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Mississippi

Mississippi

State of Mississippi

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the Ojibwa Indian words misi sipi, meaning great river.

NICKNAME: The Magnolia State.

CAPITAL: Jackson.

ENTERED UNION: 10 December 1817 (20th).

SONG: "Go, Mississippi."

MOTTO: Virtute et armis (By valor and arms).

COAT OF ARMS: An American eagle clutches an olive branch and a quiver of arrows in its talons.

FLAG: Crossed blue bars, on a red field, bordered with white and emblazoned with 13 white starsthe motif of the Confederate battle flagcover the upper left corner. The field consists of three stripes of equal width, blue, white, and red.

OFFICIAL SEAL: The seal consists of the coat of arms surrounded by the words "The Great Seal of the State of Mississippi."

BIRD: Mockingbird; wood duck (waterfowl).

FISH: Largemouth or black bass.

FLOWER: Magnolia.

TREE: Magnolia.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthdays of Robert E. Lee and Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Confederate Memorial Day, last Monday in April; Memorial Day and Jefferson Davis's Birthday, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans' Day and Armistice Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the eastern south-central United States, Mississippi ranks 32nd in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Mississippi is 47,689 sq mi (123,514 sq km), of which land takes up 47,233 sq mi (122,333 sq km) and inland water 456 sq mi (1,181 sq km). Mississippi's maximum e-w extension is 188 mi (303 km); its greatest n-s distance is 352 mi (566 km).

Mississippi is bordered on the n by Tennessee; on the e by Alabama; on the s by the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana; and on the w by Louisiana (with the line partially formed by the Pearl and Mississippi rivers) and Arkansas (with the line formed by the Mississippi River). Several small islands lie off the coast.

The total boundary length of Mississippi is 1,015 mi (1,634 km). The state's geographic center is in Leake County, 9 mi (14 km) wnw of Carthage.

TOPOGRAPHY

Mississippi lies entirely within two lowland plains. Extending eastward from the Mississippi River, the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, popularly known as the Delta, is very narrow south of Vicksburg but stretches as much as a third of the way across the state farther north. The Gulf Coastal Plain, covering the rest of the state, includes several subregions, of which the Red Clay Hills of north-central Mississippi and the Piney Woods of the south and southeast are the most extensive. Mississippi's generally hilly landscape ascends from sea level at the Gulf of Mexico to reach its maximum elevation, 806 ft (246 m), at Woodall Mountain, in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 300 ft (92 m).

The state's largest lakesGrenada, Sardis, Enid, and Arkabutlaare all manmade. Numerous smaller lakescalled oxbow lakes because of their curved shapeextend along the western edge of the state; once part of the Mississippi River, they were formed when the river changed its course. Mississippi's longest inland river, the Pearl, flows about 490 mi (790 km) from the eastern center of the state to the Gulf of Mexico, its lower reaches forming part of the border with Louisiana. The Big Black River, some 330 mi (530 km) long, begins in the northeast and cuts diagonally across the state, joining the Mississippi about 20 mi (32 km) below Vicksburg. Formed by the confluence of the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha rivers at Greenwood, the Yazoo flows 189 mi (304 km) southwest to the Mississippi just above Vicksburg.

CLIMATE

Mississippi has short winters and long, humid summers. Summer temperatures vary little from one part of the state to another. Biloxi, on the Gulf coast, averages 82°f (28°c) in July, while Oxford, in the north-central part of the state, averages 80°f (27°c). During the winter, however, because of the temperate influence of the Gulf of Mexico, the southern coast is much warmer than the north; in January, Biloxi averages 51°f (10°c) to Oxford's 44°f (6°c). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Mississippi was 19°f (28°c) on 30 January 1966 in Corinth; the highest, 115°f (46°c), was set on 29 July 1930 at Holly Springs.

Precipitation in Mississippi increases from north to south. The north-central region averages 53 in (135 cm) of precipitation a year; the coastal region, 62 in (157 cm). Annual precipitation at Jackson is about 56 in (142 cm). Some snow falls in northern and central sections. Mississippi lies in the path of hurricanes moving northward from the Gulf of Mexico during the late summer and fall. On 17-18 August 1969, Hurricane Camille ripped into Biloxi and Gulfport and caused more than 100 deaths throughout the state. In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina swept through the same region causing floodwater surges of over 30 ft (9 m). Biloxi and Gulfport suffered severe damage to homes and businesses. As of late 2005, the estimated death toll for the cities and the rest of the county was over 100 people. One month later, Hurricane Rita passed through the area, causing severe flooding inland as well as near the coastal regions of the state. Two tornado alleys cross Mississippi from the southwest to northeast, from Vicksburg to Oxford and McComb to Tupelo.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Post and white oaks, hickory, maple, and magnolia grow in the forests of the uplands; various willows and gums (including the tupelo) in the Delta; and longleaf pine in the Piney Woods. Characteristic wild flowers include the green Virginia creeper, black-eyed Susan, and Cherokee rose. In April 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife listed Price's potato-bean as a threatened species. The Louisiana quillwort, pondberry, and American chaffseed were listed as endangered plant species the same year.

Common among the state's mammals are the opossum, eastern mole, armadillo, coyote, mink, white-tailed deer, striped skunk, and diverse bats and mice. Birds include varieties of wren, thrush, warbler, vireo, and hawk, along with numerous waterfowl and seabirds, Franklin's gull, the common loon, and the wood stork among them. Black bass, perch, and mullet are common freshwater fish. Rare species in Mississippi include the hoary bat, American oystercatcher, mole salamander, pigmy killifish, Yazoo darker, and five species of crayfish. Listed as threatened or endangered in 2006 were 30 species of animals (vertebrates and invertebrates), including the American and Louisiana black bears, eastern indigo snake, Indiana bat, Mississippi sandhill crane, bald eagle, Mississippi gopher frog, brown pelican, red-cockaded woodpecker, five species of sea turtle, and the bayou darter.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Except for the drinking water program, housed in the State Health Department, and regulation of noncommercial oil field waste disposal activities, assigned to the State Oil and Gas Board, the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) is responsible for environmental regulatory programs in the state. MDEQ regulates surface and groundwater withdrawals through its Office of Land and Water Resources and surface mining reclamation through its Office of Geology. All other environmental regulatory programs, including those federal regulatory programs delegated to Mississippi by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are administered through MDEQ's Office of Pollution Control. The state has primacy for almost all federally delegable programs; the one notable exception is the federal hazardous waste corrective action program (under the federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984). MDEQ implements one of the premier Pollution Prevention programs in the nation.

In 1996, wetlands accounted for 13% of the state's lands. The Natural Heritage Program helps manage these wetlands.

In 2003, 63.1 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. In 2003, Mississippi had 83 hazardous waste sites listed in the EPA database, three of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including American Creosote Works, Inc, Davis Timber Company, and Picayune Wood Treating Site. In 2005, the EPA spent over $1.5 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $9.7 million for the clean water revolving loan fund, as well as over $9 million dollars in funds for other water quality and protection projects.

POPULATION

Mississippi ranked 31st in population in the United States with an estimated total of 2,921,088 in 2005, an increase of 2.7% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Mississippi's population grew from 2,573,216 to 2,844,658, an increase of 10.5%. The population was projected to reach 3.01 million by 2015 and 3.06 million by 2025.

After remaining virtually level for 30 years, Mississippi's population during the 1970s grew 13.7%, but increased only 2.1% from 1980 to 1990. In 2004, the median age of Mississippians was 34.9. In the same year, 25.8% of the on under the age of 18 while 12.2% was age 65 or older. The population density in 2004 was 23.9 persons per sq km (61.9 persons per sq mi).

Mississippi remains one of the most rural states in the United States, although the urban population has increased fivefold since 1920, when only 13% of state residents lived in cities. Mississippi's largest city, Jackson, had an estimated 2004 population of 179,298, down from 193,097 in 1994. Biloxi and Gulfport are other major cities with large populations. The Jackson metropolitan area had an estimated population of 517,275 in 2004.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Since 1860, blacks have constituted a larger proportion of the population of Mississippi than of any other state. By the end of the 1830s, blacks outnumbered whites 52% to 48%, and from the 1860s through the early 20th century, they made up about three-fifths of the population. Because of out-migration, the proportion of black Mississippians declined to about 36% in 2000 (still the highest in the country). By 2004, 36.8% of the population was black. In 2000, the state had 1,746,099 whites, 1,033,809 blacks, 18,626 Asians, 11,652 American Indians, and 667 Pacific Islanders. In 2000, there were 39,569 (1.4%) Hispanics and Latinos. In 2004, 0.7% of the population was Asian and 1.7% Hispanic or Latino. That year, 0.6% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

Until the 1940s, the Chinese, who numbered 3,099 in 2000, were an intermediate stratum between blacks and whites in the social hierarchy of the Delta Counties. There also were 5,387 Vietnamese and 2,608 Filipinos in 2000. Although the number of foreign-born almost tripled in the 1970s, Mississippi still had the nation's smallest percentage of foreign-born residents (1.4%, or 39,908) in 2000.

Mississippi has only a small American Indian population0.4% of the state's population in 2000 (11,652). Many of them live on the Choctaw reservation in the east-central region. In 2004, 0.5% of the population was American Indian.

LANGUAGES

English in the state is largely Southern, with some South Midland speech in northern and eastern Mississippi because of population drift from Tennessee. Typical are the absence of final /r/ and the lengthening and weakening of the diphthongs /ai/ and /oi/ as in ride and oil. South Midland terms in northern Mississippi include tow sack (burlap bag), dog irons (andirons), plum peach (clingstone peach), snake doctor (dragonfly), and stone wall (rock fence). In the eastern section are found jew's harp (harmonica) and croker sack (burlap bag). Southern speech in the southern half features gallery for porch, mosquito hawk for dragonfly, and press peach for clingstone peach. Louisiana French has contributed armoire (wardrobe).

In 2000, 96.4% of Mississippi residents five years old and older spoke only English in the home, down from 97.2% in 1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Native North American languages" includes Apache, Cherokee, Choctaw, Dakota, Keres, Pima, and Yupik.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 2,641,453 100.0
  Speak only English 2,545,931 96.4
  Speak a language other than English 95,522 3.6
Speak a language other than English 95,522 3.6
  Spanish or Spanish, Creole 50,515 1.9
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 10,826 0.4
  Other Native North American languages 5,654 0.2
  German 5,501 0.2
  Vietnamese 4,961 0.2
  Chinese 2,506 0.1
  Tagalog 2,005 0.1
  Korean 1,485 0.1
  Italian 1,336 0.1
  Arabic 1,081 0.0

RELIGIONS

Protestants have dominated Mississippi since the late 18th century. The Baptists are the leading denomination and many adherents are fundamentalists. Partly because of the strong church influence, Mississippi was among the first states to enact prohibition and among the last to repeal it.

In 2000, the Southern Baptist Convention was the largest denomination in the state with 916,440 known adherents; there were 14,947 new members in 2002. The United Methodist Church is considered to be the second-largest denomination in the state, with 189,149 members in 2004. Also in 2004, the Roman Catholic Church reported a statewide membership of about 124,150. In 2000, there were an estimated 3,919 Muslims and about 1,400 Jews. Over 1.2 million people (about 45.4% of the population) did not claim any religious affiliation in 2000.

TRANSPORTATION

At the end of 2003, there were 2,658 rail mi (4,279 km) of mainline railroad track in Mississippi, including 2,016 mi (3,245 km) operated by five Class I railroads, which in 2003, were the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, CSX, Illinois Central Gulf, Kansas City Southern, and Norfolk Southern lines. As of 2006, Amtrak provided rail passenger service via its City of New Orleans train, serving the cities of Greenwood, Yazoo, Jackson, Hazlehurst, Brookhaven, and McComb on its route between Chicago and New Orleans, and the Crescent, serving Meridian, Laurel, Hattiesburg, and Picayune in Mississippi, on its route between Atlanta and New Orleans.

Mississippi had 74,129 mi (119,347 km) of public roads as of 2004. Interstate highways 55, running north-south, and 20, running east-west, intersect at Jackson. I-220 provides a loop from I-55 north of Jackson to I-20 west of Jackson. I-10 runs across the Mississippi Gulf Coast, and I-110 provides a connector from I-10 to US Highway 90 in Biloxi. I-59 runs diagonally through the southeastern corner of Mississippi from Meridian to New Orleans.

Development of four-lane highways was financed by a "pay-as-you-go" public works program passed by the Mississippi legislature in 1987 to provide a four-lane highway within 30 minutes or 30 mi (48 km) of every citizen in the state. Originally, the $1.6 billion, three-phase agenda called for the creation of four lanes for 1,077 mi (1,733 km) of highway as of 2001. During the 1994 regular legislative session, an additional 619 mi (996 km), known as Phase IV, were added to the program at an expected cost of $1.3 billion. In 2004, there were 1,896,008 licensed drivers in Mississippi and 1.159 million registered motor vehicles, including some 1.113 million automobiles and 815,000 trucks of all types.

Mississippi's ports and waterways serve a surrounding 16-state market where nearly 40% of the nation's total population is located. Mississippi has two deepwater seaports, Gulfport and Pascagoula, both located on the Gulf of Mexico. In 2004, Gulfport handled 2.374 million tons of cargo, and Pascagoula handled 34.099 million tons, making it the 22nd-busiest port in the United States. Much of Pascagoula's heavy volume consists of oil and gas imports. Other ports located on the Gulf include Port Bienville in Hancock County and Biloxi in Harrison County. Biloxi handled 2.670 million tons of cargo in 2004.

The Mississippi River flows along the western border of the state, linking the Gulf of Mexico to inland river states as far away as Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Mississippi is the largest commercial river in the country and the third-largest river system in the world, and it carries the majority of the nation's inland waterway tonnage. Approximately 409 mi (658 km) of the Mississippi River flow through the state, with ports in Natchez, Vicksburg, Yazoo County, Greenville, and Rosedale. In 2004, the Port of Vicksburg handled 3.922 million tons of cargo, while the Port of Greenville handled 3.045 million tons.

To the east of Mississippi lies the Tennessee-Tombigbee (Tenn-Tom) Waterway, completed in 1984, which links the Tennessee and Ohio rivers with the Gulf of Mexico. Stretching 95 mi (153 km) through Mississippi from the northeast corner of the state down to a point just south of Columbus, the Tenn-Tom Waterway's overall length is 232 mi (373 km). Five local ports are located on the waterway: Yellow Creek, Itawamba, Amory, Aberdeen, and Columbus-Lowndes County. In 2004, Mississippi had 873 mi (1,405 km) of navigable inland waterways. In 2003, waterborne shipments totaled 47.446 million tons.

In 2005, Mississippi had a total of 243 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 191 airports, 51 heliports, and 1 STOLport (Short Take-Off and Landing). Jackson-Evers International Airport is the state's main air terminal. In 2004, the airport had 639,947 enplanements.

HISTORY

The earliest record of human habitation in the region that is now the state of Mississippi goes back perhaps 2,000 years. The names of Mississippi's pre-Columbian inhabitants are not known. Upon the appearance of the first Spanish explorers in the early 16th century, Mississippi Indians numbered some 30,000 and were divided into 15 tribes. Soon after the French settled in 1699, however, only three large tribes remained: the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Natchez. The French destroyed the Natchez in 172930 in re-taliation for the massacre of a French settlement on the Natchez bluffs.

Spanish explorers, of whom Hernando de Soto in 154041 was the most notable, explored the area that is now Mississippi in the first half of the 16th century. De Soto found little of the mineral wealth he was looking for, and the Spanish quickly lost interest in the region. The French explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, penetrated the lower Mississippi Valley from New France (Canada) in 1682. La Salle discovered the mouth of the Mississippi and named the entire area Louisiana in honor of the French king, Louis XIV.

An expedition under French-Canadian Pierre Lemoyne, Sieur d'Iberville, established a settlement at Biloxi Bay in 1699. Soon the French opened settlements at Mobile (1702), Natchez (1716), and finally New Orleans (1718), which quickly eclipsed the others in size and importance. After losing the French and Indian War, France ceded Louisiana to its Spanish ally in 1762. The following year, Spain ceded the portion of the colony that lay east of the Mississippi to England, which governed the new lands as West Florida. During the American Revolution, the Spanish, who still held New Orleans and Louisiana, marched into Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola (the capital) and took West Florida by conquest.

Although the United States claimed the Natchez area after 1783, Spain continued to rule it. However, the Spanish were unable to change the Anglo-American character of the settlement. Spain agreed to relinquish its claim to the Natchez District by signing the Treaty of San Lorenzo on 27 October 1795, but did not evacuate its garrison there for another three years.

The US Congress organized the Mississippi Territory in 1798. Between 1798 and 1817, the territory grew enormously in population, attracting immigrants mainly from the older states of the South but also from the Middle Atlantic states and even from New England. During this period, the territory included all the land area that is today within the borders of Mississippi and Alabama. However, sectionalism and the territory's large size convinced Congress to organize the eastern half as the Alabama Territory in 1817. Congress then offered admission to the western half, which became the nation's 20th state-Mississippi on 10 December.

Until the Civil War, Mississippi exemplified the American frontier; it was bustling, violent, and aggressive. By and large, Mississippians viewed themselves as westerners, not southerners. Nor was Mississippi, except for a few plantations around Natchez, a land of large planters. Rather, Mississippi's antebellum society and government were dominated by a coalition of prosperous farmers and small landowners. At the time of statehood, the northern two-thirds of Mississippi, though nominally under US rule since 1783, remained in the hands of the Choctaw and Chickasaw and was closed to settlement. Under intense pressure from the state government and from Andrew Jackson's presidential administration, these tribes signed three treaties between 1820 and 1832, ceding their Mississippi lands and agreeing to move to what is now Oklahoma.

The opening of fertile Indian lands for sale and settlement produced a boom of speculation and growth unparalleled in Mississippi history. Cotton agriculture and slaveryintroduced by the French and carried on by the British and Spanish, but hitherto limited mostly to the Natchez areaswept over the state. As the profitability and number of slaves increased, so did attempts by white Mississippians to justify slavery morally, socially, and economically. The expansion of slavery also produced a defensive attitude, which focused the minds of white Mississippians on two dangers: that the slaves outnumbered the whites and would threaten white society unless kept down by slavery; and that any attack on slavery, whether from the abolitionists or from Free-Soilers like Abraham Lincoln, was a threat to white society. The danger, they believed, was so great that no price was too high to pay to maintain slavery, even secession and civil war.

After Lincoln's election to the US presidency, Mississippi became, on 9 January 1861, the second southern state to secede. When the war began, Mississippi occupied a central place in Union strategy. The state sat squarely astride the major Confederate east-west routes of communication in the lower South, and the Mississippi River twisted along the state's western border. Control of the river was essential to Union division of the Confederacy. The military campaign fell into three phases: the fight for northeastern Mississippi in 1862, the struggle for Vicksburg in 186263, and the battle for east Mississippi in 186465. The Union advance on Corinth began with the Battle of Shiloh (Tenn.) in April 1862. The first Union objective was the railroad that ran across the northeastern corner of Mississippi from Corinth to Iuka and linked Memphis, Tenn., to Atlanta, Ga. Losses in the ensuing battle of Shiloh, which eventually led to the occupation of Corinth by Union troops, exceeded 10,000 men on each side.

The campaign that dominated the war in Mississippiand, indeed, along with Gettysburg provided the turning point of the Civil Warwas Vicksburg. Perched atop high bluffs overlooking a bend in the Mississippi and surrounded by hills on all sides, Vicksburg provided a seemingly impregnable fortress. Union forces maneuvered before Vicksburg for more than a year before Grant besieged the city and forced its surrender on 4 July 1863. Along with Vicksburg went the western half of Mississippi. The rest of the military campaign in the state was devoted to the fight for the east, which Union forces still had not secured when the conflict ended in 1865. Of the 78,000 Mississippians who fought in the Civil War, nearly 30,000 died.

Ten years of political, social, and economic turmoil followed. Reconstruction was a tumultuous period during which the Republican Party encouraged blacks to vote and hold political office, while the native white Democrats resisted full freedom for their former slaves. The resulting confrontation lasted until 1875, when, using violence and intimidation, the Democrats recaptured control of the state from the Republicans and began a return to the racial status quo antebellum. However, reconstruction left its legacy in minds of Mississippians: to the whites it seemed proof that blacks were incapable of exercising political power; to the blacks it proved that political and social rights could not long be maintained without economic rights.

The era from the end of Reconstruction to World War II was a period of economic, political, and social stagnation for Mississippi. In many respects, white Mississippians pushed blacks back into slavery in all but name. Segregation laws and customs placed strict social controls on blacks, and a new state constitution in 1890 removed the last vestiges of their political rights. Mississippi's agricultural economy, dominated by cotton and tenant farming, provided the economic equivalent of slavery for black sharecroppers. As a continuing agricultural depression ground down the small white farmers, many of them also were driven into the sharecropper ranks; in 1890, 63% of all Mississippi farmers were tenants. Whether former planter-aristocrats like John Sharp Williams or small-farmer advocates like James K. Vardaman (190812) and Theodore Bilbo (191620 and 192832) held office as governor, political life was dominated by the overriding desire to keep the blacks subservient. From Reconstruction to the 1960s, white political solidarity was of paramount importance. Otherwise, the whites reasoned, another Reconstruction would follow. According to the Tuskegee Institute, 538 blacks were lynched in Mississippi between 1883 and 1959, more than in any other state.

The Great Depression of the 1930s pushed Mississippians, predominantly poor and rural, to the point of desperation, and the state's agricultural economy to the brink of disaster. In 1932, cotton sank to five cents a pound, and one-fourth of the state's farmland was forfeited for nonpayment of taxes. World War II unleashed the forces that would later revolutionize Mississippi's economic, social, and political order, bringing the state its first prosperity in a century. By introducing outsiders to Mississippi and Mississippians to the world, the armed forces and the war began to erode the state's insularity. It also stimulated industrial growth and agricultural mechanization and encouraged an exodus of blacks to better-paying jobs in other states. By the early 1980s, according to any standard, Mississippi had become an industrial state. In the agricultural sector, cotton had been dethroned and crop diversification accomplished. Politics in Mississippi also changed considerably after World War II. Within little more than a generation, from 1945 to 1975, legal segregation was destroyed, and black people exercised their political rights for the first time since Reconstruction. The "Mississippi Summer" (also called Freedom Summer) civil rights campaignand the violent response to it, including the abduction and murder of three civil rights activists in June 1964helped persuade white Mississippians to accept racial equality. Charles Evers, the brother of slain civil rights leader Medgar Evers, was elected mayor of Fayette in 1969, becoming Mississippi's first black mayor since Reconstruction.

Following the 1990 redistricting that boosted the number of blacks in the Mississippi House of Representatives, the Mississippi legislature was nearly 23% black in a state in which blacks constituted 33% of the population. In 1998 African Americans accounted for 36% of the state's population.

In 1988 reformist governor Ray Mabus, elected in 1987, enacted the nation's largest teacher pay increase by that date. Nevertheless, teacher salaries in 1992 were still, on average, the second-lowest in the nation and public education remained a priority for the state in the early 2000s. Democratic Governor Ronnie Musgrove, elected in 2000, was able to win additional teacher pay increases from the legislature in 2001. Education was Musgrove's main focus in his 2003 State of the State Address, as he proposed a program that would place children in school two months before kindergarten and one that would attempt to keep top faculty members at Mississippi's state colleges and universities.

Mississippi's economy was hard hit by the 1986 decline in oil and gas prices. Unemployment in the state rose to 13%. By 1992 it had fallen to about 8%. The 1990s saw increasing industrial diversification and rising personal incomes, although many agricultural workers in the Mississippi Delta area remained jobless due to the increasing mechanization of farm work. By 1999 the jobless rate had dropped to 5.1%, though still above the national average of 4.2%. Nevertheless, the state remained among the nation's poorest, with nearly 18% of its population living below the poverty level as of 1998, a poverty rate that persisted into the early 2000s. Only three states had higher poverty rates. In 2003, Mississippi was facing a budget shortfall of at least $500 million.

Former chairman of the Republican National Committee, Haley Barbour, was elected governor in November 2003. Upon becoming governor, Barbour focused on job creation, job training, workplace development efforts, and tort reform. He launched "Momentum Mississippi," a long-range economic development strategy group composed of the state's business and community leaders. In 2005, he introduced comprehensive education reform legislation to reward teacher and school performance, reduce state bureaucracy, and strengthen discipline in the state's public schools. With regard to the abortion debate, Barbour introduced and passed six pro-life laws in 2004.

Southern Mississippi was devastated by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. A 30-ft (10-m) storm surge came ashore, destroying 90% of buildings along the Biloxi-Gulfport coastline. Casino barges in the area were washed ashore. About 800,000 people suffered power outages in Mississippi in the aftermath of the storm.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Mississippi has had four state constitutions. The first (1817) accompanied Mississippi's admission to the Union. A second constitution (1832) was superseded by that of 1869, redrafted under Republican rule to allow Mississippi's readmission to the Union after the Civil War. The state's present constitution, as amended, dates from 1890. By January 2005 it had 123 amendments.

Mississippi's bicameral legislature includes a 52-member Senate and a 122-member House of Representatives. Annual sessions begin in January and extend 90 calendar days, except in the first year of a gubernatorial administration, when they run 125 calendar days. All state legislators are elected to four-year terms. State representatives must be at least 21 years old and senators 25. Representatives must be qualified voters and must have been Mississippi residents for four years and residents of their district for at least two years before election. Senators must have been qualified voters and state residents for at least four years and residents of their district for at least two years before election. The legislative salary was $10,000 in 2004, unchanged from 1999.

The governor and lieutenant governor (separately elected), secretary of state, attorney general, state treasurer, state auditor, commissioner of insurance, and the commissioner of agriculture and commerce all serve four-year terms. (Voters also elect three transportation commissioners and three public service commissioners, who also serve four-year terms.) The governor and lieutenant governor must be qualified voters, at least 30 years old, US citizens for 20 years, and Mississippi residents for 5 years before election. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $122,160. The governor is limited to a maximum of two consecutive terms.

A bill passed by both houses is sent to the governor, who has five days to veto or sign it before it becomes law. If the legislature adjourns, the governor has 15 days after the bill was presented to him to act on it before the measure becomes law. The governor's veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the elected members of both houses. Constitutional amendments must first receive the approval of two-thirds of the members of each house of the legislature. The electorate may also initiate amendments, provided petitions are signed by 12% of total votes for all candidates for governor at the last election. A majority of voters must approve the amendment on a statewide ballot.

Every US citizen over the age of 18 may vote in Mississippi upon producing evidence of 30 days of residence in the state and county (and city, in some cases). Restrictions apply to those convicted of certain crimes and to those judged by the court as mentally incompetent to vote.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Mississippi's major political parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, each an affiliate of the national party organization. Mississippi Democrats have often been at odds with each other and with the national Democratic Party. In the 1830s, party affiliation in the state began to divide along regional and economic lines: woodsmen and small farmers in eastern Mississippi became staunch Jacksonian Democrats, while the conservative planters in the western river counties tended to be Whigs. An early demonstration of the power of the Democrats was the movement of the state capital from Natchez in 1821 to a new city named after Andrew Jackson. During the pre-Civil War years, the secessionists were largely Democrats; the Unionists, western Whigs.

During Reconstruction, Mississippi had its first Republican governor. After the Democrats returned to power in 1875, they systematically deprived blacks of the right to vote, specifically by inserting into the constitution of 1890 a literacy clause that could be selectively interpreted to include illiterate whites but exclude blacks. A poll tax and convoluted residency requirements also restricted the electorate. Voter registration among blacks fell from 130,607 in 1880 to 16,234 by 1896.

Mississippi Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE MISSISSIPPI WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES' RIGHTS DEMOCRAT SOCIALIST WORKERS LIBERTARIAN
*Won US presidential election.
**unpledged electors won plurality of votes and cast Mississippi's electoral votes for Senator Harry E Byrd of Virginia.
1948 9 Thurmond (SRD) 19,384 4,995 167,538
1952 8 Stevenson (D) 172,553 112,966
IND.
1956 8 Stevenson (D) 144,453 60,683 42,961
UNPLEDGED
1960 8 Byrd** 108,362 73,561 116,248
1964 7 Goldwater (R) 52,616 356,512
AMERICAN IND.
1968 7 Wallace (Al) 150,644 88,516 415,349
AMERICAN
1972 7 *Nixon (R) 126,782 505,125 11,598 2,458
1976 7 *Carter (D) 281,309 366,846 6,678 2,805 2,788
WORKERS' WORLD
1980 7 *Reagan (R) 429,281 441,089 2,402 2,240 4,702
1984 7 *Reagan (R) 352,192 582,377 2,336
1988 7 *Bush (R) 363,921 557,890 3,329
IND. (Perot) NEW ALLIANCE
1992 7 Bush (R) 400,258 487,793 85,626 2,625 2,154
1996 7 Dole (R) 394,022 439,838 52,222 2,809
(Nader) REFORM
2000 7 *Bush, G. W. (R) 404,614 572,844 8,122 2,265 2,009
REFORM (Nader) CONSTITUTION (Peroutka)
2004 6 *Bush, G. W. (R) 458,094 684,931 3,177 1,759 1,793

In 1948, Mississippi Democrats seceded from the national party over the platform, which opposed racial discrimination. That November, Mississippi voters backed the States' Rights Democratic (Dixiecrat) presidential ticket. At the national Democratic convention in 1964, the black separatist Freedom Democratic Party asked to be allotted 40% of Mississippi's seats but was turned down. A further division in the party occurred during the 1960s between the (black) Loyalist Democrats and the (white) Regular Democrats, who were finally reunited in 1976. During the 1950s and early 1960s, the segregationist White Citizens' Councils were so widespread and influential in the state as to rival the major parties in political importance.

Since the passing of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, black Mississippians have registered and voted in substantial numbers. According to estimates by the Voter Education Project, only 5% of voting-age blacks were registered in 1960; by 1992, 23% were registered.

Mississippi was one of the most closely contested states in the South during the 1976 presidential election, and that again proved to be the case in 1980, when Ronald Reagan edged Jimmy Carter by a plurality of fewer than 12,000 votes. In 1984, however, Reagan won the state by a landslide, polling 62% of the vote. In the 2000 election, Republican George W. Bush won 57% of the vote; Democrat Al Gore received 42%; and Independent Ralph Nader garnered 1%. In 2004 Bush won 59.6% to Democrat John Kerry's 39.6%. In 2002 there were 1,754,560 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. The state had seven electoral votes in the 2000 presidential election.

Elected in 1991, Mississippi's governor Kirk Fordice was the first Republican governor since Reconstruction. But a Democrat soon regained the office: David Ronald Musgrove was elected governor in 1999. In 2003, former chairman of the Republican National Committee, Haley Barbour, was elected governor. Following the 2004 elections, the state's two US senators were Republicans Trent Lott and Thad Cochran. Lott became majority leader of the Senate in 1996 following the departure of Bob Dole (R-Kansas); he stepped down from that post in December 2002 following controversy over remarks he made praising former South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond's 1948 segregationist campaign for the presidency. Until the 1994 midterm elections all of Mississippi's US representatives were Democrats; in that election, Republican Roger Wicker won a House seat that had been in Democratic hands since Reconstruction. Following the 2004 elections, the House delegation was comprised of two Democrats and two Republicans. Following the 2004 elections, the state Senate comprised 28 Democrats and 24 Republicans; the state House had 75 Democrats and 47 Republicans.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Each of Mississippi's 82 counties is divided into 5 districts, each of which elects a member to the county board of supervisors. As of 2005, Mississippi had 296 municipal governments (incorporated as cities, towns, or villages), typically administered by a mayor and council. Some smaller municipalities were run by a commission or by a city manager, appointed by council members. There were 152 public school districts and 458 special districts in 2005.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 132,139 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Mississippi operates under the authority of executive order; the homeland security director is designated as the state homeland security advisor.

The Mississippi Ethics Commission, established by the state legislature in 1979, is composed of eight members who administer a code of ethics requiring all state officials and elected local officials to file statements of sources of income.

The Mississippi Department of Education is primarily a planning and service organization whose role is to assist local schools from kindergarten through junior college and adult education. A separate Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning administers Mississippi's public college and university system. The Department of Health administers a statewide system of public health services, but other bodies, including the Department of Mental Health, also have important functions in this field. The Department of Human Services provides welfare services in the areas of assistance payments, child support, food stamp distribution, and such social services as foster home care.

Public protection is afforded by the Office of the Attorney General, Military Communities Council, Bureau of Narcotics, Department of Public Safety (including the Highway Safety Patrol), and Department of Corrections.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The Mississippi Supreme Court consists of a chief justice, two presiding justices, and eight associate justices, all elected to eight-year terms. The constitution stipulates that the Supreme Court must hold two sessions a year in the state capital; one session is to commence on the second Monday of September; the other on the first Monday of March. A new Court of Appeals was created in 1995. It consists of one chief judge, two presiding judges, and seven judges. Principal trial courts are the circuit courts, which try both civil and criminal cases; their 49 judges are elected to four-year terms. Municipal court judges are appointed. Small-claims courts are presided over by justices of the peace, who need not be lawyers.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 20,983 prisoners were held in Mississippi's state and federal prisons, an increase of 1.9% (from 20,589) from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 1,796 inmates were female, up 2.3% (from 1,755) from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Mississippi had an incarceration rate of 669 per 100,000 population in 2004, the third-highest in the United States.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mississippi in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 295.1 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 8,568 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 100,980 reported incidents or 3,478.5 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Mississippi has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. Following capital punishment's reinstatement in 1977, the state has executed seven persons (as of 5 May 2006); one execution was carried out in 2005. As of 1 January 2006, Mississippi had 65 inmates on death row.

In 2003, Mississippi spent $217,949,581 on homeland security, an average of $75 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 17,917 active-duty military personnel and 4,514 civilian personnel stationed in Mississippi. There were two major US Air Force bases, Keesler (Biloxi) and Columbus. Among the four US naval installations were an oceanographic command at Bay St. Louis, an air station at Meridian, and a construction battalion center at Gulfport. In 2004, Mississippi received about $1.86 billion in federal defense contracts, and $708 million in Defense Department payroll outlays.

There were 240,109 veterans of US military service living in Mississippi as of 2003. Of those who served in wartime, 29,837 were veterans of World War II; 25,845 of the Korean conflict; 66,717 of the Vietnam era; and 44,950 during the Persian Gulf War. Expenditures on veterans amounted to some $844 million during 2004.

As of 31 October 2004, the Mississippi Highway State Patrol employed 531 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

In the late 18th century, most Mississippians were immigrants from the South and predominantly of Scotch-Irish descent. The opening of lands ceded by the Indians beginning in the 1820s brought tens of thousands of settlers into northern and central Mississippi, and a resulting population increase between 1830 and 1840 of 175% (including an increase of 197% in the slave population).

