746-9851
Admissions: (318)678-6166
Fax: (318)742-8664
Web Site: http://www.bpcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 64-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 4,121. 0.1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 24% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/10.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $1720 full-time, $254 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3860 full-time, $414 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $448 full-time, $19 per credit part-time, $55 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Cavalier Players Drama Club, Data Processing Management Association. Major annual events: Basketball Homecoming, Halloween Dance, Doo Dah Parade. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: student patrols. College housing not available. Bossier Parish Community College Library with 29,600 books, 384 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $126,450. 83 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BRYMAN COLLEGE J-11

1201 Elmwood Park Blvd., Ste. 600
New Orleans, LA 70123
Tel: (504)733-7117
Fax: (504)734-1217
Web Site: http://bryman-college.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1989.

■ CAMELOT COLLEGE I-9

2618 Wooddale Blvd., Ste. A
Baton Rouge, LA 70805
Tel: (225)928-3005
Free: 800-470-3320
Fax: (225)927-3794
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.camelotcollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1986.

■ CAMERON COLLEGE J-11

2740 Canal St.
New Orleans, LA 70119
Tel: (504)821-5881
Web Site: http://www.cameroncollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year.

■ CAREER TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-6

2319 Louisville Ave.
Monroe, LA 71201
Tel: (318)323-2889
Free: 800-234-6766
Fax: (318)324-9883
Web Site: http://www.careertc.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Founded 1985.

■ CENTENARY COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA B-2

2911 Centenary Blvd, PO Box 41188
Shreveport, LA 71104
Tel: (318)869-5011
Free: 800-234-4448
Admissions: (318)869-5104
Fax: (318)869-5005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.centenary.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1825. Setting: 65-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $112.3 million. Total enrollment: 1,044. Faculty: 122 (72 full-time, 50 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 1,348 applied, 64% were admitted. 40% from top 10% of their high school class, 70% from top quarter, 91% from top half. 57 class presidents, 25 valedictorians, 113 student government officers. Full-time: 882 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 22 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 14 other countries, 38% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 7% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 2% 25 or older, 68% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; biological/life sciences; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: 4-4-1. Advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Associated Colleges of the South. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, interview, class rank. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 8/1, 12/15 for early decision, 1/15 for early action. Notification: 1/1 for early decision, 2/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $25,680 includes full-time tuition ($18,900) and college room and board ($6780). College room only: $3310. Part-time tuition: $630 per semester hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $50 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 34 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 25% of eligible men and 20% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: intramural sports, Student Activities Board, crew, Church Career/Campus Ministries, student media. Major annual events: Fall Fest, Spring Fling, homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 619 college housing spaces available; 68 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Magale Library plus 1 other with 186,564 books, 1,454 microform titles, 59,899 serials, 5,945 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $558,681. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Louisiana State University Shreveport.

■ DELGADO COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-11

501 City Park Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70119-4399
Tel: (504)483-4400
Admissions: (504)483-4004
Fax: (504)483-1986
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Louisiana Community and Technical College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1921. Setting: 57-acre urban campus. Endowment: $1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $58,000. Total enrollment: 16,501. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 2,657 applied. Full-time: 7,376 students, 68% women, 32% men. Part-time: 9,125 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 3 other countries, 0.3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 43% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 42% 25 or older. Retention: 53% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. Off campus study at University of New Orleans, Southern University at New Orleans. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health, nursing, culinary arts programs. Recommended: high school transcript, proof of immunization. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended; ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $1482 full-time, $420 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4462 full-time, $1275 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $362 full-time, $5 per credit part-time, $10 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 50 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, Circle K, International Club, Phi Theta Kappa, Lambda Phi Nu. Major annual events: Homecoming Week, Spring Fest, International Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols. College housing not available. Moss Memorial Library with 110,000 books, 1,299 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1 million. 950 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ DELTA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY I-9

7380 Exchange Place
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-3851
Tel: (504)928-7770
Admissions: (225)928-7770
Fax: (504)927-9096
Web Site: http://www.deltacollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, and terminal associate degrees. Setting: 3-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 434. Calendar: continuous (for most programs).

■ DELTA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & TECHNOLOGY I-3

517 Broad St.
Lake Charles, LA 70601
Tel: (337)439-5765
Fax: (337)436-5151
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deltatech.edu/

Description:

Private, 2-year.

■ DILLARD UNIVERSITY J-11

2601 Gentilly Blvd.
New Orleans, LA 70122-3097
Tel: (504)283-8822
Free: 800-216-6637
Admissions: (504)816-4356
Fax: (504)286-4895
Web Site: http://www.dillard.edu/

Description:

Independent interdenominational, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1869. Setting: 55-acre urban campus. Endowment: $44.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5611 per student. Total enrollment: 2,155. 3,106 applied, 47% were admitted. 2% from top 10% of their high school class, 44% from top quarter, 74% from top half. Full-time: 1,920 students, 78% women, 22% men. Part-time: 235 students, 82% women, 18% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 12 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0.1% Hispanic, 99% black, 0.05% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 10% 25 or older, 50% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous until 8/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 64 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: SGA (Student Government Association), Pre-Alumni Council, SOUL-Students' Outreach of the Urban League, Students' Arts and Activities Committee. Major annual events: Coronation, Spring Fest, Black Heritage Ball. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 1,110 college housing spaces available; 1,000 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Will W. Alexander Library with an OPAC and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $437,504.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ ELAINE P. NUNEZ COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-12

3710 Paris Rd.
Chalmette, LA 70043-1249
Tel: (504)680-2240
Admissions: (504)680-2457
Fax: (504)680-2243
Web Site: http://www.nunez.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Louisiana Community and Technical Colleges System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1992. Setting: 20-acre suburban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $770,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3142 per student. Total enrollment: 2,363. 423 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 1,213 students, 71% women, 29% men. Part-time: 1,150 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 28% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 53% 25 or older, 19% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at University of New Orleans, Southeastern Louisiana University, Delgado Community College.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended; ACT ASSET or ACT COMPASS required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all; national fraternities, coed fraternity; 5% of eligible men and 6% of eligible women are members. Most popular organization: Nunez Environmental Team. Major annual events: Spring Fling, Fall Fest. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Nunez Community College Library with 37,626 books, 81,267 microform titles, 1,391 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $368,692. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ GRAMBLING STATE UNIVERSITY B-5

PO Box 607
Grambling, LA 71245
Tel: (318)247-3811
Admissions: (318)274-6183
Fax: (318)274-6172
Web Site: http://www.gram.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System Board of Supervisors. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1901. Setting: 380-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.9 million. Total enrollment: 5,039. 2,793 applied, 65% were admitted. 18% from top quarter of their high school class, 53% from top half. Full-time: 4,088 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 352 students, 56% women, 44% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 17 other countries, 40% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 95% black, 0.1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 14% 25 or older, 4% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Louisiana Tech University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for state residents. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadlines: 7/15, 4/15 for early decision. Notification: continuous until 8/1, 4/20 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $558 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7582 full-time, $558 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $1274 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $4034. College room only: $2138. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 81 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities. Major annual events: Bayou Classic Football Game, Homecoming festivities, Springfest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, controlled dormitory access. 3,304 college housing spaces available; 2,926 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. A. C. Lewis Memorial Library with 208,935 books, 642,843 microform titles, 1,253 serials, 5,661 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Grambling is in a suburban location five miles from Ruston, 35 miles from Monroe, and 70 miles from Shreveport. There is easy access to several major air and bus lines. The town has many fraternal, athletic, social, and civic organizations, and there are theatres in nearby Ruston. Excellent hunting, fishing, and boating facilities in the area. This is the home of the annual North Louisiana Broiler Show and Fair, and an annual Housing Clinic.

■ GRETNA CAREER COLLEGE J-11

1415 Whitney Ave.
Gretna, LA 70053-5835
Tel: (504)366-5409
Fax: (504)365-1004
Web Site: http://www.gretnacareercollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ HERZING COLLEGE J-11

2400 Veterans Blvd.
Kenner, LA 70062
Tel: (504)733-0074
Fax: (504)733-0020
Web Site: http://www.herzing.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1996. Total enrollment: 220. 240 applied, 92% were admitted. Full-time: 153 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 67 students, 21% women, 79% men. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Entrance: moderately difficult.

■ ITI TECHNICAL COLLEGE I-9

13944 Airline Hwy.
Baton Rouge, LA 70817
Tel: (225)752-4233
Free: 800-467-4484
Admissions: (225)752-4230
Fax: (225)756-0903
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.iticollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1973. Setting: 10-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 351. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 435 applied, 85% were admitted. Full-time: 226 students, 15% women, 85% men. Part-time: 125 students, 14% women, 86% men. 1% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 32% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander. Calendar: continuous.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript, interview.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

140 James Dr. E
St. Rose, LA 70087
Tel: (504)463-0338
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Total enrollment: 541. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ LOUISIANA COLLEGE F-5

1140 College Dr.
Pineville, LA 71359-0001
Tel: (318)487-7011
Free: 800-487-1906
Admissions: (318)487-7439
Fax: (318)487-7550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lacollege.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1906. Setting: 81-acre small town campus. Endowment: $27.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6840 per student. Total enrollment: 1,085. 667 applied, 73% were admitted. 28% from top 10% of their high school class, 56% from top quarter, 83% from top half. 23 valedictorians. Full-time: 920 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 165 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 17 states and territories, 8 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 9% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 9% 25 or older, 55% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 59% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, class rank, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Required for some: 3 recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/15. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 40 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 20% of eligible men and 35% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Baptist Student Union, Delta Xi Omega, Student Government Association, Union Board, Lambda Chi Beta. Major annual events: Gala Christmas, Homecoming, Cochon de Lait. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 666 college housing spaces available; 547 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Richard W. Norton Memorial Library with 135,566 books, 116,433 microform titles, 380 serials, 3,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $600,047. 226 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Alexandria-Pineville is in the geographic heart of the state. The urban population of 113,000 has access to several major shopping malls, movie theaters, cultural attractions, fine restaurants, historical landmarks and churches representing nearly every denomination. The area is particularly noted for outdoor recreation opportunities, including year-round water sports and public hunting land. Part-time job opportunities in the community are numerous for college students.

■ LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE I-9

Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Tel: (225)578-3202
Admissions: (225)578-1175
Fax: (225)578-4433
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1860. Setting: 2,000-acre urban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $268.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $106.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7552 per student. Total enrollment: 31,264. Faculty: 1,467 (1,277 full-time, 190 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 10,825 applied, 73% were admitted. 24% from top 10% of their high school class, 52% from top quarter, 83% from top half. 32 National Merit Scholars, 150 valedictorians. Full-time: 23,766 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 1,939 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 89 other countries, 13% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 9% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 7% 25 or older, 23% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; engineering. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, members of the National Student Exchange, Baton Rouge Community College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Naval (c), Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, minimum ACT score of 22 or SAT score of 1030, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 4/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $2981 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,281 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1438 full-time. College room and board: $6330. College room only: $3930. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 335 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 17% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: intramural athletics, student political organizations, student professional organizations, religious organizations. Major annual events: Fall Fest, Student Disability Week, Martin Luther King Day Celebration. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, self-defense education, crime prevention programs. 7,574 college housing spaces available; 6,200 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Troy H. Middleton Library plus 7 others with 1.4 million books, 5.4 million microform titles, 24,304 serials, 24,788 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $11.8 million. 7,000 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Baton Rouge, with a metropolitan-area population of more than 500,000, is the capital of Louisiana, the state's second largest port for ocean-going vessels, and the fifth largest inland port in the nation. A rich mixture of French, Spanish, and English cultures reflects Baton Rouge's history. Geographically, Baton Rouge is the center of South Louisiana's main cultural and recreational attractions. New Orleans is 80 miles to the southeast; the Feliciana parishes, noted for their antebellum homes, are less than an hour's drive to the north; and to the west lies the Acadian-French country of bayous, lakes, and marshes. Baton Rouge's industry is widely diversified. It is a major petrochemical center, as well as a center for banking and financial services and a major retail center. Cultural organizations include the Baton Rouge Symphony, the Baton Rouge Ballet, and community theater groups. Baton Rouge has many recreation centers, golf courses, and parks. Mild temperatures make outdoor activities possible and enjoyable throughout the year.

■ LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT ALEXANDRIA F-5

8100 Hwy. 71 South
Alexandria, LA 71302-9121
Tel: (318)445-3672; 888-473-6417
Admissions: (318)473-6542
Fax: (318)473-6418
Web Site: http://www.lsua.edu/

Description:

State-supported, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1960. Setting: 3,114-acre rural campus. Endowment: $588,481. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4397 per student. Total enrollment: 2,988. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 668 applied, 77% were admitted. Full-time: 1,572 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 1,416 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 14 states and territories, 6 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 19% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 41% 25 or older, 9% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for state residents. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Area resident tuition: $3092 full-time. State resident tuition: $128 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5552 full-time, $231 per credit hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 15 open to all; national fraternities. Most popular organizations: Pentecostal Student Fellowship, Baptist Collegiate Ministries, Catholic Student Center, Student Government Association, Gamma Beta Phi. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. James C. Bolton Library with 154,935 books, 18,841 microform titles, 354 serials, 5,949 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $405,157. 180 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT EUNICE I-5

PO Box 1129
Eunice, LA 70535-1129
Tel: (337)457-7311
Admissions: (337)550-1302
Fax: (337)457-7311
Web Site: http://www.lsue.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 199-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 2,833. 1,753 applied, 99% were admitted. Students come from 4 states and territories, 0.4% from out-of-state, 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended; ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/7.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 14 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Students in Free Enterprise, Criminal Justice Society, Student Nurses Association, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Festival of the Arts, Annual Blood Drive, End of Semester Bash. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. Arnold LeDoux Library with 100,000 books, 253 serials, and an OPAC. 160 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed.

■ LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER J-11

433 Bolivar St.
New Orleans, LA 70112-2223
Tel: (504)568-4808
Admissions: (504)568-4829
Web Site: http://www.lsuhsc.edu/no/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1931. Setting: 80-acre urban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $56.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $83.8 million. Total enrollment: 2,240. Full-time: 585 students, 87% women, 13% men. Part-time: 57 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 0.1% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 12% black, 8% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.5% international, 31% 25 or older, 11% live on campus. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 480 college housing spaces available; 73 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. John P. Ische Library plus 2 others with 232,617 books, 2,359 serials, 3,200 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.6 million. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN SHREVEPORT B-2

1 University Place
Shreveport, LA 71115-2399
Tel: (318)797-5000
Admissions: (318)797-5063
Fax: (318)797-5286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lsus.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1965. Setting: 200-acre urban campus. Endowment: $5.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $486,886. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1724 per student. Total enrollment: 4,401. 848 applied, 68% were admitted. Full-time: 2,648 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 1,105 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 6 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 23% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 33% 25 or older, 5% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 53% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters plus 8-week and two 4-week summer terms. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Southern University at Shreveport-Bossier City Campus. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for state residents. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: ACT, SAT or ACT, SAT Subject Tests. Required for some: minimum ACT score of 17 for nonresidents. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 45 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 5% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: American Humanics, The Louisiana Association of Educators, Catholic Student Union, Biology/Health Club, Psychology Club. Major annual events: Spring Fling, Fall Fest, Pre-Cram Jam. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, controlled dormitory access. 480 college housing spaces available; 292 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Noel Memorial Library with 279,821 books, 364,744 microform titles, 1,190 serials, 1,914 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.5 million.

■ LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY B-5

PO Box 3168
Ruston, LA 71272
Tel: (318)257-0211
Free: 800-528-3241
Admissions: (318)257-3036
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.latech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and first professional certificates. Founded 1894. Setting: 247-acre small town campus. Endowment: $39.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $10.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3267 per student. Total enrollment: 11,691. 3,897 applied, 86% were admitted. 2 National Merit Scholars. Full-time: 7,553 students, 47% women, 53% men. Part-time: 1,765 students, 54% women, 46% men. Students come from 48 states and territories, 70 other countries, 12% from out-of-state, 19% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Grambling State University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.2 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/31. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3914 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8819 full-time. Mandatory fees: $461 full-time. College room and board: $4035. College room only: $2130.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 121 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 12% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Association of Women's Studies, Union Board. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Fling, Little Las Vegas Night. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Prescott Memorial Library with 3,319 books, 1.9 million microform titles, 2,469 serials, 14,532 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.7 million. 1,800 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is an urban area with bus service available. City has a public library, several churches, its own hospital, medical clinics, and good shopping facilities. Theatres, drive-in, golf, fishing, boating, and a campus olympic swimming pool provide recreation opportunities. There is also a concert association.

■ LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE I-9

150 3rd St.
Baton Rouge, LA 70801
Free: 800-351-7611
Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1930. Endowment: $286,936. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3121 per student. Total enrollment: 13,414. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 2,094 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 7,264 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 6,150 students, 39% women, 61% men. 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 37% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $5. State resident tuition: $552 full-time, $23 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1104 full-time, $46 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $214 full-time, $9 per credit hour part-time, $5 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ LOYOLA UNIVERSITY NEW ORLEANS J-11

6363 Saint Charles Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70118-6195
Tel: (504)865-2011
Free: 800-4-LOYOLA
Admissions: (504)865-3240
Fax: (504)865-3383
Web Site: http://www.loyno.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic (Jesuit), comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1912. Setting: 26-acre urban campus. Endowment: $304.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $775,074. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $8770 per student. Total enrollment: 5,423. Faculty: 483 (306 full-time, 177 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 3,713 applied, 68% were admitted. 28% from top 10% of their high school class, 60% from top quarter, 90% from top half. 12 valedictorians. Full-time: 3,220 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 468 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 56 other countries, 56% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 10% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 3% 25 or older, 40% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 82% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Tulane University, Xavier University of Louisiana, Notre Dame Seminary, University of New Orleans, Southern University at New Orleans. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Required for some: interview, PAA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 1/15. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $33,558 includes full-time tuition ($24,410), mandatory fees ($836), and college room and board ($8312). College room only: $5166. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $696 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 140 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities; 17% of eligible men and 18% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: University Programming Board, Community Action Program, Black Student Union, Student Government Association. Major annual events: Riverboat Party Charity Dance, Loyolapalooza Spring Festival, Loup Garou Fall Concert. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, self-defense education, bicycle patrols, closed circuit TV monitors, door alarms, crime prevention programs. 1,381 college housing spaces available; 1,295 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. University Library plus 1 other with 401,548 books, 1.3 million microform titles, 4,948 serials, 15,484 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.3 million. 458 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY I-3

4205 Ryan St.
Lake Charles, LA 70609
Tel: (337)475-5000
Free: 800-622-3352
Admissions: (337)475-5148
Web Site: http://www.mcneese.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1939. Setting: 580-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $31.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2740 per student. Total enrollment: 8,785. 2,313 applied, 89% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 35% from top quarter, 66% from top half. Full-time: 6,399 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 1,327 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 37 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 20% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 23% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Council of Intercollegiate Nursing Consortium; Coushatta Project, Kinder, Louisiana. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2226 full-time, $571.50 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8292 full-time, $571.50 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $933 full-time, $292.50 per term part-time. College room and board: $4637.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, International Students Association, Resident Student Association. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Fling. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,270 college housing spaces available; 950 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Frazer Memorial Library plus 2 others with 351,708 books, 1.4 million microform titles, 1,679 serials, 3,635 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.5 million. 700 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The city owes its development to the combination of Capt. J. B. Watkins, a variety of natural resources and a deepwater port. In 1887 Captain Watkins of New York moved his newspaper to Lake Charles and started an overwhelming advertising program, which, with the terminus of a railroad at New Orleans, resulted in the development of a 17-mill lumber industry. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s and a new process of mining sulfur further enriched the city. Forests are presently nearly depleted and the sulfur supply is no longer industrially profitable. This city with its vast oil companies in southwest Louisiana is a leader in the petrochemical industry. A deepwater port since 1926, it is currently the nation's leading rice port. Docks also handle general cargo, the output of chemical and petrochemical plants and products of the city's two large rice mills. Student employment is available. Transportation is provided by commercial passenger air lines, rail, and bus service. There are libraries, YMCA, a great number of churches, and three hospitals easily accessible. Recreation includes fishing, hunting, theatres, and an annual rodeo.

■ MEDVANCE INSTITUTE I-9

9255 Interline Ave.
Baton Rouge, LA 70809
Tel: (225)248-1015
Fax: (225)248-9571
Web Site: http://www.medvance.org/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: 4-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 294. 105 applied, 57% were admitted. Full-time: 294 students, 90% women, 10% men. 0% from out-of-state, 50% 25 or older. Core. Internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. 10 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-11

2550 Belle Chasse Hwy.
Gretna, LA 70053
Tel: (504)366-4613
Fax: (504)366-4614
Web Site: http://www.metrocc.us/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees.

■ NEW ORLEANS BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY J-11

3939 Gentilly Blvd.
New Orleans, LA 70126-4858
Tel: (504)282-4455
Free: 800-662-8701
Web Site: http://www.nobts.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1917. Setting: 81-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 2,712. 85 applied, 82% were admitted. Students come from 29 states and territories, 5 other countries, 0.2% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 18% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 100% 25 or older. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/9. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run radio station. Major annual events: Campus Revival, Christmas Party. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. John Christian Library plus 1 other with 206,321 books. 10 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ NICHOLLS STATE UNIVERSITY K-9

906 East First St.
Thibodaux, LA 70310
Tel: (985)446-8111; 877-NICHOLLS
Admissions: (985)448-4507
Fax: (985)448-4929
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nicholls.edu

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1948. Setting: 210-acre small town campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $11.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $770,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3807 per student. Total enrollment: 7,525. Faculty: 290 (289 full-time, 1 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 2,339 applied, 67% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 37% from top quarter, 65% from top half. 38 valedictorians. Full-time: 5,501 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 1,385 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 32 states and territories, 25 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 20% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 22% 25 or older, 18% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; business/marketing; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2230 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7679 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1159 full-time. College room and board: $3720. College room only: $1900.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 83 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 5% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Programming Association, Residence Hall Association, Food Advisory Association. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fest, Family Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing designed to accommodate 1,174 students; 1,214 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Allen J. Ellender Memorial Library with 303,962 books, 396,049 microform titles, 1,341 serials, 3,374 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.6 million. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The campus is located in a sugar-belt town on the banks of picturesque Bayou Lafourche. Incorporated in 1838, this was the first trading post established between New Orleans and the country along Bayou Teche in southeastern Louisiana. There are many beautiful plantations in the vicinity. Thibodaux presents a small town atmosphere. It is a quick 45 miles from historic New Orleans by rail or bus. The year-round climate is mild to moderate. The city has a public library, churches representing all denominations, and a hospital. Recreation includes movies, theater, hunting, boating, fishing, golf, bowling, swimming, and tennis. Student employment is available in the area and on campus.

■ NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA E-4

350 Sam Sibley Dr.
Natchitoches, LA 71497
Tel: (318)357-6361
Free: 800-327-1903
Admissions: (318)357-4078
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nsula.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1884. Setting: 916-acre small town campus. Endowment: $5.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3552 per student. Total enrollment: 9,847. Faculty: 546 (309 full-time, 237 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 2,852 applied, 77% were admitted. 14% from top 10% of their high school class, 35% from top quarter, 66% from top half. 39 valedictorians. Full-time: 6,460 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 2,328 students, 78% women, 22% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 25 other countries, 7% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 31% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 27% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 66% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; liberal arts/general studies; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early action, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, college preparatory curriculum; plus a 2.0 GPA, or a minimum ACT score of 20, or top 50% of class, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/6. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2240 full-time, $240 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8318 full-time, $493 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1153 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $3626. College room only: $2050. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 100 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 9% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Baptist Collegiate Ministry, Catholic Student Organization. Major annual events: Spring Fling Week, Homecoming Week, Welcome Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,122 college housing spaces available; 1,923 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through junior year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Eugene P. Watson Memorial Library with 325,829 books, 171,425 microform titles, 7,978 serials, 7,403 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.7 million. 1,132 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ OUR LADY OF HOLY CROSS COLLEGE J-11

4123 Woodland Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70131-7399
Tel: (504)394-7744
Free: 800-259-7744
Fax: (504)391-2421
Web Site: http://www.olhcc.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1916. Setting: 40-acre suburban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3200 per student. Total enrollment: 1,446. 320 applied, 97% were admitted. Full-time: 831 students, 78% women, 22% men. Part-time: 485 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 3 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 16% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 35% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 64% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters plus summer sessions. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Delgado Community College, St. Joseph Seminary College, Notre Dame Seminary, Ochsner Clinical Foundation, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Gulf Coast Research Laboratories. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Placement: SAT or ACT required; ACT recommended. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/20. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 15 open to all. Most popular organizations: Innovators, student government, Association of Student Nurses, Delta Sigma Pi, Louisiana Association of Educators/Student Programs. Major annual events: Crawfish Boil, Christmas Dance, Fall Fest. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Blaine Kern Library with 83,631 books, 222,522 microform titles, 1,002 serials, 11,949 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $318,505. 68 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ OUR LADY OF THE LAKE COLLEGE I-9

7434 Perkins Rd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
Tel: (225)768-1700; 877-242-3509
Fax: (225)768-1726
Web Site: http://www.ololcollege.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, 4-year, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1990. Setting: 5-acre suburban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6782 per student. Total enrollment: 1,990. 241 applied, 91% were admitted. Students come from 3 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 20% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international. Retention: 55% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for professional programs. Option: Common Application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, ACT, ACT ASSET. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: 8/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $6780 full-time, $226 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time, $75 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 2 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Cultural Arts Association, Christian Fellowship Association, Mathematics/Science Association. Major annual events: Welcoming Ceremony, Spring Student Social, Fall Festival. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Learning Resource Center plus 1 other with 12,409 books, 328 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $350,000. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ REMINGTON COLLEGE-BATON ROUGE CAMPUS I-9

1900 North Lobdell
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Tel: (225)922-3990
Fax: (225)922-9569
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Calendar: continuous.

