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Idaho

Idaho

State of Idaho

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Apparently coined by a lobbyist-politician, George M. Willing, who claimed the word came from an Indian term meaning "gem of the mountains."

NICKNAME: The Gem State.

CAPITAL: Boise.

ENTERED UNION: 3 July 1890 (43rd).

SONG: "Here We Have Idaho."

MOTTO: Esto perpetua (Let it be perpetual).

FLAG: On a blue field with gilt fringe, the state seal appears in the center with the words "State of Idaho" on a red band below.

OFFICIAL SEAL: With cornucopias at their feet, a female figure (holding the scales of justice in one hand and a pike supporting a liberty cap in the other) and a miner (with pick and shovel) stand on either side of a shield depicting mountains, rivers, forests, and a farm; the shield rests on a sheaf of grain and is surmounted by the head of a stag above whose antlers is a scroll with the state motto. The words "Great Seal of the State of Idaho" surround the whole.

BIRD: Mountain bluebird.

FLOWER: Syringa.

TREE: Western white pine.

GEM: Star garnet.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. and Idaho Human Rights Day, 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 5 AM MST = noon GMT; 4 AM PST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated in the northwestern United States, Idaho is the smallest of the eight Rocky Mountain states and 13th in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Idaho is 83,564 sq mi (216,431 sq km), of which land composes 82,412 sq mi (213,447 sq km) and inland water 1,152 sq mi (2,984 sq km). With a shape described variously as a hatchet, a snub-nosed pistol, and a pork chop, Idaho extends a maximum of 305 mi (491 km) e-w and 479 mi (771 km) n-s.

Idaho is bordered on the n by the Canadian province of British Columbia; on the ne by Montana; on the e by Wyoming; on the s by Utah and Nevada; and on the w by Oregon and Washington (with part of the line formed by the Snake River). The total boundary length of Idaho is 1,787 mi (2,876 km). The state's geographic center is in Custer County, sw of Challis.

TOPOGRAPHY

Idaho is extremely mountainous. Its northern two-thirds consists of a mountain massif broken only by valleys carved by rivers and streams, and by two prairies: the Big Camas Prairie around Grangeville and the Palouse Country around Moscow. The Snake River Plain extends e-w across Idaho from Yellowstone National Park to the Boise area, curving around the southern end of the mountain mass. A verdant high-mountain area encroaches into the southeastern corner; the rest of Idaho's southern edge consists mostly of low, dry mountains. Among the most important ranges are the Bitterroot (forming the border with Montana), Clearwater (the largest range), Salmon River, Sawtooth, Lost River, and Lemhi mountains. More than 40 peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m), of which the highest is Mt. Borah, at 12,662 ft (3,862 m), in the Lost River range. Idaho's lowest point is 710 ft (217 m) near Lewiston, where the Snake River leaves the Idaho border and enters Washington. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 5,000 ft (1,525 m).

The largest lakes are Pend Oreille (180 sq mi/466 sq km), Coeur d'Alene, and Priest in the panhandle, and Bear on the Utah border. The Snake Riverone of the longest in the United States, extending 1,038 mi (1,671 km) across Wyoming, Idaho, and Washingtondominates the southern part of the state. The Salmon Riverthe "River of No Return," a salmon-spawning stream that flows through wilderness of extraordinary beautyseparates northern from southern Idaho. The Clearwater, Kootenai, Bear, Boise, and Payette are other major rivers. There are ice caves near Shoshone and American Falls, and a large scenic cave near Montpelier. Near Arco is an expanse of lava, craters, and caves called the Craters of the Moon, another scenic attraction. At Hell's Canyon in the northernmost part of Adams County, the Snake River cuts the deepest gorge in North America, 7,913 ft (2,412 m) deep.

CLIMATE

The four seasons are distinct in Idaho, but not all parts simultaneous. Spring comes earlier and winter later to Boise and Lewiston, which are protected from severe weather by nearby mountains and call themselves "banana belts." Eastern Idaho has a more continental climate, with more extreme temperatures; climatic conditions there and elsewhere vary with the elevation. Average temperatures in Boise range from 29°f (2°c) in January to 74°f (23°c) in July. The record low, 60°f (51°c), was set at Island Park Dam on 16 January 1943; the record high, 118°f (48°c), at Orofino on 28 July 1934. The corresponding extremes for Boise are 25°f (31°c) and 111°f (44°c).

Humidity is low throughout the state. Precipitation in southern Idaho averages 13 in (33 cm) per year; in the north, over 30 in (76 cm). Average annual precipitation at Boise is about 11.8 in (29 cm), with more than 20 in (53 cm) of snow. Much greater accumulations of snow are experienced in the mountains.

FLORA AND FAUNA

With 10 life zones extending from prairie to mountaintop, Idaho has some 3,000 native plants. Characteristic evergreens are Douglas fir and western white pine (the state tree); oak/mountain mahogany, juniper/piñon, ponderosa pine, and spruce/fir constitute the other main forest types. Syringa is the state flower. MacFarlanes four-o'clock, water howellia, Spalding's catchfly, and Ute ladies-tresses were the state's four threatened plant species as of April 2006.

Classified as game mammals are the elk, moose, white-tailed and mule deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black bear, mountain lion, cottontail, and pigmy rabbit. Several varieties of pheasant, partridge, quail, and grouse are the main game birds, and there are numerous trout, salmon, bass, and whitefish species in Idaho's lakes and streams. Rare animal species include the wolverine, kit fox, and pika. The grizzly bear and bald eagle are listed as threatened, while the woodland caribou, gray (timber) wolf, American peregrine falcon, and whooping crane are endangered. A total of 17 animal species occurring within the state were listed as threatened or endangered as of April 2006, including the woodland caribou, whooping crane, and three species of salmon.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

The environmental protection movement in Idaho dates from 1897, when President Grover Cleveland established the Bitterroot Forest Preserve, encompassing much of the northern region. In the early 1930s, the US Forest Service set aside some 3 million acres (1.2 million hectares) of Idaho's roadless forestland as primitive areas. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 regulated grazing on public lands, providing for the first time some relief from the overgrazing that had transformed much of Idaho's grassland into sagebrush desert. Thirty years later, Idaho senator Frank Church was floor sponsor for the bill creating the National Wilderness System, which now contains most of the primitive areas set aside earlier. Many miles of Idaho streams are now in the Wild and Scenic Rivers System, another congressional accomplishment in which Senator Church played a leading role. In 1970, Governor Cecil Andrus (later, US secretary of the interior) was elected, partly on a platform of environmental protection. On 17 January 2001, the site near Jerome of a World War II camp where Japanese Americans were interned became Minidoka Internment National Monument; the National Park Service began planning for visitor facilities there in 2002.

The Department of Health and Welfare's Division of Environment is responsible for enforcing environmental standards. Air quality improved greatly between 1978 and 1997, following the passage of federal regulations strengthening the Clean Air Act. Vehicle emissions were responsible for high carbon monoxide levels in the Boise area in the late 1970s and 1980s. Emissions have dropped to the point that no carbon monoxide violations have occurred for several years. In 2003, 61.3 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state.

