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Montana

Montana

State of Montana

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the Latin word meaning "mountainous."

NICKNAME: The Treasure State.

CAPITAL: Helena.

ENTERED UNION: 8 November 1889 (41st).

SONG: "Montana;" "Montana Melody."

MOTTO: Oro y Plata (Gold and silver).

FLAG: A blue field, fringed in gold on the top and bottom borders, surrounds the center portion of the offical seal, with "Montana" in gold letters above the coat of arms.

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the lower center are a plow and a miner's pick and shovel; mountains appear above them on the left, the Great Falls of the Missouri River on the right, and the state motto on a banner below. The words "The Great Seal of the State of Montana" surround the whole.

BIRD: Western meadowlark.

FISH: Black-spotted (cutthroat) trout.

FLOWER: Bitterroot.

TREE: Ponderosa pine.

GEM: Yogo sapphire and Montana agate.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; State Election Day, 1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November in even-numbered years; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 5 AM MST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the northwestern United States, Montana is the largest of the 8 Rocky Mountain states and ranks fourth in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Montana is 147,046 sq mi (380,849 sq km), of which land takes up 145,388 sq mi (376,555 sq km) and inland water 1,658 sq mi (4,294 sq km). The state's maximum e-w extension is 570 mi (917 km); its extreme n-s distance is 315 mi (507 km).

Montana is bordered on the n by the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan; on the e by North Dakota and South Dakota; on the s by Wyoming and Idaho; and on the w by Idaho. The total boundary length of Montana is 1,947 mi (3,133 km). The state's geographic center is in Fergus County, 12 mi (19 km) w of Lewistown. Nearly 30% of the state's land belongs to the federal government.

TOPOGRAPHY

Montana, as mountainous in parts as its name implies, has an approximate mean elevation of 3,400 ft (1,037 m). The Rocky Mountains cover the western two-fifths of the state, with the Bitterroot Range along the Idaho border; the high, gently rolling Great Plains occupy most of central and eastern Montana. The highest point in the state is Granite Peak, at an elevation of 12,799 ft (3,904 m), located in south-central Montana, near the Wyoming border. The lowest point, at 1,800 ft (549 m), is in the northwest, where the Kootenai River leaves the state at the Idaho border. The Continental Divide passes in a jagged pattern through the western part of the state, from the Lewis to the Bitterroot ranges.

Ft. Peck Reservoir is Montana's largest body of inland water, covering 375 sq mi (971 sq km); Flathead Lake is the largest natural lake. The state's most important rivers are the Missouri, rising in southwest Montana and Red Rock Creek and flowing north and then east across the state, and the Yellowstone, which crosses southeastern Montana to join the Missouri in North Dakota near the Montana border. Located in Glacier National Park is the Triple Divide, from which Montana waters begin their journey to the Arctic and Pacific oceans and the Gulf of Mexico. The total length of the Missouri River is 2,540 mi (4,088 km); it is the longest river in the country.

CLIMATE

The Continental Divide separates the state into two distinct climatic regions: the west generally has a milder climate than the east, where winters can be especially harsh. Montana's maximum daytime temperature averages 27°f (2°c) in January and 85°f (29°c) in July. Great Falls has an average temperature of 45°f (7°c), ranging from 21°f (6°c) in January to 69°f (21°c) in July. The all-time low temperature in the state, 70°f (57°c), registered at Rogers Pass on 20 January 1954, is the lowest ever recorded in the conterminous US; the all-time high, 117°f (47°c), was set at Medicine Lake on 5 July 1937. During the winter, Chinook winds from the eastern Rocky Mountains can bring rapid temperature increases of 40-50°f within a few minutes. Great Falls receives an average annual precipitation of 15.3 in (38 cm), but much of north-central Montana is arid. About 59.1 in (150 cm) of snow descends on Great Falls each year.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Montana has three major life zones: subalpine, montane, and plains. The subalpine region, in the northern Rocky Mountains, is rich in wild flowers during a short midsummer growing season. The montane flora consists largely of coniferous forests, principally alpine fir, and a variety of shrubs. The plains are characterized by an abundance of grasses, cacti, and sagebrush species. Three plant species were threatened as of April 2006: Ute ladies'-tresses, Spalding's catchfly, and water howellia.

Game animals of the state include elk, moose, white-tailed and mule deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, and mountain goat. Notable among the amphibians is the axolotl; rattlesnakes and other reptiles occur in most of the state. Eleven species of animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) were listed as threatened or endangered in 2006 by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, including the grizzly bear, black-footed ferret, Eskimo curlew, two species of sturgeon, gray wolf, and whooping crane.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Montana's major environmental concerns are management of mineral and water resources and reclamation of strip-mined land. The 1973 Montana Resource Indemnity Trust Act, by 1975 amendment, imposes a coal severance tax of 30% on the contract sales price, with the proceeds placed in a permanent tax trust fund. This tax, in conjunction with the Montana Environmental Policy Act (1971) and the Major Facilities Siting Act (1973) reflects the determination of Montanans to protect the beauty of the Big Sky Country while maintaining economic momentum. The Water Quality Bureau of the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences is responsible for managing the small number of state wetlands. In 2005, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $50,000 for wetland protection projects.

In 2003, 45.2 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. In 2003, Montana had 71 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. In 2005, the EPA spent over $26.4 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, the state received a federal EPA grant of $10 million for projects to establish and maintain safe drinking water supplies.

POPULATION

Montana ranked 44th in population in the United States, with an estimated total of 935,670 in 2005, an increase of 3.7% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Montana's population grew from 799,065 to 902,195, an increase of 12.9%. The population is projected to reach 999,489 by 2015 and 1.03 million by 2025. The population density in 2004 was 6.4 persons per sq mi, the third-lowest in the country (after Alaska and Wyoming). In 2004, the median age of all Montana residents was 39.6. In the same year, 22.5% of the populace was under the age of 18 while 13.7% was age 65 or older.

In 2004, the largest metropolitan area was Billings, with an estimated population of 144,472. The Missoula metropolitan area had an estimated population of 99,018 and the Great Falls area had a population of about 79,849.

ETHNIC GROUPS

According to the 2000 census, there were approximately 56,068 American Indians in Montana, of whom the Blackfeet and Crow are the most numerous. The Blackfeet and Crow reservations had populations of, respectively, 10,100 and 6,894 in 2000. In 2004, 6.4% of the population was American Indian.

The foreign born, numbering 16,396, made up 1.8% of Montana's 2000 Census population, a decrease of 24% since 1980. Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Mexico were the leading places of origin. As of 2000, the black and Asian populations were just 2.692 and 4,691, respectively. In 2000, 18,081 residents were Hispanic or Latino, representing 2% of the total population. In 2004, 0.4% of the population was black, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, and 2.4% Hispanic or Latino. That year, 1.5% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

English in Montana fuses Northern and Midland features, the Northern proportion declining from east to west. Topography has given new meaning to basin, hollow, meadow, and park as kinds of clear spaces in the mountains.

In 2000, the number of Montanans who spoke only English at was 803,031, representing about 95% of the resident population five years of age or older. There was no change in the overall percentage of English speakers from 1990 to 2000.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Native North American languages" includes Apache, Cherokee, Choctaw, Dakota, Keres, Pima, and Yupik. The category "Scandinavian languages" includes Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. The category "Other Slavic languages" includes Czech, Slovak, and Ukrainian.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 847,362 100.0
  Speak only English 803,031 94.8
  Speak a language other than English 44,331 5.2
Speak a language other than English 44,331 5.2
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 12,953 1.5
  German 9,416 1.1
  Other Native North American languages 9,234 1.1
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 3,298 0.4
  Scandinavian languages 1,335 0.2
  Italian 759 0.1
  Japanese 711 0.1
  Russian 610 0.1
  Other Slavic languages 570 0.1
  Chinese 528 0.1

RELIGIONS

In 2000, there was a nearly equal number of Protestants versus Catholics within the state. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest single Christian denomination with about 103,351 adherents in 2004. Leading Protestant denominations (with 2000 data) were the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 50,287; the United Methodist Church, 17,993; Assemblies of God, 16,385; the Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, 15,441; and the Southern Baptist Convention, 15,318. In 2006, the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) reported a statewide membership of 13,384 in 116 congregations; there is a Mormon temple in Billings (est. 1999). There were about 850 Jews and 614 Muslims in the state in 2000.

Though relatively small in terms of membership, several religious groups within the state experienced significant growth throughout 19902000. Friends-USA (Quakers) reported a membership growth from 77 in 1990 to 160 in 2000. The Free Lutheran Congregations grew from 75 members to 427 members and the Salvation Army reported a total of 1,414 members in 2000, up from 551 in 1990. About 493,703 people (55% of the population) did not report affiliation with any religious organization in 2000.

TRANSPORTATION

Montana's first railroad, the Utah and Northern, entered the state in 1880. Today, Montana is served by two Class I railroads (the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, and the Union Pacific), plus two regional railroads, and two local railroads, operating on 3,291 rail mi (5,298 km) of track. As of 2006, Amtrak operated one long-distance route (Chicago-Seattle/Portland) through the state, which served 12 stations.

Because of its large size, small population, and difficult terrain, Montana was slow to develop a highway system. In 2004, the state had 69,452 mi (111,817 km) of public roads, streets, and highways. There were around 1.031 million registered motor vehicles in that same year, including some 427,000 automobiles, approximately 555,000 trucks of all types, and some 1,000 buses. There were 712,880 licensed drivers in 2004.

In 2005, Montana had a total of 276 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 241 airports, 31 heliports, 2 STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and two seaplane bases. The state's leading airport is at Billings. In 2004, Billings-Logan International airport had 395,086 passenger enplanements.

HISTORY

Much of Montana's prehistory has only recently been unearthed. The abundance of fossils of large and small dinosaurs, marine reptiles, miniature horses, and giant cave bears indicates that, from 100 million to 60 million years ago, the region had a tropical climate. Beginning some 2 million years ago, however, dramatic temperature changes profoundly altered what we now call Montana. At four different times, great sheets of glacial ice moved south through Canada to cover much of the north. The last glacial retreat, about 10,000 years ago, did much to carve the state's present topographic feature. Montana's first humans probably came from across the Bering Strait; their fragmentary remains indicate a presence dating between 10,000 and 4000 bc.

The Indians encountered by Montana's first white explorersprobably French traders and trappers from Canadaarrived from the east during the 17th and 18th centuries, pushed westward into Montana by the pressure of European colonization. In January 1743, two traders, Louis-Joseph and Francois Vérendrye, crossed the Dakota plains and saw before them what they called the "shining mountains," the eastern flank of the northern Rockies. However, it was not until 1803 that the written history of Montana begins. In that year, the Louisiana Purchase gave the United States most of Montana, and the Lewis and Clark expedition, dispatched by President Thomas Jefferson in 1804 to explore the upper reaches of the Missouri River, added the rest. On 25 April 1805, accompanied by a French trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau and his Shoshoni wife, Sacagawea, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the mouth of the Yellowstone River near the present-day boundary with North Dakota. Shortly thereafter, the first American trappers, traders, and settlers entered Montana.

The fur trade dominated Montana's economy until 1858, when gold was discovered near the present community of Drummond. By mid-1862, a rush of miners from the gold fields of California, Nevada, Colorado, and Idaho had descended on the state. The temporary gold boom brought not only the state's first substantial white population but also an increased demand for government. In 1863, the eastern and western sectors of Montana were joined as part of Idaho Territory, which, in turn, was divided along the Bitterroot Mountains to form the present boundary between the two states. On 26 May 1864, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Organic Act, which created Montana Territory.

The territorial period was one of rapid and profound change. By the time Montana became a state on 8 November 1889, the remnants of Montana's Indian culture had been largely confined to federal reservations. A key event in this transformation was the Battle of the Little Big Horn River on 25 June 1876, when Lieutenant Colonel George Custer and his 7th US Cavalry regiment of fewer than 700 men were overwhelmed as they attacked an encampment of 15,000 Sioux and Northern Cheyenne led by Crazy Horse and Chief Gall. The following year, after a four-month running battle that traversed most of the state of Montana, Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé tribe surrendered to federal forces, signaling the end of organized Indian resistance.

As the Indian threat subsided, stockmen wasted little time in putting the seemingly limitless open range to use. By 1866, Nelson Story had driven the first longhorns up from Texas, and by the mid-1870s, sheep had also made a significant appearance on the open range. In 1886, at the peak of the open-range boom, approximately 664,000 head of cattle and nearly a million sheep grazed Montana's rangeland. Disaster struck during the "hard winter" of 1886/87, however, when perhaps as many as 362,000 head of cattle starved trying to find the scant forage covered by snow and ice. That winter marked the end of a cattle frontier based on the "free grass" of the open range and taught the stockmen the value of a secure winter feed supply.

Construction of Montana's railroad system between 1880 and 1909 breathed new life into mining as well as the livestock industry. Moreover, the railroads created a new network of market centers at Great Falls, Billings, Bozeman, Missoula, and Havre. By 1890, the Butte copper pits were producing more than 40% of the nation's copper requirements. The struggle to gain financial control of the enormous mineral wealth of Butte Hill led to the "War of the Copper Kings," in which the Amalgamated Copper Co., in conjunction with Standard Oil gave up its copper holdings. The new company, Anaconda Copper Mining, virtually controlled the press, politics, and governmental processes of Montana until changes in the structure of the international copper market and the diversification of Montana's economy in the 1940s and 1950s reduced the company's power. Anaconda Copper was absorbed by the Atlantic Richfield Co. in 1976, and the name was changed to Anaconda Minerals in 1982.

The railroads also brought an invasion of agricultural homesteaders. Montana's population surged from 243,329 in 1900 to 548,889 by 1920, while the number of farms and ranches increased form 13,000 to 57,000. Drought and a sharp drop in wheat prices after World War I brought an end to the homestead boom. By 1926, half of Montana's commercial banks had failed. Conditions worsened with the drought and depression of the early 1930s, until the New Dealenormously popular in Montanahelped revive farming and silver mining and financed irrigation and other public works projects.

The decades after World War II saw moderate growth in Montana's population, economy, and social services. Although manufacturing developed slowly, the state's fossil fuels industry grew rapidly during the national energy crisis of the 1970s. However, production of coal, crude oil, and natural gas leveled off after the crisis and even declined in the early 1980s.

In 1983 the Anaconda Copper Mining Company shut down its mining operations in Butte. Farm income also suffered in the 1980s as a result of falling prices, drought, and insect damage. Growth in manufacturing and construction and recovery in the agricultural sector, improved Montana's economy in the 1990s. However, even in the midst of a sustained economic boom, the state had the eighth highest unemployment rate in the nation, 5.2% as of 1999. Other indicators also showed the state was not benefiting from the sustained national economic expansion of recent years. Montana faced a $230 million budget deficit in 2003, but lawmakers were able to balance the budget with a series of program reductions, new taxes, and budget transfers. Montana's unemployment rate in September 2005 was 4.5%, below the national average of 5.1%. However, in 2004 the poverty rate was 14.3% (measured as a three-year average estimate from 200204) above the national average of 12.7%.

Tourism, air quality, and wildlife in parts of Montana were affected by the 1988 forest fires that burned for almost three months in Yellowstone National Park. Some Montana residents had to be evacuated from their homes. The state was among those afflicted by raging wildfires the summer of 2000, the worst fire season in more than a decade. In the summer of 2002, wildfires burned over 7.1 million acres of public and private land in the United States, most of it in the west. By August 2003, 36 wildfires had destroyed over 400,000 acres in Montana, equivalent to half the state of Rhode Island. Both Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks had to close sections of the parks due to fires.

In 1992 Montana's delegation to the US House of Representatives was reduced from two members to one, based on the results of the 1990 Census. The state remains one of the least populated in the nation, with an estimated 902,195 residents in 2000or about six people per square mile. In 2004, there were an estimated 926,865 residents in Montana.

In November 2004, Brian Schweitzer was elected the state's first Democratic governor since 1988.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Montana's original constitution, dating from 1889, was substantially revised by a 1972 constitutional convention, effective 1 July 1973. Under the present document, which had been amended 30 times by January 2005, the state legislature consists of 50 senators, elected to staggered four-year terms, and 99 representatives, who serve for two years. Legislators must be at least 18 years old and have lived in the state for a year and in their district for six months prior to election. In 2004 legislators received $78.60 per diem during regular sessions. Sessions are held only in odd-numbered years, beginning the first Monday of January and lasting no more than 90 legislative days. An amendment passed by voters in 2002 requires the governor to give advance notice of special sessions, which have no time limit and may be called by petition of a majority in each house.

The only elected officers of the executive branch are the governor and lieutenant governor (who run jointly), secretary of state, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, and auditor; each serves a four-year term. Without exception, the governor is limited to serving eight out of every 16 years. A candidate for governor must be at least 25 years old and a citizen and resident of both the United States and Montana. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $93,089.

To become law, a bill must pass both houses by a simple majority and be signed by the governor, remain unsigned for 10 days (25 days if the legislature adjourns), or be passed over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote of the members present in both houses. The state constitution may be amended by constitutional convention, by legislative referendum (a two-thirds vote of both houses), or by voter initiative (10% of qualified electors, as determined by number of votes cast for governor at the last election). To be adopted, each proposed amendment must be ratified at the next general election.

To vote in Montana, one must be a US citizen, at least 18 years old, and a state and county resident for 30 days prior to election day. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared of unsound mind.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Since statehood, Democrats generally dominated in contests for the US House and Senate, and Republicans in elections for state and local offices and in national presidential campaigns (except during the New Deal years). Although the erosion of Montana's rural population since the 1920s diluted the Republicans' agrarian base, the party has gained increasing financial and organizational backing from corporate interests, particularly from the mining and energy-related industries.

The strength of the Democratic Party, on the other hand, lies in the strong union movement centered in Butte and its surrounding counties, augmented by smaller family farms throughout the state. Urbanization also benefited the Democrats. Montanans voted overwhelmingly for Republican President Ronald Reagan in November 1984 and for Republican George Bush in 1988, but Democrat Bill Clinton carried the state in 1992. However, in 1996 Clinton lost the state to Republican Bob Dole. In 2000, Republican George W. Bush won an overwhelming victory over Democrat Al Gore, 58% to 34%. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader won 6% of the vote. In 2004, Bush again won a decisive victory over Democratic challenger John Kerry, 59% to 39%. In 2004 there were 638,000 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. The state had three electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

Montana Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE MONTANA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
**IND. candidate Ross Perot received 107,225 votes in 1992 and 55,229 votes in 1996.
1948 4 *Truman (D) 119,071 96,770
1952 4 *Eisenhower (R) 106,213 157,394
1956 4 *Eisenhower (R) 116,238 154,933
1960 4 Nixon (R) 134,891 141,841
1964 4 *Johnson (D) 164,246 113,032
1968 4 *Nixon (R) 114,117 138,835
1972 4 *Nixon (R) 120,197 183,976
1976 4 Ford (R) 149,259 173,703
1980 4 *Reagan (R) 118,032 206,814
1984 4 *Reagan (R) 146,742 232,450
1988 4 *Bush (R) 168,936 190,412
1992** 3 *Clinton (D) 154,507 144,207
1996** 3 Dole (R) 167,922 179,652
2000 3 *Bush, G. W. (R) 137,126 240,178
2004 3 *Bush, G. W. (R) 173,710 266,063

Montana Governor Marc Racicot, Republican, was elected in 1992 and reelected in 1996. Republican Judy Martz was elected Montana's first female governor in 2000. In 2004, Democrat Brian Schweitzer won the governorship, becoming the first Democrat since 1988 to win the office. Republican Conrad Burns was elected to the Senate in 1988 and reelected in 1994 and 2000, and Democrat Max Baucus won reelection in 2002. The state's sole seat in the US House was retained by a Republican in the 2004 election. In mid-2005, there were 23 Republicans and 27 Democrats in the state Senate. The state House was split, with 50 seats held by Republicans and 50 by Democrats.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, Montana had 56 counties, 129 municipalities, 592 special districts, and 453 public school districts. Typical elected county officials are three county commissioners (or a city manager), attorney, sheriff, clerk and recorder, school superintendent, treasurer, assessor, and coroner. Unified city-county governments include Anaconda-Deer Lodge and Butte-Silver Bow.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 35,946 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Montana operates under state statute; the emergency management director is designated as the state homeland security advisor.

The Citizens' Advocate Office, established in 1973, serves as a clearinghouse for problems, complaints, and questions concerning state government. The commissioner of higher education administers the state university system, while the superintendent of public instruction is responsible for the public schools. The Department of Transportation is the main transportation agency. Health and welfare programs are the province of the Department of Public Health and Human Services. Other departments deal with agriculture, commerce, justice, labor and industry, livestock, and natural resources and conservation.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Montana's highest court, the Montana Supreme Court, consists of a chief justice and six associate justices. District courts are the courts of general jurisdiction. Justice of the peace courts are essentially county courts whose jurisdiction is limited to minor civil cases, misdemeanors, and traffic violations. Montana has seven supreme court justices elected on nonpartisan ballots for eight-year terms and 37 district court judges elected for six years.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 3,877 prisoners were held in Montana's state and federal prisons, an increase from 3,620 of 7.1% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 473 inmates were female, up from 419 or 12.9% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Montana had an incarceration rate of 416 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Montana in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 293.8 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 2,723 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 27,215 reported incidents or 2,936.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Montana has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state has executed only two persons. The most recent execution was carried out in February 1998. As of 1 January 2006, Montana had four inmates on death row.

In 2003, Montana spent $37,553,219 on homeland security, an average of $37 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 3,789 active-duty military personnel and 1,274 civilian personnel stationed in Montana. The principal military facility in Montana is Malmstrom Air Force Base (Great Falls), a Strategic Air Command facility. Total defense contracts in 2004 amounted to $206.8 million, and total Defense Department payroll outlays were $403 million.

An estimated 102,605 veterans of US military service were living in Montana in 2003. Of these, 13,746 served in World War II; 11,049 in the Korean conflict; 33,814 during the Vietnam era; and 14,703 in the Gulf War. For the fiscal year 2004, total Veterans Affairs expenditures in Montana exceeded to $291 million.

As of 31 October 2004, the Montana Highway Patrol employed 206 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Montana's first great migratory wave brought Indians from the east during the l7th and 18th centuries. The gold rush of the 1860s and a land boom between 1900 and 1920 resulted in surges of white settlement. The economically troubled 1920s and 1930s produced a severe wave of out-migration that continued through the 1960s. The trend reversed between 1970 and 1980, however, when Montana's net gain from migration was 16,000; from 1980 to 1989, the state had a net loss of 43,000 residents from migration. Between 1990 and 1998, Montana had net gains of 48,000 in domestic migration and 3,000 in international migration. In 1998, the state admitted 299 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased 10.2%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 2,141 and net internal migration was 18,933, for a net gain of 21,074 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Among the interstate agreements in which Montana participates are the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact, Western Interstate Corrections Compact, Western Interstate Energy Compact, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Interstate Compact for Juveniles, Northwest Power and Conservation Council (with Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), and Yellowstone River Compact (with North Dakota and Wyoming). Federal grants to the state and local governments in fiscal year 2005 totaled $1.263 billion, an estimated $1.269 billion in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $1.289 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Resource industriesagriculture, mining, lumberingtraditionally dominated Montana's economy, although they have declined during the past decade. A lawsuit with the federal government over the federal lands which supplied much of the state's timber placed the timber industry's future in question, as did the selling by Champion International of its two mills and of its timber lands. While Stimson Lumber purchased the mills from Champion, it rehired only two-thirds of the employees. The mining industry in western Montana was hurt by low international price levels. The closure of Troy Mine, which produced silver, lead and zinc, resulted in the idling of 300 workers. Employment in the services industries overtook manufacturing and mining during the 1990s. Diversification into business, engineering, health, and tourism services has stimulated the economy. Annual growth rates averaged 4.67% from 1998 to 2000, and the state economy was little affected by the national recession and slowdown in 2001, posting a growth rate of 4.3%. In November 2002, Montana's nonagricultural employment was up 1.1% above the year before, above the national rate. Employment increased in construction, financial and general services, and fell slightly in the manufacturing and transportation and utilities sectors. The announced closing of Stimson Lumber in Libby is expected to cost 300 mill jobs, and another 410 related jobs. Montana's farm sector, contributing directly less than 3% to gross state product, has been severely stressed by a four-year drought. Wheat crop yields in 2002 were the lowest since 1988. Government subsidy payments to Montana farmers, the fourth highest in the country, amounted to 157% of their net income (that is, net income would have been negative without the subsidies).