■ REMINGTON COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE CAMPUS I-6

303 Rue Louis XIV
Lafayette, LA 70508
Tel: (337)981-4010
Admissions: (337)981-9010
Fax: (337)983-7130
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Part of Education America Inc. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1940. Setting: 4-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 367. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 114 applied, 100% were admitted. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 50% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 40% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: continuous. Honors program, independent study.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $12,825 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Major annual events: Career Fair, Blood Drive. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Remington College Library with 15,435 books, 85 serials, 182 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 120 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ REMINGTON COLLEGE-NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS J-11

321 Veterans Memorial Blvd.
Metairie, LA 70005
Tel: (504)831-8889
Fax: (504)831-6803
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 650.

Entrance Requirements:

Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ RIVER PARISHES COMMUNITY COLLEGE I-9

PO Box 310
Sorrento, LA 70778
Tel: (225)675-8270
Fax: (225)675-5478
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://rpcc.cc.la.us/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1997. Total enrollment: 724. Calendar: semesters.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1458 full-time, $66 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4174 full-time, $66 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $310 full-time, $40 per term part-time.

■ SAINT JOSEPH SEMINARY COLLEGE

St. Benedict, LA 70457
Tel: (504)892-1800
Admissions: (985)867-2225
Web Site: http://www.sjasc.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, 4-year, men only. Awards bachelor's degrees (Religious Studies Institute is coed). Founded 1891. Setting: 1,300-acre rural campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $127,793. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2383 per student. Total enrollment: 167. Full-time: 77 students. Part-time: 90 students. Students come from 8 states and territories, 42% from out-of-state, 21% Hispanic, 3% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 31% 25 or older, 100% live on campus, 15% transferred in. Retention: 91% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, interview, ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to candidates for the priesthood.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 5 open to all. Most popular organization: student government. Major annual events: Annual Bonfire, America Sings, homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, controlled dormitory access, entrance gate. 100 college housing spaces available; 77 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: men-only housing available. Pere Rouquette Library plus 1 other with 70,000 books, 137 serials, 1,500 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $75,260. 15 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Saint Benedict is located four miles north of Covington and 50 miles north of New Orleans. There is bus service available to Covington from New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and Hammond.

■ SCHOOL OF URBAN MISSIONS-NEW ORLEANS J-11

PO Box 53344
New Orleans, LA 70153
Tel: (504)362-6364
Free: 800-385-6364
Fax: (504)362-4895
Web Site: http://www.sumonline.org/

Description:

Independent interdenominational, 2-year, coed. Founded 1991.

■ SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA UNIVERSITY I-10

Hammond, LA 70402
Tel: (985)549-2000
Free: 800-222-7358
Admissions: (985)549-2066
Fax: (985)549-5095
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.selu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 375-acre small town campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $16.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2947 per student. Total enrollment: 15,472. Faculty: 730 (497 full-time, 233 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 27:1. 3,297 applied, 94% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 28% from top quarter, 61% from top half. Full-time: 11,157 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 2,507 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 42 states and territories, 39 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 16% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 21% 25 or older, 11% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 67% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Baton Rouge Center, St. Tammany Center. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, proof of immunization, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT Subject Tests. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/16. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3341 full-time, $139 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8669 full-time, $361 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5180. College room only: $3150. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 94 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 3% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Gamma Beta Phi, Alpha Omicron Pi, Management Honor Society, Baptist Collegiate Ministries, Black Student Union Caucus. Major annual events: Rush, Gumbo Ya Ya, Strawberry Jubilee. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, video cameras, motorist assistance. 2,000 college housing spaces available; 1,508 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Sims Memorial Library with 572,563 books, 769,303 microform titles, 2,387 serials, 48,752 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.3 million. 837 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

City is located in the Southeastern section of the state. Climate is subtropical. Transportation to and from city available via Illinois Central Railroad and Greyhound Bus Co. There are five libraries, six local theatres, golf, hunting, fishing, boating at Lake Ponchartrain for recreation. Two hospitals, six motels and numerous apartments are available. Part-time employment for students is limited. There are 35 civic, fraternal, and veteran's organizations in Hammond.

■ SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE I-9

Baton Rouge, LA 70813
Tel: (225)771-4500
Free: 800-256-1531
Admissions: (225)771-2430
Web Site: http://www.subr.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Southern University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1880. Setting: 964-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $7.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3016 per student. Total enrollment: 9,941. Faculty: 573 (406 full-time, 167 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 4,703 applied, 53% were admitted. 11% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 60% from top half. 5 class presidents, 11 valedictorians, 8 student government officers. Full-time: 7,729 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 847 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 41 states and territories, 28 other countries, 17% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 96% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 17% 25 or older, 35% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; engineering. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Southeastern Louisiana University, Southern University at New Orleans, Baton Rouge Community College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Naval, Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.2 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3592 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9384 full-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and location. College room and board: $4646. College room only: $2816. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 63 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Association for Women Students (AWS), Men's Federation. Major annual events: homecoming, Founder's Day, Springfest. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,015 college housing spaces available; 2,795 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. John B. Cade Library plus 2 others with 808,365 books, 721,123 microform titles, 1,857 serials, 42,734 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.1 million. 1,500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT NEW ORLEANS J-11

6400 Press Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70126-1009
Tel: (504)286-5000
Admissions: (504)286-5314
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.suno.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Southern University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1959. Setting: 17-acre campus. Total enrollment: 5,000. 1,000 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 13 states and territories, 8 other countries, 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study at University of New Orleans, Delgado Community College. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 7/1.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $2990 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6728 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Student services: health clinic. College housing not available. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT SHREVEPORT B-2

3050 Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr.
Shreveport, LA 71107
Tel: (318)674-3300
Admissions: (318)674-3426
Fax: (318)674-3489
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.susla.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Southern University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1964. Setting: 103-acre urban campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $42,522. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2521 per student. Total enrollment: 1,324. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter. Full-time: 921 students, 69% women, 31% men. Part-time: 403 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 45% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 92% black, 0.2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 41% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Louisiana State University in Shreveport.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 38 open to all. Most popular organizations: Afro-American Society, SUSBO Gospel Choir, Student Center Board, Allied Health, Engineering Club. Major annual events: Career Day, Homecoming, Crawfish Boil. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Library/Learning Resources Center with 25,733 microform titles, 380 serials, 24,016 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $308,227.

■ TULANE UNIVERSITY J-11

6823 St Charles Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70118-5669
Tel: (504)865-5000
Free: 800-873-9283
Admissions: (504)865-5731
Fax: (504)862-8715
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tulane.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1834. Setting: 110-acre urban campus. Endowment: $782 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,400 per student. Total enrollment: 12,691. Faculty: 1,371 (1,099 full-time, 272 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 17,572 applied, 45% were admitted. 59% from top 10% of their high school class, 75% from top quarter, 100% from top half. Full-time: 6,151 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 1,825 students, 60% women, 40% men. 70% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 9% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 16% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; biological/life sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters plus 3 summer sessions. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Xavier University of Louisiana, Loyola University New Orleans. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Naval, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/15, 11/1 for early decision, 11/1 for early action. Notification: continuous until 4/15, 12/15 for early decision, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $41,357 includes full-time tuition ($30,350), mandatory fees ($2596), and college room and board ($8411). College room only: $4841. Part-time tuition: $1340 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $20.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 250 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 33% of eligible men and 35% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Community Action Council, Campus Programming, African-American Congress, club sports, Tsunami. Major annual events: Outreach Tulane (Community Service Day for Freshmen), Student Activities Expo, Spring Arts Festival. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, on and off-campus shuttle service, crime prevention programs, lighted pathways. College housing designed to accommodate 3,385 students; 5,184 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Howard Tilton Memorial Library plus 8 others with 2.3 million books, 2.6 million microform titles, 15,499 serials, 94,404 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 592 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Year-round New Orleans offers festivals and jazz bands, symphonies and operas, Broadway shows and concerts. But the City that Care Forgot also blends its unique French and Spanish heritage to offer quiet entertainment in museums, galleries, quaint restaurants or strolls through the European ambiance of the French Quarter. The 1.3 million people living in the metropolitan area succeed as well in running Louisiana's business, banking, judicial and cultural capital. Many students find the city to be as much a place of learning and intellectual challenge as the classroom. Moderate temperatures can be enjoyed year-round. New Orleans is one of the greatest distributing points in the South, and one of the largest ports in the United States; it is a marketing center for cotton, oil, salt, sulfur, natural gas, agricultural and forest products. Good transportation facilities are available. This is a paradise for those who fish or hunt. Since the city is a tourist attraction, there are many recreational facilities and community services available. Work opportunities are available for students.

■ UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE I-6

104 University Circle
PO Drawer 41008
Lafayette, LA 70504
Tel: (337)482-1000
Admissions: (337)482-6553
Fax: (337)482-6195
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.louisiana.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of University of Louisiana System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1898. Setting: 1,375-acre urban campus. Endowment: $80.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $61.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3324 per student. Total enrollment: 17,075. Faculty: 719 (548 full-time, 171 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 22:1. 6,309 applied, 76% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 39% from top quarter, 72% from top half. 75 valedictorians. Full-time: 12,926 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 2,638 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 80 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 20% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 19% 25 or older, 12% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, core requirements, no remedials, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $3324 full-time, $92.75 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9504 full-time, $350.25 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $3478. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 200 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 2% of eligible men and 5% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Resident Hall Association, Newman Club, Union Program Council, Chi Alpha. Major annual events: homecoming, Lagniappe Day, Mardi Gras. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 2,400 college housing spaces available; 1,984 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Edith Garland Dupre Library with 986,000 books, 1.3 million microform titles, 5,174 serials, 9,245 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.6 million. 1,000 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE B-6

700 University Ave.
Monroe, LA 71209-0001
Tel: (318)342-1000
Free: 800-372-5127
Admissions: (318)342-5272
Fax: (318)342-1049
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ulm.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1931. Setting: 238-acre urban campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $7.9 million. Total enrollment: 9,056. Faculty: 455 (373 full-time, 82 part-time). 2,378 applied, 87% were admitted. Full-time: 6,251 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 1,496 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 45 states and territories, 42 other countries, 7% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 29% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 27% 25 or older, 15% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; liberal arts/general studies; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Southern Mississippi, Louisiana Tech University, Grambling State University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2334 full-time, $93 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8284 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1068 full-time, $64 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. College room and board: $4120. College room only: $2230. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 173 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: Union Board, Student Government Association. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fever Week, Miss ULM contest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 1,895 college housing spaces available; 1,474 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. University Library with 642,582 books, 614,669 microform titles, 2,761 serials, 1,138 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2 million. 1,400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS J-11

Lake Front
New Orleans, LA 70148
Tel: (504)280-6000
Free: 800-256-5866
Admissions: (504)280-7013
Fax: (504)280-5522
Web Site: http://www.uno.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Louisiana State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1958. Setting: 345-acre urban campus. Endowment: $13.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $24.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4252 per student. Total enrollment: 17,350. Faculty: 785 (556 full-time, 229 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 25:1. 6,197 applied, 63% were admitted. Full-time: 9,551 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 3,674 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 81 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 25% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 27% 25 or older, 9% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 67% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Southern University at New Orleans, Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Required for some: essay, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, interview, 2.0 high school GPA on high school core program. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3292 full-time, $133 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,336 full-time, $426 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $518 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room only: $4590. Room charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 100 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Government Activities Council, Circle K International, International Student Organization, Progressive Black Student Union. Major annual events: Fall Fest, Spring Fest, Annual Crayfish Boil. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,426 college housing spaces available; 1,282 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Earl K. Long Library with 896,000 books, 12.4 million microform titles, 4,950 serials, 125,600 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.4 million. 1,084 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

■ UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LOUISIANA CAMPUS J-11

1 Galleria Blvd., Ste. 725
Metairie, LA 70001-2082
Tel: (504)461-8852
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1976. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 2,747. Faculty: 304 (2 full-time, 302 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. 77 applied. Full-time: 2,085 students, 71% women, 29% men. 0% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 15% black, 0.2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 20% international, 93% 25 or older. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; computer and information sciences; security and protective services. Core. Calendar: continuous. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: 1 recommendation. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9120 full-time, $304 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. University Library with 444 books, 666 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. System-wide operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.2 million.

■ XAVIER UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA J-11

1 Drexel Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70125-1098
Tel: (504)486-7411; 877-XAVIERU
Admissions: (504)520-7388
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.xula.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 23-acre urban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $48.5 million. Total enrollment: 4,121. Faculty: 289 (241 full-time, 48 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 4,248 applied, 83% were admitted. 30% from top 10% of their high school class, 55% from top quarter, 83% from top half. Full-time: 3,143 students, 75% women, 25% men. Part-time: 147 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 41 states and territories, 15 other countries, 49% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Hispanic, 84% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 2% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 73% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at 2 members of the New Orleans Consortium, St. Michael's College, University of Notre Dame. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Naval (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early action. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 3/1, 1/15 for early action. Notification: 4/15, 2/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,200 includes full-time tuition ($12,100), mandatory fees ($1000), and college room and board ($7100). Room and board charges vary according to location. Part-time tuition: $500 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 64 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 2% of eligible men and 6% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Mobilization at Xavier, AWARE, NAACP, California Club, Beta Beta Beta. Major annual events: Homecoming, Spring Fest, Martin Luther King Week for Peace. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, bicycle patrols. 1,678 college housing spaces available; 1,306 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Xavier Library plus 1 other with 238,455 books, 785,994 microform titles, 1,868 serials, and 6,186 audiovisual materials. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Tulane University.

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Louisiana

Louisiana

BATON ROUGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE

5310 Florida Blvd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Tel: (225)216-8000
Free: 800-601-4558
Admissions: (225)216-8700
Fax: (225)216-8100
Web Site: http://www.brcc.cc.la.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Myrtle E.B. Dorsey
Admissions: Michelle L. Hill
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $1656 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $4464 full-time. Mandatory fees: $432 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Calendar System: Semester Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools

BATON ROUGE SCHOOL OF COMPUTERS

10425 Plaza Americana
Baton Rouge, LA 70816
Tel: (504)923-2525
Fax: (504)923-2979
Web Site: http://www.brsc.net/
President/CEO: Betty Truxillo
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

BLUE CLIFF COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE

100 Asma Blvd., Ste. 350
Lafayette, LA 70508-3862
Tel: (504)456-3141
Web Site: http://www.bluecliffcollege.com
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed

BLUE CLIFF COLLEGE-SHREVEPORT

200 N. Thomas Dr., Ste. A
Shreveport, LA 71107-6520
Tel: (504)456-3141
Web Site: http://www.bluecliffcollege.com
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed

BOSSIER PARISH COMMUNITY COLLEGE

2719 Airline Dr. North
Bossier City, LA 71111-5801
Tel: (318)746-9851
Admissions: (318)678-6166
Fax: (318)742-8664
Web Site: http://www.bpcc.edu/
President/CEO: Thomas N. Carleton
Registrar: Patty Stewart
Admissions: Ann Jempole
Financial Aid: Vicki Temple
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $1720 full-time, $254 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3860 full-time, $414 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $448 full-time, $19 per credit part-time, $55 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 120, PT 100 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 29,600 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, ACF, APTA, CARC Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M; Soccer M; Softball W

BRYMAN COLLEGE

1201 Elmwood Park Blvd., Ste. 600
New Orleans, LA 70123
Tel: (504)733-7117
Fax: (504)734-1217
Web Site: http://bryman-college.com/
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed

CAMELOT COLLEGE

2618 Wooddale Blvd., Ste. A
Baton Rouge, LA 70805
Tel: (225)928-3005
Free: 800-470-3320
Fax: (225)927-3794
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.camelotcollege.com/
President/CEO: Rev. Ronny L. Williams
Registrar: Constance Williams
Admissions: Rev. Ronny L. Williams
Financial Aid: Constance Williams
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scholarships: Available Professional Accreditation: ACICS

CAMERON COLLEGE

2740 Canal St.
New Orleans, LA 70119
Tel: (504)821-5881
Web Site: http://www.cameroncollege.com/
President/CEO: Eleanor Camerson Skov
Type: Two-Year College Professional Accreditation: COE

CAREER TECHNICAL COLLEGE

2319 Louisville Ave.
Monroe, LA 71201
Tel: (318)323-2889
Free: 800-234-6766
Fax: (318)324-9883
Web Site: http://www.careertc.com/
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, COE

CENTENARY COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA

2911 Centenary Blvd, PO Box 41188
Shreveport, LA 71104
Tel: (318)869-5011
Free: 800-234-4448
Admissions: (318)869-5104
Fax: (318)869-5005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.centenary.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Kenneth L. Schwab
Registrar: Gary Young, PhD
Admissions: Dr. Darrel D. Colson
Financial Aid: Mary Sue Rix
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 99.1% SAT M 400+; 33.5% ACT 18-23; 49% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 64 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $25,680 includes full-time tuition ($18,900) and college room and board ($6780). College room only: $3310. Part-time tuition: $630 per semester hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $50 per term. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Miscellaneous, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 882, PT 22, Grad 140 Faculty: FT 72, PT 50 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 60 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 68 Library Holdings: 186,564 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NASM Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Gymnastics W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

DELGADO COMMUNITY COLLEGE

501 City Park Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70119-4399
Tel: (504)483-4400
Admissions: (504)483-4004
Fax: (504)483-1986
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. J. Terence Kelly
Admissions: Gwen Boute
Financial Aid: Diane Jackson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana Community and Technical College System Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $1482 full-time, $420 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4462 full-time, $1275 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $362 full-time, $5 per credit part-time, $10 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,376, PT 9,125 Faculty: FT 356, PT 477 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 110,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABET, ABFSE, ACF, AHIMA, AOTA, APTA, ACBSP, CARC, JRCERT, JRCEMT, NAACLS, NAIT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Track and Field W

DELTA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY

7380 Exchange Place
Baton Rouge, LA 70806-3851
Tel: (504)928-7770
Admissions: (225)928-7770
Fax: (504)927-9096
Web Site: http://www.deltacollege.com/
President/CEO: Billy L. Clark
Admissions: Beulah Laverghe-Brown
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Fee: $100.00 Calendar System: Continuous Faculty: FT 30, PT 5 Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

DELTA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & TECHNOLOGY

517 Broad St.
Lake Charles, LA 70601
Tel: (337)439-5765
Fax: (337)436-5151
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deltatech.edu/
President/CEO: Gary J. Holt
Admissions: Gary J. Holt
Type: Two-Year College Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: ACICS

DILLARD UNIVERSITY

2601 Gentilly Blvd.
New Orleans, LA 70122-3097
Tel: (504)283-8822
Free: 800-216-6637
Admissions: (504)816-4356
Fax: (504)286-4895
Web Site: http://www.dillard.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Michael L. Lomax
Admissions: Darrin Q. Rankin
Financial Aid: Cynthia Thornon
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: interdenominational Scores: 79% SAT V 400+; 75% SAT M 400+; 82% ACT 18-23; 9% ACT 24-29 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,920, PT 235 Faculty: FT 145, PT 56 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 89 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 50 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 126 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

ELAINE P. NUNEZ COMMUNITY COLLEGE

3710 Paris Rd.
Chalmette, LA 70043-1249
Tel: (504)680-2240
Admissions: (504)680-2457
Fax: (504)680-2243
Web Site: http://www.nunez.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Thomas R. Warner
Registrar: Tanya Crump
Admissions: Donna Clark
Financial Aid: John Whisnant
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana Community and Technical Colleges System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required. For practical nursing and EMT programs: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,213, PT 1,150 Faculty: FT 58, PT 97 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 37,626 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NAIT

GRAMBLING STATE UNIVERSITY

PO Box 607
Grambling, LA 71245
Tel: (318)247-3811
Admissions: (318)274-6183
Fax: (318)274-6172
Web Site: http://www.gram.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Horace Judson
Registrar: Karen C. Lewis
Admissions: Norma Taylor
Financial Aid: Alvina C. Thomas
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Board of Supervisors Scores: 71.74% SAT V 400+; 70.66% SAT M 400+; 33.98% ACT 18-23; 1.29% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $558 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7582 full-time, $558 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $1274 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $4034. College room only: $2138. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 4,088, PT 352, Grad 599 Faculty: FT 244, PT 3 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 83 Library Holdings: 208,935 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, CSWE, NASM, NASPAA, NAST, NCATE, NLN, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

GRETNA CAREER COLLEGE

1415 Whitney Ave.
Gretna, LA 70053-5835
Tel: (504)366-5409
Fax: (504)365-1004
Web Site: http://www.gretnacareercollege.com/
President/CEO: Nicholas Randazzo
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

HERZING COLLEGE

2400 Veterans Blvd.
Kenner, LA 70062
Tel: (504)733-0074
Fax: (504)733-0020
Web Site: http://www.herzing.edu/
President/CEO: Darla Chin
Admissions: Genny Bordelon
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Semester Enrollment: FT 153, PT 67 Faculty: FT 5, PT 15 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Professional Accreditation: ACICS

ITI TECHNICAL COLLEGE

13944 Airline Hwy.
Baton Rouge, LA 70817
Tel: (225)752-4233
Free: 800-467-4484
Admissions: (225)752-4230
Fax: (225)756-0903
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.iticollege.edu/
President/CEO: Joe Martin
Admissions: Joe Martin
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 85 Application Fee: $0.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Calendar System: Continuous Enrollment: FT 226, PT 125 Faculty: FT 22, PT 22 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

140 James Dr. E
St. Rose, LA 70087
Tel: (504)463-0338
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/
President/CEO: Brenda Nash
Admissions: Heather E. Alleman
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: ITT Educational Services, Inc Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $100.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $100. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 96 credit hours, Associates; 180 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACICS

LOUISIANA COLLEGE

1140 College Dr.
Pineville, LA 71359-0001
Tel: (318)487-7011
Free: 800-487-1906
Admissions: (318)487-7439
Fax: (318)487-7550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lacollege.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Malcolm Yarnell
Registrar: Alan Mobley
Admissions: Byron McGee
Financial Aid: Shelley Jinks
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Scores: 94.1% SAT V 400+; 94.1% SAT M 400+; 51.1% ACT 18-23; 35.6% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 920, PT 165 Faculty: FT 64, PT 28 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 55 Library Holdings: 135,566 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 127 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACN, ACBSP, CSWE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis W

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE

Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Tel: (225)578-3202
Admissions: (225)578-1175
Fax: (225)578-4433
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lsu.edu/
President/CEO: Sean O'Keefe
Registrar: Robert K. Doolos
Admissions: Cleve Brooks
Financial Aid: Mary G. Parker
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Scores: 98.9% SAT V 400+; 99.4% SAT M 400+; 38% ACT 18-23; 52.2% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 73 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: April 15 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $2981 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $11,281 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1438 full-time. College room and board: $6330. College room only: $3930. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 23,766, PT 1,939, Grad 4,507 Faculty: FT 1,277, PT 190 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 35 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 23 Library Holdings: 1,369,607 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 119 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAFCS, ABA, ACCE, ACA, ADtA, ALA, APA, ASLA, ASLHA, AVMA, AALS, CSWE, FIDER, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Gymnastics W; Soccer W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT ALEXANDRIA

8100 Hwy. 71 South
Alexandria, LA 71302-9121
Tel: (318)445-3672; 888-473-6417
Admissions: (318)473-6542
Fax: (318)473-6418
Web Site: http://www.lsua.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert Cavanaugh
Registrar: Leslie Quinn
Admissions: Leslie Quinn
Financial Aid: Kenn Posey
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Scores: 49.7% ACT 18-23; 11.3% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 77 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Area resident tuition: $3092 full-time. State resident tuition: $128 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5552 full-time, $231 per credit hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,572, PT 1,416 Faculty: FT 105, PT 75 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 154,935 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NAACLS, NLN

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT EUNICE

PO Box 1129
Eunice, LA 70535-1129
Tel: (337)457-7311
Admissions: (337)550-1302
Fax: (337)457-7311
Web Site: http://www.lsue.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. William J. Nunez, III
Admissions: Brenda Williams
Financial Aid: Jacqueline Lachapelle
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Scores: 54% ACT 18-23; 20% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 100,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: CARC, JRCERT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball W