Water quality is generally good. Most of the existing problems stem from runoff from agricultural lands. Water quality is rated as only fair in the Upper Snake River Basin and in the Southwest Basin around Boise, and as poor in the Bear River Basin, partly because of municipal effluents from Soda Springs and Preston. The state has 386,000 acres of wetlands. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has implemented plans to acquire privately owned wetlands deemed to be in danger. The plan runs from 1991 to 2005.

Since 1953, nuclear waste has been buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory west of Idaho Falls or discharged in liquid form into the underground aquifer; some isotopes are migrating toward the boundaries of the site. Tailings from a former uranium-ore milling operation near Lowman are a potential health hazard. A top-priority site for hazardous-waste cleanup is Bunker Hill Mining at Smelterville; two sites in Pocatello are also considered candidates for cleanup. In 2003, the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database listed 87 hazardous waste sites in Idaho, six of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. Three sites were deleted from the National Priority List in 2006, but another three sites were also proposed, including Blackbird Mine, St. Maries Creosote, and the Stibnite Yellow Pine Mining Area. In 2005, the EPA spent over $17.8 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. Also in 2005, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $5.2 million for a clean water state revolving fund, as well as a $2.5 million grant for a drinking water state revolving fund. A $32,000 grant was offered to assist school districts in the adoption of indoor air quality programs.

POPULATION

Idaho ranked 39th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 1,429,096 in 2005, an increase of 10.4% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Idaho's population grew from 1,006,749 to 1,293,953, an increase of 28.5%the fifth-largest percentage gain among the 50 states for this period. The population is projected to reach 1.6 million by 2015 and 1.8 million by 2025. Population density in 2004 was 16.8 persons per sq mi. The median age was 34.3 in 2004. Nearly 26.7% of the population was under age 18, while 11.4% was age 65 or older.

Although no part of Idaho except Boise is genuinely urban, even Boise does not have a large central city. Boise's estimated population in 2004 was 190,122; The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area had an estimated population of 524,884. Other major cities with large populations include Pocatello (83,155), Idaho Falls (110,435), and Lewiston (58,654).

ETHNIC GROUPS

The 2000 Census included 17,645 American Indians. There are five reservations; the most extensive is that of the Nez Perce in northern Idaho, with a total population of 17,959 in 2000. In 2004, 1.4% of the population was American Indian.

There is a very small population of black Americans (5,456 in 2000) and a larger number of Asians (11,889 in 2000), 2,642 of them Japanese. In 2004, 0.6% of the population was black and 1% Asian. In 2000, there were 101,690 persons of Hispanic origin. In 2004, 8.9% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino origin. In 2004, 1.3% of the population reported origin of two or more races. There is a very visible Basque community in the Boise area, with an organization devoted to preserving their language and culture.

The foreign born (64,080) accounted for about 5% of Idaho's population in 2000, up from 28,905 (2.8%) in 1990.

LANGUAGES

In the general word stock, only a few place-names, such as Nampa, Pocatello, and Benewah, reflect the presence of Idaho Indians. In Idaho, English reflects a merger of Northern and North Midland features, with certain Northern pronunciations marking the panhandle. In 2000, 90.7% of the people five years old or older spoke only English in the home, down from 93% in 1990. The number of persons speaking other languages at home included the following:

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Native North American languages" includes Apache, Cherokee, Choctaw, Dakota, Keres, Pima, and Yupik.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 1,196,793 100.0
  Speak only English 1,084,914 90.7
  Speak a language other than English 111,879 9.3
Speak a language other than English 111,879 9.3
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 80,241 6.7
  German 5,666 0.5
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 3,345 0.3
  Other Native North American languages 2,020 0.2
  Serbo-Croatian 1,694 0.1
  Japanese 1,651 0.1
  Chinese 1,456 0.1
  Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 1,374 0.1
  Vietnamese 1,213 0.1
  Tagalog 1,119 0.1
  Russian 1,113 0.1
  Italian 1,106 0.1

RELIGIONS

Roman Catholic and Presbyterian missionaries first came to Idaho between 1820 and 1840. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) has been the leading religion in Idaho since 1860; with about a quarter of the population, the number of Mormons in Idaho is second only to that in Utah. Catholicism predominates north of Boise.

In 2006, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) reported a statewide membership of 376,661 members in 937 congregations; there were two temples in the state with a third under construction as of 2006. As of 2000, there were 18,745 adherents in the Assemblies of God and 17,683 United Methodists. There were also 130,847 Roman Catholics and an estimated 1,050 Jews.

TRANSPORTATION

In 2004, Idaho had 47,101 mi (75,832 km) of public roads and streets, the vast majority of them rural. The major east-west highways are I-90, I-84 (formerly I-80N), and US 12; US 95, Idaho 55, US 93, and I-15 are among the most traveled north-south routes. Idaho had some 1.370 million registered vehicles, including around 569,000 automobiles, 751,000 trucks of all types, and about 1,000 buses in 2004, when there were 942,983 licensed drivers. Boise, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls have mass transit systems (bus lines).

There were 1,678 rail mi (2,701 km) used by the nine railroads operating within the state in 2003. Among the state's two Class I railroads, the Union Pacific Railroad serves southern Idaho, and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe crosses the panhandle. As of 2006, Amtrak provided east-west passenger service to Idaho via its Empire Builder train connection at Sandpoint to Chicago or Seattle/Portland.

In 2005, Idaho had a total of 255 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 204 airports, 44 heliports, 2 STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 5 seaplane bases. The modern airport at Boise is the state's busiest. In 2004, Boise Air Terminal/Gowen Field had 1,451,728 passenger enplanements.

Other transport facilities are 6,100 mi (9,800 km) of pipeline, carrying virtually all the natural gas and most of the gasoline consumed in Idaho, and a Snake River port at Lewiston that links Idaho, Montana, and the Dakotas with the Pacific via 464 mi (747 km) of navigable waterways in Washington State. Idaho had 111 mi (178 km) of navigable inland waterways in 2004 . In 2003 waterborne shipments totaled 1.061 million tons.

HISTORY

Human beings came to the land now known as Idaho about 15,000 years ago. Until 1805, only Indians and their ancestors had ever lived in the area, eking out a bare living from seeds and roots, insects, small animals, and what fishing and big-game hunting they could manage. At the time of white penetration, Shoshone and Northern Paiute Indians lived in the south, as did two linked tribal families, the Salishan and Shapwailutan (including the Nez Perce, who greeted the Lewis and Clark expedition when it entered Idaho in 1805; it was their food and canoes that helped these explorers reach the Columbia River and the Pacific).

Fur trappersnotably David Thompson, Andrew Henry, and Donald Mackenziefollowed within a few years. Missionaries came later; Henry Harmon Spalding founded a mission among the Nez Perce in 1836. The Oregon Trail opened in 1842, but for two decades, people merely crossed Idaho over it; virtually no one settled. In 1860, 14 years after Idaho had officially become US land through the Oregon Treaty with the United Kingdom, Mormons from Utah established Franklin, Idaho's first permanent settlement, and began farming. Gold was discovered that summer in northern Idaho; a gold rush, lasting several years, led directly to the organizing of the Idaho Territory on 10 July 1863.