Montana's gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $27.482 billion, of which the real estate sector accounted for the largest share at $3.229 billion or 11.7% of GSP, followed by healthcare and social assistance, at $2.491 billion (9% of GSP), and construction, at $1.627 billion (5.9% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 106,789 small businesses in Montana. Of the 34,570 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 33,801 or 97.8% were small companies. An estimated 4,588 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 0.9% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 4,896, up 4.6% from 2003. There were 109 business bankruptcies in 2004, up 11.2% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 471 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Montana as the 32nd highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 Montana had a gross state product (GSP) of $30 billion which accounted for 0.2% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 48 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Montana had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $27,657. This ranked 42nd in the United States and was 84% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.5%. Montana had a total personal income (TPI) of $25,635,394,000, which ranked 46th in the United States and reflected an increase of 6.7% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.2%. Earnings of persons employed in Montana increased from $17,162,093,000 in 2003 to $18,423,659,000 in 2004, an increase of 7.4%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 2002 to 2004 in 2004 dollars was $35,201, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 14.3% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Montana numbered 502,800 with approximately 18,300 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.6%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 428,600. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Montana was 8.7% in May 1983. The historical low was 3.4% in March 2006. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 6.9% of the labor force was employed in construction; 4.5% in manufacturing; 4.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5% in financial activities; 8.4% in professional and business services; 13% in leisure and hospitality services; and 20.2% in government. Data were unavailable for education and healthcare services.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 42,000 of Montana's 391,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 10.7% of those so employed, down from 11.7% in 2004, and below the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 48,000 workers (12.2%) in Montana were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Montana is one of 28 states that does not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Montana had a two-tiered state-mandated minimum wage rate. Businesses with gross annual sales of $110,000 or less were subject to a $4.00 per hour rate. All others were subject to a $5.15 per hour rate. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.6% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Montana's farms numbered 28,000 in 2004, with average acreage of 2,146 (869 hectares). Farm income totaled nearly $2.38 billion in 2005. In 2004, Montana was the nation's third-leading wheat producer, with an output of 173.2 million bu, valued at $612 million. Other major crops were barley (third in the United States) with 48.9 million bu, valued at $139.6 million; sugar beets (sixth) with 1.1 million bu, valued at $56.2 million; and hay with 4.7 million tons, valued at $362.1 million.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2005, Montana's farms and ranches had around 2.4 million cattle and calves, valued at $2.5 million. There were an estimated 165,000 hogs and pigs, valued at $18.2 million in 2004. During 2003, Montana farmers produced around 24.6 million lb (11.2 million kg) of sheep and lambs that grossed $22.6 million in income.

FISHING

Montana's designated fishing streams offer some 10,000 mi (16,000 km) of good to excellent freshwater fishing. In 2004, the state issued 379,252 sport fishing licenses.

Montana is home to the Creston and Ennis National Fish Hatcheries as well as the Bozeman Fish Technology Center and the Bozeman Fish Health Center. Creston specializes in rainbow trout, westslope cutthroat trout, kokanee salmon, and bull trout. Ennis works as part of the National Broodstock Program, producing about 20 million rainbow trout eggs annually for research facilities, universities and federal, state and tribal hatcheries in 23 states.

FORESTRY

As of 2004, 23,500,000 acres (9,510,000 hectares) in Montana were classified as forestland. There were 11 national forests, comprising 16,932,447 acres (6,852,561 hectares) in 2005. The lumbering industry produced 1.09 billion board feet in 2004.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Montana in 2003 was $492 million, an increase from 2002 of about 4%. The USGS data ranked Montana 26th among the 50 states by the total value of its nonfuel mineral production, accounting for over 1% of total US output.

According to the preliminary data for 2003, metallic minerals accounted for almost 63% of Montana's nonfuel mineral production, by value. Higher average prices and a two-fold increase in production, made gold the state's top nonfuel mineral by value, overtaking palladium. Following gold were platinum, construction sand and gravel, cement (portland and masonry), and bentonite. Montana in that same year was the only state to have primary platinum and palladium mine production and ranked fourth in the output of gold, according to the preliminary data. In 2003 Montana was first in the production of talc, second in bentonite, fourth in zinc and lead, and seventh in silver. The state was also ranked eighth in the production of gemstones (by value).

Preliminary data for 2003, showed palladium output at 14,600 kg, with a value of $98.3 million, while platinum output that year totaled 4,100 kg, with a value of $86.5 million. Construction sand and gravel production in 2003 totaled 18 million metric tons, with a value of $81.9 million, while bentonite clay output totaled 181,000 metric tons, with a value of $14.9 million. Crushed stone output in that same year stood at 2.5 million metric tons, with a valued of $10.8 million.

Montana was also a producer of dimension stone in 2003.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Montana had 44 electrical power service providers, of which one was publicly owned and 30 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, five were investor owned, three were federally operated, four were generation-only suppliers and one was a delivery-only provider. As of that same year there were 518,380 retail customers. Of that total, 325,008 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 172,439 customers, while publicly owned providers had 923 customers. There were 18,652 federal customers and there were 1,358 generation-only customers. There was no data on the number of delivery-only customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 5.210 million kW, with total production that same year at 26.268 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 22.9% came from electric utilities, with the remainder (77.1%) coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 17.048 billion kWh (64.9%), came from coal-fired plants, with hydroelectric plants in second place at 8.701 billion kWh (33.1%) and petroleum fueled plants in third at 402.164 million kWh (1.5%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 0.3% of all power generated, with natural gas fueled plants and those using other types of gases at 0.1% each.

As of 2004, Montana had proven crude oil reserves of 364 million barrels, or 1% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 68,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked tenth (ninth excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and 11th (10th excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 Montana had 3,627 producing oil wells, accounting for 1% of US production. As of 2005, the state's four refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 181,200 barrels per day.

In 2004, Montana had 4,971 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 96.762 billion cu ft (2.74 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 995 billion cu ft (28.2 billion cu m).

In 2004, Montana had six producing coal mines, five surface operations and one underground. Coal production that year totaled 39,989,000 short tons, up from 36,994,000 short tons in 2003. Of the total produced in 2004, the surface mines accounted for 39,831,000 short tons. Recoverable coal reserves in 2004 totaled 1.14 billion short tons. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

INDUSTRY

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Montana's manufacturing sector covered some six product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $6.468 billion. Of that total, wood product manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $960.445 million. It was followed by food manufacturing at $666.718 million; nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing at $216.365 million; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $196.782 billion.

In 2004, a total of 17,311 people in Montana were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 12,709 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the wood product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees, with 4,109 (3,568 actual production workers). It was followed by food manufacturing, with 2,464 employees (1,547 actual production workers); miscellaneous manufacturing, with 1,447 (976 actual production workers); and nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing, with 1,405 (1,093 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Montana's manufacturing sector paid $664.859 million in wages. Of that amount, the wood product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $147.640 million. It was followed by food manufacturing at $81.157 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $48.872 million; machinery manufacturing at $48.438 million; and miscellaneous manufacturing at $44.878 million.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Montana's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $7.2 billion from 1,485 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 839 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 571 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 75 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $2.4 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $3.9 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $833.7 million.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Montana was listed as having 5,145 retail establishments with sales of $10.1 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (743); miscellaneous store retailers (679); building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers (612); gasoline stations (597); and food and beverage stores (496). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $2.7 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $1.6 billion; food and beverage stores at $1.3 billion; and gasoline stations at $1.2 billion. A total of 52,891 people were employed by the retail sector in Montana that year.

Montana's foreign exports in 2005 totaled $710 million, second to last in the nation above only Wyoming.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Montana's consumer protection laws are administered by the state's Department of Justice's Office of Consumer Protection. The office enforces Montana's consumer protection laws and regulations relating to telemarketing, the sales and repair of automobiles and trucks, credit management services, deceptive and misleading advertising, door-to-door sales, gasoline pricing, online commerce, and unfair business acts under the state's Telemarketing Registration and Fraud Act, the New Vehicle Warranty Act, the Consumer Protection Act, the Personal Solicitation Sales Act, and the Unfair Trade Practices Act.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's attorney general (who heads the state's Department of Justice) is extremely limited in terms of what it is authorized to do, and can only exercise its authority regarding consumer protection in cooperation with the state's Department of Administration. The attorney general cannot initiate civil or criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; or exercise subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the attorney general can only act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own and initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts. It cannot initiate criminal proceedings or represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The offices of the state's Department of Justice's Office of Consumer Protection are located in the state capital, Helena.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Montana had 82 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 12 state-chartered and 56 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Billings market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's bank deposits at $1.966 billion and was second in the number of financial institutions at 12 in 2004, while the Missoula market area that same year, ranked first in the number of institutions, with 13 and was second in bank deposits at $1.278 billion. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 14.3% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $2.511 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 85.7% or $15.090 billion in assets held.

As of fourth quarter 2005, median percentage of past-due/non-accrual loans to total loans stood at 1.99%, down from 2.21% in 2004 and 2.26% in 2003. The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates given to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) was 4.95% in fourth quarter 2005, up from 4.63% in 2004 and 4.57% in 2003.

Regulation of Montana's state-chartered banks, savings and loans, credit unions, trust companies, consumer finance and escrow companies, deferred deposit loan companies, title loan lenders, mortgage brokers and loan originators, is the responsibility of the state's Division of Banking and Financial Institutions.

INSURANCE

In 2004 there were 373,000 individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of about $35.9 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was about $50 billion. The average coverage amount is $96,300 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $127.7 million.

As of 2003, there were four property and casualty and three life and health insurance companies domiciled in the state. Direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $1.4 billion in 2004. That year, there were 3,364 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $413 million.

In 2004, 45% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 8% held individual policies, and 26% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 19% of residents were uninsured. Montana ties with four other states as having the fourth-highest percentage of uninsured residents in the nation. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 14% for single coverage and 28% for family coverage. The state does not offer a health benefits expansion program in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were 696,263 auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $674.22.

SECURITIES

There are no securities exchanges in Montana. In 2005, there were 390 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 390 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were at least 11 publicly traded companies within the state, with at least 2 companies listed on the NASDAQ (Semitool, Inc. and United Financial Corp.) and at least 1 listed on the NYSE (Touch America Holdings).

PUBLIC FINANCE

The Montana state budget is prepared biennially by the Office of Budget and Program Planning and submitted by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval. The fiscal year runs from 1 July to 30 June. Effective fiscal year 1995, certain public school revenues were to be deposited in a general fund, increasing general fund revenues and public school appropriations.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $1.8 billion for resources and $1.6 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Montana were nearly $2 billion

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Montana was slated to receive: $15.5 million in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) funds to help the state provide health coverage to low-income, uninsured children who do not qualify for Medicaid. This funding is a 23% increase over fiscal year 2006; and $6.6 million for the HOME Investment Partnership Program to help Montana fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership, or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. This funding was an 11% increase over fiscal year 2006.

TAXATION

In 2005, Montana collected $1,788 million in tax revenues or $1,910 per capita, which placed it 35th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 10.4% of the total, selective sales taxes 25.5%, individual income taxes 39.9%, corporate income taxes 5.5%, and other taxes 18.8%.

As of 1 January 2006, Montana had seven individual income tax brackets ranging from 1.0% to 6.9%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 6.75%.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $958,779,000 or $1034 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 20th nationally. Local governments collected $774,842,000 of the total and the state government $183,937,000.

Montana taxes gasoline at 27 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Montana citizens received $1.58 in federal spending.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The Economic Development Advisory Council of the state's Department of Commerce offers a variety of programs aimed at improving and enhancing Montana's economic and business climate. Working closely with other state agencies and federal and private programs, the department's aim is to assist start-up and existing businesses with the technical and financial assistance necessary for their success. Relationships with local development groups, chambers of commerce, and similar organizations help Montana communities develop their full potential. Montana microbusiness companies with fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees and annual gross revenues under $500,000 can receive loans of up to $35,000. Other qualifying businesses can borrow under several other state and federal development loan programs. The Economic Development Advisory Council's trade program assists businesses in pursuing domestic and worldwide trade. The Small Business Development Center (SBDC) program and the State Data Center program both operate statewide networks of service centers.

MontanaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 5,451,685 5,881.00
  General revenue 4,245,305 4,579.62
    Intergovernmental revenue 1,705,088 1,839.36
    Taxes 1,625,692 1,753.71
      General sales - -
      Selective sales 437,051 471.47
      License taxes 233,372 251.75
      Individual income tax 605,582 653.27
      Corporate income tax 67,723 73.06
      Other taxes 281,964 304.17
    Current charges 493,458 532.32
    Miscellaneous general revenue 421,067 454.23
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue 49,524 53.42
  Insurance trust revenue 1,156,856 1,247.96
Total expenditure 4,691,318 5,060.75
  Intergovernmental expenditure 955,378 1,030.61
  Direct expenditure 3,735,940 4,030.14
    Current operation 2,476,317 2,671.32
    Capital outlay 522,585 563.74
    Insurance benefits and repayments 528,430 570.04
    Assistance and subsidies 85,160 91.87
    Interest on debt 123,448 133.17
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 708,831 764.65
Total expenditure 4,691,318 5,060.75
  General expenditure 4,119,927 4,444.37
    Intergovernmental expenditure 955,378 1,030.61
    Direct expenditure 3,164,549 3,413.75
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 1,377,921 1,486.43
    Public welfare 762,029 822.04
    Hospitals 39,467 42.57
    Health 227,881 245.83
    Highways 537,810 580.16
    Police protection 45,940 49.56
    Correction 121,156 130.70
    Natural resources 279,892 301.93
    Parks and recreation 14,523 15.67
    Government administration 226,112 243.92
    Interest on general debt 123,448 133.17
    Other and unallocable 363,748 392.39
  Utility expenditure 271 .29
  Liquor store expenditure 42,690 46.05
  Insurance trust expenditure 528,430 570.04
Debt at end of fiscal year 3,048,862 3,288.96
Cash and security holdings 11,724,183 12,647.45

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 6.7 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 12.4 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 13.5 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 84.4% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 78% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 9.2 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 213.8; cancer, 210.1; cerebrovascular diseases, 70.3; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 63.3; and diabetes, 23.1. The accidental death rate of 57.6 per 100,000 was one of the highest in the nation. The mortality rate from HIV infection was not available. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 0.8 per 100,000 population, the lowest rate in the country. In 2002, about 54.1% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 20.3% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Montana had 53 community hospitals with about 4,300 beds. There were about 107,000 patient admissions that year and 2.7 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 2,900 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $733. Also in 2003, there were about 101 certified nursing facilities in the state with 7,489 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 76.6%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 65.9% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Montana had 224 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 800 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 513 dentists in the state.

About 26% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 19% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $941,000.

SOCIAL WELFARE

Montana played an important role in the development of social welfare. It was one of the first states to experiment with workers' compensation, enacting a compulsory compensation law in 1915. Eight years later, Montana and Nevada became the first states to provide for old age pensions.

In 2004, about 22,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $197. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 80,870 persons (34,573 households); the average monthly benefit was about $91.95 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $89.2 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Montana's TANF program is called Families Achieving Independence in Montana (FAIM). In 2004, the state program had 14,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $35 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 165,910 Montana residents. This number included 106,970 retired workers, 16,770 widows and widowers, 19,070 disabled workers, 10,780 spouses, and 12,320 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 17.9% of the total state population and 93.9% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $916; widows and widowers, $883; disabled workers, $863; and spouses, $459. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $430 per month; children of deceased workers, $605; and children of disabled workers, $249. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 14,558 Montana residents, averaging $377 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, Montana had an estimated 423,262 housing units, of which 368,530 were occupied; 68.5% were owner-occupied. About 69.8% of all units were single-family, detached homes; about 12.8% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 18,156 units lacked telephone service, 1,780 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 2,143 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.45 members.

In 2004, 5,000 new privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $119,319. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $974. Renters paid a median of $520 per month. In September 2005, the state received grants of $1.15 million from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $6.8 million in community development block grants.

EDUCATION

In 2004, 91.9% of Montana residents age 25 and older were high school graduates, far above the national average of 84%. Some 25.5% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, slightly below the national average of 26%.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Montana's public schools stood at 150,000. Of these, 101,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 49,000 attended high school. Approximately 85.1% of the students were white, 0.7% were black, 2.1% were Hispanic, 1% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 11% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 147,000 fall 2003 and expected to reach 141,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 5.9% during the period 2002 to 2014. In fall 2003 there were 8,924 students enrolled in 104 private schools. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $1.2 billion. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Montana scored 286 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 45,111 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 11.7% of total postsecondary enrollment. In 2005 Montana had 23 degree-granting institutions. The University of Montana has campuses at Mis-soula, Montana Tech, and Western Montana College. Montana State University encompasses the Bozeman, Billings, and Northern campuses.

ARTS

The Montana Arts Council was established in 1967 to promote and expand the significance of arts and culture in the lives of Montanans. In 2005, the Montana Arts Council and other Montana arts organizations received 12 grants totaling $812,900 from the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). The Council has also received funding from state and private sources.

The Montana Committee for the Humanities (MCH) was founded in 1972. In 2000, the MCH sponsored its first annual Montana Festival of the Book in downtown Missoula, bringing together writers, readers, and entertainers from across the state. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $662,437 to 11 state programs.

The C. M. Russell Museum in Great Falls honors the work of Charles Russell, whose mural Lewis and Clark Meeting the Flat-head Indians adorns the capitol in Helena. Other fine art museums include the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman, Yellowstone Art Center at Billings, and the Missoula Art Museum. The Missoula Art Museum emphasizes artwork relevant to the American West culture, especially contemporary pieces by Montana artists. Orchestras are based in Billings and Bozeman and the Equinox Theater Company is also a popular attraction in Bozeman.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In 2001, Montana had 79 public library systems, with a total of 107 libraries, of which there were 28 branches. The combined book and serial publication stock of all Montana public libraries that same year was 2,625,000 volumes, and their combined total circulation was 4,812,000. The system also had 62,000 audio and video items, each, and 3,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and four bookmobiles. Distinguished collections include: those of the University of Montana (Missoula), with over 850,000 volumes; Montana State University (Bozeman), 597,609; and the Montana State Library and Montana Historical Society Library, both in Helena. In fiscal year 2001, operating income for the state's public library system was $15,425,000, including $49,000 in federal grants and $344,000 in state grants.

Among the state's 74 museums are the Montana Historical Society Museum, Helena; World Museum of Mining, Butte; Western Heritage Center, Billings; and Museum of the Plains Indian, Browning. National historic sites include Big Hole and Little Big Horn battlefields and the Grant-Kohrs Ranch at Deer Lodge, west of Helena.

COMMUNICATIONS

In 2004, 93.5% of the state's households had telephone service. In addition, by December 2003 there were 373,947 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 59.5% of Montana households had a computer and 50.4% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 90,563 high-speed lines in Montana, 79,658 residential and 10,905 for business. There were 43 major commercial radio stations (14 AM, 29 FM) in 2005, and 16 major television stations. A total of 15,300 Internet domain names were registered in Montana in 2000.

PRESS

As of 2005, Montana had eight morning dailies, three evening dailies, and seven Sunday newspapers. The leading papers were the Billings Gazette (47,105 mornings, 52,434 Sundays), Great Falls Tribune (33,434 mornings, 36,763 Sundays), and the Missoulian (30,466 mornings, 34,855 Sundays).

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,495 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1,075 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. National professional and business organizations and associations based in Montana include the American Indian Business Leaders and the American Simmental Association.

Regional arts, history, and culture are represented in part through the Boone and Crockett Club, the Butte Jazz Society, the Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Association, and the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation. Conservation and outdoors recreation organizations include the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana Outfitters and Guides Association, the National Forest Foundation, the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Our Montana (Billings), and the Great Bear Foundation (Missoula). The national Adventure Cycling Association is based in Missoula.

The Indian Law Resource Center, founded in 1978 and based in Helena, serves as a legal, environmental, and human rights organization promoting the welfare of Indian tribes and other indigenous peoples in North America.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Many tourists seek out the former gold rush camps, ghost towns, and dude ranches. Scenic wonders include all of Glacier National Park, covering 1,013,595 acres (410,202 hectares), which is the US portion of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park; part of Yellowstone National Park, which also extends into Idaho and Wyoming; and Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Bozeman, the gateway to Yellowstone Park also is a research area for dinosaurs. The Museum of the Rockies sponsors a dig in Choteau near Glacier National Park.

Montana is home to several Indian tribes; the Crow, the Sioux, and the Plains Indians reside here. Montana is the site of Custer's Last Stand, the Battle of Little Bighorn. There is a national monument to Custer there. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area is one of the largest outdoor recreation area in the United States. Glacier County has the Ninepipes Museum and the Flathead Indian Reservation. The Rocky Mountain Elk Wildlife Foundation is the newest of the conservation education facilities. In June 2005, Montana opened the Northeastern Plains Birding Trail. This trail links 12 birding sites and is populated by large numbers of migratory birds.

In 2002, some 10 million nonresident travelers spent $1.8 billion on visits to the state. The tourist industry sponsors over 33,500 jobs. Tourism promotion and development were funded primarily through a 4% lodging tax, which generated $11 million per year. Tourism payroll generated $358 million in tax revenue. Montana was observing the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark expedition during 200306, with festivities scheduled throughout the state.

SPORTS

There are no major professional sports teams in Montana, although there are minor league baseball teams in Billings, Great Falls, Helena, and Missoula. The University of Montana Grizzlies and Montana State University Bobcats both compete in the Big Sky Conference. Skiing is a very popular sport. The state has world-class ski resorts in Big Sky. Other annual sporting events include the Seeley-Lincoln 100/200 Dog Sled Race between Seely Lake and Lincoln in January and many rodeos statewide.

FAMOUS MONTANANS

Prominent national officeholders from Montana include US Senator Thomas Walsh (b.Wisconsin, 18591933), who directed the investigation that uncovered the Teapot Dome scandal; Jeannette Rankin (18801973),the first woman member of Congress and the only US representative to vote against American participation in both world wars; Burton K. Wheeler (b.Massachusetts, 18821975), US senator from 1923 to 1947 and one of the most powerful politicians in Montana history; and Michael Joseph "Mike" Mansfield (b.New York, 19032001), who held the office of majority leader of the US Senate longer than anyone else.