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER

433 Bolivar St.
New Orleans, LA 70112-2223
Tel: (504)568-4808
Admissions: (504)568-4829
Web Site: http://www.lsuhsc.edu/no/
President/CEO: Dr. John A. Rock
Registrar: W. Bryant Faust
Admissions: W. Bryant Faust, IV
Financial Aid: Patrick Gorman
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 585, PT 57, Grad 666 Faculty: FT 1,242, PT 138 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 11 Library Holdings: 232,617 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Professional Accreditation: AACN, AANA, ADA, AOTA, APTA, APA, ASLHA, CARC, CEPH, CORE, JCAHPO, LCMEAMA, NAACLS

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN SHREVEPORT

1 University Place
Shreveport, LA 71115-2399
Tel: (318)797-5000
Admissions: (318)797-5063
Fax: (318)797-5286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lsus.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Vincent J. Marsala
Registrar: Jennifer K. Carter
Admissions: Jennifer Carter
Financial Aid: Betty McCrary
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Scores: 57% ACT 18-23; 18% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,648, PT 1,105, Grad 648 Faculty: FT 155, PT 99 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 5 Library Holdings: 279,821 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, APTA, LCMEAMA, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W

LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY

PO Box 3168
Ruston, LA 71272
Tel: (318)257-0211
Free: 800-528-3241
Admissions: (318)257-3036
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.latech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Daniel D. Reneau
Registrar: Robert D. Vento, Jr.
Admissions: Jan B. Albritton
Financial Aid: Roger Vick
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 52.5% ACT 18-23; 33.2% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3914 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8819 full-time. Mandatory fees: $461 full-time. College room and board: $4035. College room only: $2130. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,553, PT 1,765, Grad 2,373 Faculty: FT 394, PT 105 Student-Faculty Ratio: 23:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 53 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 3,319 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 126 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAFCS, ADtA, AHIMA, APA, ASLHA, CAA, FIDER, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Weight Lifting M & W

LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE

150 3rd St.
Baton Rouge, LA 70801
Free: 800-351-7611
Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu/
Admissions: Janice M. Bolden
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 100 Application Fee: $5.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $5. State resident tuition: $552 full-time, $23 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1104 full-time, $46 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $214 full-time, $9 per credit hour part-time, $5 per term part-time. Enrollment: FT 7,264, PT 6,150 Faculty: FT 780, PT 573 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY NEW ORLEANS

6363 Saint Charles Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70118-6195
Tel: (504)865-2011
Free: 800-4-LOYOLA
Admissions: (504)865-3240
Fax: (504)865-3383
Web Site: http://www.loyno.edu/
President/CEO: Rev. Kevin Wildes, SJ
Registrar: Kathy R. Gros
Admissions: Deborah C. Stieffel
Financial Aid: Cathy Simoneaux
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic (Jesuit) Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 15.7% ACT 18-23; 73% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 15 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled students are required to provide proof of high school graduation or its equivalent: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $33,558 includes full-time tuition ($24,410), mandatory fees ($836), and college room and board ($8312). College room only: $5166. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $696 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,220, PT 468, Grad 931 Faculty: FT 306, PT 177 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 52 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 40 Library Holdings: 401,548 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABA, ACA, AALS, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Rugby M; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY

4205 Ryan St.
Lake Charles, LA 70609
Tel: (337)475-5000
Free: 800-622-3352
Admissions: (337)475-5148
Web Site: http://www.mcneese.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert D. Hebert
Registrar: Stephanie B. Tarver
Admissions: Tammie Pettis
Financial Aid: Taina Savoit
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 60% ACT 18-23; 16% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2226 full-time, $571.50 per term part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8292 full-time, $571.50 per term part-time. Mandatory fees: $933 full-time, $292.50 per term part-time. College room and board: $4637. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 6,399, PT 1,327, Grad 1,059 Faculty: FT 300, PT 113 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 12 Library Holdings: 351,708 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 120 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAFCS, ADtA, JRCERT, NAACLS, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Riflery M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Weight Lifting M & W

MEDVANCE INSTITUTE

9255 Interline Ave.
Baton Rouge, LA 70809
Tel: (225)248-1015
Fax: (225)248-9571
Web Site: http://www.medvance.org/
President/CEO: Debbie Schwarzberg
Registrar: Michael Floyd
Admissions: Sheri Kirley
Financial Aid: Cindy Hill
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Fee: $100.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 294 Faculty: FT 10, PT 0 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 96 quarter hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: COE, NAACLS

METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

2550 Belle Chasse Hwy.
Gretna, LA 70053
Tel: (504)366-4613
Fax: (504)366-4614
Web Site: http://www.metrocc.us/
President/CEO: Jim Claudet
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Professional Accreditation: COE

NEW ORLEANS BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

3939 Gentilly Blvd.
New Orleans, LA 70126-4858
Tel: (504)282-4455
Free: 800-662-8701
Web Site: http://www.nobts.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles S. Kelley, Jr.
Registrar: Tate Cockrell
Admissions: Dr. Paul E. Gregoire, Jr.
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 316, PT 747, Grad 1,380 Faculty: FT 10, PT 74 % Receiving Financial Aid: 73 Library Holdings: 206,321 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 69 hours, Associates; 126 hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AClPE, ATS, NASM

NICHOLLS STATE UNIVERSITY

906 East First St.
Thibodaux, LA 70310
Tel: (985)446-8111; 877-NICHOLLS
Admissions: (985)448-4507
Fax: (985)448-4929
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nicholls.edu
President/CEO: Dr. Stephen T. Hulbert
Registrar: Kelly Rodrigue
Admissions: Becky L. Durocher
Financial Aid: Colette Lagarde
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 63% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 67 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2230 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7679 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1159 full-time. College room and board: $3720. College room only: $1900. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,501, PT 1,385, Grad 639 Faculty: FT 289, PT 1 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 53 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 18 Library Holdings: 303,962 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 120 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AACN, AAFCS, ADtA, ASC, CARC, JRCEMT, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA

350 Sam Sibley Dr.
Natchitoches, LA 71497
Tel: (318)357-6361
Free: 800-327-1903
Admissions: (318)357-4078
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nsula.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Randall Webb
Registrar: Lillie Bell
Admissions: Yvette Williams
Financial Aid: Misti Adams
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 89.36% SAT V 400+; 87.24% SAT M 400+; 55.16% ACT 18-23; 16.63% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 77 Admission Plans: Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 06 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2240 full-time, $240 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8318 full-time, $493 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1153 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $3626. College room only: $2050. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 6,460, PT 2,328, Grad 1,059 Faculty: FT 309, PT 237 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 325,829 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AACN, AAFCS, ACA, CSWE, JRCERT, NASAD, NASM, NAST, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

OUR LADY OF HOLY CROSS COLLEGE

4123 Woodland Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70131-7399
Tel: (504)394-7744
Free: 800-259-7744
Fax: (504)391-2421
Web Site: http://www.olhcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Paul T. Ceasar
Registrar: Michael Ferguson
Admissions: Kristine Hatfield Kopecky
Financial Aid: Johnell Armer
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 67% ACT 18-23; 4% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 831, PT 485, Grad 130 Faculty: FT 39, PT 84 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 40 Library Holdings: 83,631 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 125 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ACA, CARC, NCATE, NLN

OUR LADY OF THE LAKE COLLEGE

7434 Perkins Rd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
Tel: (225)768-1700; 877-242-3509
Fax: (225)768-1726
Web Site: http://www.ololcollege.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Michael Smith
Registrar: Melodie Leggett
Financial Aid: Sharon Butler
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 75.6% ACT 18-23; 7.4% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Tuition: $6780 full-time, $226 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time, $75 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 65, PT 69 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 12,409 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 credit hours, Associates; 129 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, APTA, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN

REMINGTON COLLEGE-BATON ROUGE CAMPUS

1900 North Lobdell
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Tel: (225)922-3990
Fax: (225)922-9569
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/
President/CEO: Midge Jacobson
Registrar: Carolyn DeLoch
Admissions: Gregg Falcon
Financial Aid: Eddie Callier
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Continuous Professional Accreditation: ACICS

REMINGTON COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE CAMPUS

303 Rue Louis XIV
Lafayette, LA 70508
Tel: (337)981-4010
Admissions: (337)981-9010
Fax: (337)983-7130
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Rosalie Lampone
Registrar: Tamie Coontz
Admissions: Gary Schwartz
Financial Aid: Jo Ann Boudreaux
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Education America Inc % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Tuition: $12,825 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 367 Faculty: FT 16, PT 12 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 15,435 Professional Accreditation: ACICS

REMINGTON COLLEGE-NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS

321 Veterans Memorial Blvd.
Metairie, LA 70005
Tel: (504)831-8889
Fax: (504)831-6803
Web Site: http://www.remingtoncollege.edu/
President/CEO: Gregg Falcon
Admissions: Roy Kimble
Financial Aid: Toni Bannon
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Quarter Credit Hours For Degree: 100 hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

RIVER PARISHES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 310
Sorrento, LA 70778
Tel: (225)675-8270
Fax: (225)675-5478
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://rpcc.cc.la.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Joe Ben Welch
Admissions: Allison Dauzat
Financial Aid: Kim Dudley
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Fee: $10.00 Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1458 full-time, $66 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $4174 full-time, $66 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $310 full-time, $40 per term part-time. Calendar System: Semester Faculty: FT 16, PT 17 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 61 credits, Associates

SAINT JOSEPH SEMINARY COLLEGE

St. Benedict, LA 70457
Tel: (504)892-1800
Admissions: (985)867-2225
Web Site: http://www.sjasc.edu/
President/CEO: Very Rev. Gregory Boquet, OSB
Admissions: Dr. Russ Pottle
Financial Aid: Les Lavergne
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Men Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 33% ACT 18-23; 22% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 77, PT 90 Faculty: FT 14, PT 22 Student-Faculty Ratio: 3:1 Exams: ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 26 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 100 Library Holdings: 70,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors

SCHOOL OF URBAN MISSIONS-NEW ORLEANS

PO Box 53344
New Orleans, LA 70153
Tel: (504)362-6364
Free: 800-385-6364
Fax: (504)362-4895
Web Site: http://www.sumonline.org/
President/CEO: Rev. Anthony Freeman
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: interdenominational Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: AABC

SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA UNIVERSITY

Hammond, LA 70402
Tel: (985)549-2000
Free: 800-222-7358
Admissions: (985)549-2066
Fax: (985)549-5095
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.selu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. M. Randy Moffett
Registrar: Paulette Poche
Admissions: Richard Beaugh
Financial Aid: Richard Beaugh
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 21.7% ACT 18-23 % Accepted: 94 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 16 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3341 full-time, $139 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8669 full-time, $361 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5180. College room only: $3150. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 11,157, PT 2,507, Grad 1,808 Faculty: FT 497, PT 233 Student-Faculty Ratio: 27:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 56 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 11 Library Holdings: 572,563 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 61 semester hours, Associates; 120 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACA, ASLHA, CSWE, NAIT, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE

Baton Rouge, LA 70813
Tel: (225)771-4500
Free: 800-256-1531
Admissions: (225)771-2430
Web Site: http://www.subr.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Edward R. Jackson
Registrar: Brenda Williams
Admissions: Tracie Abraham
Financial Aid: Philip Rogers
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern University System Scores: 69% SAT V 400+; 74% SAT M 400+; 43% ACT 18-23; 2% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 53 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3592 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $9384 full-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and location. College room and board: $4646. College room only: $2816. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,729, PT 847, Grad 1,365 Faculty: FT 406, PT 167 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 79 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 808,365 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 65 credits, Associates; 124 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AACN, AAFCS, ABA, ADtA, ASLHA, CORE, CSWE, NASM, NASPAA, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT NEW ORLEANS

6400 Press Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70126-1009
Tel: (504)286-5000
Admissions: (504)286-5314
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.suno.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Press Robinson
Admissions: Timeotea Bailey
Financial Aid: Ursula Shorty
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $2990 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6728 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester Exams: SAT I or ACT Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M; Cross-Country Running M & W; Track and Field M & W

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT SHREVEPORT

3050 Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr.
Shreveport, LA 71107
Tel: (318)674-3300
Admissions: (318)674-3426
Fax: (318)674-3489
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.susla.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ray L. Belton
Registrar: Mahailer Broom
Admissions: Ted Scott
Financial Aid: Linda Hines
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern University System Scores: 7.7% ACT 18-23 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $5.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 921, PT 403 Faculty: FT 49, PT 49 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: ACT Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 68 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ADA, AHIMA, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NAIT Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W

TULANE UNIVERSITY

6823 St Charles Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70118-5669
Tel: (504)865-5000
Free: 800-873-9283
Admissions: (504)865-5731
Fax: (504)862-8715
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tulane.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Scott S. Cowen
Registrar: Earl Retif
Admissions: Richard Whiteside
Financial Aid: Elaine L. Rivera
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 99.5% SAT V 400+; 100%SATM 400 + % Accepted: 45 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 15 Application Fee: $55.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $41,357 includes full-time tuition ($30,350), mandatory fees ($2596), and college room and board ($8411). College room only: $4841. Part-time tuition: $1340 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $20. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 6,151, PT 1,825, Grad 3,098 Faculty: FT 1,099, PT 272 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 47 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 65 Library Holdings: 2,331,250 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEHSA, ABA, ADtA, APA, AALS, CEPH, CSWE, LCMEAMA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Gymnastics M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M; Sailing M & W; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W; Water Polo M & W

UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE

104 University Circle
PO Drawer 41008 Lafayette, LA 70504
Tel: (337)482-1000
Admissions: (337)482-6553
Fax: (337)482-6195
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.louisiana.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ray P. Authement
Registrar: Dewayne Bowie
Admissions: Dan Rosenfield
Financial Aid: Cynthia Shows-Perez
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Louisiana System Scores: 62.14% ACT 18-23; 27.43% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 76 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For applicants 21 or over: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. State resident tuition: $3324 full-time, $92.75 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9504 full-time, $350.25 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $3478. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 12,926, PT 2,638, Grad 1,511 Faculty: FT 548, PT 171 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 53 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 11 Library Holdings: 986,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAFCS, ADtA, AHIMA, ASLHA, FIDER, NAIT, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE

700 University Ave.
Monroe, LA 71209-0001
Tel: (318)342-1000
Free: 800-372-5127
Admissions: (318)342-5272
Fax: (318)342-1049
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ulm.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. James E. Cofer, Sr.
Registrar: Dr. James Robertson, Jr.
Admissions: Lisa Miller
Financial Aid: Ralph Perri
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 87% SAT V 400+; 90% SAT M 400+; 58% ACT 18-23; 19% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 87 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2334 full-time, $93 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8284 full-time. Mandatory fees: $1068 full-time, $64 per credit hour part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. College room and board: $4120. College room only: $2230. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 6,251, PT 1,496, Grad 886 Faculty: FT 373, PT 82 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 15 Library Holdings: 642,582 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAMFT, AACN, AAFCS, ACCE, ACPhE, ACA, ADA, AOTA, ASLHA, CSWE, JRCERT, NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS

Lake Front
New Orleans, LA 70148
Tel: (504)280-6000
Free: 800-256-5866
Admissions: (504)280-7013
Fax: (504)280-5522
Web Site: http://www.uno.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Timothy P. Ryan
Registrar: Kathleen G. Plante
Admissions: Roslyn S. Sheley
Financial Aid: Emily London Jones
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Louisiana State University System Scores: 90% SAT V 400+; 93% SAT M 400+; 59% ACT 18-23; 19% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 63 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $3292 full-time, $133 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,336 full-time, $426 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $518 full-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room only: $4590. Room charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,551, PT 3,674, Grad 4,125 Faculty: FT 556, PT 229 Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 9 Library Holdings: 896,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACA, ACSP, NASAD, NASM, NAST, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LOUISIANA CAMPUS

1 Galleria Blvd., Ste. 725
Metairie, LA 70001-2082
Tel: (504)461-8852
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/
President/CEO: Brent Fitch
Admissions: Nina Omelchanko
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $110.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9120 full-time, $304 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 2,085, Grad 662 Faculty: FT 2, PT 302 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Library Holdings: 444 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NLN

XAVIER UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA

1 Drexel Dr.
New Orleans, LA 70125-1098
Tel: (504)486-7411; 877-XAVIERU
Admissions: (504)520-7388
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.xula.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Norman C. Francis
Registrar: JoAnn Taylor
Admissions: Winston Brown
Financial Aid: Mildred Higgins
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 91% SAT V 400+; 89% SAT M 400+; 57% ACT 18-23; 25% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 83 Admission Plans: Early Action Application Deadline: March 01 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,200 includes full-time tuition ($12,100), mandatory fees ($1000), and college room and board ($7100). Room and board charges vary according to location. Part-time tuition: $500 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,143, PT 147, Grad 242 Faculty: FT 241, PT 48 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 77 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 238,455 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AANA, ACPhE, ACBSP, NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Tennis M & W

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Louisiana

Louisiana

BOSSIER PARISH COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Business Administration and Management, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Information Science/Studies, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, A

CENTENARY COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biophysics, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Communication and Media Studies, B

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dance, B

Drama and Dance Teacher Education, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, BM

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, B

German Language Teacher Education, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Latin Teacher Education, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Museology/Museum Studies, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Theory and Composition, B

Neuroscience, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Voice and Opera, B

DELGADO COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biomedical Technology/Technician, A

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, A

Building/Property Maintenance and Management, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Installation and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Dental Laboratory Technology/Technician, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

Fire Protection and Safety Technology/Technician, A

Funeral Service and Mortuary Science, A

General Studies, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Institutional Food Workers, A

Interior Architecture, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Machine Shop Technology/Assistant, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Music, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, A

DELTA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

DILLARD UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Composition, B

English Language and Literature, B

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Modern Languages, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Therapy/Therapist, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Public Health Education and Promotion, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Urban Studies/Affairs, B

ELAINE P. NUNEZ COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Science, A

Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Institutional Food Workers, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Laser and Optical Technology/Technician, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Plastics Engineering Technology/Technician, A

GRAMBLING STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, A

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Criminology, M

Curriculum and Instruction, D

Developmental Education, MD

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Education, MD

Educational Leadership and Administration, D

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

History, B

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, M

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Institutional Food Workers, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BM

Mathematics, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, BM

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Social Work, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

ITI TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Computer Technology/Computer Systems Technology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Information Technology, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

Accounting and Business/Management, B

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, B

Business Administration and Management, B

CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Systems Security, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

LOUISIANA COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, B

Advertising, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Family and Consumer Economics and Related Services, B

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Modern Languages, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Voice and Opera, B

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, BMD

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, MD

Agricultural Education, MD

Agricultural Engineering, MD

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, BMD

Applied Science and Technology, M

Architecture, BM

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, M

Astronomy, MD

Astrophysics, D

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biochemistry, BMD

Bioengineering, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Biopsychology, MD

BioTechnology, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MD

Business Education, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, M

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Clinical Psychology, MD

Cognitive Sciences, MD

Communication and Media Studies, MD

Communication Disorders, MD

Comparative Literature, MD

Computer Engineering, BMD

Computer Science, BMD

Construction Management, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Dairy Science, MD

Design and Applied Arts, M

Developmental Psychology, MD

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Economics, BMD

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Educational Measurement and Evaluation, D

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, MD

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Policy and Resource Management, M

Environmental Sciences, BD

Environmental Studies, M

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, BMD

Fashion Merchandising, B

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, MD

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, MD

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, MD

Forest Management/Forest Resources Management, B

Forestry, MD

French Language and Literature, BMD

General Studies, B

Geography, BMD

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geophysics and Seismology, MD

Geotechnical Engineering, MD

German Language and Literature, B

Graphic Design, M

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, D

History, BMD

Home Economics Education, M

Horticultural Science, MD

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, MD

Industrial Education, M

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Information Science/Studies, MO

Interior Architecture, B

International and Comparative Education, MD

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International/Global Studies, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, MD

Landscape Architecture, BM

Latin Language and Literature, B

Law and Legal Studies, MPO

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Liberal Studies, M

Library Science, MO

Linguistics, MD

Management, D

Management Information Systems and Services, MD

Management Science, B

Marine Affairs, MD

Marketing, MD

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BMD

Mathematics, BMD

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Mechanics, MD

Media Studies, MD

Microbiology, B

Music, BMD

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BD

Natural Resources and Conservation, MD

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, B

Nutritional Sciences, B

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, MD

Painting, M

Petroleum Engineering, BMD

Philosophy, BM

Photography, M

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, BMD

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, MD

Plant Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, BMD

Printmaking, M

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, MDO

School Psychology, MD

Sculpture, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Work, MD

Sociology, BMD

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Statistics, M

Structural Engineering, MD

Systems Science and Theory, M

Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Subject Areas, B

Theater, MD

Toxicology, M

Transportation and Highway Engineering, MD

Veterinary Medicine, P

Veterinary Sciences, MD

Vocational and Technical Education, MD

Water Resources Engineering, MD

Women's Studies, B

Writing, M

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT ALEXANDRIA

Behavioral Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, AB

Business Administration and Management, AB

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Health Services/Allied Health/Health Sciences, A

History, B

Information Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Mathematics, AB

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Theatre/Theatre Arts Management, B

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT EUNICE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Studies, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Allopathic Medicine, MPO

Anatomy, MDO

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biometry/Biometrics, M

Cardiovascular Technology/Technologist, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MDO

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Disorders, M

Community Health Nursing, MD

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Dental Assisting/Assistant, AB

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, AB

Dental Laboratory Technology/Technician, AB

Dentistry, P

Electroneurodiagnostic/Electroencephalographic Technology/Technologist, B

Human Genetics, MDO

Immunology, MD

Microbiology, MD

Molecular Biology, MD

Neuroscience, DO

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Adult, MD

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, MD

Ophthalmic Technician/Technologist, B

Parasitology, MD

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, MDO

Pediatric Nurse/Nursing, M

Pharmacology, MDO

Physical Therapy/Therapist, M

Physiology, MDO

Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurse/Nursing, MD

Public Health, M

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN SHREVEPORT

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Computer Science, B

Counseling Psychology, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Education, MO

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, B

Geography, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, B

Human Services, M

Information Science/Studies, B

Liberal Studies, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Public Health Education and Promotion, B

School Psychology, MO

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Systems Engineering, M

Systems Science and Theory, M

LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BMD

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Animal Sciences, B

Applied Arts and Design, M

Architecture, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Engineering, MD

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MD

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BM

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child Development, B

Civil Engineering, BMD

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication Disorders, M

Computational Sciences, D

Computer Science, BM

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Consumer Economics, B

Counseling Psychology, D

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, MD

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Economics, MD

Education, MD

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Speech or Language Impairments, B

Educational Leadership and Administration, D

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, M

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, MD

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Forestry, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, AB

Geography, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

Graphic Design, M

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Education, M

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

History, BM

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, M

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Interior Architecture, B

Interior Design, M

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Management Science, B

Manufacturing Engineering, M

Marketing, MD

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Nutritional Sciences, M

Operations Management and Supervision, B

Operations Research, M

Photography, BM

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, BMD

Physics Teacher Education, B

Plant Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BMD

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, BM

Speech Teacher Education, B

Statistics, M

Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Subject Areas, B

LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Aircraft Powerplant Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Child Care Provider/Assistant, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Assistant, A

Communications Systems Installation and Repair Technology, A

Computer Installation and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Industrial Electronics Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Production Technologies/Technicians, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Precision Systems Maintenance and Repair Technologies, A

Prepress/Desktop Publishing and Digital Imaging Design, A

Printing Press Operator, A

Respiratory Therapy Technician/Assistant, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Survey Technology/Surveying, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Technical Teacher Education, A

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY NEW ORLEANS

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Behavioral Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication and Media Studies, MO

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Finance, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

German Language and Literature, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Jazz/Jazz Studies, B

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, M

Mathematics, B

Music, BM

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Theory and Composition, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Religion/Religious Studies, BMO

Religious Education, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Sciences, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, MO

MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, B

Applied Art, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemical Engineering, M

Chemistry, BM

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Civil Engineering, M

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Computer Science, M

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Education, BM

Educational Administration and Supervision, MO

Educational Leadership and Administration, B

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical Engineering, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

Engineering Management, M

Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Engineering Technology, AB

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, BM

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, AB

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health Education, M

History, B

Information Technology, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, M

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, M

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Petroleum Technology/Technician, A

Photography, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Printmaking, B

Psychology, BM

School Psychology, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Statistics, M

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Writing, M

MEDVANCE INSTITUTE

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

NEW ORLEANS BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, MDP

Religion/Religious Studies, AB

Religious Education, MDP

Sacred Music, MD

Theology and Religious Vocations, DP

NICHOLLS STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Applied Mathematics, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, A

Cardiopulmonary Technology/Technologist, A

Chemical Technology/Technician, A

Chemistry, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Computer Science, B

Counseling Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, AB

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Education, BM

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Biology, BM

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, AB

Health Services/Allied Health/Health Sciences, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, BM