Boise became the capital of Idaho in 1864, and the following decade saw the inauguration of telegraph service, the linking of Franklin with the transcontinental railway, and the birth of the territory's first daily newspaper. Idaho's population nearly doubled between 1870 and 1880, and the pressure of white settlement impinging on Indian hunting and fishing grounds touched off a series of wars in the late 1870s. The most famous of those was the Nez Perce War, culminating in Chief Joseph's surrender in Montana on 5 October 1877 and the subsequent confinement of Idaho Indians to reservations.

Lead and silver were discovered in south-central Idaho in 1880 and in the panhandle in 1884, touching off yet another stampede of would-be miners. With a population of 88,548 in 1890, Idaho was eligible to enter the Union, becoming the 43rd state on 3 July. Statehood came to Idaho at a time of turmoil, when Mormons and non-Mormons were contending for political influence, the Populist Party was challenging the established political organizations, and violent labor disputes were sweeping the mining districts. In 1907, in a case that grew out of the labor conflict, William "Big Bill" Haywood (defended by Clarence Darrow) was acquitted on charges that he conspired to assassinate former Idaho governor Frank Steunenberg, who was murdered on 30 December 1905.

From 1895 onward, federal land and irrigation projects fostered rapid economic growth. The modern timber industry began in 1906 with the completion of one of the nation's largest sawmills at Potlatch. By World War I, agriculture had become a leading enterprise; however, a farm depression in the 1920s lasted up to the Great Depression of the 1930s and ended only with the onset of World War II. After the war, an agro-industrial base was established, with fertilizers and potato processing leading the way. Idaho has also developed a thriving tourist industry, with large numbers of vacationers visiting the Sun Valley ski resort and the state's other scenic areas. Population expansion and the push for economic growth have collided with a new interest in the environment, creating controversies over land-use planning, mineral development, and water supply and dam construction. In April 2000, the National Wildlife Federation urged President Bill Clinton to designate the Owyhee Canyonlands, a 1.8-million acre scenic area in southwest Idaho, a national monument. The efforts to persuade Clinton failed, and environmentalists, ranchers, and off-road vehicle riders came together to agree on a conservation plan suitable to all. In 2004, they came up with the Owyhee Initiative, which will protect nearly 400 miles of river corridors and 500,000 acres of wild lands as wilderness, including the canyons themselves. Livestock grazing in wilderness areas will be gradually retired. Public lands in Owyhee County will be closed to cross-country all-terrain vehicles during preparation of a recreation plan that will manage motorized recreation on a designated system of roads and trails.

Idaho celebrated its 100th year of statehood in 1990, at the same time ushering in a decade in which the major environmental issue was nuclear waste contamination. The matter was highlighted by wildfires that raged in western states during the summer of 2000. One blaze charred the grounds of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab, a nuclear research and waste storage facility. Thirty thousand acres were burned before the fire was brought under control. But environmentalists, concerned citizens, and many Idaho lawmakers remained concerned that such storage facilities are vulnerable to natural disaster and pose a serious threat. In the early 2000s, wildfires broke out in the West once again, including Idaho. In the summer of 2002, wildfires burned over 7.1 million acres of public and private land in the United States, most of it in the West.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Idaho's 1889 constitution, amended 117 times as of January 2005, continues to govern the state today. The bicameral legislature, consisting of a 35-seat Senate and a 70-member House of Representatives, meets annually beginning the Monday closest to 9 January. There is no constitutional limit on the length of the session. Special sessions may only be summoned by the governor and are limited to 20 days. Legislators must be US citizens, at least 18 years old, qualified voters, and residents of their district for at least a year. All legislators serve two-year terms. In 2004, the legislative salary was $15,646.

The executive branch is headed by seven elected officials: the governor and lieutenant governor (who run separately), secretary of state, attorney general, comptroller, treasurer, and superintendent of public instruction. All serve four-year terms. The governor, who must be a US citizen, at least 30 years old, and a state resident for at least two years prior to election, can sign or veto a bill. Vetoes may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the elected members in each house. If the governor neither signs nor vetoes a bill, it becomes law after five days when the legislature is in session and after 10 days when the legislature has adjourned. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $98,500.

The state constitution may be amended with the consent of two-thirds of each house and a majority of the voters at the next general election. Provisions for initiative, referendum, and recall were added by amendment to the state constitution in 1912 but not implemented by the legislature until 1933. The initiative procedure was employed in 1974 to pass the Sunshine Act, mandating registration by lobbyists and campaign financing disclosures by candidates for public office. An Idaho voter must be at least 18 years old, a US citizen, and a resident of the county and state for at least 30 days prior to election day. Restrictions apply to convicted felons.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Idahoans have usually voted Republican in presidential elections but sometimes have elected Democrats to Congress or the state-house. The state has become increasingly Republican in the 21st century, however. The dominant Republican in the 20th century was US senator William E. Borah, an isolationist-progressive who opposed US entry into the League of Nations but advocated world disarmament and supported prohibition, the graduated income tax, and some New Deal reforms; as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 1924 to 1940, he was one of the most influential legislators in the nation.

One measure of the conservatism of Idaho voters in the 1960s and 1970s was the showing by George Wallace's American Independent Party in 1968 (12.6% of the total vote) and his American Party in 1972 (9.3%, the highest of any state). In 2000, Republican George W. Bush received 69% of the vote, while Democrat Al Gore won 28% and Reform Party candidate Patrick Buchanan captured

Idaho Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE IDAHO WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
*Won US presidential election.
**IND. candidate Ross Perot received 130,395 votes in 1992 and 62,518 votes in 1996.
1948 4 *Truman (D) 107,370 101,514
1952 4 *Eisenhower (R) 395,081 180,707
1956 4 *Eisenhower (R) 105,868 166,979
1960 4 Nixon (R) 138,853 161,597
1964 4 *Johnson (D) 148,920 143,557
1968 4 *Nixon (R) 389,273 165,369
1972 4 *Nixon (R) 380,826 199,384
1976 4 Ford (R) 126,549 204,151
1980 4 *Reagan (R) 110,192 290,699
1984 4 *Reagan (R) 108,510 297,523
1988 4 *Bush (R) 147,272 253,881
1992** 4 Bush (R) 137,013 202,645
1996** 4 Dole (R) 165,443 256,595
2000 4 *Bush, G. W. (R) 138,637 336,937
2004 4 *Bush, G. W. (R) 181,098 409,235

2%. In 2004, Bush won 68.5% to Democratic challenger John Kerry's 30.4%. In 2004, there were 798,000 registered voters; there is no party registration in the state. The state had four electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

A Democrat, Cecil Andrus, served four terms as governor, retiring in 1994. In winning the governor's office in November 1994, Republican Phil Batt ended 24 years of Democratic control of that office. He was succeeded by another Republican, Dirk Kempthorne, following the 1998 election; Kempthorne was reelected in 2002. In mid-2005, the state legislature had 28 Republicans and 7 Democrats in the state Senate and 57 Republicans and 13 Democrats in the state House. In the 2004 elections, Idaho voters again elected two Republicans to represent them in the US House. Its US senators, Larry Craig, reelected in 2002, and Mike Crapo, re-elected in 2004, are also Republicans.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, Idaho had 44 counties, 200 municipal governments, 115 public school districts, and 798 special districts or authorities. Most counties elect three commissioners and other officers, usually including an assessor, treasurer, coroner, and sheriff. Nearly all cities have an elected mayor and council of four to six members. School districts have elected board members.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 54,268 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Idaho operates under the authority of state statue and executive order; the emergency management director is designated as the state homeland security adviser.