Chief Joseph (b.Oregon, 1840?1904), a Nez Percé Indian, repeatedly outwitted the US Army during the late 1870s; Crazy Horse (1849?77) led a Sioux-Cheyenne army in battle at Little Big Horn. The town of Bozeman is named for explorer and prospector John M. Bozeman (b.Georgia, 183567).

Creative artists from Montana include Alfred Bertram Guthrie Jr. (b.Indiana, 190191), author of The Big Sky and the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Way West; Dorothy Johnson (b.Iowa, 190584), whose stories have been made into such notable Western movies as The Hanging Tree, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, and A Man Called Horse; and Charles Russell (b.Missouri, 18641926), Montana's foremost painter and sculptor. Hollywood stars Gary Cooper (Frank James Cooper, 190161) and Myrna Loy (190593) were born in Helena. Newscaster Chet Huntley (191174) was born in Cardwell.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Elison, Larry M. The Montana State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Howard, Joseph Kinsey. Montana, High, Wide, and Handsome. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

Malone, Michael P., and Richard B. Roeder. Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Rev. ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991.

Parzybok, Tye W. Weather Extremes in the West. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press, 2005.

Preston, Thomas. Rocky Mountains: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, 2nd ed. Vol. 3 of The Double Eagle Guide to 1,000 Great Western Recreation Destinations. Billings, Mont.: Discovery Publications, 2003.

Rowles, Genevieve (ed.). Adventure Guide to Montana. Edison, N.J.: Hunter, 2000.

Sateren, Shelley Swanson. Montana Facts and Symbols. Mankato, Minn.: Hilltop Books, 2000.

Small, Lawrence F. (ed.). Religion in Montana: Pathways to the Present. Billings, Mont.: Rocky Mountain College, 1992.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Montana, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

Wright, John B. Montana Ghost Dance: Essays on Land and Life. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998.

Wyckoff, William. On the Road Again: Montana's Changing Landscape. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.

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Montana

MONTANA

MONTANA. A land of contrast, Montana's 147,138 square miles contain both vast prairies and towering heights (including the 12,799-foot Granite Peak, the state's highest elevation). Much of the history of the state, which is poor in water but rich in natural resources, has been connected to the extractive industries and the problem of aridity.

First Peoples

More than twelve thousand years ago, small bands of hunters and gatherers lived in present-day Montana in the northern Rocky Mountain foothills and in the Great Plains that lie east of the Continental Divide. The region was part of the Louisiana Purchase when the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed it in 1805, following the Missouri River to its headwaters and later exploring the Marias and Yellowstone Rivers. The expedition spent one quarter of its journey within the state's current borders. In the Rocky Mountains, the expedition met probable descendants of Montana's early inhabitants as well as some of the area's more recent Native immigrants. Native cultures changed in the eighteenth century because of two major stimuli: the introduction of horses (brought or traded north by southwestern Indians who had obtained them from the Spanish) and guns (brought or traded west and south by eastern tribes who acquired them from British and French fur traders). European settlements to the east also indirectly affected the region's peoples as displaced eastern tribes pushed west. The resultant competition for rich hunting grounds, cultural factors (such as the honor accorded successful warriors), and the desire for the guns and horses owned by competing tribes combined to produce a period of intense intertribal warfare that lasted well into the nineteenth century.

The Fur Trade

Fur traders likely entered Montana before the arrival of Lewis and Clark, but competition for fur heightened after that expedition. In 1807, the St. Louis–based trader Manuel Lisa built a trading post at the confluence of the Big-horn and Yellowstone Rivers, the first permanent building constructed in Montana. A year later, the Canadian North West Company established a trading post near present-day Libby, Montana. The race for fur was on.

The fur trade was the dominant European industry in the region from 1807 through the 1850s and radically transformed tribal life. Tribes such as the Crows and the Blackfeet joined a global market economy as they began to hunt for furs—first beaver and then buffalo—to trade with the Europeans. The fur economy created new routes to status within the tribes and transformed internal tribal politics. Exposure to diseases such as smallpox, to which Native Americans had little immunity, decimated many bands; for example, an estimated 50 percent of the Blackfeet died in an 1837 epidemic. In addition, the trade brought easy access to liquor, which quickly became a destructive force.

Although the fur trade had a tremendous impact on Native Americans, it brought relatively few non-Indians to the region. Administratively, the eastern two-thirds of Montana was part of Missouri Territory until 1821, Indian Country until 1854, and Nebraska Territory until 1861, but in fact, there was little government presence with the exception of occasional road building and military expeditions.

The Mining Frontier

White settlement began in earnest following the discovery of gold in 1862 in present southwest Montana at Bannack, now a state park. An 1863 strike in Alder Gulch produced an estimated $35 million in gold during the first five years of mining. Gold fever brought approximately ten thousand people to the region by 1865, many of them from the goldfields of Idaho and California. Booming population expansion created the need for additional governmental services; to provide them, the federal government carved Idaho Territory from the Washington, Nebraska, and Dakota territories in 1863. Continuing growth led to the organization of Montana Territory on 26 May 1864, with first Bannack and then Virginia City as its capital. Other gold strikes followed, including in 1864 a major discovery in Last Chance Gulch (later called Helena), which became Montana's third territorial capital in 1875.

Although the image of the lone prospector dominates the myth of western mining, industrialized mining arrived early on the scene. Hydraulic mining, which used water from high-pressure hoses to wash away whole stream banks, and floating dredges, which mined the bottom of the rivers, required heavy capital investment and caused substantial environmental damage. Even more labor and capital intensive was quartz-lode mining, with its enormous stamp mills, smelters, and other expensive equipment.

In the 1870s, silver replaced gold as Montana's principle source of mineral wealth. The state became the nation's second largest producer of silver by 1883. Silver mining suffered a serious blow during the panic of 1893, however, when President Grover Cleveland ended mandatory government purchases of silver. Thereafter, copper dominated Montana's mining economy.

Mining wealth encouraged railroad construction, which in turn made possible larger mining operations. In 1881 the Union Pacific entered Butte (the heart of Montana's copper enterprises). The Northern Pacific crossed Montana in 1883; the Great Northern connected Butte to St. Paul in 1889. The Milwaukee Road, a relative late-comer, completed its line through Montana in 1909.

As railroads raced across the Plains and miners and the merchants who "mined the miners" poured into Montana Territory, tribal peoples found themselves under increasing pressure. Racism abounded and food was increasingly scarce, as the availability of game (particularly buffalo) declined due to overhunting, competition with horses and cattle for grazing land, and the introduction of exotic bovine diseases. Although the tribes most often negotiated political solutions, two legendary acts of Indian resistance to white incursion occurred in Montana Territory during the 1870s: the Great Sioux War of 1876– 1877, which included the most famous battle in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Little Bighorn; and the Nez Perce War of 1877.

Neither resistance nor negotiation worked particularly well. Montana's Indian tribes lost most of their lands—including much of the territory guaranteed by early treaties as permanent reserves. For example, an 1855 treaty recognized the Blackfeet's claim to two-thirds of eastern Montana (although the tribe, in turn, agreed to allow whites to live in and cross their territory). A series of subsequent treaties and executive orders reduced their reservation to a fraction of its former size. And when the buffalo approached extinction in the 1880s, starvation was the result. According to the historian John Ewers, an estimated one-sixth to one-fourth of the Piegan Blackfeet died of hunger in 1883–1884.

Another blow to Montana's Indians was the 1887 Dawes General Allotment Act, which opened reservation lands to white settlement after "allotting" 160-acre parcels to Indian heads of households. Applied unevenly and at various times, the policy of allotment affected each tribe differently. On the Flathead Indian Reservation in northwestern Montana, for example, the sale of "excess" land to non-Indians during the homestead boom of the 1910s left members of the Salish and Kootenai tribes owning less than half of the land on their reservation. In 2000, enrolled tribal members made up only 26 percent of the reservation's population.

Indians, primarily from ten tribes (Assiniboine, Blackfeet, Chippewa, Cree, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kootenai, Lakota or Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Salish), were the state's largest minority in 2000, at 7.3 percent of the population. Many lived on one of Montana's seven Indian reservations (Blackfeet, Crow, Flathead, Fort Belknap, Fort Peck, Northern Cheyenne, and Rocky Boy's), though tribal members also live in Missoula, Great Falls, Billings, and other Montana communities.

The Cattle Boom and Sheep Industry

Territory opened by the removal of Indians to reservations included rich grazing land. Large, corporate ranches—financed mainly by wealthy speculators—brought longhorns from Texas to feed on the area's expansive grasslands in the 1880s, supplementing older cattle operations established primarily by former prospectors. According to one source, at the peak of the open-range boom in 1886, approximately 664,000 cattle and 986,000 sheep grazed on Montana rangelands.

The legendary days of the open range—commemorated by Montana's "cowboy artist" Charles M. Russell—suffered a blow during 1886–1887, when summer drought and a long, cold winter struck the overcrowded range to cause the death of approximately 60 percent of Montana's cattle. Cattle remained an important industry, but increasingly ranchers began to grow hay to see their animals through the winters. The homesteading boom decreased the availability of open range, but the 1934 Taylor Grazing Act provided a boon to ranchers hard hit by the depression by allowing livestock to graze on public land.

Less celebrated than the cattle industry, the sheep industry in Montana also thrived and then declined. In 1900, Montana's six million sheep made it the biggest wool-producing state in the union. Eventually, however, foreign competition, the popularity of synthetic fibers, and an end to wool subsidies caused the number of sheep in Montana to drop from 5.7 million head in 1903 to 370,000 head in January 2000.

The Rise of Copper

Even at their height, the sheep and cattle industries could not rival the growth brought by copper. The discovery of rich veins of copper in Butte in the 1880s coincided with an expanding demand for the metal fueled by the electrical revolution and the growing need for copper wire. By 1889, Butte was the nation's largest copper producer and the biggest city between Minneapolis and Seattle. Perhaps the most ethnically diverse city in the intermountain west, Butte was known as the "Gibraltar of Unionism." The Western Federation of Miners, whose leaders later helped found the Industrial Workers of the World, was founded there in 1893. In 1912 even Butte's two chimneysweeps had their own union. Twenty-six miles west, Butte's sister town of Anaconda, founded by the Anaconda Copper Company in 1884, processed the ore wrested from the "richest hill on earth," while poisonous gases bellowing from its stacks killed crops, cattle, and forests for miles around.

Rivalry between two of Butte's "copper kings" profoundly effected statewide politics. Marcus Daly, owner of the Anaconda Company, successfully opposed copper magnate William Clark's 1888 run for territorial delegate and 1893 senate campaign, a race marked by massive corruption. Clark retaliated in 1894, successfully backing Helena as the permanent site of the state capital in opposition to Daly's choice of Anaconda.

Copper continued as a force in Montana politics after the state's copper mines and smelters were consolidated under the control of the directors of Standard Oil in 1899. The Company, as the conglomerate was often called, offered its most naked display of power in 1903 when it closed its operations and put 15,000 men out of work until the governor called a special session of the legislature to enact the legislation it demanded. In addition to its mining interest, the Company operated large logging operations to feed the mines' voracious appetite for lumber.

Even after it severed its ties to Standard Oil in 1915, the Company remained a political force. It controlled most of the state's major newspapers until 1959, and, some believed, many of the state's politicians. Unlike Clark and Daly, the directors of the Company in the teens actively opposed unionism. With the help of state and federal troops, which occupied Butte six times between 1914 and 1920, the Company completely crippled the miners' unions until a resurgence of labor activity during the 1930s.

Open-pit mining—initiated in the 1950s after the richest copper veins had played out—transformed Butte. While Butte shrank (open-pit mining employed fewer people than did traditional hardrock mining), the Company's Berkeley Pit grew, consuming entire neighborhoods. Low copper prices, declining concentrations of ore, reduced industrial use of copper, and increasing global competition led to the closure of the Anaconda smelter in 1980 and the shutdown of mining activity in Butte in 1983, leaving Butte and Anaconda economically and environmentally devastated. When mining resumed in the mid-1980s, it was as a small-scale, nonunion operation. In 2000, mining operations again ceased, due to high energy costs and low copper prices. The Butte and Anaconda region hosted the largest Superfund cleanup site in the United States, and jobs in reclamation were an important part of the area's sluggish economy.

The Homestead Era

With the homestead boom of 1909 to 1919, agriculture surpassed mining as the state's major source of income. The Enlarged Homestead Act of 1909 offered farmers 320 acres of free land. A second law passed in 1912 made it easier for homesteaders to "prove up." The railway companies, which foresaw a lucrative business in transporting crops to market and supplying settlers, conducted a massive advertising campaign and Montana quickly became "the most homesteaded state in the union." As the state's population ballooned from approximately 243,000 in 1900 to a high of approximately 770,000 in 1918, local governments multiplied, from sixteen counties at the time of statehood in 1889 to fifty-six by 1926.

Wartime inflation, resultant high prices, and relatively wet years through 1917 produced unprecedented prosperity for Montana's farmers. However, a six-year drought beginning in 1918 and the collapse of commodity prices in 1920 exposed the weakness of the homesteading economy. Montana's arid lands simply could not support small-scale farming. Between 1919 and 1925, more than half of Montana farmers lost their land and over 60,000 people left the state.

Wet weather after 1926 provided some help to those who stayed, but the agricultural depression of the 1920s grew into the Great Depression of the 1930s, when drought and falling prices again pushed farmers from the land. Nevertheless, agriculture—primarily wheat and beef—still dominates the landscape: Montana is second among states in the number of acres devoted to agriculture. However, as the depopulation of the eastern two-thirds of Montana attests, this increasingly industrialized enterprise requires fewer and fewer workers. In 2000, agriculture employed less than 6 percent of Montanans.

The Great Depression

The Great Depression hit Montana hard, as mining, smelting, and logging slowed to a halt. President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs provided welcome relief. The federal government sent over $523 million to Montana (approximately 27 percent in loans), making Montana the union's second most subsidized state. The money arrived through payments to farmers; construction projects such as the massive Fort Peck Dam, which in 1936 employed more than 10,000 people; rural electrification loans to farmers' cooperatives; and direct relief. Federal jobs programs, according to the historian Michael Malone, provided income to a quarter of Montana households by 1935.

The New Deal also brought a shift in federal Indian policy. After decades of trying to "assimilate" Native Americans, the federal government recognized the value of tribal sovereignty with the Wheeler-Howard Act, cosponsored by Montana senator Burton K. Wheeler. In addition, the New Deal brought employment and infrastructure improvements to Montana's reservations through the formation of the Indian Conservation Corps.

Post–World War II Montana

Commodity prices rose with the beginning of World War II, bringing economic recovery to Montana. The state, however, lost population as young men and women joined the armed forces or found work in the war industries on the West Coast. Malmstrom Air Force Base in Great Falls—which employed approximately 4,000 people in 2001—was established during World War II, but the military-industrial complex had less impact on Montana's economy than it did on other western states.

The 1950s through the 1970s saw booms in petroleum, tourism, wood products, and coal industries. The oil industry—concentrated along the "hi-line" (Montana's northern tier) in the 1910s and 1920s—moved east with the discovery of the oil-rich Williston Basin. Three large refineries opened in Billings, which became the state's largest city by 1960. Jobs in government, tourism, and healthcare helped the city maintain this status despite the oil market crash in the 1980s.

Tourism boomed in the prosperous postwar period, building on its earlier significance to the state (Yellow-stone National Park was established in 1872, Glacier National Park in 1910). In the 1950s, the timber industry, centered in the rich forests west of the Continental Divide, transformed into a genuine wood-products industry (manufacturing plywood, cardboard, and particle board), making it one of Montana's few value-added industries, albeit one with a large environmental cost. The construction of missile silos and dams and the infusion of highway money played a major role in the state's economy during the 1950s and 1960s. The 1970s energy crisis encouraged coal production in southeastern Montana, which claims 13 percent of the nation's coal reserves. In 1971, 7 million tons of coal were mined in Montana; by 1980, that figure had skyrocketed to 30 million, well over half of it from federally owned land.

The Role of the Federal Government

The federal government has always been important to Montana. Examples of early federal policies that have shaped Montana include Indian removal, railroad subsidies, an 1872 mining law (still in effect today, and the source of much controversy) that encourages the development of mineral resources, the homestead acts, timber sales at below-market value from the national forests, and the creation of national parks and wilderness areas. Despite the myth of the independent westerner and many Montanans' deep-seated distrust of "big government," the federal government remains crucial in shaping Montana's economy. In 1969, Montana received $1.88 from Washington ($1.59 in 2000) for every $1.00 its residents paid in taxes. Federal payments to farmers, for example, made up 22 percent of total agricultural receipts in 1999.

Politics

Remarkably corrupt and dominated by copper, Montana has displayed what many have deemed "political schizophrenia" through much of its history, sending conservatives to Helena and liberals to Washington. Many of Montana's representatives on the national level have become quite prominent: Senator Thomas Walsh, who led the investigation into the Teapot Dome scandal; Representative Jeannette Rankin, the first woman elected to Congress; and Senator Mike Mansfield, the Senate's longest-ruling majority leader.

Since state senators were elected by county, rather than by population, rural Montana dominated the legislature through the 1960s, leading to charges of "one cow, one vote" and court-ordered reapportionment. A constitutional convention to revise the original 1889 state constitution followed. A remarkably progressive document, the 1972 constitution enshrined the rights to privacy and "a clean and healthful environment," and committed the state to the preservation of "the unique and distinct cultural heritage of American Indians."

At the end of the twentieth century, Montana's politics moved increasingly rightward, as evidenced by the election of the conservative senator Conrad Burns in 1988, and his reelections in 1994 and 2000. Another political trend was tribal governments' determination to assert sovereignty on the reservations and their increasing willingness to resort to the courts when necessary to accomplish it.

Facing a New Century

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Montana remained a low-population, high-acreage state, the most "non-metropolitan state in the nation," according to a 1999 study. The fourth largest state in the union, Montana ranks forty-fourth in population, with (according to the 2000 census) 902,195 residents. Energy deregulation, passed by the legislature in 1997, was followed by soaring energy prices and shutdowns in the wood-products, mining, and refining industries. Tourism—which barely trailed agriculture as the second largest segment of the economy—continued to grow in importance. Remaining dependent on the federal government, beset by frequent droughts, and prey to the cyclical nature of an economy based on natural resource extraction, the state—listed as forty-seventh in per capita income in 1999—faced an uncertain economic future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennett, John W., and Seena B. Kohl. Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890–1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Bryan, William L., Jr. Montana's Indians, Yesterday and Today. 2nd rev. ed. Helena, Mont.: American World and Geographic, 1996.

Dobb, Edwin. "Pennies from Hell: In Montana, the Bill for America's Copper Comes Due." Harper's 293 (October 1996): 39–54.

Greene, Jerome A. Nez Perce Summer, 1877: The U.S. Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2000.

MacMillan, Donald. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890–1920. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2000.

Malone, Michael P. Montana: A Contemporary Profile. Helena, Mont.: American World and Geographic, 1996.

Malone, Michael P., ed. Montana Century: 100 Years in Pictures and Words. Helena, Mont.: Falcon, 1999.

Malone, Michael P., Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang. Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Rev. ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991.

Murphy, Mary. Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914–41. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Rankin, Charles E., ed. Legacy: New Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 1996.

MarthaKohl

See alsoAnaconda Copper ; Billings ; Buffalo ; Cattle ; Cheyenne ; Copper Industry ; Dawes General Allotment Act ; Fur Companies ; Fur Trade and Trapping ; Gold Mines and Mining ; Helena Mining Camp ; Homestead Movement ; Indian Removal ; Indian Territory ; Little Big-horn, Battle of ; Nez Perce War ; Sheep ; Silver Prospecting and Mining ; Yellowstone National Park ; andvol. 9:The Vigilantes of Montana .

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Montana

Montana (mŏntăn´ə), Rocky Mt. state in the NW United States. It is bounded by North Dakota and South Dakota (E), Wyoming (S), Idaho (W), and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 147,138 sq mi (381,087 sq km). Pop. (2010) 989,415, a 9.7% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Helena. Largest city, Billings. Statehood, Nov. 8, 1889 (41st state). Highest pt., Granite Peak, 12,799 ft (3,904 m); lowest pt., Kootenai River, 1,800 ft (549 m). Nickname, Treasure State. Motto,Oro y Plata [Gold and Silver]. State bird, Western meadowlark. State flower, bitterroot. State tree, Ponderosa pine. Abbr., Mont.; MT

Geography

Life in Montana's mountainous western area differs greatly from that on its eastern plains. Across the eastern half of the state stretch broad sections of the Great Plains, drained by the Missouri River, which originates in SW Montana, and by its tributaries, the Milk, the Marias, the Sun, and especially the Yellowstone. Much of Montana's western boundary is marked by the crest of the lofty Bitterroot Range, part of the Rocky Mts., which dominate the western section of the state and along which runs the Continental Divide. Montana's very name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, meaning mountain country.

Much of the fourth largest U.S. state is still sparsely populated country dominated by spectacular nature. High granite peaks, forests, lakes, and such wonders as those of Glacier National Park attract many visitors to Montana. Other places of interest include Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Big Hole National Battlefield, and Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site (see National Parks and Monuments, table) and the National Bison Range, near Ravalli, where herds of buffalo may be seen. Strips of Yellowstone National Park, including the north and west entrances, are also in Montana, as are such Native American reservations as the Blackfoot, the Fort Belknap, the Fort Peck, and the Crow. Rushing mountain streams and numerous lakes bring fishing enthusiasts to the state, and the abundant wildlife—elk, deer, bear, moose, and waterfowl—attracts hunters. Mountain and ski resorts draw other vacationers. Helena is the capital, Billings and Great Falls the largest cities; other important cities include Missoula and Butte.

Economy

In and around Montana's mountainous western region are the large mineral deposits for which the state is famous—copper, silver, gold, platinum, zinc, lead, and manganese. The eastern part of the state is noted for its petroleum and natural gas, and there are also vast subbituminous coal deposits, worked largely at the most extensive U.S. open-pit mines. Montana also mines vermiculite, chromite, tungsten, molybdenum, and palladium. Leading industries manufacture forest products, processed foods, and refined petroleum.

In E Montana the high grass of the Great Plains once nourished herds of buffalo and later sustained the cattle and sheep of huge ranches; much of the high grass is now gone, but the cattle and sheep remain. Periodic drought and severe weather have turned some farming communities into ghost towns, but agriculture, with the aid of irrigation, still provides the largest share of Montana's income. Wheat is the most valuable farm item, with cattle also of primary importance. Other principal crops include barley, sugar beets, and hay.

Government and Higher Education

In 1973 a new constitution took effect, replacing the one adopted in 1889. The governor is elected for a term of four years and may be reelected. The legislative assembly is made up of a senate with 50 members and a house of representatives with 100 members. Montana is represented in the U.S. Congress by one representative and two senators, and the state has three electoral votes in presidential elections. Republican Marc Racicot, narrowly elected governor in 1992, was reelected in 1996. Judy Martz, a Republican and lieutenant governor under Racicot, was elected to succeed him in 2000, becoming the first woman to be elected to the post. In 2004 and 2008, Democrat Brian Schweitzer won the governorship; fellow Democrat Steve Bullock was elected to the office in 2012.

The Univ. of Montana, at Missoula, and Montana State Univ., at Bozeman, are the state's major institutions of higher learning. Both these systems also have other campuses.