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BM

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Petroleum Technology/Technician, AB

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

School Psychology, MO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Survey Technology/Surveying, B

NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, M

Anthropology, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Education, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Cultural Resource Management and Policy Analysis, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Education, MO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, MO

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

General Studies, AB

Health Education, M

Health Promotion, M

History, B

Home Economics Education, M

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Music, M

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BMO

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, BM

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, BMO

Speech Teacher Education, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Student Personnel Services, M

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, B

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

OUR LADY OF HOLY CROSS COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Behavioral Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, AM

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Education, BM

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

History, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mathematics, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Reading Teacher Education, B

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, AB

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, B

Tourism Promotion Operations, B

OUR LADY OF THE LAKE COLLEGE

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Sciences, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, AB

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Forensic Science and Technology, B

General Studies, A

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

REMINGTON COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE CAMPUS

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Programming, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

REMINGTON COLLEGE-NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Hardware Engineering, A

Computer Programming, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Engineering Technology, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

RIVER PARISHES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Chemical Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Physical Sciences, A

SAINT JOSEPH SEMINARY COLLEGE

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Science and Technology, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Arts Management, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Education, M

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Speech or Language Impairments, B

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, AB

Health Education, M

History, BM

Horticultural Science, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, AB

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, M

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, M

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Therapist Assistant, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Public Health Education and Promotion, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech Teacher Education, B

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, BM

Agricultural Economics, B

Agricultural Sciences, M

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Analytical Chemistry, M

Animal Sciences, B

Architecture, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biochemistry, M

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, BM

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BM

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Civil Engineering, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, BM

Computer Teacher Education, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Education, M

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Forestry, M

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

History, BM

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Inorganic Chemistry, M

Jazz/Jazz Studies, A

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Law and Legal Studies, P

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BM

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, BD

Mechanical Engineering, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, MDO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, DO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, D

Nursing Education, D

Organic Chemistry, M

Physical Chemistry, M

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, BM

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, BM

Psychology, BM

Public Administration, MD

Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Professions, B

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Rehabilitation Therapy, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BD

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BMD

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Therapeutic Recreation, M

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, B

Urban Forestry, B

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT NEW ORLEANS

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, AB

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

French Language and Literature, B

History, B

Mathematics, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Real Estate, A

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, ABM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT SHREVEPORT

Accounting, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Cardiovascular Technology/Technologist, A

Chemistry, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

General Studies, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Mathematics, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Public Administration, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Robotics Technology/Technician, A

Sociology, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

Tourism and Travel Services Management, A

TULANE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

African Studies, B

Allopathic Medicine, PO

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anatomy, B

Anthropology, BMD

Applied Mathematics, M

Architecture, BM

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Biochemistry, BMDO

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Engineering, MD

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Biostatistics, BMD

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MDO

Business/Commerce, A

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MDO

Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, B

Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, BM

Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, A

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, A

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, BMD

Corrections, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Dance, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Ecology, B

Economics, BMD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Engineering Science, B

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental and Occupational Health, MDO

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Studies, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Epidemiology, MD

Evolutionary Biology, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

French Language and Literature, BMD

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

German Language and Literature, B

Health Education, M

Health Services Administration, MDO

Hispanic-American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican-American/Chicano Studies, B

History, BMD

Human Genetics, MDO

Immunology, MDO

Information Science/Studies, AB

International Development, MD

International Public Health/International Health, MDO

International Relations and Affairs, B

Italian Language and Literature, B

Jewish/Judaic Studies, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Latin American Studies, BMDO

Latin Language and Literature, B

Law and Legal Studies, MDPO

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Legal Professions and Studies, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Liberal Studies, M

Linguistics, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Maternal and Child Health, MDO

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics and Statistics, B

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, B

Microbiology, MDO

Modern Greek Language and Literature, B

Molecular Biology, BMDO

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, BM

Neuroscience, BMDO

Nutritional Sciences, BM

Paleontology, D

Parasitology, MDO

Pharmacology, MDO

Philosophy, BMD

Physics, BMD

Physiology, MDO

Political Science and Government, BMDO

Portuguese Language and Literature, BMD

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, M

Public Health, MDO

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Russian Studies, B

Social Work, MDO

Sociology, BMD

Spanish Language and Literature, BMD

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Statistics, BM

Structural Biology, MDO

Theater, M

Women's Studies, B

UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE

Accounting, B

Agribusiness, B

Agriculture, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, D

Animal Sciences, B

Anthropology, B

Apparel and Textiles, B

Architectural Engineering, M

Architecture, B

Architecture and Related Services, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Commerce, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemical Engineering, BM

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Civil Engineering, BM

Cognitive Sciences, D

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, MD

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, BMD

Computer Science, BMD

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, BM

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering Management, M

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Biology, D

Evolutionary Biology, D

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, M

Fashion Merchandising, B

Fashion/Apparel Design, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, BMD

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, B

Geology/Earth Science, BM

German Language Teacher Education, B

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, BM

Horticultural Science, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Industrial Design, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Insurance, B

Interior Architecture, B

Jazz/Jazz Studies, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BM

Mathematics, BMD

Mechanical Engineering, BM

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Modern Languages, B

Music, BM

Music Pedagogy, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Music Theory and Composition, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Performance, M

Petroleum Engineering, BM

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, BM

Physics Teacher Education, B

Plant Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Psychology, BM

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Rhetoric, D

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Subject Areas, B

Telecommunications, M

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Writing, D

UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE

Accounting, B

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, M

Computer Science, B

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Curriculum and Instruction, DO

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, B

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, D

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

General Studies, AB

Geosciences, M

Gerontology, MO

Health/Medical Preparatory Programs, B

History, BM

Insurance, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, MD

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Music, M

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, B

Pharmaceutical Sciences, M

Pharmacy, BDP

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BMO

Reading Teacher Education, M

School Psychology, O

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Speech Teacher Education, B

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, M

Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Subject Areas, B

Toxicology, B

UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS

Accounting, BM

Anthropology, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Arts Management, M

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Community Health and Preventive Medicine, O

Computer Science, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Economics, BD

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MDO

Engineering Management, MO

Engineering Science, B

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Film, Television, and Video Production, M

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, B

Foundations and Philosophy of Education, MDO

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Geography, BM

Geology/Earth Science, BM

Geophysics and Seismology, BM

Gerontology, O

Health Education, MO

Health Services Administration, M

History, BM

Hospitality Administration/Management, BM

International/Global Studies, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, BM

Music, BM

Music Teacher Education, B

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMO

Physics, BMD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, M

Public Policy Analysis, M

Romance Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MDO

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Taxation, M

Theater, M

Travel and Tourism, M

Urban and Regional Planning, M

Urban Studies/Affairs, BMD

Women's Studies, B

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LOUISIANA CAMPUS

Accounting, BM

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Electronic Commerce, M

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, B

General Studies, A

Health Services Administration, M

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Management of Technology, M

Nursing, MO

Nursing Science, B

Organizational Management, M

XAVIER UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA

Accounting, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Communication Disorders, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, B

Education, BM

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

French Language and Literature, B

French Language Teacher Education, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, M

Pharmacy, P

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Statistics, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, M

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Violin, Viola, Guitar and Other Stringed Instruments, B

Wind and Percussion Instruments, B

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Dr. Jerry Pinsel, Director
Louisiana Community and Technical College System
822 Neosho Ave.
Baker, LA 70704-9064
(225)219-9530

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

The Statement of Education serves as a licensing agent for private (propietary) business and vocational-technical schools operating in Louisiana, which are recommended for approval by the Louisiana Proprietary School Commission (which sets standards) and approved by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE).
The State Department of Education does not serve as either an accrediting or licensing agent for private schools operating in Louisiana under the following Boards.
In cases where specific boards have been established, such as the Board of Barber Examination, Louisiana State Board of Cosmetology, State Board of Nurses Examiners, these schools must meet standards described by these boards.

ABBEVILLE

Louisiana Technical College, Gulf Area Campus

Box 878, Abbeville, LA 70511-0878. Other. Founded 1952. Contact: Ann M. Broussard, (337)893-4984, 800-370-8499, Fax: (337)893-4991, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 758. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Automotive Collision Repair (18 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Building Engineer (12 Mo); Communications, Electronic (24 Mo); Computer Technology (21 Mo); Cosmetology (15 Mo); Diesel Technology (24 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (12 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

ALEXANDRIA

Alexandria Academy of Beauty Culture

2305 Rapides Ave., Alexandria, LA 71301-5730. Cosmetology, Barber. Founded 1928. Contact: Frances Caluet, Owner, (318)442-7715, Fax: (318)442-6448, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://alexacebeauty.com/. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $6,750. Enrollment: men 5, women 22. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

Delta Career College, Inc.

PO Box 1528, Alexandria, LA 71309. Allied Medical. Contact: J.F. McCray, (318)442-9586. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Curriculum: Allied Health Occupations; Business Education; Business Occupations

Louisiana State University at Alexandria

8100 Hwy. 71S, Alexandria, LA 71302-9121. Two-Year College. Founded 1960. Contact: Robert Cavanaugh, Chancellor, (318)445-3672, 888-743-6417, Fax: (318)473-6481, Web Site: http://www.lsua.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $200/semester hour. Enrollment: men 815, women 1,730. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art (2 Yr); Business Occupations (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Computer Science - Terminal Operation (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr)

Louisiana Technical College-Alexandria Campus

4311 South Macarthur Dr., PO Box 5698, Alexandria, LA 71302-3137. Trade and Technical. Contact: John R. Martin, Interim Campus Dean, (318)487-5439, (318)487-5443, 800-351-7611, Fax: (318)487-5970, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu/alexandriacampus. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $37 per credit hr in-state; $60 per credit hr out-of-state; plus other fees. Enrollment: Total 453. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available.

BASTROP

Bastrop Beauty School Inc.

117 S.Vine St., Bastrop, LA 71220. Cosmetology. Contact: Mona Dumas, Owner-president, (318)281-1157, (318)281-8652. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $2,100 nail technology; $2,700 cosmetology instructor; $6,885 cosmetology (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 1, women 59. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Nail Technology (600 Hr)

Louisiana Technical College-Bastrop Campus

729 Kammell St., PO Box 1120, Bastrop, LA 71221-1120. Trade and Technical. Founded 1977. Contact: Norene R. Smith, Campus Dean, (318)283-0836, Fax: (318)283-0871, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net; Vettye Garrett, Asst. Campus Dean, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 333. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (15 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Electronics Technology (24 Mo); Executive Assistant (18 Mo); Nursing, Practical (14 Mo); Secretarial, General (12 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

BATON ROUGE

Baton Rouge General Medical Center-Radiologic Technology

3600 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70806. Contact: William Holman, President ceo, (504)387-7024, Web Site: http://www.brgeneral.org/sort. Private. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,500 in-state; $1,500 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 19.

Baton Rouge General Medical Center School of Nursing

3616 North Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70806. Contact: William Holman, Chief administrative officer, (225)387-7623, Web Site: http://www.brgeneral.org. Private. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $6,450 in-state; $6,450 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 42.

Baton Rouge School of Computers

10425 Plaza Americana, Baton Rouge, LA 70816-8188. Contact: Betty D. Truxillo, Director, (225)923-2524, (225)923-2525. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $8,299. Degrees awarded: Certificate.

Baton Rouge Vocational-Technical Institute

3250 N. Acadian Thruway, Baton Rouge, LA 70805. Trade and Technical. Founded 1941. Contact: Robert R. Buck, Jr., (225)359-9204, Fax: (225)359-9296. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 250, women 367. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (18 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Automotive Technology (104 Hr); Barbering (15 Mo); Bookkeeping (18 mo); Child Care & Guidance (18 Mo); Computer Operations (2175 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Culinary Arts (18 Mo); Desktop Publishing (1545 Hr); Drafting Technology (21 Mo); Early Childhood Education (1200 Hr); Electricity, Industrial (18 Mo); Electronics Technology (18 Mo); Graphic Arts (15 Mo); Machine Shop (18 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (15 Mo); Printing Technology (1545 Hr)

D-Jay's School of Beauty Arts & Sciences

5131 Government St., Baton Rouge, LA 70806. Cosmetology. Founded 1964. Contact: Deborah H. Schilleci, (225)926-2530, (225)926-2531, Fax: (225)926-2661. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $9,500. Enrollment: Total 71. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Delta College of Arts & Technology

7380 Exchange Place, Baton Rouge, LA 70806. Allied Medical, Business, Nursing, Trade and Technical. Founded 1985. Contact: Billy L. Clark, (225)928-7770, Fax: (225)927-9096, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://deltacollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 120. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art, Advertising - Commercial; Business Technology; Graphic Design; Medical Assistant; Nurse, Assistant; Nursing, Practical

Domestic Health Care Institute

4826 Jamestown Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70808. Allied Medical. Founded 1988. Contact: Dan Chavis, Dir., (225)925-5312, Fax: (225)926-4303. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 165. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ABHES. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (24 Wk); Dental Assisting (7 Mo); Medical Assistant (10 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (20 Wk)

Insurance Achievement, Inc.

7330 Highland Rd., Baton Rouge, LA 70808. Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: R. Robert Rackley, Pres., (225)766-9828, 800-258-2432, Fax: (225)769-6834, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.insuranceachievement.com. Private. HS diploma not required. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Accreditation: DETC. Curriculum: Insurance Broker; Insurance, Fire & Casualty; Insurance, Life & Disability

ITI Technical Institute

13944 Airline Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA 70817. Trade and Technical. Founded 1973. Contact: Mark Worthy, (225)752-4233, (225)752-4236, 800-635-8426, Fax: (225)756-0903, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.iticollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 350, women 50. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (67 Qt); Computer Aided Drafting (102.5 Qt); Electrical Technology (36 Qt); Electronics Technology (110.5 Qt); Information Systems (131.5 Qt); Instrumentation Technology (111 Qt)

Louisiana Technical College-Baton Rouge Campus

3250 North Acadian Thruway East, Baton Rouge, LA 70805-6699.(225)359-9201, Web Site: http://www.brti.tec.la.us. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: 528 in-state; $1,056 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Medical Training College

10525 Plaza Americana, Baton Rouge, LA 70816. Allied Medical, Trade and Technical. Founded 1992. Contact: Billy L. Clark, (225)926-5820, Fax: (225)928-9795, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://mtcbr.com/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $7,000 to $16,000 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 20, women 177. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (674 Hr); Medical Administrative Assistant (816 Hr); Medical Assistant (816 Hr); Nursing, Practical (1594 Hr); Nursing, Vocational (1594 Hr)

Remington College (Baton Rouge Campus)

10551 Coursey Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College.(225)922-3990, Fax: (225)922-6569, Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu; Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu/contact2.php4?campus=BTR. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $11,780-$31,540. Enrollment: Total 453. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (24 Mo); Computer Networking (24 Mo); Criminal Justice (24 Mo); Medical Assistant (8 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (8 Mo); Pharmacy Technician (8 Mo)

Southland School of Taxidermy

2603 Osceola St., Baton Rouge, LA 70805. Other. Founded 1972. Contact: Huey C. Tortorice, Owner, (225)356-2903, (225)938-0522, 800-984-7328, Fax: (225)356-2902, Web Site: http://www.taxidermyschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Week. Tuition: $9,400; individual courses $200-$1,840. Enrollment: men 2, women 2. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Taxidermy (6-7 Wk)

BOGALUSA

Sullivan Technical Institute

1710 Sullivan Dr., Bogalusa, LA 70427. Trade and Technical. Founded 1930. Contact: M.J. Murphy, Director, (504)732-6640, 800-732-6640, Fax: (504)732-6603, Web Site: http://www.sullivan.tec.la.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Enrollment: Total 525. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (24 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Biomedical Technology (24 Mo); Carpentry (24 Mo); Computer Programming (24 Mo); Computer Support Technology (24 Mo); Diesel Technology (24 Mo); Early Childhood Education (24 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (4 Mo); Machine Tool Programming Technology (24 Mo); Medical Office Management (12 Mo); Network Support (24 Mo); Nurses Aide (4 Mo); Nursing, Practical (16 Mo); Office Technology (24 Mo); Patient Care Technician; Welding Technology (18 Mo)

BOSSIER CITY

Bossier Parish Community College

6220 East Texas St., Bossier City, LA 71111. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Ann Jampole, Dir. of Admissions, (318)678-6000, Fax: (318)678-6390, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bpcc.cc.la.us/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,682 full-time; $938 half-time (in-state); $2,535 room and board. Enrollment: Total 2,202. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (1 Yr); Computer Business Systems Technology (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (1 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (1-2 Yr); Medical Office Management (1 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (1 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (1-2 Yr); Secretarial, Executive (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (1-2 Yr); Theatre Arts (2 Yr)

Pat Goins Beauty School (Bossier City)

1701 Old Minden Rd., No. 36, Bossier City, LA 71111. Cosmetology. Founded 1968. Contact: Jim Goins, (318)746-7674, (318)746-2600, (866)746-7674, Fax: (318)746-8101, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,250 to $6,750 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 36. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

CHALMETTE

Nunez Community College

3710 Paris Rd., Chalmette, LA 70043. Two-Year College. Founded 1992. Contact: Donna Clark, Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs, (504)278-7497, (504)680-2467, (866)825-1954, Fax: (504)680-2245, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nunez.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $859/full-time/semester. Enrollment: men 712, women 1,627. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS; NAIT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (1-2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Heating (1-2 Yr); Building Construction Technology (1 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Computer Technology (1-2 Yr); Culinary Arts (1-2 Yr); Culinary Occupations (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (1-2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Electrical Construction (1 Yr); Electronic Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Liberal Arts (2 Yr); Machine Tool Technology (1 Yr); Nursing, Certified Assistant (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Office, General (1 Yr); Office Management (2 Yr); Optical Technology (2 Yr); Remediation (1 Yr); Science (2 Yr)

COTTONPORT

Louisiana Technical College, Avoyelles Campus

PO Box 307, 508 Choupique St., Cottonport, LA 71327. Trade and Technical. Founded 1947. Contact: Tom Gauthier, Dir., (318)876-2701, (318)876-2401, Fax: (318)876-2634, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.net; Jaqueline Ausbon, Asst. Campus Dean, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: men 238, women 112. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Electronics, Industrial (24 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Paramedic (15 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

DENHAM SPRINGS

Denham Springs Beauty School

923 Florida Blvd., Denham Springs, LA 70726. Cosmetology. Contact: Frances Hand, Dir., (225)665-6188. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,700 plus $200 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 2, women 77. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: COE. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

EUNICE

Louisiana Academy of Beauty

550 E. Laurel St., Eunice, LA 70535. Cosmetology. Founded 1992. Contact: John Cobb, (337)457-7627, (337)457-9480, Fax: (337)457-1884, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,462 plus books and supplies for cosmetology; $4,100 for cosmetology instructor. Enrollment: men 2, women 44. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr)

Louisiana State University, Eunice Campus

PO Box 1129, 2048 Johnson Hwy., Eunice, LA 70535. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: William Nunez, (337)457-7311, 888-FOR-LSUE, Fax: (337)546-6620, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.lsue.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $88/credit in-state; $213/credit out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 3,144. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Occupations; Engineering Technology; Law Enforcement; Nursing, Vocational

FARMERVILLE

Louisiana Technical College - North Central Campus

605 N. Boundary St., PO Box 548, Farmerville, LA 71241. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Donna C. Sewell, (318)368-3179, Fax: (318)368-9180, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 80. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (76 Hr); Computer Support Technology (76 Hr); Medical Technology - Phlebotomy (6 Mo); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Nursing, Vocational (10 Wk); Office Technology (69 Hr); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

FERRIDAY

Louisiana Technical College-Shelby Jackson Campus

2100 N. E. E. Wallace Blvd., Ferriday, LA 71334-1465. Contact: Mignonne Ater, Campus dean, (318)757-6501, (318)757-7638, Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: 528 in-state; $1,056 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

LTC—Shelby M. Jackson Campus

PO Box 1465, E.E. Wallace Blvd., Ferriday, LA 71334. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Mignonne Ater, Campus Administrator, (318)757-6501, (318)757-6502, Fax: (318)757-8659, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net/smjackson. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 123. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (15 Mo); Administrative Assistant (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (36 Mo); Auto Mechanics (27 Mo); Clerk, Typist (12 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (11 Wk); Secretarial, General (15 Mo); Small Engine Repair (20 Mo); Welding Technology (20 Mo)

GONZALES

Ascension College

320 E. Ascension St., Gonzales, LA 70737. Trade and Technical, Business, Allied Medical. Founded 1989. Contact: Dennis Kerr, (225)647-6609, 800-276-2953, Fax: (225)644-0066, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ascensioncollege.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $6,495 - $7,495. Enrollment: men 2, women 193. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (9 Mo); Dental Assisting (976 Hr); Medical Assistant (900 Hr); Medical Office Management (720 Hr); Office Technology (720 Hr); Secretarial, Medical (8 Mo)

GREENSBURG

Louisiana Technical College-Florida Parishes

137 college Street, Greensburg, LA 70441-0000. Contact: Sharon Hornsby, Campus dean, (225)222-4251, 800-827-9750, Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: 660 in-state; $1,808 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

GRETNA

Creative Floral Design School of New Orleans

714 Lafayette St., Gretna, LA 70053. Other. Founded 1986. Contact: Jeanne G. Safley, Owner/Instructor, (504)366-7676, 800-423-6338, Web Site: http://www.floral-designschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $700 tution; $775 flowers and supplies. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Floristry (80 Hr)

HAMMOND

Louisiana Technical College - Hammond Area Campus

PO Box 489, 111 Pride Dr., Hammond, LA 70404-0489. Trade and Technical. Founded 1964. Contact: Ms. Jimmye Foster, (985)543-4120, (985)543-4123, 800-469-0238, Fax: (985)543-4121, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu; Sharon Hornsby, Campus Dean, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 212. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (6 Tm); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (12 Mo); Appliance Repair (12 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Computer Technology (24 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (180 Hr); Executive Assistant (18 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, L.P.N. (160 Hr); Nursing, Practical (16 Mo); Office Technology (6 Tm); Paramedic (1160 Hr); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

HOUMA

Louisiana Technical College - L. E. Fletcher Campus

310 Charles St., Houma, LA 70364. Trade and Technical. Founded 1950. Contact: William Tulak, (504)857-3655, Fax: (504)857-3689. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $105 quarterly. Enrollment: Total 1,242. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Air Conditioning; Automotive Technology; Diesel Technology; Drafting & Design Technology; Electrical Technology; Electronics, Industrial; Machine Shop; Marine Technology; Nurse, Assistant; Nursing, Practical; Office Technology; Welding Technology

South Louisiana Beauty College

300 Howard Ave., Houma, LA 70363. Cosmetology. Founded 1965. Contact: Kim Nagy, Owner/Executive Dir., (985)873-8978, Fax: (985)876-2644, Web Site: http://slbc-houma.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,300 to $7,545 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 8, women 111. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (600 Hr); Cosmetology - Refresher (300 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

JACKSON

Louisiana Technical College - Folkes Campus

PO Box 808, Jackson, LA 70748. Trade and Technical. Founded 1977. Contact: Dildred Womack, (225)634-2636, Fax: (225)634-4225, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 242. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (15 Mo); Accounting, Clerical (12 Mo); Accounting, Machine (12 Mo); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (12 Mo); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Executive Assistant (18 Mo); Information Sciences Technology (12 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Paramedic (12 Mo); Secretarial, General (15 Mo); Welding, Arc & Gas (12 Wk); Welding Technology (18 Mo); Word Processing (12 Wk)

JENNINGS

Louisiana Technical College, Morgan Smith Campus

1230 N. Main St., PO Box 1327, Jennings, LA 70546. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Barry Zerangue, (337)824-4811, Fax: (318)824-5653, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 160. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC; COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

KENNER

Moler Beauty College (Kenner)

1919 Veterans Blvd., Kenner, LA 70062. Cosmetology. Founded 1981. Contact: Timothy D. Koehl, (504)467-1888, Fax: (504)469-9503. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,025. Enrollment: Total 200. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Beauty (15 Mo); Cosmetology (15 Mo); Cosmetology Instructor (7 Mo); Manicurist (6 Mo)

LAFAYETTE

Remington College (Lafayette Campus)

303 Rue Louis XIV, Lafayette, LA 70508-5734. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1940. Contact: Dr. Rosalie L. Lampone, (337)981-4010, 800-736-2687, Fax: (337)983-7130, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu; Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu/contact2.php4?campus=LAF. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $11,780-$31,540. Enrollment: Total 406. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business, General Office (24 Mo); Computer Networking (24 Mo); Criminal Justice (24 Mo); Electronics Technology (24 Mo); Medical Assistant (8 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (8 Mo)

Ronnie & Dorman's School of Hair Design

2002 Johnston St., Lafayette, LA 70503. Cosmetology. Founded 1967. Contact: Freddie Gary, (337)232-1806, Fax: (337)232-1806. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,800. Enrollment: men 3, women 26. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