The executive agencies concerned with education are the State Board of Education and the Department of Education. Under the heading of human resources are the Departments of Health and Welfare, Employment, and Correction and the Idaho State Police. Under the general rubric of natural resources come the Departments of Lands, Water Resources, Fish and Game, and Parks and Recreation. Self-governing agencies and the Departments of Agriculture, Finance, Insurance, Commerce and Labor, and Transportation oversee economic development and regulation. Within the Executive Office of the Governor are a number of funds, divisions, boards, commissions, and other bodies. The Information Technology Resource Management Council supports high-tech endeavors in the state.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Idaho's highest court, the supreme court, consists of five justices, each elected at large on a nonpartisan ballot to a six-year term. The justice with the shortest remaining term automatically becomes chief justice. There is a three-member court of appeals. The district court, with 37 judges in 1999, is the main trial court in civil and criminal matters, while magistrates' courts handle traffic, misdemeanor, and minor civil cases and preliminary hearings in felony cases. As with the state's supreme court justices, appeals court justices and district court judges are elected by nonpartisan ballot for six years and four years, respectively. Magistrates are appointed by a commission and run for four-year terms in the first general election succeeding the 18-month period following appointment.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 6,375 prisoners were held in Idaho's state and federal prisons, an increase from 5,737 or 11.1% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 647 inmates were female, up from 591 or 5% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Idaho had an incarceration rate of 454 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, in 2004 Idaho had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 244.9 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 3,412 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 38,933 reported incidents or 2,794.4 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Idaho has a death penalty, which can be carried out by lethal injection or firing squad, of which the latter is to be used only if lethal injection is impractical. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state executed only one person, which was carried out in January 1994. As of 1 January 2006, there were 20 inmates on death row.

In 2003, Idaho spent $41,282,044 on homeland security, an average of $28 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

Mountain Home Air Force Base, located about 50 mi (80 km) southeast of Boise, has 4,516 active-duty military personnel. In 2004, 5,640 active-duty military personnel, 489 civilian personnel, and 1,455 Guard and National Guard personnel were stationed in Idaho. Defense contract awards to Idaho firms totaled $186 million in fiscal year 2004. Another $535 million in defense payroll spending came to the state.

Idaho casualties in US wars included 1,419 in World War II, 132 in Korea, and 187 in Vietnam. There were 133,183 veterans of US military service in Idaho as of 2003, of whom 16,712 served in World War II; 13,095 in the Korean conflict; 39,565 during the Vietnam era; and 26,264 in the Persian Gulf War. Total expenditures for Idaho veterans were $363 million in fiscal year 2004.

As of 31 October 2004, the Idaho State Police employed 242 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Idaho's first white immigrants came from Utah, California, and Oregon in the early 1860s. By the end of the Civil War, the chief sources of immigrants were the southern and border states. Homesteaders from the Midwest, Utah, and Scandinavia arrived at the end of the 19th century.

Since 1960, immigrants have come largely from California. Idaho suffered a net loss from migration of 109,000 persons between 1940 and 1970 but had a net gain of 110,000 persons in the 1970s. During the 1980s, Idaho had a net loss of 28,000 persons from migration. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had net gains of 129,000 in domestic migration and 15,000 in international migration. In 1998, 1,504 immigrants from foreign countries arrived in Idaho. The state's overall population increased 22% between 1990 and 1998, making it one of the fastest-growing states in the United States, superseded only by Nevada and Arizona during the same time period. In the period 200005, net international migration was 14,522 and net internal migration was 61,273, for a net gain of 75,795 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Idaho cooperates with Utah and Wyoming in the Bear River Compact; with Oregon, Washington, and Alaska in the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission; with Wyoming in the Snake River Compact; with Washington, Oregon, and Montana in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council; and in the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Western Interstate Energy Council, Western States Water Council, and numerous other interstate compacts. Federal grants amounted to $1.465 billion in fiscal year 2005, $1.54 billion in fiscal year 2006, and $1.729 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Fur trapping was Idaho's earliest industry. Agriculture and mining began around 1860, with agriculture dominating since the 1870s. Timber became important after 1900, and tourism and manufacturingespecially food processing and forest productsafter 1945. Currently, agriculture, mining, forest products, and food processing are Idaho's largest industries.

The Idaho economy prospered in the 1970s. Machinery and transportation equipment manufacturing grew 20% between 1970 and 1980, and services expanded 7.5%. The early 1980s, in contrast, brought a national recession in which Idaho lost 8% of its employment base. Recovery required a restructuring of Idaho's mining, forest products, and agricultural industries that resulted in the laying off of large numbers of employees. Other industries posted significant gains in employment in the 1980s. Chemical manufacturing employment grew 36% in the early and mid-1980s, and jobs in the paper industry increased 30%. Travel and tourism employment rose 35% between 1982 and 1991, and high-tech jobs increased 50% between 1986 and 1990. Disputes with the federal government over the management of federal lands remained central to the discussion of Idaho's economic policy, as the federal government owns 60% of Idaho's public land. The disputes center on such matters as grazing fees, costs of water from government projects, species protection, and mining regulations. The electronics industry continued to grow during the 1990s, as evidenced by expansions announced by Hewlett-Packard, Micron, and Zilog. Construction employment also increased. Other manufacturing sectors were also increasing, so that from 1997 to 2000, there was an overall 37% increase in Idaho's manufacturing output and an increase in its relative share of total state output, from 20.2% to 22.1%. More than half of the gain was lost, however, in the national recession in 2001, as manufacturing output fell 19.4% in one year, reducing the net gain since 1997 to 10.3% and manufacturing's share in the state economy to a new low of 17.8%. The recession and continued slowdown severely impacted Idaho's economy, as strong annual growth rates at the end of the 20th century5.6% in 1998, 11.4% in 1999, and 6.3% in 2000abruptly fell to 0.4% in 2001. The highest rate of job loss was in the construction sector, where employment fell 11% from December 2001 to December 2002. Over the same period, employment in manufacturing fell 4% and about 4,500 high-paid, high-tech jobs were lost. Idaho's economy was also afflicted in 2002 by drought conditions that reduced grazing land and threatened the state's potato crop. Idaho farmers were also hurt by historically low milk prices in 2002 and into 2003.