After the Civil War, there was little migration into the state, but much out-migration, mainly of blacks. The exodus from Mississippi was especially heavy during the 1940s and 1950s, when at least 720,000 people, nearly three-quarters of them black, left the state. During the 1960s, between 267,000 and 279,000 blacks departed, while net white out-migration came to an end. Black out-migration slowed considerably during the 1970s, and more whites settled in the state than left. Also during the 1970s there was considerable intrastate migration to Hinds County (Jackson) and the Gulf Coast. Between 1980 and 1990, Mississippi had a net loss from migration of 144,128 (38% whites). Only 12 of the state's 82 counties recorded a net gain from migration during the 1980s, mostly in Rankin, DeSoto, Madison, and Hancock counties. Between 1990 and 1998, Mississippi had net gains of 43,000 in domestic migration and 6,000 in international migration. In 1998, the state admitted 701 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, Mississippi's overall population increased 6.9%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 10,653 and net internal migration was 10,578, for a net gain of 75 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

The Mississippi Commission on Interstate Cooperation oversees and encourages the state's participation in interstate bodies, especially the Council of State Governments and the National Conference of State Legislatures. Mississippi also participates in the Appalachian Regional Commission, Arkansas-Mississippi Great River Bridge Construction Compact, Highway 82 Four Lane Construction Compact, Mississippi-Alabama Railroad Authority Compact, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Southeastern Forest Fire Protection Compact, Southern Growth Policies Board, Southern States Energy Board, Southern Regional Education Board, and Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Development Authority. Mississippi received $4.532 billion in federal aid in fiscal year 2005, an estimated $4.746 billion in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $4.876 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Between the Civil War and World War II, Mississippi's economy remained poor, stagnant, and highly dependent on the market for cottona bitter legacy from which the state took decades to recover. As in the pre-Civil War years, Mississippi exports mainly raw materials and imports mainly manufactures. In the 1930s, state leaders began to realize the necessity of diversifying the economy. By the mid-1960s, many more Mississippians recognized that political and economic inequality and racial conflict did not provide an environment attractive to the industries the state needed.

Once the turmoil of the 1950s and early 1960s had subsided, the impressive industrial growth of the immediate postwar years resumed. By the mid1960s, manufacturingattracted to the state, in part, because of low wage rates and a weak labor movementsurpassed farming as a source of jobs. During the following decade, the balance of industrial growth changed somewhat. The relatively low-paying garment, textile, and wood-products industries, based on cotton and timber, grew less rapidly in both value added and employment than a number of heavy industries, including transportation equipment and electric and electronic goods. The debut of casino gambling in the state in 1992 stimulated Mississippi's economy in the early and mid-1990s, and by 2002 accounted for 2.7% of total state employment (close to 31,000). In early 1995, however, the manufacturing sector began losing jobs, contributing to a deceleration in annual growth rates in the late 1990s. These losses created stress in other sectors, particularly in the retail trade and transportation and public utilities sectors. Areas of moderate growth in 2002 were business services and government. The number of personal bankruptcies in the state set a record in 2002, but the growth rate in filings moderated to 1.2%, down from 19.5% in 2001. The opening of a $1.4 billion Nissan plant near Jackson boosted the state's economy. Southern Mississippi, where the Ship System division of Northrop Grumman, Keesler Air Force Base, and the Stennis Space Center are located, should also benefit from increased national defense spending.

Mississippi's gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $76.166 billion, of which manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) accounted for the largest share at $12.161 billion or 15.9% of GSP, followed by the real estate sector at $7.221 billion (9.4% of GSP) and healthcare and social assistance at $5.497 billion (7.2% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 197,586 small businesses in Mississippi. Of the 54,117 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 52,403 or 96.8% were small companies. An estimated 6,141 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 2% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 7,380, up 1.6% from 2003. There were 170 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 39.7% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 765 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Mississippi as the ninth-highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 Mississippi had a gross state product (GSP) of $80 billion, which accounted for 0.6% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 36 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Mississippi had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $24,518. This ranked 51st in the United States and was 74% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.2%. Mississippi had a total personal income (TPI) of $71,122,091,000, which ranked 33rd in the United States and reflected an increase of 6.1% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.0%. Earnings of persons employed in Mississippi increased from $47,031,531,000 in 2003 to $49,796,304,000 in 2004, an increase of 5.9%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reported that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $33,659, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 17.7% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Mississippi numbered 1,314,300, with approximately 101,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 7.7%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 1,133,400. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Mississippi was 13.7% in May 1983. The historical low was 4.9% in January 2001. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that 4.8% of the labor force was employed in construction; 15.5% in manufacturing; 19.8% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 7.9% in professional and business services; 10.8% in education and health services; 10.2% in leisure and hospitality services; and 21.4% in government.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 77,000 of Mississippi's 1,089,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 7.1% of those so employed, up from 4.9% in 2004, but still below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 105,000 workers (9.7%) in Mississippi were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Mississippi is one of 22 states with a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Mississippi did not have a state-mandated minimum wage law. However, employees in that state were covered under federal minimum wage statutes. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.3% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

In 2005, Mississippi ranked 26th among the states in income from agriculture, with marketings of over $3.85 billion; crops accounted for $1.24 billion and livestock and livestock products for $2.61 billion.

The history of agriculture in the state is dominated by cotton, which from the 1830s through World War II was Mississippi's principal cash crop. During the postwar period, however, as mechanized farming replaced the sharecropper system, agriculture became more diversified. During 200004, Mississippi ranked third in cotton and fourth in rice production, among the 50 states. About 2,370,000 bales of cotton worth $591 million were harvested in 2004 (second after Texas). Soybean output in 2004 totaled 62,320,000 bushels, worth $367.7 million, and rice production was 16,146,000 hundredweight in 2004, with a value of $117.9 million.

Federal estimates for 2004 showed some 42,200 farms with a total area of 11 million acres (4.5 million hectares. The richest soil is in the Delta, where most of the cotton is raised. Livestock has largely taken over the Black Belt, a fertile area in the northwest.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Cattle are raised throughout the state, though principally in the Black Belt and Delta. The main chicken-raising area is in the eastern hills.

In 2005, there were around 1.07 million cattle and calves, valued at $834.6 million. In 2004, there were around 315,000 hogs and pigs, valued at $34.6 million. Mississippi is a leading producer of broilers, ranking fifth in 2003; some 4.3 billion lb (2 billion kg) of broilers, worth $1.51 billion, were produced in that year.

FISHING

In 2004, Mississippi ranked ninth among the 50 states in size of commercial fish landings, with a total of 183.7 million lb (83.5 million kg) valued at $43.8 million. Of this total, 162.8 million lb (74 million kg) was landed at Pascagoula-Moss Point, the nation's eighth-largest port for commercial landings. Shrimp and blue crab made up the bulk of the commercial landings. The saltwater catch also includes mullet and red snapper; the freshwater catch is dominated by buffalo fish, carp, and catfish. In 2003, the state had 35 processing and 31 wholesale plants employing about 2,706 people. In 2002, the commercial fishing fleet had 1,365 boats and vessels.

Mississippi is one of the leading states in catfish farming, mostly from ponds in the Yazoo River basin. There are 410 catfish farms in operation, covering about 101,000 acres (48,900 hectares) of water surface, with a combined 2006 inventory of 641 million fingerlings and 346 million stocker-sized catfish. Sales of catfish in 2004 totaled $275 million. In 2004, the state issued 369,252 sport fishing licenses. The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks operates 21 fishing lakes. The National Fish Hatchery System stocks more than 1.5 million fish annually to support fish resources in the coastal rivers of the Gulf of Mexico.

FORESTRY

Mississippi had approximately 18,605,000 acres (7,529,000 hectares) of forested land in 2004, over 60% of the total land area of the state. Six national forests extend over 1.1 million acres (445,000 hectares). The state's most heavily forested region is the Piney Woods in the southeast. Of the state's total commercial timberland, 90% is privately owned. Some of this land was also used for agricultural purposes (grazing). Lumber production in 2004 totaled 2.74 billion board feet (sixth in the United States).

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Mississippi in 2003 was $174 million, a decrease from 2002 of about 2%.

According to the preliminary data, Mississippi's top nonfuel mineral by value in 2003 was construction sand and gravel, which accounted for around 40% of all nonfuel mineral output by value. It was followed by fuller's earth, crushed stone, portland cement, and industrial sand and gravel. More than 65% by value of all nonfuel mineral production by Mississippi in 2003 was accounted for by construction sand and gravel, crushed stone, and portland cement.

Construction sand and gravel production in 2003 totaled 12.8 million metric tons and was valued at $69.1 million, while fuller's earth output that year totaled 411,000 metric tons and was valued at $29.9 million, according to the preliminary data from the USGS. The data also showed that crushed stone output in 2003 totaled 2.5 million metric tons and was worth $26.8 million.

The data listed Mississippi as ranking second among the states in production of fuller's earth, third in bentonite, and fourth in ball clay, by volume.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Mississippi had 51 electrical power service providers, of which 23 were publicly owned and 25 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, two were investor owned, and one was federally operated. As of that same year there were 1,420,571 retail customers. Of that total, 605,653 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 683,124 customers, while publicly owned providers had 131,787 customers. There were seven federal customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 17.282 million kW, with total production that same year at 40.148 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 78.1% came from electric utilities, with the re-mainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 17.082 billion kWh (42.5%), came from coal-fired plants, with nuclear power plants in second place at 10.902 billion kWh (27.2%) and natural gas fired plants in third place at 9.477 billion kWh (23.6%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 2.5% of all power generated, with petroleum fired plants at 4.1% and plants using other types of gases at 0.1%.

The Grand Gulf Nuclear Station boiling-water reactor, built by Mississippi Power Company in Claiborne County, continues to provide power to consumers within Mississippi. As of 2006, it was the state's sole nuclear power plant.

Mississippi is a major petroleum producer. As of 2004, the state had proven crude oil reserves of 178 million barrels, or 1% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 47,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked 14th (13th excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and 13th (12th excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 Mississippi1 had 1,412 producing oil wells. As of 2005, the state's four refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 364,800 barrels per day.

In 2004, Mississippi had 437 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 145.692 billion cu ft (4.13 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 995 billion cu ft (28.2 billion cu m). Most production comes from the south-central part of the state.

Mississippi in 2004 had one producing coal mine, a surface operation. Coal production that year totaled 3,586,000 short tons, down from 3,695,000 short tons in 2003. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

INDUSTRY

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Mississippi's manufacturing sector covered some 19 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $43.862 billion. Of that total, transportation equipment manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $7.694 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $5.798 billion; chemical manufacturing at $4.832 billion; furniture and related product manufacturing at $3.678 billion; and petroleum and coal products manufacturing at $3.412 billion.

In 2004, a total of 169,947 people in Mississippi were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 134,189 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the food manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 28,815, with 25,274 actual production workers. It was followed by furniture and related product manufacturing at 26,292 employees (20,094 actual production workers); transportation equipment manufacturing at 25,689 employees (19,568 actual production workers); wood product manufacturing at 11,894 employees (9,934 actual production workers); and fabricated metal product manufacturing with 11,532 employees (9,118 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Mississippi's manufacturing sector paid $5.545 billion in wages. Of that amount, the transportation equipment manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $1.003 billion. It was followed by furniture and related product manufacturing at $709.476 million; food manufacturing at $655.124 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $390.577 million; and wood product manufacturing at $368.544 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Mississippi's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $19.2 billion from 2,948 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 1,758 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1,040 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 150 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $5.9 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $11.6 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $1.5 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Mississippi was listed as having 12,561 retail establishments with sales of $25.01 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: gasoline stations (2,009); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,664); food and beverage stores (1,513); clothing and clothing accessories stores (1,476); and miscellaneous store retailers (1,220). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $6.4 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $5.1 billion; gasoline stations at $3.2 billion; and food and beverage stores at $2.8 billion. A total of 135,838 people were employed by the retail sector in Mississippi that year.

Exports from Mississippi totaled $4 billion in 2005.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

The Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Attorney General, and the Bureau of Regulatory Services under the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, are each responsible for a range of consumer protection activities within the state of Mississippi. The Consumer Protection Division, established in 1974, may investigate complaints of unfair or deceptive trade practices and, in specific cases, may issue injunctions to halt them. Under 1994 amendments, a violation of the Consumer Protection Act is now a criminal misdemeanor. The Bureau of Regulatory Services consumer protection activities are centered on its Petroleum Products Inspection Division and its Weights and Measures Division, which respectively check petroleum product quality and pump calibration at the retail level, and scales and measurement equipment used in commerce and trade.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings, but cannot represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies. The office administers consumer protection and education programs, handle consumer complaints and has broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; initiate criminal proceedings; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

Offices of the Consumer Protection Division and the Bureau of Regulatory Services are each located in the state capitol of Jackson.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Mississippi had 100 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 30 state-chartered and 81 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Memphis market area (which included portions of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, with 52 institutions and $26.946 billion in deposits, followed by Jackson with 24 institu-tions and $7.492 billion in deposits for that same year. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 5.8% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $2.720 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 94.2% or $43.960 billion in assets held.

MississippiState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 15,351,077 5,291.65
  General revenue 12,196,208 4,204.14
    Intergovernmental revenue 5,424,813 1,869.98
    Taxes 5,124,730 1,766.54
      General sales 2,482,908 855.88
      Selective sales 908,294 313.10
      License taxes 318,488 109.79
      Individual income tax 1,061,704 365.98
      Corporate income tax 243,846 84.06
      Other taxes 109,490 37.74
    Current charges 1,211,257 417.53
    Miscellaneous general revenue 435,408 150.09
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue 193,518 66.71
  Insurance trust revenue 2,961,351 1,020.80
Total expenditure 14,330,205 4,939.75
  Intergovernmental expenditure 3,880,446 1,337.62
  Direct expenditure 10,449,759 3,602.12
    Current operation 7,786,087 2,683.93
    Capital outlay 966,268 333.08
    Insurance benefits and repayments 1,339,387 461.70
    Assistance and subsidies 157,645 54.34
    Interest on debt 200,372 69.07
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 1,868,768 644.18
Total expenditure 14,330,205 4,939.75
  General expenditure 12,833,368 4,423.77
    Intergovernmental expenditure 3,880,446 1,337.62
    Direct expenditure 8,952,922 3,086.15
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 4,310,712 1,485.94
    Public welfare 4,048,627 1,395.60
    Hospitals 695,350 239.69
    Health 297,655 102.60
    Highways 1,012,320 348.96
    Police protection 75,257 25.94
    Correction 306,477 105.65
    Natural resources 235,490 81.18
    Parks and recreation 45,853 15.81
    Government administration 283,352 97.67
    Interest on general debt 200,372 69.07
    Other and unallocable 1,321,903 455.67
  Utility expenditure - -
  Liquor store expenditure 157,450 54.27
  Insurance trust expenditure 1,339,387 461.70
Debt at end of fiscal year 4,274,977 1,473.62
Cash and security holdings 23,288,104 8,027.61

In 2004, median past-due/nonaccrual loan levels stood at 2.38% of total loans, down from 2.79% in 2003. The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) in that same year stood at 4.18%, unchanged from the previous year.

The Banking Division of the Mississippi Department of Banking and Consumer Finance is responsible for regulating state-chartered financial institutions.

INSURANCE

In 2004 there were over 2.1 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of over $99.8 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was about $149 billion. The average coverage amount was $45,800 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $526 million.

At the end of 2003, 26 life and health and 18 property and casualty insurance companies were domiciled in Mississippi. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $3.6 billion. That year, there were 42,320 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $5.2 million. About $1.6 billion of coverage was in force through beach and windstorm insurance.

In 2004, 47% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 4% held individual policies, and 30% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 18% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged 15% for single coverage and 29% for family coverage. The state offers a 12-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 1.6 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $25,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $709.45.

SECURITIES

There are no securities exchanges in Mississippi. In 2005, there were 420 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 610 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 27 publicly traded companies within the state, with over eight NASDAQ companies, eight NYSE listings, and three AMEX listings.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Two state budgets are prepared annuallyone by the State Department of Finance and Administration, for the executive branch; and one by the Joint Legislative Budget Committee, for the legis-lative branchand submitted to the legislature for reconciliation and approval. The fiscal year runs from 1 July through 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $4.3 billion for resources and $4.0 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Mississippi were $5.3 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Mississippi was slated to receive: $5 million to replace the air traffic control tower at Gulf-port-Biloxi International Airport.

TAXATION

In 2005, Mississippi collected $5,432 million in tax revenues or $1,860 per capita, which placed it 39th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 0.8% of the total, sales taxes, 47.6%; selective sales taxes, 17.2%; individual income taxes, 21.6%; corporate income taxes, 5.2%; and other taxes, 7.5%.

As of 1 January 2006, Mississippi had three individual income tax brackets ranging from 3.0% to 5.0%. The state taxes corporations at rates ranging from 3.0% to 5.0% depending on tax bracket.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $1,859,756,000, or $641 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 40th nationally. Local governments collected $1,819,515,000 of the total and the state government $40,241,000.

Mississippi taxes retail sales at a rate of 7%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 0.25%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 7.25%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is taxable. The tax on cigarettes is 18 cents per pack, which ranks 49th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Mississippi taxes gasoline at 18.4 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Mississippi citizens received $1.77 in federal spending, which ranks the state fourth nationally.

ECONOMIC POLICY

In 1936, the state began implementing a program called Balance Agriculture with Industry (BAWI), designed to attract manufacturing to Mississippi. The BAWI laws offered industry substantial tax concessions and permitted local governments to issue bonds to build plants that would be leased to companies for a 20-year period, after which the company would own them. Mississippi continues to offer low tax rates and numerous tax incentives to industry.

The Mississippi Development Authority is charged with encouraging economic growth in the specific fields of industrial development, marketing of state products, and development of tourism. A high-technology asset is the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Hancock County, which is NASA's largest rocket engine test facility.

In September 2005, President George W. Bush announced he would create a Gulf Opportunity Zone for Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama in the aftermath of the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina. Congress passed the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act in December 2005, which provides a number of tax incentives to encourage the rebuilding of areas ravaged by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 9.6 per 1,000 live births, representing the second-highest rate in the country that year (following the District of Columbia). The birth rate in 2003 was 14.7 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 5.9 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 84.9% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 84% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 9.9 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 315.5; cancer, 211.3; cerebrovascular diseases, 67.1; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 48; and diabetes, 23.4. Mississippi ranked third in the nation for the highest death rates by heart disease, following West Virginia and Oklahoma. The state also had the third-highest homicide rate at 10.6 per 100,000 (following the District of Columbia and Louisiana). The accidental death rate of 57.2 per 100,000 is also one of the highest in the country. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 6.4 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 16.5 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 60.8% of the population was considered overweight or obese; this represented the third-highest rate in the country, following West Virginia and Alabama. As of 2004, about 24.4% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Mississippi had 92 community hospitals with about 13,000 beds. There were about 416,000 patient admissions that year and 4 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 7,400 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $882. Also in 2003, there were about 204 certified nursing facilities in the state with 18,149 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 88.5%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 59.4% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year; this was the lowest percentage for dental care in the nation. Mississippi had 182 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 889 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 1,159 dentists in the state.

About 30% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 18% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $4.2 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 60,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $172. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 391,485 persons (158,539 households); the average monthly benefit was about $98.55 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $462.9 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. In 2004, the state TANF program had 42,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $67 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 545,710 Mississippians. This number included 289,380 retired workers, 56,860 widows and widowers, 103,870 disabled workers, 25,310 spouses, and 70,290 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 18.7% of the total state population and 92.5% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $875; widows and widowers, $765; disabled workers, $835; and spouses, $422. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $423 per month; children of deceased workers, $552; and children of disabled workers, $244. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 125,180 Mississippi residents, averaging $369 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, Mississippi had an estimated 1,221,240 housing units, of which 1,074,503 were occupied; 69.6% were owner-occupied. About 69.4% of all units were single-family, detached homes; 13.7% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources to all units. It was estimated that 92,908 units lacked telephone service, 8,325 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 9,387 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.61 members.

In 2004, 14,500 privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $79,023, the second-lowest in the country (above Arkansas). The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $843. Renters paid a median of $529 per month. In September 2005, the state received grants of $949,098 from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $30.3 million in community development block grants. Also in 2006, HUD offered an additional $5 billion to the state in emergency funds to rebuild housing that was destroyed by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in late 2005.

EDUCATION

In 2004, 83% of Mississippians age 25 and older had completed high school, almost reaching the national average of 84%. Some 20.1% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, below the national average of 26%.

Mississippi's reaction to the US Supreme Court decision in 1954 mandating public school desegregation was to repeal the constitutional requirement for public schools and to foster the development of segregated private schools. In 1964, the state's schools did begin to integrate, and compulsory school attendance was restored 13 years later. As of 1980, 26% of minority (nonwhite) students were in schools in which minorities represented less than 50% of the student body, and 19% were in 99-100% minority schoolsa considerable degree of de facto segregation, but less so than in some northern states. In 1982, the compulsory school age was raised to 14, and as of 2001, it was 17; also in 1982, a system of free public kindergartens was established for the first time.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Mississippi's public schools stood at 493,000. Of these, 360,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 132,000 attended high school. Approximately 47.3% of the students were white, 50.7% were black, 1.1% were Hispanic, 0.7% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.2% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 489,000 in fall 2003 and was expected to be 469,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 4.8% during the period 200214. There were 49,729 students enrolled in 240 private schools in fall 2003. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $3.4 billion or $6,237 per student, the fifth-lowest among the 50 states. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005 eighth graders in Mississippi scored 262 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 147,077 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 39.1% of total postsecondary enrollment. In 2005 Mississippi had 40 degree-granting institutions including 9 public 4-year institutions, 17 public 2-year institutions, and 11 nonprofit private 4-year schools. Important institutions of higher learning in Mississippi include the University of Mississippi, established in 1844, Mississippi State University, and the University of Southern Mississippi. Predominantly black institutions include Tougaloo College, Alcorn State University, Jackson State University, and Mississippi Valley State University.

ARTS

The Mississippi Arts Commission was founded in 1968 and supports and promotes the arts in community life as well as education. In 2005, the Mississippi Arts Commission and other Mississippi arts organizations received seven grants totaling $701,500 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The commission also receives significant sums from the state and private sources. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $891,547 to eight state programs.

Jackson has two ballet companies, a symphony orchestra, and two opera companies. Opera South, an integrated but predominantly black company, presents free operas during its summer tours and mounts two major productions yearly. The Mississippi Opera was incorporated in 1947 and is noted as the 11th-oldest continuously producing professional opera company in the nation. There are local symphony orchestras in Meridian, Starkville, Tupelo, and Greenville.

The established professional theaters in the state are the Sheffield Ensemble in Biloxi and the New Stage in Jackson. The Greater Gulf Coast Arts Center has been very active in bringing arts programs into the coastal area.

A distinctive contribution to US culture is the music of black sharecroppers from the Delta, known as the blues. The Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale has an extensive collection documenting blues history. The annual Mississippi Delta Blues and Heritage Festival is held in Greenville. In September 2005 the 28th annual festival was held showcasing performances by artists such as Shirley Brown and Bobby Rush. Past performers include B.B. King, Muddy Waters, and Stevie Ray Vaughn.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

As of September 2001, Mississippi had 49 public library systems, with a total of 237 libraries, of which 189 were branches. In that same year, there were 5,615,000 volumes of books and serial publications in Mississippi libraries, and a total circulation of 8,898,000. The system also had 138,000 audio and 168,000 video items, 7,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and two bookmobiles. The finest collection of Mississippiana is at the Mississippi State Department of Archives and History in Jackson. In the Vicksburg-Warren County Public Library are collections on the Civil War and state history and oral history collections. Tougaloo College has special collections of African materials, civil rights papers, and oral history. The Gulf Coast Research Library of Ocean Springs has a marine biology collection. In fiscal year 2001, operating income for the state's public library system totaled $37,393,000, including $746,000 in federal grants and $7,084,000 in state grants.

There are 65 museums, including the distinguished Mississippi State Historical Museum at Jackson. Pascagoula, Laurel, and Jackson all have notable art museums. The Mississippi Museum of Natural Science in Jackson has been designated the state's official natural science museum by the legislature. Also in Jackson is the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Museum. In Meridian is a museum devoted to country singer Jimmie Rodgers, and in Jackson one to pitcher Dizzy Dean.

Beauvoir, Jefferson Davis's home at Biloxi, is a state shrine and includes a museum. The Mississippi governor's mansioncompleted in 1845, restored in 1975, and purportedly the second-oldest executive residence in the United Statesis a National Historical Landmark.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, only 89.6% of Mississippi's occupied housing units had telephones, the second-lowest rate in the United States. In addition, by June of that same year there were 1,411,277 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 48.3% of Mississippi households had a computer and 38.9% had Internet access, the lowest in the United States in both categories. By June 2005, there were 191,768 high-speed lines in Mississippi, 165,095 residential and 26,673 for business.

In 2005, the state had 64 major operating radio stations (7 AM, 57 FM) and 14 major television stations. A total of 17,234 Internet domain names had been registered in Mississippi as of 2000.

PRESS

In 2005, Mississippi had 23 daily newspapers: 8 morning dailies and 15 evening dailies. There were 18 Sunday papers in the state. The state's leading newspaper, located in Jackson and owned by the Gannett Company, is The Clarion-Ledger, a morning daily with a weekday circulation of 94,938 (107,865 Sunday).

Other leading dailies with approximate 2005 circulation rates are:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
Biloxi-Gulfport Sun Herald (m,S) 46,598 55,582
Tupelo NE Mississippi Daily Journal 35,490 35,841

A monthly, Mississippi Magazine, is published in Jackson.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,789 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1,057 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, later the Student National Coordinating Committee) were among the organizations that played key roles in the civil rights struggles in Mississippi during the 1950s and 1960s.

Other organizations with headquarters in Mississippi are the American Association of Public Health Physicians (Greenwood), the Sons of Confederate Veterans (Hattiesburg), the Sacred Heart League (Wallis), the National Band Association (Hattiesburg), and the Amateur Field Trial Clubs of America (Hernando). The International Dodge Ball Federation has a base in Gulfport.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

In 2004, there were 30 million overnight travelers in Mississippi, with 83% of all visitors traveling from out of state. In 2002 tourists spent an estimated $6.4 billion, which supported over 126,500 travel-related jobs. Jobs in the gaming industry represented about one-third of the total.

Among Mississippi's major tourist attractions are its floating riverboat casinos and its mansions and plantations, many of them in the Natchez area. Tunica, 30 miles south of Memphis, Tennessee, has Las Vegas-style casinos with hotels and entertainment, generating a significant source of revenue for the state. McRaven Plantation in Vicksburg was built in 1797. The Delta and Pine Land Co. plantation near Scott is one of the largest cotton plantations in the United States. At Greenwood is the Florewood River Plantation, a museum recreating 19th-century plantation life. The Mississippi State Fair is held annually in Jackson during the second week in October. Natchez Trace Parkway is a scenic route, running 444 mi (740 km) from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Among the tourist attractions along this route is the Emerald Mound, the second-largest Indian ceremonial earthwork. The city of Oxford was the home of William Faulkner and visitors can tour his former home, Rowan Oak. Although Memphis, Tennessee, is the site of Elvis Presley's home (Graceland), Tupelo is the site of his birthplace. As of 2006, many attractions had not yet recovered from the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

National parks include the Natchez Trace Parkway, Gulf Islands National Seashore, and Vicksburg National Military Park. There are also 6 national forests and 24 state parks.

SPORTS

There are no major professional sports teams in Mississippi. There are minor league hockey teams in Biloxi and Jackson. The University of Mississippi has long been prominent in college football. "Ole Miss" teams won the Sugar Bowl in 1958, 1960, 1961, 1963, and 1970, and the Cotton Bowl in 1956. The Rebels play in the Southeastern Conference, as do the Mississippi State Bulldogs. Southern Mississippi is a member of Conference USA.

Other annual sporting events of interest include the Dixie National Livestock Show and Rodeo, held in Jackson in February, and the Southern Farm Bureau Classic, held in Madison in October and November.

Football greats Walter Payton and Jerry Rice, along with boxing legend Archie Moore, were born and raised in Mississippi.

FAMOUS MISSISSIPPIANS

Mississippi's most famous political figure, Jefferson Davis (b.Kentucky, 180889), came to the state as a very young child, was educated at West Point, and served in the US Army from 1828 to 1835. He resigned a seat in Congress in 1846 to enter the Mexican War from which he returned home a hero after leading his famous regiment, the 1st Mississippi Rifles, at the Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico. From 1853 to 1857, he served as secretary of war in the cabinet of President Franklin Pierce. Davis was representing Mississippi in the US Senate in 1861 when the state withdrew from the Union. In February 1861, he was chosen president of the Confederacy, an office he held until the defeat of the South in 1865. Imprisoned for two years after the Civil War (though never tried), Davis lived the last years of his life at Beauvoir, an estate on the Mississippi Gulf Coast given to him by an admirer. There he wrote The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, completed eight years before his death in New Orleans.

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (b.Georgia, 182593) settled in Oxford in 1855 and only two years later was elected to the US House of Representatives. A supporter of secession, he served as Confederate minister to Russia in 1862. After the war, Lamar was the first Mississippi Democrat returned to the House; in 1877, he entered the US Senate. President Grover Cleveland made Lamar his secretary of the interior in 1885, later appointing him to the US Supreme Court. Lamar served as associate justice from 1888 until his death.

Some of the foremost authors of 20th-century America had their origins in Mississippi. Supreme among them is William Faulkner (18971962), whose literary career began in 1924 with the publication of The Marble Faun, a book of poems. His novels included such classics as The Sound and the Fury (1929), Light in August (1932), and Absalom, Absalom! (1936). Faulkner received two Pulitzer Prizes (one posthumously), and in 1949 was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

Richard Wright (190860), born near Natchez, spent his childhood years in Jackson. He moved to Memphis as a young man, and from there migrated to Chicago; he lived his last years in Paris. A powerful writer and a leading spokesman for the black Americans of his generation, Wright is best remembered for his novel Native Son (1940) and for Black Boy (1945), an autobiographical account of his Mississippi childhood.

Other native Mississippians of literary renown (and Pulitzer Prize winners) are Eudora Welty (19092001), Tennessee Williams (Thomas Lanier Williams, 191183), and playwright Beth Henley (b.1952). Welty's work, like Faulkner's, is set in Mississippi; her best-known novels include Delta Wedding (1946), The Ponder Heart (1954), and Losing Battles (1970). Although Tennessee Williams spent most of his life outside Mississippi, some of his most famous plays are set in the state. Other Mississippi authors are Hodding Carter (b.Louisiana, 190772), Shelby Foote (19162005), Walker Percy (b.Alabama, 19161990), and Willie Morris (193499).

Among the state's numerous musicians are William Grant Still (18951978), a composer and conductor, and Leontyne Price (Mary Leontine Price, b.1927), a distinguished opera singer. Famous blues singers are Charlie Patton (18871934), William Lee Conley "Big Bill" Broonzy (18981958), Howlin' Wolf (Chester Arthur Burnett, 19101976), Muddy Waters (McKinley Morgan-field, 191583), John Lee Hooker (19172001), and Riley "B. B." King (b.1925). Mississippi's contributions to country music include Jimmie Rodgers (18971933), Conway Twitty (19331994), and Charley Pride (b.1939). Elvis Presley (193577), born in Tupelo, was one of the most popular entertainers in US history.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alampi, Gary (ed.). Gale State Rankings Reporter. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1994.

Ballard, Michael B. Civil War Mississippi: A Guide. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003.

. Political Culture in the Nineteenth-century South: Mississippi, 18301900. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1995.

Brinkley, Douglas. The Great Deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow, 2006.

Busbee, Westley F. Mississippi: A History. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2005.

Cities of the United States. 5th ed. Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale, 2005.

Coleman, Mary DeLorse. Legislators, Law, and Public Policy: Political Change in Mississippi and the South. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Dittmer, John. Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Ferris, William (ed.). The South. Vol. 7 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Nelson, Lawrence J. King Cotton's Advocate: Oscar G. Johnston and the New Deal. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999.

Norman, Corrie E., and Don S. Armentrout (eds.). Religion in the Contemporary South: Changes, Continuities, and Contexts. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

Saikku, Mikko. This Delta, This Land: An Environmental History of the Yazoo-Mississippi Floodplain. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Mississippi, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1993.

US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1990.

Welty, Eudora. One Time, One Place: Mississippi in the Depression. New York: Random House, 1971.

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

MISSISSIPPI. Located in the heart of the South, Mississippi is one of five southern states that border the Gulf of Mexico. Its total area consists of 47,689 square miles, ranking it the second smallest Gulf-South state and the thirty-first in population nationally. Despite its size, the region has been blessed with perhaps the South's most fertile soil, though there are marked contrasts in several infertile belts. Its brown loam soil region in the central interior, its loess soil in the southwestern corridor, and its rich east-central prairie have continued to be productive cotton and grazing lands and, in the early and mid-nineteenth century, were dominant economic centers before major development of the even more fertile Yazoo-Mississippi Delta in the decades surrounding the Civil War.

Long before the arrival of Europeans and Africans, numerous native groups made Mississippi their home. Three tribes dominated, however: the Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Natchez. While their worlds were hardly tranquil or their civilizations as technologically developed as that of the Europeans, they lived in harmony with nature and, even as the Europeans intruded, continued to develop their culture. In both positive and negative ways, life would never be the same for them thereafter. For example, after the early 1730s, the Natchez, with one of the most complex and highly developed civilizations north of Mexico, no longer existed in Mississippi following a long period of confrontations with the colonial French.

European interest in Mississippi began soon after New World discovery. The Spaniard Hernando de Soto, seeking to reclaim the glory and increase the wealth that he had achieved with Francisco Pizarro in Peru, was the first European explorer of Mississippi. He failed in his efforts, eventually dying in his quest. But the conquistador left an enduring legacy of his journey through Mississippi's wilderness when, in 1541, he happened upon the Mississippi River to become the first known white man to approach its banks overland. Other aspects of his expedition through the Southeast are far less admirable because of the inhumane tolls that he inflicted on Native peoples along the way, including the Chickasaws with whom he quartered during the winter of 1540–1541.

It was, however, the French who first laid substantive claims to Mississippi. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, an ambitious French explorer and fur trader interested in both personal gain and French expansion in North America, claimed the Mississippi countryside in 1682 for King Louis XIV as an integral part of the Louisiana colony. Thirteen years later, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, led a group of settlers to the Gulf Coast, where he constructed Fort Maurepas (later named Ocean Springs), the first permanent white settlement on Mississippi soil.

France's settlements in Mississippi soon expanded to included Natchez on the Mississippi and Biloxi near Ocean Springs. Its colonial experience in the Lower Mississippi Valley, however, proved an immense failure. A misguided imperial policy, punctuated by a weak economy, an inadequate immigration flow, and poor Indian relations influenced its regional instability. A rivalry with England for colonial domination culminated with the French and Indian War (1754–1763) and eventually led to France's expulsion from North America. For nearly two decades thereafter, England controlled Mississippi as part of its West Florida province and sought to develop a tobacco culture in the Natchez region, but it, too, met only limited success. Although the Mississippi region did not revolt against England in the American Revolution, England lost West Florida to Spain soon after Spain entered the conflict. It was a propitious situation for Spain, which added the east bank of the Mississippi to its west bank holdings, an area acquired prior to the French and Indian War.