Southwest Paralegal College

PO Box 92247, Lafayette, LA 70509. Trade and Technical. Founded 1991. Contact: Jennifer S. Piccione, (337)233-4959, Fax: (337)233-4997. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $4,350 plus $150 registration fee. Enrollment: men 4, women 31. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Paralegal (1 Yr)

LAKE CHARLES

Delta School of Business and Technology

517 Broad St., Lake Charles, LA 70601. Trade and Technical, Nursing. Founded 1970.(337)439-5765, 800-259-5627, Fax: (337)436-5151, Web Site: http://www.deltatech.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 350. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (6 Qt); Administrative Assistant (6 Qt); Drafting Technology (6 Qt); Information Sciences Technology (6 Qt); Medical Assistant (6 Qt)

Demmons School of Beauty

1222 Ryan St., Lake Charles, LA 70601. Cosmetology. Contact: Jim Haynes, President, (337)439-9265. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,612 plus $288 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 3, women 48. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

Louisiana Institute of Massage Therapy

3750 Nelson Rd., Lake Charles, LA 70605. Other, Allied Medical. Founded 1972. Contact: Michael A. Breaux, Admissions Dir., (337)474-3737, (337)436-7779, Fax: (337)474-9432, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.lamassageschool.com; Susan Salvo, Exec.Dir., E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $4,000; $600 books and fees. Enrollment: men 7, women 50. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NCBTMB. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (500 Hr)

Louisiana Technical College, Sowela Campus

3820 Bennett Johnston Ave., Lake Charles, LA 70615. Trade and Technical. Founded 1938. Contact: Stanley Leger, (318)491-2688, 800-256-0483, Fax: (318)491-2135. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $205 per quarter, associate; $130 per quarter, diploma. Enrollment: Total 3,596. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Aviation Maintenance Technology (2 Yr); Commercial Art (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (18 Mo); Criminal Justice (24 Mo); Culinary Occupations (18 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (15 Mo); Electronics Technology (24 Mo); Instrumentation Technology (24 Mo); Machine Shop (24 Mo); Mechanics, Diesel (24 Mo); Office Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

Stage One, The Hair School

209 W. College St., Lake Charles, LA 70605. Cosmetology. Founded 1927. Contact: Susan Koepp, Dir., (337)474-0533, Fax: (337)474-9586, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.stageoneinc.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,900 cosmetology; $4,200 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 0, women 85. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr)

LAKE PROVIDENCE

Louisiana Technical College, Margaret Surles Branch

PO Box 388, Highway 883-1, Lake Providence, LA 71254-0368. Trade and Technical. Founded 1973. Contact: Patrick T. Murphy, Campus Dean, (318)559-0864, 888-844-8711, Fax: (318)559-0239, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltctallulah.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $450 per semester in-state; $690 per semester out-of-state. Enrollment: men 67, women 84. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (4 Sm); Automotive Technology (4 Sm); Computer Support Technology (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (4 Sm); Office Technology (4 Sm); Welding Technology (4 Sm)

MANY

Louisiana Technical College - Sabine Valley Campus

1255 Fisher Rd., PO Box 790, Many, LA 71449. Trade and Technical. Contact: John Corley, Dean, (318)256-4101, Fax: (318)256-4134, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu; Moses Baines, Dir. of Student Affairs, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $986/year resident; $1,583/year non-resident; $1,000 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 147. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics; Business Occupations; Computer Operations; Electronics Technology; Nurse, Assistant; Welding Technology

METAIRIE

Eastern College of Health Vocations

3321 Hessmer Ave., Ste. 200, Metairie, LA 70002. Allied Medical. Founded 1979. Contact: Stephanie Fayard, (504)885-3353, Web Site: http://www.echv.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $8,160 for medical assistant; $6,900 for dental assistant (prices include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 6, women 321. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ABHES. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Dental Assisting (592 Hr); Medical Assistant (736 Hr)

Remington College (New Orleans Campus)

321 Veterans Memorial Blvd., Metairie, LA 70005. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College.(504)831-8889, Fax: (504)831-6803, Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu; Web Site: http://remingtoncollege.edu/contact2.php4?campus=NOR. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $11,780-$31,540. Enrollment: Total 516. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Networking (24 Mo); Criminal Justice (24 Mo); Dental Assisting (8 Mo); Graphic Design (24 Mo); Medical Assistant (8 Mo); Medical Insurance Specialist (8 Mo); Pharmacy Technician (8 Mo)

Sclafani Cooking School, Inc.

107 Gennaro Place, Metairie, LA 70001. Trade and Technical. Founded 1987. Contact: Frank P. Sclafani, Sr., Pres., (504)833-7861, 800-583-1282, Fax: (504)833-7872, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sclafanicookingschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $2,995 (all-inclusive). Enrollment: men 40, women 32. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cooking, Commercial (4 Wk)

MINDEN

Northwest Louisiana Technical College

814 Constable St., Minden, LA 71055. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Charles T. Strong, (318)371-3035, 800-529-1387, Fax: (318)371-3055. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $23/semester credit hour residents; double for non-residents. Enrollment: Total 700. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (18 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Computer Applications (18 Mo); Drafting Technology (24 Mo); Hospitality (18 Mo); Hotel & Motel Management (18 Mo); Industrial Maintenance (21 Mo); Instrumentation Technology (24 Mo); Machine Shop (18 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

MONROE

Career Training Specialists

2319 Louisville Ave., Monroe, LA 71201. Trade and Technical. Founded 1988. Contact: Rose Steptoe, Dir., (318)323-2889, 800-234-6766, Fax: (318)323-3113, Web Site: http://www.careertc.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 209. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Technology (740 Hr); Health Care & Management (740 Hr); Massage Therapy (780 Hr); Medical Office Management (740 Hr); Medical Technology - Phlebotomy; Surgical Technology (970 Hr)

Monroe Air Center

5410 Operations Rd., Monroe Municipal Airport, Monroe, LA 71203. Flight and Ground. Founded 1961. Contact: John Shimblin, Dir., (318)387-0222, 800-223-3895, Fax: (318)325-1538, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.monroeair.com/. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 49, women 6. Accreditation: FAA. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airline Transport Pilot; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Primary Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Single Engine Rating

Pat Goins Beauty School (Monroe)

3138 Louisville Ave., Monroe, LA 71201. Cosmetology. Founded 1988. Contact: Pat Goins, (318)322-2500, Fax: (318)746-8104. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,250 to $6,750 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 15. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

University of Louisiana at Monroe, College of Health Sciences

700 University Ave., Monroe, LA 71209-0430. Allied Medical. Contact: Kathryn H. Davis, M.A., LOTR, Dir., (318)342-1610, (318)342-1688, Fax: (318)342-5584, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ulm.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,832 in-state; $8,790 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 6,136. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Occupational Therapy (127 Hr); Occupational Therapy Assistant (70 Hr)

MORGAN CITY

Young Memorial Vocational-Technical School

PO Box 2148, Morgan City, LA 70381. Trade and Technical. Founded 1965. Contact: Ms. Yvonne M. Prejean, (504)380-2436, Fax: (504)380-2440, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $15 per credit hour. Enrollment: Total 500. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Diving, Sea (6 Mo); Drafting Technology (24 Mo); Electronics Technology (24 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (12 Wk); Marine Technology; Mechanics, Diesel; Nurse, Assistant (10 Wk); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Word Processing (18 Mo)

NATCHITOCHES

Louisiana Technical College-Natchitoches Campus

PO Box 657, Natchitoches, LA 71457. Trade and Technical. Founded 1940. Contact: Carol Herbert, Campus Dean, (318)357-3162, Fax: (318)352-2248, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net; Lionel Dawson, Asst. Campus Dean, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 206. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (6 Tm); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (8 Terms); Automotive Technology (8 Terms); Carpentry (7 Terms); Cosmetology (5 Terms); Electricity - Master Electrician (5 Terms); Electronics Technology (8 Terms); Industrial Maintenance (7 Terms); Jewelry Design - Repair & Stone Setting (5 Terms); Nurse, Assistant (1 Term); Nursing, Practical (6 Tm); Office Technology (5 Terms)

Northwestern State University

College Ave., Natchitoches, LA 71497. Other. Founded 1885. Contact: Lillie Frazier Bell, Registrar, (318)357-6171, (318)357-6011, 800-807-8849, Fax: (318)357-5823, E-mail: re[email protected], Web Site: http://www.nsula.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,241/year resident; $9,319/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 6,950. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC; JRCERT; AACSB; ABET; NAST; NCATE; ACEJMC; CCNE; NASAD; NASM; NASPE; AAFCS; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Art; Aviation Technology; Avionics; Biological Technology; Biomedical Technology; Broadcasting, Nontechnical; Business Administration; Chemical Technology; Computer Applications; Computer Science; Criminal Justice; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Early Childhood Education; Early Childhood Specialist; E-Commerce; Education; Electronic Engineering Technology; Electronics Technology; Fashion Merchandising; Food Distribution & Management; Graphic Arts; Home Economics; Hospitality; Human Services; Industrial Engineering Technology; Interior Decoration; Interior Design; Language Arts; Mathematics; Medical Technology; Music; Nursing, Practical; Office Administration; Office Technology; Physical Education; Physical Fitness; Public Affairs; Public Relations; Radiologic Technology; Recreation Administration; Science; Theatre Arts; Veterinary Technology; Writing

NEW ORLEANS

Bryman College (New Orleans)

824 Elmwood Park Blvd., Ste. 110, New Orleans, LA 70123. Allied Medical, Trade and Technical. Founded 1989.(504)733-7117, 888-741-4271, Fax: (504)734-1217, Web Site: http://bryman-college.com/about.php?schoolLocation=New%20Orleans. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Enrollment: Total 853. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dental Assisting (720 Hr); Medical Administrative Assistant (720 Hr); Medical Assistant (720 Hr); Medical Billing (720 Hr); Pharmacy Technician (720 Hr)

Cameron College

2740 Canal St., New Orleans, LA 70119. Business. Founded 1981. Contact: Joel Moore, Dean, (504)821-5881, Fax: (504)822-3467, Web Site: http://www.cameroncollege.com; Web Site: http://www.cameroncollege.com/p3.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 45, women 160. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABHES; ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Hotel & Motel Management (9 Mo); Information Sciences Technology (9 Mo); Medical Assistant (12 Mo); Medical Office Management (9 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (6 Mo); Nursing, Practical (14 Mo); Secretarial, Legal (9 Mo)

Crescent City Bartending School

209 N. Broad St., New Orleans, LA 70119. Contact: Ronnie Richard, Jr., President, (504)822-3362, Web Site: http://crescentschools.com. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $3,000. Degrees awarded: Certificate.

Delgado Community College

615 City Park Ave., New Orleans, LA 70119. Two-Year College. Founded 1921. Contact: Dr. R. Garrity, (504)483-4004, (504)361-6410, Web Site: http://www.dcc.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 7,315. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; FAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting & Business Administration; Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Aircraft Mechanics; Auto Mechanics; Biological Technology; Biomedical Electronics; Biomedical Technology; Business Management; Cabinet & Mill Work; Carpentry; Civil Engineering Technology; Commercial Art; Communications, Manual; Computer Science - Terminal Operation; Criminal Justice; Culinary Arts; Data Processing; Drafting Technology; Early Childhood Specialist; Electrical Construction; Electrical Engineering Technology; Electronics Technology; Engineering Technology, Architectural; Fine Arts; Fire Science; Funeral Service Education; Graphic Arts; Interior Design; Machinist, General; Music; Petroleum Technology; Radiologic Technology; Real Estate, Basic; Respiratory Therapy; Sculpture; Secretarial, General; Welding Technology

Herzing College

2400 Veterans Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70062. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College.(504)733-0074, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.herzing.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Enrollment: Total 279. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (5 Sm); Computer Technology (5 Sm); Graphic Arts (5 Sm); Health Care & Management (9 Sm); Health Occupations (4 Sm); Information Technology (5 Sm); Medical Billing (3 Sm); Telecommunications Technology (5 Sm)

John Jay Beauty College

540 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124. Cosmetology. Founded 1963. Contact: J.J. Grisaffi, Pres., (504)282-7234, Fax: (504)282-5531. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Enrollment: men 6, women 112. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Charm & Finishing; Cosmetology; Manicurist

Louisiana Technical College-Sidney N. Collier Campus

3727 Louisa St., New Orleans, LA 70126. Trade and Technical. Founded 1954. Contact: Dr. Tooya Teamer, Sr., Dir., (504)942-8333, 800-351-7611, Fax: (504)942-8337, Web Site: http://www.sidneyncolliercampus.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $858/year resident; $1,716/year non-resident. Enrollment: Total 645. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Barbering; Business Occupations; Carpentry; Communications Technology; Computer Repair; Cosmetology; Culinary Occupations; Electronics Technology; Health Aide; Nurse, Assistant; Nursing, Practical; Welding Technology

Mercy Educational Institute

10001 Lake Forest Blvd., Ste. 514, New Orleans, LA 70127. Nursing. Founded 1994. Contact: Dr. Esther M. Fashina, (504)241-4751. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $350. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Technology Phlebotomy (5 Wk); Nurse, Assistant (1 Mo)

Moler Beauty College (New Orleans)

2940 Canal St., New Orleans, LA 70119. Cosmetology. Founded 1893. Contact: C. Koehl, (504)821-8842, Fax: (504)821-4547. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $5,975. Enrollment: Total 150. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology - Administration, Management & Supervision (600 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr); Skin Care (750 Hr)

New Orleans Regional Vocational-Technical Institute

980 Navarre Ave., New Orleans, LA 70124. Trade and Technical. Founded 1981. Contact: Simone Charbonnet, (504)483-4639, (504)483-4666, Fax: (504)483-4643. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $420 per year. Enrollment: Total 450. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (7 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (18 Mo); Child Care & Guidance (18 Mo); Clerk, Typist (9 Mo); Computer Aided Drafting (24 Mo); Culinary Arts (12 Mo); Data Processing (18 Mo); Drafting Technology (18 Mo); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Glazing (15 Wk); Instrumentation Technology (2 Yr); Nondestructive Testing Technology (18 Mo); Nursing, Practical (14 Mo); Painting, Decorating & Paper Hanging (15 Wk); Secretarial, General (15 Mo); Tourism (6 Mo); Word Processing (14 Mo)

Ochsner School of Allied Health Sciences

1514 Jefferson Hwy., New Orleans, LA 70121. Allied Medical. Founded 1977. Contact: Elaine M. Orr, Ph.D., Dir., (504)842-3260, 800-231-5257, Fax: (504)842-3193, Web Site: http://www.ochsner.org/allied-health; Web Site: http://www.ochsnerfoundation.org/contact. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: Varies with program. Enrollment: men 1, women 20. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; JRCERT; SACS; CARC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo); Respiratory Therapy (9-13 Mo)

Stevenson's Academy of Hair Design

401 Opelousas Ave., New Orleans, LA 70114. Cosmetology. Founded 1973. Contact: Josulyn M. Williams, Owner, (504)368-6377, Fax: (504)947-2730, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.stevensonsacademy.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies with program. Enrollment: Total 118. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr); Skin Care (6 Mo)

NEW ROADS

Jumonville Memorial Technical Institute

605 Hospital Rd., PO Box 725, New Roads, LA 70760. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Amy Gauthier, Campus Dir., (225)638-8613, Fax: (225)618-0157, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu/campuses/jumonville.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $916 in-state, $1,468 out-of-state per year plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 111. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (24 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Electronics, Industrial (12 Mo); Electronics, Solid State (12 Mo); Golf Course Equipment Mechanics (15 Mo); Nursing, Practical (16 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Truck Driving (5 Mo); Welding, Combination (18 Mo)

OPELOUSAS

Louisiana Technical College - T.H. Harris Campus

332 E. South St., Opelousas, LA 70570. Trade and Technical. Founded 1940.(337)948-0240, Fax: (337)948-0243. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $244 per full-time semester. Enrollment: Total 469. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Automotive Collision Repair (24 Mo); Civil Engineering Technology (18 Mo); Cosmetology (15 Mo); Diesel Technology (21 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (21 Mo); Electrical Technology (15 Mo); Electronics, Industrial (21 Mo); Machine Shop (18 Mo); Masonry (18 Mo); Medical Assistant (12 Mo); Nondestructive Testing Technology (12 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

RESERVE

Louisiana Technical College - River Parishes Campus

181 Regala Park Rd., PO Drawer AQ, Reserve, LA 70084. Two-Year College. Founded 1978. Contact: Anita T. Dabon, Dir. of Student Svcs., (504)536-4418, 800-590-9773, Fax: (504)536-7697, Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu; Dennis Murphy, Dean, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $826/year resident; $1,378/year non-resident; $1,000 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 223, women 126. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (8 Qt); Automotive Technology (8 Qt); Drafting & Design Technology (7 Qt); Instrumentation Technology (8 Qt); Nursing, Practical (6 Qt); Office Technology (6 Qt); Technician, Industrial Service (6 Qt); Welding Technology (6 Qt)

RUSTON

ELS Language Centers

Louisiana Tech University, PO Box 3006, Ruston, LA 71272. Other. Founded 1961. Contact: Cindy Phillips, Center Dir., (318)257-2012, Fax: (318)257-2011, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.els.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $1,395 intensive; $1,045 semi-intensive. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: English As A Second Language (3-4 Wk)

Louisiana Tech University College of Applied and Natural Science

Box 10197, Ruston, LA 71272. Allied Medical, Nursing. Founded 1894. Contact: James Liberatos, (318)257-4287, Fax: (318)257-5060, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://ans.latech.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $706 per quarter, resident; $1,091 per quarter, non-resident. Enrollment: Total 7,553. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NAACLS; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Biological Technology (4 Yr); Dietetic Technology (4 Yr); Medical Record Technology (4 Yr); Medical Technology (4 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr)

Louisiana Technical College - Ruston Campus

1010 James St., PO Box 1070, Ruston, LA 71273-1070. Trade and Technical. Founded 1977. Contact: Norene Smith, Vice Chancellor/Campus Dean, (318)251-4145, Fax: (318)251-4159, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltc.edu/muCampusRuston.html; Robert Savage, Campus Administrator, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $37 per credit hr in-state; $60 per credit hr out-of-state; plus other fees. Enrollment: Total 95. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Nursing, Practical (16 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

Pat Goins Beauty School (Ruston)

213 W. Alabama Ave., Ruston, LA 71270. Cosmetology. Founded 1964. Contact: Pat Goins, (318)255-2717, (318)746-2600, Fax: (318)746-8101. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,250 to $6,750 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 27. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

ST. MARTINVILLE

Evangeline Vocational-Technical School

PO Box 68, St. Martinville, LA 70582. Trade and Technical. Founded 1964. Contact: Prosper Chretien, (318)394-6466, Fax: (318)394-3965. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $300 per year. Enrollment: Total 473. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Automotive Collision Repair (18 Mo); High School Diploma; Jewelry Design - Repair & Stone Setting (9 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

Louisiana Technical College-Evangeline Campus

600 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, St. Martinville, LA 70582. Contact: Prosper Chretien, Campus consultant, (337)394-6466, Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: 528 in-state; $1,056 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

ST. ROSE

ITT Technical Institute (St. Rose)

140 James Dr. East, St. Rose, LA 70087. Trade and Technical.(504)463-0338, (866)463-0338, Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu; Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/contact/form.cfm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $14,196 per year. Enrollment: Total 629. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Aided Drafting & Design (96 Credits); Computer Networking (96 Credits); Electrical Engineering Technology (96 Credits); Multimedia Design (96 Credits); Software Development/Engineering (96 Credits); Web Development (96 Credits)

SHREVEPORT

American School of Business

702 Professional Dr., N., Shreveport, LA 71105. Business. Founded 1985. Contact: Amy Juneau, (318)798-3333, 800-588-3335, Fax: (318)798-3336, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://americanschoolofbusiness.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $4,200 to $10,100 including books and supplies. Enrollment: men 9, women 165. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (7 Mo); Administrative Assistant (7 Mo); Computer Information Science (7 Mo); Data Entry (3.5 Mo); Medical Office Management (7 Mo); Medical Record Technology (9 Mo)

Ayers Institute

3010 Knight St., Ste. 300, Shreveport, LA 71105. Trade and Technical. Founded 1953. Contact: Darlene Robertson, Dir., (318)868-3000, Fax: (318)636-9736, Web Site: http://www.ayersinstitute.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Other. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 312. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (36 Qt); Medical Assistant (36 Qt); Pharmacy Technician

Blue Cliff School of Therapeutic Massage

200 N. Thomas Dr., Ste. A, Shreveport, LA 71107-6520. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1987. Contact: Lisa Otero, (318)425-7941, 800-516-6597, Fax: (318)425-3740, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bluecliffcollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: Varies by program. Enrollment: Total 73. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (9-27 Mo)

Guy's Academy - Hair, Skin & Nails

1141 Shreveport Barksdale Hwy., Shreveport, LA 71105. Cosmetology. Founded 1954. Contact: Sue Burch, Administrative Support, (318)865-5591, Fax: (318)869-1038, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.guysacademy.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1,600 to $8,100 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 3, women 93. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Esthetician (900 Hr); Manicurist (600 Hr)

Louisiana Technical College - Shreveport-Bossier Campus

2010 North Market St., PO Box 78527, Shreveport, LA 71137-8527. Trade and Technical. Founded 1936. Contact: Angie Rymer, Interim Campus Dean, (318)676-7811, 800-351-7611, Fax: (318)676-7805, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net; Vera-Zee Morgan, Dir. of Student Affairs, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $896/year resident; $1,448/year non-resident; $1,000 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 1,017. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (18 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Barbering (14 Mo); Business Technology (12 Mo); Carpentry (18 Mo); Computer Electro-Mechanics (21 Mo); Culinary Occupations (12 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Early Childhood Education (12 Mo); Electricity, Apprenticeship (15 Mo); Electricity - Master Electrician (15 Mo); Electronics, Industrial (24 Mo); Engineering Technology, Computer (24 Mo); Graphic Arts (12 Mo); Machine Shop (16 Mo); Mechanics, Diesel (24 Mo); Nursing, Practical (14 Mo); Technician, Electronic Service (24 Mo); Welding, Arc & Gas (18 Mo)

Pat Goins Beauty School (Shreveport)

6363 Hearne Ave., Ste. 106, Shreveport, LA 71108. Cosmetology. Founded 1958. Contact: Rosa Foy, Manager, (318)631-1833, Fax: (318)746-8101. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,250 to $6,750 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 22. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (12 Mo); Cosmetology Instructor (6 Mo); Manicurist (4 Mo)

Southern University, Shreveport-Bossier City Campus

3050 Martin L. King Dr., Shreveport, LA 71107. Two-Year College. Founded 1967. Contact: Mehailier Broom, Dir., (318)674-3300, (318)674-3426, 800-458-1472, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.susla.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,126 (12 or more credit hours; includes fees). Enrollment: Total 1,216. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (1 Yr); Accounting, General (2 Yr); Art (2 Yr); Biological Technology (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Business Occupations; Chemical Technology (2 Yr); Clerk, Typist (1 Yr); Drafting Technology; Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Small Business Management (2 Yr); Social Work Technology (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Word Processing (2 Yr)

SLIDELL

Grantham University

34641 Grantham College Rd., Slidell, LA 70460. Correspondence, Other. Founded 1951. Contact: George Colon, (985)649-4191, 800-955-2527, Fax: (985)649-4183, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.grantham.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,489 per semester. Enrollment: Total 4,500. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: DETC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Business Administration; Computer Science; Computer Technology; Criminal Justice; Electronics Technology; Engineering Management; Engineering Technology; Engineering Technology, Computer; Information Systems

Louisiana Technical College, Slidell Campus

Box 827, Slidell, LA 70459. Trade and Technical. Founded 1972. Contact: Misty Wainwright, Student Services, (504)646-6430, Fax: (504)646-6442. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $130 per quarter, resident; $260 per quarter, nonresident. Enrollment: Total 418. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (18 Mo); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Computer Operator (12 Mo); Computer Programming (18 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (21 Mo); Electrical Technology (24 Mo); Electronics Technology (15 Mo); Horticulture (15 Mo); Nurse, Assistant (12 Wk); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo)

Vanguard College of Cosmetology

3805 Pontchartrain Dr., Slidell, LA 70458. Cosmetology. Founded 1972. Contact: Kevin Latiolas, Dir./Instructor, (985)643-2614, Fax: (985)646-0524, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://vanguardcollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $12,100 cosmetology; $4,100 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 6, women 57. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (500 Hr)

SORRENTO

Louisiana Technical College-Ascension Campus

9697 Airline Hwy., Sorrento, LA 70778-3007. Contact: Cleveland J. Marchand, Assistant dean, (225)675-5398, (225)675-5397, Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: 528 in-state; $1,056 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

TALLULAH

Louisiana Technical College - Tallulah

132 Old Hwy 65 South, PO Drawer 1740, Tallulah, LA 71282-1740. Two-Year College, Trade and Technical. Founded 1977. Contact: Patrick T. Murphy, Campus Dean, (318)574-4820, (318)574-4821, 800-215-3905, Fax: (318)574-1868, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ltctallulah.com; Stephanie Works, Fin. Aid Officer, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $966/year resident; $1,518/year non-resident; $1,000 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 374. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (6 Qt); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Diesel Technology (24 Mo); Industrial Maintenance (7 Qt); Nursing, Practical (17 Mo); Office Technology (6 Qt); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

THIBODAUX

Louisiana Technical College - Lafourche Campus

1425 Tiger Dr., PO Box 1831, Thibodaux, LA 70302-1831. Trade and Technical. Founded 1976. Contact: Kenneth A. Callahan, Director, (985)447-0924, Fax: (985)447-0927. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $520 residents; $1,040 nonresidents. Enrollment: Total 270. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (21 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Carpentry (21 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (150 Hr); Nurse, Assistant (11 Wk); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (21 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

VILLE PLATTE

Ville Platte Technical Institute

Ward I, Industrial Park, PO Box 296, Ville Platte, LA 70586. Trade and Technical. Founded 1973. Contact: Danny Lemoine, Director, (337)363-2197, Fax: (337)363-7984, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $15/credit hour; $105/quarter. Enrollment: men 139, women 182. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Machine Shop (2 Yr); Nurses Aide (4 Mo); Nursing, Practical (18 Mo); Office Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

WEST MONROE

Cloyd's Beauty School

603 Natchitoches St., West Monroe, LA 71291. Cosmetology. Founded 1955. Contact: Joseph R. Mathieu, (318)322-5314, (318)325-5674, Fax: (318)812-0061, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://cloydsbeautyschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,175 cosmetology; $2,100 nail technology; $1,600 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 0, women 45. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Manicurist (500 Hr)

Louisiana Technical College-Delta-Ouachita Campus

609 Vocational Pky, West Ouachita Industrial Pk, West Monroe, LA 71292-9064. Trade and Technical. Contact: Norene R. Smith, Vice Chancellor, (318)397-6100, (318)397-6144, 800-351-7611, Fax: (318)397-6106, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $37 per credit hr in-state; $60 per credit hr out-of-state; plus other fees. Enrollment: Total 515. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: COE.