In 2004, Idaho's gross state product (GSP) totaled $43.571 billion, of which manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) was the largest sector at $6.231 billion or 14.3% of GSP, followed by real estate at $5.191 billion (11.9% of GSP), and health care and social services at $2.914 billion (6.6% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 131,663 small businesses in Idaho. Of the 43,675 businesses having employees, a total of 42,384 or 97% were small companies. An estimated 7,814 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 30.3% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 5,716, down 15.2% from 2003. There were 160 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 28.9% from the previous year. In 2005, the personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 704 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Idaho as the 12th highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005, Idaho had a gross state product (GSP) of $47 billion, which accounted for 0.4% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 43 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004, Idaho had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $26,877. This ranked 46th in the United States and was 81% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 3.7%. Idaho had a total personal income (TPI) of $37,497,434,000, which ranked 42nd in the United States and reflected an increase of 8.2% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.8%. Earnings of persons employed in Idaho increased from $25,779,208,000 in 2003 to $28,215,416,000 in 2004, an increase of 9.5%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $42,519 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 10.5% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006, the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Idaho numbered 761,200. Approximately 25,600 workers were unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.4%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 638,100. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Idaho was 9.4% in February 1983. The historical low was 3.2% in March 2006. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 8.1% of the labor force was employed in construction; 10% in manufacturing; 19.9% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4.9% in financial activities; 12.6% in professional and business services; 10.8% in education and health services; 9.7% in leisure and hospitality services; and 18.1% in government.

Idaho was a pioneer in establishing the eight-hour workday and in outlawing yellow-dog contracts. In 1958, Idaho voters rejected right-to-work legislation. Governor John Evans vetoed simi-lar legislation in 1982. However, in 1986, Idaho became one of 22 states with a right-to-work law when voters approved the law.

The BLS reported that in 2005, a total of 31,000 of Idaho's 606,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 5.2% of those so employed, down from 5.8% in 2004 and well under the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 38,000 workers (6.3%) in Idaho were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation.

As of 1 March 2006, Idaho had a state-mandated minimum wage of $5.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 45.8% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Receipts from farm marketings totaled $4.5 billion in 2005 (21st in the United States); farm industry income was about $1.9 billion. As of 2004, Idaho led the United States in potato production; was second in sugar beets and barley; third in hops, peppermint oil; and fourth in spearmint oil.

Development of the russet potato in the 1920s gave Idaho its most famous crop. In 2004, the state produced 131,970,000 hundredweight of potatoes (29% of the US total); some 90% was grown on about 110,000 acres (45,000 hectares) of irrigated land on the Snake River plain. About three-fourths of the crop is processed into frozen french fries, instant mashed potatoes, and other products. Other leading crops were hay, 5,350,000 tons, valued at $556,690,000; wheat, 101,710,000 bushels, $357,427,000; barley, 59,800,000 bushels (second in the United States), $176,410,000; and sugar beets, 5,491,000 tons, $216,980,000.

As of 2004, Idaho had 11.8 million acres (5.4 million hectares) in farms, roughly 22% of the state's land area; its estimated 25,000 farms, (including ranches) averaged about 472 acres (191 hectares). Almost 3.5 million acres (1.4 hectares) of land were irrigated.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2005, there were an estimated 2 million cattle and calves worth around $2.2 billion. In 2004, Idaho had an estimated 21,000 hogs and pigs worth around $2.1 million. Idaho had an estimated 404,000 dairy cows, which produced 8.8 billion lb (3.4 million kg) of milk in 2003. In the same year, Idaho produced an estimated 2.3 million lb (1 million kg) of chicken, and the state produced an estimated 243 million eggs worth $14.5 million. Also during 2003, the state produced an estimated 24.7 million lb of sheep and lambs, which grossed $20.8 million for Idaho farmers. Shorn wool production in 2004 totaled an estimated 2.1 million lb (0.95 million kg).

FISHING

In 2004, there were some 403,741 licensed sport fishermen catching trout along with salmon, steelhead, bass, and 32 other game-fish species. Idaho is a leading producer of farm-raised trout: Its 55 trout farms had $32.6 million in sales in 2004, more than any other state and 47% of the US total. There are about 19 state hatcheries and three national fish hatcheries located within the state. The Idaho Fish Health Center in Orofino is a federally sponsored research facility.

FORESTRY

As of 2004, Idaho forests covered 23.5 million acres (9.5 million hectares), or about 40% of the state's land area, with 16,824,000 acres (6,809,000 hectares) classified as commercial timberland. Of the total forest area in 2003, the federal government controlled 79%; state government, 5%; and private owners, 16%. National Forest System lands in Idaho totaled 21,575,000 acres (8,731,000 hectares) in 2005. Idaho forests are used increasingly for ski areas, hunting, and other recreation, as well as for timber and pulp. Total lumber production was 1.7 billion board feet (10th in the United States) in 2004, almost all softwoods.

MINING

Idaho's estimated value of nonfuel mineral production in 2004 was $446 million, up almost 66% from 2003, according to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS). The data placed Idaho 34th in the production, by value, of nonfuel minerals in 2004, accounting for 1% of the US total.

In descending order, phosphate rock, construction sand and gravel, molybdenum concentrates, silver, portland cement, and crushed stone were the top minerals produced that year, accounting for around 91%, by value, of all nonfuel mineral output by the state.

According to USGS estimates (by volume) for 2004, Idaho ranked second nationally in the production of phosphate rock and industrial garnets (out of two states) and was third in the output of silver and lead, fourth in molybdenum concentrates and zeolites, fifth in pumice and zinc, and sixth in gemstones. Idaho is also a producer of gold, copper, and lime.

In 2004, preliminary data showed crushed stone production at 3.2 million metric tons or $16.2 million, with output of sand and gravel for construction at 18.2 million metric tons or $66.8 million.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Idaho had 32 electrical power service providers, of which 11 were publicly owned and 16 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, four were investor owned and one was an owner of an independent generator that sold directly to customers. As of that same year, there were 687,334 retail customers. Of that total, 577,986 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 69,850 customers, while publicly owned providers had 39,497 customers. There was only one independent generator or "facility" customer.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 3.002 million kW, with total production that same year at 10.422 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 74.2% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 8.354 billion kWh (80.1%), came from hydroelectric plants, with natural gas-fired plants in second place at 1.374 billion kWh (13.2%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 5.2% of all power generated, with coal and "other" types of generating facilities accounting for the remainder.

Idaho's large size, widespread and relatively rural population, and lack of public transportation foster reliance on motor vehicles and imported petroleum products. Natural gas is also imported. Hot water from thermal springs is used to heat buildings in Boise.

As of 2004, Idaho had no known proven reserves or production of crude oil or natural gas. There are no refineries located within the state.

INDUSTRY

Although resource industries such as food processing, chemical manufacturing, and lumber production continue to be important manufacturing sectors in Idaho's economy, computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for the state's primary manufacturing sector as of 2004.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Idaho's manufacturing sector covered some 13 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $16.583 billion. Of that total, computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $6.076 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $4.455 billion; wood product manufacturing at $1.853 billion; chemical manufacturing at $802.844 million; and paper manufacturing at $734.884 million.