An American dispute with Spain over West Florida's northern boundary remained a diplomatic issue until the 1795 signing of Pinckney's Treaty. The agreement ceded to the United States the coveted Yazoo Strip and resulted in the establishment of the Mississippi Territory, ceremoniously declared in Natchez on 7 April 1798. Congress fixed the northern and southern boundaries at thirty-two degrees and twenty-eight minutes north latitude and thirty-one degrees north latitude, respectively. The Mississippi and Chattahoochee Rivers bounded the territory in the west and in the east. Excluding the Gulf Coast region, which remained in Spanish West Florida, southern Mississippi and Alabama lay essentially with in the territory. However, by 1804, the territory's northern limits had reached the Tennessee line; eight years later, expansion to the south incorporated the Gulf Coast, the result of presidential decree shortly after borderland inhabitants successfully revolted against Spanish authority. Natchez, with its advantageous location, great economic potential, and larger population was the clear choice over Alabama settlements to seat the territorial government.

Mississippi's government was established under guidelines similar to legislation that organized the Old Northwest Territories in 1787. A federally appointed governor, with the assistance of a secretary and three judges, comprised the initial structure until the territory met higher population standards. With slavery long established in the area, however, provisions in the Northwest Ordinance that banned the institution there could not apply to Mississippi. Winthrop Sargent served as the first governor, a contentious tenure that lasted until President Thomas Jefferson replaced him in 1801. Sargent was a Federalist appointee and, like three of his four Democratic-Republican Party successors, governed during a period when politics in Mississippi was extremely partisan. Eastern Mississippi's yeoman farmers found much to differ over with the Mississippi River area's aristocratic planters and creditor classes, who dominated governmental and economic affairs. Political turmoil was so disruptive that it influenced Governor W. C. C. Claiborne, Sargent's successor, to seek a solution by moving the territorial capital to Washington, a small village several miles north of Natchez. Only under the administration of the more tractable Virginian David Holmes, the last territorial governor, did Mississippi find relief from the political infighting, prompting a unity certainly influenced by exigencies from the War of 1812 and the volatile Creek War of 1813.

The peace that followed sparked a period of massive population growth, particularly in the eastern areas. Rapidly upon the heels of this great migration of 1816, Mississippi successfully lobbied Congress for statehood. On 10 December 1817, President James Monroe signed legislation that admitted Mississippi to the Union as the twentieth state. By then, the Alabama settlements had gone their separate way and soon followed Mississippi into statehood.

It was clear from the outset that Mississippi's constitutional framers were uninterested in establishing a broad-based democracy. Persistent sectional problems had disrupted the constitutional convention, and eastern territorial delegates could not prevent westerners from maintaining their political dominance over the state. Only men of considerable real property were eligible to hold office and vote, though militia service could qualify one for the franchise. Occasionally, the backcountry commoners' pleas for a greater voice were heard, as they were in 1822, when efforts to end a long-standing grievance moved the capital to the centrally located and politically neutral site that became Jackson. Universal white manhood suffrage and other democratic changes resulted from a new constitution in 1832, inspired by the widening national influence of Jacksonian democracy; yet constitutional reform hardly negated the power of the wealthy ruling class of planters and businessmen.

The 1830s—Mississippi's "flush times"—were also years of unparalled prosperity. Much of this stimulation came at the expense of Native Americans, who, after experiencing years of territorial shrinkage, lost title to all of their remaining lands. Removal of the Mississippi Choctaws and Chickasaws to Indian Territory opened vast new fertile lands to white exploitation. Banks proliferated through easy credit policies and paper currency and helped to fuel the boom. Speculators prospered through high land prices. Land-hungry farmers and planters poured into Mississippi and rapidly filled the empty spaces, primarily the state's northern half. The 1840 census revealed a ten-year white population increase of 175 percent and of black, 197 percent, almost entirely slaves. But a change in federal monetary and credit policies ended this golden age, prompting the panic of 1837. Unable to meet their obligations, many Mississippians lost their possessions and suffered through the depression; numerous others sought to escape by migrating to Texas.

Some Mississippians certainly benefited from the cyclical upswing that began in the mid-1840s. The spread of the cotton culture into Indian cession lands increased the size and power of the planter elite. Corn, not cotton, was the largest crop in acreage, but it neither generated the income nor enhanced the image and prestige of its producers as "white gold" did for planters. The disparity between the affluent and poor naturally increased. None were, of course, more impoverished than the thousands of slaves, who by 1840 comprised a 52 percent population majority. They toiled in virtually every capacity, but cotton and fieldwork were their major calling and, by 1860, their labor had helped to make Mississippi one of the five richest states in the nation.

More than any other, it was the slave issue that proved to be the most decisive in Mississippi's justification for secession. To be sure, disunion was hardly endorsed enthusiastically everywhere, but even for Mississippians in areas with fewer slaves, such as the Piney Woods and the Northeastern Hills, Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860 and the Republican Party's opposition to slavery's expansion seemed threatening to a familiar way of life. Consequently, the state left the union by a large majority on 9 January 1861.

The enthusiasm and optimism that Mississippians expressed at the onset of Southern nationhood soon gave way to the realities of war. Food, materials, and labor shortages affected both the military and civilian populations. Numerous battles occurred in Mississippi, but none compared to Vicksburg and the significance it held for the Confederacy as a railway supply center for the Deep South, and for the Union's goal to control the strategically important Mississippi River. For the Confederacy and Mississippi, Vicksburg's loss on 4 July 1863 was costly in human life and morale and certainly influenced the war's outcome. The siege at Vicksburg severely damaged the town, but Mississippi as a whole did not experience the extensive physical devastation that occurred elsewhere. Few communities, and fewer families, however, were left untouched in some way by the war. More than 78,000 white men went off to fight; 27,000 never returned, and, for many who did, disability was often a reminder of their commitment and sacrifice. A year after the war, Mississippi devoted one-fifth of its budget to purchase artificial limbs for veterans.

Black Mississippians, too, saw activity in the war; 17,000 fought to help save the Union and free their people. Months into the conflict, slavery's fate seemed sealed; by war's end, emancipation was assured. In Mississippi, 436,000 former slaves would join more than 3 million from other states in freedom. At the outset, however, it was unclear exactly what their status would be, beyond legal freedom. In the years that followed emancipation, their challenges proved formidable, as federal and state officials sought to define African American citizenship, while simultaneously wrestling with the politics and economics of Reconstruction (1865–1877) and North–South reconciliation.

Federal policy gave Mississippi freedmen no land and only a fleeting opportunity to experience citizenship. But they responded enthusiastically. They influenced a temporary return to Mississippi's two-party system by helping the newly formed Republican Party. They voted, helped to shape and implement constitutional reform, and served in offices at all government levels, including both houses of Congress. The seating of Hiram R. Revels and Blanche K. Bruce as U.S. senators, for example, represented unprecedented nineteenth-century accomplishments. Not until 1986 would another Mississippian, Mike Espy, become the second African American to follow John R. Lynch into the House of Representatives.

Reconstruction gains were short-lived for freedmen, however. This was largely because the Republican Party's ascendancy was brief. Democrats regained elective hegemony in 1875 through their "Mississippi plan," a counterrevolution campaign of widespread violence, economic intimidation of freedmen, and balloting fraud. Thereafter, through impeachment they quickly purged most remaining Republicans from state offices.

The outcome proved crucial to the former slaves and, like elsewhere, they fell victim to an insidious political and racial backlash that relegated them to less than second class citizens. To be sure, the overthrow of Republican rule—a period that hardly equaled the Reconstruction excesses in some former Confederate states—and its replacement with the redemption (1876–1900) did not immediately submerge the freedmen into near total subordination, but by the end of the century, such results were certainly evident.

Demand for their suppression came from white farmers in the hills counties. These common men were dissatisfied with conservative democrats—so-called Bourbons, or Redeemers—because of their promotion and alliance with the railroad and industrial establishment. Railroading and timber production dramatically increased but afforded economic opportunity for only a small minority. Tied ever more to "king cotton" and one-crop agriculture, with its farm tenancy, crop lien credit system, farmers had sweltered economically in an agriculturally depressed postwar period, largely dominated by the success of northern industrial expansion. From their perspective, federal economic and monetary policies exacerbated agrarian woes. The white majority, seeking greater empowerment and believing it possible only through ousting the Bourbons and the black vote they controlled, supported a Democratic party leadership that insisted on a new constitution in 1890, which would legally deprive blacks of the vote. This disfranchisement coalesced with rigid Jim Crowism and a stifling sharecropping system that pushed blacks ever deeper into impoverishment and ensured white supremacy well beyond the mid-twentieth century.

The 1902 Primary Election Law helped propel James K. Vardaman—representative of this new "redneck" faction—into the governorship in 1903. Vardaman was popularly known as the "white chief" because of his white supremacy views, and, along with his demagogue successors, he championed white commoners' elevation through a progressive agenda of social justice, limitations on business and industry, and adherence to white supremacy and classism. Medical and juvenile care, prison reform, and transportation all progressed; improvements in education occurred only minimally. Although these leaders enjoyed immense popularity, they had their detractors, and perhaps none aroused as much controversy and criticism as did Theodore Bilbo, twentieth-century Mississippi's most rabid race baiter, who was elected governor in 1915 and 1927 and three times to the U.S. Senate.

The influence of the redneck leadership waned after the onset of the Great Depression during the 1930s and with the emergence of business-oriented governors such as Martin Sennett Conner (1932–1936) and Hugh White (1936–1940, 1952–1956). Motivated as much by the need to lessen the effects of the depression on the nation's poorest state as they were to create a more diversified economy, these leaders instituted creative measures such as the sales tax and lucrative state incentives to attract industry. Light industrial expansion in furniture and clothing manufacturing could not compare to the arrival of a major shipbuilding corporation on the Gulf Coast in 1938—which was still the state's largest private employer in the early 2000s—but collectively they added promise to the prospects of Mississippi's economic future.

Much needed to be done. Federal depression-era measures certainly helped, but conditions hardly improved for most landless farmers, black or white, who were further affected adversely by mechanization and a declining need for manual labor. For many, migration to northern industrial states or nearby cities like Memphis, Mobile, and New Orleans held the greatest promise. One result was that, by 1940, blacks had become a minority, a downward spiral that continued into the 1960s. World War II sparked a similar intrastate "pull" factor for Jackson, which assumed a distinctively urban character, and for Hattiesburg and the Gulf Coast, attractive because of demands from recently established military installations.

War put 23,700 Mississippians into military uniforms. Their service exposed them to a world that was very different from Mississippi. Veterans' benefits provided them opportunities for college and better housing. The farm and rural life appealed less to them as cities and towns continued their slow but steady growth. Some veterans had certainly been influenced by one of the war's goals—to end Nazi racism—but Mississippi found it difficult to break from its past. Opposed to black Mississippians' demands for equal rights and the national Democratic Party's increasingly liberal support of civil rights, between 1948 and 1970 the state was frequently a center of attention because of its determined stand to maintain racial orthodoxy.

Governor Hugh White's unrealistic proposals to equalize black and white schools in the early 1950s inevitably failed and forecast the historic 1954 Supreme Court school desegregation decision. Mississippi was perhaps the South's most segregated state, and many certainly believed they had much to defend; others understood the importance of cracking the monolith, for success there might make gains easier to achieve elsewhere. Forces such as the White Citizens Council—the so-called Uptown Klan—first emerged in Mississippi before its regional spread to fight "race-mixers" through political and economic intimidation. But change was inevitable, though it occurred grudgingly and not without frequent bloody consequences. In 1962, rioting erupted over the black student James Meredith's admission to the University of Mississippi, and beatings of civil rights workers by both citizens and law officials occurred throughout the state. Nothing, however, equaled the international revulsion that resulted from the manhunt and grave discovery of three young activists, two of whom were white college students, brutally murdered in the 1964 Freedom Summer voting rights campaign. By the end of the 1960s, however, nearly all white colleges and universities enrolled black students; the federal courts ordered statewide public school desegregation in the early 1970s; and, a decade after its passage, the 1965 Voting Rights Act had resulted in more African Americans in Mississippi government offices than in any other state in the nation. Undeniably, disparities endured, as revealed by a 2002 state settlement of a twenty-seven year black plaintiffs college funding discrimination suit. At the end of the twentieth century, however, the race question was no longer the political, social, and economically divisive issue that had retarded Mississippi's development throughout much of its history.

Other adjustments also appeared in the last third of the twentieth century. A viable two-party system functioned for the first time since Reconstruction, as Republicans won elective offices to all levels of government, including the governorship and Congress. The state ended its dependence on cotton as soybean production rivaled it. The early vision of governors such as Hugh White, Paul Johnson Sr. (1940–1943), and Paul Johnson Jr. (1964–1968), all of whom had worked to achieved a more balanced economy, showed remarkable fruition as industry, for the first time, provided Mississippians with more jobs and wages than did agriculture. Opportunities in extracting and developing Mississippi's major natural resources of oil, timber, coal, bauxite, sand, and gravel expanded. Oil refining, furniture and paper manufacturing, and diverse service-related jobs joined with tourism and the new casino industry to invigorate Mississippi's economy. Employment from a major automobile manufacturing plant would open in 2003 and add further economic growth in central Mississippi. A massive ongoing highway building program, initiated in the 1980s, has significantly improved the infrastructure and quality of transportation. Finally, education reform in the establishment of kindergartens, smaller classrooms, and teacher aides and the institution of more equitable funding through the Adequate Education Program have improved an education system that long lagged behind other states.

Progress not with standing, in 2000 Mississippi remained one of the nation's poorest states, its citizens earning 71 percent of the national median income. For every tax dollar that Mississippi sent to the federal government in the early 2000s it received three back through various programs. With a relatively small population of 2.8 million people as of 2002, the state's modest growth in the previous decade would result in the loss of one of five congressional seats and, perhaps accordingly, the loss of substantive influence in ensuring Mississippi's continued receipt of vital federal dollars.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bartley, Numan V. The New South, 1945–1980: The Story of the South's Modernization. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Bettersworth, John K. Confederate Mississippi: The People and Politics of a Cotton State in Wartime. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1978.

Bond, Bradley. Political Culture in the Nineteenth-Century South: Mississippi, 1830–1900. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Carpenter, Barbara, ed. Ethnic Heritage in Mississippi. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1992.

Dittmer, John. Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution. New York: Perennial Classics, 2002.

Harris, William C. The Day of the Carpetbagger. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

James, D. Clayton. Antebellum Natchez. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Kirwan, Albert D. Revolt of the Rednecks: Mississippi Politics, 1876– 1925. Gloucester, Mass.: P. Smith, 1964.

McLemore, Richard A., ed. A History of Mississippi. 2 vols. Hattiesburg: University Press of Mississippi. 1973.

McMillen, Neil. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

———. The Citizen's Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954–1964. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Miles, Edwin A. Jacksonian Democracy in Mississippi. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

Moore, John Hebron. The Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom in the Old Southwest: Mississippi, 1770–1860. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.

RobertJenkins

See alsoReconstruction ; Tribes: Southeastern ; Vicksburg in the Civil War ; andvol. 9:An Interview with Fannie Lou Hamer ; Black Code of Mississippi, November, 1865 .

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Mississippi (state, United States)

Mississippi (mĬs´əsĬp´ē), one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of that border formed by the Mississippi River (W), and Tennessee (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 47,716 sq mi (123,584 sq km). Pop. (2010) 2,967,297, a 4.3% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Jackson. Statehood, Dec. 10, 1817 (20th state). Highest pt., Woodall Mt., 806 ft (246 m); lowest pt., sea level. Nickname, Magnolia State. Motto,Virtute et Armis [By Valor and Arms]. State bird, mockingbird. State flower, magnolia. State tree, magnolia. Abbr., Miss.; MS

Geography

Mississippi's generally hilly landscape reaches its highest point (806 ft/246 m) in the northeastern corner of the state along the Tennessee River. The most distinctive region in the state's varied topography is the Mississippi Delta, a flat alluvial plain between the Mississippi and the Yazoo rivers in the western part of the state. A wide belt of longleaf yellow pine (the piney woods) covers most of southern Mississippi to within a few miles of the coastal-plain grasslands. Important there are lumbering and allied industries. Most of the state's rivers belong to either the Mississippi or the Alabama river systems, with the Pontoctoc Ridge the divide. The climate of Mississippi is subtropical in the southern part of the state and temperate in the northern part; the average annual rainfall is more than 50 in. (127 cm).

The state, in the path of waterfowl migration routes down the Mississippi valley and home to many species of birds, is noted for its duck and quail hunting. Along the Gulf Coast, a favorite fishing area, are several resort cities and part of Gulf Islands National Seashore. Historical sites in Mississippi include Old Spanish Fort, the oldest house on the Mississippi River, near Pascagoula, as well as Vicksburg National Military Park, Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, and Tupelo National Battlefield (see National Parks and Monuments, table). In Natchez and Biloxi are many fine antebellum mansions. Jackson is the capital and largest city. Other important cities are Biloxi, Greenville, Hattiesburg, and Meridian.

Economy

Mississippi is traditionally one of the more rural states in the Union; not until 1965 did manufacturing take over as the leading revenue-producing sector of its economy. In 2000, Mississippi ranked third in the nation in the production of cotton, but soil erosion resulting from overcultivation and the destruction caused by the boll weevil have led to the increased agricultural diversification. The other most important crops are rice and soybeans. Today broiler chicken production, aquaculture (chiefly catfish raising), and dairying are increasingly important. The state's most valuable mineral resources, petroleum and natural gas, have been developed only since the 1930s.

Industry has grown rapidly with the development of oil resources and has been helped by the Tennessee Valley Authority and by a state program to balance agriculture with industry, under which many communities have subsidized and attracted new industries. Revenue from industrial products, including chemicals, plastics, foods, and wood products, have exceeded those from agriculture in recent years. On the Gulf coast there is a profitable fishing and seafood processing industry, and gambling is important along the Gulf Coast and in long impoversihed Tunica County, in the northwest. There are military air facilities at Columbus, Biloxi, and Meridian, as well as the Stennis Space Flight Center at Bay St. Louis. The state's per capita income, however, has been among the lowest in the nation for decades.

Government and Higher Education

Mississippi is governed under the 1890 constitution. The bicameral legislature consists of 52 senators and 122 representatives, all elected for four-year terms. The governor is also elected for a four-year term. The state has two U.S. senators, four representatives, and six electoral votes. In 1991, Kirk Fordice was elected Mississippi's first Republican governor since Reconstruction; he was reelected in 1995. Democrat Ron Musgrove won the 1999 gubernatorial election but with less than a majority of the vote, which required the state house of representatives to confirm his win. Musgrove lost in 2003 to Republican Haley Barbour; Barbour won a second term in 2007. In 2011 Republican Phil Bryant was elected to succeed Barbour.

Institutions of higher learning in the state include the Univ. of Mississippi, at Oxford (which was also the home of writer William Faulkner) and at Jackson; Mississippi State Univ., at Mississippi State; the Univ. of Southern Mississippi, at Hattiesburg; Jackson State Univ., at Jackson; and Mississippi Univ. for Women, at Columbus.

History

Native Inhabitants and European Settlement

Hernando De Soto's expedition undoubtedly passed (1540–42) through the region, then inhabited by the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez, but the first permanent European settlement was not made until 1699, when Pierre le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville, established a French colony on Biloxi Bay. Settlement accelerated in 1718, when the colony came under the French Mississippi Company, headed by the speculator John Law. The region was part of Louisiana until 1763, when, by the Treaty of Paris (see Paris, Treaty of) England received practically all the French territory E of the Mississippi River and also East Florida and West Florida, which had belonged to Spain.

English colonists, many of them retired soldiers, had made the Natchez district a thriving agricultural community, producing tobacco and indigo, by the time Bernardo de Gálvez captured it for Spain in 1779. By the Treaty of Paris of 1783, at the end of the American Revolution, the United States (with English approval) claimed as its southern boundary in the West lat. 31°N. Most of the present-day state of Mississippi was included in the area. Spain denied this claim, and the long, involved West Florida Controversy ensued.

Territorial Status and Statehood

In the Pinckney Treaty (1795), Spain accepted lat. 31°N as the northern boundary of its territory but did not evacuate Natchez until the arrival of American troops in 1798. Congress immediately created the Mississippi Territory, with Natchez as the capital and William C. C. Claiborne as the governor. After Georgia's cession (1802) of its Western lands to the United States (see Yazoo land fraud) and the Louisiana Purchase (1803), a land boom swept Mississippi. The high price of cotton and the cheap, fertile land brought settlers thronging in, most of them via the Natchez Trace, from the Southern Piedmont region and even from New England. A few attained great wealth, but most simply managed a living.

In 1817 Mississippi became a state, with substantially its present-day boundaries; the eastern section of the Mississippi Territory was organized as Alabama Territory. The aristocratic planter element of the Natchez region initially dominated Mississippi's government, as the state's first constitution (1817) showed. With the spread of Jacksonian democracy, however, the small farmer came into his own, and the new constitution adopted in 1832 was quite liberal for its time.

Expansionism and Secession

Land hunger increased as more new settlers arrived, lured by the continuing cotton boom. By a series of treaties (1820, 1830, and 1832), the Native Americans in the state were pushed west across the Mississippi. Mississippians were among the leading Southern expansionists seeking new land for cotton cultivation and the extension of slavery. After 1840 slaves in the state outnumbered nonslaves.

On Jan. 9, 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. State pride was highly gratified by the choice of Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy. Civil War fighting did not reach Mississippi until Apr., 1862, when Union forces were victorious at Corinth and Iuka. Grant's brilliant Vicksburg campaign ended large-scale fighting in the state, but further destruction was caused by the army of Gen. W. T. Sherman in the course of its march from Vicksburg to Meridian. Moreover, cavalry of both the North and South, particularly the Confederate forces of Gen. N. B. Forrest, remained active.

Reconstruction

After the war Mississippi abolished slavery but refused to ratify the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, and in Mar., 1867, under the Congressional plan of Reconstruction, it was organized with Arkansas into a military district commanded by Gen. E. O. C. Ord. After much agitation, a Republican-sponsored constitution guaranteeing basic rights to blacks was adopted in 1869. Mississippi was readmitted to the Union early in 1870 after ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and meeting other Congressional requirements.

While Republicans were in power, the state government was composed of new immigrants from the North, blacks, and cooperative white Southerners. A. K. Davis became the state's first African-American lieutenant governor in 1874. The establishment of free public schools was a noteworthy aspect of Republican rule. As former Confederates were permitted to return to politics and former slaves were increasingly intimidated (see Ku Klux Klan), the Democrats regained strength. The Republicans were defeated in the bitter election of 1875. Lucius Q. C. Lamar figured largely in the Democratic triumph and was the state's most prominent national figure for many years.

Disenfranchisement and Sharecropping

In Reconstruction days the Republicans could win only with solid African-American support. After Reconstruction blacks were virtually disenfranchised. White supremacy was bolstered by the Constitution of 1890, later used as a model by other Southern states; under its terms a prospective voter could be required to read and interpret any of the Constitution's provisions. Because at the turn of the century most black Mississippians could not read (neither could many whites, but the test was rarely applied to them) and because the county registrar could disqualify prospective voters who disagreed with his interpretation of the Constitution, African Americans were essentially disenfranchised.

From the ruins of the shattered plantation economy rose the sharecropping system, and the merchant and the banker replaced the planter in having the largest financial interest in farming. Too often the system made the sharecroppers, white as well as black, little more than economic slaves. The landowners, however, maintained their hold on politics until 1904, when the small farmers, still the dominant voting group, elected James K. Vardaman governor. Nevertheless this agrarian revolt did not alter a deep-seated obscurantism that was reflected in the Jim Crow laws (1904) and in the ban on teaching evolution in the public schools (1926). Mississippi has made attempts to wipe out illiteracy, but it still has the highest illiteracy rate in the country. Another reflection of the social structure of the state was Prohibition, put into effect in 1908 and not repealed at the local level until 1959.

Public Works

Following the disastrous flood of 1927 the federal government took over flood-control work—constructing levees, floodwalls, floodways, and reservoirs; stabilizing river banks; and improving channels. Navigation, too, has not been neglected; the Intracoastal Waterway provides a protected channel along the entire Mississippi coastline and links the state's ports with all others along the Gulf Coast and with all inland waterway systems emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, opened in 1985, connects the Tennessee River in NE Mississippi with the Tombigbee River in W Alabama.

The Persistence of Racial Conflict

Mississippi is still plagued by racial problems, which have changed the state's alignment in national politics. In 1948 Mississippi abandoned the Democratic party because of the national Democratic party's stand on civil rights, and the state supported J. Strom Thurmond, the States' Rights party candidate, for president. The 1954 Supreme Court ruling against racial segregation in public schools (see integration) occasioned massive resistance. Citizens Councils, composed solely of white men and dedicated to maintaining segregation, began to spring up throughout the state. In the 1960 presidential election Mississippians again rebelled against the Democratic national platform by giving victory at the polls to unpledged electors, who cast their electoral college votes not for John F. Kennedy but for Harry F. Byrd, the conservative senator from Virginia. In 1964 the conservative Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state; in 1968 presidential candidate Gov. George Wallace of Alabama, who had become famous for opposing integration, won the state.

In 1961 mass arrests and violence were touched off when Freedom Riders, actively seeking to spur integration, made Mississippi a major target. However, there was not even token integration of public schools in Mississippi until 1962, when the state government under the leadership of Gov. Ross R. Barnett tried unsuccessfully to block the admission of James H. Meredith, an African American, to the Univ. of Mississippi law school. In the conflict the federal and state governments clashed, and the U.S. Dept. of Justice took legal action against state officials, including Barnett. Two persons were killed in riots, and federal troops had to be called upon to restore order. Racial antagonisms resulted in many more acts of violence: churches and homes were bombed; Medgar Evers, an official of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was killed in 1963; three civil-rights workers (two white, one black) were murdered the next year; and there were many less publicized outrages.

After the passage of the Federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, many black Mississippians succeeded in registering and voting. In 1967, for the first time since 1890, a black was elected to the legislature, and African Americans, almost 36% of the state's citizens, are now as well represented in Mississippi politics as in any state, with a large degree of cross-racial voting. In spite of these advances, in 1992 it was necessary for the U.S. Supreme Court to order the state college system to end its tradition of segregation.

Natural Disasters and Economic Difficulties

In Aug., 1969, Mississippi and Louisiana were devastated by Camille, one of the century's worst hurricanes. In Apr., 1973, the Mississippi River rose to record levels in the state; floodwaters covered about 9% of Mississippi, including parts of Vicksburg and Natchez, causing massive property damage. Economic problems continued in the 1980s and 1990s, as the state struggled to shift emphasis from manufacturing to the service sector and to avoid the national trend of industrial decline. Mississippi and Louisiana again suffered widespread devastation, even greater than that from Camille, when Hurricane Katrina struck both states in Aug., 2005.

Bibliography

See E. A. Miles, Jacksonian Democracy in Mississippi (1960, repr. 1970); R. A. McLemore, A History of Mississippi (2 vol., 1973); R. D. Cross, ed., Atlas of Mississippi (1974); J. W. Silver, Mississippi: The Closed Society (1978); J. Kinser, The Cost of Mississippi (1981); N. R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow (1989); F. M. Wirt, We Ain't What We Was (1997).

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI


Biloxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

The State in Brief

Nickname: Magnolia State

Motto: Virtute et armis (By valor and arms)

Flower: Magnolia

Bird: Mockingbird

Area: 48,430 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 32nd)

Elevation: Ranges from sea level to 806 feet above sea level

Climate: Temperate in north and subtropical in south, with long, hot summers and mild winters

Admitted to Union: December 10, 1817

Capital: Jackson

Head Official: Governor Haley Barbour (R) (until 2008)

Population

1980: 2,521,000

1990: 2,573,216

2000: 2,844,658

2004 estimate: 2,902,966

Percent change, 19902000: 10.5%

U.S. rank in 2004: 31st

Percent of residents born in state: 74.3% (2000)

Density: 60.6 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 119,442

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 1,746,099

Black or African American: 1,033,809

American Indian and Alaska Native: 11,652

Asian: 18,626

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 667

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 39,569

Other: 13,784

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 204,364

Population 5 to 19 years old: 668,850

Percent of population 65 years and over: 12.9%

Median age: 33.8 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 42,150

Total number of deaths (2003): 28,882 (infant deaths, 425)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 2,875

Economy

Major industries: Transportation equipment, food products, government, trade, agriculture, manufacturing

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (December 2004)

Per capita income: $15,853 (2003; U.S. rank: 51st)

Median household income: $31,887 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 17.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 3.0% to 5.0%

Sales tax rate: 7.0%

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Mississippi

Mississippi State in s central USA, on the Gulf of Mexico; the capital and largest city is Jackson. Other major cities are Meridian, Biloxi, Vicksburg, and Laurel. The French claimed the region in 1682, but it passed to Britain after the Seven Years' War. The Territory of Mississippi organized in 1798. The state seceded from the Union in 1861. It was a battleground during the American Civil War. Racial segregation remained in force until the 1960s, when the state was a focus of the civil-rights movement. The land slopes w from the hills of the ne to the Delta, a fertile plain between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Pine forests cover most of the s of the state as far as the coastal plain. Primarily an agricultural state, Mississippi is the leading producer of cotton in the USA; hay and soya beans are also grown. Dairy farming is of great importance. There are valuable reserves of oil and natural gas. Other industries: clothing, wood products, chemicals. Area: 123,515sq km (47,689sq mi). Pop. (2000) 2,844,658.

Statehood :

December 10, 1817

Nickname :

Magnolia State

State bird :

Mockingbird

State flower :

Magnolia

State tree :

Magnolia

State motto :

By valour and arms

http://www.mississippi.gov

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI


The words "Mississippi" and "delta" are closely associated in the public's mind with Mississippi history. The delta region indeed dominated the cotton-growing economy that was the mainstay of life in the state for many decades. Contemporary Mississippi, however, has diversified its economy and now has a significant industrial sector. In the late 1990s, the state continued to struggle to bring itself out of a past which has often placed it last among all states in per capita income.

The Spanish explorers who came to the region of Mississippi with Hernando de Soto in 15401541 did not find the wealth they sought and soon lost interest in further exploration. A Frenchman, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, explored the lower Mississippi Valley in 1682. He discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River, naming the whole region Louisiana in honor of his king, Louis XIV. The French soon established settlements at Biloxi Bay, Mobile, Natchez, and New Orleans. The area changed hands several times, first from the French to the Spanish in 1762. In 1763 Spain ceded the portion east of the Mississippi to England, but the Spanish recaptured West Florida during the American Revolution (17751783). Spain relinquished its hold on the Natchez region, ceding it to the United States in 1795.

The U.S. Congress reorganized the Mississippi Territory in 1798. Alabama, originally part of Mississippi, became a separate territory in 1817. After many settlers from the South, Mid-Atlantic, and New England states had migrated to Mississippi to farm its rich alluvial soil, Congress made it the twentieth state in 1817.

Mississippi was a true frontier territory prior to the American Civil War (18611865): It was freewheeling, violent, and full of aggressive adventurers. Joseph G. Baldwin, a Virginia lawyer who came to Mississippi, described the speculative furor of the period: "Money, or what passed for money, was the only cheap thing to be had. . . . Credit was a thing of course. To refuse it . . . were an insult for which a bowie knife were not a too summary or exemplary means of redress. The State banks were issuing their bills by the sheet. . . ."

When Mississippi became a state, the northern two-thirds of the region was still dominated by Native American tribes. During the presidency of Andrew Jackson (18291837), treaties ceded most of this land to the United States and sent Native Americans off to the Oklahoma Territory. Although an aristocratic planter economy grew up around the Natchez area, large plantations did not dominate the whole economy prior to the war. Mississippi society was instead governed by an alliance of large and small landowners. An indication of the importance of slavery to the state's economy was that slaves comprised 52 percent of the population and whites only 48 percent by the end of the 1830s.

The opening of the fertile lands of northern Mississippi caused an inrush of settlers and a flurry of land speculation. The cotton economy, with its slave workforce, came to dominate the state. The land was rich and the cotton economy made many planters wealthy, but the work was hard and life was monotonous in Mississippi. Aside from church and the general store, there was little in the way of recreational or cultural institutions. Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy, came from a family which in one generation had risen from poverty in Kentucky to affluence, social standing and political preeminence in the new land of Mississippi.

After the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1861, Mississippi was the second state to secede from the Union in an attempt to preserve the slave system as the mainstay of the state's economy. During the Civil War, Mississippi was at the center of much of the action. Much political, social, and economic turmoil followed the war under the governance of Reconstruction (18651877) Republicans. After the Democrats successfully regained power in 1875, the bitter memories of Reconstruction caused Mississippi whites to institute a system that repressed the rights of former slaves even further.

The prime cotton-growing country in Mississippi was always the fertile Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, located in the northwestern part of the state. Because of persistent flooding problems, this area did not become a plantation economy until after the Civil War. Planters along this section of the Mississippi, according to historian John Ray Skates, "drained the lands, built the levees, and cleared the forests, [achieving] some of the grandiose style of their prewar Natchez counterparts. Here the plantation system still dominates, in recent times with machines and chemicals rather than sharecroppers."

Economic stagnation plagued Mississippi from the postwar period into the 1940s. Black sharecroppers on the cotton farms fared nearly as badly as they had under slavery. Many white small farmers were also driven into sharecropping; in 1890, 63 percent of Mississippi farmers were tenants. During this period the practice of leasing convicts to private plantations was also widespread, adding yet another layer of poor and underprivileged workers to the economy. For some of these leased convicts life was possibly harder than it had been under slavery. With a nearly totally agrarian system, the state exported raw materials and had to import most of its manufactured goods. Many former planter-aristocrats dominated state government and all tried to keep the blacks in an inferior position. Fearing a return to Reconstruction and exhibiting deep-set prejudices, whites above all succeeded in maintaining their political and economic domination.

The Great Depression of the 1930s (19291939) made things even worse in the state, bringing Mississippi's poor farmers to desperation. Cotton sank to five cents a pound in 1932, while one-fourth of the state's farmland was given up for nonpayment of taxes. Although federal agricultural payments begun during the New Deal helped to hasten the end of tenant farming, had World War II (19391945) not brought economic relief to Mississippi, the state might have headed for disaster. Armed forces personnel who came into the state helped to lift it out of its provincialism. Industrial growth and increased mechanization of agriculture finally began to bring Mississippi into the twentieth century. Between 1941 and 1945 the per capita annual income in Mississippi rose from $313 to $627, and more and more citizens began to retire their debts. At the same time many African Americans, encouraged by reports of better economic conditions elsewhere, began to move out of the state to find higher-paying jobs.

The waterways of Mississippi have always been vital to its development. The Mississippi, the largest commercial river in the country, links the Gulf of Mexico to many inland river states. The Tennessee-Tombigbee canal, completed in 1984, links the Tennessee and Ohio rivers with the Gulf. The state has two deepwater ports, Gulfport and Pascagoula; other ports include Biloxi and Port Bienville.