History

Early Inhabitants, Fur Trading, and Gold

Native Americans known to have inhabited Montana at the time Europeans first explored it included the Blackfoot, the Sioux, the Shoshone, the Arapaho, the Kootenai, the Cheyenne, the Salish, and others. Exploration of the region began in earnest after most of Montana had passed to the United States under the Louisiana Purchase (1803). The Lewis and Clark expedition traveled westward across Montana in 1805, and François Antoine Laroque, along with his North West Company of Canada, explored the Yellowstone River after 1805.

The area's rivers were important avenues of travel for the native inhabitants as well as the early explorers of the country; the first trading post in Montana was established at the mouth of the Bighorn in 1807 by a trading expedition that Manuel Lisa led up the Missouri from St. Louis. For some years thereafter both Canadian and American fur traders continued to open up the territory. David Thompson of the North West Company built several trading posts in NW Montana between 1807 and 1812, and beaver in the mountain streams and lakes attracted adventurous trappers, the so-called mountain men. The American Fur Company, with its posts on the Missouri and the Yellowstone, dominated the later years of the region's fur trade, which diminished in the 1840s.

The U.S. claim to NW Montana, the area between the Rockies and the N Idaho border, was validated in the Oregon Treaty of 1846 with the British. Montana was then still a wilderness of forest and grass, with a few trading posts and some missions. Montana's first period of growth was the rapid, boisterous, and unstable expansion brought on by a gold rush. The discovery of gold, made initially in 1852, brought many people to mushrooming mining camps such as those at Bannack (1862) and Virginia City (1864). Crude shantytowns were built, complete with saloons and dance halls—ephemeral settlements as colorful as the earlier gold-rush camps in California and perhaps even more lawless.

Territorial Status, Sioux Resistance, and Statehood

Previously part of, successively, the territories of Oregon, Washington, Nebraska, Dakota, and Idaho, Montana itself became a territory in 1864. It was still a rough frontier, however, and the first governor, Sidney Edgerton, was driven out of the region; later Thomas Francis Meagher, appointed temporary governor, died mysteriously. After the Civil War the grasslands attracted ranchers, and in 1866 the first cattle were brought in from Texas over the Bozeman Trail, to the area east of the Bighorn Mts.

Yet it was not until after wars with the Sioux that ranching was safe. The Sioux did not tamely submit to having their lands taken from them; in 1876 at the battle of the Little Bighorn, they defeated Col. George A. Custer and his force in one of the greatest of Native American victories. The Sioux were eventually subdued, and the gallant attempt of Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé to lead his people into Canada to escape pursuing U.S. troops had its pitiful end in Montana.

Great ranches spread out across the plains, and cow towns that were to grow into cities such as Billings and Missoula sprang up as the railroads were built in the West (c.1880–c.1910). Statehood was achieved in 1889, and the building of the railroads put an end to the era of the open range.

The Importance of Mining

Mining continued to dominate Montana's economy into the 20th cent. The discovery of silver at Butte (1875) was followed (c.1880) by discovery of copper at that same "richest hill on earth." The Amalgamated Copper Company (later renamed Anaconda Copper Mining Company) came to play a major role in Montana life. The titans of the mines, Marcus Daly and William A. Clark, contended bitterly for ownership of the mineral deposits and for political control, and their rivalry was fought out physically by the miners. F. Augustus Heinze also entered the scramble for copper riches, challenging the claims of Amalgamated Copper. Amalgamated prevailed and exercised enormous control over state affairs.

Struggles between the company and the workers led to strikes, disorder, and bloodshed, but also to the enactment of some early measures for social security, important because over the years the livelihood of mining town residents has depended on the fluctuating market price of copper. By the 1990s, however, mining was producing less than 10% of Montana's revenues, and such centers as Butte and Anaconda, where operations had shut down, had become shells of their former selves.

The Expansion of Agriculture

After the coming of the railroads, farmers arrived by the trainload to develop the lands of E Montana. They planted their fields in the second decade of the 20th cent. The initial bounteous wheat yield did not last long; the calamitous drought of 1919 and the consequent dust storms seared the fields, and in the 1920s the farms began to disappear as rapidly as they had been established.

When the Great Depression began in 1929, Montana was already accustomed to depression. In subsequent years vigorous measures were taken to aid agriculture in the state, and by the late 1940s federal dam and irrigation projects—on the Missouri, the Yellowstone, the Marias, the Sun, and elsewhere—opened many acres to cultivation. Some of the vast grazing lands were brought under planned use, and the development of hydroelectric power continued. Major multipurpose dams in Montana producing power include Fort Peck, Hungry Horse, and Canyon Ferry.

Economic Diversification

The demand for copper in World War II and the E Montana oil boom of the early 1950s stimulated the economy, but the state still faces high transportation costs, a worker shortage, and slowness in regulating resources. A gradual trend toward a more diversified economy has seen manufacturing grow in importance; tourism is also on the rise. Coal exploitation increased dramatically in the 1970s, somewhat offsetting the decline of metals mining. In 1997 legislation was passed that aimed to attract foreign money by making the state an offshore banking haven.

Bibliography

See M. P. Malone, The Montana Past (1969); K. R. Toole, Twentieth-Century Montana (1972); M. P. Malone and R. B. Roeder, Montana, a History of Two Centuries (1976); C. C. Spence, Montana: A History (1978); W. L. Lang and R. C. Myers, Montana, Our Land and People (1979); J. A. Alwin, Eastern Montana (1982).

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Montana

MONTANA


Billings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

Butte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Helena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

The State in Brief

Nickname: Treasure State

Motto: Oro y plata (Gold and silver)

Flower: Bitterroot

Bird: Western meadowlark

Area: 147,042 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 4th)

Elevation: Ranges from 1,800 feet to 12,799 feet above sea level

Climate: Continental; heavy snows in the west, hot dry summers in the east

Admitted to Union: November 8, 1889

Capital: Helena

Head Official: Governor Brian Schweitzer (D) (until 2009)

Population

1980: 786,690

1990: 799,065

2000: 902,195

2004 estimate: 926,865

Percent change, 19902000: 12.9%

U.S. rank in 2004: 44th

Percent of residents born in state: 56.1% (2000)

Density: 6.2 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 31,948

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 817,229

Black or African American: 2,692

American Indian and Alaska Native: 56,068

Asian: 4,691

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 470

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 18,081

Other: 5,315

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 54,869

Population 5 to 19 years old: 202,571

Percent of population 65 years and over: 13.4%

Median age: 37.5 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 11,421

Total number of deaths (2003): 8,280 (infant deaths, 79)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 175

Economy

Major industries: Services, trade, government, agriculture

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (February 2005)

Per capita income: $25,775 (2003; U.S. rank: 45th)

Median household income: $34,375 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 14.6% (1999)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 2.0% to 11.0%

Sales tax rate: None

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Montana

Montana State in nw USA, on the Canadian border; the capital is Helena. Other major cities include Billings and Great Falls. Until the USA acquired the area in the Louisiana Purchase (1803), it was relatively unexplored. In 1852 the discovery of gold brought a rush of immigrants. The Territory of Montana organized in 1864. The opening of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1883 provided a stimulus to growth and development. The Rocky Mountains dominate the sw section of Montana. The e is part of the Great Plains, drained by the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. Sheep and cattle graze on the plains. The principal crops (grown by means of irrigation) are wheat, hay, barley, and sugar beet. The Rockies have large mineral deposits including copper, silver, gold, zinc, lead, and manganese. Oil, natural gas and coal are found in the se. Industries: timber, food processing, petroleum products; tourism is also important. Area: 381,086sq km (147,137sq mi). Pop. (2000) 902,105.

MONTANA

Statehood :

November 8, 1889

Nickname :

Treasure State

State bird :

Western meadowlark

State flower :

Bitterroot

State tree :

Ponderosa pine

State motto :

Gold and silver

http://www.state.mt.us

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Montana

MONTANA


Nicknames for Montana reflect the wonder and significance of the state's natural resourcesthe basis for its growth and prosperity. Familiar references such as "Big Sky" and the "Treasure State" come from appreciation for the state's expansive views and rich supply of minerals.

It is thought that the first white explorers to Montana were French traders and trappers from Canada who migrated in the 1700s. In 1803 when President Thomas Jefferson (18011809) orchestrated the Louisiana Purchase, the deal included land west of the Mississippi River which includes land now known as Montana. Jefferson sent the Louis and Clark expedition to explore the new area and record their findings for the rest of the world.

In 1805 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with French trapper Toussaint Charbonneau and his Shoshoni wife, Sacagawea, reached the Yellowstone River near the boundary of North Dakota. They traveled through present-day Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to the Pacific Ocean where they completed their mission. During the trip they encountered a handful of men who were hunting animals and trading furs with the Indians. Their expedition cleared the way for the first American trappers, traders, and settlers to find their way to Montana. In 1807 Manuel Lisa, a Spanish trader, formed the Missouri Fur Company and established the first trading post in Montana, and others rapidly followed. The Pacific Fur Company, the American Fur Company, and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company became important trading companies in the northwest.

The fur trade dominated Montana's economy until 1858, when gold was discovered in southwest Montana. By mid-1862, a rush of miners from the gold fields of California, Nevada, Colorado, and Idaho had migrated to the state. The biggest gold discovery was in Alder Gulch near Bannack in 1863. Miners flocked to the gulch, which led to the development of Virginia City and Nevada City. A contemporary newspaper wrote, "thousands of tenderfeet were wildly filing claims." Alder Gulch gave up $10 million worth of gold in one year. Other areas of Montana also proved to be rich in gold and with each gold discovery, a town instantly sprang up. The temporary gold boom brought the state's first substantial white population and an increased demand for government. Bandits robbed and killed miners on the roads. When Montana became a territory in 1864 the legislature was better able to govern the area.

As more settlers migrated westward, they occupied land previously owned by the Indians. Between 1863 and 1876 many battles, most notably the Battle of the Little Bighorn, or Custer's Last Stand, took place. The bloody battles eventually brought about the surrender of several Indian tribes who were subsequently confined to reservations.

In 1864, gold was discovered in the hills around Butte and by 1875 silver was discovered there as well. The Travona Silver Mine was soon opened and Butte became known as "Silver City" for the next 10 years. In 1881 one of the richest copper mines was discovered in the hills of Buttethe place became known as "the richest hill on earth." By the 1890s copper was the state's most important mineral and Butte became the industrial center of Montana.

By 1866 the first Long Horn cattle were brought to Montana from Texas and by the mid-1870s sheep also grazed the countryside. In 1886, approximately 664,000 head of cattle and nearly a million sheep grazed Montana's land. Between 1880 and 1909, the state prospered as construction of a railroad system helped open new markets for the livestock and mining industries. The railroads also allowed farmers to migrate to Montana. Between 1900 and 1920 the population grew from 243,329 to 548,889. In 1889, after several attempts, Montana's bid for statehood was approved by Congress.

Farmers from all over the country as well as Germany and Scandinavia migrated to Montana in the early 1900s planting flax, oats and wheat. Land claims grew from one million acres in 1909 to 93 million acres in 1922. Farmers were able to get good prices for their wheat until a drought ravaged Montana's farm country in 1917. Many could not sustain their farms and left the state for more hospitable soil. In 1920 thousands of grasshoppers descended on the land eating any seeds or grass that were left. Periods of drought and rain over the next 10 years forced the farmers to diversify their crops to suit the climate and use farm machines which helped turn a profit once again.

As the Great Depression (19291939) hit the United States the demand for minerals and agricultural products waned. By 1935 mines were closing and farmers were losing their land as one-fourth of Montana residents received financial assistance from the government. However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal began to put people back to work in Montana constructing dams and roads and extending power lines.

With the start of World War II (19391945), Montana's economy began to thrive again as copper was in demand for use in weapons systems. The government bought wheat and beef from Montana's farmers and ranchers to provide rations for the troops. After the war, Montanans began to move from farms to cities as businesses grew. In the 1950s as well successful oil wells were developed in eastern Montana.

In the 1970s Montana's petroleum and natural gas were in great demand as a fuel shortage spread across the country. As energy companies started strip mining for coal, environmentalists took action. The Montana Strip Mine Reclamation Act and the Utility Siting Act were passed in 1973, increasing the tax on coal by 30 percent. Half the money was used to restore the land and community by building roads and schools and reviving areas devastated by mining.

In the 1980s the state's economy took a plunge. Copper prices dropped drastically, forcing many of Montana's copper mines to close. At the same time, falling oil prices meant less revenue from petroleum while a drought devastated the farming industry. As a result, Montanans began to leave the state looking elsewhere for better economic opportunities. Between 1985 and 1989, the population decreased by 20,000 people.

The 1990s saw an upswing in the demand for minerals and manufactured goods, which led to a turn around in the state's economy. In 1991 about 26 percent of Montanans worked for the government, the largest employer in the state. Petroleum accounted for half of the mining income as the oil, gas, and coal industries also experienced growth. Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc were produced in Montana. Other goods such as aluminum, gemstones, phosphate, limestone, gypsum chromite, barite, clay, sand, and gravel also generate revenue for Montana. As well farmland covered about 25 percent of the state, and wheatthe biggest crop in Montanawas exported to other countries. Revenue from livestock accounted for two-fifths of Montana's farm income. In 1996 per capita personal income was $19,047 and in 1995, only about 15.3 percent of the population lived below the federal poverty level.

See also: Louis and Clark Expedition


FURTHER READING

Malone, Michael P., Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang. Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991.

Small, Lawrence F., ed. Religion in Montana: Pathways to the Present. Billings: Rocky Mountain College, 1992.

Thompson, Kathleen. "Montana." In Portrait of America. Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 1996.

Toole, Kenneth R. Montana: An Uncommon Land. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

Worldbook Encyclopedia of the States. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998, s.v. "Montana."

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Mont.

Mont. • abbr. Montana.

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Montana

MontanaAlana, Anna, bandanna, banner, Branagh, canna, canner, Diana, fanner, Fermanagh, Guyana, Hannah, Havana, hosanna, Indiana, Joanna, lanner, Louisiana, manna, manner, manor, Montana, nana, planner, Pollyanna, Rosanna, savannah, scanner, spanner, Susanna, tanner •Abner • Jaffna • Patna • caravanner •Africana, Afrikaner, Americana, ana, banana, Botswana, bwana, cabana, caragana, Christiana, Dana, darner, Edwardiana, garner, Georgiana, Ghana, Gloriana, Guiana, gymkhana, Haryana, iguana, Lana, lantana, liana, Lipizzaner, Ljubljana, Mahayana, mana, mañana, marijuana, nirvana, Oriana, pacarana, piranha, prana, Purana, Rosh Hashana, Santayana, Setswana, sultana, Tatiana, Tijuana, Tirana, tramontana, Tswana, varna, Victoriana, zenana •Gardner • partner •antenna, Avicenna, duenna, henna, Jenna, Jenner, Morwenna, Ravenna, senna, Siena, sienna, tenner, tenor, Vienna •Edna • interregna • Etna • Pevsner

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Mont.

Mont. Montana
• (or Montgom.) Montgomeryshire (former Welsh county)

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Montana

MONTANA

MONTANA , one of the Rocky Mountain states of the United States. In 1969 it had a Jewish population of 615 out of a total

of 710,000. By 2001 Montana has a Jewish population of some 800 among 903,000.

According to one observer, Montana's Jews tend to fall into three categories: remnants of the pioneer community still in Helena or Butte; out-of-state professionals who mass in university towns such as Bozeman or Missoula; the lone Jew who lives in Townsend or Ennis or Miles City. The community is united by the Montana Association of Jewish Communities (majco).

Member communities include Aitz Chaim (Great Falls Jewish Community), Bet Harim (Flathead Valley Jewish Community), Beth Aaron (Billings Jewish Community), Beth Shalom (Bozeman Jewish Community), Har Shalom (Missoula Jewish Community), and B'nai Israel (Butte Jewish Community). majco regularly holds a shabbaton in the spring of each year. Chabad has sent summer rabbis to work with the community and is planning a full-time rabbinic presence in Bozeman, perhaps the liveliest of the Jewish communities.

The first Jews, who arrived in 1862 during the gold rush at Bannock and Virginia City, were miners, wagon drivers, merchants, freighters, hotel and saloon keepers, lawyers, and journalists, many of whom became solid citizens in the raucous mining camps. Ben Ezekiel was chief clerk of the first territorial legislature and Jacob Feldberg was a member of Virginia City's first town council. Jews were also among the leaders of the vigilantes who suppressed outlawry. The oldest Jewish settlement dates from 1864, with the arrival of Jewish merchants in Helena. One of the pioneers was Gumpertz Goldberg, for whose wife Helena is said to have been named. The First Hebrew Benevolent Society, organized in 1865, became the nucleus for Temple Emanu-El, founded in 1887; their synagogue, the state's first synagogue, was built in 1891. When the Jewish community declined in the 1920s, the synagogue was deeded to the state, and it now houses the State Department of Public Welfare. When Butte became the biggest city in the state following the silver and gold booms around Anaconda in the 1870s, most of the early Jewish settlers and the later arrivals settled there. There was a Jewish congregation, Beth Israel, in Butte in 1877. It split over ritual in 1897 and a second one came into being, but today there is only one congregation with a synagogue dating from 1904. Long before Montana became a state in 1889, its Jewish residents were counted among its leading citizens. Henry Jacobs was Butte's first mayor in 1879, and Henry Lupin held that office from 1885 to 1889. Charles S. Cohan, editor of The Butte Miner, wrote the words for the state song. One of the early cattlemen was Louis Kaufman, who employed the cowboy artist Charlie Russell. Between 1873 and 1906 four Jews were grand masters of the State Masonic Grand Lodge: Sol Star, Moses Morris, H. Sol Hepner, and Henry I. Frank, a former mayor of Butte. Livingston, Great Falls, and Havre also had Jewish mayors before 1900. Among the colorful figures in the early days of the state were Daniel Bandman, a Shakespearean actor who brought theater to the mining camps (Bandman's Bridge outside Missoula is named for him); Moses Solomon, a Buffalo hunter and Indian fighter; and Philip Deidesheimer, a mining superintendent, who invented the square set system of mining timbers and for whom Philipsburg is named. The Bob Marshall Wilderness Area of 950,000 acres in the Flathead National Forest is named for the son of Louis *Marshall, who was chief of the division of recreation in the U.S. Forest Service.

The story of Billings, Montana, tells much about the paradox of Jewish life in Montana. In 1993 Billings had a population of 48 Jewish families among 81,000 residents. Hate literature appeared in mailboxes; the synagogue was painted with a swastika along with a picture of a Jew being shot by Einsatzgruppen, tombstones were overturned, Holocaust denial literature was circulated, and the homes of two Jewish families including the symphony conductor, which had been adorned with menorahs, had their windows broken. A cinder block was thrown through a Jewish child's window. The local Church Council and the senior minister of the First Congregational Church passed out menorahs to his congregation. He put a menorah in his own window. The newspaper printed a full page cutout of a menorah. The chief of police characterized the response: "It became physically impossible for the hate group to harass and intimidate thousands and thousand of Billings' citizens … We have spoken one very loud voice." In this case, the response to hatred was a united chorus of solidarity. The specific motif of the Holocaust, which was the threat of the hate groups, was embraced by the community to say, "We will behave differently." Hatred will not triumph. The Jews will not be isolated but embraced. It was a hopeful moment for all concerned.

bibliography:

B. Kelson, "The Jews of Montana" (thesis, University of Montana, 1950); B. Postal and L. Koppman, A Jewish Tourist's Guide to the U.S. (1954), 281–9. add. bibliography: E. Linenthal, Preserving Memory: the Struggle to Create America's Holocaust Museum (1995)

[Bernard Postal /

Michael Berenbaum (2nd ed.)]

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Montana

Montana

■ BLACKFEET COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-5

PO Box 819
Browning, MT 59417-0819
Tel: (406)338-5441
Free: 800-549-7457
Admissions: (406)338-5421
Fax: (406)338-3272
Web Site: http://www.bfcc.org/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1974. Setting: 5-acre small town campus. Endowment: $300,688. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $125,543. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2837 per student. Total enrollment: 503. Full-time: 424 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 79 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 2 states and territories, 92% Native American, 0.4% Hispanic, 61% 25 or older, 6% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript, immunization with 2nd MMR, certificate of Indian blood. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/29. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. One-time mandatory fee: $20. State resident tuition: $1650 full-time, $69 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1650 full-time, $69 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $350 full-time, $80 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: 16 hour patrols by security personnel. College housing not available. 10,000 books and 175 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $89,452. 55 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CARROLL COLLEGE F-6

1601 North Benton Ave.
Helena, MT 59625-0002
Tel: (406)447-4300
Free: 800-992-3648
Admissions: (406)447-4384
Fax: (406)447-4533
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.carroll.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1909. Setting: 64-acre small town campus. Endowment: $23.1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4260 per student. Total enrollment: 1,452. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 1,048 applied, 79% were admitted. 22% from top 10% of their high school class, 44% from top quarter, 80% from top half. 27 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,245 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 207 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 14 other countries, 35% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0.3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 7% 25 or older, 58% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; biological/life sciences; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: interview, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $23,484 includes full-time tuition ($16,778), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($6406). College room only: $3046. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $558 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 35 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, Drama Club, Into the Streets, Radio Club, Soccer Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, Casino Night, Spring Softball Tournament. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 830 college housing spaces available; 780 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Corette Library plus 1 other with 89,003 books, 64,500 microform titles, 2,721 serials, 3,890 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $374,825. 91 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CHIEF DULL KNIFE COLLEGE H-13

PO Box 98
Lame Deer, MT 59043-0098
Tel: (406)477-6215
Fax: (406)477-6219
Web Site: http://www.cdkc.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 3-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 460. 60% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: early admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT ASSET required; ACT recommended. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 10,000 books and 128 serials. 25 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ DAWSON COMMUNITY COLLEGE E-16

Box 421
Glendive, MT 59330-0421
Tel: (406)377-3396
Free: 800-821-8320
Fax: (406)377-8132
Web Site: http://www.dawson.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1940. Setting: 300-acre rural campus. Endowment: $344,944. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3897 per student. Total enrollment: 539. 208 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 395 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 144 students, 70% women, 30% men. Students come from 10 states and territories, 2 other countries, 0.02% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 31% 25 or older, 19% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT recommended; ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Area resident tuition: $1232 full-time, $44 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2,103 full-time, $75.10 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5,762 full-time, $205.80 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1092 full-time, $39 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. College room only: $1950.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 6 open to all. Most popular organizations: Human Services Club, Law Enforcement Club, Associated Student Body, VICA, United Badlands Indian Club. Major annual events: Halloween Party, Home Rodeo, Homecoming. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 140 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Jane Carey Memorial Library with 18,870 books, 1,112 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $169,351. 70 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Dawson is located in Glendive, the county seat of Dawson County. It is a transportation, agricultural and energy resource center located on the Yellowstone River on I-94. The city has a library, Frontier Gateway Museum, several churches, a hospital, and most major civic, fraternal and veteran's organizations within the immediate area. Recreation facilities include indoor and outdoor theaters, good hunting, limited boating and fishing, golf, and other outdoor sports. Some part-time work is available for students.