WINNSBORO

Northeast Louisiana Technical College - Northeast Campus

1710 Warren St., Winnsboro, LA 71295. Trade and Technical. Founded 1952. Contact: Grace Blount, (318)435-2163, Fax: (318)435-2166, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.theltc.net. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 312. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: COE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Accounting Technology (18 Mo); Automotive Technology (24 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Health Occupations; Nurse, Assistant (3 Mo); Nursing, Practical (15 Mo); Office Technology (18 Mo); Welding Technology (18 Mo)

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Louisiana

Louisiana

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Louisianians

40 Bibliography

State of Louisiana

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named in 1682 for France’s King Louis XIV.

NICKNAME : The Pelican State.

CAPITAL: Baton Rouge.

ENTERED UNION: 30 April 1812 (18th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the center, a pelican and its young are as depicted on the flag; the state motto encircles the scene, and the words “State of Louisiana” surround the whole.

FLAG: On a blue field, fringed on three sides, a white pelican feeds her three young, symbolizing the state providing for its citizens; the state motto is inscribed on a white ribbon.

MOTTO: Union, Justice, and Confidence.

SONG: “Give Me Louisiana;” “You are My Sunshine;” “State March Song.”

COLORS: Gold, white, and blue.

FLOWER: Magnolia; Louisiana iris (wildflower).

TREE: Bald cypress.

BIRD: Eastern brown pelican.

CRUSTACEAN: Crawfish.

INSECT: Honeybee.

DOG: Catahoula leopard.

GEM: Agate.

FOSSIL: Petrified palmwood.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Mardi Gras Day, Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, February; Good Friday, Friday before Easter, March or April; Independence Day, 4 July; Huey Long’s Birthday, 30 August, by proclamation of the governor; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Election Day, 1st Tuesday in November in even-numbered years; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. Legal holidays in Baton Rouge parish also include Inauguration Day, once every four years in January.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Situated in the western south-central United States, Louisiana ranks 31st in size among the 50 states. The total area of Louisiana is 47,751 square miles (123,675 square kilometers), including 44,521 square miles (115,309 square kilometers) of land and 3,230 square miles (8,366 square kilometers) of inland water. The state extends 237 miles (381 kilometers) east-west and 236 miles (380 kilometers) north-south. Louisiana is shaped roughly like a boot, with the heel in the southwest corner and the toe at the extreme southeast. The state’s total boundary length is 1,486 miles (2,391 kilometers).

2 Topography

Louisiana lies wholly within the Gulf Coastal Plain. The alluvial plains of the Red and Mississippi rivers occupy the north-central third of the state. East and west of these plains are the upland districts, characterized by rolling hills sloping gently toward the coast. The coastal-delta section, in the southernmost portion of the state, consists of the Mississippi Delta and the coastal lowlands. The highest elevation in the state, at 535 feet (163 meters), is Driskill Mountain in Bienville Parish. The lowest point, at 8 feet (2 meters) below sea level, is in New Orleans.

Louisiana has the most wetlands of all the states, about 11,000 square miles (28,000 square kilometers) of floodplains and 7,800 square miles (20,200 square kilometers) of coastal swamps, marshes, and estuarine waters. The largest lake, actually a coastal lagoon, is Lake Pontchartrain, with an area of more than 620 square miles (1,600 square kilometers). Toledo Bend Reservoir, an artificial lake along the Louisiana-Texas border, has an area of 284 square miles (736 square kilometers). The most important rivers are the Mississippi, Red, Pearl, Atchafalaya, and Sabine. Louisiana has nearly 2,500 coastal islands.

3 Climate

Louisiana has a relatively constant semitropical climate. The temperature in New Orleans ranges from 53°f (11°c) in January to 82°f (27°c) in July. The all-time high temperature is 114°f (46°c), recorded at Plain Dealing on 10

Louisiana Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:4,287,768
Population change, 2000–06:-4.1%
Hispanic or Latino†:2.8%
Population by race 
One race:98.9%
White:63.7%
Black or African American:32.5%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.6%
Asian:1.3%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.0%
Some other race:0.8%
Two or more races:1.1%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
New Orleans454,863-6.2
Baton Rouge222,064-2.5
Shreveport198,874-0.6
Lafayette112,0301.6
Lake Charles70,555-1.7
Kenner69,911-0.9
Bossier60,5057.2
Monroe51,914-2.2
Alexandria45,693-1.4
New Iberia32,495-0.4

August 1936. The all-time low, -16°f (-27°c), was set at Minden on 13 February 1899. New Orleans has an average annual rainfall of 61.6 inches (156 centimeters). Snow falls occasionally in the north, but rarely in the south. During the summer and fall, tropical storms and hurricanes frequently batter the state, especially along the coast.

The 2005 hurricane season devastated much of the Gulf region, primarily through Hurricane Katrina. Katrina made landfall at Buras on 29 August 2005 as a Category 4 storm. The combination of high winds and flooding led to levee damage around New Orleans, allowing flood waters to cover about 80% of the city, with depths as high as 20 feet (6.3 meters). One month later, Hurricane Rita made landfall near Johnson’s Bayou as a Category 3 storm. As of early 2006, over 1,300 deaths had been reported as a result of Hurricane Katrina, well over one million people were displaced, and the cost of rebuilding was estimated at over $150 billion.

4 Plants and Animals

Forests in Louisiana consist of four major types: shortleaf pine uplands, pine flats and hills, hardwood forests, and cypress and tupelo swamps. Important commercial trees also include beech, eastern red cedar, and black walnut. Among the state’s wildflowers are the ground orchid and several hyacinths. Spanish moss grows profusely in the southern regions but is rare in the north. Louisiana quillwort and American chaffseed were listed as endangered in 2006.

Louisiana Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population4,468,976100.0
One race4,420,71198.9
Two races44,6571.0
White and Black or African American7,0990.2
White and American Indian/Alaska Native11,6660.3
White and Asian5,3450.1
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander466
White and some other race11,2120.3
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native2,6750.1
Black or African American and Asian1,133
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander270
Black or African American and some other race2,5040.1
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian335
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander28
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race450
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander349
Asian and some other race974
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race151
Three or more races3,6080.1

Louisiana’s varied habitats—tidal marshes, swamps, woodlands, and prairies—offer a diversity of animals. Deer, squirrel, and bear are hunted as game, while muskrat, mink, and skunk are commercially valuable furbearers. Prized game birds include quail, turkey, and various waterfowl, of which the mottled duck and wood duck are native. Coastal beaches are inhabited by sea turtles. Whales may be seen offshore. Freshwater fish include bass, crappie, and bream. As of April 2006, 23 animal species were on the US Fish and Wildlife Service’s threatened and endangered species list, including the Louisiana black bear, bald eagle, Alabama heelsplitter, and red-cockaded woodpecker.

5 Environmental Protection

In 1984, Louisiana consolidated much of its environmental protection efforts into a new state agency—The Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Among its responsibilities are maintenance of air and water quality, solid-waste management, hazardous waste disposal, and control of radioactive materials. According to the Louisiana Environmental Action Plan (LEAP to 2000 Project), toxic air pollution, industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, and coastal wetland loss head the list of state residents’ environmental concerns.

Louisiana’s problem in protecting its wetlands differs from that of most other states in that its wetlands are more than wildlife refuges—they are central to the state’s agriculture and fishing industries. Assessment of the environmental impact of various industries on the wetlands has been conducted under the Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Department of Natural Resources.

The two largest wildlife refuges in the state are the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, comprising 84,000 acres (34,000 hectares) in Cameron and Vermilion parishes, and the Marsh Island Refuge, 82,000 acres (33,000 hectares) of marshland in Iberia Parish. Both are managed by the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries.

With approximately 100 major chemical and petrochemical manufacturing and refining facilities located in Louisiana, many DEQ programs deal with the regulation of hazardous waste generation, management and disposal, and chemical releases to the air and water. In 2003, Louisiana had 155 hazardous waste sites, 11 of which were included on the National Priorities List in 2006, included in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database.

Among the most active citizen’s groups on environmental issues are the League of Women Voters, the Sierra Club (Delta Chapter), and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN). Curbside recycling programs exist in 28 parishes.

6 Population

In 2005, Louisiana ranked 25th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 4,287,768 residents. Louisiana’s population density in 2004 was 104.2 persons per square mile (40.2 persons per square kilometer). In 2004, the median age was 35.2. In 2005, about 26% of the population was 18 years of age and younger and 12% was 65 and older. New Orleans is the largest city, with a 2005 estimated population of 454,863 (down from 462,269 in 2004), followed by Baton Rouge, 222,064; and Shreveport, 198,874.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, black Americans made up about 32.5% of the population (the second-highest percentage among the 50 states), with a total of 1,451,944 people. They include descendants of “free people of color,” some of whom were craftsmen and rural property owners before the Civil War. Many of these, of mixed blood, are referred to locally as “colored Creoles” and have constituted a black elite in both urban and rural Louisiana.

Two groups that have been highly identified with the culture of Louisiana are Creoles and Acadians (also called Cajuns). Both descend primarily from early French immigrants to the state. The Cajuns trace their origins from the rural people from Acadia (Nova Scotia). The first Creoles were city people from France, Nova Scotia, or Hispaniola. The term Creole also applies to the relatively few early Spanish settlers and their descendants. Although Acadians have intermingled with Spaniards and Germans, they still speak a French patois and retain a distinctive culture and cuisine. In 2000, 179,739 residents claimed Acadian ancestry.

Also in 2000, 107,738 residents were of Hispanic or Latino descent. There were 25,477 Native Americans and 54,758 Asians, including 24,358 Vietnamese. Pacific Islanders numbered 1,240.

A total of 115,885 Louisianians (2.6% of the population) were foreign born. The largest ancestry groups were from France, Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

8 Languages

Louisiana English is predominantly Southern. Notable features of the state’s speech patterns are that the words pen and pin sound the same and, in New Orleans, the so-called Brooklyn pronunciation of bird is /boyd/. A pecan sugar candy is well known as a praline. Louisiana has a large French-speaking area. West of New Orleans the French dialect called Acadian (Cajun) is used as the first language. From it, and from early colonial French, English has taken such words as pirogue (dugout canoe), armoire (wardrobe), and lagniappe (extra gift).

In 2000, 3,771,003 Louisiana residents (90.8% of the population five years old and older) spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home (with number of speakers) included French or French Patois (194,314), Spanish or Spanish Creole (105,189), and Vietnamese (23,326).

9 Religions

Spanish missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to Louisiana in the early 16th century. Until the Louisiana Purchase, the public practice of any but the Catholic religion was prohibited, and Jews were entirely banned. Joseph Willis, a mulatto preacher, organized the first Baptist church west of the Mississippi, at Bayou Chicot in 1812. After the Civil War, blacks withdrew from white-dominated churches to form their own religious groups, mainly Baptist and Methodist.

As of 2004, the Roman Catholic Church was the largest Christian denomination, with 1,312,237 adherents. The leading Protestant denominations (with 2000 membership data) were the Southern Baptist Convention, 768,587; the Assemblies of God, 49,041; and the Episcopal Church, 33,653. The United Methodist Church had 127,059 members in 2004. There were about 16,500 Jews residing in Louisiana in 2000. The Muslim community had about 13,050 members. Voodoo, in some cases blended with Christian ritual, is more widespread in Louisiana than anywhere else in the United States, although the present number of practitioners is impossible to ascertain. Over 1.8 million people (about 41.2% of the population) did not claim any religious affiliation in the 2000 survey.

10 Transportation

New Orleans has long been a major center of domestic and international freight traffic. Several short-run railroads were built in Louisiana during the 1830s. The first of these, and the first rail line west of the Alleghenies, was the Pontchartrain Railroad, which opened, using horse-drawn vehicles, in 1831. By the late 1800s, New Orleans was connected with New York, Chicago, and California. Railroads soon rivaled the Mississippi River in the movement of goods to and from New Orleans. In 2003, there were six Class I line-haul railroads in Louisiana and total railroad mileage was 3,426 route miles (5,515 kilometers). As of 2006, Amtrak provides passenger links with Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York and carries passengers from seven stations through the state.

At the end of 2004, Louisiana had a total of 60,941 miles (98,115 kilometers) of public roads. Also in 2004, there were about 1,926,000 automobiles and 1,747,000 trucks registered in the state and 3,169,627 drivers’ licenses were in force.

Early in the nation’s history, the Mississippi River emerged as the principal route for north–south traffic and New Orleans soon became the South’s main port. The advent of the steamboat in 1812 solved the problem of upstream navigation, which previously had required three or four months for a distance that could be covered downstream in 15 days. An important breakthrough in international transportation was the deepening of the channel at the mouth of the Mississippi by means of jetties, the first of which were completed in 1879. The port of New Orleans is served by more than 100 steamship lines, 20 common carrier lines, and about 100 contract carrier barge lines. The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), the first deepwater oil port in the United States, was opened in 1981. Other large ports include Baton Rouge and the Port of Plaquemines.

In 2005, Louisiana had 242 private and public airfields. The busiest was the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. In 2004, the airport had 4,839,400 passengers. Louisiana also had 237 heliports and 16 seaplane bases.

11 History

When European exploration and settlement of North America began, Louisiana was inhabited by a number of different Native American groups, including various tribes of the Caddo people, small Tunican-speaking groups, the Atakapa group, and the Chitimacha. The Spaniard Hernando de Soto was probably the first to penetrate the state’s present boundaries, in 1541. Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi on 9 April 1682, named the land there Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV, and claimed it for France. In 1714, Louis Juchereau de St. Denis established Natchitoches, the first permanent European settlement in Louisiana; Iberville’s brother, the Sieur de Bienville, established New Orleans four years later.

Although Louisiana did not thrive economically under French rule, French culture was firmly implanted there and absorbed by non-French settlers, especially Germans from Switzerland and the Rhineland. In 1762, France ceded Louisiana to Spain. Governed by Spaniards, the colony was much more prosperous. New settlers—including Acadian refugees from Nova Scotia—added to the population. The territory grew to about 50,000 inhabitants by 1800, when Napoleon forced the Spanish government to return Louisiana to France. Three years later, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States to keep it from falling into the hands of Great Britain.

President Thomas Jefferson concluded what was probably the best real estate deal in history, purchasing 800,000 square miles (2,100,000 square kilometers) for $15,000,000 and thus more than doubling the size of the United States at a cost of about three cents per acre. The next year, that part of the purchase south of 33°n was separated from the remainder and designated the Territory of Orleans. When its population reached the level required for statehood in 1810, the people of the territory drew up a constitution,

and Louisiana entered the Union on 30 April 1812.

State Development American control of Louisiana was threatened soon afterward when British troops tried to take New Orleans in 1814 but were soundly defeated by a mixed contingent of forces under the command of Andrew Jackson. From 1815 to 1861, Louisiana was one of the most prosperous states in the South, producing sugar and cotton, and raising hogs and cattle. Wealthy planters, whose slaves made up almost half the population, dominated Louisiana politically and economically. When the secession crisis came in 1861, they led Louisiana into the Confederacy and, after four bloody years, to total defeat.

After the Civil War, Radical Republican governments elected by black voters ruled the state, but declining support from the North and fierce resistance from Louisiana whites brought the Reconstruction period to an end. Blacks and their few white allies lost control of state government and, in 1898, blacks were deprived almost entirely of their voting rights by a new state constitution drawn up primarily for that purpose. This constitution also significantly reduced the number of poorer whites who voted in Louisiana elections. Just as before the Civil War, large landowners—combined with New Orleans bankers,

businessmen, and politicians—dominated state government, effectively blocking political and social reform.

Not until 1928, with the election of Huey P. Long as governor, did the winds of major change strike Louisiana. The years from 1928 through 1960 could well be called the Long Era. Three Longs dominated state politics for most of the period: Huey, who became governor but was assassinated in 1935; his brother Earl, who served as governor three times; and his son Russell, who became a powerful US senator. From a backward agricultural state, Louisiana evolved into one of the world’s major petrochemical-manufacturing centers. What had been one of the most frugal states became one of the most liberal in welfare spending, care for the aged, highway building, and education. The state could afford these expanding programs because of ever-increasing revenues from oil and gas.

In the mid-1980s, the major problems confronting the state were racial and labor tensions, inadequate disposal sites for industrial waste, and (despite important new discoveries) the depletion of oil and gas resources. In 1989, racial tensions took a new turn when white supremacist David Duke, running as a Republican, narrowly won a seat in the Louisiana state legislature. He then ran for the US Senate—with a showing of 44 percent among voters—and, in 1991, for governor. (He was defeated by former governor Edwin Edwards.) In opposing affirmative action, Duke appealed to whites’ frustrations with the high unemployment brought on by the collapse of oil prices in the mid- and late-1980s, when the number of jobs in the state declined by 8%.

For most of the 1990s, in spite of an increase in service-sector and high-tech jobs, Louisiana had more people living in poverty than any other state. Louisiana had for decades been among the nation’s poorest; the percentage of residents living in poverty in 1998 was 19.1%, making it the second-poorest state in the nation. Other problems confronting the state at the turn of the century included racial tensions, disposing of toxic wastes from the petrochemical industry, depletion of oil and gas resources, and the ongoing struggle to institute good government.

On 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina landed on the state, in what was one of the worst natural disasters in US history. New Orleans had been evacuated, but some 150,000 people were unable to leave before the storm hit. A day after the storm appeared to have bypassed the city’s center, levees were breached by the storm surge and water submerged the city. The costs of the hurricane and flooding were exceedingly high in terms of both loss of life and economic damage: more than 1,400 people died in Louisiana (80% of them in New Orleans) and damages were estimated to reach $150 billion. Race and class issues also came to the fore, as the majority of New Orleans residents unable to evacuate the city and affected by the catastrophe were poor and black.

12 State Government

Louisiana has had 11 constitutions (more than any other state), the most recent of which went

into force in 1974. By January 2005, it had been amended 129 times.

The state legislature consists of a 39-member senate and a 105-member house of representatives. All legislators are elected for four-year terms. Major elected executive officials include the governor and lieutenant governor (independently elected), secretary of state, attorney general, and treasurer, all elected for four-year terms.

To become law, a bill must receive majority votes in both the senate and the house and be

Louisiana Governors: 1812–2007

Democratic Republican – Dem-Rep
National Republican – Nat-Rep
1812–1816William Charles Cole ClaiborneDem-Rep
1816–1820Jacques PhilippeVillereDem-Rep
1820–1824Thomas Bolling RobertsonDem-Rep
1824Henry Schuyler ThibodeauxDem-Rep
1824–1828Henry JohnsonDem-Rep
1828–1829Pierre Auguste Charles DerbignyNat-Rep
1829–1830Armand BeauvaisNat-Rep
1830–1831Jacques DupreNat-Rep
1831–1835Andre Bienvenu RomanWhig
1835–1839Edward Douglass White, Sr.Whig
1839–1843Andre Bienvenu RomanWhig
1843–1846Alexandre MoutonDemocrat
1846–1850Isaac JohnsonDemocrat
1850–1853Joseph Marshall WalkerDemocrat
1853–1856Paul Octave HerbertDemocrat
1856–1860Robert Charles WickliffeDemocrat
1860–1862Thomas Overton MooreDemocrat
1862–1864Gen. George Foster ShepleyMilitary
1864–1865Henry Watkins AllenDemocrat
1864–1865Michael HahnState Rights Free Trader
1865–1867James Madison WellsDemocrat
1867–1868Benjamin Franklin FlandersMilitary-Rep
1868Joshua BakerMilitary-Dem
1868–1872Henry Clay WarmouthRepublican
1872–1873Pinkney Benton Pinchback John McEnery (elected but ruled out)Republican
1873–1877William Pitt Kellogg (de facto)Republican
1877–1880Francis Redding Tillou NichollsDemocrat
1880–1881Louis Alfred WiltzDemocrat
1881–1888Samuel Douglas McEneryDemocrat
1888–1892Francis Redding Tillou NichollsDemocrat
1892–1900Murphy James FosterAnti–Lottery-Dem
1900–1904William Wright HeardDemocrat
1904–1908Newton Crain BlanchardDemocrat
1908–1912Jared Young SandersDemocrat
1912–1916Luther Egbert HallDemocrat
1916–1920Ruffin Golson PleasantDemocrat
1920–1924John Milliken ParkerDemocrat
1924–1926Henry Luce FuguaDemocrat
1926–1928Oramel Hinckley SimpsonDemocrat
1928–1932Huey Pierce LongDemocrat
1932Alvin Olin KingDemocrat
1932–1936Oscar Kelly AllenDemocrat
1936James Albert NoeDemocrat
1936–1939Richard Webster LecheDemocrat
1939–1940Earl Kemp LongDemocrat
1940–1944Sam Houston JonesDemocrat
1944–1948James Houston DavisDemocrat
1948–1952Earl Kemp LongDemocrat
1952–1956Robert Floyd KennonDemocrat
1956–1960Earl Kemp LongDemocrat
1960–1964James Houston DavisDemocrat
1964–1972John Julian McKeithenDemocrat
1972–1980Edwin Washington EdwardsDemocrat
1980–1984David Conner TreenRepublican
1984–1988Edwin Washington EdwardsDemocrat
1988–1992Charles Elson Roemer IIIRepublican
1992–1996Edwin Washington EdwardsDemocrat
1996–2004Michael J. FosterRepublican
2004–Kathleen BlancoDemocrat

signed by the governor; or be left unsigned but not vetoed by the governor; or be passed again by two-thirds votes of both houses over the governor’s veto. Appropriation bills must originate in the house but may be amended by the senate. The governor has an item veto on appropriation bills. Constitutional amendments require approval by two-thirds of the elected members of each house and ratification by a majority of the people voting on it at the next general election.

The governor’s salary as of December 2004 was $94,532, and the legislative salary was $16,800.

13 Political Parties

The major political organizations are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, each affiliated with the national party. However, differences in culture and economic interests have made Louisiana’s politics extremely complex. After an extended period of Democratic dominance under the Long family, the 1960s and 1970s saw a resurgence of the Republican Party and the election in 1979 of David C. Treen, the state’s first Republican governor since Reconstruction. However, Treen was succeeded

Louisiana Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR LOUISIANA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES’ RIGHT DEMOCRAT PROGRESSIVE AMERICAN INDEPENDENT
* Won US presidential election.
1948Thurmond (SRD)136,34472,657204,2903,035
1952Stevenson (D)345,027306,925
    UNPLEDGED   
1956*Eisenhower (R)243,977329,04744,520
    Nat’l. States’ Rights  
1960*Kennedy (D)407,339230,980169,572
1964Goldwater (R)387,068509,225
1968Wallace (AI)309,615257,535530,300
    AMERICAN SOC. WORKERS  
1972*Nixon (R)298,142686,85244,12712,169
    LIBERTARIAN COMMUNIST  
1976*Carter (D)661,365587,4463,3257,41710,058
     CITIZENS  
1980*Reagan (R)708,453792,8538,2401,58410,333
1984*Reagan (R)651,5861,037,2991,8769,502
     POPULIST NEW ALLIANCE
1988*Bush (R)717,460883,7024,11518,6122,355
     IND. (PEROT) AMERICA FIRST
1992*Clinton (D)815,971733,3863,155211,47818,545
1996*Clinton (D)927,837712,5867,499123,293
    REFORM  CONSTITUTIONAL
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)792,344927,87114,35620,4735,483
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)820,2991,102,1695,203

by Democrats Edwin Edwards in 1983 and Charles Roemer in 1987, and Edwards again in 1991. In November 2003, Democrat Kathleen Babineaux Blanco was elected Louisiana’s first female governor.