By the 1980s Mississippi was an industrial state, and cotton was no longer the only important agricultural product. Agricultural production was now dominated by cotton, rice, soybeans, and cattle. Mississippi had survived the dark days of segregation and the upheaval of the civil rights movement. Its leaders had finally recognized that the inequalities built into a segregated system did not tend to attract the kind of industries the state sought. By the mid-1960s manufacturing was providing more jobs than agriculture, in part because of a weak labor movement and low wages. In the 1970s many of the low-paying industries such as the garment and wood product trades were de-emphasized in favor of heavy industries manufacturing products like transportation and electronics equipment. In spite of the state's economic strides in the last few decades of the twentieth century, Mississippi remained poor in the late 1990s. In 1996 it ranked 50th among all states in per capita personal income, at only $17,471, and nearly 24 percent of the population fell below the federal poverty level. In 19951996, however, the per capita income growth rate was ranked fifteenth in the nation.

See also: Civil Rights Movement, Mississippi River, Plantations, Sharecropping

FURTHER READING


Baldwin, Joseph G. The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1853.

Bettersworth, John K. Your Mississippi. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1975.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 19941995 Edition, vol. 30. Lexington: KY: The Council of State Governments, 1994.

McLemore, Richard A., ed. A History of Mississippi. 2 vols. Hattiesburg, MS: University and College Press of Mississippi, 1973.

Skates, John Ray. Mississippi: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1979.

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Mississippi

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Mississippi

Mississippi Principal river of the USA, second-longest national river (after the Missouri), c.3780km (2350mi) long. It rises in nw Minnesota and flows se (forming many state boundaries along its course), emptying into the Gulf of Mexico via its huge marshland delta in se Louisiana. Its chief tributaries include the Missouri, Ohio, Arkansas, and Tennessee rivers. A major transport route, it connects to the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence Seaway (n), and the Intracoastal Waterway (e). Major ports on the river include Minneapolis, St Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans. In 1541, Hernando De Soto became the first European to discover the river. In 1682, La Salle sailed down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and gained control of the region. In 1803, the USA acquired it as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Since the 1950s, improvements to the river's channels enabled bulkier freight to be transported.

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

MISSISSIPPI , southern state of the U.S. The 2001 Jewish population of Mississippi was 1,500 out of a total of 2,849,000, and has been in decline for several decades. Jews settled along the Gulf of Mexico from earliest times; they came via Mobile, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. There are extant records of their early presence in what is now Biloxi, on the Gulf Coast, and Natchez, on the Mississippi River. By the 1830s these communities

had Jewish cemeteries. High cotton prices, cheap land, and steamboat traffic stimulated population expansion, bringing a considerable number of Jews from Germany and Alsace who made a living as peddlers and small storekeepers. The first congregations formed in the state were in Natchez and Vicksburg in the early 1840s, both trading towns on the Mississippi River. Although their total number at the beginning of the Civil War (1861) is unknown, between 200 and 300 served in the Confederate armies. The later Eastern European Jewish migration increased the settlement in the state, particularly in the cotton-growing region of the Delta, where Jewish merchants settled in small towns throughout the region. In 1937, Jews lived in 46 different communities in the Mississippi Delta alone. In many of these towns, Jewish-owned stores dominated main street. The state's reforestation program and aggressive industrialization have brought in branch operations from the North, particularly in clothing and wood products. Many have absentee Jewish ownership. Since the mid-1950s there has been a steady decline in the Jewish population. The turmoil over civil rights slowed the pace of newcomers, while much of the state's Jewish youth left for higher education and did not return. The high-tech Sunbelt boom that has attracted many Jews to the South has largely passed over Mississippi. Chain store expansion into the state has led to the disappearance of family-owned enterprises and a consequent loss in Jewish numbers. The exception is Jackson, the capital city, which has become a regional center for education, law, and medicine providing employment for Jewish professionals.

Mississippi Jewish communities are synagogue oriented. Most of the Jews in isolated communities maintain membership in the nearest congregation. In 1936 the state's synagogues reported a total membership of 2,897, with six resident rabbis.

In 1970 there were eight rabbis and 20 synagogue structures, several of the latter used infrequently or not at all. In 2005, there were 13 congregations, though most were small and in decline; only two, Jackson's Beth Israel and Hattiesburg's B'nai Israel, had a full-time rabbi. Despite this, the majority continued to hold regular Shabbat services with lay leaders, rabbinic students, or visiting retired rabbis. Reform congregations in the state include: Adath Israel in Cleveland; B'nai Israel, Natchez; Beth Israel, Jackson; Hebrew Union Congregation, Greenville; Beth Israel, Meridian; Anshe Chesed, Vicksburg; B'nai Israel, Columbus; B'nai Israel, Hattiesburg; and Beth El, Lexington. Unaffiliated congregations include B'nai Israel in Tupelo and Beth Shalom in Oxford. Congregation Beth Israel in Biloxi is Conservative while Ahavath Rayim in Greenwood is nominally Orthodox. The Mississippi Assembly of Jewish Congregations, founded in 1955 by the Jackson rabbi, dissolved about ten years later. Fewer than five Jews have been members of the state legislature in the 20th century, and no Jew has achieved statewide prominence in politics. Jews have had a greater impact on local politics, with 21 Jews serving as mayor of 16 different towns, including "Mayor for Life" William Sklar, who served as mayor of Louise for 25 years, and Sam Rosenthal, mayor of Rolling Fork for 40 years. Jews have held presidential offices in statewide business, professional, and welfare organizations. During the Civil Rights era, two of the state's rabbis, Charles Mantinband and Perry E. Nussbaum, achieved various degrees of prominence for their efforts on behalf of racial equality. They pioneered in the development of local and statewide organizations that sought a peaceful resolution to the civil rights struggle. Mantinband occupied Hattiesburg's B'nai Israel pulpit from 1952 to 1963, when he moved to Longview, Texas. Nussbaum served in Jackson from 1954 to 1973. He took on the unofficial role of "prison chaplain" to the "Freedom Riders" of all creeds and races by traveling to Parchman State Penitentiary each week and writing numerous letters to Northern Jewish parents letting them know that their children were okay. Nussbaum was also among the founders of the state's Committee of Concern, which raised funds to rebuild burned black churches. His newly dedicated fourth synagogue edifice was dynamited by members of the Ku Klux Klan in September 1967. Two months later his home was severely damaged by a similar device. The same group dynamited Meridian's new synagogue in May of 1968. Jews in Jackson and Meridian raised money to pay an fbi informant, who revealed a plot to bomb the home of Meyer Davidson, a prominent Jewish community leader in Meridian. After a police stakeout of Davidson's home, one of the assailants was killed while the other was captured. These bombings produced expressions of outrage from state officials and an outpouring of support for the Jewish communities of Jackson and Meridian. These attacks were a turning point of sorts as many whites came to realize that the violent tactics of "massive resistance" had gone too far. It was time for Mississippi to change, and Jews have been in the forefront in building a new integrated society.

Although they have always been a tiny minority of the state's population, Mississippi Jews have worked hard to preserve and pass on their traditions. In 1970, after years of effort, Jewish leaders of the region opened the Henry S. Jacobs Camp for Living Judaism in Utica. In 1986, camp director Macy B. Hart created the Museum of the Southern Jewish Experience, which now has branches in Utica and Natchez. In 2000, the museum became the Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life, based in Jackson, which works to preserve and document the practice, culture, and legacy of Judaism in the South.

In August 2005 Hurricane Katrina badly damaged the Congregation Beth Israel Synagogue, two blocks from the Mississippi Gulf Coast in Biloxi. Other synagogues in Mississippi were also damaged.

bibliography:

L.E. Turitz and E. Turitz, Jews in Early Mississippi (1983); J. Nelson, Terror in the Night: The Klan's Campaign Against the Jews (1993); United States, Work Projects Administration, The Mississippi Historical Records Survey Project, Inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives of Mississippi: Jewish Congregations and Organizations (1940).

[Perry E. Nussbaum /

Stuart Rockoff (2nd ed.)]

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Mississippi

Mississippi ★★ 1935

In this uneven musical comedy, Philadelphia Yankee Tom Grayson (Crosby) is engaged to southern belle Elvira Rumford (Patrick). But when he refuses to duel one of her other suitors, the engagement is off and he's branded a coward. Tom gets a job singing aboard a riverboat piloted by Commodore Orlando Jackson (Fields) and eventually realizes that his true love is actually Elvira's younger and more sympathetic sister Lucy (Bennett). Fields steals everything that's not nailed down, leaving ostensible star Bing in the dust. Based on the play “Magnolia” by Booth Tarkington. 80m/B DVD . Bing Crosby, W.C. Fields, Joan Bennett, Gail Patrick, Fred Kohler Sr., Claude Gilling-water, Queenie Smith, John Miljan; D: Edward Sutherland; W: Francis Martin, Jack Cunningham, Herbert Fields, Claude Binyon; C: Charles Lang.

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Mississippi

Mississippi

■ ALCORN STATE UNIVERSITY

1000 ASU Dr.
Alcorn State, MS 39096-7500
Tel: (601)877-6100
Free: 800-222-6790
Admissions: (601)877-6147
Fax: (601)877-6347
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alcorn.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1871. Setting: 1,756-acre rural campus. Endowment: $209,871. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6049 per student. Total enrollment: 3,544. Faculty: 209 (175 full-time, 34 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 2,335 applied, 68% were admitted. 75% from top half of their high school class. Full-time: 2,676 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 286 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 31 states and territories, 13 other countries, 16% from out-of-state, 0.03% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 92% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 23% 25 or older, 52% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 74% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; health professions and related sciences; business/marketing; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3919 full-time, $163 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8887 full-time, $370 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $807 full-time. College room and board: $4272. College room only: $2428.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 74 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 7% of eligible men and 12% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: intramural sports, marching band, gospel choir, inter-faith choir. Major annual events: Greek Step Show, concerts, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 2,519 college housing spaces available; 1,460 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. John Dewey Boyd Library with 210,036 books, 562,030 microform titles, 1,046 serials, 11,504 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This rural community has a population of less than 2,500. Multidenominational churches serve the area. It is an ideal place for hiking, camping and other outdoor recreational activities. The university is located in Claiborne County, seven miles west of Lorman, seventeen miles southwest of Poet Gibson, and forty-five miles south of Vicksburg.

■ ANTONELLI COLLEGE (HATTIESBURG) M-10

1500 North 31st Ave.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401
Tel: (601)583-4100
Fax: (601)583-0839
Web Site: http://www.antonellic.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed.

■ ANTONELLI COLLEGE (JACKSON) J-7

480 East Woodrow Wilson Dr.
Jackson, MS 39216
Tel: (601)362-9991
Fax: (601)362-2333
Web Site: http://www.antonellic.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Total enrollment: 214.

■ BELHAVEN COLLEGE J-7

1500 Peachtree St.
Jackson, MS 39202-1789
Tel: (601)968-5928
Free: 800-960-5940
Admissions: (601)968-5940
Fax: (601)968-9998
Web Site: http://www.belhaven.edu/

Description:

Independent Presbyterian, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1883. Setting: 42-acre urban campus. Endowment: $3.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $31,003. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2971 per student. Total enrollment: 2,580. Faculty: 225 (70 full-time, 155 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 734 applied, 57% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 56% from top half. 5 National Merit Scholars, 4 valedictorians. Full-time: 2,166 students, 68% women, 32% men. Part-time: 72 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 17 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 38% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 54% 25 or older, 32% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 69% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Coalition for Christian Colleges and Universities. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, 1 academic reference, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,478 includes full-time tuition ($14,124), mandatory fees ($650), and college room and board ($5704). Part-time tuition: $350 per semester hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Reformed University Fellowship, Kappa Delta Epsilon, Black Student Association, Math/Computer Science Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, Lake Day, Christmas Formal. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 475 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Hood Library with 99,765 books, 11,271 microform titles, 467 serials, 3,546 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $254,208. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Jackson State University.

■ BLUE MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

PO Box 160
Blue Mountain, MS 38610-9509
Tel: (662)685-4771
Free: 800-235-0136
Admissions: (662)685-4161
Fax: (662)685-4776
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bmc.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1873. Setting: 44-acre rural campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $6.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6152 per student. Total enrollment: 365. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 170 applied, 55% were admitted. 30% from top 10% of their high school class, 58% from top quarter, 82% from top half. Full-time: 283 students, 73% women, 27% men. Part-time: 82 students, 91% women, 9% men. Students come from 8 states and territories, 2 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 14% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 35% 25 or older, 34% live on campus, 15% transferred in. Retention: 58% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; social sciences; psychology; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: essay, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 9/3. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $11,086 includes full-time tuition ($6780), mandatory fees ($540), and college room and board ($3766). College room only: $1400. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and gender. Part-time tuition: $230 per hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $80 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations:; 50% of women are members. Most popular organizations: Baptist Student Union, Student Government Association, Athletic Association, Commuter Club, Mississippi Association of Educators/Student Program. Major annual events: BSU/SGA Welcome Back Parties, Society Rush, Field Day. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 234 college housing spaces available; 127 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: women-only housing available. Guyton Library with 59,431 books, 380 microform titles, 186 serials, 3,645 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $145,603. 55 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

A rural community, Blue Mountain has a warm and pleasant climate with an average temperature of 68 degrees. Blue Mountain is about 70 miles from Memphis. Recreational facilities include a swimming pool, golf course, athletic field, physical education center, tennis courts, student center and 2 auditoriums for productions.

■ COAHOMA COMMUNITY COLLEGE D-6

3240 Friars Point Rd.
Clarksdale, MS 38614-9799
Tel: (662)627-2571
Admissions: (662)621-4205
Web Site: http://www.ccc.cc.ms.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 29-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5172 per student. Total enrollment: 1,946. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 26:1. Full-time: 1,801 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 145 students, 80% women, 20% men. Students come from 8 states and territories, 3% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0.1% Hispanic, 95% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 10% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: Common Application. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: minimum X high school GPA, recommendations, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1600 full-time, $90 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2900 full-time. Mandatory fees: $140 full-time, $60 per term part-time. College room and board: $2914.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, VICA, Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society. Major annual events: High School Day, Coronation of Miss Coahoma Community College, Graduation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 400 college housing spaces available; 285 were occupied in 2003-04. 25 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed.

Community Environment:

Clarksdale, an important distributing outlet in an agricultural region, is a prime example of the state's"Balance Agriculture with Industry" program. The city gins large amounts of cotton and manufactures conveyor equipment, corrugated boxes, farm machinery, tire tubes, agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, builder's hardware, electronic equipment and furniture. The Greyhound Bus line serves the city. The area has a public library, hospital, churches of all major denominations and movie theatres.

■ COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE L-6

PO Box 649
Wesson, MS 39191-0649
Tel: (601)643-5101
Admissions: (601)643-8307
Fax: (601)643-8212
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.colin.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 525-acre rural campus with easy access to Jackson. Total enrollment: 2,161. Students come from 7 states and territories, 2 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 22% 25 or older, 30% live on campus. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1700 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $1800 full-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 1,200 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Oswalt Memorial Library with 38,900 books and 255 serials. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Wesson is located on U.S. Highway 51, approximately 150 miles north of New Orleans. The climate is pleasant. Transportation is provided by the Illinois Central railroad. Some part-time employment is available for students.

■ COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE-NATCHEZ CAMPUS M-3

11 Co-Lin Circle
Natchez, MS 39120-8446
Tel: (601)442-9111
Fax: (601)446-9967
Web Site: http://www.colin.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 24-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1800 per student. Total enrollment: 900. Full-time: 554 students, 71% women, 29% men. Part-time: 346 students, 76% women, 24% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 0.3% Hispanic, 53% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 50% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: ACT, TABE. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1600 full-time, $100 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3400 full-time, $175 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $5 per semester hour part-time, $10 per year part-time. College room and board: $2600.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Most popular organization: student newspaper. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. Willie Mae Dunn Library with 19,000 books, 112 serials, 700 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 175 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY E-5

Hwy. 8 West
Cleveland, MS 38733-0001
Tel: (662)846-3000
Free: 800-468-6378
Admissions: (662)846-4658
Fax: (662)846-4016
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deltastate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1924. Setting: 332-acre small town campus. Endowment: $10.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $13,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4801 per student. Total enrollment: 3,998. Faculty: 275 (165 full-time, 110 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 40% from top quarter of their high school class, 65% from top half. Full-time: 2,754 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 504 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 21 other countries, 8% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 39% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 24% 25 or older, 35% live on campus, 18% transferred in. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum X high school GPA, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Required for some: interview for art, music majors. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $3762 full-time, $155 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8950 full-time, $370 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $490 full-time. College room and board: $4272. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 86 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 16% of eligible men and 16% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Alumni Association, Baptist Student Union, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Delta Volunteers. Major annual events: Homecoming, Renaissance Faire, Springfest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,113 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Roberts-LaForge Library plus 1 other with 345,565 books, 828,979 microform titles, 1,268 serials, 18,493 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.4 million. 293 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located midway between Memphis, Tennessee and Vicksburg, Mississippi, the city has a public library, several churches representing the major denominations, and a hospital. Bus lines are accessible to the area and a regional airport is located 30 miles from campus in Greenville. Recreation is provided in the community through a local Little Theatre, movies, swimming pools, 4 municipal parks, a nine-hole golf course, bowling, and fishing and hunting in the nearby lake region. Average living facilities are provided by a hotel, motel, several apartments, rooming houses and dormitories. The city has over 35 civic, fraternal and business organizations. Some part-time employment is available for students.

■ EAST CENTRAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-10

PO Box 129
Decatur, MS 39327-0129
Tel: (601)635-2111; 877-462-3222
Fax: (601)635-2150
Web Site: http://www.eccc.cc.ms.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 200-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 2,382. Students come from 9 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 32% 25 or older, 27% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in a rural area with a healthful atmosphere, Decatur has 2 churches and very active civic, fraternal and veteran's organizations. Hunting in the local area, fishing and swimming provide recreation for the city.

■ EAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 158
Scooba, MS 39358-0158
Tel: (662)476-8442
Admissions: (662)476-5041
Web Site: http://www.eastms.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 25-acre rural campus. Endowment: $134,022. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3980 per student. Total enrollment: 3,417. 2,245 applied, 62% were admitted. Students come from 4 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.5% Hispanic, 51% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.03% international, 30% 25 or older, 25% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: local fraternities. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 700 college housing spaces available; 435 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Tubb-May Library with 27,840 books, 116 serials, 3,478 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $274,922. 100 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus.

Community Environment:

Scooba is located in the east central part of Mississippi, 35 miles north of Meridian. The area is accessible by railroad and U.S. Highway 45. There are excellent bus, train and air facilities in nearby Meridian.

■ HINDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-6

PO Box 1100
Raymond, MS 39154-1100
Tel: (601)857-5261
Admissions: (601)857-3280
Web Site: http://www.hindscc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1917. Setting: 671-acre small town campus. Endowment: $948,556. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3009 per student. Total enrollment: 9,961. 21% from top quarter of their high school class, 59% from top half. Full-time: 7,145 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 2,816 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 16 states and territories, 1 other country, 3% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 52% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.03% international, 40% 25 or older, 15% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 51 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Baptist Student Union, Residence Hall Association, Hi-Steppers Dance Team, band. Major annual events: Homecoming Week, Substance Abuse Week, Spring Fling. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. McLendon Library with 165,260 books, 8 microform titles, 1,178 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.8 million. 55 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Raymond is a suburban area 15 miles east of Jackson. The community has a regional library and a general hospital 8 miles east. There are several churches of various denominations in the immediate area. Local clubs include Lions, Business & Professional Women, and the Jaycees. Hinds Community College has a part-time employment agreement with a local industry.

■ HOLMES COMMUNITY COLLEGE H-8

PO Box 369
Goodman, MS 39079-0369
Tel: (662)472-2312
Admissions: (601)472-2312
Fax: (662)472-9156
Web Site: http://www.holmescc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 196-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3428 per student. Total enrollment: 4,494. Full-time: 3,251 students, 64% women, 36% men. Part-time: 1,243 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 11 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 45% black, 26% 25 or older, 12% live on campus. Retention: 55% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1100 full-time, $65 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1750 full-time. Mandatory fees: $330 full-time, $10 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $3330. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 23 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Drama/Theater Club, Baptist Student Union, FCA, Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. Major annual events: Homecoming, Beauty Pageant, Spring Fling. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 660 college housing spaces available. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. McMorrough Library plus 2 others with 53,000 books, 550 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $124,696. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in a rural area, there is bus service to Goodman. The climate is mild and humid. Railroad service is available in nearby Durant, Mississippi. Several churches of various denominations are located here. Many cultural, recreational and community services available in Jackson, the State Capital, 48 miles away. There is some work available for students requiring financial assistance.

■ ITAWAMBA COMMUNITY COLLEGE C-12

602 West Hill St.
Fulton, MS 38843
Tel: (662)862-8000
Admissions: (662)862-8032
Fax: (662)862-8036
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.icc.cc.ms.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1947. Setting: 300-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 4,000. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 25% from top quarter, 70% from top half. Students come from 9 states and territories, 3 other countries, 8% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

36,816 books and 231 serials. 40 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Fulton is a rural community in northeast Mississippi. The climate is moderate to warm. The area is accessible to bus and rail lines and has several churches of various denominations. Recreation is provided by local theatres, boating water skiing, fishing, and golf. Community services include the County Health Department, a hospital, and fine shopping facilities. There are many active civic and fraternal organizations within the immediate area.

■ JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY J-7

1400 John R Lynch St.
Jackson, MS 39217
Tel: (601)979-2121
Free: 800-848-6817
Admissions: (601)979-2100
Fax: (601)979-2358
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jsums.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1877. Setting: 150-acre urban campus. Endowment: $6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $20.8 million. Total enrollment: 8,351. 8,725 applied, 40% were admitted. 38% from top quarter of their high school class, 75% from top half. Full-time: 5,714 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 891 students, 70% women, 30% men. Students come from 40 states and territories, 38 other countries, 21% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Hispanic, 97% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 27% 25 or older, 34% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Mississippi State University, Auburn University, Southern Illinois University, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: 3 recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3964 full-time, $166 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8872 full-time, $371 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5044. College room only: $2998. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 160 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 11% of eligible men and 19% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Tiger Pride Connection, Sonic Boom of the South, Students In Free Enterprise, Interfaith, NAACP. Major annual events: homecoming, Founders' Day, Capital City Classic. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,222 college housing spaces available; 1,969 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. H. T. Sampson Library plus 1 other with 236,933 books, 670,035 microform titles, 3,409 serials, 4,285 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $545,276.

Community Environment:

On the Pearl River, Jackson is the capital and largest city of Mississippi. It was first established as a trading post by the French. In the early days, many Virginians and Carolinians passed through here as they followed the Old Natchez Trace to the Southwest. The area enjoys year-round pleasant weather. Being a major city, there are good facilities for rail and air transportation. Community associations sponsoring cultural pursuits include Jackson Music Association, Little Theatre, Municipal Art Gallery and Symphony Orchestra. Local services are supplied by 5 hospitals, libraries and many churches. Recreation facilities include 12 parks, 4 municipal swimming pools, a zoo, golf courses, tennis courts, and fishing and hunting nearby.

■ JONES COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE L-10

900 South Ct. St.
Ellisville, MS 39437-3901
Tel: (601)477-4000
Admissions: (601)477-4025
Fax: (601)477-4212
Web Site: http://www.jcjc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1928. Setting: 360-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 5,640. Students come from 9 states and territories, 22% 25 or older, 20% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/26. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Most popular organization: student government. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Fever Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. 1,000 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Memorial Library with 62,349 books and 654 serials. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The city is located 7 miles from Laurel. The climate is mild. Churches, libraries and museums all contribute to the pleasant living of the area. Transportation is provided by rail and air lines, and the town is easily accessible by highway. Fishing, hunting, and golf are the major recreational pastimes. There are some part-time job opportunities for students.

■ MAGNOLIA BIBLE COLLEGE G-9

PO Box 1109
Kosciusko, MS 39090-1109
Tel: (601)289-2896
Admissions: (662)289-2896
Web Site: http://www.magnolia.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with Church of Christ. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1976. Setting: 5-acre small town campus. Endowment: $224,876. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,675 per student. Total enrollment: 41. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 1 applied, 100% were admitted. 100% from top half of their high school class. Full-time: 20 students, 10% women, 90% men. Part-time: 21 students, 29% women, 71% men. Students come from 11 states and territories, 1 other country, 10% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 25% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 76% 25 or older, 48% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 100% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: theology and religious vocations. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/31. Notification: continuous. Preference given to Christians.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Tuition: $4800 full-time, $200 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $90 full-time, $45 per term part-time. College room only: $1500.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 34 college housing spaces available; 15 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Paul and Philip Gaunt Library with 32,589 books, 896 microform titles, 268 serials, and 1,123 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $53,092. 8 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MERIDIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE J-11

910 Hwy. 19 North
Meridian, MS 39307
Tel: (601)483-8241
Admissions: (601)484-8895
Web Site: http://www.meridiancc.edu

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1937. Setting: 62-acre small town campus. Endowment: $4.8 million. Total enrollment: 3,572. Students come from 16 states and territories, 3% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 39% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 30% 25 or older, 12% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, ACCUPLACER. Recommended: ACT. Required for some: essay. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1450 full-time, $80 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2740 full-time, $137 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $4 per credit hour part-time, $5 per term part-time. College room and board: $2600. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 22 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, Health Occupations Students of America, Organization of Student Nurses, Distributive Education Clubs of America. Major annual events: Spring Fest, Octoberfest, Fall Picnic. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols. 360 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. L.O. Todd Library with 50,000 books and 600 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $647,419. 123 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Neither destruction by fire during the Civil War, a riot in 1871, a yellow fever epidemic in 1878, nor a cyclone in 1906 could keep Meridian down. It survived these disasters to become the state's leading industrial city. In an area providing abundant raw agricultural and industrial materials, local industries produce wood products, clothing, clay pipes, metal windows, asphalt roofing, fabricated steel and dairy and meat products. The region also produces timber, corn, cotton and cattle. Passenger air, rail and bus service is available. The city has private hospitals. Cultural activities include Little Theatre, Symphony Orchestra, Meridian Chorale and Art Association. The economic base is evenly divided between agriculture, industry and military payrolls.

■ MILLSAPS COLLEGE J-7

1701 North State St. Jackson, MS 39210-0001
Tel: (601)974-1000
Free: 800-352-1050
Admissions: (601)974-1050
Fax: (601)974-1059
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.millsaps.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 100-acre urban campus. Endowment: $90.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9919 per student. Total enrollment: 1,154. Faculty: 97 (92 full-time, 5 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 1,008 applied, 82% were admitted. 38% from top 10% of their high school class, 63% from top quarter, 87% from top half. Full-time: 1,039 students, 49% women, 51% men. part-time: 46 students, 46% women, 54% men. Students come from 30 states and territories, 50% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 12% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 4% 25 or older, 82% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 83% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at American University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 6/1, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous until 11/1, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $28,256 includes full-time tuition ($19,490), mandatory fees ($1200), and college room and board ($7566). College room only: $4248. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $604 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $30 per credit hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 80 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 54% of eligible men and 52% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Campus Ministry Team, Major Productions, Outdoors Club, Student Body Association, Black Student Association. Major annual events: homecoming, Major Madness, Multicultural Festival. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, self-defense education, lighted pathways. 922 college housing spaces available
Free: 800 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Millsaps Wilson Library with 190,982 books, 79,248 microform titles, 874 serials, 8,409 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $830,277. 120 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Jackson State University.

■ MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE J-6

200 South Capitol St.
Clinton, MS 39058
Tel: (601)925-3000
Free: 800-738-1236
Admissions: (601)925-3315
Fax: (601)925-3804
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mc.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees. Founded 1826. Setting: 320-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $42.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6419 per student. Total enrollment: 3,905. Faculty: 308 (161 full-time, 147 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 2,038 applied, 57% were admitted. 27% from top 10% of their high school class, 56% from top quarter, 80% from top half. Full-time: 2,211 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 342 students, 73% women, 27% men. Students come from 26 states and territories, 15% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 21% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 18% 25 or older, 61% live on campus, 15% transferred in. Retention: 73% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, Rolling for nonresidents, 12/15 for early decision. Notification: continuous, continuous for nonresidents, 12/31 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Comprehensive fee: $18,182 includes full-time tuition ($11,600), mandatory fees ($688), and college room and board ($5894). Part-time tuition: $365 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $133 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 26 open to all. Most popular organizations: Baptist Student Union, Nenamoosha Social Tribe, Laguna Social Tribe, Civitan Service Club, Shawreth Service Club. Major annual events: Welcome Week, Homecoming, Spring Fever Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,667 college housing spaces available; 1,475 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Leland Speed Library plus 1 other with 362,296 books, 500,409 microform titles, 4,254 serials, 14,909 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.2 million. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a suburban community located adjacent to Jackson's city limits. The climate is warm. The area has a shopping center, and rapid expansion of businesses and residential areas is anticipated. Clinton has excellent highway, air, and rail connections.

■ MISSISSIPPI DELTA COMMUNITY COLLEGE F-6

PO Box 668
Moorhead, MS 38761-0668
Tel: (662)246-6322
Admissions: (662)246-6308
Web Site: http://www.msdelta.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1926. Setting: 425-acre small town campus. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2372 per student. Total enrollment: 4,000. 909 applied, 100% were admitted. Students come from 6 states and territories, 19% 25 or older, 25% live on campus. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 7/27. Preference given to district residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1850 full-time, $83 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3528 full-time. Mandatory fees: $70 full-time, $10 per semester hour part-time. College room and board: $1330. College room only: $800.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 16 open to all. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Stanny Sanders Library with 33,020 books, 250 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $443,719. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a rural area with bus and air transportation 8 miles distant. The immediate area supports a clinic and small stores. There is some part-time employment for men over 18. Better employment opportunities for students are available in the neighboring community. The city has a theater, swimming pool and tennis courts. 5 local lakes provide hunting and fishing within the area.

■ MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 609
Perkinston, MS 39573-0609
Tel: (601)928-5211
Admissions: (601)928-6264
Fax: (601)928-6299
Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1911. Setting: 600-acre small town campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2606 per student. Total enrollment: 7,806. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 26:1. 2,363 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 5,209 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 2,597 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 4% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 19% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 0% 25 or older, 7% live on campus. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to district residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1522 full-time, $75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3368 full-time, $152 per hour part-time. College room and board: $3800.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 33 open to all. Most popular organizations: VICA, SIFE, Student Government Association. Major annual events: homecoming, Vocational Awareness Week, Drug/Alcohol Awareness Week. Student services: personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Main library plus 3 others with 100,472 books, 933 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $949,826. 435 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The city lies 25 miles north of Gulfport. Area is reached by Interstate 10 and Highway 49. Air service is available.

■ MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

Mississippi State, MS 39762
Tel: (662)325-2323
Admissions: (662)325-2224
Fax: (662)325-3299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msstate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Mississippi Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1878. Setting: 4,200-acre small town campus. Endowment: $178.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $143.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6158 per student. Total enrollment: 16,101. Faculty: 1,139 (974 full-time, 165 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 5,778 applied, 69% were admitted. 26% from top 10% of their high school class, 55% from top quarter, 82% from top half. 33 National Merit Scholars. Full-time: 11,098 students, 47% women, 53% men. Part-time: 1,457 students, 51% women, 49% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 39 other countries, 19% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 21% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 16% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 12% transferred in. Retention: 80% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Meridian Campus,. Vicksburg Graduate Center, Stennis Center (Hancock County). Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4312 full-time, $179.75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9772 full-time, $407.25 per hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5859. College room only: $2824. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and student level.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 283 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 17% of eligible men and 18% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Association, Black Student Alliance, Residence Hall Association, Fashion Board, Campus Activities Board. Major annual events: Bulldog Bash, Homecoming, athletic events. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, bicycle patrols, crime prevention program, RAD program, general law enforcement services. 3,266 college housing spaces available; 2,754 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Mitchell Memorial Library plus 2 others with 2.5 million books, 2.9 million microform titles, 18,104 serials, 137,200 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $7.8 million. 2,000 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MISSISSIPPI UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN F-12

1100 College St., MUW-1600
Columbus, MS 39701-9998
Tel: (662)329-4750; 877-GO 2 THE W
Admissions: (601)329-7106
Fax: (662)329-7297
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.muw.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1884. Setting: 110-acre small town campus. Endowment: $16.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $1835 per student. Total enrollment: 2,328. 609 applied, 65% were admitted. 60% from top quarter of their high school class, 88% from top half. 10 class presidents, 23 valedictorians, 26 student government officers. Students come from 26 states and territories, 11% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 28% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 42% 25 or older, 21% live on campus. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Mississippi State University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, rank in upper 50% of high school class, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 84 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 10% of eligible men and 20% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Union Advisory Cabinet, Black Student Council, W Angels, Student Alumni Ambassadors. Major annual events: homecoming, Oktoberfest, Gala Fall Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. John Clayton Fant Memorial Library with 426,543 books, 602,113 microform titles, 1,629 serials, 164 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $708,933. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MISSISSIPPI VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY F-6

14000 Hwy. 82 West
Itta Bena, MS 38941-1400
Tel: (662)254-9041
Admissions: (662)254-3344
Fax: (662)254-7900
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mvsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 450-acre small town campus. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $257,978. Total enrollment: 3,165. Faculty: 183 (117 full-time, 66 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 4,832 applied, 25% were admitted. Full-time: 2,434 students, 67% women, 33% men. Part-time: 314 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 1 other country, 7% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 94% black, 0.04% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 45% 25 or older, 30% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 59% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; public administration and social services; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, freshman honors college, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Required for some: 2.5 GPA for non-residents. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4024 full-time, $168 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9282 full-time, $219 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and degree level. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and degree level. College room and board: $3946. College room only: $2142. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 53 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 20% of eligible men and 25% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Baptist Student Union, Black Student Fellowship, National Education Association. Major annual events: Homecoming, Black History Month, Founders' Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 1,800 college housing spaces available; 1,048 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. James H. White Library with 101,109 books, 355,603 microform titles, 347 serials, 500 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $904,678. 250 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

This is a rural community with a mild, temperate climate. Bus service provides transportation for the city and adjacent areas. Community services within the immediate area include churches of major denominations and a clinic. Shopping facilities are available within the surrounding communities. There is no part-time employment available for students.

■ NORTHEAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-12

101 Cunningham Blvd.
Booneville, MS 38829
Tel: (662)728-7751
Free: 800-555-2154
Fax: (662)728-1165
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nemcc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1948. Setting: 100-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 3,224. Full-time: 2,777 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 447 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Hispanic, 18% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 20% 25 or older, 25% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required for some: SAT or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, controlled dormitory access. 724 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Eula Dees Library with 29,879 books and 378 serials. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The city is located in the northeast corner of Mississippi, 100 miles southeast of Memphis, Tennessee. It has a warm and pleasant climate.

■ NORTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-8

4975 Hwy. 51 North
Senatobia, MS 38668-1701
Tel: (662)562-3200
Admissions: (662)562-3222
Fax: (662)562-3911
Web Site: http://www.northwestms.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1927. Setting: 75-acre rural campus with easy access to Memphis. Total enrollment: 6,300. 2,000 applied, 100% were admitted. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. ROTC: Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/7. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Major annual events: Homecoming, Career Week, Senior Round-Ups. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. R. C. Pugh Library with 38,000 books and 325 serials. 50 computers available on campus for general student use.

Community Environment:

Senatobia is the seat of Tate County, lying 40 miles south of Memphis, Tennessee. The area is served by Illinois Central Railroad. The city itself is located off Interstate Highway 55. Nearby is Arkabutla Reservoir and Dam, a well-known recreation facility.

■ PEARL RIVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE O-9

101 Hwy. 11 North
Poplarville, MS 39470
Tel: (601)403-1000
Admissions: (601)795-6801
Fax: (601)403-1135
E-mail: dfo[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prcc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1909. Setting: 240-acre rural campus with easy access to New Orleans. Total enrollment: 3,700. Students come from 11 states and territories, 27% 25 or older, 20% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, data processing programs. Options: Peterson's Universal Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15. Preference given to state residents.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 4 open to all. Major annual events: Homecoming, Fall Fest, Spring Fest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. Pearl River Community College Library with 40,000 books and 340 serials. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Poplarville is located in the southern portion of the state and has a temperate climate. New Orleans may be reached 70 miles southwest via Interstate Highway 59. Poplarville has its own hospital.

■ RUST COLLEGE B-9

150 Rust Ave.
Holly Springs, MS 38635-2328
Tel: (662)252-8000; 888-886-8492
Admissions: (601)252-8000
Fax: (662)252-6107
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rustcollege.edu/

Description:

Independent United Methodist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1866. Setting: 126-acre rural campus with easy access to Memphis. Endowment: $19 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $400. Total enrollment: 1,001. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 3,641 applied, 39% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 50% from top half. Full-time: 839 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 162 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 7 other countries, 31% from out-of-state, 93% black, 6% international, 27% 25 or older, 65% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 58% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: computer and information sciences; biological/life sciences; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, ACT. Required for some: essay. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/15. Notification: 7/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $8950 includes full-time tuition ($6200) and college room and board ($2750). College room only: $1212. Part-time tuition: $267 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to class time and course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 32 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 14% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: Founders' Day, Commencement, Career Day. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 856 college housing spaces available; 651 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Leontyne Price Library with 123,055 books, 340 serials, 1,448 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $408,633. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

A typical antebellum town, Holly Springs grew up during the great cotton boom before the Civil War. The fine old mansions and churches of the town reflect the prosperity of the cotton era. There are shopping areas in nearby Memphis. No part-time employment is available for students.

■ SOUTHEASTERN BAPTIST COLLEGE L-10

4229 Hwy. 15 North
Laurel, MS 39440-1096
Tel: (601)426-6346

Description:

Independent Baptist, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1949. Setting: 23-acre small town campus. Endowment: $177,930. Total enrollment: 104. 19 applied, 100% were admitted. 31% live on campus. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, 2 recommendations. Required for some: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $140 per semester hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Choral group. A. R. Reddin Memorial Library with 24,119 books and 314 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $26,109.

Community Environment:

Laurel's growth from a small village in 1900 to its present metropolitan size has been due to its pine forests and oil development. Lumber represents an important industry, but other firms manufacture clothing, machines, doors, furniture, agricultural implements, distribution transformers, oil well drilling equipment, walk-in refrigerators, condiments and janitorial supplies. There is a complete recreation program in the city, and it is close to resorts and state parks. Railroad, bus and air transportation is available in the immediate area. Laurel is considered the medical center of the surrounding area.

■ SOUTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE N-6

College Dr.
Summit, MS 39666
Tel: (601)276-2000
Admissions: (601)276-2001
Fax: (601)276-3888
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.smcc.cc.ms.us/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1918. Setting: 701-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 1,895. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 25:1. Students come from 6 states and territories, 10% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 40% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 31% 25 or older, 35% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1700 full-time, $75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3900 full-time, $170 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $50 per term part-time. College room and board: $2180.

Collegiate Environment:

Choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. Library Learning Resources Center (LLRC) with 34,000 books, 150 serials, and an OPAC. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Summit is a suburban area near McComb, Mississippi. The city is served by bus and rail. Health services, a library, and churches, are to be found in the neighboring city. There are shopping facilities in the immediate area. Some part-time employment is available. Recreation in the area includes boating, fishing and camping.

■ TOUGALOO COLLEGE

500 West County Line Rd.
Tougaloo, MS 39174
Tel: (601)977-7700; 888-42GALOO
Admissions: (601)977-7765
Fax: (601)977-7739
Web Site: http://www.tougaloo.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed, affiliated with United Church of Christ. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1869. Setting: 500-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $4.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $236,232. Total enrollment: 940. 627 applied, 99% were admitted. 14% from top 10% of their high school class, 34% from top quarter, 55% from top half. Full-time: 883 students, 69% women, 31% men. part-time: 57 students, 77% women, 23% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 1 other country, 14% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 0% Hispanic, 99% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 10% 25 or older, 5% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Brown University, New York University, Boston University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $5. Comprehensive fee: $15,497 includes full-time tuition ($8800), mandatory fees ($477), and college room and board ($6220). College room only: $4400. Part-time tuition: $367 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 8 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 30% of eligible men and 35% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: concert choir, Student Government Association, gospel choir, NAACP, Pre-Alumni Club. Major annual events: Founders' Weekend, Humanities Festival, Faculty Recognition Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. L. Zenobiz Coleman Library with 137,000 books and 432 serials. 43 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Jackson State University.

■ UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI

University, MS 38677
Tel: (662)915-7211
Admissions: (662)915-7226
Fax: (662)915-5869
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.olemiss.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1844. Setting: 2,500-acre small town campus with easy access to Memphis. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $47.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7241 per student. Total enrollment: 14,901. Faculty: (622 full-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 6,763 applied, 73% were admitted. 28 National Merit Scholars. Full-time: 11,143 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 1,054 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 47 states and territories, 67 other countries, 32% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 13% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 33% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Recommended: SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/20. Notification: continuous until 8/16.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25, $40 for nonresidents. State resident tuition: $4320 full-time, $180 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9744 full-time, $406 per credit part-time. College room and board: $5762. College room only: $2972. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 200 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: Associated Student Body, School Spirit Club, sport clubs, Black Student Union, Student Programming Board. Major annual events: Homecoming, Red/Blue Week followed by the Red/Blue Game, Awards of Distinction. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, crime prevention programs. 3,700 college housing spaces available; 3,400 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. J. D. Williams Library plus 3 others with 1.3 million books, 3.5 million microform titles, 11,600 serials, 156,603 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8.3 million. 3,500 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

University is a part of Oxford. Located in a cotton, corn and cattle region, Oxford is the seat of Lafayette County. Annual average temperature is 80 degrees in July and 40 degrees in January, with average rainfall 54.55 inches. Total snowfall yearly averages 1.2 inches. Bus service and shuttle service from Memphis Airport are available to the city. Area has 3 recreational parks, swimming pools, movie theaters, bowling and golf facilities. Oxford is near Holly Springs National Forest which encompasses over 90,000 acres and numerous lakes. The lakes provide excellent hunting, swimming, boating and vacation facilities.

■ UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI MEDICAL CENTER J-7

2500 North State St.
Jackson, MS 39216-4505
Tel: (601)984-1000
Admissions: (601)984-1080
Fax: (601)984-1080
Web Site: http://umc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, upper-level, coed. Administratively affiliated with University of Mississippi. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1955. Setting: 164-acre urban campus. Endowment: $33.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $35.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5134 per student. Total enrollment: 1,993. Faculty: 844 (683 full-time, 161 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 2:1. Full-time: 452 students, 79% women, 21% men. Part-time: 71 students, 85% women, 15% men. 0% from out-of-state, 1% Hispanic, 19% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 62% transferred in. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, distance learning, internships. Study abroad program.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $3519 full-time, $141 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7195 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room only: $3354. Room charges vary according to housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 132 college housing spaces available; 80 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: women-only housing available. Rowland Medical Library with 310,016 books, 62,134 microform titles, 2,732 serials, 18,076 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.3 million. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Jackson State University.

■ UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI M-10

118 College Dr.
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001
Tel: (601)266-7011
Admissions: (601)266-5000
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.usm.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1910. Setting: 1,090-acre suburban campus with easy access to New Orleans. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $38.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7146 per student. Total enrollment: 15,030. Faculty: 846 (713 full-time, 133 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 5,153 applied, 61% were admitted. 19% from top 10% of their high school class, 47% from top quarter, 79% from top half. Full-time: 10,727 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 1,741 students, 63% women, 37% men. Students come from 42 states and territories, 40 other countries, 25% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 28% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 24% 25 or older, 31% live on campus, 14% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory, Stennis Space Center. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4312 full-time, $180 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9742 full-time, $407 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $30 full-time. College room and board: $5800. College room only: $2620.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 200 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 16% of eligible men and 15% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: University Activities Council, residence halls associations. Major annual events: Fall Festival, UAC sponsored events, homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,932 college housing spaces available; 3,469 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Cook Memorial Library plus 4 others with 1.4 million books, 4.9 million microform titles, 21,259 serials, 19,452 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.5 million. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Primarily a thriving industrial city, Hattiesburg produces chemicals, clothing, concrete and corrugated containers, and has food processing plants, lumber mills and an oil refinery. Passenger bus, rail and air service is accessible. The city is a well-rounded community with a splendid balance among agriculture, commerce and industry. There are a public library and two hospitals located within the city limits. Each year, the Hattiesburg Concert Association brings concerts, symphonies and choral groups to the city. A full-time recreation department is operated, with both indoor and outdoor programs year-round. There is good hunting and fishing in the general area.

■ VIRGINIA COLLEGE AT JACKSON J-7

5360 I-55 North
Jackson, MS 39211
Tel: (601)977-0960
Fax: (601)956-4325
Web Site: http://www.vc.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards diplomas and terminal associate degrees. Founded 2000. Setting: 3-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,108.

Entrance Requirements:

Required: high school transcript, interview, GED, CPAt.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. College housing not available.

■ WESLEY COLLEGE K-7

PO Box 1070
Florence, MS 39073-1070
Tel: (601)845-2265
Free: 800-748-9972
Fax: (601)845-2266
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesleycollege.com/

Description:

Independent Congregational Methodist, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1944. Setting: 40-acre small town campus with easy access to Jackson. Endowment: $353,038. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,250 per student. Total enrollment: 80. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. 22 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 60 students, 43% women, 57% men. Part-time: 20 students, 40% women, 60% men. Students come from 10 states and territories, 3 other countries, 35% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 31% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 40% 25 or older, 69% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, independent study, double major, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $10,980 includes full-time tuition ($6900), mandatory fees ($700), and college room and board ($3380). Part-time tuition: $230 per credit hour.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 2 open to all. Most popular organizations: Missionary Prayer Band, Ministerial Union. Major annual events: Youth Retreat, Missions Convention. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 60 college housing spaces available; 30 were occupied in 2003-04. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. 25,000 books, 250 microform titles, 96 serials, and 51 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $28,515. 2 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ WILLIAM CAREY COLLEGE M-10

498 Tuscan Ave.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401-5499
Tel: (601)318-6051
Fax: (601)318-6454
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wmcarey.edu/

Description:

Independent Southern Baptist, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1906. Setting: 64-acre small town campus with easy access to New Orleans. Endowment: $7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3138 per student. Total enrollment: 2,758. 276 applied, 71% were admitted. Full-time: 1,576 students, 72% women, 28% men. Part-time: 277 students, 78% women, 22% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 17 other countries, 25% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 34% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 42% 25 or older, 23% live on campus, 21% transferred in. Retention: 67% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 8/15.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $11,880 includes full-time tuition ($8100), mandatory fees ($315), and college room and board ($3465). College room only: $1305. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and location. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location. Part-time tuition: $270 per hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $105 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and location.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 32 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 4% of eligible men and 59% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Baptist Student Union, Phi Beta Lambda, intramurals, Hope Project. Major annual events: Homecoming, Honors Convocation, Carey Fest. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, controlled dormitory access. 612 college housing spaces available; 419 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Smith-Rouse Library with 98,139 books, 15,568 microform titles, 472 serials, 789 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $500,171. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of Southern Mississippi.

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Mississippi

Mississippi

ALCORN STATE UNIVERSITY

1000 ASU Dr.
Alcorn State, MS 39096-7500
Tel: (601)877-6100
Free: 800-222-6790
Admissions: (601)877-6147
Fax: (601)877-6347
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alcorn.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Clinton Bristow, Jr.
Registrar: Dr. Alice Davis Gill
Admissions: Emanuel Barnes
Financial Aid: Juanita Russell
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 42% ACT 18-23; 7% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 68 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3919 full-time, $163 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8887 full-time, $370 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $807 full-time. College room and board: $4272. College room only: $2428. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 2,676, PT 286, Grad 582 Faculty: FT 175, PT 34 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 81 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 52 Library Holdings: 210,036 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 72 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAFCS, ADtA, NAIT, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

ANTONELLI COLLEGE (HATTIESBURG)

1500 North 31st Ave.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401
Tel: (601)583-4100
Fax: (601)583-0839
Web Site: http://www.antonellic.com/
President/CEO: Karen Selby
Admissions: Karen Gautreau
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

ANTONELLI COLLEGE (JACKSON)

480 East Woodrow Wilson Dr.
Jackson, MS 39216
Tel: (601)362-9991
Fax: (601)362-2333
Web Site: http://www.antonellic.com/
President/CEO: Karen Gautreau
Admissions: Page McDaniel
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

BELHAVEN COLLEGE

1500 Peachtree St.
Jackson, MS 39202-1789
Tel: (601)968-5928
Free: 800-960-5940
Admissions: (601)968-5940
Fax: (601)968-9998
Web Site: http://www.belhaven.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Roger Parrott
Registrar: Donna Weeks
Admissions: Suzanne T. Sullivan
Financial Aid: Linda Phillips
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Presbyterian Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 39% ACT 18-23; 40% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 57 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $20,478 includes full-time tuition ($14,124), mandatory fees ($650), and college room and board ($5704). Part-time tuition: $350 per semester hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,166, PT 72, Grad 342 Faculty: FT 70, PT 155 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 86 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 32 Library Holdings: 99,765 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NASAD, NASM Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

BLUE MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

PO Box 160
Blue Mountain, MS 38610-9509
Tel: (662)685-4771
Free: 800-235-0136
Admissions: (662)685-4161
Fax: (662)685-4776
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bmc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Bettye R. Coward
Registrar: Sheila Freeman
Admissions: Maria Teel
Financial Aid: Angie Gossett
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 16% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 55 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Deadline: September 03 Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $11,086 includes full-time tuition ($6780), mandatory fees ($540), and college room and board ($3766). College room only: $1400. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and gender. Part-time tuition: $230 per hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $80 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 283, PT 82 Faculty: FT 24, PT 12 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 72 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 34 Library Holdings: 59,431 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 120 semester hours, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball W; Tennis W

COAHOMA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

3240 Friars Point Rd.
Clarksdale, MS 38614-9799
Tel: (662)627-2571
Admissions: (662)621-4205
Web Site: http://www.ccc.cc.ms.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Vivian M. Presley
Registrar: Rita Hanfor
Admissions: Wanda Holmes
Financial Aid: Patricia Brooks
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1600 full-time, $90 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2900 full-time. Mandatory fees: $140 full-time, $60 per term part-time. College room and board: $2914. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester Enrollment: FT 1,801, PT 145 Faculty: FT 73, PT 17 Student-Faculty Ratio: 26:1 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 65 credit hours, Associates Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M

COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 649
Wesson, MS 39191-0649
Tel: (601)643-5101
Admissions: (601)643-8307
Fax: (601)643-8212
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.colin.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Howell C. Garner
Registrar: Dr. Phil Broome
Admissions: Phillilp H. Broome
Financial Aid: Leslie Smith
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1700 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $1800 full-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 82, PT 45 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 38,900 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE-NATCHEZ CAMPUS

11 Co-Lin Circle
Natchez, MS 39120-8446
Tel: (601)442-9111
Fax: (601)446-9967
Web Site: http://www.colin.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Howell C. Garner
Registrar: Gwen S. McCalip
Admissions: Gwen S. McCalip
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For welding program: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1600 full-time, $100 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3400 full-time, $175 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $5 per semester hour part-time, $10 per year part-time. College room and board: $2600. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 554, PT 346 Faculty: FT 24, PT 29 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 19,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: CARC

DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

Hwy. 8 West
Cleveland, MS 38733-0001
Tel: (662)846-3000
Free: 800-468-6378
Admissions: (662)846-4658
Fax: (662)846-4016
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.deltastate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. John M. Hilpert
Registrar: Penney Gong
Admissions: Debbie Heslep
Financial Aid: Ann Margaret Mullins
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 57% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $15. State resident tuition: $3762 full-time, $155 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8950 full-time, $370 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $490 full-time. College room and board: $4272. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,754, PT 504, Grad 740 Faculty: FT 165, PT 110 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 345,565 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 130 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACN, AAFCS, ACA, ADtA, ACBSP, CSWE, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W

EAST CENTRAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 129
Decatur, MS 39327-0129
Tel: (601)635-2111; 877-462-3222
Fax: (601)635-2150
Web Site: http://www.eccc.cc.ms.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Phil Sutphin
Registrar: Donna Luke
Admissions: Donna Luke
Financial Aid: Brenda Carson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 79, PT 65 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 27 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

EAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 158
Scooba, MS 39358-0158
Tel: (662)476-8442
Admissions: (662)476-5041
Web Site: http://www.eastms.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Rick Young
Registrar: Mary C. Stennis
Admissions: Melinda Sciple
Financial Aid: James Gibson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Scores: 34% ACT 18-23; 5% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,068, PT 1,349 Faculty: FT 91, PT 100 Student-Faculty Ratio: 22:1 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 27,840 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABFSE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W

HINDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 1100
Raymond, MS 39154-1100
Tel: (601)857-5261
Admissions: (601)857-3280
Web Site: http://www.hindscc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Clyde Muse
Admissions: Jay Allen
Financial Aid: Dr. George Barnes
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Scores: 12.8% ACT 18-23; 2.8% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,145, PT 2,816 Faculty: FT 351, PT 305 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 15 Library Holdings: 165,260 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, ADA, AHIMA, APTA, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

HOLMES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 369
Goodman, MS 39079-0369
Tel: (662)472-2312
Admissions: (601)472-2312
Fax: (662)472-9156
Web Site: http://www.holmescc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Starkey A. Morgan, Sr.
Registrar: Dr. Lynn Wright
Admissions: Dr. Lynn Wright
Financial Aid: Wirt Hayes
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1100 full-time, $65 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1750 full-time. Mandatory fees: $330 full-time, $10 per term part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $3330. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,251, PT 1,243 Faculty: FT 128, PT 223 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 12 Library Holdings: 53,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, AOTA, JRCEMT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

ITAWAMBA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

602 West Hill St.
Fulton, MS 38843
Tel: (662)862-8000
Admissions: (662)862-8032
Fax: (662)862-8036
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.icc.cc.ms.us/
President/CEO: Dr. David Cole
Registrar: Mike Eaton
Admissions: Dr. H. Gregory Jefcoat
Financial Aid: Robert Walker
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 36,816 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, AHIMA, APTA, CARC, JRCERT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY

1400 John R Lynch St.
Jackson, MS 39217
Tel: (601)979-2121
Free: 800-848-6817
Admissions: (601)979-2100
Fax: (601)979-2358
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jsums.edu/
President/CEO: Ronald Mason, Jr.
Registrar: Alfred Jackson
Admissions: Stephanie Chatman
Financial Aid: Gene Blakley
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 43.3% ACT 18-23; 6% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $3964 full-time, $166 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $8872 full-time, $371 per credit hour part-time. College room and board: $5044. College room only: $2998. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,714, PT 891, Grad 1,746 Faculty: FT 361, PT 104 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 34 Library Holdings: 236,933 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, APA, ASLHA, CORE, CSWE, NAIT, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

JONES COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE

900 South Ct. St.
Ellisville, MS 39437-3901
Tel: (601)477-4000
Admissions: (601)477-4025
Fax: (601)477-4212
Web Site: http://www.jcjc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ronald Whitehead
Registrar: Jimmy Temple
Admissions: Dianne Speed
Financial Aid: Joe L. Herrington
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 170, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 62,349 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, JRCERT, JRCEMT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

MAGNOLIA BIBLE COLLEGE

PO Box 1109
Kosciusko, MS 39090-1109
Tel: (601)289-2896
Admissions: (662)289-2896
Web Site: http://www.magnolia.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Les Ferguson, Sr.
Registrar: John F. Gardner
Admissions: Allen Coker
Financial Aid: Sharon Paseur
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Church of Christ % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission Application Deadline: August 31 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Tuition: $4800 full-time, $200 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $90 full-time, $45 per term part-time. College room only: $1500. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 20, PT 21 Faculty: FT 1, PT 8 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 52 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 48 Library Holdings: 32,589 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC

MERIDIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

910 Hwy. 19 North
Meridian, MS 39307
Tel: (601)483-8241
Admissions: (601)484-8895
Web Site: http://www.meridiancc.edu
President/CEO: Dr. Scott D. Elliott
Registrar: Minnie Bryan
Admissions: Dianne Walton
Financial Aid: Soraya Welden
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1450 full-time, $80 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $2740 full-time, $137 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $4 per credit hour part-time, $5 per term part-time. College room and board: $2600. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,649, PT 923 Faculty: FT 144, PT 112 Exams: ACT, Other % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 12 Library Holdings: 50,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ADA, AHIMA, APTA, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Soccer M; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W

MILLSAPS COLLEGE

1701 North State St.
Jackson, MS 39210-0001
Tel: (601)974-1000
Free: 800-352-1050
Admissions: (601)974-1050
Fax: (601)974-1059
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.millsaps.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Frances Lucas
Registrar: Vicki Stuart
Admissions: Mathew Cox
Financial Aid: Patrick G. James
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 28% ACT 18-23; 45% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 82 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: June 01 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $28,256 includes full-time tuition ($19,490), mandatory fees ($1200), and college room and board ($7566). College room only: $4248. Room and board charges vary according to housing facility. Part-time tuition: $604 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $30 per credit hour. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,039, PT 46, Grad 69 Faculty: FT 92, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 57 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 82 Library Holdings: 190,982 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE

200 South Capitol St.
Clinton, MS 39058
Tel: (601)925-3000
Free: 800-738-1236
Admissions: (601)925-3315
Fax: (601)925-3804
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lee G. Royce
Registrar: Carol Busbee
Admissions: Dr. Jim Turcotte
Financial Aid: Mary Givhan
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 98% SAT M 400+; 53% ACT 18-23; 37% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 57 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Comprehensive fee: $18,182 includes full-time tuition ($11,600), mandatory fees ($688), and college room and board ($5894). Part-time tuition: $365 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $133 per term. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,211, PT 342, Grad 857 Faculty: FT 161, PT 147 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 58 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 61 Library Holdings: 362,296 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 130 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AAFCS, ABA, ACA, AALS, ACBSP, CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

MISSISSIPPI DELTA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 668
Moorhead, MS 38761-0668
Tel: (662)246-6322
Admissions: (662)246-6308
Web Site: http://www.msdelta.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Larry G. Bailey
Registrar: Joe F. Ray, Jr.
Admissions: Joseph F. Ray, Jr.
Financial Aid: Angie Sherrer
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1850 full-time, $83 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3528 full-time. Mandatory fees: $70 full-time, $10 per semester hour part-time. College room and board: $1330. College room only: $800. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 33,020 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ADA, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 609
Perkinston, MS 39573-0609
Tel: (601)928-5211
Admissions: (601)928-6264
Fax: (601)928-6299
Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Mary Graham
Registrar: Tommie Weathers
Admissions: Michelle Sekul
Financial Aid: Sheree Bond
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Area resident tuition: $1522 full-time, $75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3368 full-time, $152 per hour part-time. College room and board: $3800. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,209, PT 2,597 Faculty: FT 337, PT 262 Student-Faculty Ratio: 26:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 7 Library Holdings: 100,472 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABFSE, CARC, JRCERT, JRCEMT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M

MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

Mississippi State, MS 39762
Tel: (662)325-2323
Admissions: (662)325-2224
Fax: (662)325-3299
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msstate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. J. Charles Lee
Registrar: Butch Stokes
Admissions: Diane D. Wolfe
Financial Aid: Bruce Crain
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 44% ACT 18-23; 35% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 69 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4312 full-time, $179.75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9772 full-time, $407.25 per hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $5859. College room only: $2824. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and student level. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 11,098, PT 1,457, Grad 3,289 Faculty: FT 974, PT 165 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 53 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 21 Library Holdings: 2,451,640 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAFCS, ACA, ADtA, APA, ASLA, AVMA, CORE, CSWE, FIDER, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NCATE, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

MISSISSIPPI UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN

1100 College St., MUW-1600
Columbus, MS 39701-9998
Tel: (662)329-4750; 877-GO 2 THE W
Admissions: (601)329-7106
Fax: (662)329-7297
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.muw.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Claudia Limbert
Registrar: Cay Lollar
Admissions: Terri Heath
Financial Aid: Don Rainer
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 34% ACT 18-23; 48% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,483, PT 683, Grad 162 Faculty: FT 134, PT 80 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 49 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 21 Library Holdings: 426,543 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ASLHA, ACBSP, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball W; Softball W; Tennis W; Volleyball W

MISSISSIPPI VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY

14000 Hwy. 82 West
Itta Bena, MS 38941-1400
Tel: (662)254-9041
Admissions: (662)254-3344
Fax: (662)254-7900
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mvsu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Lester C. Newman
Registrar: Maxcine Rush
Admissions: Nora Taylor
Financial Aid: Darrell G. Boyd
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 31% ACT 18-23; 3% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 25 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4024 full-time, $168 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9282 full-time, $219 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $50 full-time, $25 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and degree level. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and degree level. College room and board: $3946. College room only: $2142. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,434, PT 314, Grad 417 Faculty: FT 117, PT 66 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 30 Library Holdings: 101,109 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ACBSP, CSWE, NASAD, NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M; Tennis M; Track and Field M & W

NORTHEAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

101 Cunningham Blvd.
Booneville, MS 38829
Tel: (662)728-7751
Free: 800-555-2154
Fax: (662)728-1165
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nemcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles W. Chance
Registrar: Ronald Sweeney
Admissions: Robert Lynn Gibson
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,777, PT 447 Faculty: FT 134, PT 8 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 29,879 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 63 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, ADA, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis M & W

NORTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

4975 Hwy. 51 North
Senatobia, MS 38668-1701
Tel: (662)562-3200
Admissions: (662)562-3222
Fax: (662)562-3911
Web Site: http://www.northwestms.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David M. Haraway
Registrar: Dr. Gary Lee Spears
Admissions: Deanna Ferguson
Financial Aid: Joe Boyles
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: ACT Library Holdings: 38,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABFSE, CARC, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis M & W

PEARL RIVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE

101 Hwy. 11 North
Poplarville, MS 39470
Tel: (601)403-1000
Admissions: (601)795-6801
Fax: (601)403-1135
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.prcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. William A. Lewis
Registrar: Dow Ford
Admissions: J. Dow Ford
Financial Aid: Peggy Shoemake
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 160, PT 65 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 40,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ADA, AOTA, APTA, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W

RUST COLLEGE

150 Rust Ave.
Holly Springs, MS 38635-2328
Tel: (662)252-8000; 888-886-8492
Admissions: (601)252-8000
Fax: (662)252-6107
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rustcollege.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David L. Beckley
Registrar: Clarence Smith
Admissions: Johnny McDonald
Financial Aid: Helen Street
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Methodist Scores: 25% ACT 18-23; 1% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 39 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 15 Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. Comprehensive fee: $8950 includes full-time tuition ($6200) and college room and board ($2750). College room only: $1212. Part-time tuition: $267 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to class time and course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 839, PT 162 Faculty: FT 45, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 96 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 65 Library Holdings: 123,055 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 66 credits, Associates; 124 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: CSWE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W

SOUTHEASTERN BAPTIST COLLEGE

4229 Hwy. 15 North
Laurel, MS 39440-1096
Tel: (601)426-6346
President/CEO: Dr. Jentry Bond
Registrar: Dr. Medrick Savell
Admissions: Dr. Eric Parker
Financial Aid: Br. James Salisbury
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Baptist % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $140 per semester hour part-time. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 9 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 31 Library Holdings: 24,119 Credit Hours For Degree: 66 semester hours, Associates; 129 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC

SOUTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

College Dr.
Summit, MS 39666
Tel: (601)276-2000
Admissions: (601)276-2001
Fax: (601)276-3888
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.smcc.cc.ms.us/
President/CEO: Dr. Horace C. Holmes
Registrar: Glenn Shoemake
Admissions: Matthew Calhoun
Financial Aid: Oliver W. Young
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges Scores: 41.4% ACT 18-23; 5.3% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $1700 full-time, $75 per hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $3900 full-time, $170 per hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $100 full-time, $50 per term part-time. College room and board: $2180. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,176, PT 718 Faculty: FT 82, PT 12 Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 34,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M; Softball W; Tennis M & W

TOUGALOO COLLEGE

500 West County Line Rd.
Tougaloo, MS 39174
Tel: (601)977-7700; 888-42GALOO
Admissions: (601)977-7765
Fax: (601)977-7739
Web Site: http://www.tougaloo.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Beverly W. Hogan
Registrar: Carolyn L. Evans
Admissions: Juno Jacobs
Financial Aid: Inez Morris
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: United Church of Christ Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 8% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Fee: $5.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $5. Comprehensive fee: $15,497 includes full-time tuition ($8800), mandatory fees ($477), and college room and board ($6220). College room only: $4400. Part-time tuition: $367 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 883, PT 57 Faculty: FT 70, PT 33 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 137,000 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 64 hours, Associates; 124 hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Softball W

UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI

University, MS 38677
Tel: (662)915-7211
Admissions: (662)915-7226
Fax: (662)915-5869
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.olemiss.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert C. Khayat
Registrar: Dr. Charlotte Fant
Admissions: Dr. Charlotte Fant
Financial Aid: Laura Diven-Brown
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 98% SAT M 400+; 51% ACT 18-23; 37% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 73 Admission Plans: Early Admission Application Deadline: July 20 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25, $40 for nonresidents. State resident tuition: $4320 full-time, $180 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9744 full-time, $406 per credit part-time. College room and board: $5762. College room only: $2972. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 11,143, PT 1,054, Grad 1,976 Faculty: FT 622 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 40 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 33 Library Holdings: 1,338,778 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 126 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAFCS, ABA, ACPhE, ACA, APA, ASLHA, AALS, CSWE, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Fencing M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M; Riflery W; Rugby M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W

UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI MEDICAL CENTER

2500 North State St.
Jackson, MS 39216-4505
Tel: (601)984-1000
Admissions: (601)984-1080
Fax: (601)984-1080
Web Site: http://umc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Daniel W. Jones
Registrar: Barbara M. Westerfield
Admissions: Barbara Westerfield
Financial Aid: Stacey Carter
Type: Two-Year Upper Division Sex: Coed Affiliation: University of Mississippi Admission Plans: Preferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $3519 full-time, $141 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7195 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Part-time tuition varies according to course load and program. College room only: $3354. Room charges vary according to housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 452, PT 71, Grad 457 Faculty: FT 683, PT 161 Student-Faculty Ratio: 2:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 41 Library Holdings: 310,016 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 133 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACN, ADA, AHIMA, AOTA, APTA, APA, ASC, LCMEAMA, NAACLS, NLN

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

118 College Dr.
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001
Tel: (601)266-7011
Admissions: (601)266-5000
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.usm.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Shelby F. Thames
Registrar: Gregory W. Pierce
Admissions: Kristi Motter
Financial Aid: Dr. Kristi L. Motter
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 98% SAT M 400+; 61% ACT 18-23; 22% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 61 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED not accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. State resident tuition: $4312 full-time, $180 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9742 full-time, $407 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $30 full-time. College room and board: $5800. College room only: $2620. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 10,727, PT 1,741, Grad 2,562 Faculty: FT 713, PT 133 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 31 Library Holdings: 1,366,192 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAMFT, AACN, AAFCS, ACCE, ACA, ADtA, ALA, APA, ASLHA, CAEPK, CEPH, CSWE, FIDER, JRCEPAT, NAACLS, NASAD, NASD NASM, NAST, NCATE, NLN, NRPA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

VIRGINIA COLLEGE AT JACKSON

5360 I-55 North
Jackson, MS 39211
Tel: (601)977-0960
Fax: (601)956-4325
Web Site: http://www.vc.edu/
Admissions: Bill Milstead
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Application Fee: $100.00 Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: Other Professional Accreditation: ACICS

WESLEY COLLEGE

PO Box 1070
Florence, MS 39073-1070
Tel: (601)845-2265
Free: 800-748-9972
Fax: (601)845-2266
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesleycollege.com/
President/CEO: Lance Sherer
Registrar: Beverly A. Porter
Admissions: Charity Nielsen
Financial Aid: William Devore
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Congregational Methodist Scores: 22% ACT 18-23; 33% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $10,980 includes full-time tuition ($6900), mandatory fees ($700), and college room and board ($3380). Part-time tuition: $230 per credit hour. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 60, PT 20 Faculty: FT 8, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 75 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 69 Library Holdings: 25,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M

WILLIAM CAREY COLLEGE

498 Tuscan Ave.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401-5499
Tel: (601)318-6051
Fax: (601)318-6454
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wmcarey.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Larry Kennedy
Registrar: Cathy van Devender
Admissions: William N. Curry
Financial Aid: William Curry
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Southern Baptist Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 64% ACT 18-23; 27% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Comprehensive fee: $11,880 includes full-time tuition ($8100), mandatory fees ($315), and college room and board ($3465). College room only: $1305. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and location. Room and board charges vary according to board plan, housing facility, and location. Part-time tuition: $270 per hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $105 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and location. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Trimester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,576, PT 277, Grad 905 Faculty: FT 93, PT 92 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 96 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 23 Library Holdings: 98,139 Regional Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: NASM, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W

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Mississippi

Mississippi

ALCORN STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Sciences, M

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, M

Animal Sciences, BM

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Child Development, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Economics, B

Education, MO

Educational Psychology, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

English Language and Literature, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences, B

History, B

Industrial Education, M

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Information Science/Studies, M

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, B

Political Science and Government, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

BELHAVEN COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Creative Writing, B

Dance, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International/Global Studies, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Mathematics, B

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, M

Music, B

Philosophy, B

Psychology, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Work, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

BLUE MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

History, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Sciences, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Theology/Pre-Ministerial Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

COAHOMA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Barbering/Barber, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Machine Repairer, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Computer Installation and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Computer Science, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

English Language and Literature, A

Health Teacher Education, A

Industrial Mechanics and Maintenance Technology, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Radio and Television, A

Respiratory Therapy Technician/Assistant, A

Restaurant, Culinary, and Catering Management/Manager, A

Social Work, A

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Agribusiness, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Business Technology, A