In 2004, a total of 56,479 people in Idaho were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 36,632 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the computer and electronic product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 15,552, with 4,054 actual production workers. It was followed by food manufacturing at 13,238 employees (11,451 actual production workers); wood product manufacturing at 7,019 employees (6,025 actual production workers); fabricated metal product manufacturing at 3,456 employees (2,667 actual production workers); and furniture and related product manufacturing with 2,051 employees (1,667 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Idaho's manufacturing sector paid $2.107 billion in wages. Of that amount, the computer and electronic product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $739.972 million. It was followed by food manufacturing at $391.014 million; wood product manufacturing at $223.840 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $119.999 million; and paper manufacturing at $100.246 million.

Ore-Ida Foods is a leading potato processor, and J. R. Simplot engages in food processing and fertilizer production. Boise Cascade (with headquarters at Boise), Potlatch, and Louisiana-Pacific dominate the wood-products industry. Morrison-Knudsen, a diversified engineering and construction company that also has forest-products interests, has its headquarters in Boise.

COMMERCE

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Idaho's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $11.4 billion from 1,989 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 1,168 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 735 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 86 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $5.8 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $4.7 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $926.2 million.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Idaho was listed as having 5,874 retail establishments with sales of $13.5 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (868); miscellaneous store retailers (674); gasoline stations (663); building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers (661); and food and beverage stores (549). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $3.7 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $2.3 billion; food and beverage stores at $1.8 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies at $1.4 billion. A total of 69,641 people were employed by the retail sector in Idaho that year.

Foreign exports of goods from Idaho were valued at $3.2 billion in 2005 (38th in the United States).

CONSUMER PROTECTION

The Idaho Office of the Attorney General is responsible for investigating consumer complaints and enforcing most consumer laws through its Consumer Protection Unit. However, Idaho's Credit Code is administered through the Department of Finance, which also resolves consumer credit complaints under that law. The legislature has enacted the state's Consumer Protection, Telephone Solicitation, and Pay-Per-Telephone Call acts for purposes of protecting both consumers and businesses against unfair or deceptive acts in trade and commerce, and providing efficient and economical procedures to secure such protection. The Idaho Consumer Protection Unit seeks to fulfill this charge through education, mediation, and enforcement efforts. In 1990, the Idaho Consumer Protection Act was modernized, and in 1992 the Telephone Solicitation and Pay-Per-Telephone Call Acts were passed, as well as the Charitable Solicitation Act in 1993.

In support of its Consumer Protection Unit, the Idaho Office of the Attorney General has broad subpoena powers; can initiate civil (but not criminal) proceedings; and can represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies, as well as support the administration of consumer protection and education programs and handle formal consumer complaints. In antitrust actions, the Office of the Attorney General can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and represent counties, cities, and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The Consumer Protection Unit of the Idaho Attorney General's Office is located in Boise.

BANKING

As of June 2005, Idaho had 17 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 42 state-chartered and 24 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Boise City-Nampa market area had 21 financial institutions in 2004 with $6.171 billion in deposits, followed by Coeur d'Alene with 14 institutions and $1.472 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 31.1% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $2.739 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 68.9% or $6.060 billion in assets held.

The 1997 Idaho Savings Bank Act permitted state-chartered savings banks in Idaho, repealing the Savings and Loan Act. The Idaho Department of Finance's Financial Institutions Bureau regulates and supervises Idaho's state-chartered commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, and bank holding companies. Idaho's insured institutions increased their profitability in 2004 as the median return on average assets ratio (the measure of earnings in relation to all resources) rose from 0.98% in 2003 to 0.99%. The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered savers and the higher rates charged on loans) was 5.34% in the fourth quarter of 2005, up from 4.69% in 2004 and 4.65% in 2003.

INSURANCE

In 2004, there were 498,000 individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of over $49.4 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $84 billion. The average coverage amount was $99,200 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $204 million.

In 2003, 12 property and casualty and six life and health insurance companies were domiciled in the state. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $1.68 billion. That year, there were 5,651 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $960 million.

In 2004, 53% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 7% held individual policies, and 22% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 17% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 16% for single coverage and 28% for family coverage. The state does not offer a health benefits expansion program in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 1 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $25,000 per individual and $50,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $15,000. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $585.34, one of the lowest averages in the nation.

SECURITIES

Idaho has no stock exchanges. In 2005, there were 540 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 630 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 34 publicly traded companies within the state, with four NASDAQ companies, six NYSE listings, and one AMEX listing. In 2006, the state had two Fortune 500 companies; Albertson's (food and drug stores) ranked first in the state and 47th in the nation with revenues of over $40.3 billion, followed by Micron Technology. Washington Group Intl. made the Fortune 1,000 list at 586th in the nation. Albertson's and Micron Technology are listed on the NYSE; Washington Group Intl. is an OTC listing.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Idaho's annual budget, prepared by the Division of Financial Management, is submitted by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval. The fiscal year (FY) runs from 1 July to 30 June. The state constitution requires that the legislature pass a balanced budget, and the governor, as the chief budget officer, ensures that expenditures do not exceed revenues.

In fiscal year 2006, general funds were estimated at $2.3 billion for resources and $2.2 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Idaho were nearly $2.0 billion.

IdahoState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols: - zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 7,112,364 5,098.47
  General revenue 5,309,905 3,806.38
   Intergovernmental revenue 1,741,394 1,248.31
   Taxes 2,647,790 1,898.06
     General sales 1,036,924 743.31
     Selective sales 366,231 262.53
     License taxes 220,800 158.28
     Individual income tax 907,795 650.75
     Corporate income tax 103,784 74.40
     Other taxes 12,256 8.79
    Current charges 470,037 336.94
    Miscellaneous general revenue 450,684 323.07
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue 76,766 55.03
  Insurance trust revenue 1,725,693 1,237.06
Total expenditure 5,762,624 4,130.91
  Intergovernmental expenditure 1,496,785 1,072.96
  Direct expenditure 4,265,839 3,057.95
    Current operation 2,848,421 2,041.88
    Capital outlay 539,447 386.70
    Insurance benefits and repayments 611,969 438.69
    Assistance and subsidies 132,212 94.78
    Interest on debt 133,790 95.91
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 817,284 585.87
Total expenditure 5,762,624 4,130.91
  General expenditure 5,093,039 3,650.92
    Intergovernmental expenditure 1,496,785 1,072.96
    Direct expenditure 3,596,254 2,577.96
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 2,013,929 1,443.68
    Public welfare 1,197,420 858.37
    Hospitals 39,186 28.09
    Health 112,441 80.60
    Highways 524,242 375.80
    Police protection 43,206 30.97
    Correction 170,981 122.57
    Natural resources 178,812 128.18
    Parks and recreation 26,054 18.68
    Government administration 268,481 192.46
    Interest on general debt 133,790 95.91
    Other and unallocable 384,497 275.63
  Utility expenditure - -
  Liquor store expenditure 57,616 41.30
  Insurance trust expenditure 611,969 438.69
Debt at end of fiscal year 2,383,841 1,708.85
Cash and security holdings 11,735,412 8,412.48

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Idaho was slated to receive $25.4 million in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) funds to provide health coverage to low-income, uninsured children who do not qualify for Medicaid. This funding is a 23% increase over fiscal year 2006. The state is also scheduled to receive $7.3 million for the HOME Investment Partnership Program to help Idaho fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. This funding is a 12% increase over fiscal year 2006.