In 2004 there were 2,806,000 registered voters. In 1998, 62% of registered voters were Democratic, 21% Republican, and 16% unaffiliated or members of other parties. Louisiana’s US senators are Republican David Vitter and Democrat Mary Landrieu. Following the 2006 elections Louisiana’s delegation of US representatives consisted of two Democrats and five Republicans. Following those elections, 24 of the state senators were Democrats and 15 were Republicans; 63 of the state representatives were Democrats, 41 were Republicans, and 1 was an Independent. Twenty-five women were elected to the state legislature in the 2006 elections, or 17.4%. In the 2004 presidential election, Louisianans gave Republican George W. Bush 56% of the vote, while Democrat John Kerry received 42%.

14 Local Government

The church districts, called parishes, into which Louisiana was divided in the late 17th century remain the primary political divisions in the state, serving functions similar to those of counties in other states. In 2005 there were 64 parishes, many of them governed by police jury. Other parish officials are the sheriff, clerk of court, assessor, and coroner. As of 2005, Louisiana also had 302 municipal governments. Prominent local officials include the mayor, chief of police, and a council or board of aldermen. In 2005, there were 78 public school districts in the state.

15 Judicial System

The highest court in Louisiana is the supreme court, with appeals jurisdiction. There are five appeals circuits in the state, each divided into three districts. Each of the state’s district courts serves at least one parish and has at least one district judge, elected for a six-year term. District courts have original jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases. City courts are the principal courts of limited jurisdiction.

According to the FBI Crime Index in 2004, Louisiana had a violent crime rate (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault) of 638.7 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Crimes against property (burglary, theft/larceny, and motor vehicle theft) in 2004 totaled 4,410.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. As of 31 December 2004, 36,939 prisoners were in Louisiana’s state and federal prisons. Louisiana has a death penalty law—27 people were executed between 1976 and 5 May 2006. As of 1 January 2006, 85 persons were under sentence of death.

16 Migration

Louisiana was settled by an unusually diverse assortment of immigrants. The Company of the Indies, which administered Louisiana from 1717 until 1731, at first began importing French convicts, vagrants, and prostitutes because of the difficulty of finding willing colonists. Next the company turned to struggling farmers in Germany and Switzerland, who proved to be more suitable and productive settlers. The importation of slaves from Africa and the West Indies began early in the 18th century.

Attracted by generous land grants, perhaps 10,000 Acadians, or Cajuns (people of French descent who had been exiled from Nova Scotia, called Acadia, during the 1740s), migrated to Louisiana after the French and Indian War. They settled in the area of Lafayette and Breaux Bridge and along Bayou Lafourche and the Mississippi River.

Beginning in World War II, large numbers of both black and white farm workers left Louisiana and migrated north and west. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 117,000 in domestic migration and a net gain of 25,000 in international migration. In 1998, 2,193 foreign immigrants arrived in Louisiana. In the period 2000–05, net international migration was 20,174 and net internal migration was -89,547, for a net loss of 69,373 people.

17 Economy

With the rise of the petrochemical industry, Louisiana’s economy has regained much of the vitality it enjoyed before the Civil War. Today, Louisiana ranks second only to Texas in the value of its mineral products.

Louisiana is primarily an industrial state, but its industries are to a large degree based on its natural resources, principally oil, natural gas, water, and timber. Industrial expansion suffered a severe blow in the early 1980s, when the price of oil dropped from $37 a barrel in 1981 to $15 a barrel in 1986. Energy-related industries, such as barge-building, machinery-manufacturing, and rig/platform production suffered.

In the early 1990s, the chemical industry expanded, but by the late 1990s, a high exchange value of the dollar reversed the chemical industry’s growth. In response, Louisiana built several riverboat casinos and a land-based casino which added many jobs to the economy.

Although the economy was negatively impacted by the 2001 national recession, the oil and natural gas industries grew. Offsetting a decline in manufacturing was growth in services. Of Louisiana’s gross state product (GSP) of $152.9 billion in 2004, mining (about 99% of which was oil and gas production) contributed 12.8%, followed by real estate (10% of GSP), and manufacturing (7.5% of GSP).

18 Income

In 2005, Louisiana had a gross state product (GSP) of $166 billion, which ranked the state 24th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia in terms of highest GSP. In 2004, Louisiana’s per capita income was $27,297, 43rd in the United States, where the national average was $33,050. The three year average median household income for 2002–04 was $35,523 compared to the national average of $44,473. For the period 2002–04, 17% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared with 12.4% nationwide.

19 Industry

A huge and still-growing petrochemical industry has become a dominant force in the state’s economy. Other expanding industries are wood products and, especially since World War II, shipbuilding. In 2004, the total value of shipments of manufactured goods was $124.3 billion. Petroleum and coal products manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $53.36 billion, followed by chemical manufacturing at $39.91 billion. The state’s main industrial regions are along the Mississippi River from north of Baton Rouge to New Orleans, and also include the Monroe, Shreveport, Morgan City, and Lake Charles areas.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Louisiana numbered 1,872,700, with approximately 90,100 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.8%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Some 6% of the labor force was employed in construction; 8.1% in manufacturing; 20.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5.3% in financial activities; 9.6% in professional and business services; 11.9% in education and health services; 9.6% in leisure and hospitality services; and 21% in government.

During the antebellum period, Louisiana had both the largest slave market in the United States (in New Orleans) and the largest slave revolt in the nation’s history, in St. Charles and St. John the Baptist parishes in January 1811. New Orleans also had a relatively large free black population and many of the slaves in the city were skilled workers, some of whom were able to earn their freedom by outside employment. Major efforts to organize Louisiana workers began after the Civil War. In the mid-1880s, the Knights of Labor began to organize the cane workers. The Brotherhood of Timber Workers began organizing in 1910 but had little to show for their efforts except the scars of violent conflict with the lumber-mill owners.

In 2005, 114,000 of Louisiana’s 1,778,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of unions. This represented 6.4% of those so employed. The national average was 12%.

21 Agriculture

With a farm income of over $2.1 billion in 2005, Louisiana ranked 34th among the 50 states. Nearly every crop grown in North America can be raised somewhere in Louisiana. In the south are strawberries, oranges, and sweet potatoes; in the southeast, sugarcane; and in the southwest, rice and soybeans. Soybeans are also raised in the cotton-growing area of the northeast. Oats, alfalfa, corn, potatoes, and peaches are among the other crops grown in the north.

As of 2004, there were an estimated 27,200 farms covering 7.85 million acres (3.18 million hectares) with an average farm size of 290 acres (117 hectares). In 2004, Louisiana ranked second in the United States in sugar cane production, third in the value of its rice production, and eighth for upland cotton.

22 Domesticated Animals

Cattle are raised mainly in the southeast (between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers), in the north-central region, and in the west. In 2005, there were an estimated 860,000 cattle and calves worth $670.8 million. In 2004, Louisiana had an estimated 16,000 hogs and pigs worth around $1.7 million. Dairy farmers had an estimated 43,000 milk cows, which produced 519 million pounds (236 million kilograms) of milk in 2003. Also during 2003, poultry farmers produced an estimated 7.5 million pounds (3.4 million kilograms) of chicken, which sold for $631,000, and an estimated 487 million eggs worth around $35.9 million.

23 Fishing

In 2004, Louisiana was second behind only Alaska in the size and value of its commercial landings, with nearly 1.1 billion pounds (500 million kilograms) valued at $274.4 million. Leading ports in volume were Empire-Venice (third in the nation), Intracoastal City (fifth in the nation), and Cameron (sixth in the nation). In value, Empire-Venice was sixth in the nation with $60.2 million and Dulac-Chauvin was 11th with $42.8 million.

The most important species caught in Louisiana are shrimp, hard blue crab, and oysters. In 2002, the state commercial fleet had 8,874 boats and 2,084 vessels. In 2003, there were 90 processing and 114 wholesale plants in the state.

Louisiana produces most of the US crawfish harvest. In 2004, 1,126 crawfish farms covered some 118,250 acres (47,856 hectares), producing 69.5 million pounds (28.1 million kilograms). Catfish are also cultivated in Louisiana, on 38 farms covering some 7,600 acres (3,075 hectares) in 2005.

The Natchitoches National Fish Hatchery focuses on paddlefish, striped bass, and pallid sturgeon, but also raises largemouth bass, blue-gill, and catfish in limited quantities.

Louisiana had 639,139 sport fishing license holders in 2004.

24 Forestry

As of 2004, there were 14,017,000 acres (5,673,000 hectares) of forestland in Louisiana, representing almost half the state’s land area and 2% of all US forests. The principal forest types are loblolly and shortleaf pine in the northwest, longleaf and slash pine in the south, and hardwood in a wide area along the Mississippi River. In 2004, more than 99% of Louisiana’s forests were commercial timberland, over 90% of it was privately owned. Lumber production totaled 1.52 billion board feet in 2004.

Louisiana has one national forest, Kisatchie, with a gross area of 1,022,373 acres (413,754 hectares) within its boundaries. Gross acreage of National Forest System lands in the state was 2,049,000 acres (829,000 hectares) in 2005. Near the boundaries of Kisatchie’s Evangeline Unit is the Alexander State Forest, established in 1923.

25 Mining

Louisiana’s nonfuel mineral value totaled an estimated $331 million in 2003. The leading mineral commodity, accounting for roughly half of all nonfuel mineral production in 2003, was salt, accounting for about 41% of all nonfuel mineral production (by value) that year. It was followed by construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, industrial sand and gravel, and lime. Louisiana is the leading state in salt and sulfur production. Salt brine is produced in Ascension, Assumption, Calcasieu, Iberville, and Lafourche parishes. Rock salt is produced in Iberia and St. Mary parishes. In 2003, the state ranked 34th in the nation in mineral value.

26 Energy and Power

In 2000, Louisiana’s total per capita energy consumption was 887 million Btu (223.5 million kilocalories), ranking it second among the 50 states. In 2003, power plants in Louisiana had a total installed capacity (utility and nonutility) of 25.7 million kilowatts. In the same year, total electrical generation was 94.8 billion kilowatt hours.

As of 2006, Louisiana had two nuclear power plants: Waterford 3 in St. Charles Parish and River Bend I in West Feliciana Parish. Louisiana produced 228,000 barrels per day of crude oil during 2004, the fourth-highest total among the 31 oil producing states and about 4% of the US total. As of 2004, remaining proven reserves of oil in Louisiana amounted to 427 million barrels, about 2% of the US total and seventh among the 31 oil producing states.

Marketed production of natural gas in 2004 was 1.357 trillion cubic feet (38.5 billion cubic meters), leaving proven reserves of 9.58 trillion cubic feet (272.2 billion cubic meters). There were 20,734 producing gas wells in 2004. Energy conservation plans in Louisiana call for development of untapped energy sources, such as the state’s lignite and geothermal reserves.

27 Commerce

In 2002, Louisiana had wholesale sales of $47.1 billion, and retail sales of $41.8 billion. In 2005, Louisiana exported $19.2 billion in merchandise abroad.

28 Public Finance

The budget is prepared by the state executive budget director and submitted annually by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval. The fiscal year runs from 1 July through 30 June.

Revenues for fiscal year 2004 were $23.73 billion and expenditures were $20.47 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($6.43 billion), public welfare ($4.12 billion), and hospitals ($1.64 billion). Louisiana had a total debt of $10.18 billion, or about $2,259.36 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

In 2005, Louisiana ranked 36th in the nation in terms of combined state and local tax burden, at $1,910 per person. (The national average was $2,192 per person). Louisiana’s individual income tax has three brackets ranging from 2% to 6%. The corporate income tax has five brackets ranging from 4% to 8%. Federal taxes paid are deductible from state taxes for both individual and corporate income taxes. The state’s sales and use tax is levied at 4% with exemptions for food for home consumption, electricity, natural gas and water, and prescription drugs. Parishes and municipalities may impose additional sales taxes up to combined rates of 6.25%. The state imposes a full range of selective sales taxes including excises on motor fuels, tobacco products, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, amusements, parimutuels, public utilities, insurance premiums, and other selected items.

Other state taxes include various license fees. The Louisiana Stadium and Exposition District and the New Orleans Exhibition Hall Authority impose a tax on hotel and motel room occupancy in the greater New Orleans area. In addition, local taxing authorities may impose a tax on hotel and motel room occupancy. Taxes on beer and chain stores contribute to local revenues, as does the property tax.

Total state tax collections in Louisiana in 2005 came $8.639 billion, of which 33.1% was generated by the state general sales and use tax, 20% by state excise taxes, 27.7% by the state income tax, 4% by the state corporate income tax, 0.5% by property taxes, and 14.6% by other taxes.

In October 2005, Louisiana’s infant mortality rate was 9.5 per 1,000 live births. The overall death rate was 9.5 per 1,000 population in 2003. Leading causes of death were heart disease, cancer, accidents and adverse effects, and motor vehicle accidents. Of the population age 18 and older, 23.4% were smokers in 2004. In 2002, Louisiana had the second-highest diabetes death rate in the nation, following West Virginia. The state also had the second-highest homicide death rate, following the District of Columbia. The death rate from HIV infection was 8.1 per 100,000 people. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 22.4 per 100,000 people, the fifth-highest in the nation.

Louisiana’s 127 community hospitals had about 17,800 beds in 2003. The average expense for community hospital care was $1,177 per inpatient day in 2003. In 2004, Louisiana had 262 doctors per 100,000 people, and 873 nurses per 100,000 people in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 2,040 dentists in the state. In 2004, approximately 19% of the population was uninsured.

31 Housing

The Native Americans of Louisiana built huts with walls made of clay kneaded with Spanish moss and covered with cypress bark or palmetto leaves. The earliest European settlers used split cypress boards filled with clay and moss. A few early 18th-century houses with clay and moss walls remain in the Natchitoches area. Examples of later architectural styles also survive, including buildings constructed of bricks between heavy cypress posts, covered with plaster and plantation houses from the Greek Revival period of antebellum Louisiana.

In 2004, Louisiana had 1,919,859 housing units, of which 1,713,680 were occupied. About 66.2% were owner-occupied. An estimated 65.7% of all units were single-family, detached homes. Most units relied on utility gas or electricity for heating. It was estimated that 121,505 units lacked telephone service, 7,424 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 8,581 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.56 people.

In 2004, 23,000 privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $95,910. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $902. Renters paid a median of $540 per month.

32 Education

As of 2004, still only 78.7% of adult Louisianians had completed high school, well below the national average of 84%. Some 22.4% had completed four or more years of college, below the national average of 26%.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 730,000 in fall 2002 but was expected to drop to 707,000 by fall 2014. Enrollment in nonpublic schools in fall 2003 was 140,492. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $5.7 billion.

As of fall 2002, there were 232,140 students enrolled in college or graduate school. As of 2005, Louisiana had 90 degree-granting institutions. There are 16 public four-year schools, 46 public two-year institutions, and 10 private four-year nonprofit institutions. The center of the state university system is Louisiana State University (LSU), founded at Baton Rouge. LSU also has campuses at Alexandria, Eunice, and Shreveport, and includes the University of New Orleans. Tulane University, founded in New Orleans in 1834, is one of the most distinguished private universities in the South, as is Loyola University, also in New Orleans. Southern University Agricultural and Mechanical System at Baton Rouge (est. 1881) is one of the largest predominantly black universities in the country and has other campuses in New Orleans and Shreveport. Another mainly black institution is Grambling State University (est. 1901). The state Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) organizes student exchanges with Quebec, Belgium, and France and aids Louisianians studying French abroad.

33 Arts

The Louisiana Division of the Arts (est. 1977) is an agency of the state Office of Cultural Development, Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism. In the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005, the LDOA worked with the Louisiana Partnership for the Arts to assess the impact these disasters had on the art communities. Arts projects are funded in every parish (county) in the state through the LDOA Decentralized Arts Funding Program. In 2005, Louisiana arts organizations received 24 grants totaling $1,150,000 from the National Endowment for the Arts.

The Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities was established in 1971. Ongoing programs include Relic: Readings in Literature and Culture and Prime Time Family Reading Time, an annual program presented through local libraries.

New Orleans has long been one of the most important centers of artistic activity in the South. The earliest theaters were French. The American Theater, which opened in 1824, attracted many of the finest actors in America. Showboats traveled the Mississippi and other waterways, bringing dramas, musicals, and minstrel shows to river towns and plantations as early as the 1840s, with their heyday being the 1870s and 1880s.

Principal theaters included the New Orleans Theater of the Performing Arts, the Saenger Theater in New Orleans, Le Petit Theatre du Vieux Carre, and the Tulane Theater. Junebug Productions is a black touring company based in New Orleans. Louisiana State University (LSU) at Baton Rouge has theaters for both opera and drama. Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Monroe, Lake Charles, and Hammond are among the cities with little theaters and Baton Rouge, Lafayette, and Lake Charles have ballet companies. There are symphony orchestras in most of the larger cities, the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) being the best known. Although Hurricane Katrina battered the state, devastating New Orleans in 2005, the LPO returned to the city with a spring concert season during March, April, and May 2006.

It is probably in music that Louisiana has made its most distinctive contributions to culture. Jazz was born in New Orleans around 1900. It was the music played by brass bands at carnivals and at black funerals and its immediate precursor was the highly syncopated music known as ragtime. Early jazz in the New Orleans style is called Dixieland. Louis Armstrong pioneered the transformation of jazz from the Dixieland ensemble style to a medium for solo improvisation. Traditional Dixieland may still be heard in New Orleans at Preservation Hall, Dixieland Hall, and the New Orleans Jazz Club. In 2005, many of the buildings that housed these organizations and clubs were either severely damaged or destroyed by the forces of Hurricane Katrina. Despite having to close buildings, groups like the Hall Jazz Band of the Preservation Hall continued touring; the Preservation hall celebrated its 45th anniversary on tour in 2006.

Equally distinctive is Cajun music, dominated by the sound of the fiddle and accordion. The French Acadian Music Festival, held in Abbeville, takes place in April.

Visual arts in the state flourish, especially in New Orleans, home to the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. Prompted by the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, the museum showcased several special exhibits including, Come Hell and High Water: Portraits of Hurricane Katrina Survivors, New Housing Prototypes for New Orleans, and Louisiana Story: A Photographic Journey.

34 Libraries and Museums

In 2001, Louisiana had 65 public library systems, with a total of 329 libraries, of which 264 were branches. That year, the public library system had about 10.8 million volumes and a circulation of 18.37 million. The New Orleans Public Library features a special collection on jazz and folk music. The libraries at Grambling State University, Xavier University of Louisiana at New Orleans, and the Amistad Collection at Tulane University have research materials on black American studies.

As of 2000, Louisiana had 89 museums, historic sites, and public gardens, as well as 27 art collections. Leading art museums are the New Orleans Museum of Art, the Lampe Gallery in New Orleans, and the R. W. Norton Art Gallery at Shreveport. The art museum of the Louisiana Arts and Science Center at Baton Rouge is located in the renovated Old Illinois Central Railroad Station. The Bayou Folk Museum at Cloutierville is in the restored home of author Kate Chopin. Among the state’s scientific museums are the Lafayette Natural History Museum, Planetarium, and Nature Station, and the Museum of Natural Science in Baton Rouge. Audubon Park and Zoological Gardens are in New Orleans.

35 Communications

As of 2004, 90.9% of Louisiana’s occupied housing units had telephones. By June of that year there were 2,547,153 mobile telephone subscribers. In 2003, 52.3% of Louisiana households had a computer, and 44.1% had Internet access. In 2005, the state had 77 major radio broadcasting stations (15 AM and 62 FM) as well as 32 television stations.

36 Press

In 2005, Louisiana had a total of 15 morning dailies, 11 evening dailies, and 21 Sunday papers. The principal dailies with their approximate 2005 daily circulations are The New Orleans Times-Picayune (252,799), The Baton Rouge Advocate (87,026), and The Shreveport Times (62,551). Two influential literary magazines originated in the state. The Southern Review was founded at Louisiana State University in the 1930s by Robert Penn Warren and Cleanth Brooks. The Tulane Drama Review, founded in 1955, moved to New York University in 1967 but is still known by its original acronym, TDR.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2000, there were about 15.4 million visitors to the state of Louisiana. Initial reports for 2001 estimated a total travel-related economic impact of $9 billion, including support for 124,200 jobs. The two most popular activities for tourists are shopping and gambling.

New Orleans is one of the major tourist attractions. Known for its fine restaurants, serving such distinctive fare as gumbo, jambalaya, and crayfish, along with an elaborate French-inspired haute cuisine, New Orleans also offers jazz clubs, the graceful buildings of the French Quarter, and a lavish carnival called Mardi Gras (“Fat Tuesday”). Beginning on the Wednesday before Shrove Tuesday (preceding Lent), parades and balls, staged by private organizations called krewes, are held almost nightly.

In 2005 Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and surrounding areas, and tourism was virtually eliminated. As of 2006, only the French Quarter of New Orleans was able to support some tourism. A Mardi Gras celebration was held, but it was shortened from its usual month to a week.

Among the many other annual events that attract visitors to the state are the Natchitoches Christmas Festival, which includes 170,000 Christmas lights and spectacular fireworks displays. Louisiana has 34 state parks and recreation sites covering a total area of 39,000 acres (15,800 hectares).

38 Sports

Louisiana has two major league professional sports teams: the Saints of the National Football League and the Hornets of the National Basketball Association. The Hornets were formerly located in Charlotte, North Carolina. Both the Saints and Hornets are located in New Orleans. The Super Bowl has been held in New Orleans six times. It has been played in the Louisiana Superdome, the largest indoor arena in the United States.

New Orleans also has a minor league baseball team, the Zephyrs, of the AAA Pacific Coast League. In Shreveport, the Captains compete in the AA Texas League. There are several other minor league baseball and hockey teams scattered throughout the state.

Horseracing is popular in the state. The principal tracks are the Louisiana Jockey Club at the Fair Grounds in New Orleans and Evangeline Downs at Lafayette. Gambling has long been widespread in Louisiana, particularly in the steamboat days, when races along the Mississippi drew huge wagers.

From the 1880s to World War I, New Orleans was the nation’s boxing capital. In 1893, the city was the site of the longest bout in boxing history, between Andy Bowen and Jack Burke, lasting 7 hours and 19 minutes—110 rounds—and ending in a draw.

The TPC of Louisiana at Fairfield is a newly constructed championship-level golf course that became the home of the PGA’s HP Classic in 2005.

In college football, teams from Tulane University and Louisiana State University (LSU) have been successful. The LSU Tigers baseball team won the College World Series four times in the 1990s. The LSU Tigers have had a number of famous basketball alumni, including “Pistol” Pete Maravich and Shaquille O’Neal.

39 Famous Louisianians

Zachary Taylor (b.Virginia, 1784–1850) is the only US president to whom Louisiana can lay claim. Taylor owned a large plantation north of Baton Rouge, which was his residence before his election to the presidency in 1848. Edward Douglass White (1845–1921) served as chief justice of the US Supreme Court.

Also prominent in Louisiana history was Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle (b.France, 1643–1687), who was the first to claim the region for the French crown. Jean Étienne Boré (1741–1820) laid the foundation of the Louisiana sugar industry by developing a process for granulating sugar from cane; Norbert Rillieux (1806–1894), a free black man, developed the much more efficient vacuum pan process of refining sugar.

Biochemist Andrew Victor Schally (b.Poland, 1926) shared the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1977 for his research on hormones. Among other distinguished Louisiana professionals have been historian T. Harry Williams (1909–1979), who won the Pulitzer Prize for his biography of Huey Long; architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886); and heart specialist Michael De Bakey (b.1908).

Louisiana’s important writers include George Washington Cable (1844–1925), an early advocate of racial justice; Kate O’Flaherty Chopin (b.Missouri, 1851–1904); playwright and memoirist Lillian Hellman (1905–1984); and novelists Walker Percy (b.Alabama 1916–1990), Truman Capote (1924–1984), Shirley Ann Grau (b.1929), and John Kennedy Toole (1937–1969). The latter two were both winners of the Pulitzer Prize.

Louisianians in the arts include composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869); jazz musicians Jelly Roll Morton (Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe, 1885–1941) and Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong (1900–1971), gained nationwide popularity. Other prominent Louisianians in music are gospel singer Mahalia Jackson (1911–1972); pianist-singer-songwriter Antoine “Fats” Domino (b.1928); and pop singer Jerry Lee Lewis (b.1935).