■ FLATHEAD VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE C-3

777 Grandview Dr.
Kalispell, MT 59901-2622
Tel: (406)756-3822
Free: 800-313-3822
Admissions: (406)756-3846
Fax: (406)756-3815
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fvcc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1967. Setting: 40-acre small town campus. Endowment: $865,025. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2690 per student. Total enrollment: 2,100. 381 applied, 89% were admitted. Full-time: 972 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 1,128 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 25 states and territories, 2 other countries, 2% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0.5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 50% 25 or older, 2% transferred in. Retention: 55% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $15. Area resident tuition: $1739 full-time, $62.10 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2856 full-time, $102 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7146 full-time, $255.20 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $25.75 per credit part-time, $609.50 per year part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Forestry Club, Pi-Ta Club. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Flathead Valley Community College Library with 19,038 books, 495 microform titles, 125 serials, 514 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $188,636. 132 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The campus is located 3 miles north of Kalispell city center in the beautiful Flathead Valley, a region noted for the production of seed potatoes, wheat, cattle, Christmas trees, plywood, lumber and sweet cherries. The city is circled by dense forests, lakes, and mountains, with more than 2,000 miles of good fishing streams. Transportation for the area is provided by air, rail, and bus lines. There are 28 churches, one library, a hospital and a medical center. Convenient shopping is easily accessible. Although Kalispell is a resort area, the local industries include plywood production, camper and camp trailer manufacturing, log-skidding machinery, and chemical and concrete products. Part-time employment is available for students.

■ FORT BELKNAP COLLEGE

PO Box 159
Harlem, MT 59526-0159
Tel: (406)353-2607
Fax: (406)353-2898
Web Site: http://www.fbcc.edu/

Description:

Federally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1984. Setting: 3-acre rural campus. Endowment: $291,263. Total enrollment: 158. Full-time: 117 students, 71% women, 29% men. Part-time: 41 students, 68% women, 32% men. 95% Native American, 67% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, part-time degree program, co-op programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: TABE required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run radio station. Most popular organizations: student government, Red Nations Society Indian Club, American Indian Business Leaders, American Indians Society in Engineering and Science. Major annual events: Orientation, Native American Day, Spring Fling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Fort Belknap College Library with 16,000 books, 95 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $42,495. 48 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ FORT PECK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 398
Poplar, MT 59255-0398
Tel: (406)768-5551
Admissions: (406)768-6329
Web Site: http://www.fpcc.edu/

Description:

District-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1978. Setting: small town campus. Total enrollment: 428. 80% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Summer session for credit, part-time degree program. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, early admission. Placement: ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LITTLE BIG HORN COLLEGE H-12

Box 370
Crow Agency, MT 59022-0370
Tel: (406)638-2228
Admissions: (406)638-3116
Web Site: http://www.lbhc.cc.mt.us/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1980. Setting: 5-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 317. 50% 25 or older. Core. Part-time degree program. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. College housing not available. 30 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MILES COMMUNITY COLLEGE G-15

2715 Dickinson
Miles City, MT 59301-4799
Tel: (406)874-6100
Free: 800-541-9281
Admissions: (406)874-6159
Fax: (406)874-6282
Web Site: http://www.milescc.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1939. Setting: 8-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.7 million. Total enrollment: 474. 205 applied, 100% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top half. Full-time: 360 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 114 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 5% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 0.5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 19% 25 or older, 20% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Placement: SAT or ACT recommended; SAT or ACT required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 6 open to all. Most popular organizations: Campus Ministry, Multicultural Club, Student Nurses Association, Vocational Industrial Club, Western Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, awards banquets, All-Campus Picnics. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. 150 college housing spaces available. Option: coed housing available. Library Resource Center with 17,563 books, 36 microform titles, 310 serials, 174 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $172,000. 165 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Vast livestock ranches around Miles City raise more than one-fourth of the cattle and sheep produced in Montana. Wheat is the primary crop grown in the dryland area. The city itself is a pleasant residential town with a mean annual temperature of 44.4 degrees, and an average rainfall of 13.79 inches. Local area is served by airlines and bus lines. The community has 17 churches, tennis courts, two theaters, bowling alley, golf course, radio and TV station and various civic and fraternal organizations. Local homes, apartments and rooms provide student housing in addition to dormitories. There are limited part-time work opportunities for students.

■ MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY H-7

Bozeman, MT 59717
Tel: (406)994-0211; 888-MSU-CATS
Admissions: (406)994-2601
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.montana.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1893. Setting: 1,170-acre small town campus. Endowment: $73.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $88 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9109 per student. Total enrollment: 12,166. Faculty: 828 (553 full-time, 275 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 5,124 applied, 74% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 41% from top quarter, 71% from top half. 17 National Merit Scholars, 94 valedictorians. Full-time: 9,285 students, 46% women, 54% men. Part-time: 1,557 students, 51% women, 49% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 59 other countries, 30% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 0.5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 16% 25 or older, 25% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; engineering; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $5221 full-time, $171.10 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,945 full-time, $572.70 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $6150. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 150 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 3% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Spurs, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Campus Crusade for Christ, Fangs, Mortar Board. Major annual events: International Food Bazaar, Native American Pow-wow, Day of Student Recognition. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, 24-hour residence hall monitoring. 3,260 college housing spaces available; 2,704 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Renne Library plus 1 other with 574,634 books, 2.1 million microform titles, 6,643 serials, 4,822 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.6 million. 850 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

At the heart of the Gallatin Valley, known for its scenic beauty, the city is headquarters for Gallatin National Forest. The Bridger Bowl Ski Area, 18 miles northwest, and Big Sky, Inc. 33 miles south offer skiing from mid-November to mid-March. Immediately south of Bozeman, Highway 191 follows Gallatin River through the forest to Yellowstone National Park 90 miles away. The Gallatin Field airport is 8 miles from Bozeman and is served by Delta and Northwest. Community services include many churches, public library, one hospital, and many hotels and motels. Various service clubs, veteran's clubs, and many fraternal organizations are represented within the immediate area. Recreation other than skiing is provided by local picnic areas, swimming pools, five parks, tennis courts, dude ranches, golf courses, hunting, boating, and fishing. Bozeman is known for its year-round outdoor recreational opportunities.

■ MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-BILLINGS H-11

1500 University Dr.
Billings, MT 59101-0298
Tel: (406)657-2011
Free: 800-565-6782
Admissions: (406)657-2158
Fax: (406)657-2302
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msubillings.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1927. Setting: 92-acre urban campus. Endowment: $10 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $528,143. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3532 per student. Total enrollment: 4,872. Faculty: 257 (156 full-time, 101 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 1,546 applied, 96% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 30% from top quarter, 66% from top half. 8 valedictorians. Full-time: 3,170 students, 62% women, 38% men. Part-time: 1,237 students, 70% women, 30% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 16 other countries, 10% from out-of-state, 5% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 37% 25 or older, 10% live on campus, 9% transferred in. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3762 full-time, $135 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,096 full-time, $364 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1094 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, and location. College room and board: $4050. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 53 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Art Student League, Band Club, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Residence Hall Association, Student Council for Exceptional Children. Major annual events: Homecoming, Welcome Week events, Summerfest. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 550 college housing spaces available; 460 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Montana State University-Billings Library plus 2 others with 488,004 books, 850,000 microform titles, 3,276 serials, 2,125 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $464,475. 863 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Billings is an expanding city located in the Yellowstone River Valley between rugged mountains and sweeping plains. The city is the largest in Montana, and has a population of approximately 125,000 people living in the metropolitan area. The "Magic City" is a transportation, medical, agricultural, wholesale, and retail trade center. It is served by major air, bus, and rail lines, and excellent interstate highways. Community services include many churches representing most denominations, a city library, theatres, museums, art galleries, two hospitals, YMCA, YWCA, and various civic and fraternal organizations. Recreational sites are numerous and include opportunities for fishing, hunting, boating, bowling, golf, skiing, and hiking.

■ MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-GREAT FALLS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY D-7

2100 16th Ave., South
Great Falls, MT 59405
Tel: (406)771-4300
Fax: (406)771-4317
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msugf.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1969. Setting: 35-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 1,463. 422 applied, 99% were admitted. Full-time: 716 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 747 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 10 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 3% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 54% 25 or older, 8% transferred in. Retention: 47% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for physical therapist assistant program. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, proof of immunization. Required for some: essay, 3 recommendations. Placement: SAT, ACT, or ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Montana State University College of Technology - Great Falls Library with 4,000 books, 200 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-NORTHERN B-9

PO Box 7751
Havre, MT 59501-7751
Tel: (406)265-3700
Admissions: (406)265-3704
Fax: (406)265-3777
Web Site: http://www.msun.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 105-acre small town campus. Endowment: $162,838. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3500 per student. Total enrollment: 1,589. 868 applied, 82% were admitted. Full-time: 1,060 students, 48% women, 52% men. Part-time: 368 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 7 states and territories, 3 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 14% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 65% 25 or older. Retention: 65% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Placement: ACT required. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 26 open to all. Most popular organizations: Vocational and Industrial Clubs of America, Student Nurses Association of America, Student Education Association. Major annual events: Founders' Week, Convocation, Native American Pow-Wow. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Vande Bogart Libraries with 128,000 books, 1,729 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $317,148. 140 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Havre is the transportation hub of the Northern Great Plains, America's agricultural heartland. Montana's panoramic Big Sky meets a horizon of rolling foothills and abundant lakes and reservoirs. The community is easily accessible from all directions by highway, Amtrak, and a commuter airline with links to major international airports. Rugged environments such as Glacier National Park, the Cypress Hills of Canada, the Bears Paw Mountains and the Little Rockies, are only a few hours away. Picnicking, camping, abundant wildlife, lakes with great fishing, boating, and water skiing, and numerous winter and summer sports offer recreation for outdoor enthusiasts.

■ MONTANA TECH OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA G-5

1300 West Park St.
Butte, MT 59701-8997
Tel: (406)496-4101
Free: 800-445-TECH
Admissions: (406)496-4178
Fax: (406)496-4710
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mtech.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1895. Setting: 56-acre small town campus. Endowment: $17.7 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8.6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9344 per student. Total enrollment: 2,230. Faculty: 149 (110 full-time, 39 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 414 applied, 98% were admitted. 10% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 70% from top half. 44 valedictorians. Full-time: 1,729 students, 40% women, 60% men. Part-time: 413 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 16 other countries, 12% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 34% 25 or older, 15% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 63% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering; health professions and related sciences; business/marketing. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission for students attending the College of Technology.. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, proof of immunization, standardized test scores, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $4816 full-time, $233 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,807 full-time, $607 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $43 per credit part-time, $49. College room and board: $5106. College room only: $2294.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 35 open to all. Most popular organizations: Environmental Engineering Club, SH/IH Club, Petroleum Club SPE, Marcus Daly Mining, Chemistry Club. Major annual events: Homecoming, M-Days, Comedy Night. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, controlled dormitory access. 339 college housing spaces available; 303 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Montana Tech Library plus 1 other with 165,734 books, 369,372 microform titles, 20,233 serials, 3,284 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $569,920. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Known as the "richest hill on earth," Butte has the reputation of being the world's greatest mining city. Mine workings consist of more than 10,000 miles of underground excavation. They produce a substantial percentage of the total amount of copper mined in the United States and a quantity of zinc ore. The Butte mining district is on the edge of one of the broad, faulted valleys characteristic of western Montana. During the more than 100 years of its active existence, this district has yielded manganese, copper, zinc, silver, lead, gold, and minor amounts of other metals. Three mountain ranges surround the city from the Continental Divide. The area is served by two transcontinental railroads, airlines, and bus lines. Butte community service facilities include many churches, two hospitals, five radio stations, and two TV stations. The city has a wholesale and retail shopping center. Many civic, fraternal, and professional organizations meet regularly in the immediate area. Recreation in the forms of skiing, hiking, fishing, hunting, boating, and golf are within minutes of the city.

■ ROCKY MOUNTAIN COLLEGE H-11

1511 Poly Dr.
Billings, MT 59102-1796
Tel: (406)657-1000
Free: 800-877-6259
Admissions: (406)657-1026
Fax: (406)259-9751
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rocky.edu/

Description:

Independent interdenominational, 4-year, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1878. Setting: 60-acre urban campus. Endowment: $19.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6028 per student. Total enrollment: 1,009. Faculty: 113 (53 full-time, 60 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 728 applied, 78% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 40% from top quarter, 73% from top half. 8 valedictorians, 72 student government officers. Full-time: 895 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 69 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 19 other countries, 32% from out-of-state, 7% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 17% 25 or older, 43% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: ACT. Required for some: essay, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,013 includes full-time tuition ($16,136), mandatory fees ($253), and college room and board ($6624). College room only: $3628. Part-time tuition: $674 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $67 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 23 open to all. Most popular organizations: Sojourners, Equestrian Club, Oysters, STARs, Martial Arts Club. Major annual events: homecoming, Candlelight Dinner, campus-wide holiday dinners. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, controlled dormitory access, security cameras. 477 college housing spaces available; 407 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Paul M. Adams Memorial Library with 42,674 books, 12,666 microform titles, 324 serials, 1,613 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $214,025. 104 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SALISH KOOTENAI COLLEGE D-3

PO Box 117
Pablo, MT 59855-0117
Tel: (406)275-4800
Admissions: (406)275-4866
Fax: (406)275-4801
Web Site: http://www.skc.edu/

Description:

Independent, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1977. Setting: 4-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 1,088. 344 applied, 64% were admitted. 50% from top half of their high school class. Full-time: 585 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 503 students, 58% women, 42% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 79% Native American, 0.3% Hispanic, 0.2% black, 48% 25 or older. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs. Off campus study at members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, proof of immunization, tribal enrollment. Placement: TABE required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous. Preference given to Native Americans.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. 24,000 books and 200 serials. 30 computers available on campus for general student use.

■ STONE CHILD COLLEGE

RR1, Box 1082
Box Elder, MT 59521
Tel: (406)395-4313
Fax: (406)395-4836
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.montana.edu/wwwscc/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1984. Setting: rural campus. Total enrollment:240. 11 applied, 100% were admitted. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Collegiate Environment:

42 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF GREAT FALLS D-7

1301 Twentieth St. South
Great Falls, MT 59405
Tel: (406)761-8210
Free: 800-856-9544
Admissions: (406)791-5200
Fax: (406)791-5209
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ugf.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Administratively affiliated with Providence Services. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: 40-acre urban campus. Endowment: $6.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5123 per student. Total enrollment: 778. Faculty: 94 (33 full-time, 61 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 242 applied, 79% were admitted. Full-time: 485 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 188 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 32 states and territories, 5 other countries, 24% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 3% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 48% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 15% transferred in. Retention: 42% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; psychology; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Flathead Valley Community College; Bellevue University, NE.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay. Recommended: high school transcript, interview, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadlines: 8/1, 8/1 for nonresidents. Notification: 9/1, 9/1 for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $20,720 includes full-time tuition ($14,600), mandatory fees ($620), and college room and board ($5500). College room only: $2400. Part-time tuition: $460 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $15 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 19 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Montana Education Association, Student Senate, International Law and Justice Club, Students In Free Enterprise, Science Club (medical, forensic and computer science students). Major annual events: Spookaroo, Homecoming, student coffee houses. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 300 college housing spaces available; 141 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. University of Great Falls Library with 107,541 books, 21,423 microform titles, 581 serials, 4,164 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $482,545. 110 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Montana's second largest city, Great Falls is an industrial, financial, wholesale and distributing center. Major agricultural pursuits in the area are livestock farming and wood production. Known as the city "between the parks," Great Falls is almost equidistant to Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks. The winters are moderate. Summer evenings are cool. The area is served by air, rail, and bus lines. Local attractions include dude and guest ranches, fishing, hunting, and skiing. Some employment opportunities are available in the area.

■ THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-HELENA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY F-6

1115 North Roberts St.
Helena, MT 59601
Tel: (406)444-6800
Fax: (406)444-6892
Web Site: http://www.umhelena.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1939. Setting: small town campus. Total enrollment: 850. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Placement: ACT ASSET required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Most popular organization: Student Senate. Major annual events: Fall and Spring Barbecues, Christmas Party, Open House. College housing not available. 2,500 books and 30 serials. 45 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-MISSOULA F-3

Missoula, MT 59812-0002
Tel: (406)243-0211
Free: 800-462-8636
Admissions: (406)243-2361
Fax: (406)243-5711
E-mail: adm[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.umt.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1893. Setting: 220-acre urban campus. Endowment: $78.3 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $20 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4633 per student. Total enrollment: 13,602. Faculty: 734 (547 full-time, 187 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 5,802 applied, 83% were admitted. 17% from top 10% of their high school class, 41% from top quarter, 71% from top half. 18 National Merit Scholars, 52 valedictorians. Full-time: 9,620 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 1,884 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 52 states and territories, 61 other countries, 27% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 21% 25 or older, 23% live on campus, 26% transferred in. Retention: 70% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; communications/journalism; natural resources/environmental science; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT 1540 (M-V-Wr) or ACT 22; and SAT Math 420 or ACT Math 17, SAT or ACT. Required for some: ACT ASSET or ACT COMPASS. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 3/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3739 full-time, $164 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,246 full-time, $573 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1291 full-time, $40 per credit part-time. College room and board: $5860. College room only: $2660.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 125 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 10% of eligible men and 7% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Forestry Club, Honors Student Association, Campus Outdoor Program, International Organization, Kyio Indian Club. Major annual events: Aber Day (clean earth day), Foresters' Ball, Homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,413 college housing spaces available; 3,037 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library plus 2 others with 570,287 books, 238,184 microform titles, 6,248 serials, 118,190 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5.3 million. 545 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-WESTERN I-5

710 South Atlantic
Dillon, MT 59725-3598
Tel: (406)683-7011; (866)869-6668
Admissions: (406)683-7665
Fax: (406)683-7493
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.umwestern.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Part of Montana University System. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1893. Setting: 36-acre small town campus. Endowment: $6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $171,202. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4769 per student. Total enrollment: 1,159. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 428 applied, 99% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 17% from top quarter, 47% from top half. 3 valedictorians. Full-time: 941 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 218 students, 85% women, 15% men. Students come from 12 states and territories, 2 other countries, 15% from out-of-state, 4% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 33% 25 or older, 35% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: education; business/marketing; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3538 full-time, $295 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,080 full-time, $503 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $815 full-time. College room and board: $4920. College room only: $1970.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 18 open to all. Most popular organizations: soccer, IGNU (poetry club), admissions volunteers, Rodeo Club, Chi Alpha-Christian Fellowship. Major annual events: Homecoming, Alumni Weekend, Campus Olympics. Student services: legal services, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 481 college housing spaces available; 181 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Lucy Carson Memorial Library with 90,431 books, 5,792 microform titles, 7,127 serials, 3,718 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $549,987. 140 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

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Montana

Montana

BLACKFEET COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 819
Browning, MT 59417-0819
Tel: (406)338-5441
Free: 800-549-7457
Admissions: (406)338-5421
Fax: (406)338-3272
Web Site: http://www.bfcc.org/
President/CEO: Terrance E. Whitright
Registrar: Deana McNabb
Admissions: Deana M. McNabb
Financial Aid: Margaret Bird
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. One-time mandatory fee: $20. State resident tuition: $1650 full-time, $69 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $1650 full-time, $69 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $350 full-time, $80 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 424, PT 79 Faculty: FT 27, PT 36 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Library Holdings: 10,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU

CARROLL COLLEGE

1601 North Benton Ave.
Helena, MT 59625-0002
Tel: (406)447-4300
Free: 800-992-3648
Admissions: (406)447-4384
Fax: (406)447-4533
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.carroll.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Thomas Trebon
Registrar: Mary Pat Dutton
Admissions: Candace A. Cain
Financial Aid: Janet Riis
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 96% SAT V 400+; 96% SAT M 400+; 45% ACT 18-23; 47% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 79 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: June 01 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $23,484 includes full-time tuition ($16,778), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($6406). College room only: $3046. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. part-time tuition: $558 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,245, PT 207 Faculty: FT 80, PT 54 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 67 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 58 Library Holdings: 89,003 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates; 122 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, AACN, NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Football M; Golf W; Soccer W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Volleyball W

CHIEF DULL KNIFE COLLEGE

PO Box 98
Lame Deer, MT 59043-0098
Tel: (406)477-6215
Fax: (406)477-6219
Web Site: http://www.cdkc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard E. Littlebear
Registrar: William Wertman
Admissions: William L. Wertman
Financial Aid: Donna Small
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 8, PT 22 Exams: ACT, Other Library Holdings: 10,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU

DAWSON COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Box 421
Glendive, MT 59330-0421
Tel: (406)377-3396
Free: 800-821-8320
Fax: (406)377-8132
Web Site: http://www.dawson.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Terry Hetrick
Registrar: Lane Holte
Admissions: Jolene Myers
Financial Aid: Jolene Myers
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Scores: 50% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Area resident tuition: $1232 full-time, $44 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2,103 full-time, $75.10 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5,762 full-time, $205.80 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1092 full-time, $39 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. College room only: $1950. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 395, PT 144 Faculty: FT 21, PT 28 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 19 Library Holdings: 18,870 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Softball W

FLATHEAD VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

777 Grandview Dr.
Kalispell, MT 59901-2622
Tel: (406)756-3822
Free: 800-313-3822
Admissions: (406)756-3846
Fax: (406)756-3815
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fvcc.edu/
President/CEO: Jane A. Karas
Registrar: Sharon Hall
Admissions: Marlene C. Stoltz
Financial Aid: Bonnie Whitehouse
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $15.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $15. Area resident tuition: $1739 full-time, $62.10 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2856 full-time, $102 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7146 full-time, $255.20 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $25.75 per credit part-time, $609.50 per year part-time. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 972, PT 1,128 Faculty: FT 40, PT 146 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Library Holdings: 19,038 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W

FORT BELKNAP COLLEGE

PO Box 159
Harlem, MT 59526-0159
Tel: (406)353-2607
Fax: (406)353-2898
Web Site: http://www.fbcc.edu/
President/CEO: Carole Falcon-Chandler
Admissions: Dixie Brockie
Financial Aid: Wayne Birdtail
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 117, PT 41 Faculty: FT 8, PT 20 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 16,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 92 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Volleyball M & W

FORT PECK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 398
Poplar, MT 59255-0398
Tel: (406)768-5551
Admissions: (406)768-6329
Web Site: http://www.fpcc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. James Shanley
Registrar: Terri DeLong
Admissions: Robert McAnally
Financial Aid: Haven Gorneau
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Fee: $15.00 Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 17, PT 14 Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU

LITTLE BIG HORN COLLEGE

Box 370
Crow Agency, MT 59022-0370
Tel: (406)638-2228
Admissions: (406)638-3116
Web Site: http://www.lbhc.cc.mt.us/
President/CEO: Henry Real Bird
Registrar: Anne Bullis
Admissions: Tina Pretty On Top
Financial Aid: Berthina Deputy
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Calendar System: Quarter Faculty: FT 11, PT 1 Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 92 quarter hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W

MILES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

2715 Dickinson
Miles City, MT 59301-4799
Tel: (406)874-6100
Free: 800-541-9281
Admissions: (406)874-6159
Fax: (406)874-6282
Web Site: http://www.milescc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Darrel L. Hammon
Registrar: Lisa Blunt
Admissions: Laura J. Pierce
Financial Aid: Jessie Dufner
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 360, PT 114 Faculty: FT 27, PT 13 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 17,563 Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Golf M & W