TAXATION

In 2005, Idaho collected $2,934 million in tax revenues or $2,054 per capita, which placed it 30th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Sales taxes accounted for 38.5% of the total, selective sales taxes 12.7%, individual income taxes 35.5%, corporate income taxes 4.8%, and other taxes 8.6%.

As of 1 January 2006, Idaho had eight individual income tax brackets ranging from 1.6 to 7.8%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 7.6%.

In 2004, local property taxes amounted to $1,084,470,000 or $777 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 36th highest nationally. Idaho does not collect property taxes at the state level.

Idaho taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 3%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 9%. Food purchased for consumption off premises is taxable; however, an income tax credit is allowed to offset sales tax on food. The tax on cigarettes is 57 cents per pack, which ranks 33rd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Idaho taxes gasoline at 25 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Idaho citizens received $1.28 in federal spending.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The Idaho Department of Commerce and Labor coordinates economic development initiatives in the state, which are carried out by various departments and executive councils. The International Business Division of the Department of Commerce and Labor has as its mission the identification of opportunities for Idaho products in international markets and helping Idaho companies capitalize on these. In 2005, key export markets for Idaho's goods were in China, Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, and Japan. The Division of Economic and Community Affairs, within the office of the governor, seeks to widen markets for Idaho products and goods and services, encourage film production in the state, attract new business and industry to Idaho, expand and enhance existing enterprises, and promote the state travel industry. Incentives for investment include conservative state fiscal policies and a probusiness regulatory climate. Idaho offers industrial revenue bonds to assist companies with the financing of land, buildings, and equipment used in manufacturing. The state extends loans to businesses seeking to start up or expand and for energy conservation improvements. To help distressed areas, there are matching grants for economic development as well as training in strategic planning and economic diversification techniques. Cities and counties may also apply for community development block grants.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 6.3 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 16 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 7 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 81.4% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 81% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were as follows: heart disease, 188.8; cancer, 159.4; cerebrovascular diseases, 54.9; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 44.4; and diabetes, 23.9. The mortality rate from HIV infection was unavailable. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 1.6 per 100,000 population, the third lowest in the nation that year. In 2002, about 55% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 17.4% of state residents were smokers, one of the lowest percentages in the nation.

In 2003, Idaho had 39 community hospitals with about 3,400 beds. There were about 136,000 patient admissions that year and 2.8 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 1,900 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,235. Also in 2003, there were about 80 certified nursing facilities in the state with 6,258 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 76%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 67.7% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Idaho had 175 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 657 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 824 dentists in the state.

About 22% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 17% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $1.1 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 50,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $229. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 93,441 persons (37,151 households); the average monthly benefit was about $91.83 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $102 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Idaho's TANF program is called Temporary Assistance for Families in Idaho. In 2004, the state program had 3,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $7 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 219,250 Idaho residents. This number included 140,330 retired workers, 19,940 widows and widowers, 27,430 disabled workers, 14,130 spouses, and 17,420 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 15.7% of the total state population and 96.8% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $931; widows and widowers, $914; disabled workers, $879; and spouses, $469. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $499 per month; children of deceased workers, $613; and children of disabled workers, $234. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments went to 20,993 Idaho residents in December 2004, averaging $383 a month. An additional $686,000 in state-administered supplemental payments were distributed to 12,398 residents.

HOUSING

In 2004, there were an estimated 578,774 housing units within the state, 515,252 of which were occupied. About 72.4% of all units were owner occupied. About 71.1% of all units were single-family, detached homes; 10.8% were mobile homes. Most units relied on utility gas and electricity for heating. It was estimated that 22,347 units were without telephone service, 2,419 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 3,220 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.64 members.

In 2004, 18,100 privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. Median home value was at $120,825. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was about $953 while renters paid a median of $566 per month. In 2006, the state received over $9.1 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

EDUCATION

As of 2004, 87.9% of Idahoans over the age of 25 were high school graduates and 23.8% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher.

The total enrollment in Idaho's public schools for fall 2002 stood at 249,000. Of these, 173,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 75,000 attended high school. Approximately 84.1% of the students were white, 0.9% were black, 12% were Hispanic, 1.5% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 1.6% were American Indian/Alaska Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 250,000 in fall 2003 and is expected to be 283,000 by fall 2014, an increase of 13.8% during the period 200214. There were 10,994 students enrolled in 107 private schools in fall 2003. Expenditures for public education in 200304 were estimated at $1.7 billion or $6,028 per student, the second lowest among the 50 states. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Idaho scored 281 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 72,072 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students composed 7.6% of total post-secondary enrollment. As of 2005, Idaho had 14 degree-granting institutions. The leading public higher educational institutions are the University of Idaho at Moscow; Idaho State University (Pocatello); Boise State University; and Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston. The State Board of Education offers scholarships to graduates of accredited Idaho high schools.

ARTS

The Idaho Commission on the Arts, founded in 1966, offers grants to support both creative and performing artists. In 2005, the commission hosted the National Association of State Arts Agencies annual meeting, bringing together some 385 arts administrators in Boise. Also in 2005, the Idaho Commission on the Arts and other Idaho arts organizations received nine grants totaling $699,100 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The commission is a partner with the regional Western States Arts Federation. The Idaho Humanities Council was established in 1973. In 2004, the council provided nearly $100,000 in grants and 292 speakers bureau programs supporting the humanities. In 2005, the state received $530,730 in the form of six grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Boise Philharmonic is Idaho's leading professional orchestra; other symphony orchestras are in Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, Pocatello, and Twin Falls. Boise and Moscow have seasonal theaters. The Boise Philharmonic is notable for its long historyit can trace its roots to around 1885 and the formation of the Boise City Orchestra. As of 2006, this orchestra performed for 14,000 students annually with their Children's Concerts. The annual summer Idaho Shakespeare Festival, in Boise, presents a series of plays in its outdoor Festival Amphitheater and Reserve. Boise is also home to Ballet Idaho, the state's professional ballet company. In 2005, the company performed in the mainstage productions of Giselle and The Princess and the Pea, as well as toured the state in December performing The Nutcracker.

The Boise Art Museum began in 1931 and is the only American Association of Museums (AAM) accredited art museum in the state. The museum's permanent collection emphasizes 20th-century American art, particularly art from the Pacific Northwest and American Realism. The 2006 exhibitions included Native Perspectives on the Trail: A Contemporary American Indian Art Port-folio and Frank Lloyd Wright and the House Beautiful over 100 original objects designed by Wright were showcased.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

For the fiscal year ending in September 2001, Idaho had 106 public library systems, with a total of 143 libraries, of which 39 were branches. In that same year, the systems had a combined book and serial publications stock of 3,577,000 volumes and a total circulation of more than 8,723,000. The systems also had 126,000 audio and 103,000 video items, 3,000 electronic format items (CDROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and seven bookmobiles. The largest public library system was the Boise Public Library and Information Center, with about 340,800 volumes. The state's leading academic library was at the University of Idaho (Moscow); it had 1,064,707 volumes, as of 2000. In fiscal year 2001, total operating income for the public library system was $25,787,000, which included $177,000 in federal grants and $$737,000 in state grants.