Agricultural Economics, A

Agricultural/Farm Supplies Retailing and Wholesaling, A

Agriculture, A

Architecture, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Chemistry, A

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, A

Food Technology and Processing, A

Forestry, A

French Language and Literature, A

Health Teacher Education, A

History, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Journalism, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Library Science, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, A

COPIAH-LINCOLN COMMUNITY COLLEGE-NATCHEZ CAMPUS

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Forestry, A

General Studies, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Political Science and Government, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology, B

Airline/Commercial/Professional Pilot and Flight Crew, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, M

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Curriculum and Instruction, D

Education, BMDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Fashion Merchandising, B

Finance, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, B

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, B

Insurance, B

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Office Management and Supervision, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Recreation and Park Management, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Social Work, BM

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Urban and Regional Planning, M

EAST CENTRAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Behavioral Sciences, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Comparative Literature, A

Computer Science, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drawing, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Health Teacher Education, A

History, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Library Science, A

Mathematics, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, A

Pharmacy, A

Physical Sciences, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Sciences, A

EAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

English Language and Literature, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Funeral Service and Mortuary Science, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

Health Teacher Education, A

History, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, A

Music, A

Ophthalmic Laboratory Technology/Technician, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Reading Teacher Education, A

Real Estate, A

Social Sciences, A

Sociology, A

HINDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Economics, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Agricultural Teacher Education, A

Agronomy and Crop Science, A

Apparel and Textiles, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Programming, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Economics, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Fashion/Apparel Design, A

Finance, A

Food Technology and Processing, A

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Journalism, A

Landscaping and Groundskeeping, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Mathematics, A

Music, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Public Administration, A

Real Estate, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Social Sciences, A

Sociology, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, A

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

HOLMES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agriculture, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Child Development, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

Finance, A

Forestry, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Pharmacy, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Radio and Television, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Work, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Wildlife Biology, A

ITAWAMBA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Chemistry, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Science, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Fashion/Apparel Design, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

History, A

Human Services, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Library Science, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Modern Languages, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Piano and Organ, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Public Administration, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Sciences, A

Social Work, A

Sociology, A

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, A

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

Wind and Percussion Instruments, A

JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, B

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MD

Business Education, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BMD

Child Development, B

Civil Engineering, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, D

Communication Disorders, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, MDO

Economics, B

Education, BMDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Educational/Instructional Media Design, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMDO

Engineering Technology, B

English, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, MD

Finance, B

Fire Science/Firefighting, B

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Health Education, M

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, BM

Industrial Education, M

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Journalism, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, BM

Materials Sciences, M

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, BM

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Office Management and Supervision, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, BM

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, BD

Public Administration, MD

Public Policy Analysis, MD

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BMO

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, BMD

Sociology, BM

Special Education and Teaching, BMO

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

System Management, M

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, B

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, B

Urban and Regional Planning, M

Urban Studies/Affairs, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

JONES COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Agriculture, A

Applied Art, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Chemistry, A

Child Development, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering Science, A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Horticultural Science, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Mathematics, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Sciences, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

MAGNOLIA BIBLE COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

MERIDIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, A

Broadcast Journalism, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Graphics, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Horticultural Science, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, A

MILLSAPS COLLEGE

Accounting, BM

Anthropology, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

English Language and Literature, B

European Studies/Civilization, B

French Language and Literature, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Philosophy, B

Philosophy and Religious Studies, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE

Accounting, BM

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business Education, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, BM

Christian Studies, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Education, M

Computer Science, BM

Counseling Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminology, M

Education, BMO

Educational Leadership and Administration, M

Educational Measurement and Evaluation, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

French Language and Literature, B

Graphic Design, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, BM

Interior Design, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Language Interpretation and Translation, B

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Liberal Studies, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Music, BM

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Music Theory and Composition, BM

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Performance, M

Physics, B

Piano and Organ, B

Political Science and Government, BM

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, BM

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Voice and Opera, B

MISSISSIPPI DELTA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Economics, A

American/United States Studies/Civilization, A

Applied Art, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Behavioral Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Machine Repairer, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Geography, A

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Health Teacher Education, A

History, A

Horticultural Science, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Mason/Masonry, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Office Computer Specialist/Assistant, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Political Science and Government, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Work, A

MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Chemical Engineering, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Programming, A

Computer Science, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Court Reporting/Court Reporter, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Finance, A

Horticultural Science, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Information Technology, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Ornamental Horticulture, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Word Processing, A

MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, BM

Agribusiness, B

Agricultural Economics, BMD

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agricultural/Biological Engineering and Bioengineering, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Animal Sciences, B

Anthropology, BMD

Applied Economics, D

Architecture, BM

Biochemistry, BMD

Bioengineering, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Engineering, MD

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MD

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, M

Cognitive Sciences, D

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Art and Design, M

Computer Engineering, BMD

Computer Science, MD

Computer Software Engineering, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Economics, BMD

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, M

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, MDO

Educational Psychology, BMDO

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMDO

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

Engineering Physics, D

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, MD

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Experimental Psychology, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, MD

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, M

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, MD

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forestry, BM

French Language and Literature, M

Geology/Earth Science, B

Geosciences, M

German Language and Literature, M

Health Education, M

History, BMD

Horticultural Science, B

Human Resources Development, MDO

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Insurance, B

Landscape Architecture, BM

Landscaping and Groundskeeping, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management Information Systems and Services, BM

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BMD

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Mechanics, M

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Molecular Biology, MD

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nutritional Sciences, MD

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physics, BMD

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, MD

Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management, B

Plant Sciences, MD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Poultry Science, BM

Project Management, M

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, MD

Public Policy Analysis, MD

Real Estate, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BMDO

Social Work, B

Sociology, BMD

Spanish Language and Literature, M

Special Education and Teaching, BMDO

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Statistics, MD

Taxation, M

Technical Teacher Education, B

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Veterinary Medicine, P

Veterinary Sciences, MD

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Vocational and Technical Education, MDO

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

MISSISSIPPI UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN

Accounting, B

Apparel and Textiles, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Communication Disorders, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Education, BM

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, M

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Health Education, M

History, B

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Sciences, B

Political Science and Government, B

Printmaking, B

Psychology, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

MISSISSIPPI VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminology, M

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental and Occupational Health, M

History, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Office Management and Supervision, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Public Administration, B

Recording Arts Technology/Technician, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Water Quality and Wastewater Treatment Management and Recycling Technology/Technician, B

NORTHEAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Teacher Education, A

Agriculture, A

Agronomy and Crop Science, A

Art Teacher Education, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, A

Bible/Biblical Studies, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Broadcast Journalism, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Business/Managerial Economics, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communication Disorders, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Dairy Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Drawing, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

Engineering Technology, A

English Language and Literature, A

Entomology, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Fashion/Apparel Design, A

Food Science, A

Forestry, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Health Teacher Education, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, A

Horticultural Science, A

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Insurance, A

Interior Design, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, A

Landscape Architecture, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Library Science, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, A

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Pharmacy, A

Photography, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Public Administration, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

Public Relations/Image Management, A

Radio and Television, A

Religious Education, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Sciences, A

Social Work, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

Theology/Theological Studies, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

Wildlife Biology, A

Zoology/Animal Biology, A

NORTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Economics, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Agriculture, A

Animal Sciences, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Court Reporting/Court Reporter, A

Dairy Science, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, A

Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology/Technician, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Journalism, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Mathematics Teacher Education, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Office Management and Supervision, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Plant Sciences, A

Poultry Science, A

Radio and Television, A

Radio and Television Broadcasting Technology/Technician, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Sales and Marketing Operations/Marketing and Distribution Teacher Education, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, A

Social Science Teacher Education, A

Social Studies Teacher Education, A

Speech Teacher Education, A

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, A

PEARL RIVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

RUST COLLEGE

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Teacher Education, B

Chemistry, B

Computer Science, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Composition, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Journalism, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Political Science and Government, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

SOUTHEASTERN BAPTIST COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Business Administration and Management, A

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, B

Religious/Sacred Music, A

SOUTHWEST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Computer Programming, A

Computer Science, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Finance, A

History, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, A

Information Technology, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Sciences, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

Social Sciences, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

TOUGALOO COLLEGE

Accounting, B

African-American/Black Studies, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, AB

Computer Science, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Psychology, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI

Accounting, BMD

Advertising, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, BM

Anthropology, BM

Applied Science and Technology, MD

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MDO

Business/Commerce, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemical Engineering, B

Chemistry, BMD

Civil Engineering, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, BM

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, D

Communication Disorders, M

Computational Sciences, MD

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Court Reporting/Court Reporter, B

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, BMD

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Exercise and Sports Science, MD

Experimental Psychology, D

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Forensic Science and Technology, B

French Language and Literature, BM

Geological/Geophysical Engineering, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, BM

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, M

History, BMD

Insurance, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, BM

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Leisure Studies, MD

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Linguistics, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MD

Music, BMD

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Pharmaceutical Administration, MD

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MD

Pharmacognosy, MD

Pharmacology, MD

Pharmacy, BP

Philosophy, BM

Physics, BMD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, B

Radio and Television, B

Real Estate, B

Recreation and Park Management, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Special Education and Teaching, B

Student Personnel Services, M

System Management, M

Taxation, M

Theater, M

Toxicology, D

Writing, M

UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI MEDICAL CENTER

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Allopathic Medicine, PO

Anatomy, MDO

Biochemistry, MDO

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MDO

Biophysics, MDO

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Laboratory Sciences, MD

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, B

Dentistry, MDP

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

Maternal and Child Health, M

Microbiology, MDO

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, M

Oral and Dental Sciences, MD

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, MDO

Pharmacology, MDO

Physical Therapy/Therapist, M

Physiology, MDO

Toxicology, MDO

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

Accounting, BM

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, MDO

Advertising, B

Advertising and Public Relations, M

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Analytical Chemistry, MD

Anthropology, BM

Apparel and Textiles, B

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Art Education, M

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BMD

Child and Family Studies, M

City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Disorders, MD

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Community Health Nursing, M

Composition, M

Computational Sciences, D

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Computer Science, M

Corrections, M

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, MD

Curriculum and Instruction, MDO

Dance, B

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, B

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, MO

Economics, MD

Education, MDO

Education/Teaching of Individuals with Hearing Impairments, Including Deafness, B

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMDO

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental and Occupational Health, M

Environmental Biology, MD

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Family Systems, B

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, MD

Food Science and Technology, MD

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Geography, BM

Geology/Earth Science, BM

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Education, M

Health Services Administration, M

History, BMD

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Human Resources Development, M

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, M

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Inorganic Chemistry, MD

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Interior Architecture, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, BMD

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, B

Law Enforcement, M

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, B

Library Science, BMO

Management Information Systems and Services, BM

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, BMD

Marine Sciences, MD

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mass Communication/Media Studies, MD

Maternal/Child Health and Neonatal Nurse/Nursing, M

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, MD

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Medical Technology, M

Microbiology, MD

Molecular Biology, MD

Museology/Museum Studies, B

Music, BMD

Music History, Literature, and Theory, M

Music Teacher Education, BMD

Music Theory and Composition, M

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Adult, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, MD

Nutritional Sciences, MD

Organic Chemistry, MD

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Performance, MD

Philosophy, BM

Physical Chemistry, MD

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMD

Physics, BM

Political Science and Government, BM

Polymer/Plastics Engineering, MD

Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurse/Nursing, M

Psychology, BMDO

Public Health, M

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Radio and Television, B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Recreation and Park Management, MD

Sacred Music, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, MD

Secondary Education and Teaching, MDO

Social Studies Teacher Education, O

Social Work, BM

Special Education and Teaching, BMDO

Speech and Interpersonal Communication, MD

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Theater, M

Visual and Performing Arts, B

Vocational and Technical Education, M

VIRGINIA COLLEGE AT JACKSON

Accounting and Related Services, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Operations Support and Secretarial Services, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Educational/Instructional Media Design, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, A

Medical Office Management/Administration, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

WESLEY COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Religious Education, B

WILLIAM CAREY COLLEGE

Art Education, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Counseling Psychology, M

Drama and Dance Teacher Education, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, MO

Elementary Education and Teaching, BO

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

General Studies, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences, B

History, B

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, M

Journalism, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Therapy/Therapist, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Psychology, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Speech Teacher Education, B

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

James Sardin, Associate Superintendent
Office of Vocational and Technical Education
Mississippi Department of Education
PO Box 771
Jackson, MS 39205-0771
(601)359-3090

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

A legislative measure known as the Commission on Proprietary and College Registration Act was enacted by the Legislature effective July 1, 1992. (This revised and replaced the legislative measure known as the Mississippi School and College Registration Act that was signed by the Governor on May 22,1972.)
The Commission on Proprietary School and College Registration shall issue a certificate of registration to an applicant of good reputation offering one or more courses of instruction, upon determining that the applicant has the facilities, resources, and faculty to provide students with the kind of instruction that it proposes to offer. A certificate of registration shall be granted or denied within thirty (30) days of the receipt of the application. If the Commission has not completed its determination with respect to the issuance of the certificate of registration within such thirty-day period, it shall issue a temporary certificate to the applicant, which certificate is sufficient to meet the requirements of Section 75-60-13 until such time as determination is made. Any certificate issued by the Commission is valid only for the institution and courses for which it is issued and does not cover other schools or branches operated by the owner. A certificate of registration is valid for two (2) years, unless earlier revoked for cause by the Commission. The Commission shall adopt rules and regulations for administration of the registration process. The Commission may cause an investigation to be made into the correctness of the information submitted in any application for registration. If the Commission believes that false, misleading, or incomplete information has been submitted to it in connection with any application for registration, the Commission shall conduct a hearing on the matter and may withhold a certificate of registration upon finding that the applicant has failed to meet the standards for such certificate or has submitted false, misleading, or incomplete information. Application for a certificate of registration shall be made in writing to the Commission on forms furnished by the Commission. A certificate of registration is not transferable and shall be prominently displayed on the premises of an institution.
The Commission shall assign registration numbers to all schools registered with it. Schools shall display their registration numbers on all school publications and on all advertisements hearing the name of the school.
The application for a certificate of registration shall be accompanied by a surety bond in the penal sum of Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000) with conditions and in a form prescribed by the Commission on Proprietary School and College Registration with at least one (1) corporate bonding company approved by the Department of Insurance as surety thereon. The bond shall provide for the indemnification of any person suffering loss as the result of any fraud or misrepresentation used in behalf of the principal in procuring such person's enrollment in a course of instruction, including repayment of tuition paid in advance by any student. The liability of the surety on such bond for the school covered shall not exceed the sum of Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000.00) as an aggregate for all students for all breaches of the conditions of the bond by the school. The term of the bond shall be continuous, but it shall be subject to cancellation by the surety in the manner described in this section (75-60-25). The bond shall provide blanket coverage for the acts of all persons engaged as agents of the school without naming them and without regard to the time they are engaged during the term of the bond.
The issuance of a permit pursuant to Section 75-60-25 does not constitute approval of any course of instruction or the person or institution offering, conducting or otherwise administering the same, unless licensed by the Proprietary School and College Registration. Any representation contrary to this section or tending to imply that a permit issued pursuant to Section 75-60-25 constitute such approval is misrepresentation within the meaning of the provisions of this chapter.

ABERDEEN

Vaughn's Beauty College

108 S. Maple, Aberdeen, MS 39730-3238. Cosmetology. Founded 1956. Contact: Donald Vaughn, (601)369-2212, Fax: (662)369-4671, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Enrollment: Total 43. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology; Cosmetology Instructor; Manicurist; Skin Care

BILOXI

Virginia College Gulf Coast

920 Cedar Lake Rd., Biloxi, MS 39532. Two-Year College.(228)392-2994, 888-208-6932, Web Site: http://www.vc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $255-285 per credit hour, including books and fees. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (1 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Yr); Computer Engineering (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Cosmetology - Administration, Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Digital Program Design (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Massage Therapy (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (1 Yr); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Orthopedic Assistant (2 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (1 Yr); Secretarial, General (1 Yr); Web Development (2 Yr)

Virginia College School of Construction

920 Cedar Lake Rd., Biloxi, MS 39532. Two-Year College.(228)392-2994, 888-208-6932, Web Site: http://www.vcschoolofconstruction.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $255-285 per credit hour, including books and fees. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma, Certificate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Carpentry (1-2 Yr); Electrician (1-2 Yr)

BOONEVILLE

Northeast Mississippi Community College

Cunningham Blvd., Booneville, MS 38829. Two-Year College. Founded 1948. Contact: Donnie Sweeney, VP, (662)720-7100, 800-555-2154. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $350 per semester, in-state: $700 per year, in-state; $455 additional fee, out-of-state. Enrollment: men 1,215, women 1,485. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Biomedical Technology; Child Care & Guidance; Civil Engineering Technology; Data Processing; Dental Hygiene; Drafting & Design Technology; Electronics Technology; Fashion Merchandising; Forestry Technology; Heavy Equipment; Hotel & Motel Management; Industrial Technology; Machine Shop; Machine Tool & Die Design; Marketing; Mechanics, Diesel; Medical Assistant; Medical Laboratory Technology; Microcomputers; Nursing, Practical; Nursing, R.N.; Paralegal; Secretarial, Science

CARTHAGE

Academy of Hair Design

215 Highway 35 N, Carthage, MS 39051-4015. Cosmetology. Founded 1960. Contact: Kathy Condery, Pres., (601)267-8031, Fax: (601)267-3558. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

Academy of Hair Design Seven

215 Hwy. 35 N., Carthage, MS 39051. Cosmetology. Contact: Melvin R. Calton, Exec.Dir., (601)267-8031, Web Site: http://www.academyofhair.com. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,650. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

J & J Hair Design College

116 E. Franklin St., Carthage, MS 39051-3704. Barber. Founded 1985. Contact: Ricky R. Jones, (601)267-3678, Fax: (601)267-3678. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Hour. Tuition: $5,100. Enrollment: men 20, women 25. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Hair Styling (500 Hr); Hair Styling, Advanced

CLARKSDALE

Coahoma Community College

3240 Friars Point Rd., Clarksdale, MS 38614. Two-Year College. Founded 1949. Contact: Wanda Holmes, Admissions Dir., (662)621-2571, (662)621-4205, 800-844-1222, Fax: (662)621-4297, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.coahomacc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Enrollment: men 787. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating; Art; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Barbering; Business Education; Business, General Office; Carpentry; Cashiering; Clerical, General; Computer Science - Terminal Operation; Cosmetology; Criminal Justice; Data Processing - Programming Operations; Drafting & Design Technology; Economics & Business Administration; Electricity, Industrial; Electronics Technology; Farm Implement Mechanics; Farm Management Technology; Library Technology; Machine Shop; Masonry; Medical Technology; Music; Radio & Television; Secretarial, General; Secretarial, Science; Welding Technology

CLEVELAND

Superior Health Care Training

201 W. Sunflower Rd., PO Box 1888, Cleveland, MS 38732. Allied Medical. Founded 1989. Contact: Charline Brandon, Dir., (662)843-0030, 800-656-1543, Fax: (662)846-0833, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Week. Enrollment: Total 15. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Nurse, Assistant (8 Wk)

CORINTH

Ics The Wright Beauty College

2077 Hwy. 72E, Corinth, MS 38834. Cosmetology. Contact: Linda Kay, (662)287-0944; Richardson, Owner. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,395 to $5,550 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 18. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Nail Technology (350 Hr)

DECATUR

East Central Community College

P.O. Box 129, Decatur, MS 39327. Two-Year College. Founded 1928. Contact: Joe Killens, VP Student Services, (601)635-2111, 877-462-3222, Fax: (601)635-4060, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.eccc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $700. Enrollment: men 911, women 1,463. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (18 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Education (2 Yr); Carpentry (18 Mo); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Geriatric Care (2 Yr); Machine Shop (18 Mo); Music (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

ELLISVILLE

Jones County Junior College

900 S. Court St., Ellisville, MS 39437. Two-Year College. Founded 1927. Contact: Diane Speed, Dir. of Admissions and Records, (601)477-4075, (601)477-4025, Fax: (601)477-4017, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.jcjc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $794/semester, $950 out-of-state fee, $1,356 room and board/semester; $75/semester hr. part-time. Enrollment: Total 3,997. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: JRCEMT; SACS; JRCERT; NLNAC; ACBSP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Automotive Machine Shop (1 Yr); Business (2 Yr); Clerical, General (9 Mo); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Computer Servicing - Theory & Systems (2 Yr); Construction Technology (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Data Processing (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Food Preparation & Service (1 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Horticulture (2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (2 Yr); Jewelry Design - Repair & Stone Setting (1 Yr); Management, Automation (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Meat Cutting, Packing & Handling (9 Mo); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Microcomputers (2 Yr); Nurse, Assistant (4 Mo); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Paramedic (2 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (2 Yr); Plastics Technology (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Robotics (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (9 Mo); Watchmaking & Repairing (1 Yr); Welding, Combination (1 Yr)

FLORENCE

Wesley College

111 Wesley Cir., PO Box 1070, Florence, MS 39073-8838. Other. Founded 1944. Contact: Beverly Porter, (601)845-2265, 800-748-9972, Fax: (601)845-2266, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wesleycollege.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $200 per credit hour. Enrollment: men 57, women 33. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABHE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Minister (4 Yr); Missions (4 Yr)

FULTON

Itawamba Community College

602 West Hill St., Fulton, MS 38843. Two-Year College. Founded 1948. Contact: Dr. David C. Cole, Pres., (662)862-8000, Fax: (662)862-8005, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.icc.cc.ms.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $730 per semester; $1070/semester room and board. Enrollment: Total 2,349. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: JRCRTE; CAAHEP; NASAD; NLNAC; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agribusiness Technology (2 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Auto Parts Specialist (1 Yr); Building Construction Technology (2 Yr); Business (1 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Data Processing (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Furniture Manufacturing (2 Yr); Industrial Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Laser Technology (2 Yr); Machine Shop (1 Yr); Machine Tool & Die (1 Yr); Marketing Management; Mechanics, Diesel (2 Yr); Mechanics, Truck (1 Yr); Nurse, Assistant (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Operating Room Technology (1 Yr); Radio & Television Service & Repair (1 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr); Technician, Industrial Service (2 Yr); Truck Driving (7 Wk); Upholstering (1 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

GAUTIER

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College, Jackson County Campus

PO Box 100, Gautier, MS 39553. Two-Year College. Founded 1965. Contact: Dr. Richard Christmas, Campus VP, (228)497-9602, (228)497-7629, (866)735-1122, Fax: (228)497-7696, Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu; Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu/request.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $745/semester full-time, $75 credit part-time, in-state; $1,668/semester, $152/credit, out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 3,942. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: JRCEMT; SACS; ABFSE; JRCERT; NAACLS; ARCEST; CARC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Business (1-2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Machine Shop (1 Yr); Marine & Small Engine Repair (1 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Nurses Aide (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Office Technology (1-2 Yr); Plumbing (1 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr); X-Ray Technology (2 Yr)

GOODMAN

Holmes Community College (Goodman)

PO Box 369, Goodman, MS 39079. Two-Year College. Founded 1925. Contact: Dr. Lynn Wright, Dean of Admissions and Records, (662)472-2312, (662)472-9073, 800-465-6374, Fax: (662)472-9152, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.holmes.cc.ms.us; Patsy Rodgers, Admissions, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $712 first semester; $1590 room and board. Enrollment: men 1,161, women 1,644. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Heating (2 Yr); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Automotive Collision Repair (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Occupations (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Cytotechnology (2 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (2 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Funeral Service Education (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Machine Tool & Die (2 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Mathematics (2 Yr); Medical Record Technology (2 Yr); Medical Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Occupational Therapy Assistant (2 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Technology (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

GREENVILLE

Delta Beauty College

697 Delta Plz., Greenville, MS 38701. Cosmetology. Founded 1952. Contact: Karen Causey, (662)332-0587, (662)332-0588, Fax: (662)332-8243, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $2,627 to $6,500 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 6, women 58. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750-2000Hr)

GRENADA

Academy of Hair Design One

2003-B S. Commerce, Grenada, MS 38901. Cosmetology. Contact: Pat D. Zametto, Pres., (662)226-2464, (601)372-9800, Web Site: http://www.academyofhair.com. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $3,000 to $7,750 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750-2000Hr)

Grenada Vocational-Technical

2035 Jackson, Grenada, MS 38901. Trade and Technical. Founded 1970. Contact: Donald W. Connerley, Dir., (662)226-5969, Fax: (662)226-5992, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. Term: Other. Tuition: None required. Enrollment: men 216, women 200. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Allied Health Occupations (9 Mo); Auto Mechanics (9 Mo); Building Trades (9 Mo); Business, General Office (9 Mo); Cooperative Education (9 Mo); Distributive Education (9 Mo); Horticulture (9 Mo); Metal Trades Technology (9 Mo); Technological Studies (9 Mo)

Holmes Community College (Grenada)

1060 Advent Dr., Grenada, MS 38901. Two-Year College. Founded 1925. Contact: Dr. Lynn Wright, Dean of Admissions and Records, (662)226-0830, (662)227-2354, (662)227-2304, Fax: (662)227-2291, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.holmescc.edu; Rosemarie Poynor, Admissions Secretary, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $712 per semester; $1590/semester room and board. Enrollment: Total 3,804. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration; Automotive Collision Repair; Automotive Technology; Business Technology; Cosmetology; Engineering Technology; Forestry Technology; Machine Tool & Die; Nursing, Practical; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Paramedic; Surgical Technology; Welding Technology

GULFPORT

Chris' Beauty College, Inc.

1265 Pass Rd., Gulfport, MS 39501. Cosmetology. Founded 1961. Contact: Ann Simmons, (228)864-2920, Fax: (228)864-3801, Web Site: http://www.chrisbeautycollege.com/; Web Site: http://www.chrisbeautycollege.com/Contactus.asp. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,000. Enrollment: men 18, women 73. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750-2000Hr); Manicurist (350 Hr)

Crescent School of Gaming and Bartending

1205 25th Ave., Gulfport, MS 39501. Other. Founded 1983. Contact: Ricky P. Richard, (228)822-2444, 800-821-3615, Fax: (228)822-2496, Web Site: http://www.dealingschool.com/crescenthome.html; Web Site: http://www.dealingschool.com/crescentcontact.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $795 Bartending; $2,400 Bar Management; $1,500 Casino. Enrollment: Total 40. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Bar Management (12 Wk); Bartending (3 Wk); Casino Operations (336-750 Hr)

Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior College, Jefferson Davis Campus

2226 Switzer Rd., Gulfport, MS 39501. Trade and Technical. Founded 1965. Contact: Beverly Parker, Asst. Dean, (228)896-3355, (228)896-2500, (866)735-1122, Fax: (228)896-2528, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $745/semester full-time, $75/credit part-time, in-state; $1,668/semester, $152/credit, out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 1,838. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Biological Technology (2 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Data Processing (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Hotel & Motel Management (2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (1 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Paramedic (2 Yr); Teacher Assistant (2 Yr)

HATTIESBURG

Academy of Hair Design Six

5912 Hwy 49 S., Hattiesburg, MS 39402. Cosmetology. Contact: Melvin R. Calton, Exec.Dir., (601)583-1290, Web Site: http://www.academyofhair.com. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,650. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Antonelli College

1500 N. 31st Ave., Hattiesburg, MS 39401. Trade and Technical. Founded 1947. Contact: Richard Leece, Dir. of Admissions, (601)583-4100, Fax: (601)583-0839, Web Site: http://www.antonellicollege.com; Web Site: http://formmail.to/cgi-bin/odbic.exe/formmail.to/odb/form.odb?form=antonelli_hattiesburg. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Enrollment: men 30, women 60. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS; ACCSCT. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Operations (10 Mo); Medical Assistant (13 Mo); Secretarial, General (10 Mo)

Forrest General Hospital

PO Box 16389, Hattiesburg, MS 39404. Allied Medical. Contact: William Oliver, Pres., (601)288-7000, Fax: (601)288-4441, Web Site: http://www.forrestgeneral.com. Public. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology

HOUSTON

Houston Vocational Center

634 A Starkville St., Houston, MS 38851. Trade and Technical. Founded 1973. Contact: Danny Lantrip, Dir., (662)456-3748, Fax: (662)456-5172. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Other. Tuition: None required. Enrollment: men 169, women 144. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Curriculum: Agri-Power Equipment; Allied Health Occupations; Auto Mechanics; Business Occupations; Computer Technology; Cooperative Education; Electrical Construction; Furniture Manufacturing; Upholstering

ITTA BENA

Mississippi Valley State College

14000 Highway 82 West, Itta Bena, MS 38941. Other. Founded 1950. (662)254-9041, Web Site: http://www.mvsu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Other. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Curriculum: Automotive Technology; Building Construction Technology; Cabinet & Mill Work; Machinist, General; Nursing, Vocational; Printing Technology

JACKSON

Academy of Hair Design Three

1815 Terry Rd., Jackson, MS 39204. Cosmetology, Barber. Contact: Pat G. Zametto, Pres., (601)372-9800, Web Site: http://www.academyofhair.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $3,000 to $6,650 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 37. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750-2000Hr)

Hinds Community College - Nursing/Allied Heath Center

1750 Chadwick Dr., Jackson, MS 39204-3490. Two-Year College. Founded 1952. Contact: Steven C. Compton, Medical Radiologic Technology, (601)371-3521, (601)372-6507, Fax: (601)371-3508, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Enrollment: Total 40. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); X-Ray Technology

Magnolia College of Cosmetology

4725 I-55 North, Jackson, MS 39206. Cosmetology. Founded 1983. Contact: Patricia Bryant, (601)362-6940, Fax: (601)362-7405, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.magnoliacollegeofcosmetology.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1,400 to $9,300 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 5, women 78. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Esthetician (600 Hr); Manicurist (360 Hr)

Mississippi School of Therapeutic Massage

5140 Galaxie Dr., Jackson, MS 39206. Other. Contact: Cheryl Sproles, (601)362-3624, Fax: (601)362-3694, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.naturalhealers.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $7,000. Enrollment: Total 10. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: COMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (704 Hr)

Traxler's School of Hair Design

2845 Suncrest Dr., Jackson, MS 39212. Barber. Founded 1959. Contact: T.V. Traxler, (601)371-3253, Fax: (601)371-3881. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,750 plus $135 books and supplies for barbering; $2,250 for barbering instructor. Enrollment: Total 74. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Barbering - Instructor (600 Hr)

University of Mississippi Medical Center

2500 N. State St. Health Related Prof. S, Jackson, MS 39216. Allied Medical. Founded 1971. Contact: Ben L. Mitchell, Dean, (601)984-6300, (601)984-6332, Fax: (601)984-6344, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://shrp.umc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 375. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cytotechnology (2 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (12 Mo); Health Information Technology (2 Yr); Occupational Therapy (3 Yr); Physical Therapy Technology (3 Yr)

Virginia College at Jackson

5360 I-55 North, Jackson, MS 39211. Two-Year College.(601)977-0960, Fax: (601)977-2719, Web Site: http://www.vc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $255-285 per credit hour, including books and fees. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Clerical (1 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Yr); Computer Engineering (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Cosmetology - Administration, Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Digital Program Design (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Massage Therapy (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (1 Yr); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Orthopedic Assistant (2 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Pharmacy Technician (1 Yr); Secretarial, General (1 Yr); Web Development (2 Yr)

LAUREL

Mississippi College of Beauty Culture

732 Sawmill Rd., Laurel, MS 39440. Cosmetology. Founded 1952. Contact: Robert Hatfield, (601)428-7043, (601)428-7127, Fax: (601)428-9710, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,805 plus books and supplies for cosmetology; $3,572 plus books and supplies for cosmetology instructor. Enrollment: men 2, women 57. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr)

LELAND

Leland Vocational-Technical Center

Southeast Deer Creek Dr. E., Leland, MS 38756. Trade and Technical. Founded 1974. Contact: Johnny L. Tucker, (601)686-5025, Fax: (662)686-5024, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Other. Tuition: None required. Enrollment: Total 237. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (18 Mo); Building Trades (18 Mo); Business Occupations (9 Mo); Computer Programming, Business (9 Mo); Computer Technology (18 Mo); Horticulture, Ornamental (18 Mo); Hydraulic Technology (18 Mo); Marketing (9 Mo); Metal Trades Technology (18 Mo)

LONG BEACH

Vortex Helicopters, Inc.