Louisiana baseball heroes include Hall of Famer Melvin Thomas “Mel” Ott (1909–1958). Terry Bradshaw (b.1948) quarterbacked the Super Bowl champion Pittsburgh Steelers during the 1970s. Player-coach William F. “Bill” Russell (b.1934) led the Boston Celtics to 10 National Basketball Association championships between 1956 and 1969. Chess master Paul Morphy (1837–1884) was born in New Orleans.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Corrick, James A. The Louisiana Purchase. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2000.

Gaines, Ann. The Louisiana Purchase in American History. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2000.

Kein, Sybil, ed. Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana’s Free People of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

Lantier, Patricia. Louisiana. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2006.

LeVert, Suzanne. Huey Long: the Kingfish of Louisiana. New York: Facts on File, 1995.

LeVert, Suzanne. Louisiana. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006.

McAuliffe, Emily. Louisiana Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Murray, Julie. Louisiana. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

WEB SITES

Louisiana Secretary of State. All Around Louisiana. www.sec.state.la.us/around/all.htm (accessed March 1, 2007).

Official Web Site of the State of Louisiana. Louisiana.gov. Available www.state.la.us (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Louisiana

Louisiana

Louisiana entered the Union on April 30, 1812, as the eighteenth state. It ranks thirty-first in size among the fifty states, with a total area of 47,751 square miles (123,675 square kilometers). Louisiana is in the western south central United States and is surrounded by Texas , Arkansas , Mississippi , and the Gulf of Mexico.

Spanish explorers were probably the first Europeans to visit Louisiana, in 1541. The French claimed Louisiana in 1682 and named it after King Louis XIV (1638–1715). The economy failed to thrive under French rule, but settlers—whether from France or not—absorbed the French culture. In 1762, France ceded Louisiana to Spain. Under Spain's control, the colony prospered. By 1800, French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821) had forced Spain to return Louisiana to France, and he sold the region to the United States three years later—in the Louisiana Purchase —to keep it from the control of Great Britain.

The acquisition of Louisiana—which at the time included portions of fifteen current states stretching from present-day Louisiana to Montana —more than doubled the size of the United States. From 1815 to 1861, Louisiana was one of the most prosperous of the southern states as it produced valuable cotton and sugar. Wealthy planters dominated the state; their slaves comprised nearly half of the population. Little change occurred after the American Civil War (1861–65) and the end of slavery as white landowners, bankers, businessmen, and politicians continued to dominate state government. With whites at the helm, there existed no chance for social or political reform.

Social climate

The social climate improved with the election of Governor Huey P. Long (1893–1935) in 1928. In the years before his assassination in 1935, Long initiated much-needed reform in Louisiana. His brother Earl Long (1895–1960) served as governor three times, and his son Russell (1918–2003) eventually became a powerful U.S. senator from Louisiana. Under Long leadership, Louisiana developed into a major petrochemical-manufacturing center. Where once it was a frugal state, it became more liberal in its funding of welfare and social programs, highway construction, and education.

Race relations remained a point of conflict despite progress in other aspects of Louisiana society, culture, and economy. Throughout the 1990s, Louisiana experienced an increase in the number of high-technology jobs, yet it had more people living in poverty than any other state. As the twenty-first century dawned, the state grappled with racism, high levels of toxic waste from the petrochemical industry, a depletion of its natural oil and gas resources, and state government.

The twenty-first century

In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina destroyed the city of New Orleans and became one of the worst natural disasters in American history. Although the city had orders to evacuate, hundreds of thousands of residents were unable to leave before the hurricane hit. More than fourteen hundred people lost their lives in Louisiana, with 80 percent of them in New Orleans. Damages were estimated at $150 billion. Most of those who had been unable to leave were poor and of African American descent, a fact that brought to the fore once again the issue of race and class.

Louisiana in 2006 was home to nearly 4.3 million people, 32.5 percent of that population being African American. Many were descendants of families who lived there before the Civil War. Those of mixed blood are referred to locally as colored Creoles. Both Creoles and another cultural group, Cajuns, descend primarily from French immigrants. Only 2.6 percent of the state's population in 2006 was foreign born.

Louisiana is primarily an industrial state, but its industries are based on natural resources like oil, water, gas, and timber. Although education in the state lags behind much of the rest of the nation, Louisiana is rich in culture. New Orleans hosts an annual Mardi Gras, a popular carnival that traditionally lasts one month and includes parades and costumed balls. Thousands attend Mardi Gras each year. The celebration was scaled down after Hurricane Katrina destroyed much of the city. In addition to Mardi Gras, Louisiana is known for its Cajun cooking and is credited with making distinctive contributions to music in the form of jazz and Dixieland.

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Louisiana

Louisiana

Louisiana, a Spanish colonial province that included the Louisiana Purchase territory and, at certain periods, lands in the area from the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to Pensacola, Florida.

Spain's interest in the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexicowas dictated by desires to protect the mines of northern Mexico and shipping transiting the northern Gulf of Mexico on the way to Havana. This interest dictated its initial (1699–1723) efforts to dislodge the French colony of Louisiana and its acceptance in 1763 of Louis XVI's gift of the part of Louisiana that lay west of the Mississippi River and the line defined by Bayou Manchac, the Amite River, and lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain.

This interest dictated that Spain take advantage of Great Britain's involvement in the U.S. Revolutionary War to seize in 1779–1781 the areas north and east of that border that had been given to Great Britain in 1763. Once in control of the Mississippi Valley below the Ohio River, Spain attempted to prevent American settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains by denying those settlements use of the Mississippi for trade (1784–1788) and then, when that policy failed, to extend its influence over those settlements by conspiring with James Wilkinson and others, leaders in Kentucky and Tennessee, to foment rebellion in the West. This expansive policy began to collapse with Kentucky's statehood in 1792 and the opening of New Orleans to friendly and allied shipping in 1793, and came to an end with the implementation of Pinckney's Treaty (1795) in 1798. Weakened by defeats at the hands of the French (1793–1795) and the British, Spain could do no more than make the best trade possible with France: Louisiana for the Kingdom of Etruria, for Charles IV's brother-in-law, Prince Louis of Parma. When Napoleon I decided to sell Louisiana (as defined in 1763) to the United States, Spain protested in vain. The United States took possession on 20 December 1803.

Spain's trade and "Indian" policies in Louisiana differed sharply from those elsewhere in its empire. Although the long-term goal remained the integration of Louisiana into the system of imperial comercio libre (free trade), officials on the spot had to tolerate British smuggling that accounted for as much as 85 percent of the colony's ship traffic from 1763 to 1777, and then a French and French West Indian commerce that accounted for about 60 percent of the colony's shipping from 1777 to 1793. After 1793, U.S. ships carried 45 percent to 60 percent of the colony's trade (depending on year). Spanish shipping never amounted to more than 35 percent of the colony's total, and generally was under 25 percent. By their very nature, Louisiana's exports of indigo, tobacco, skins and furs, and lumber and imports of flour, alcoholic beverages, and manufactures did not fit well with the imperial economic system, even as modified during the 1760s and 1770s. Well before 1803, Louisiana had become part of the U.S. economy.

Spain's policies involved forging alliances with, and arming, the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw rather than attempting to subjugate them in a mission system. The goal was to use these peoples and their lands as a barrier to check advancing American settlement. The Nogales Treaty of 1793 culminated this policy, which was abandoned with the implementation of Pinckney's Treaty. Another unusual feature of Spain's Indian policy was that it relied on the Scots firm of Panton, Leslie, and Company to supply the trade goods and presents needed for the alliance system, since Spanish firms did not produce products of the right types and qualities.

Demographically, Louisiana grew from a total of 13,000 persons to 50,000 persons, largely because of immigration. More than half of the population were African slaves. Acadians, Canary Islanders, and Germans were notable minorities.

See alsoFontainebleau, Treaty of (1807); Louisiana Revolt of 1768.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arthur P. Whitaker, The Spanish-American Frontier, 1783–1795 (1927), and The Mississippi Question, 1795–1803 (1934).

Lawrence C. Ford, The Triangular Struggle for Spanish Pensacola, 1689–1739 (1939).

John F. Bannon, The Spanish Borderlands Frontier, 1513–1821 (1974).

Juan José Andreu Ocariz, Luisiana Española (1975).

Antonio Acosta Rodríguez, La población de Luisiana Española (1763–1803) (1979).

William S. Coker and Thomas Watson, Indian Traders of the Southeastern Spanish Borderlands: Panton, Leslie, & Company and John Forbes & Company, 1783–1847 (1989).

Paul E. Hoffman, Luisiana (1992), in Spanish.

Additional Bibliography

Axtell, James. The Indians' New South: Cultural Change in the Colonial Southeast. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Din, Gilbert C. Spaniards, Planters, and Slaves: The Spanish Regulation of Slavery in Louisiana, 1763–1803. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1999.

Teja, Jesús F. de la, and Ross Frank, eds. Choice, Persuasion, and Coercion: Social Control on Spain's North American Frontiers. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005.

                                          Paul E. Hoffman

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Louisiana

LOUISIANA

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Louisiana

Louisiana

Union, justice, confidence.

At a Glance

Name: Louisiana was named for King Louis XIV of France.

Nickname: Pelican State

Capital: Baton Rouge

Size: 47,751 sq. mi. (124,153 sq km)

Population: 4,468,976

Statehood: Louisiana became the 18th state on April 30, 1812.

Electoral votes: 9 (2004)

U.S. Representatives: 7 (until 2003)

State tree: cypress

State flower: magnolia

State crustacean: crayfish

Highest point: Driskill Mountain, 535 ft. (163 m)

The Place

Louisiana is a southern state that lies at the mouth of the Mississippi River, where the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico. New Orleans, Louisiana's largest city, is a major international port on the river. At one time, Louisiana was nothing more than a bay on the Gulf of Mexico. The state was formed over thousands of years as soil deposits from rivers, including the Mississippi, piled up to form solid land. As a result, most of Louisiana is low, fertile land.

The Mississippi Delta—the triangular area at the mouth of the river—has the richest soil in the state. In the northwestern part of the state where it borders Texas, there are about 60 miles (96 km) of prairie. To the north of this grassy region, in the area where Louisiana borders Arkansas, the land begins to slope upward and reaches its highest point at Driskill Mountain. Almost half of the state is forested with trees such as cypress, magnolia, and oak.

Louisiana has the third-longest ocean shoreline of any state, after Alaska and Florida. The coast has constant problems with erosion, because salt water kills the freshwater grasses that live in Louisiana's river marshes.

Louisiana: Facts and Firsts

  1. The Battle of New Orleans, fought during the War of 1812 between the United States and England, actually took place two weeks after the war had officially ended. Andrew Jackson, who commanded American forces during the battle, did not learn of the war's end until more than a month after the peace treaty had been signed. Jackson went on to be elected president of the United States in 1828.
  2. Louisiana's most famous festival is Mardi Gras, which was introduced by French colonists in the 1700s. The phrase mardi gras means "fat Tuesday" in French. Mardi Gras marks the end of a traditional period of feasts and celebration that takes place before Lent, a time of self-denial and fasting.
  3. Louisiana is the only state that follows the Napoleonic Code, a set of laws written while Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte governed France.
  4. Louisiana has the highest population of Cajuns of any state. Cajuns are the descendants of Acadians, a group of French-speaking settlers who lived in Nova Scotia, Canada. They were forced to leave Nova Scotia because they would not pledge allegiance to the king of England after England took control of Canada.
  5. Louisiana is the only state that is not divided into counties. Instead, Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes.

Louisiana's weather is subtropical. Temperatures and humidity are high all year, and the state receives about 57 inches of rain every year.

The Past

Europeans reached the area of present-day Louisiana in the early 1500s, when the Spanish first explored the region. French colonists from Canada, however, officially claimed the area for the king of France in 1682.

Spain and France alternately controlled parts of Louisiana until 1803. In that year, the United States bought the entire territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase included more than 885,000 square miles of land and more than doubled the size of the United States. Soon after, the land acquired in the purchase was divided into smaller regions. One of these regions, the Territory of Orleans, became present-day Louisiana.

After Louisiana joined the United States, it emerged as a leader among the southern states. New Orleans was one of the most important trading cities in the country, and steamboats traveled up and down the Mississippi River to bring goods and people to the inland states to the north.

Louisiana's huge cotton and sugar plantations depended on slavery, and Louisiana fought on the side of the South during the Civil War. Although the war damaged Louisiana's economy, the postwar construction of railroads quickly revived the state. Furthermore, the discovery of oil and natural gas at the beginning of the 1900s helped the state expand industrially throughout most of the 20th century.

Louisiana: State Smart

Louisiana's Superdome is the largest indoor arena in the United States. It covers 13 acres (5.3 ha) and can hold up to 95,000 people (with floor seating added).

In the 1960s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began construction of the Saturn rocket (which launched astronauts to the moon in 1969) in New Orleans. Louisiana's manufacturing industries continued to grow until the end of the 1980s, when low oil prices slowed its economy.

The Present

Since the 1980s, tourism has helped boost Louisiana's economy. People come from all over the United States to experience Louisiana's unique mixture of cultures, especially during the Mardi Gras celebration. Spanish, African, and French influences from Louisiana's past are still evident today. They are reflected in the state's architecture, the French and Spanish words that remain in the local dialects, and the state's spicy Cajun and Creole cuisine.

Visitors to Louisiana's stately pre–Civil War homes and gardens can glimpse the lifestyle that once existed on the state's many wealthy plantations. Louisiana is known as the Cradle of Jazz, because it was the birthplace of New Orleans–style jazz. This music grew out of Louisiana's African-Creole heritage during the first half of the 20th century and influenced such famous musicians as Louis Armstrong and Jelly Roll Morton. Many music lovers visit New Orleans to retrace the history of jazz.

Born in Louisiana

  1. Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong , musician
  2. Truman Capote , writer
  3. Kate Chopin , writer
  4. Van Cliburn , concert pianist
  5. Fats Domino , musician
  6. Bryant Gumbel , television newscaster
  7. Lillian Hellman , playwright
  8. Mahalia Jackson , gospel singer
  9. Jerry Lee Lewis , musician
  10. Huey P. Long , politician
  11. Wynton Marsalis , musician
  12. Ferdinand Joseph La Menth "Jelly Roll" Morton , musician and composer
  13. Huey Newton , African American activist
  14. Anne Rice , author
  15. Britney Spears , singer
  16. Edward Douglas White , jurist

Louisiana is becoming a more urban, industrial state as its commercial trade grows. The industries that process the state's oil and natural gas deposits are critical to Louisiana's economy. Much of the state's income comes from oil refineries. The mining and processing of oil and gas, however, have caused pollution that has created environmental problems.

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Louisiana

Louisiana

BATON ROUGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE I-9
BATON ROUGE SCHOOL OF COMPUTERS I-9
BOSSIER PARISH COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-2
BRYMAN COLLEGE J-11
CAMELOT COLLEGE I-9
CAMERON COLLEGE J-11
CAREER TECHNICAL COLLEGE B-6
CENTENARY COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA B-2
DELGADO COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-11
DELTA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY I-9
DELTA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & TECHNOLOGY I-3
DILLARD UNIVERSITY J-11
ELAINE P. NUNEZ COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-12
GRAMBLING STATE UNIVERSITY B-5
GRANTHAM UNIVERSITY I-12
GRETNA CAREER COLLEGE J-11
HERZING COLLEGE J-11
ITI TECHNICAL COLLEGE I-9
ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE
LOUISIANA COLLEGE F-5
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE I-9
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT ALEXANDRIA F-5
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT EUNICE I-5
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER J-11
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN SHREVEPORT B-2
LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY B-5
LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE I-9
LOYOLA UNIVERSITY NEW ORLEANS J-11
MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY I-3
MEDVANCE INSTITUTE I-9
METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-11
NEW ORLEANS BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY J-11
NICHOLLS STATE UNIVERSITY K-9
NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA E-4
OUR LADY OF HOLY CROSS COLLEGE J-11
OUR LADY OF THE LAKE COLLEGE I-9
REMINGTON COLLEGE-BATON ROUGE CAMPUS I-9
REMINGTON COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE CAMPUS I-6
REMINGTON COLLEGE-NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS J-11
RIVER PARISHES COMMUNITY COLLEGE I-9
SAINT JOSEPH SEMINARY COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF URBAN MISSIONS-NEW ORLEANS J-11
SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA UNIVERSITY I-10
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE I-9
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT NEW ORLEANS J-11
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT SHREVEPORT B-2
TULANE UNIVERSITY J-11
UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE I-6
UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE B-6
UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS J-11
UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LOUISIANA CAMPUS J-11
XAVIER UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA J-11

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Louisiana

Louisiana

BATON ROUGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE
BATON ROUGE SCHOOL OF COMPUTERS
BOSSIER PARISH COMMUNITY COLLEGE
BRYMAN COLLEGE
CAMELOT COLLEGE
CAMERON COLLEGE
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CENTENARY COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA
DELGADO COMMUNITY COLLEGE
DELTA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY
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GRAMBLING STATE UNIVERSITY
GRANTHAM UNIVERSITY
GRETNA CAREER COLLEGE
HERZING COLLEGE
ITI TECHNICAL COLLEGE
ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE
LOUISIANA COLLEGE
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT ALEXANDRIA
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AT EUNICE
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN SHREVEPORT
LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY
LOUISIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE
LOYOLA UNIVERSITY NEW ORLEANS
MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY
MEDVANCE INSTITUTE
METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
NEW ORLEANS BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
NICHOLLS STATE UNIVERSITY
NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA
OUR LADY OF HOLY CROSS COLLEGE
OUR LADY OF THE LAKE COLLEGE
REMINGTON COLLEGE-BATON ROUGE CAMPUS
REMINGTON COLLEGE-LAFAYETTE CAMPUS
REMINGTON COLLEGE-NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS
RIVER PARISHES COMMUNITY COLLEGE
SAINT JOSEPH SEMINARY COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF URBAN MISSIONS-NEW ORLEANS
SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA UNIVERSITY
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT NEW ORLEANS
SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AT SHREVEPORT
TULANE UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE
UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE
UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS
UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-LOUISIANA CAMPUS
XAVIER UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA

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Louisiana

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Louisiana

Louisiana

Baton Rouge
New Orleans

The "Louisiana Territory" claimed by France during the colonial era was the entire Mississippi Valley. Just before accepting defeat in its imperial struggle with Great Britain in North America, France gave Spain (by the first secret treaty of San Ildefonso, 1762) all its claims west of the Mississippi and the "Isle of Orleans." The latter comprised the town of New Orleans and the surrounding area east of the Mississippi bounded on the north by Bayou Manchac and the chain of lakes. In the treaty of 1763 ending the Seven Years' War, Britain received France's claim to all of the Louisiana Territory east of the Mississippi, including West Florida but excluding the Isle of Orleans, which the French pretended still to want but which they immediately turned over to Spain in accordance with the secret treaty.

During the Revolution, New Orleans was first a source of covert Spanish logistical support for the colonists. After Spain's declaration of war on Great Britain, it was a base for Governor de Galvez's expeditions to capture British posts up the Mississippi to Natchez and along the Gulf of Mexico to Pensacola. All this was to strengthen Spain's subsequent claim to much more of "West Florida" than even the most enthusiastic Spaniard could have hoped to get. (Subsequent events are traced briefly in the introduction to the section on alabama.)

In addition to colonial sites in Baton Rouge and New Orleans (covered below separately), there are several sites of historical interest in other parts of Louisiana. In the present village of Phoenix, on the left bank of the Mississippi on State Highway 39, some 38 miles below New Orleans, is the site of Fort Iberville (1700), also known as Fort de la Boulaye, in Plaquemines Parish. In the American Cemetery in Natchitoches, head of navigation of the Red River, the site of the ruins of Fort Saint-Jean Baptiste (1714) is a State Historic Site. After painstaking archaeological work, the state turned the site into a replica of the original fort. Fort Saint-Jean Baptiste State Historic Site features a church, a trading warehouse, a powder magazine, slave quarters, the commandant's house, barracks, a guardhouse, bastions, and assorted huts. Phone: (318) 356-5555. Near Robeline is a historic park preserving the site of the Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pillar de Los Adais, built in 1721 to protect Spanish territory from the French and capital of the province of Texas until 1773.

The Louisiana Office of Tourism offers free travel brochures and roadmaps, which are obtainable from its helpful website, www.louisianatravel.com, or by calling (225) 342-8100. The Louisiana Historical Association is located in Lafayette. Phone: (337) 482-6027.

Baton Rouge

Baton Rouge, Mississippi River. One of the earliest French settlements in the Mississippi Valley, Baton Rouge was a link in the chain of posts along the river from New Orleans to Natchez. Its military importance was overshadowed by Fort Manchac, a few miles downstream, but Baton Rouge was a major trading post and depot. As part of West Florida it passed to the British in 1763, then to the Spanish twenty years later. Spanish rule was overthrown and the Spanish governor killed in a local uprising in September 1810, when the lone-star flag of the Republic of West Florida was raised over Fort San Carlos. About a month later the United States formally declared West Florida to be United States territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Under the sixth flag in the history of Baton Rouge to that date (to come were two more, during the Civil War), a major military post of the United States was established. It was maintained, with a temporary change in management in 1861 to 1862, until 1879. By 1825 the Pentagon Buildings and an arsenal had been completed on the site of Fort San Carlos. After Louisiana State University was given the land by the federal government in 1902 the Pentagon Buildings were converted into dormitories, then into apartment houses when the university moved to its present location in the southern part of the city. A marble tablet on Building D of the Pentagon Buildings is inscribed: "On this site stood the Spanish fort captured by the Republic of West Florida, September 23, 1810." The Old Arsenal Museum is nearby on the grounds of the Huey Long State Capitol skyscraper. Phone: (225) 342-0401.

New Orleans

New Orleans. Controlling the mouth of the Mississippi River, although more than 100 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, New Orleans soon became the capital of French Louisiana. (The capital was at Mobile, Alabama, then Biloxi, Mississippi, before being established in New Orleans in 1723.) The town had been founded in 1718 by Jean Baptiste Lemoyne, Sieur de Bienville, and it was a sorry place of about one hundred hovels in a malarious patch of swampy ground. In the early years of the American Revolution New Orleans was an important source of supplies for the Patriot cause. The remarkable Oliver Pollock (c. 1737–1823) had the covert help of Spanish authorities in sending gunpowder and other items first to Fort Pitt, and later to George Rogers Clark in the Old Northwest.

Pollock's supply role became less critical when the French and Spanish allied themselves openly with America (in May 1778 and June 1779, respectively), but in July 1779 he raised $300,000 by mortgaging his private property to buy supplies for the colonists. Prior to this he had forwarded $70,000 worth of supplies on his own credit. After the Revolution, Pollock spent eighteen months in custody for failure to satisfy his creditors. After being repaid by state and United States authorities, he left New Orleans to end his long life in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.

Of architectural interest are Casa Hove, 723 Toulouse Street, and Madame John's Legacy, 632 Dumaine Street, both dating from the 1720s and vying for distinction as the oldest house in the Mississippi Valley. (A fire destroyed most of the city in 1788.) Part of the original Ursuline Convent, completed in 1734, is preserved in the rectory of St. Mary's Italian Church. The Place D'Armes, transformed in 1856 from a dusty parade ground into the garden park called (Andrew) Jackson Square, is faced by the Basilica of St. Louis (1794) and the Cabildo (1795). Both are the third structures on the same site.

Rampart Street's name comes from the ramparts between Forts St. Jean and Bourgogne, between Barracks and Iberville Streets. Fort St. Ferdinand was built during the Spanish occupation in what is now Beauregard (originally Congo) Square. These and other fortifications were destroyed in 1803 to eradicate suspected causes of the periodic epidemics of yellow fever that swept this subtropical metropolis. On Lake Pontchartrain at the mouth of Bayou St. John are the foundations of Spanish Fort, the first fort in the immediate area of New Orleans. Only a redoubt at first, it was enlarged by the Spanish as a brick structure and garrisoned by Andrew Jackson's troops in the War of 1812.

Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve focuses attention on the the multiracial culture of eighteenth-century New Orleans. The visitors center, located in the Customs House in the old French Quarter, offers films on the various cultures that created New Orleans, as well as programs on folklore and traditional crafts. The park also includes three Acadian Cultural Centers that examine the Acadians who settled this region in the eighteenth century, including the famous smuggler and pirate Jean Lafitte; the Barataria Unit, which seeks to preserve what is left of the ecology and wildlife of the bayous; and the Chalmette Battlefield, celebrating the United States victory over the British in the War of 1812. The Faubourg Promenade Walk takes the visitor through the historic Garden District as well as to the "City of the Dead" in St. Louis Cemetery. These tours require reservations; phone: (504) 589-2326.

Start at the visitors center, which is down a passageway behind the French Market on the 900 block of Decatur Street. Phone: (504) 589-3882; http://www.nps.gov/jela/.

The Jackson Barracks Military Museum, 6400 St. Claude Avenue, contains weapons, uniforms, and other military items from the Revolutionary War. Phone: (504) 278-8242.

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