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Indian Territory

INDIAN TERRITORY

INDIAN TERRITORY. Between 1820 and 1842, the Five Civilized Tribes were removed to Indian Territory, an area that encompassed most of current day Oklahoma. In 1866, the western portion of the territory was ceded to the United States for use as reservation land for other tribes. In 1889, a section of this western portion was opened to settlement and became Oklahoma Territory in 1890. An outcry for statehood soon emerged with settlers calling for the union of Oklahoma and Indian Territory. Cherokee Chief William Rogers and Choctaw Chief Green McCurtain opposed this union and led a constitutional convention to create a state of Sequoyah from the land known as Indian Territory. Congress ignored their proposal, and in 1907, Congress merged Indian and Oklahoma Territories into one state. With this action, Indian Territory disappeared.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burton, Jeffery. Indian Territory and the United States, 1866–1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma State-hood. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Veda BoydJones

See alsoIndian Policy, U.S., 1830–1900 ; Sequoyah, Proposed State of ; andvol. 9:Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 .

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Indian Territory

Indian Territory, in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to lands W of the Mississippi River. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 gave the President authority to designate specific lands for them, and in 1834 Congress formally approved the choice. The Indian Territory included present-day Oklahoma N and E of the Red River, as well as Kansas and Nebraska; the lands were delimited in 1854, however, by the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories. Tribes other than the original five also moved there, but each tribe maintained its own government. As white settlers continued to move westward, pressure to abolish the Indian Territory mounted. With the opening of W Oklahoma to whites in 1889 the way was prepared for the extinction of the territory, achieved in 1907 with the entrance of Oklahoma into the Union. See Oklahoma.

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Indian Territory

Indian Territory Area set aside for Native Americans by the US government. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 gave the President authority to designate specific Western lands for settlement by Indians removed from their native lands. In 1834, the Indian Intercourse Act set aside Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma n and e of the Red River as the Indian Territory. In 1854, Kansas and Nebraska were redesignated territories open to white settlement. West Oklahoma was opened to white settlement in 1889. In 1907, the last of the Indian Territory was dissolved when Oklahoma became a state.

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