7120 Jones Truckline Rd., Long Beach, MS 39560. Flight and Ground. Founded 1990. Contact: Joe Sheeran, Owner, (228)864-7357, Fax: (228)864-5850, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://vortexhelicopters.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $39,950 professional pilot program; other programs vary. Enrollment: men 70, women 5. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: FAA; ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Helicopter Rating (10 Mo)

LUCEDALE

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College (George County Center)

PO Box 77, Lucedale, MS 39452. Trade and Technical. Founded 1972. Contact: Dr. Deal Belton, Dean, (601)947-4201, (866)735-1122, Fax: (601)947-4899, Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu; Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu/request.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Semester. Tuition: $745/semester full-time, $75 credit part-time, in-state; $1,668/semester, $152/credit, out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 182. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: JRCEMT; SACS; ABFSE; JRCERT; NAACLS; ARCEST; CARC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair (12 Mo); Cosmetology (12 Mo); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Secretarial, Administrative (12 Mo); Welding Technology (12 Mo)

MAYHEW

East Mississippi Junior College - Golden Triangle Campus

PO Box 100, Mayhew, MS 39753. Two-Year College. Founded 1968. Contact: Christine Erby, (662)243-1926, Fax: (662)243-1955, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $450. Enrollment: men 550, women 750. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automation Technology (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Automotive Service (2 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Electricity, Industrial (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (4 Mo); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (2 Yr); Machine Shop (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Office, General (1 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Truck Driving (8 Wk); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

MENDENHALL

Copiah-Lincoln Community College-Simpson County Center

151 Co-Lin Dr., Mendenhall, MS 39114. Two-Year College. Founded 1918. Contact: Dr. Billy Stewart, Dean, (601)849-5149, (601)643-5101, Fax: (601)643-8225, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.colin.edu; Dr. Howell C. Garner, Pres., E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $800 per semester; $1,700 out-of-state per semester. Enrollment: Total 2,255. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: JRCERT; JRCRTE; NAACLS; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Automation Technology (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Computer Information Systems (2 Yr); Construction Equipment (1 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Diesel Technology (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (1 Yr); Hospitality (2 Yr); Machine Shop (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Medical Technology - Respiratory Care (2 Yr); Microcomputers (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Process Plant Technology (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr); Tourism (2 Yr); Truck Driving (8 Wk); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

MERIDIAN

Final Touch Beauty School

5700 North Hills St., Meridian, MS 39307. Cosmetology. Contact: Sue Mitchell, Owner, (601)485-7733. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,860 to $6,400 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 44. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Nail Technology (350 Hr)

Meridian Community College

910 Hwy 19 N, Meridian, MS 39307. Two-Year College. Founded 1937. Contact: Dr. Scott Elliot, Pres., (601)483-8241, 800-MCC-THE1, Fax: (601)482-5803, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mcc.cc.ms.us/newhome/anewpage2.htm; Web Site: http://www.mcc.cc.ms.us/banweb2/infoform3.asp. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $750. Enrollment: Total 3,229. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Business, General Office (1 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Construction Technology (1 Yr); Cosmetology Instructor (1 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Fire Protection Technology (2 Yr); Graphic Arts (2 Yr); Health Information Technology (2 Yr); Horticulture (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (9 Mo); Machine Shop (1-2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Medical Technology (2 Yr); Nurse, Assistant (19 Wk); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr)

MOORHEAD

Mississippi Delta Community College

Highway 3 and Cherry St., PO Box 668, Moorhead, MS 38761. Two-Year College. Founded 1926. Contact: Dr. Joe Ray, Dir. of Admissions & Records, (662)246-6322, Fax: (662)246-6288, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.msdelta.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1600/yr. in-state; $3,208/yr. out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 863. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NLNAC; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (2 Yr); Accounting, General (2 Yr); Advertising (2 Yr); Agribusiness (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Heating (1 Yr); Animal Science, General (2 Yr); Art, Advertising - Commercial (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Banking & Finance (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Diesel Technology (1 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (1 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Handicapped, Special Education (2 Yr); Home Economics (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Interior Design (2 Yr); Machine Technology (1 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Medical Laboratory Technology (2 Yr); Minister (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Paramedic (2 Yr); Printing (1 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Sheet Metal (1 Yr); Truck Driving (1 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

NATCHEZ

Copiah-Lincoln Community College-Natchez Campus

11 Co-lin Cir., Natchez, MS 39120. Two-Year College. Contact: Dr. Howell C. Garner, Pres., (601)446-1165, (601)442-9111, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.colin.edu; Gwen S. McCalip, Acting Dean of the Natchez Campus, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,600 in-state; $3,400 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

NEW ALBANY

New Albany Union County Vocational Center

203 Hwy. 15 N., New Albany, MS 38652. Trade and Technical. Founded 1971. Contact: Earl Richard, Dir., (662)534-1810, Fax: (662)534-1811, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.newalbanyvocationalcenter.com/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 357. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Building Trades (2 Yr); Business Automation (2 Yr); Business Management (1 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Cooking, Commercial (2 Yr); Distributive Education (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr)

PEARL

Academy of Hair Design Four

3167 Hwy. 80 E., Pearl, MS 39208. Cosmetology. Contact: Pat D. Zametto, Pres., (601)939-4441, (601)372-9800, Web Site: http://www.academyofhair.com. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $6,650. Enrollment: men 1, women 34. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr)

PERKINSTON

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College, Perkinston Campus

PO Box 548, Perkinston, MS 39573. Two-Year College. Founded 1925. Contact: Mary Graham, Campus VP, (601)928-5211, (601)928-6333, (866)735-1122, Fax: (601)528-8422, Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu; Web Site: http://www.mgccc.edu/request.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $745/semester full-time, $75 credit part-time, in-state; $1,668/semester, $152/credit, out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 6,466. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: JRCEMT; SACS; ABFSE; JRCERT; NAACLS; ARCEST; CARC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (56 Wk); Drafting & Design Technology (72 Wk); Horticulture, Ornamental (72 Wk); Welding Technology (46 Wk)

POPLARVILLE

Pearl River Community College

101 Hwy. 11 N., PO Box 5096, Poplarville, MS 39470. Two-Year College. Founded 1909. Contact: Don Welsh, Dir., Career and Technical Education, (601)403-1197, Fax: (601)795-6815, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.prcc.edu/sports/football/football.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $425. Enrollment: men 900, women 1,100. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics (24 Mo); Auto Mechanics - Diesel (24 Mo); Banking & Finance; Carpentry (24 Mo); Child Care & Guidance; Clerical, General (12 Mo); Computer Operator (12 Mo); Cosmetology (12 Mo); Data Processing (24 Mo); Drafting & Design Technology (24 Mo); Electrical Technology (24 Mo); Electronics Technology (24 Mo); Machine Shop (24 Mo); Manufacturing Technology; Marketing (24 Mo); Masonry (24 Mo); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Respiratory Therapy; Secretarial, General (12 Mo); Secretarial, Medical (24 Mo); Truck Driving

RAYMOND

Hinds Community College - Raymond Campus

501 East Main St., PO Box 1100, Raymond, MS 39154-1100. Two-Year College. Founded 1922. Contact: Patrick Flaherty, Dean of Career-Technical Education, (601)857-5261, (601)857-3212, 800-HIN-DSCC, Fax: (601)857-3420, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hindscc.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $830/semester full-time, $85/credit, resident; $1,103/semester additional full-time, $170 credit, out-of-state. Enrollment: men 5,926, women 7,535. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: SACS; CAAHEP; ARCEST; CAPTE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Aircraft Powerplant Maintenance (12 Mo); Airframe Mechanics (12 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (12 Mo); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Auto Parts Trade (12 Mo); Barbering (12 Mo); Business (2 Yr); Business, General Office (1 Yr); Carpentry (12 Mo); Computer Technology (1 Yr); Court Reporting (2 Yr); Diesel Technology (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Drafting, Industrial (1 Yr); Electrical Technology (12 Mo); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Electronic (2 Yr); Inhalation Therapy Technology (2 Yr); Landscaping (2 Yr); Machine Shop (2 Yr); Management (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Masonry (12 Mo); Meat Merchandising (12 Mo); Medical Record Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (12 Mo); Operating Room Technology (12 Mo); Paralegal (2 Yr); Printing, Offset (12 Mo); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr); Veterinary Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (12 Mo)

RIDGELAND

Holmes Community College (Ridgeland)

412 W. Ridgeland Ave., Ridgeland, MS 39157. Two-Year College. Founded 1925. Contact: Dr. Lynn Wright, Dean of Admissions and Records, (601)856-5400, (601)472-3309, Fax: (601)605-3411, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.holmescc.edu; Martha Norris, Admissions Secretary, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $712 per semester; $1590/semester room and board. Enrollment: men 910, women 1,163. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Drafting & Design Technology; Electronics Technology; Instrumentation Technology; Machine Shop; Machine Shop Operator; Marketing; Robotics

Stanley H. Kaplan Education Center

731 S. Pear Orchard Rd., Ste. 32, Ridgeland, MS 39157. Other. Founded 1989. Contact: Lee A. VanLandingham, (601)957-0084, 800-527-8378, Fax: (601)957-0043. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $400-$1,500 per course. Enrollment: Total 450. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Remediation; Self Improvement

RIPLEY

Foster's Cosmetology College

1813 Hwy. 15 N., PO Box 66, Ripley, MS 38663-0066. Cosmetology. Founded 1945. Contact: H.L. Foster, Pres., (662)837-9334, Fax: (662)837-7047. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $4,500 to $6,600 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 24. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Barbering (1500 Hr); Barbering - Instructor (500 Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (2000 Hr); Cosmetology - Refresher (500 Hr); Hair Styling (500 Hr); Manicurist (500 Hr); Wig Styling (500 Hr)

SCOOBA

East Mississippi Community College

PO Box 158, Scooba, MS 39358. Two-Year College. Founded 1927. Contact: Dr. W.S. Smith II, (662)476-8442, Fax: (662)476-5058, Web Site: http://www.emcc.cc.ms.us/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $770/semester. Enrollment: Total 4,100. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (9 Mo); Business Education (9 Mo); Cosmetology (10 Mo); Farm Management Technology (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Mortuary Science (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

SENATOBIA

Northwest Mississippi Community College

4975 Hwy. 51 N., Senatobia, MS 38668. Two-Year College. Founded 1928. Contact: Deanna D. Ferguson, Dir. of Enrollment and Recruiting, (662)562-3200, Fax: (662)560-1138, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.northwestms.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,300 resident, $3,300 non-resident. Enrollment: men 2,380, women 4,158. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABET; CAAHEP; NLNAC; SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Accounting Technology (2 Yr); Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (2 Yr); Animal Science, General (2 Yr); Art (2 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Yr); Automotive Electronics (2 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Business, General Office (2 Yr); Cardio - Pulmonary Technology (2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Clerical, General (1 Yr); Commercial Art (2 Yr); Commercial Vehicle (8 Wk); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Horticulture (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Inhalation Therapy Technology (2 Yr); Journalism (2 Yr); Law Enforcement (2 Yr); Livestock Management (2 Yr); Machine Tool & Die (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Mortuary Science (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Radio & Television Service & Repair (9 Mo); Real Estate, Basic (2 Yr); Salesmanship (2 Yr); Secretarial, Advanced (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr); Telecommunications Technology (2 Yr); Veterinary Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

SUMMIT

Southwest Mississippi Community College

2000 College Dr., Summit, MS 39666. Two-Year College. Founded 1918. Contact: Ken Morris, Dir. Vocational-Tech Ed., (601)276-2000, (601)276-2015, Fax: (601)276-3867, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.smcc.cc.ms.us. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1600/year in-state; $3600/year out-of-state. Enrollment: men 250, women 250. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: SACS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning (18 Mo); Automotive Technology (18 Mo); Carpentry (18 Mo); Child Care & Guidance (18 Mo); Computer Networking (18 Mo); Cosmetology (52 Wk); Electrical Technology (18 Mo); Machine Shop (18 Mo); Marketing (18 Mo); Mechanics, Diesel (18 Mo); Nurses Aide (16 Wk); Nursing, Practical (48 Wk); Nursing, R.N. (18 Mo); Robotics (18 Mo); Secretarial, General (9 Mo); Truck Driving (8 Wk); Welding Technology (9 Mo)

TUPELO

Creations College of Cosmetology

2419 W. Main St., PO Box 2635, Tupelo, MS 38803-2635. Cosmetology. Founded 1984. Contact: Carolyn Kennedy Bowen, Dir. of Registration, (662)844-9264, Fax: (601)842-0388, Web Site: http://www.creationscosmetology.com/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 60. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr)

North Mississippi Medical Ctr., School of Medical Technology

830 S. Gloster, Tupelo, MS 38801. Allied Medical. Founded 1957. Contact: Lee Montgomery, (662)377-3082, (662)377-3000, 800-843-3375, Fax: (662)841-3109, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nmhs.net/medtech. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Year. Tuition: None; books average $700-800/yr. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; NAACLS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Medical Technology (12 Mo)

UTICA

Hinds Community College District - Utica Campus

34175 Hwy. 18 W., Utica, MS 39175-9599. Two-Year College, Barber, Cosmetology. Founded 1954. Contact: Dr. Jesse J. Killingsworth, Dean of Career-Technical Education, (601)354-2327, (601)857-3212, 800-HIN-DSCC, Fax: (601)885-8466, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hindscc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $830. Enrollment: men 256, women 391. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Apparel Arts; Auto Body & Fender Repair (1.5 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Barbering (1.5 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Building Construction Technology (1 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1.5 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Drafting, Architectural (2 Yr); Drafting, Electro-Mechanical (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Masonry (1 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

WESSON

Copiah-Lincoln Community College-Wesson Campus

1001 Copiah Lincoln Ln., Wesson, MS 39191. Two-Year College. Contact: Dr. Howell C. Garner, Pres., (601)643-5101, (601)643-8307, Web Site: http://www.colin.edu; Dr. Phil Broome, Dir. of Admissions and Records, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,600 in-state; $3,400 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

WEST POINT

Gibson Barber And Beauty College

120 E. Main St., West Point, MS 39773. Cosmetology, Barber. Contact: Evelyn Gibson, Administrator, (662)494-5444. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,750 to $6,200 plus books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 68. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Barbering (500-1500Hr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (750 Hr); Nail Technology (350 Hr)

Mary Holmes College

West Point, MS 39773. Two-Year College. Founded 1892. Contact: Dr. Sammie Potts, (662)495-5100. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Chemical Technology (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Cosmetology; Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

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Mississippi

Mississippi

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Mississippians

40 Bibliography

State of Mississippi

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the Ojibwa Indian words misi sipi, meaning “great river.”

NICKNAME : The Magnolia State.

CAPITAL: Jackson.

ENTERED UNION: 10 December 1817 (20th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: The seal consists of the coat of arms surrounded by the words “The Great Seal of the State of Mississippi.”

FLAG: Crossed blue bars, on a red field, bordered with white and emblazoned with 13 white stars—the motif of the Confederate battle flag—cover the upper left corner. The field consists of three stripes of equal width, blue, white, and red.

COAT OF ARMS: An American eagle clutches an olive branch and a quiver of arrows in its talons.

MOTTO: Virtute et armis (By valor and arms).

SONG: “Go, Mississippi.”

FLOWER: Magnolia.

TREE: Magnolia.

ANIMAL: White-tailed deer (mammal); porpoise (water mammal).

BIRD: Mockingbird; wood duck (waterfowl).

FISH: Largemouth or black bass.

INSECT: Honeybee.

FOSSIL: Prehistoric whale.

ROCK OR STONE: Petrified wood.

BEVERAGE: Milk.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthdays of Robert E. Lee and Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington’s Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Confederate Memorial Day, last Monday in April; Memorial Day and Jefferson Davis’s Birthday, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans’ Day and Armistice Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in the eastern south-central United States, Mississippi ranks 32nd in size among the 50 states. The total area of Mississippi is 47,689 square miles (123,514 square kilometers), of which land takes up 47,233 square miles (122,333 square kilometers) and inland water 456 square miles (1,181 square kilometers). Mississippi’s maximum east-west extension is 188 miles (303 kilometers). Its greatest north-south distance is 352 miles (566 kilometers). The total boundary length of Mississippi is 1,015 miles (1,634 kilometers). Several small islands lie off the coast.

2 Topography

Mississippi lies entirely within two lowland plains: the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, popularly known as the Delta, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Mississippi’s generally hilly landscape ascends from sea level at the Gulf of Mexico to reach its maximum elevation, 806 feet (246 meters), at Woodall Mountain, in the extreme northeastern corner of the state.

The state’s largest lakes, Grenada, Sardis, Enid, and Arkabutla, are all manmade. Numerous smaller lakes, called oxbow lakes because of their curved shape, extend along the western edge of the state. Once part of the Mississippi River, they were formed when the river changed its course. Mississippi’s longest inland river, the Pearl, flows about 490 miles (790 kilometers) from the eastern center of the state to the Gulf of Mexico. The Big Black River, some 330 miles (530 kilometers) long, begins in the northeast and cuts diagonally across the state. The Yazoo flows 189 miles (304 kilometers) southwest to the Mississippi just above Vicksburg.

3 Climate

Mississippi has short winters and long, humid summers. Summer temperatures vary little from one part of the state to another, averaging around 80°f (27°c). During the winter, however, because of the temperate influence of the Gulf of Mexico, the southern coast is much warmer than the north. In January, Biloxi averages 52°f (11°c), while Oxford averages 41°f (5°c). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Mississippi

Mississippi Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:2,910,540
Population change, 2000–06:2.3%
Hispanic or Latino†:1.5%
Population by race
One race:99.1%
White:60.8%
Black or African American:36.5%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.4%
Asian:0.8%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.0%
Some other race:0.6%
Two or more races:0.9%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Jackson177,977-3.4
Gulfport72,4641.9
Biloxi50,209-0.9
Hattiesburg47,1765.4
Southaven38,84034.0
Greenville38,724-7.0
Meridian38,605-3.4
Tupelo35,6734.3
Olive Branch27,96432.8
Clinton26,01711.4

was -19°f (-28°c) at Corinth on 30 January 1966. The highest temperature, 115°f (46°c), was set on 29 July 1930 at Holly Springs.

Precipitation in Mississippi increases from north to south. The north-central region averages 53 inches (135 centimeters) of precipitation a year. The coastal region averages 62 inches (157 centimeters) annually. Some snow falls in northern and central sections. Mississippi lies in the path of hurricanes moving northward from the Gulf of Mexico during the late summer and fall. Two tornado alleys cross Mississippi from the southwest to northeast, one from Vicksburg to Oxford and the other from McComb to Tupelo.

4 Plants and Animals

Post and white oaks, hickory, and magnolia grow in the forests of the uplands. Various willows and gums (including the tupelo) are in the Delta and longleaf pine is in the Piney Woods. Wildflowers include the black-eyed Susan and Cherokee rose. In April 2006, Price’s potato-bean was listed as a threatened plant species. The Louisiana quillwort, pondberry, and American chaffseed were listed as endangered.

Common among the state’s mammals are the opossum, armadillo, and coyote. Birds include varieties of wren, thrush, and hawk, along with numerous waterfowl and seabirds. Black bass, perch, and mullet are common freshwater fish. Rare species in Mississippi include the hoary bat, American oystercatcher, mole salamander, pigmy killifish, Yazoo darker, and five species of crayfish.

In 2006, a total of 30 animal species were listed as threatened or endangered, including the American and Louisiana black bears, eastern indigo snake, Indiana bat, Mississippi sandhill crane, bald eagle, Mississippi gopher frog, brown pelican, red-cockaded woodpecker, five species of sea turtle, and the bayou darter.

5 Environmental Protection

The Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) is responsible for environmental regulatory programs in the state, excluding the drinking water program, and the regulation of noncommercial oil field waste disposal. MDEQ regulates surface and groundwater withdrawals through its Office of Land and Water Resources and surface mining reclamation through its Office of Geology. All other environmental regulatory programs are administered through MDEQ’s Office of Pollution Control. MDEQ implements one of the premier Pollution Prevention programs in the nation.

In 2003, Mississippi had 83 hazardous waste sites listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database, three of which were on the National Priorities List, as of 2006. In 1996, wetlands accounted for 13% of the state’s lands. The Natural Heritage Program identifies and inventories priority wetlands.

6 Population

In 2005, Mississippi ranked 31st in population among the 50 states with an estimated total of 2,910,540 residents. The population is projected to reach 3.01 million by 2015 and 3.06 million by 2025. In 2004, the population density was 61.9 persons per square mile (23.9 persons per square kilometer). In that same year, the median age of all residents was 34.9. In 2005, of all residents

Mississippi Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population2,844,658100.0
One race2,824,63799.3
Two races18,3820.6
White and Black or African American3,4620.1
White and American Indian/Alaska Native5,2590.2
White and Asian2,4020.1
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander287
White and some other race2,8850.1
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native1,372
Black or African American and Asian802
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander230
Black or African American and some other race785
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian131
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander13
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race186
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander169
Asian and some other race344
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race55
Three or more races1,6390.1

in the state, 13% were 65 or older, and 26% were 18 or younger.

Mississippi is one of the most rural states in the United States. Mississippi’s largest city, Jackson, had an estimated 2005 population of 177,977. The Jackson metropolitan area that year had an estimated population of 517,275. Other major cities include Gulfport, 72,464, and Biloxi, 50,209.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, the state had 1,746,099 whites, 1,033,809 blacks, 39,569 Hispanics and Latinos, 11,652 Native Americans, and 667 Pacific Islanders. There were also 18,626 Asians, that same year, including 5,387 Vietnamese and 2,608 Filipinos. Mississippi had the lowest percentage of foreign-born residents in the country with 39,908 people, or 1.4% in 2000.

8 Languages

English in the state is largely Southern, with some South Midland speech in northern and eastern Mississippi. The absence of the final /r/ sound in a word is typical. South Midland terms in northern Mississippi include tow sack (burlap bag), snake doctor (dragonfly), and stone wall (rock fence). In the eastern section are found jew’s harp (harmonica) and croker sack (burlap bag). Southern speech in the southern half features the terms gallery for porch and mosquito hawk for dragonfly. Louisiana French has contributed armoire for wardrobe.

In 2000, of all Mississippi residents five years old and older, 96.4% spoke only English in the home. Other languages spoken at home, and the number of people who spoke them, included Spanish, 50,515, and French, 10,826.

9 Religions

Protestants have dominated Mississippi since the late 18th century. The Baptists are the leading denomination and many adherents are fundamentalists. Partly because of the strong church influence, Mississippi was among the first states to enact prohibition and among the last to repeal it.

In 2000, the two principal Protestant denominations were: the Southern Baptist Convention, with 916,440 adherents, and the United Methodist Church with 189,149 adherents in 2004. There were about 124,150 Roman Catholics in 2004. In 2000, there were an estimated 3,919 Muslims, and about 1,400 Jews. Over 1.2 million people (about 45.4% of the population) did not claim any religious affiliation.

10 Transportation

At the end of 2003, there were 2,658 miles (4,279 kilometers) of mainline railroad track in the state. Class I railroads included the Burlington Northern, CSX, Illinois Central Gulf, Kansas City Southern, and Norfolk Southern lines. As of 2006, rail passenger service was provided by Amtrak via its City of New Orleans train, which connected six cities in Mississippi with Chicago and New Orleans, and the Crescent, which connected four cities in the state with New Orleans and Atlanta.

In 2004, Mississippi had 74,129 miles (119,347 kilometers) of public roads. Major interstate highways are I-55, I-59, I-20, I-220, I-10, and I-110. Mileage of four-lane highways is increasing daily under a “pay-as-you-go” public works program passed by the Mississippi legislature in 1987 to provide a four-lane highway within 30 minutes or 30 miles (48 kilometers) of every citizen in the state. In 2004, there were 1,896,008 licensed drivers in Mississippi and 1.159 million registered motor vehicles, including 1.113 million automobiles and 815,000 trucks.

Mississippi’s ports and waterways serve a surrounding 16-state market. Mississippi has two deepwater seaports, Gulfport and Pascagoula, both located on the Gulf of Mexico. Other ports located on the Gulf include Port Bienville in Hancock County, and Biloxi in Harrison County. The Mississippi River flows along the western border of the state, linking the Gulf of Mexico to inland river states as far away as Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Mississippi is the largest commercial river in the country and the third-largest river system in the world. It carries the majority of the nation’s inland waterway tonnage. Mississippi River ports within the states are at Natchez, Vicksburg, Yazoo County, Greenville, and Rosedale.

To the east of Mississippi lies the Tennessee-Tombigbee (Tenn-Tom) Waterway, completed in 1984, which links the Tennessee and Ohio rivers with the Gulf of Mexico. The Tenn-Tom Waterway’s overall length is 232 miles (373 kilometers). Five local ports are located on the waterway: Yellow Creek, Itawamba, Amory, Aberdeen, and Columbus-Lowndes County.

In 2005, there were 191 airports in Mississippi, 51 heliports, and 1 STOLport (Short Take-Off and Landing). The state’s main airport is Jackson-Evers International Airport. In 2004, the airport had 639,947 passenger boardings.

11 History

Upon the appearance of the first Spanish explorers in the early 16th century, Mississippi’s Native Americans numbered some 30,000 and were divided into 15 tribes. Soon after the French settled in 1699, however, only three large tribes remained: the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Natchez. The French destroyed the Natchez in 1729–30 in retaliation for the massacre of a French settlement.

Spaniards, of whom Hernando de Soto in 1540–41 was the most notable, explored the area that is now Mississippi in the first half of the 16th century. The French explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, entered the lower Mississippi Valley in 1682 and named the entire area Louisiana in honor of the French King, Louis XIV. Soon the French opened settlements at Biloxi Bay (1699), Mobile (1702), Natchez (1716), and finally New Orleans (1718). After losing the French and Indian War, France ceded Louisiana to Spain, which ceded the portion of the colony east of the Mississippi to England, which governed the new lands as West Florida.

During the Revolutionary War, Spain once again seized West Florida, which it continued to rule almost to the end of the century, although the United States claimed the region after 1783. The US Congress organized the Mississippi Territory in 1798. The territory’s large size convinced Congress to organize the eastern half as the Alabama Territory in 1817. Congress then offered admission to the western half, which became the nation’s 20th state—Mississippi—on 10 December.

State Development After the opening of fertile Choctaw and Chickasaw lands for sale and settlement in the 1820s, cotton agriculture increased. Slavery was used to make farming profitable. As the profitability and number of slaves increased, so did attempts by ruling white Mississippians to justify slavery morally, socially, and economically. After Lincoln’s election to the US presidency, Mississippi became, on 9 January 1861, the second southern state to secede. Union forces maneuvered before Vicksburg for more than a year before Grant besieged the city and forced its surrender on 4 July 1863. Along with Vicksburg went the western half of Mississippi. Of the 78,000 Mississippians who fought in the Civil War, nearly 30,000 died.

Reconstruction was a tumultuous period during which the Republican Party encouraged blacks to vote and hold political office, while the native white Democrats resisted full freedom for their former slaves. The era from the end of Reconstruction (1875) to World War II was a period of economic, political, and social stagnation for Mississippi. White Mississippians discriminated against blacks through segregation laws and customs and a new state constitution that removed the last vestiges of their political rights. Mississippi’s agricultural economy, dominated by cotton and tenant farming, provided little economic opportunity for landless black farm workers. According to the Tuskegee

Institute, 538 blacks were lynched in Mississippi between 1883 and 1959, more than in any other state.

The Great Depression of the 1930s drove the state’s agricultural economy to the brink of disaster. In 1932, cotton sank to five cents a pound, and one-fourth of the state’s farmland was forfeited for nonpayment of taxes. World War II brought the first prosperity in a century to Mississippi. The war stimulated industrial growth and agricultural mechanization. By the early 1980s, Mississippi had become an industrial state.

Post-War Politics Politics in Mississippi have also changed considerably since World War II. Within little more than a generation, legal segregation was destroyed, and black people exercised full political rights for the first time since Reconstruction. However, the “Mississippi Summer” campaign that helped win these rights also resulted in the abduction and murder of three civil rights activists in June 1964, in Philadelphia, Mississippi.

As of 1990, the Mississippi Legislature was nearly 23% black in a state in which blacks constitute 33% of the population. In 1998, African Americans accounted for 36% of the state’s population.

In 1987, Mississippi elected a young reformist governor, Ray Mabus, who enacted the nation’s largest teacher pay increase in 1988. Nevertheless, teacher salaries in 1992, were still, on average, the second-lowest in the nation. Democratic Governor Ronnie Musgrove, elected in 2000, was able to win additional teacher pay increases from the legislature in 2001. Improving the educational system was a state priority in the mid-2000s.

Former chairman of the Republican National Committee, Haley Barbour, was elected governor in 2003. Barbour launched “Momentum Mississippi,” a long-range economic development strategy group composed of the state’s business and community leaders. In 2005, he introduced comprehensive education reform legislation to reward teacher and school performance, reduce state bureaucracy, and strengthen discipline in the state’s public schools.

Southern Mississippi was devastated by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. A 30-foot (10-meter) storm surge came ashore, destroying 90% of buildings along the Biloxi-Gulfport coastline. Casino barges were washed ashore, and about 800,000 people suffered power outages in Mississippi in the aftermath of the storm. Mississippi is one of the nation’s poorest states. This only exacerbated the problems facing residents as they tried to rebuild their lives and homes in Katrina’s aftermath.

12 State Government

Mississippi’s two-chamber legislature includes a 52-member Senate and a 122-member House of Representatives. All state legislators are elected to four-year terms. The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, state treasurer, state auditor, commissioner of insurance, and the commissioner of agriculture and commerce are independently elected for four-year terms. The governor is limited to two consecutive terms. The governor’s vote can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the members of both legislative chambers.

The legislative salary in 2004 was $10,000, and the governor’s salary was $122,160.

13 Political Parties

Mississippi was traditionally a Democratic state during most of the period since the end of Reconstruction. However, its Democratic Party splintered along racial lines. During the 1950s and early 1960s, the segregationist White Citizens’ Councils were so widespread and influential in the state as to rival the major parties in political importance.

In 1980, Ronald Reagan edged Jimmy Carter by a plurality of fewer than 12,000 votes. In 1984, however, Reagan won the state by a landslide, polling 62% of the vote. In the 2000 election, Republican George W. Bush won 57% of the vote and Democrat Al Gore received 42%. In 2004, President Bush won 59.6% of the vote, while John Kerry won 39.6%.

In 2003, Haley Barbour, a Republican, was elected to the state governorship. As of 2006, Mississippi’s two senators, Thad Cochran and Trent Lott, were also Republicans. Following the 2006 midterm elections, the state’s delegation to the US House of Representatives consisted of two Democrats and two Republicans. Following the 2006 elections, the state senate comprised 27 Democrats, 23 Republicans, and 2 Independents, while in the state’s house there were 74 Democrats, 46 Republicans, and 2 Independents. Twenty-four women were elected to the state legislature in 2006, or 13.8%. In

2002 there were 1,754,560 registered voters. There is no party registration in the state.

14 Local Government

Each of Mississippi’s 82 counties are divided into five districts, each of which elects a member to the county board of supervisors. As of 2005, Mississippi had 296 municipal governments. Most cities, including most of the larger ones, have a mayor and a city council, but some smaller cities are run by a commission or by a city manager. In 2005, there were 152 public school districts, and 458 special districts.

15 Judicial System

The Mississippi supreme court consists of a chief justice, two presiding justices, and eight associate justices. A new court of appeals was created in 1995. It consists of one chief judge, two presiding judges, and seven judges. The principal trial courts are the circuit courts, which try both civil and criminal cases. Small-claims courts are presided over by justices of the peace, who need not be lawyers.

In 2004, Mississippi’s violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault) was 295.1 incidents per 100,000 population. There were 20,983 prisoners in state and federal prisons in Mississippi as of 31 December 2004. The death penalty was reinstated in 1977, with lethal injection the sole method of execution. As of 1 January 2006, there were 65 inmates on death row.

16 Migration

In the late 18th century, most Mississippians were immigrants from other parts of the South and predominantly of Scotch-Irish descent. The opening of lands ceded by the Indians beginning in the 1820s brought tens of thousands of settlers into northern and central Mississippi. After the Civil War, there was little migration into the state, but much out-migration, mainly of blacks. The exodus from Mississippi was especially heavy during the 1940s and 1950s, when at least 720,000 people, nearly three-quarters of them black, left the state. During the 1960s, between 267,000 and 279,000 blacks departed while net white out-migration came to an end. Black out-migration slowed considerably during the 1970s.

Between 1990 and 1998, Mississippi had net gains of 43,000 in domestic migration and 6,000 in international migration. In the period 2000–05,

Mississippi Governors: 1817–2007

Democratic Republican – Dem-Rep
National Republican – Nat-Rep
1817–1820David HolmesDem-Rep
1820–1822George PoindexterDem-Rep
1822–1825Walter LeakeRepublican
1825–1826Gerard Chittoque BrandonJacksonian
1826David HolmesDem-Rep
1826–1832Gerard Chittoque BrandonJacksonian
1832–1833Abram Marshall ScottNat-Rep
1833Charles LynchWhig
1833–1835Hiram George RunnelsJacksonian
1835–1836John Anthony QuitmanDemocrat
1836–1838Charles LynchWhig
1838–1842Alexander Gallatin McNuttDemocrat
1842–1844Tilghman Mayfield TuckerDemocrat
1844–1848Albert Gallatin BrownDemocrat
1848–1850Joseph W. MatthewsDemocrat
1850–1851John Anthony QuitmanDemocrat
1851John Isaac GuionDemocrat
1851–1852James WhitfieldDemocrat
1852–1854Henry Stuart FooteDemocrat
1854John Jones PettusDemocrat
1854–1857John Jones McRaeDemocrat
1857–1859William McWillieDemocrat
1859–1863John Jones PettusDemocrat
1863–1865Charles ClarkDemocrat
1865William Lewis SharkeyProvisional
1865–1868Benjamin Grubb HumphreysDemocrat
1868–1870Adelbert AmesMilitary
1870–1871James Lusk AlcornRepublican
1871–1874Ridgley Ceylon PowersRepublican
1874–1876Adelbert AmesRepublican
1876–1882John Marshall StoneDemocrat
1882–1890Robert LowryDemocrat
1890–1896John Marshall StoneDemocrat
1896–1900Anselm Joseph McLaurinDemocrat
1900–1904Andrew Houston LonginoDemocrat
1904–1908James Kimble VardamanDemocrat
1908–1912Edmond Favor NoelDemocrat
1912–1916Earl LeRoy BrewerDemocrat
1916–1920Theodore Gilmore BilboDemocrat
1920–1924Lee Maurice RussellDemocrat
1924–1927Henry Lewis WhitfieldDemocrat
1927–1928Heron Dennis MurphreeDemocrat
1928–1932Theodore Gilmore BilboDemocrat
1932–1936Martin Sennett ConnerDemocrat
1936–1940Hugh Lawson WhiteDemocrat
1940–1943Paul Burney JohnsonDemocrat
1943–1944Herron Dennis MurphreeDemocrat
1944–1946Thomas Lowry BaileyDemocrat
1946–1952Fielding Lewis WrightDemocrat
1952–1956Hugh Lawson WhiteDemocrat
1956–1960James Plemon ColemanDemocrat
1960–1964Ross Robert BarnettDemocrat
1964–1968Paul Burney Johnson, Jr.Democrat
1968–1972John Bell WilliamsDemocrat
1972–1976William Lowe WallerDemocrat
1976–1980Charles Clifton FinchDemocrat
1980–1984William Forrest WinterDemocrat
1984–1988William A. AllainDemocrat
1988–1992Ray Mabus, Jr.Democrat
1992–2000Kirk FordiceRepublican
2000–2004Ronnie MusgroveDemocrat
2004–Haley BarbourRepublican

net international migration was 10,653 people, while net domestic migration was -10,578, for a net gain of 75 people.

17 Economy

Once the social turmoil of the 1950s and early 1960s had subsided, the impressive industrial growth of the immediate postwar years resumed. By the mid-1960s, manufacturing—attracted to the state, in part, because of low wage rates and a weak labor movement—surpassed farming as a source of jobs. During the following decade, the balance of industrial growth changed somewhat. The relatively low-paying garment, textile, and wood-products industries, based on cotton and timber, grew less rapidly than a number of heavy industries, including transportation equipment, and electric and electronic goods. The debut of casino gambling in the state in 1992 stimulated Mississippi’s economy. Still, Mississippi remains a poor state. Mississippi’s gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $76.166 billion. Of that amount, manufacturing accounted for the largest share at 15.9% of GSP. It was followed by the

Mississippi Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR MISSISSIPPI WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN STATES’ RIGHTS DEMOCRAT SOCIALIST WORKERS LIBERTARIAN
* Won US presidential election.
** Unpledged electors won plurality of votes and cast Mississippi’s electoral votes for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia.
1948Thurmond (SRD)19,3844,995167,538
1952Stevenson (D)172,553112,966
    INDEPENDENT   
1956Stevenson (D)144,45360,68342,961
    UNPLEDGED   
1960Byrd**108,36273,561116,248
1964Goldwater (R)52,616356,512
    AMERICAN IND.   
1968Wallace (AI)150,64488,516415,349
    AMERICAN   
1972*Nixon (R)126,782505,12511,5982,458
1976*Carter (D)381,309366,8466,6782,8052,788
    WORKERS’ WORLD   
1980*Reagan (R)429,281441,0892,4022,2404,702
1984*Reagan (R)352,192582,3772,336
1988*Bush (R)363,921557,890  3,329
    IND. (PEROT) NEW ALLIANCE  
1992Bush (R)400,258487,79385,6262,6252,154
1996Dole (R)394,022439,83852,2222,809
    PROGRESSIVE (NADER)   
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)404,614572,8448,1226132,009
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)458,094684,9811,793

real estate sector at 9.4%, and by healthcare and social assistance at 7.2%.