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY

Bozeman, MT 59717
Tel: (406)994-0211; 888-MSU-CATS
Admissions: (406)994-2601
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.montana.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Geoffrey Gamble
Registrar: Charles A. Nelson
Admissions: Charles Nelson
Financial Aid: Thomas Stump
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 96% SAT M 400+; 47% ACT 18-23; 38% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 74 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $5221 full-time, $171.10 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $14,945 full-time, $572.70 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load. Part-time tuition varies according to course load. College room and board: $6150. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,285, PT 1,557, Grad 1,324 Faculty: FT 553, PT 275 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 53 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 25 Library Holdings: 574,634 Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AACN, AAFCS, ACA, APA, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-BILLINGS

1500 University Dr.
Billings, MT 59101-0298
Tel: (406)657-2011
Free: 800-565-6782
Admissions: (406)657-2158
Fax: (406)657-2302
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msubillings.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ronald P. Sexton
Registrar: Karen Everett
Admissions: Cheri Johannes
Financial Aid: Melina Hawkins
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Scores: 91% SAT V 400+; 94% SAT M 400+; 61% ACT 18-23; 22% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 96 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3762 full-time, $135 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,096 full-time, $364 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $1094 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and location. Part-time tuition varies according to course load, degree level, and location. College room and board: $4050. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,170, PT 1,237, Grad 465 Faculty: FT 156, PT 101 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 67 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 10 Library Holdings: 488,004 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: CORE, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-GREAT FALLS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

2100 16th Ave., South
Great Falls, MT 59405
Tel: (406)771-4300
Fax: (406)771-4317
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.msugf.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Mary Moe
Registrar: Carol Schopfer
Admissions: Carol Schopfer
Financial Aid: Leah J. Habel
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 716, PT 747 Faculty: FT 40, PT 43 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 4,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, ADA, AHIMA, CARC, NCCU

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-NORTHERN

PO Box 7751
Havre, MT 59501-7751
Tel: (406)265-3700
Admissions: (406)265-3704
Fax: (406)265-3777
Web Site: http://www.msun.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Alex Capdeville
Registrar: Steven Jamruszka
Admissions: Rosalie Spinler
Financial Aid: Kris Dramstad
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,060, PT 368, Grad 161 Faculty: FT 73, PT 30 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 76 Library Holdings: 128,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 128 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ABET, NCATE, NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

MONTANA TECH OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA

1300 West Park St.
Butte, MT 59701-8997
Tel: (406)496-4101
Free: 800-445-TECH
Admissions: (406)496-4178
Fax: (406)496-4710
E-mail: t[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mtech.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. W. Franklin Gilmore
Registrar: Edwin Johnson
Admissions: Tony Campeau
Financial Aid: Michael Richardson
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Scores: 93.16% SAT V 400+; 94.02% SAT M 400+; 62.5% ACT 18-23; 37.5% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 98 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $4816 full-time, $233 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,807 full-time, $607 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $43 per credit part-time, $49. College room and board: $5106. College room only: $2294. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,729, PT 413, Grad 88 Faculty: FT 110, PT 39 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 63 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 15 Library Holdings: 165,734 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120-136 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ABET, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Rugby M & W; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Volleyball W

ROCKY MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

1511 Poly Dr.
Billings, MT 59102-1796
Tel: (406)657-1000
Free: 800-877-6259
Admissions: (406)657-1026
Fax: (406)259-9751
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.rocky.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Thomas R. Oates
Registrar: Janet Alberson
Admissions: Bonnie Knapp
Financial Aid: Lisa Browning
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: interdenominational Scores: 96% SAT V 400+; 94% SAT M 400+; 56% ACT 18-23; 35% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 78 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,013 includes full-time tuition ($16,136), mandatory fees ($253), and college room and board ($6624). College room only: $3628. Part-time tuition: $674 per credit. part-time mandatory fees: $67 per term. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 895, PT 69, Grad 45 Faculty: FT 53, PT 60 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 43 Library Holdings: 42,674 Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 124 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCCU

SALISH KOOTENAI COLLEGE

PO Box 117
Pablo, MT 59855-0117
Tel: (406)275-4800
Admissions: (406)275-4866
Fax: (406)275-4801
Web Site: http://www.skc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Joseph McDonald
Registrar: Cleo Kenmille
Admissions: Jackie Moran
Financial Aid: Jeannie Burland
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Deferred Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 585, PT 503 Faculty: FT 45, PT 35 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 24,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 92 credits, Associates; 180 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ADA, NLN, NCCU

STONE CHILD COLLEGE

RR1, Box 1082
Box Elder, MT 59521
Tel: (406)395-4313
Fax: (406)395-4836
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.montana.edu/wwwscc/
President/CEO: Steve Galbavy
Registrar: Theodore Whitford
Admissions: Ted Whitford
Financial Aid: Joe LaFronbies
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester Faculty: FT 10, PT 12 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU

UNIVERSITY OF GREAT FALLS

1301 Twentieth St. South
Great Falls, MT 59405
Tel: (406)761-8210
Free: 800-856-9544
Admissions: (406)791-5200
Fax: (406)791-5209
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ugf.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Eugene J. McAllister
Registrar: Tracy Lampkins
Admissions: Paula Highlander
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic; Providence Services Scores: 84% SAT V 400+; 84% SAT M 400+; 41% ACT 18-23; 22% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 79 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home school students: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $20,720 includes full-time tuition ($14,600), mandatory fees ($620), and college room and board ($5500). College room only: $2400. Part-time tuition: $460 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $15 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 485, PT 188, Grad 105 Faculty: FT 33, PT 61 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 83 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 21 Library Holdings: 107,541 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 128 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Soccer W; Softball W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-HELENA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

1115 North Roberts St.
Helena, MT 59601
Tel: (406)444-6800
Fax: (406)444-6892
Web Site: http://www.umhelena.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Steven Hoyle
Registrar: Cris Valdez
Admissions: Vicki Cavanaugh
Financial Aid: Victoria Glass
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 50, PT 30 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 2,500 Credit Hours For Degree: 68 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NCCU

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-MISSOULA

Missoula, MT 59812-0002
Tel: (406)243-0211
Free: 800-462-8636
Admissions: (406)243-2361
Fax: (406)243-5711
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.umt.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. George M. Dennison
Registrar: Dr. Philip T. Bain
Admissions: Jed Liston
Financial Aid: Myron Hanson
Type: University Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System % Accepted: 83 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: March 01 Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled applicants: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3739 full-time, $164 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $13,246 full-time, $573 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1291 full-time, $40 per credit part-time. College room and board: $5860. College room only: $2660. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 9,620, PT 1,884, Grad 1,856 Faculty: FT 547, PT 187 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 58 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 23 Library Holdings: 570,287 Credit Hours For Degree: 65 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, ABA, ACPhE, ACF, APTA, APA, AALS, CARC, CSWE, JRCEPAT, NASAD, NASM, NAST, NCATE, NRPA, NCCU, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Fencing M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball M & W

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-WESTERN

710 South Atlantic
Dillon, MT 59725-3598
Tel: (406)683-7011; (866)869-6668
Admissions: (406)683-7665
Fax: (406)683-7493
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.umwestern.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard Storey
Registrar: Jason Karch
Admissions: Dr. Eric Murray
Financial Aid: Arlene Williams
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Montana University System Scores: 64% SAT V 400+; 76% SAT M 400+; 61% ACT 18-23; 15% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 99 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $3538 full-time, $295 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $12,080 full-time, $503 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $815 full-time. College room and board: $4920. College room only: $1970. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 941, PT 218 Faculty: FT 56, PT 16 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 85 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 35 Library Holdings: 90,431 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NCATE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Volleyball W

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Montana

Montana

BLACKFEET COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Bilingual and Multilingual Education, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, A

General Studies, A

Health/Medical Preparatory Programs, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

CARROLL COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Acting, B

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Civil Engineering, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, AB

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering, B

English Language and Literature, AB

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Finance, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Religious Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language/ESL Language Instructor, B

Technical and Business Writing, B

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

CHIEF DULL KNIFE COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agriculture, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

Office Management and Supervision, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

DAWSON COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Clinical/Medical Social Work, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

FLATHEAD VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Hospitality and Recreation Marketing Operations, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Metal and Jewelry Arts, A

Survey Technology/Surveying, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

Word Processing, A

FORT BELKNAP COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Business/Commerce, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

Pre-Engineering, A

FORT PECK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Science, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Human Services, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

LITTLE BIG HORN COLLEGE

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Computer Science, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, A

MILES COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Building/Property Maintenance and Management, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Graphics, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Consumer Merchandising/Retailing Management, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, A

Energy Management and Systems Technology/Technician, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Human Services, A

Information Technology, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Telecommunications Technology/Technician, A

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, M

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, M

Agricultural Mechanization, B

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

American Indian/Native American Studies, M

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, B

Applied Economics, M

Architecture, M

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

BioTechnology, B

Business/Commerce, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Civil Engineering, BMD

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, BMD

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Design and Visual Communications, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Ecology, MD

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, M

Environmental Biology, M

Environmental Design/Architecture, B

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, M

Environmental Sciences, BMD

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Film, Television, and Video Production, M

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

Geosciences, MD

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Education, M

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, BMD

Horticultural Science, B

Human Development, M

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial/Management Engineering, MD

Mathematics, BMD

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Microbiology, MD

Molecular Biology, MD

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, BMD

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, M

Neuroscience, BMD

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, O

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physics, BMD

Plant Pathology/Phytopathology, M

Plant Sciences, BMD

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Public Administration, M

Range Science and Management, BMD

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Statistics, MD

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Veterinary Sciences, MD

Zoology/Animal Biology, D

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-BILLINGS

Accounting, B

Accounting and Related Services, A

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising and Public Relations, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, M

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business/Commerce, AB

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Community Psychology, B

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, A

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Education, ABMO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Finance, B

Fire Protection and Safety Technology/Technician, A

General Studies, A

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Health Services Administration, M

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, A

Interdisciplinary Studies, M

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Petroleum Technology/Technician, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Pre-Engineering, A

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Nursing Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Psychology, ABM

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Professions, B

Rehabilitation Counseling, M

Rehabilitation Therapy, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Sheet Metal Technology/Sheetworking, A

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Sociology, AB

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, ABM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, BM

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-GREAT FALLS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, A

Business/Commerce, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Dental Assisting/Assistant, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Studies, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Interior Design, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Transcription/Transcriptionist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY-NORTHERN

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, AB

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Teacher Education, B

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Commercial and Advertising Art, AB

Community Organization and Advocacy, AB

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, AB

Education, BM

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Heavy Equipment Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, AB

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, AB

Industrial Technology/Technician, AB

Information Science/Studies, AB

Interdisciplinary Studies, AB

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Metallurgical Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, AB

Welding Technology/Welder, A

MONTANA TECH OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Mathematics, B

Architectural Drafting and Architectural CAD/CADD, A

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, B

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, AB

Biology/Biological Sciences, AB

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Commerce, B

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Chemistry, B

Civil Drafting and Civil Engineering CAD/CADD, A

Civil Engineering, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, B

Computer Science, AB

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Engineering, AB

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

Engineering Science, B

Engineering Technology, A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, M

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Executive Assistant/Executive Secretary, A

Finance, B

Geochemistry, M

Geological Engineering, M

Geological/Geophysical Engineering, B

Geology/Earth Science, M

Geophysics Engineering, M

Geosciences, M

Geotechnical Engineering, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, A

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, M

Industrial Hygiene, M

Industrial/Management Engineering, M

Information Science/Studies, B

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Materials Engineering, B

Materials Sciences, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Drafting and Mechanical Drafting CAD/CADD, A

Mechanical Engineering, B

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Metallurgical Engineering, BM

Mineral/Mining Engineering, M

Mining and Mineral Engineering, B

Nurse/Nursing Assistant/Aide and Patient Care Assistant, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene, B

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, AB

Petroleum Engineering, BM

Petroleum Technology/Technician, A

Project Management, M

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Systems Engineering, B

Technical and Business Writing, B

Technical Communication, M

Welding Technology/Welder, B

ROCKY MOUNTAIN COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Accounting and Related Services, B

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Airline/Commercial/Professional Pilot and Flight Crew, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Aviation/Airway Management and Operations, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Environmental Studies, B

Equestrian/Equine Studies, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

Health and Physical Education/Fitness, B

Health Teacher Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Information Technology, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Management Science, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physician Assistant, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

SALISH KOOTENAI COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Child Development, A

Computer Science, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Environmental Studies, AB

Forestry, A

Forestry Technology/Technician, A

Human Services, AB

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, A

Natural Sciences, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

STONE CHILD COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer Science, A

Human Services, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

UNIVERSITY OF GREAT FALLS

Accounting, B

Accounting and Business/Management, B

American Literature (United States), B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Child and Family Studies, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, B

Computer and Information Systems Security, B

Computer Graphics, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, B

Computer Science, B

Computer Software and Media Applications, B

Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst, B

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, B

Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, B

Corrections, B

Corrections Administration, B

Corrections and Criminal Justice, B

Counseling Psychology, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Creative Writing, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Criminology, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

Education, M

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, B

Educational Administration and Supervision, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Composition, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

Health and Physical Education, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

Human Services, ABM

Information Science/Studies, BM

Information Technology, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, AB

Library Science, B

Management Science, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mathematics, AB

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

School Librarian/School Library Media Specialist, B

School Psychology, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, ABM

System Administration/Administrator, B

System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Theology/Theological Studies, B

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, B

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, B

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-HELENA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Agricultural Mechanization, A

Airframe Mechanics and Aircraft Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Executive Assistant/Executive Secretary, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Office Occupations and Clerical Services, A

General Studies, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-MISSOULA

Accounting, BM

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, B

African-American/Black Studies, B

American Government and Politics (United States), B

American Indian/Native American Studies, B

Anthropology, BMD

Apparel and Accessories Marketing Operations, A

Applied Mathematics, B

Area Studies, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Asian Studies/Civilization, B

Astronomy, B

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Biochemistry, BMD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, B

Chemistry, BMD

Chinese Language and Literature, B

City/Urban, Community and Regional Planning, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, D

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Creative Writing, B

Criminology, M

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Curriculum and Instruction, BMD

Dance, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

East Asian Studies, B

Ecology, MD

Economics, BM

Education, BMDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Education, B

Environmental Sciences, MO

Environmental Studies, BMO

Executive Assistant/Executive Secretary, A

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Experimental Psychology, D

Fashion Merchandising, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, MD

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forest Management/Forest Resources Management, B

Forestry, BMD

French Language and Literature, BM

Geography, BM

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

German Language and Literature, BM

Health Education, M

Health Promotion, M

Health Psychology, M

Health Teacher Education, B

Heavy Equipment Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, BMD

Information Science/Studies, B

Information Technology, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, BMD

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Journalism, BM

Latin Language and Literature, B

Law and Legal Studies, ABPO

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Linguistics, BM

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Microbiology, MD

Music, BM

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Natural Resources and Conservation, BM

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, BM

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MD

Pharmaceutics and Drug Design, B

Pharmacology, D

Pharmacy, B

Pharmacy Technician/Assistant, B

Philosophy, BM

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BD

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, M

Pre-Engineering, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Psychology, BMDO

Public Administration, MO

Radio and Television, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Reading Teacher Education, B

Receptionist, A

Recreation and Park Management, M

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Rural Sociology, M

Russian Language and Literature, B

Russian Studies, B

School Psychology, MDO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Small Engine Mechanics and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Speech and Rhetorical Studies, B

Statistics, B

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language/ESL Language Instructor, B

Technical and Business Writing, B

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, A

Theater, M

Toxicology, MD

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Women's Studies, B

Writing, M

Zoology/Animal Biology, BMD

THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA-WESTERN

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Art, AB

Art Teacher Education, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Commerce, AB

Business/Corporate Communications, B

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Comparative Literature, B

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Studies, B

Equestrian/Equine Studies, A

Health Teacher Education, B

History Teacher Education, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, B

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Tourism and Travel Services Management, A

Tourism and Travel Services Marketing Operations, AB

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Montana

MONTANA

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Rachel Helvik, Program Coordinator
Office of Vocational-Technical Education - Workforce Development
Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education
2500 Broadway, PO Box 203101
Helena, MT 59620-3101
(406)444-0318

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

For specific information, contact the Program Coordinator, address above.

BILLINGS

Acme Beauty College

320 N. 30th St., Billings, MT 59101. Cosmetology. Founded 1950. Contact: F.F. Griffin, Dir., (406)245-5567. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $2,500 Cosmetology; $800 Manicure. Enrollment: Total 23. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (350 Hr)

College of Coiffure Art Ltd

1423 Wyoming Ave., Billings, MT 59102-5333. Contact: Kathy L. Korum, President, (406)656-9114. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $5,400. Degrees awarded: Associate.

Montana State University

1500 N. 30th St., Billings, MT 59101. Other. Founded 1927. Contact: Karen Everett, Director, (406)657-2158, 800-565-6762, Fax: (406)657-2302, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.msubillings.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1034 12-18 credits, or $86/credit. Enrollment: men 1,502, women 2,794. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NASAD; NASM; NCATE; NWCCU; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Junior (4 Sm); Accounting Technology (4 Sm); Administrative Assistant (2 Sm); Appliance Repair (2 Sm); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Sm); Auto Body Design (2 Sm); Automotive Collision Repair (2 Sm); Automotive Technology (4 Sm); Computer Aided Drafting (2 Sm); Computer Business Systems Technology (4 Sm); Data Processing (2 Yr); Diesel Technology (4 Sm); Drafting Technology (4 Sm); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Handicapped, Special Education (2 Yr); Microcomputers (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Office, General (2 Sm); Paramedic (4 Sm); Secretarial, Legal (4 Sm); Secretarial, Medical (4 Sm); Welding Technology (2 Sm); Word Processing (2 Yr)

Montana State University-Billings-College of Technology

3803 Central Ave., Billings, MT 59102-9856. Contact: John Cech, Dean, (406)247-3000, Web Site: http://www.cot.msubillings.edu. Public. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,319 in-state; $6,361 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate.

MSU-Billings College of Technology

3803 Central Ave., Billings, MT 59102. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1969. Contact: John Cech, Dean, (406)247-3000, (406)247-3005, 800-565-6782, Fax: (406)652-1729, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cot.msubillings.edu/. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2090 12-18 credits, resident; $5,769 non-resident. Enrollment: men 372, women 358. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU; NASAD; NASM; NCATE; CORE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Junior; Accounting Technology; Administrative Assistant; Air Conditioning & Heating; Automotive Collision Repair; Automotive Technology; Computer Applications; Computer Networking; Diesel Technology; Drafting Technology; Fire Science; Human Services; Medical Assistant; Metal Trades Technology; Network Support; Nursing, Practical; Office Technology; Paramedic; Plant Science; Radiologic Technology

SAGE Technical Services (Billings)

3044 Hesper Rd., Billings, MT 59102. Trade and Technical.800-545-4546, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com; Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com/sage-contact_sage.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,925-$4,035. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Heavy Equipment (150 Hr); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (150 Hr)

Yellowstone Baptist College

1515 S. Shiloh Rd., Billings, MT 59106. Other. Founded 1974. Contact: Alesia Fowler, Dir. of Admissions and Recruiting, (406)656-9950, 800-487-9950, Fax: (406)656-3737, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.yellowstonebaptist.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,600; $500 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 51. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCA-HLC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Minister (130-132 Hr)

BOZEMAN

Academy of Cosmetology

133 W. Mendenhall, Bozeman, MT 59715. Cosmetology. Founded 1983. Contact: Verna Dupuis, Owner/Instructor, (406)587-1265, (406)587-1264, 888-587-1265, Fax: (406)585-7357, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.academycosmetology.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,200 plus $750 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 1, women 36. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr)

Health Works Institute

111 S.Grand Ave., Annex 3, Bozeman, MT 59715. Trade and Technical. Founded 2000. Contact: Ruth Marion, Dir., (406)582-1555, Fax: (406)522-0493, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://healthworksinstitute.com; Web Site: http://healthworksinstitute.com/contact.php. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $8,300, plus fees. Enrollment: Total 18. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: COMTA. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (12-20 Mo)

School of Electronics at Saint George

2716 W. Willard St., Bozeman, MT 59718-1832. Trade and Technical. Founded 1994. Contact: Shirley Valenzuela, (406)986-9804, Fax: (406)986-9804, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Other. Tuition: $4,000 (3 months); $16,000 (9 months). Enrollment: Total 15. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Electronics Technology (12 Mo)

BUTTE

Butte Academy of Beauty Culture, Inc.

303 W. Park St., Butte, MT 59701. Cosmetology. Founded 1930. Contact: Darlene Battaiola, (406)723-8565, (406)782-6297, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,100 plus $600 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 0, women 35. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr)

Montana Tech College of Technology

25 Basin Creek Rd., Butte, MT 59701. Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: Tony Campeau, Dir. of Admissions, (406)496-3701, (406)496-4178, 800-445-TECH, Fax: (406)496-3710, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mtech.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $4,946 in-state; $14,718 out-of-state/year; $5,128 room and board. Enrollment: men 1,146, women 940. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Computer Operator (3 Sm); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (3 Sem); Secretarial, Legal (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr); Small Engine Repair (1 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr); Word Processing (3 Sm)

CROW AGENCY

Little Big Horn College

1 Forestry Lane, Crow Agency, MT 59022. Contact: Dr. David Yarlott, President, (406)638-3100, (406)638-3116, Web Site: http://main.lbhc.cc.mt.us. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,400 in-state; $2,400 out-of-state.

GARDINER

Wilderness Connection Guide School

416 Cinnabar Basin Rd., Gardiner, MT 59030. Trade and Technical. Founded 1985. Contact: Robert Stermitz, Dir., (406)848-7863, 800-285-5482, Fax: (406)848-7863, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Week. Tuition: $3,000. Enrollment: Total 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Wilderness Guide (4 Wk)

GLENDIVE

Dawson Community College

300 College Dr., PO Box 421, Glendive, MT 59330. Two-Year College. Founded 1940. Contact: Jolene Myers, Dir. of Admissions/Financial Aid, (406)377-3396, (406)377-9410, 800-821-8320, Fax: (406)377-8132, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.dawson.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $83/credit in-district; $114 out-of-district; $152 WUE; $189 Canadian Exchange student; $245 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 392. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Agribusiness Technology (2 Yr); Agri-Power Equipment (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Computer Servicing -Software Applications (2 Yr); Correctional Science (1 Yr); Drug Abuse Counseling (2 Yr); Early Childhood Specialist (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Law Enforcement (2 Yr); Livestock Management (1 Yr); Ranch & Farm Management (2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 Yr)

GREAT FALLS

Benefis Healthcare School of Radiologic Technology

500 15th Ave. S., Great Falls, MT 59405. Allied Medical. Founded 1954. Contact: Thomas M. Liston, (406)455-2164, Fax: (406)455-2162, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $650 book fee. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

Dahls College of Beauty

716 Central Ave., Great Falls, MT 59401-3731. Cosmetology. Contact: Trudi Sien, Dir., (406)454-3453. Private. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,800 cosmetology; $2,100 nail technician; $3,375 cosmetology instructor (prices do not include books and supplies). Enrollment: men 0, women 25. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (650 Hr); Nail Technology (350 Hr)

May Technical College

211 4th St., SW, Great Falls, MT 59404-2925. Trade and Technical. Founded 1990. Contact: Heidi Harden, (406)761-4000, 800-762-9832, Fax: (406)761-2418. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,850 per semester. Enrollment: Total 100. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting & Business Administration; Computer Technology; Management; Marketing; Medical Assistant; Paralegal

Montana State University of Technology-Great Falls

2100 16th Ave., S., Great Falls, MT 59405. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1969. Contact: Pam Parsons, (406)771-4314, (406)771-4300, 800-446-2698, Fax: (406)771-4317, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.msugf.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $161/credit resident; $382/credit non-resident. Enrollment: Total 1,500. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU; ADA; AHIMA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (4 Sm); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Sm); Biological Technology (4 Sm); Business (4 Sm); Computer Networking (4 Sm); Computer Technology (2 Sm); Dental Assisting (2 Sm); Dental Receptionist (2 Sm); Entrepreneurship (4 Sm); Fire Fighting (4 Sm); Health Information Technology (4 Sm); Information Systems (2 Sm); Instrumentation Technology (4 Sm); Interior Design (4 Sm); Laboratory Technology (4 Sm); Legal Assistant (4 Sm); Medical Office Management (4 Sm); Medical Transcription (4 Sm); Microcomputers (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (4 Sm); Office Technology (4 Sm); Paramedic (4 Sm); Respiratory Therapy (4 Sm); Secretarial, General (2 Sm); Secretarial, Legal (2 Sm); Secretarial, Medical (2 Sm)

Mountain States Baptist College

216 Ninth St. North, Great Falls, MT 59401. Other. Founded 1981. Contact: Dr. Richard Jonas, Dean, (406)761-0308, Fax: (406)761-3654, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.fairview4u.org/msbc. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,700. Enrollment: men 11, women 11. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Bible Study (2 Yr); Christian Service (2 Yr); Minister (4 Yr)

University of Great Falls

1301 20th St. South, Great Falls, MT 59405. Other. Founded 1932. Contact: Eugene Mcallister, Pres., (406)791-5200, 800-856-9544, Fax: (406)791-5209, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ugf.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $13,500 12-18 credits; less than 12 credits, $425 per credit. Enrollment: Total 700. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available.

HAMILTON

FWL Outfitters and Guide School

PO Box 1248, Hamilton, MT 59840. Trade and Technical. Founded 1975. Contact: Art Griffith, (406)821-4474, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://iho-fwl.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $3,000; 28-day resident training program; $325 home study training manual. Enrollment: Total 16. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Horse Management; Horsemanship; Horseshoeing

HARLEM

Fort Belknap College

Hwy. S. 2 & 66, Harlem, MT 59526-0159. Contact: Carole Falcon-chandler, President, (406)353-2607, Web Site: http://www.fbcc.edu. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,410 in-state; $2,410 out-of-state.

HAVRE

Montana State University - Northern

PO Box 7751, 300 W. Eleventh St., Havre, MT 59501. Other. Founded 1929. Contact: Jim Potter, Dir. of Admissions, (406)265-3758, 800-662-6132, Fax: (406)265-3788, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.msun.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,815 12-18 credits; room and board $4,560. Enrollment: Total 1,640. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agri-Engineering & Mechanics (2-4 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Business Technology (4 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2-4 Yr); Communications Technology (2-4 Yr); Community Aid (2-4 Yr); Computer Information Science (2-4 Yr); Design (2-4 Yr); Diesel Technology (2 Yr); Drafting Technology (2 Yr); Electronic Engineering Technology (2-4 Yr); Environmental Technology (2-4 Yr); Graphic Design (2-4 Yr); Health Occupations (2-4 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2-4 Yr); Metal Trades Technology (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Railroad Personnel (2-4 Yr); Water Quality Control (2 Yr)

HELENA

Big Sky Somatic Institute

1802 11th Ave., Helena, MT 59601-4760. Trade and Technical. Founded 1996. Contact: Ron Floyd, Co-Founder, (406)442-8998, (866)442-8273, Fax: (406)442-8273, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bigskysomatic.com; Jennifer Hicks, Co-Founder. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1,600-$10,000. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: AMTA; COMTA; NCBTMB; ABMP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Healing Arts; Massage Therapy (160-1000Hr)

Carroll College

1601 N. Benton Ave., Helena, MT 59625. Other. Founded 1909. Contact: Dr. James Trudnowski, VP of Academic Affairs, (406)447-4300, 800-992-3648, Fax: (406)447-4533, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.carroll.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $8,389 per sem.; $3,123 room and board per sem. Enrollment: Total 1,500. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Art (2 Yr); Health Care & Management

University of Montana-Helena College of Technology

1115 Roberts N., Helena, MT 59601. Trade and Technical, Two-Year College. Founded 1939. Contact: Vicky Cavanaugh, Dir. of Admissions, (406)444-6800, 800-241-4882, Fax: (406)444-6892, Web Site: http://www.umh.umontana.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $150 resident; $199 WUE student; $339 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 575. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (4 Sm); Agri-Engineering & Mechanics (4 Sm); Auto Mechanics (4 Sm); Auto Mechanics - Diesel (4 Sm); Aviation Maintenance Technology (3 Sm); Bookkeeping (2 Sm); Carpentry (2 Sm); Computer Technology (4 Sm); Electronics Technology (4 Sm); Machine Tool & Die (2 Sm); Mechanics, Truck (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (3 Sm); Office Management (2 Sm); Office Technology (4 Sm); Secretarial, General (3 Sm); Welding, Combination (2 Sm)

KALISPELL

Alamon Telephone Training Center

315 W. Idaho St., Kalispell, MT 59901. Trade and Technical. Founded 1979. Contact: Margaret A. Gebhardt, Pres., (406)752-8838, 800-252-8838, Fax: 800-468-2645, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.alamon.com; Alex Hatfield, General Manager, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,500. Enrollment: Total 80. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Telecommunications Technology (120 Hr)

Flathead Valley Community College

777 Grandview Dr., Kalispell, MT 59901. Two-Year College. Contact: Jane A. Karas, Pres., (406)756-3822, (406)756-3846, Fax: (406)756-3815, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.fvcc.edu; Carolyn Shriver, Secretary to the Pres., E-mail: [email protected] Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,605 in-state; $6,525 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate.

MILES CITY

Miles Community College

2715 Dickinson, Miles City, MT 59301-4774. Two-Year College. Founded 1939. Contact: Lisa Blunt, Registrar, (406)874-6100, (406)874-6214, 800-541-9281, Fax: (406)874-6283, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.milescc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,550 in-state; $5,610 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 378. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NCAHLC; NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agribusiness (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1-2 Yr); Building Construction Technology (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Education (2 Yr); Health Information Technology (1-2 Yr); Mid-Management (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Physical Education (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr); Teacher Assistant (1-2 Yr)

MISSOULA

Modern Beauty School Inc.

2700 Paxson Street, Ste. G, Missoula, MT 59801. Contact: Lynn Startin, President, (406)721-1800, (406)549-9608. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $8,500. Enrollment: Total 40.

Rocky Mountain School of Photography

210 N. Higgins Ave., Ste. 101, Missoula, MT 59802. Trade and Technical. Founded 1989. Contact: Jeanne Chaput de Saintonge, Founder, (406)543-0171, 800-394-7677, Fax: (406)721-9133, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.rmsp.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $5,350 for 11-week summer program plus $250 lab fee. Enrollment: men 70, women 70. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Photography (11 Wk)

SAGE Technical Services (Missoula)

7421 Racetrack Dr., Missoula, MT 59808. Trade and Technical.877-724-3875, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com; Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com/sagecontact_sage.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,925-$4,035. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Heavy Equipment (150 Hr); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (150 Hr)

St. Patrick Hospital School of Radiologic Technology

500 W. Broadway, PO Box 4587, Missoula, MT 59806. Allied Medical. Founded 1957. (406)329-5829. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $800 per year. Enrollment: Total 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

University of Montana College of Technology

909 South Ave., W., Missoula, MT 59801. Nursing, Trade and Technical, Two-Year College, Other. Founded 1967. Contact: Amy Leary, (406)243-7882, (406)243-7828, 800-542-6882, Fax: (406)243-7889, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cte.umt.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,504 per semester in-state; $3,899 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 1,069. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting Technology (4 Sm); Administrative Assistant (4 Sm); Bookkeeping (2 Sm); Building Maintenance (2 Sm); Carpentry (2 or 4 Sm); Culinary Arts (2 Sm); Customer Service (2 Sm); Electronics Technology (4 Sm); Entrepreneurship; Food Service & Management (4 Sm); Heavy Equipment (2 Sm); Information Systems (4 Sm); Marketing & Sales (2 or 4 Sm); Mechanics, Diesel (4 Sm); Medical Administrative Assistant (4 Sm); Medical Assistant (4 Sm); Medical Laboratory Technology; Medical Receptionist (2 Sm); Medical Transcription (4 Sm); Microcomputers (4 Sm); Network Support (4 Sm); Nursing, Practical (4 Sm); Office Administration (4 Sm); Paralegal (4 Sm); Pharmacy Technician (4 Sm); Radiologic Technology (4 Sm); Respiratory Therapy (4 Sm); Retail Management (4 Sm); Surgical Technology (4 Sm); Welding Technology (2 Sm)

PABLO

Salish-Kootenai College

52000 Hwy. 93, Box 70, Pablo, MT 59855. Other. Founded 1977. Contact: Lois Slater, (406)275-4800, (406)275-4866, Fax: (406)275-4801, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.skc.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $4,176 per year. Enrollment: Total 1,200. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ADA; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Building Trades (1 Yr); Business (2-4 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Dental Assisting (1-2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2-4 Yr); Forestry Technology (2 Yr); Human Services (4 Yr); Medical Record Technology (1-2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2-4 Yr); Office, General (1-2 Yr)

PHILIPSBURG

Royal Tine Enterprises—Guide & Packer School, Fly Fishing School, Camp Cooking School

PO Box 809, Philipsburg, MT 59858. Other. Founded 1993. Contact: Cody Hensen, Dir., (406)859-5138, 800-400-1375, Fax: (406)859-5138, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.royaltine.com/; Web Site: http://www.royaltine.com/contactus.php. Private. Men. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies with program ($3,550-$4,350). Enrollment: Total 100. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Forestry Technology (1-5 Wk); Wilderness Guide (4-5 Wk)

POPLAR

Fort Peck Community College

605 Indian Ave., Poplar, MT 59255. Two-Year College. Contact: James E. Shanley, Pres., (406)768-6300, (406)768-6325, Fax: (406)768-6301, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.fpcc.edu. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,440 in-state; $1,440 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate.

TROUT CREEK

Montana Guide Training Center

22 Swamp Creek Rd., Trout Creek, MT 59874. Trade and Technical. Contact: Jerry Malson, (406)847-5582, Fax: (406)827-3789, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://montanaguidetrainingcenter.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $2,950. Enrollment: Total 16. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Animal Science - Companion Animal Care & Management; Cook, Short Order; Fisheries & Wildlife Management; Meat Cutting; Wilderness Guide

VICTOR

Northwestern O.G.C. School

1765 Pleasant View Dr., Victor, MT 59875. Trade and Technical. Founded 1982. Contact: Rick Wemple, (406)642-3262, 888-642-1010, Fax: (406)642-3462, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wildlifeadventuresinc.com; Mike or Debra Caniglia. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,895, includes room & board, also home study video program $395. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Wilderness Guide (4 Wk)

Northwestern Professional Outfitter, Guide & Wilderness Camp Cook School

1765 Pleasant View Dr., Victor, MT 59875. Trade and Technical. Founded 1983. Contact: Rick Wemple, Administrator, (406)642-3262, 888-642-1010, Fax: (406)642-3462, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.wildlifeadventuresinc.com; Mike or Debra Caniglia. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,895 for 4 week program; $395 for 30 hour home study video program. Enrollment: Total 42. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Horsemanship; Taxidermy; Veterinary Technology; Wilderness Guide (300 Hr)

WHITEHALL

Asten Center

121 W. Legion St., Whitehall, MT 59759. Allied Medical. Founded 1983. Contact: Hervey Perez, (406)287-5670, 800-599-9009, Fax: (406)287-7900. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $7,150. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (600 Hr)

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Montana

Montana

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Montanans

40 Bibliography

State of Montana

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the Latin word meaning “mountainous.”

NICKNAME : The Treasure State.

CAPITAL: Helena.

ENTERED UNION: 8 November 1889 (41st).

OFFICIAL SEAL: In the lower center are a plow and a miner’s pick and shovel; mountains appear above them on the left, the Great Falls of the Missouri River on the right, and the state motto on a banner below. The words “The Great Seal of the State of Montana” surround the whole.

FLAG: A blue field, fringed in gold on the top and bottom borders, surrounds the center portion of the official seal, with “Montana” in gold letters above the coat of arms.

MOTTO: Oro y Plata (Gold and silver).

SONG: “Montana.”

FLOWER: Bitterroot.

TREE: Ponderosa pine.

ANIMAL: Grizzly bear.

BIRD: Western meadowlark.

FISH: Black-spotted (cutthroat) trout.

GEM: Yogo sapphire and Montana agate.

FOSSIL: Duck-billed dinosaur.

GRASS: Bluebunch wheatgrass.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; State Election Day, 1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November in even-numbered years; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 5 AM MST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in the northwestern United States, Montana is the largest of the eight Rocky Mountain states and ranks fourth in size among the 50 states. The total area of Montana is 147,046 square miles (380,849 square kilometers), of which land takes up 145,388 square miles (376,555 square kilometers) and inland water 1,658 square miles (4,294 square kilometers). The state’s maximum east-west extension is 570 miles (917 kilometers). Its extreme north-south distance is 315 miles (507 kilometers). Its total boundary length is 1,947 miles (3,133 kilometers).

2 Topography

Montana has an approximate mean elevation of 3,400 feet (1,000 meters). The Rocky Mountains cover the western two-fifths of the state, with the Bitterroot Range along the Idaho border. The high, gently rolling Great Plains occupy most of central and eastern Montana. The highest point in the state is Granite Peak, at an elevation of 12,799 feet (3,904 meters). The lowest point, at 1,800 feet (549 meters), is in the northwest, where the Kootenai River leaves the state at the Idaho border. The Continental Divide passes through the western part of the state. Ft. Peck Reservoir is Montana’s largest body of inland water, covering 375 square miles (971 square kilometers). Flathead Lake is the largest natural lake. The state’s most important rivers are the Missouri and the Yellowstone.

3 Climate

The Continental Divide separates the state into two distinct climatic regions. The west generally has a milder climate than the east, where winters can be especially harsh. Montana’s maximum daytime temperature averages 27°f (-2°c) in January and 85°f (29°c) in July. The all-time low temperature in the state, -70°f (-57°c) at Rogers Pass on 20 January 1954, is also the lowest temperature ever recorded in the continental United States. The all-time high, 117°f (47°c), was set at Medicine Lake on 5 July 1937. Great Falls receives an average annual precipitation of 15 inches (38 centimeters), but much of north-central Montana is arid. About 58.5 inches (148.6 centimeters) of snow descends on Great Falls each year.

Montana Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:944,632
Population change, 2000–06:4.7%
Hispanic or Latino†:2.2%
Population by race 
One race:98.3%
White:90.6%
Black or African American:0.5%
American Indian /Alaska Native:6.0%
Asian:0.6%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.1%
Some other race:0.5%
Two or more races:1.7%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Billings98,7219.9
Missoula62,92310.3
Great Falls56,338-0.6
Bozeman33,53521.9
Butte-Silver Bow32,282-4.8
Helena27,3836.2
Kalispell18,48029.9
Havre9,390-2.4
Anaconda-Deer Lodge8,948-5.0
Miles8,162-3.8

4 Plants and Animals

The subalpine region, in the northern Rocky Mountains, is rich in wildflowers during a short midsummer growing season. The plants of the montane zone consists largely of coniferous forests, principally alpine fir, and a variety of shrubs. The plains are characterized by an abundance of grasses, cacti, and sagebrush species. Three plant species were threatened as of April 2006: Ute ladies’-tresses, Spalding’s catchfly, and water howellia.

Game animals of the state include elk, moose, pronghorn antelope, and mountain goat. Notable among the amphibians is the axolotl. Rattlesnakes and other reptiles occur in most of the state. As of 2006, eleven species were listed as threatened or endangered, including the grizzly bear, black-footed ferret, Eskimo curlew, two species of sturgeon, the gray wolf, and the whooping crane.

5 Environmental Protection

Montana’s major environmental concerns are management of mineral and water resources and reclamation of strip-mined land. In 2003, Montana had 71 hazardous waste sites listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s database, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. Only a tiny fraction of the state’s lands are wetlands. The Water Quality Bureau of the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences is responsible for managing wetlands.

6 Population

In 2005, Montana ranked 44th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 944,632 residents. The population is projected to reach 999,489 by 2015 and 1.03 million by 2025. In 2004, Montana’s population density of 6.4 persons per square mile (2.47 persons per square kilometer) was one of the lowest in the country. In 2005, 13% of the all residents were 65 years of age and older, while 22% were 18 and younger. The median age was about 39.6 in 2004. The largest metropolitan area in 2005 was Billings, with an estimated 98,721 residents. The Missoula metropolitan area had an estimated population of 62,923.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, there were approximately 56,068 Native Americans in Montana, of whom the Blackfeet and Crow are the most numerous. In 2006, American Indians accounted for 6.0% of the state’s population. In 2000, there were also 2,692 black Americans and 4,691 Asians. In 2006, blacks accounted for 0.5% of the population, while Asians accounted for 0.6%. There were 18,081 Hispanic or Latino residents in 2000, accounting for 2% of the population. In 2006, Hispanic or Latino residents accounted for 2.2% of the state’s population. In 2000, a total of 16,396 residents in Montana were foreign born. Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Mexico were the leading places of origin.

Montana Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population902,195100.0
One race886,46598.3
Two races15,0031.7
White and Black or African American1,0160.1
White and American Indian/Alaska Native9,1161.0
White and Asian1,7100.2
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander268
White and some other race1,9450.2
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native300
Black or African American and Asian40
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander7
Black or African American and some other race50
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian117
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander34
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race196
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander91
Asian and some other race95
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race18
Three or more races7270.1

8 Languages

English in Montana fuses Northern and Midland features, with the Northern influence declining from east to west. In 2000, the number of Montanans who spoke only English at home was 803,031, representing about 95% of the resident population five years of age or older. Other languages spoken at home, and number of speakers, included Spanish, 12,953; German, 9,416; and various Native American languages, 9,234.

9 Religions

In 2000, there were nearly an equal number of Protestants and Roman Catholics within the state. In 2004, there were about 103,351 adherents to the Roman Catholic faith. Leading Protestant denominations (with 2000 data) were the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 50,287; the United Methodist Church, 17,993; Assemblies of God, 16,385; the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, 15,441 and the Southern Baptist Convention, 15,318. There were about 850 Jews and 614 Muslims in the state in 2000. In 2006, the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) reported a statewide membership of 13,384 adherents.

About 493,703 people (55% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization in 2000.

10 Transportation

Montana’s first railroad, the Utah and Northern, entered the state in 1880. Today, Montana is served by two Class I railroads (the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, and the Union Pacific), plus two regional railroads, and two local railroads, operating on 3,291 miles (5,326 kilometers) of track. As of 2006, Amtrak operated one long-distance route (Chicago–Seattle/Portland) through the state, which served 12 stations.

Because of its large size, small population, and difficult terrain, Montana was slow to develop a highway system. In 2004, the state had 69,452 miles (111,817 kilometers) of public roads, streets, and highways. There were about 1.031 million registered motor vehicles in that same year, including some 427,000 automobiles, around 555,000 trucks, and some 1,000 buses. There were 712,880 licensed drivers in 2004.

Montana had 241 airports, 31 heliports, 2 STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 2 seaplane bases in 2005. The leading airport is Billings-Logan International Airport, which had 395,086 passenger boardings in 2004.

11 History

Montana’s first European explorers were probably French traders and trappers from Canada who arrived during the 17th and 18th centuries. It was not until 1803, however, that the written history of Montana began. In that year, the Louisiana Purchase gave the United States most of Montana, and the Lewis and Clark expedition, dispatched by President Thomas Jefferson in 1804, added the rest. Soon afterwards, the first American trappers, traders, and settlers entered Montana.

The fur trade dominated Montana’s economy until 1858, when gold was discovered east of the present-day community of Drummond, bringing with it a temporary gold boom. In 1863, the eastern and western sectors of Montana were joined as part of Idaho Territory. On 26 May 1864, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Organic Act, which created the Montana Territory.

The territorial period was one of rapid and profound change. By the time Montana became a state on 8 November 1889, the remnants of Montana’s Native American culture had been largely confined to federal reservations, following the surrender of the Nez Perce tribe to federal forces. As the Native American threat subsided, cattle ranchers wasted little time in putting the seemingly limitless open range to use. The “hard winter” of 1886/87, when perhaps as many as 362,000 head of cattle starved, marked the end of a cattle frontier based on the “free grass” of the open range and taught the stockmen the value of a secure winter feed supply.

Modern Times Construction of Montana’s railroad system between 1880 and 1909 breathed new life into mining as well as the livestock industry. By 1890, the Butte copper pits were producing more than 40% of the nation’s copper requirements. The struggle to gain financial control of the enormous mineral wealth of Butte Hill led to the “War of the Copper Kings,” whose victor, Anaconda Copper Mining, practically controlled the press, politics, and governmental processes of Montana until the 1940s and 1950s.

The railroads also brought an invasion of agricultural homesteaders. Montana’s population

doubled between 1900 and 1920, while the number of farms and ranches increased form 13,000 to 57,000. Drought and a sharp drop in wheat prices after World War I brought an end to the homestead boom. Conditions worsened with the drought and depression of the early 1930s. Then the New Deal—enormously popular in Montana—helped revive farming and silver mining, and financed irrigation and other public works projects.

The decades since the end of World War II have seen moderate growth in Montana’s population, economy, and social services. Although manufacturing developed slowly, the state’s fossil fuels industry grew rapidly during the national energy crisis of the 1970s. However, production of coal, crude oil, and natural gas leveled off after the crisis and even declined in the early 1980s.

In 1983 the Anaconda Copper Mining Company shut down its mining operations in Butte. Farm income declined in the late 1980s as a result of falling prices, drought, and insect damage. By the early 1990s, growth in manufacturing and construction and recovery in agriculture improved the state’s economy. Nevertheless, the state had the eighth-highest unemployment rate in the nation, 5.2% as of 1999. US Senator Max Baucus urged a special session of the state legislature to address unemployment and convened a Montana Economic Development Summit in June 2000. By September 2005, the state’s economic picture improved, with unemployment falling to 4.5%. However the number of Montana residents living below the federal poverty line remained high at 14.3% in 2004.

Tourism, air quality, and wildlife in parts of Montana were affected by forest fires. In 1988 forest fires burned for almost three months in Yellowstone National Park, and some Montana residents had to be evacuated from their homes. In 2000, Montana was again among the states afflicted by raging wildfires. By the end of July, 3.5 million acres had burned across the West. In August 2003, wildfires burned more than 400,000 acres, an area large enough to cover about half of Rhode Island.

In 1992 Montana’s delegation to the US House of Representatives was reduced from two members to one, based on the results of the 1990 Census. As of the 2004 election, the state was still represented in the US House of Representatives by a single member. In that election, Democrat

Brian Schweitzer retook the governorship, which had been held by Republicans since 1988.

12 State Government

Montana’s original constitution, dating from 1889, was revised by a 1972 constitutional convention, effective in 1973. That document had been amended 30 times by January 2005.