Of the 54,117 businesses in Mississippi that had employees, an estimated 96.8% were small companies.

18 Income

In 2004, Mississippi ranked 51st among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $24,518, compared to the national average of $33,050. Median household income for the three-year period 2002 through 2004 was $33,659, compared to the national average of $44,473. For that same period, an estimated 17.7% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to 12.4% nationwide.

19 Industry

In 2004, the shipment value of all goods manufactured in Mississippi totaled $43.862 billion. Of that total, transportation equipment manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $7.694 billion, followed by food manufacturing at $5.798 billion, and chemical manufacturing at $4.832 billion.

In 2004, a total of 169,947 people were employed in the state’s manufacturing sector. Of that total, food manufacturing accounted for the largest portion at 28,815, followed by furniture

and related products manufacturing at 26,292 people, and transportation equipment manufacturing at 25,689.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Mississippi numbered 1,314,300, with approximately 101,000 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 7.7%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. According to nonfarm employment data released in April 2006, construction accounted for 4.8% of the labor force; manufacturing, 15.5%; trade, transportation, and public utilities, 19.8%; professional and business services, 7.9%; education and health services, 10.8%; leisure and hospitality services, l0.2%; and government, 21.4%. Data was not available for financial activities.

In 2005, a total of 77,000 of Mississippi’s 1,089,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of a union. This represented 7.1% of those employed, up from 4.9% in 2004, but still below the national average of 12%.

21 Agriculture

In 2005, Mississippi ranked 26th among the states in income from agriculture, with marketings of over $3.85 billion. Crops accounted for $1.24 billion, with livestock and livestock products at $2.61 billion.

The history of agriculture in the state is dominated by cotton, which from the 1830s through World War II was Mississippi’s principal cash crop. During the postwar period, however, as mechanized farming replaced the sharecropper system, agriculture became more diversified. During the period 2000–04, Mississippi ranked third in cotton and fourth in rice production among the 50 states.

Federal estimates for 2004 showed some 42,200 farms with a total area of 11 million acres (4.5 million hectares. The richest soil is in the Delta, where most of the cotton is raised. Livestock has largely taken over the Black Belt, a fertile area in the northwest.

22 Domesticated Animals

Cattle are raised throughout the state, though principally in the Black Belt and Delta regions. The main chicken-raising area is in the eastern hills.

In 2005, there were around 1.07 million cattle and calves, valued at $834.6 million. In 2004, there were around 315,000 hogs and pigs, valued at $34.6 million. Mississippi is a leading producer of broilers, ranking fifth in 2003, with some 4.3 billion pounds (2 billion kilograms) of broilers worth $1.51 billion, were produced that year.

23 Fishing

In 2004, Mississippi ranked ninth among the 50 states in size of commercial fish landings, with a total of 183.7 million pounds (83.5 million kilograms) valued at $43.8 million. Of this total, 162.8 million pounds (74 million kilograms) were landed at Pascagoula-Moss Point, the nation’s eighth-largest port for commercial landings. Shrimp and blue crab made up the bulk of the commercial landings. The saltwater catch also includes mullet and red snapper. The freshwater catch is dominated by buffalo fish, carp, and catfish. In 2003, the state had 35 processing and 31 wholesale plants employing about 2,706 people. In 2002, the commercial fishing fleet had 1,365 boats and vessels.

Mississippi is one of the leading states in cat-fish farming, mostly from ponds in the Yazoo River basin. There are 410 catfish farms in operation. In 2004, the state issued 369,252 sport fishing licenses. The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Parks operates 21 fishing lakes.

24 Forestry

Mississippi had approximately 18,605,000 acres (7,529,000 hectares) of forested land in 2004, about 60% of the state’s total land area. Six national forests extend over 1.1 million acres (445,000 hectares). The state’s most heavily forested region is the Piney Woods in the southeast. Of the state’s total commercial timberland, 90% is privately owned. Some of this land was also used for agricultural purposes (grazing). Lumber production in 2004 totaled 2.74 billion board feet (sixth in the United States).

25 Mining

Mississippi’s nonfuel mineral production in 2003 was valued at $174 million. Construction sand and gravel was the leading nonfuel mineral in 2003, accounting for about 40% of the state’s total nonfuel mineral production, by value, followed by fuller’s earth, crushed stone, portland cement, and industrial sand and gravel. According to preliminary figures for 2003, the state produced 12.8 million metric tons of construction sand and gravel, and 2.5 million metric tons of crushed stone.

By volume, Mississippi ranked second among the states in the production of fuller’s earth, third in bentonite, and fourth in ball clay.

26 Energy and Power

In 2003, Mississippi’s net summer electric power generating capacity stood at 17.282 million kilowatts, with total production in that same year at 40.148 billion kilowatt hours. The largest portion of all electricity generated came from coal-fired plants at 42.5%, with nuclear power generation accounting for 27.2% of output, and natural gas plants accounting for 23.6%. The remaining output came from plants using other renewable sources, petroleum, or other types of gases. As of 2006, the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, built by Mississippi Power Company in Claiborne County, was the state’s sole nuclear power facility.

Mississippi is a major petroleum producer. As of 2004, the state ranked 14th in proven reserves and 13th in output among the 31 oil producing states. In that same year, the state had 1,412 producing wells. Production of crude oil in 2004 averaged 47,000 barrels per day, while the state had proven reserves of 178 million barrels, that year. Natural gas production by Mississippi in 2004 totaled 145.692 billion cubic feet (4.13 billion cubic meters). As of 31 December 2004, the state’s proven reserves of consumer-grade natural gas stood at 995 billion cubic feet (28.2 billion cubic meters). Most production comes from the south-central part of the state.

In 2004, Mississippi had only one producing coal mine. Production that year totaled 3.586 million tons.

27 Commerce

In 2002, Mississippi’s wholesale trade sector had sales of $19.2 billion, while the state’s retail trade sector that year had sales of $25.01 billion. Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest portion of retail sales in 2002 at $6.4 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $5.1 billion. Exports of goods produced in Mississippi totaled $4 billion in 2005.

28 Public Finance

Two state budgets are prepared each year, one by the State Department of Finance and Administration, which represents the governor’s office, and one by the Joint Legislative Budget Committee, which represents the legislature. Both are submitted to the legislature for reconciliation and approval of a final plan. The fiscal year runs from 1 July through 30 June.

Total revenues for 2004 were $15.35 billion, while total expenditures that year totaled $14.33 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($4.3 billion), public welfare ($4.04 billion), and highways ($1.01 billion). The state’s outstanding debt in 2004 was $4.27 billion, or $1,473.62 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

The state income tax for both individuals and corporations ranges from 3% to 5%. Mississippi also imposes severance taxes on oil, natural gas, timber and salt. A 7% retail sales tax is levied, with local-option sales taxes permitted only up to 0.25%. The state also imposes a full array of excise taxes covering motor fuels, tobacco products, insurance premiums, public utilities, alcoholic beverages amusements, pari-mutuels, and many other selected items. Other state taxes include various license fee and state property taxes, though most property taxes are collected at the local level.

The state collected $5.432 billion in taxes in 2005, of which 47.6% came from the general sales tax, 21.6% from individual income taxes, 17.2% from selective sales taxes, and 5.2% from corporate income taxes. The remainder came from property and various other taxes. In 2005, Mississippi ranked 39th among the states in terms of combined state and local tax burden, which amounted to $1,860 per person, compared to the per capita national average of $2,192.

In October 2005, Mississippi’s infant mortality rate was estimated at 9.6 per 1,000 live births, the second-highest in the United States (followed by the District of Columbia). The overall rate of death in 2003 stood at 9.9 per 1,000 population. Leading causes of death were heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Mississippi had the nation’s third-highest death rates from heart disease and homicides, as well as one of the highest accidental death rates. The HIV-related death rate was 6.4 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was around 16.5 per 100,000 people. In that same year, about 24.4% of the state’s population were smokers.

Mississippi’s 93 community hospitals had about 13,000 beds in 2003. In 2005 there were 889 nurses per 100,000 people, while in 2004, there were 182 physicians per 100,000 population, and 1,159 dentists in the state. The average expense for community hospital care was $882 per day in 2003. In 2004, approximately 18% of the state’s adult population had no health insurance.

31 Housing

In 2004, Mississippi had 1,221,240 housing units, of which 1,074,503 were occupied, and 69.6% were owner-occupied. About 69.4% of all units were single-family, detached homes, while 13.7% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources to all units. It was estimated that 92,908 units lacked telephone service, 8,325 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 9,387 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.61 people.

In 2004, a total of 14,500 privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $79,023, the second lowest in the country (above Arkansas). The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $843. Renters paid a median of $529 per month.

32 Education

In 2004, of all Mississippians age 25 and older, 83% had completed high school, while only 20.1% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Mississippi’s reaction to the US Supreme Court decision in 1954 mandating public school desegregation was to repeal the constitutional requirement for public schools and to foster the development of segregated private schools. In 1964, the state’s schools did begin to integrate. In 1982, a system of free public kindergartens was established for the first time.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 489,000 in fall 2003 and is expected to total 469,000 by fall 2014. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 49,729. Expenditures for public education in 2003/2004 were estimated at $3.4 billion.

As of fall 2002, there were 147,077 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, Mississippi had 40 degree-granting institutions including 9 public 4-year institutions, 17 public 2-year institutions, and 11 nonprofit private 4-year schools. Important institutions of higher learning in Mississippi include the University of Mississippi (established in 1844), Mississippi State University, and the University of Southern Mississippi. Predominantly black institutions include Tougaloo College, Alcorn State University, Jackson State University, and Mississippi Valley State University.

33 Arts

Jackson has two ballet companies, a symphony orchestra, and two opera companies. Opera South, an integrated but predominantly black company, presents free operas during its summer tours, and two major productions yearly. The Mississippi Opera instituted a summer festival during its 1980/81 season. There are local symphony orchestras in Meridian, Starkville, Tupelo, and Greenville.

Professional theaters in the state include the Sheffield Ensemble in Biloxi and the New Stage in Jackson. The Greater Gulf Coast Arts Center has been very active in bringing arts programs into the coastal area.

A distinctive contribution to US culture is the music of black sharecroppers from the Delta, known as the blues. The Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale has an extensive collection documenting blues history. The annual Mississippi Delta Blues and Heritage Festival is held in Greenville.

The Mississippi Arts Commission oversees many arts programs throughout the state.

34 Libraries and Museums

As of September 2001, there were 237 libraries in the state, of which 189 were branches. In that same year, the state’s libraries had 5.6 million volumes, and a total circulation of 8.898 million. In the Vicksburg-Warren County Public Library are collections on the Civil War, state history, and oral history. Tougaloo College has special collections of African materials, civil rights papers, and oral history. The Gulf Coast Research Library of Ocean Springs has a marine biology collection.

There are 65 museums, including the distinguished Mississippi State Historical Museum at Jackson, the Mississippi Blues Museum at Clarksdale, and the Lauren-Rogers Museum of Art in Laurel. Beauvoir, Jefferson Davis’s home at Biloxi, is a state shrine and includes a museum. The Mississippi Museum of Natural Science in Jackson has been designated as the state’s official natural science museum by the legislature. In Meridian is a museum devoted to country singer Jimmie Rodgers. The Mississippi governor’s mansion, said to be the second-oldest executive residence in the United States, is a National Historical Landmark.

35 Communications

In 2004, only 89.6% of the state’s occupied housing units had telephones, the second-lowest rate in the United States. In June of that same year, Mississippi had over 1.4 million wireless telephone service subscribers. In 2003, computers were in 48.3% of all households in the state, while 38.9% had access to the Internet. In 2005, the state had 64 major operating radio stations (7 AM, 57 FM), and 14 major television stations. A total of 17,234 Internet domain names had been registered in Mississippi by the year 2000.

36 Press

In 2005, Mississippi had 23 daily newspapers, which included 8 morning dailies and 15 evening dailies. In addition there were 18 Sunday papers in the state. The state’s leading newspaper is the Jackson Clarion–Ledger, with a weekday circulation of 94,938 (107,865 Sunday) in 2004. A monthly, Mississippi Magazine, is published in Jackson.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2004, there were 30 million overnight travelers in Mississippi, with about 83% of all visitors traveling from out of state. In 2002, total travel

expenditures reached about $6.4 billion, which supported more than 126,500 travel-related jobs.

Among Mississippi’s major tourist attractions are its riverboat casinos, mansions and plantations, of which many of the latter two are located in the Natchez area. At Greenwood is the Florewood River Plantation, a museum re-creating 19th-century plantation life. The Natchez Trace Parkway, Gulf Islands National Seashore, and Vicksburg National Military Park attract the most visitors annually. There are also 6 national forests and 24 state parks.

In 2005, many of the state’s attractions were damaged by Hurricane Katrina, and as of 2006, had not fully recovered.

38 Sports

Although there are no professional major league sports teams in Mississippi, Jackson does have a minor league baseball team, the Senators, of the Central League. There is also a minor league hockey team in Biloxi, as well as teams in Jackson and Tupelo. The University of Mississippi has long been prominent in college football. “Ole Miss” teams have won six bowl games. The Ole Miss Rebels play in the Southeastern Conference, as do the Mississippi State Bulldogs. The University of Southern Mississippi is a member of Conference USA.

Other annual sporting events of interest include the Dixie National Livestock Show and Rodeo, held in Jackson in February, and the Southern Farm Bureau Classic, held in Madison in October and November.

39 Famous Mississippians

Mississippi’s most famous political figure, Jefferson Davis (b.Kentucky, 1808–1889), was president of the Confederacy from 1861 until the defeat of the South in 1865. Imprisoned for two years after the Civil War (though never tried), Davis lived the last years of his life at Beauvoir, an estate on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (b.Georgia, 1825–1893), who served as Confederate minister to Russia, was appointed secretary of the interior in 1885 and later named to the US Supreme Court.

Some of the foremost authors of 20th-century America had their origins in Mississippi. Supreme among them is William Faulkner (1897–1962), whose novels included such classics as The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Light

in August (1932). Faulkner received two Pulitzer Prizes, and in 1949 was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Richard Wright (1908–1960), a powerful writer and leading spokesperson for the black Americans of his generation, is best remembered for his novel Native Son (1940) and for Black Boy (1945), an autobiographical account of his Mississippi childhood.

Other native Mississippians of literary renown (and Pulitzer Prize winners) are Eudora Welty (1909–2001); Tennessee Williams (Thomas Lanier Williams, 1911–1983); and playwright Beth Henley (b.1952). Other Mississippi authors are Shelby Foote (1916–2005); Walker Percy (b.Alabama, 1916–1990); and Willie Morris (1934–1999).

Among the state’s numerous musicians are Leontyne Price (Mary Violet Leontine Price, b.1927), a distinguished opera soprano born in Laurel, Mississippi; famous blues singers Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield, 1915–1983); John Lee Hooker (1917–2001); and Riley “B. B.” King (b.1925). Mississippi’s contributions to music also include Jimmie Rodgers (1897–1933), Bo Diddley (Ellas McDaniels, b.1928), Conway Twitty (1933–1994), and Charley Pride (b.1939). Elvis Presley (1935–1977), born in Tupelo, was one of the most popular singers in US history. Other entertainers from Mississippi include Muppet creator Jim Henson (1936–1990) and Oprah Winfrey (b.1954).

Football greats Walter Payton (1954–1999) and Jerry Rice (b.1962), along with boxing legend Archie Moore (1916–1998), were born and raised in Mississippi.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Ballard, Michael B. Civil War Mississippi: A Guide. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. Mississippi. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2006.

Gibson, Karen Bush. Mississippi Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Harmon, Daniel E. La Salle and the Exploration of the Mississippi. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2000.

Isaacs, Sally Senzell. Life on a Southern Plantation. Chicago: Heinemann, 2001.

Lourie, Peter. Mississippi River: A Journey Down the Father of Waters. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, 2000.

Mudd-Ruth, Maria. The Mississippi River. New York: Benchmark Books, 2001.

Murray, Julie. Mississippi. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Siebert, Diane. Mississippi. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001.

WEB SITES

Mississippi Welcome Centers. Mississippi. www.visitmississippi.org (accessed March 1, 2007).

State of Mississippi. Mississippi.gov. www.mississippi.gov/index.jsp (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Mississippi

Mississippi

On December 10, 1817, Mississippi became the twentieth state admitted into the Union. Located in the eastern southcentral United States, the state is bordered by Alabama , Louisiana , Arkansas , and Tennessee . It is the thirty-second largest state with a total area of 47,689 square miles (123,514 square kilometers).

The first Spanish explorers arrived in what is present-day Mississippi in the early sixteenth century and found approximately thirty thousand Native Americans divided into fifteen tribes. By the time the French settled in 1699, only three large tribes remained: Natchez, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

The Mississippi Territory was organized in 1798. It was large enough that Congress decided to organize the eastern half as the Alabama Territory in 1817. The western half became the state of Mississippi.

Mississippi was the second Southern state to secede from the Union after Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865; served 1861–65) was elected president. (See Secession .) Nearly thirty thousand of the seventy-eight thousand Mississippians who fought in the American Civil War (1861–65) died.

Although the Civil War brought freedom to the state's slaves, white Mississippians continued to discriminate against African Americans through segregation laws and customs. The state's agricultural economy was dominated by cotton and tenant farming, and there was little opportunity for landless African American farm workers. Between 1883 and 1959, 538 African Americans were lynched (tortured and hanged) in Mississippi, more than in any other state.

The Great Depression (1929–41) hit the state hard; cotton sank to five cents per pound in 1932, and one-fourth of the state's farmland was taken for nonpayment of taxes. World War II (1939–45) stimulated industrial growth, and by the early 1980s, Mississippi's economy had become one of industry.

Mississippi was one of the main sites of social turmoil throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s, due primarily to the civil rights movement . By end of the 1960s, manufacturing surpassed farming as a way of life. This occured because residents accepted low wages and did little to organize formal labor unions. The garment, textile, and wood-products industries were traditionally low paying anyway. Despite the introduction of casino gambling in 1992, Mississippi remains a poor state. In 2004, it ranked fifty-first among the fifty states and the District of Columbia with a per person income of $24,518. The national average at that time was $33,050.

Mississippi was home to 2.9 million people in 2006. The population was 60.8 percent white, 36.5 percent African American. The capital city of Jackson had an estimated population in 2005 of 177,977, which was larger than any other city in the state. Of the state's population, 27 percent of residents are between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four; 26 percent are under the age of eighteen.

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

The nation's poorest state, Mississippi upsets dominant notions of LGBT community and history. Less a matter of migration to cities, queer life more commonly has been characterized by careful negotiation of local institutions—home, church, school, and workplace. Although often assumed hostile to sexual and gender nonconformity, these very sites are where they have flourished. Elder LGBT Mississippians recall meeting sexual partners at church socials and family reunions, in classrooms and on shop floors, on athletic fields and at roadside rest areas. While households, employers, and educational and religious organizations sometimes condemned "deviant" sexualities and genders, their buildings and grounds became the most common sites for queer sexual activity.

Finding friends and partners across a largely rural landscape, queer Mississippians have relied on various means of transportation, on circulation as much as congregation. The state has long harbored queer networks but only recently lesbian and gay cultures. Before the 1960s, same-sex play between adolescents was tacitly condoned, and queer sex among adults was clandestine but commonplace. Although oral and anal sex were criminalized by the 1839 sodomy law and seven men were imprisoned under the statute as of 1880, homosexual activity was quietly accommodated with a prevailing pretense of ignorance. By the 1970s, however, LGBT identity politics and organized Christian resistance grew hand in hand.

For women in particular, education and separatist organizations have proved critical in the forging of same-sex worlds and relationships. In the early 1890s, famed suffragist Pauline Orr and Miriam Paslay created a life together as professors at the first state-funded women's college in the United States, what would become the Mississippi University for Women. The two sparked feminist resistance to corrupt male college presidents in Columbus, Mississippi. They promoted a broad curriculum for women instead of domestic sciences. And they advocated equal pay for equal work at other state universities. Following in that tradition, in the early 1990s, Brenda and Wanda Hinson founded Camp Sister Spirit near Ovett. Despite death threats, the couple developed their feminist rural retreat for women-only, lesbian, and gay male events. They further cultivated a nonprofit organization for the alleviation of hunger, poverty, and bigotry in the region. Though anchored in state and local struggles for social change, Orr and Paslay and the Hinsons became key figures in national and international women's reform movements.

For at least a hundred years, mainstream media generated queer scandal around male public figures implicated in homosexual acts. In the 1890s, newspapers exposed Professor William Sims, who was kicked off the faculty at the University of Mississippi, as well as planter-politician Dabney Marshall, who murdered his accuser. In the 1980s, TV and press reporters hounded U.S. Representative Jon Hinson and Governor Bill Allain, who nonetheless clung to elective office. While oppressive discourses continually cast homosexuality as new or as only occurring outside the state, a number of Mississippi writers produced queer narratives with local settings—from playwrights Mart Crowley and Tennessee Williams to novelists Hubert Creekmore and Thomas Hal Phillips, from poet and memoirist William Alexander Percy to physique artist and pulp novelist Carl Corley.

Scandals involving black civil rights activist Aaron Henry and white advocate Bill Higgs marked a crucial turning point in regional queer history. When accused in the early 1960s of intercourse with younger men, the two movement leaders inevitably denied the allegations. Such dissembling was second nature, given the cultural climate. But the linkage of queer sexuality to racial equality was thereby established, both in alarmist rhetoric and in practice. Thus, a strident legal-political crackdown against LGBT Mississippians emerged not in the 1950s, as elsewhere, but in the 1960s, as part of the massive resistance to African American freedom struggles.

LGBT bars date back at least to the 1940s; there were friendly or accommodating establishments even earlier, most with markedly mixed clienteles of young and old, women and men, the gender normative and non-normative. Mirroring larger divides, however, they often have remained racially segregated. When towns and cities achieved the critical mass to support more than one queer bar, separate black and white establishments usually resulted. In Jackson in the 1970s and 1980s, the two were located directly across the street from one another.

Although fundamentalist preachers from Mississippi founded some of today's most retrograde vehicles of homophobia (Donald Wildmon's American Family Association and Fred Phelps's God Hates Fags), many queer Mississippians, black and white, have retained strong commitments to Christian spirituality. While the Mississippi Gay Alliance, founded in 1973, and its longtime leader, Eddie Sandifer, often advocated a radical political agenda linking various left causes, the most successful organizing, Sandifer concedes, has been through LGBT congregations such as the Metropolitan Community Church, first opened in Jackson in 1983. Today the political struggle is largely led by Equality Mississippi and its executive director, Jody Renaldo. An annual Mississippi LGBT Summit, uniting a variety of university student groups and other social and political organizations, is hosted by Camp Sister Spirit.

Transgender persons have occasionally found amenable physicians, including gay doctor Ben Folk, and hospitals for treatments, as at the University Medical Center in Jackson. More frequently they have traveled—as far as Brussels—for lower-cost sex reassignment surgery.

Interestingly, relatively few queer Mississippians over the years have moved to the LGBT enclaves of major cities. Of those who have, many have returned to the state regularly throughout their lives and permanently in retirement. Ironically, as mainstream media fixate on rural prejudice and brutality, American AVPs, or antiviolence projects, report a far greater incidence of homophobic assault and murder in urban centers, with their high LGBT visibility. Thus, some LGBT people find greater safety in Mississippi, whereas many queer urbanites consider the form of selective visibility practiced there an ideological impossibility. Often belittled as backward or exceptionally repressive, Mississippi continues to hold a deep emotional grip upon its queer natives.

Bibliography

Greene, Kate. "Fear and Loathing in Mississippi: The Attack on Camp Sister Spirit." Women and Politics 17, no. 3 (1997).

Howard, John. Men Like That: A Southern Queer History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

——. "The Talk of the County: Revisiting Accusation, Murder, and Mississippi, 1895." In Queer Studies: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Edited by Robert J. Corber and Stephen Valocchi. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Howard, John, ed., Carryin' On in the Lesbian and Gay South. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Wilkerson-Freeman, Sarah. "Love and Liberation: Southern Women-Loving-Women and the Power of the Heart." Paper presented to the Organization of American Historians, Memphis, Tenn., April 2003.

John Howard

see alsoford, charles henri; walker, a'lelia; williams, tennessee; womack, h. lynn.

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Mississippi

Mississippi

Virtute et armis (By valor and arms).

At a Glance

Name: Mississippi comes from a Native American word that means "father of waters."

Nickname: Magnolia State

Capital: Jackson

Size: 47.695 sq. mi. (123,530 sq km)

Population: 2,844,658

Statehood: Mississippi became the 20th state on December 10, 1817.

Electoral votes: 6 (2004)

State representatives: 5 (until 2003)

State tree: magnolia

State flower: magnolia

State fish: black bass

Highest point: Woodall Mountain, 806 ft. (246 m)

The Place

Mississippi is located in the Deep South and was named after the Mississippi River, which forms most of its western border. Part of the Mississippi River Delta, the triangular area around the mouth of the river, forms the western corner of the state. The Mississippi has also left behind many oxbow (crescent-shaped) lakes that were once curves in the river.

The rest of the state is covered with gently rolling hills, forests, and prairies. The Black Belt, so named for the deep color of its soil, is in northeastern Mississippi. The Gulf of Mexico, with its sandy beaches, forms Mississippi's southern border.

Many different crops grow well in Mississippi because of its warm, humid climate. Summers are long and cooled by winds from the Gulf of Mexico, and winters are short and mild. Hurricanes sometimes occur in late summer and early fall.

The Past

Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto first sailed down the Mississippi River in 1541 and found members of the Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Natchez Native American tribes living in the Mississippi region. He did not find gold as he had hoped, so he left the area and did not establish any settlements there.

Mississippi: Facts and Firsts

  1. The rarest kind of North American crane, the Mississippi sandhill crane, is found only in the grassy savannas of Jackson County. This four-foot-tall bird has a six-foot wingspan.
  2. In 1834, Captain Isaac Ross founded the African country of Liberia when he freed all the slaves on his Lorman plantation and paid for their transportation back to Africa.
  3. During the Civil War, more people from Mississippi died than from any other state. Of the 78,000 Mississippians that fought in the Confederate army, more than 59,000 were wounded or killed in battle.
  4. The world's first human lung and heart transplants were performed at the University of Mississippi in 1963 and 1964.

Later, French colonists from Canada became the first white settlers in Mississippi. They brought in the first slaves from Africa in 1719 to work in their rice and tobacco fields. The French lost the region to England after the British helped the Native Americans take back control of their land during the French and Indian War. After the American Revolution, the British surrendered the area to the United States, and Mississippi became a state in 1817.

By 1832, most of the Native Americans had been forcibly removed to Oklahoma Territory, and settlers moved west into the region to farm the newly available land. Cotton plantations quickly were built all over the state. During the Civil War, Mississippi residents fought on the Southern side to maintain their right to use slave labor on their vast plantations.

After the Civil War, the loss of revenue from cotton caused the economy to suffer, but the construction of railroads provided access to the state's pine forests, and lumbering became an important industry. During World War II, the shipbuilding industry prospered.

Mississippi: State Smart

The University of Mississippi has the country's largest collection of blues music—more than 50,000 recordings.

Agriculture grew until the 1960s, when machines began to replace human labor on farms. During the latter half of the 20th century, Mississippi worked to attract new industries that would employ many of the workers no longer needed on farms. During the 1980s and 1990s, unemployment rose and low-income households increased in number.

The Present

Mississippi suffers from high unemployment rates and low wages. During the last two decades, Mississippi has had one of the lowest average family incomes of any state. The state has attempted to attract new industries in an effort to improve its economy.

A leading producer of chickens and cotton, Mississippi also produces petroleum and meat. Manufactured goods include chemicals, wood products, ships, and machinery such as engines and farm equipment.

Cities along the Mississippi River are important trade and business centers. Many telecommunications and financial services companies have offices in river cities, including Jackson. Stennis Space Center in Hancock is a rocket-testing site for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Born in Mississippi

  1. Jimmy Buffett , singer and songwriter
  2. Bo Diddley , musician
  3. William Faulkner , author
  4. Morgan Freeman , actor
  5. Jim Henson , puppeteer
  6. James Earl Jones , actor
  7. B.B. King , musician
  8. Willie Morris , author
  9. Elvis Presley , singer and actor
  10. Jerry Rice , football player
  11. LeAnn Rimes , singer
  12. Sela Ward , actress
  13. Eudora Welty , author
  14. Tennessee Williams , playwright
  15. Oprah Winfrey , talk show host and actress

Mississippi's Gulf Coast, with its white beaches, is a popular tourist destination, and tourism provides a significant source of revenue. Casino gaming has also become a profitable industry in the state.

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Mississippi

MISSISSIPPI

The United States acquired most of the land that became the state of Mississippi (with the notable exception of the Gulf Coast) in 1795 through the Treaty of San Lorenzo. The primary purpose of this agreement was to normalize trading relations between the United States and Spain, but the result was the first major acquisition of new territory since the Revolution and, eventually, the creation of a distinct subregion within the slaveholding South.

In 1798 Congress created a governance plan for the new Mississippi Territory that drew heavily on the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, with the notable exception of permitting slavery. In the years that followed, cotton began to emerge as the major agricultural product. The largest European settlement was Natchez, located on the eastern banks of the Mississippi River approximately 150 miles north of New Orleans. Originally fostered by the Spanish, Natchez was a rough trading outpost that served as the home to the local Creole elite, an aspiring polyglot population of French, Spanish, and British ancestry that had established its wealth primarily through commerce down the Mississippi River or through the Indian trade. Outside the emerging plantation region along the Mississippi, Indians—most notably the Chickasaw, Choctaw, and the Creek—successfully resisted most European and Anglo-American efforts to extend either settlement or political influence.

Undermining Indian power, promoting white settlement, and eliminating Spanish threats to American security became interconnected goals of federal policy in the Mississippi Territory. The collapse of the Spanish Empire and the War of 1812 (1812–1815) created the pretext by which the United States seized portions of the Gulf Coast. These successes against the Spanish helped the U.S. Army conquer the Mississippi Indians, eventually forcing them to accept peace on American terms, which included major land cessions.

The number of Anglo-American settlers and African Americans grew in direct proportion to the death or eviction of Indians and the ejection of Spanish authority. In 1800 the Mississippi Territory had approximately 8,850 non-Indian residents. By 1810 the total had increased to just over 40,352. Almost 40 percent of the population was enslaved. Meanwhile, the white population was emerging in two distinct cultural regions. Western Mississippi, especially the Mississippi Delta, continued to be a center of wealth emanating from plantation agriculture. Much of the region eventually became home to a slave majority. In sharp contrast, many of the settlers in eastern Mississippi were of more modest means, establishing farms with few or no slaves. Different economies and folkways increasingly distinguished the eastern and western portions of the territory. When Congress permitted the first steps toward statehood, it divided the territory along these lines. The western portion entered the Union in 1817 as the state of Mississippi. The eastern portion entered two years later as the state of Alabama. The population in both states continued to surge. By 1820, Mississippi had over seventy-five thousand non-Indian residents.

Despite their differences, the white populations of Mississippi and Alabama remained united in their defense of slavery. Into the antebellum era, the two states carved from the Mississippi Territory developed some of the most repressive racial regimes. Accordingly, they fostered a political culture that responded with increasingly shrill defensiveness to any criticism of slavery or efforts to limit its expansion.

See alsoAmerican Indians: Old Southwest; Cotton; Northwest and Southwest Ordinances; Slavery: Overview .

bibliography

Libby, David J. Slavery and Frontier Mississippi, 1720–1835. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.

Morris, Christopher. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770–1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Skates, John Ray. Mississippi, A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1979.

Peter J. Kastor

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Mississippi

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Mississippi

Mississippi

Natchez
Natchez Trace

Until 1795 the Spanish claimed that the northern boundary of their Mississippi territory, acquired by the Treaty of 1783, was an east-west line from today's Vicksburg to the Chattahoochee. (See also the introduction to alabama.) The French established their first permanent settlement near Biloxi in 1699, then moved across the bay in 1719 to build a town where today's city stands. Biloxi was the capital of French Louisiana from then until 1723, when New Orleans took over the role. (The first capital was Mobile, Alabama.)

Mississippi has a number of important prehistoric sites and a great many pertaining to the Civil War, but few related to the American Revolution. Sources of information are Mississippi State Department of Archives and History, 200 North Street, Jackson, Miss. 39201, phone: (601) 576-6850; and the Mississippi Development Authority (Division of Tourism), P.O. Box 849, Jackson, Miss. 39205, website: www.visitmississippi.org, phone: (601) 359-3297. The Division of Tourism offers state maps, organizers, and travel brochures that are available by calling (800) 733-6477.

Natchez

Natchez, Mississippi River, Adams County. For protection of warehouses here the French built Fort Rosalie with willing help from the Natchez Indians in 1716, naming the fort for the Duchess of Pontchartrain. Once the Natchez realized that the French came as conquerors, relations worsened. In 1729 the Indians rebelled against the French, killing more than two hundred, capturing about the same number of soldiers and settlers, and destroying the fort. The French retaliated, driving the Natchez from the area. The region passed under British control in the Treaty of 1763, but it was not until 1778 that Fort Rosalie was rebuilt, garrisoned, and renamed Fort Panmure. Spain declared war on Great Britain the next year, and Governor de Galvez promptly moved up the river to take Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez. Fort Panmure changed hands several times more before being abandoned. The site is at the foot of South Broadway, on the bluff, directly behind one of the antebellum houses, Rosalie (1820), for which Natchez is now famous. Rosalie is owned and maintained by the local DAR and guided tours are offered on the hour. Phone: (601) 446-5676.

The Grand Village of the Natchez has been reconstructed with a museum chronicling the history of the Natchez and displaying artifacts from this archeological site. Take U.S. 61 south from the center of Natchez to 400 Jefferson Davis Boulevard. The site is open Monday to Saturday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and Sunday 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Phone: (601) 446-6502. The Natchez Historical Society is a recommended source for local colonial history and produces a mixture of historical programs. Reach the society by mail at P.O. Box 49, Natchez, Miss. 39121, or by email at: [email protected]

Natchez Trace

Natchez Trace. The 444-mile Natchez Trace Parkway, which runs between Natchez and Nashville, Tennessee, follows the general route of the famous Indian trail dating from prehistoric times. Called the Chickasaw-Choctaw Trail during the period of French domination and the Path to the Choctaw Nation after the British gained control, it subsequently became known as the Natchez Trace. Before conflicts between European interests and Indian troubles ended in about 1820, opening the Mississippi to the new steamboat traffic, the Natchez Trace was the most traveled road in the Old Southwest.

Historic sites along the Natchez Trace Parkway are indicated by markers, and a number of interpretive exhibits point out their significance. The main visitor center is at Tupelo, Mississippi at Parkway milepost 266, and is open year-round from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Its mailing address is 2680 Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, Miss. 38804. Phone: (800) 305-7417.

Just off the Parkway northwest of Tupelo between U.S. 78 and Miss. 6 is the site of an eighteenth-century Chickasaw fortified village with audio displays telling the history of the Chickasaw.

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