The state legislature consists of 50 senators, elected to staggered four-year terms, and 99 representatives, who serve for two years. Elected officers of the executive branch include the governor and lieutenant governor (who run jointly), secretary of state, attorney general, auditor, and superintendent of public instruction. Each serves a four-year term. To become law, a bill must pass both houses by a simple majority and be signed by the governor, or remain unsigned for five days, or be passed over the governor’s veto by a two-thirds vote of both houses.

In 2004, legislators received $78.60 per day during regular legislative sessions, while the governor received $93,089 per year, as of December 2004.

13 Political Parties

Since statehood, Democrats have generally dominated in contests for the US House and Senate, while Republicans led in elections for state and local offices, and in national presidential campaigns (except during the New Deal years). In 2000, Montanans gave Republican George W. Bush 58% and Democrat Al Gore 34%. In 2004, President Bush took 59% of the vote, compared to 39% for challenger John Kerry.

Democrat Brian Schweitzer became governor in 2004. Democratic challenger Jon Tester defeated incumbent senator Conrad Burns, a Republican, in the 2006 US Senate race. Democrat Max Baucus won reelection to his seat in the US Senate in 2002. The state’s sole seat in the US House was retained by a Republican in the 2006 election.

Following the 2006 midterm elections, there were 24 Republicans and 26 Democrats in the state senate, while there were 50 Democrats, 49 Republicans, and 1 Independent in the state house. Thirty-seven women were elected to the state legislature in 2006, or 24.7%.

In 2004 there were 638,000 registered voters in Montana. The state does not require party registration.

14 Local Government

As of 2005, Montana had 56 counties, 129 municipalities, 592 special districts, and 453 public school districts. Typically, elected county officialsconsist of three county commissioners, an attorney, a sheriff, a clerk and recorder, school superintendent, treasurer, assessor, and coroner.

15 Judicial System

Montana’s highest court, the Montana Supreme Court, consists of a chief justice and six associate justices. District courts are the courts of general jurisdiction. There are 37 district court judges. Justice of the peace courts are essentially county courts whose jurisdiction is limited to minor civil cases, misdemeanors, and traffic violations.

Montana’s violent crime (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault) rate in 2004 was 293.8 incidents per 100,000 people. The state has a death penalty, for which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. However, the state rarely enforces the death penalty. Between 1976 and 5 May 2006, only two people have been executed. As of 1 January 2006, there were four inmates on death row. There were 3,877 inmates in Montana’s state and federal prisons as of 31 December 2004.

Montana Governors: 1889–2007

1889–1893Joseph Kemp TooleDemocrat
1893–1897John Ezra RickardsRepublican
1897–1901Robert Burns Smith Populist,Democrat
1901–1908Joseph Kemp TooleDemocrat
1908–1913Edwin Lee NorrisDemocrat
1913–1921Sam Vernon StewartDemocrat
1921–1925Joseph Moore DixonRepublican
1925–1933John Edward EricksonDemocrat
1933–1935Frank Henry CooneyDemocrat
1935–1937William Elmer HoltDemocrat
1937–1941Roy Elmer AyersDemocrat
1941–1949Samuel Clarence FordRepublican
1949–1953John Woodrow BonnerDemocrat
1953–1961John Hugo AronsonRepublican
1961–1965Donald Grant NutterRepublican
1965–1969Tim M. BabcockRepublican
1969–1973Forest Howard AndersonDemocrat
1973–1981Thomas Lee JudgeDemocrat
1981–1989Ted SchwindenDemocrat
1989–1993Stan StephensRepublican
1993–2000Marc Francis RacicotRepublican
2000–2004Judy MartzRepublican
2004–Brian SchweitzerDemocrat

16 Migration

Montana’s first great migratory wave brought Indians from the east during the l7th and 18th centuries. The gold rush of the 1860s, and a land boom between 1900 and 1920 resulted in surges of white settlement. The economically troubled 1920s and 1930s produced a severe wave of outmigration that continued through the 1960s. The trend began reversing between 1970 and 1980. Between 1990 and 1998, Montana had net gains of 48,000 in domestic migration and 3,000 in international migration. In the period 2000–05, net international migration was 2,141, while net domestic migration for that same period was 18,933 people, giving the state a net gain of 21,074 people.

Montana Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR MONTANA WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
** Independent candidate Ross Perot received 107,225 votes in 1992 and 55,229 votes in 1996.
1948*Truman (D)119,07196,770
1952*Eisenhower (R)106,213157,394
1956*Eisenhower (R)116,238154,933
1960Nixon (R)134,891141,841
1964*Johnson (D)164,246113,032
1968*Nixon (R)114,117138,835
1972*Nixon (R)120,197183,976
1976Ford (R)149,259173,703
1980*Reagan (R)118,032206,814
1984*Reagan (R)146,742232,450
1988*Bush (R)168,936190,412
1992***Clinton (D)154,507144,207
1996**Dole (R)167,922179,652
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)137,126240,178
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)173,710266,063

17 Economy

Agriculture, mining, and lumbering traditionally dominated Montana’s economy. In the early 21st century, tourism was of increasing importance. A lawsuit with the federal government over the federal lands that have supplied much of the state’s timber has placed the timber industry’s future in question. Employment in the services industries overtook manufacturing and mining during the 1990s. Business, engineering, and health services stimulated the economy, in addition to tourism.

The state economy was little affected by the national recession of 2001, and employment increased in construction, financial, and general services, and fell slightly in manufacturing, transportation, and utilities in 2002. Farming in Montana was hard-hit by drought conditions in the early 2000s. Wheat crop yields in 2002 were the lowest since 1988.

Montana’s gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $27.482 billion, of which real estate accounted for the largest share of GSP at $3.229 billion or 11.7%. It was followed by healthcare and social assistance at 9% of GSP, and construction at 5.9% of GSP. Of the 33,801 businesses that have employees, 97.8% are small companies.

18 Income

In 2004, Montana ranked 42nd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia with a per capita (per person) income of $27,657, compared to the national average of $33,050. Montana’s median household income for the three-year period 2002 through 2004 was $35,201, compared to the national average of $44,473. For the same period, 14.3% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to 12.4% nationwide.

19 Industry

Montana’s major manufacturing industries process raw materials from mines, forests, and farms. In 2004, the total shipment value of all products manufactured in the state totaled $6.468 billion. Of that total, wood product manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $960.445 million, followed by food manufacturing at $666.718 million, and nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing at $216.365 million.

In 2004, a total of 17,311 people were employed in Montana’s manufacturing sector. Of that total, the wood product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest portion, with 4,109 workers, followed by food manufacturing at 2,464, and miscellaneous manufacturing at 1,447.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Montana numbered 502,800, with approximately 18,300 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.6%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. April 2006 data for nonfarm employment showed that about 6.9% of the labor force was employed in construction; 4.5% in manufacturing; 4.5% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5% in financial activities; 8.4% in professional and business services; 13% in leisure and hospitality services; and 20.2% in government. Data was unavailable for education and healthcare services.

In 2005, a total of 42,000 of Montana’s 391,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of a union. This represented 10.7% of those so employed, and was below the national average of 12%.

21 Agriculture

Montana’s farms numbered 28,000 in 2004. Farm income totaled almost $2.38 billion in 2005. In 2004, Montana was the nation’s third-leading wheat producer. Other major crops were barley (third in the United States), sugarbeets (sixth), and hay. Oats, potatoes, flax, and dry beans are also grown.

22 Domesticated Animals

In 2005, Montana’s farms and ranches had around 2.4 million cattle and calves, valued at $2.5 million. There were an estimated 165,000 hogs and pigs, valued at $18.2 million in 2004. During 2003, Montana farmers produced around 24.6 million pounds (11.2 million kilograms) of sheep and lambs that grossed $22.6 million in income.

23 Fishing

Montana’s designated fishing streams offer some 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) of good to excellent freshwater fishing. In 2004, the state issued 379,252 sport fishing licenses.

Montana is home to the Creston and Ennis National Fish Hatcheries as well as the Bozeman Fish Technology Center and the Bozeman Fish Health Center. Creston specializes in rainbow trout, westslope cutthroat trout, kokanee salmon, and bull trout. Ennis works as part of the National Broodstock Program, producing about 20 million rainbow trout eggs annually for research facilities, universities and federal, state and tribal hatcheries in 23 states.

24 Forestry

In 2004, a total of 23,500,000 acres (9,510,000 hectares) in Montana were classified as forest-land. There were 11 national forests, comprising 16,932,447 acres (6,852,561 hectares) in 2005. The lumbering industry produced 1.09 billion board feet in 2004.

25 Mining

The estimated value of nonfuel mineral production for Montana in 2003 was $492 million. Metallic minerals accounted for 63% of the state’s total nonfuel mineral production by value. Montana ranked 26th nationally in the value of nonfuel minerals produced.

Gold was Montana’s leading mineral by value in 2003, followed by platinum, construction sand and gravel, cement (portland and masonry), and bentonite. Montana is the only state to produce primary platinum and palladium. The state is first in the production of talc; second in benton-ite; fourth in gold, zinc and lead, and seventh in silver. According to preliminary figures, production and value in 2003 included construction sand and gravel, 18 million metric tons ($81.9 million); palladium, 14,600 kilograms ($98.3 million); and platinum, 4,100 kilograms ($86.5 million)

26 Energy and Power

In 2003, Montana generated 26.268 billion kilowatt hours of electricity, of which 64.9% came from coal-fired plants, 33.1% from hydropower, and 1.5% from petroleum-fueled plants. Total net summer generating capacity was 5.210 million kilowatts in 2003.

In 2004, the state produced an average of 68,000 barrels per day of crude oil. Proven reserves in that same year totaled 364 million barrels. Marketed natural gas production in 2004 totaled 96.762 billion cubic feet (2.74 billion cubic meters), with proven reserves of consumer-grade natural gas of 995 billion cubic feet (28.2 billion cubic meters), as of 31 December 2004. In 2004, Montana had six producing coal mines (five surface operations and one underground). In that same year, coal output totaled 39.989 million tons. Recoverable coal reserves totaled 1.14 billion tons in 2004.

27 Commerce

In 2002, Montana’s wholesale trade sector had sales totaling $7.2 billion, while the retail trade sector had sales of $10.1 billion. Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest portion of retail sales at $ 2.7 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $1.6 billion, and food and beverage stores at $1.3 billion. In 2005, Montana’s foreign exports totaled $710 million.

28 Public Finance

The Montana state budget is prepared biennially by the Office of Budget and Program Planning and submitted by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval. The fiscal year runs from 1 July to 30 June.

In 2004, Montana had total revenues of $5.45 billion, while total expenditures that year totaled $4.69 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($1.377 billion), public welfare ($762 million), and highways ($537 million). The state’s debt in 2004 totaled $3.048 billion, or $3,288.96 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

As of 1 January 2006, Montana had a seven-bracket personal income tax that ranged from 1% to 6.9%. The corporate income tax was a flat rate of 6.75%. There is no state sales and use tax, but Montana imposes excise taxes covering such products as motor fuels, and tobacco products. There are also state and local property taxes.

The state collected $1.788 billion in taxes in 2005, of which 39.9% came from individual income taxes, 25.5% from selective sales taxes, 10.4% from state property taxes, and 5.5% from corporate income taxes. The per capita (per person) tax burden in 2005 amounted to $1,910, compared to the national average of $2,192, which ranked the state 35th among the 50 states in terms of individual tax burden.

In October 2005, the infant mortality rate was estimated at 6.7 per 1,000 live births. The overall death rate was 9.2 per 1,000 people in 2003. Major causes of death were heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes. About 20.3% of the population were smokers in 2004. Montana has one of the lowest AIDS rates in the country. In 2004, the state’s AIDS case rate was about 0.8 per 100,000 people.

Montana’s 53 community hospitals had about 4,300 beds in 2003. In 2005, Montana had 800 nurses per 100,000 population, while in 2004, there were 224 physicians per 100,000 population, and a total of 513 dentists in the state. The average expense for community hospital care was $733 per day. In 2004, about 19% of Montana’s residents were uninsured.

31 Housing

In 2004, Montana had an estimated 423,262 housing units, of which 368,530 were occupied, and 68.5% were owner-occupied. About 69.8% of all units were single-family, detached homes, while about 12.8% were mobile homes. Utility gas and electricity were the most common energy sources for heating. It was estimated that 18,156 units lacked telephone service, 1,780 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 2,143 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.45 people.

In 2004, a total of 5,000 new privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $119,319. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $974. Renters paid a median of $520 per month.

32 Education

In 2004, of all Montana residents age 25 and older, 91.9% were high school graduates and 5.5% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Total public school enrollment was estimated at 147,000 in fall 2003, and expected to total 141,000 by fall 2014. Enrollment in nonpublic schools in fall 2003 was 8,924. Expenditures for public education in 2003/2004 were estimated at $1.2 billion.

As of fall 2002, there were 45,111 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, Montana had 23 degree-granting institutions. The University of Montana has campuses at Missoula, Montana Tech, and Western Montana College. Montana State University encompasses the Bozeman, Billings, and Northern campuses.

33 Arts

The state capitol in Helena is home to Charles Russell’s mural Lewis and Clark Meeting the Flathead Indians. Orchestras are based in Billings and Bozeman. The Equinox Theater Company is also a popular attraction in Bozeman.

The Montana Arts Council supports many programs with state and federal funds. The Montana Committee for the Humanities (MCH) was founded in 1972. In 2000, the MCH sponsored its first annual Montana Festival of the Book in downtown Missoula, bringing together writers, readers, and entertainers from across the state.

34 Libraries and Museums

In 2001, Montana had 107 public libraries, of which 28 were branches. The combined book stock of all Montana public libraries was 2.625 million volumes and their combined circulation was 4.8 million. Distinguished collections include those of the University of Montana (Missoula) and Montana State University (Bozeman).

Among the state’s 74 museums are the Montana Historical Society Museum in Helena, the World Museum of Mining in Butte, and the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning. The C. M. Russell Museum in Great Falls honors the work of Charles Russell, whose mural Lewis and Clark Meeting the Flathead Indians adorns the capitol in Helena. Other fine art museums include the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman, the Yellowstone Art Center at Billings, and the Missoula Museum of the Arts.

35 Communications

In 2004, of all the state’s households, 93.5% had telephone service, and as of December 2003, there were 373,947 wireless telephone service subscribers. In 2003, computers were in 59.5% of all Montana households, while 50.4% had Internet access. There were 43 major commercial radio stations (14 AM, 29 FM) in 2005, and 16 major television stations. A total of 15,300 Internet domain names were registered in Montana in 2000.

36 Press

As of 2005, Montana had eight morning dailies, three evening dailies, and seven Sunday newspapers. The leading papers and their circulations were the Billings Gazette (47,105 mornings, 52,434 Sundays), the Great Falls Tribune (33,434 mornings, 36,763 Sundays), and the Missoulian (30,466 mornings, 34,855 Sundays).

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2002, about 10 million nonresident travelers spent $1.8 billion dollars on visits to the state. The tourist industry sponsors over 33,500 jobs for the state.

Many tourists seek out the former gold rush camps, ghost towns, and dude ranches. Scenic wonders include Glacier National Park in the northwest, and Yellowstone National Park, which also extends into Idaho and Wyoming. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area is another popular destination.

38 Sports

Although there are no professional major league sports teams in Montana, there are minor league baseball teams in Billings, Great Falls, Helena, and Missoula. The University of Montana Grizzlies and Montana State University Bobcats both compete in the Big Sky Conference. Skiing is a very popular participation sport. The state has world-class ski resorts in Big Sky. Other annual sporting events include the Seeley-Lincoln 100/200 Dog Sled Race between Seely Lake and Lincoln in January, and many rodeos statewide.

39 Famous Montanans

Prominent national officeholders from Montana include US Senator Thomas Walsh (b.Wisconsin, 1859–1933), who directed the investigation that uncovered the Teapot Dome scandal; Jeannette Rankin (1880–1973), the first woman member of Congress and the only US representative to vote against American participation in both world wars. Crazy Horse (1849?–1877) led a Sioux-Cheyenne army in battle at Little Big Horn. The town of Bozeman is named for explorer and prospector John M. Bozeman (b.Georgia, 1835–1867).

Creative artists from Montana include Alfred Bertram Guthrie Jr. (b.Indiana, 1901–1991), author of The Big Sky and the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Way West; and Charles Russell (b.Missouri, 1864–1926), Montana’s foremost painter and sculptor. Hollywood stars Gary Cooper (Frank James Cooper, 1901–1961) and Myrna Loy (1905–1993) were also from Montana.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bennett, Clayton. Montana. New York: Benchmark Books, 2001.

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. Montana. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

George, Charles. Montana. New York: Children’s Press, 2000.

Murray, Julie. Montana. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Sateren, Shelley Swanson. Montana Facts and Symbols. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Sullivan, Gordon. Beautiful America’s Montana. Woodburn, OR: Beautiful America, 2000.

WEB SITES

State of Montana. mt.gov: Montana’s Official State Website. mt.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

Travel Montana, Department of Commerce, and State of Montana. Montana: Big Sky Country. www.visitmt.com/index.htm (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Montana

Montana

Montana was admitted to the Union as the forty-first state on November 8, 1889. With a total area of 147,046 square miles (380,849 square kilometers), Montana is the fourth-largest state in America and the largest of the eight Rocky Mountain states. Located in the northwestern United States, it is bordered by Wyoming , Idaho , Canada, North Dakota , and South Dakota . Its capital is Helena. Nicknamed the Treasure State, it is also often called Big Sky Country.

Historians believe the first European explorers to visit Montana were French Canadian fur traders and trappers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The state's written history dates back only to 1803. That is the year most of Montana was given to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase .

Montana's economy was built around the fur trade until the discovery of gold in 1858. By the late 1800s, cattle ranchers exploited the vast open ranges of the state. The construction of Montana's railroads between 1880 and 1909 reignited the mining industry, and by 1890, 40 percent of the nation's copper demands were met from mining efforts in the Butte copper pits.

With the railroads bringing wave upon wave of homesteaders, Montana's population doubled between 1900 and 1920. During that same period, the number of farms and ranches increased from 13,000 to 57,000. Life for this agricultural community became extraordinarily difficult during the Great Depression (1929–41), which occurred at the same time as a severe and relentless drought. The New Deal , the economic plan launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945; served 1933–45), was popular in Montana, and it helped breathe new life into farming and silver mining.

The state's fossil fuels industry developed quickly throughout the 1970s, an era in which Americans experienced an energy crisis. The industry leveled off after the crisis and fell into decline in the early 1980s. During that time, Butte copper mining came to a halt as mining operations closed.

Montana was home to 944,632 people in 2006. The population was overwhelmingly white (90.6 percent), with another 6 percent being American Indian or Alaska Native and 2.2 percent of Hispanic descent. Twenty-nine percent of the population was between the ages of forty-five and sixty-four.

In addition to mining, lumbering, and agriculture, tourism became increasingly important to Montana's economy in the twenty-first century. Employment in the service industries exceeded that in manufacturing and mining throughout the 1990s. Montana is not a wealthy state. In 2004, its per-person income averaged $27,657, compared to a national average of $33,050. During the years 2002–4, 14.3 percent of residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to a national average of 12.4 percent.

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Montana

MONTANA

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Montana

Montana

Oro y plata (Gold and silver).

At a Glance

Name: Montana comes from the Spanish word montãna, which means "mountainous."

Nicknames: Treasure State, Big Sky Country

Capital: Helena

Size: 147,046 sq. mi. (380,849 sq km)

Population: 902,195

Statehood: Montana became the 41st state on November 8, 1889.

Electoral votes: 3 (2004)

U.S. representatives: 1 (until 2003)

State tree: ponderosa pine

State flower: bitterroot

State fish: Western meadowlark

Highest point: Granite Peak, 12,799 ft. (3,901 m)

The Place

Montana is the fourth-largest state in the Unites States. It was one of the last states to be settled, and even today it retains a rugged and wild frontier character.

Montana is somewhat isolated by the Rocky Mountains, which cover the western two-fifths of the state. The mountains are steep and densely forested, and many are snow-covered throughout the year. This area also has many crystal-blue lakes, such as Flathead Lake, which covers 189 square miles (490 sq km) in northwestern Montana. Valuable deposits of minerals including copper, gold, lead, platinum, silver, and zinc exist in the western mountain region.

Eastern Montana is part of the Great Plains region, which stretches from Canada in the north all the way to Mexico in the south. This area has rolling hills, broad plains, fertile soil, and wide river valleys. A few small mountain ranges, such as the Bears Paw, Big Snowy, and Judith, cover parts of this area. The climate in the eastern plains of Montana is different from the cool, snowy climate of the west. Temperatures in the eastern prairie can be extreme—bitterly cold in the winter and hot in the summer.

The Past

Once the home of many different Native American tribes, Montana was not settled by whites until the 1860s. During the early 1800s, French trappers explored the area, and in 1803 the United States bought the land from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase.

The cattle industry came to Montana's eastern plains in the 1850s, and railroads were quickly completed to ease cattle transport. Montana did not receive much attention, though, until 1862, when gold was discovered there and settlers rushed west to try to strike it rich. As Montana became more settled, the area's Native Americans fought to keep their lands.

Montana: Facts and Firsts

  1. There are more deer, elk, and antelope in Montana than people. The average square mile of land contains 1.4 elk, 1.4 pronghorn antelope, and 3.3 deer.
  2. Forty-six of Montana's 56 counties are considered "frontier" and contain six or fewer people per square mile.
  3. Montana has more species of mammals than any other state.
  4. Montana has the largest grizzly bear population of the contiguous 48 states.
  5. Yellowstone National Park, located in Montana and Wyoming, is the oldest national park in the world.
  6. More people visit Glacier National Park than any other spot in Montana.
  7. In 1888, Helena was home to more millionaires than anyplace else in the world.

In 1876, Sioux and Cheyenne wiped out a U.S. Army regiment led by General George Armstrong Custer in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. By the 1880s, however, most Native Americans had been forced out, and mining began in earnest. Montana's population grew rapidly as miners came from all over the United States to take advantage of the gold, silver, and copper resources of the region. In 1889, Montana was admitted to the Union.

Lumber and mining were keystones of Montana's industry until the Great Depression of the 1930s, when demand for goods dropped. World War II brought prosperity to Montana as the state provided food and metals for the war effort. Energy production took off after oil fields were discovered along the Montana–North Dakota border in the early 1950s. Tourism also grew and became an important source of revenue.

Montana: State Smart

The Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, which was designated as a national cemetery in 1879, is the oldest national monument in the United States.

During the 1980s, economic problems slowed Montana's industrial growth, while technological advances in farming and mining cost many Montana residents their jobs.

The Present

Montana remains one of the least populated and least developed states. Montana has retained its traditional industries—coal and petroleum mining continue to support the state's economy. Lumbering also remains a major industry, and today Montana processes much of its wood into products such as plywood, pencils, telephone poles, and prefabricated houses.

In the eastern plains, crop and livestock farming are important

Born in Montana

  1. Dorothy Baker , author
  2. Gary Cooper , actor
  3. Chet Huntley , television newscaster
  4. Myrna Loy , actress
  5. Jeannette Rankin , first woman elected to Congress
  6. Martha Raye , actress

revenue-producing activities for residents. Approximately 22,000 farms raise beef and dairy cattle; grow wheat, barley, and hay; and produce sugar beets. Food-processing industries prepare much of this food for world consumption. Montana encourages these industries and many others, including tourism.

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Montana

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