The state also has 31 museums, notably the Boise Art Museum, Idaho State Historical Museum (Boise), and the Idaho Museum of Natural History (Pocatello). The University of Idaho Arboretum is at Moscow, and there is a zoo at Boise and an animal park in Idaho Falls. Major historical sites include Cataldo Mission near Kellogg, Spalding Mission near Lapwai, and Nez Perce National Historical Park in north-central Idaho.

COMMUNICATIONS

As of 2004, 94.8% of Idaho's occupied housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year, there were 653,779 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 69.2% of Idaho households had a computer and 56.4% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 148,964 high-speed lines in Idaho, 134,698 residential and 14,266 for business.

Idaho's first radio station, built by a Boise high school teacher and his students, began transmitting in 1921, was licensed in 1922, and six years later was sold and given the initials KIDOthe same call letters later assigned to Idaho's first permanent television station, which began broadcasting in 1953 and subsequently became KTVB. As of 2005, the state had 43 major operating radio stations (8 AM, 35 FM) and 13 major television stations. Several large cable systems serviced the state in 2005. In 2000, a total of 21,563 internet domain names were registered in the state.

PRESS

Idaho, site of the first printing press in the Northwest, had 12 daily newspapers in 2005 (10 morning and 2 evening) and 8 Sunday papers. The most widely read newspaper was the Idaho Statesman, published in Boise, with a circulation of 63,023 daily and 83,857 on Sundays in 2005. Caxton Printers, founded in 1902, is the state's leading publishing house. Leading magazines from the state are Idaho magazine and the industry trade magazines Spudman and Sugar.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 1,170 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 797 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

The Appaloosa Horse Club is among the few national organizations with headquarters in Idaho. One of the largest state business associations is the Idaho Potato Commission, a department of the state dedicated to research and promotion of the potato growers industry.

Educational organizations on the national level include the National Center for Constitutional Studies. State educational and cultural organizations include the Idaho Falls Arts Council, the Idaho State Historical Society, and the Idaho Humanities Council, as well as a number of county historical societies. There is an Indian Heritage Council in McCall.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

In 2004, Idaho supported over 50,000 jobs and earned $2.97 billion. Total revenues for the summer of 2005 were up 10.5%. Tourists come to Idaho primarily for outdoor recreationriver trips, skiing, camping, hunting, fishing, fly-fishing, kayaking and hiking. There are 19 ski resorts; by far the most famous is Sun Valley, which opened in 1936. Boise is the most popular destination within the state.

Tourist attractions include two national parks, the Craters of the Moon National Monument, the Nez Perce National Historical Park, and the Hell's Canyon and Sawtooth national recreational areas. A sliver of Yellowstone National Park is in Idaho. Portions of the Lewis and Clark Trail and the Oregon Trail lie within the state as well. The Snake River area is a national conservation area for birds of prey, as is the Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge. Silverwood Theme Park caters to those who want to visit amusement parks (Coeur d'Alene). Visitors can also travel parts of the Oregon Trail.

SPORTS

Idaho has no major professional teams. Idaho had a team, the Steelheads, in the West Coast Hockey League until 2003. In college sports, the Idaho State Bengals and the University of Idaho Vandals play Division I basketball and Division I-A football in the Big Sky and Big West conferences, respectively. Boise State University is the largest university in the Big West Conference, with a football team in Division I. Most county seats hold pari-mutuel quarter-horse racing a few days a year, and Boise's racing season (including thoroughbreds) runs three days a week for five months. World chariot racing championships have been held at Pocatello, as are the National Circuit Rodeo Finals. Polo was one of Boise's leading sports from 1910 through the 1940s. Idaho cowboys have won numerous riding, roping, and steer-wrestling championships. Skiing is very popular throughout the state, and there is a world-class resort at Sun Valley. Golf is also quite popular. Harmon Killebrew, a Hall of Fame baseball player, and Picabo Street, an Olympic gold medalist, were born in Idaho.

FAMOUS IDAHOANS

Leading federal officeholders born in Idaho include Ezra Taft Benson (18991994), US secretary of agriculture from 1953 to 1961 and president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints; and Cecil D. Andrus (b.Oregon, 1931), governor of Idaho from 1971 to 1977 and 1987 to 1995, and US secretary of the interior from 1977 to 1981. Maverick Republican William E. Borah (b.Illinois, 18651940) served in the US Senate from 1907 until his death. Frank Church (192484) entered the US Senate in 1957 and became chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1979; he was defeated in his bid for a fifth term in 1980. Important state officeholders were the nation's first Jewish governor, Moses Alexander (b.Germany, 18531932) and New Deal governor C. Ben Ross (18761946).

Author Vardis Fisher (18951968) was born and spent most of his life in Idaho, which was also the birthplace of poet Ezra Pound (18851972). Nobel Prize-winning novelist Ernest Hemingway (b.Illinois, 18991961) is buried at Ketchum. Gutzon Borglum (18711941), the sculptor who carved the Mt. Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, was an Idaho native. Idaho is the only state in the United States with an official seal designed by a woman, Emma Edwards Green (b.California, 18561942).

Baseball slugger Harmon Killebrew (b.1936) and football star Jerry Kramer (b.1936) are Idaho's leading sports personalities.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arrington, Leonard J. History of Idaho. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1994.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Domitz, Gary, and Leonard Hitchcock, (eds.). Idaho History: A Bibliography. Centennial ed. Pocatello: Idaho State University Press, 1991.

Johnston, Terry C. Lay the Mountains Low: the Flight of the Nez Perce from Idaho and the Battle of the Big Hole, August 9-10, 1877. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Mann, John W. W. Sacajawea's People: The Lemhi Shoshones and the Salmon River Country. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Preston, Thomas. Intermountain West: Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Vol. 2, The Double Eagle Guide to 1,000 Great Western Recreation Destinations. 2nd ed. Billings, Mont.: Discovery Publications, 2003.

Ritter, Sharon A. Lewis and Clark's Mountain Wilds: A Site Guide to the Plants and Animals They Encountered in the Bitterroots. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 2002.

Spence, Clark C. For Wood River or Bust: Idaho's Silver Boom of the 1880s. Moscow: University of Idaho Press; Boise: Idaho State Historical Society, 1999.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Idaho, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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Idaho

IDAHO

IDAHO. Few states are as dramatically differentiated, both geographically and culturally, as Idaho. According to the 2000 census, just 1,293,953 people inhabited its 82,751 square miles, or 15.6 people per square mile. Idaho stretches 479 miles from north to south. It has eighty mountain ranges, and at 5,000 feet above sea level, is the fifth highest state in the Union. Forests cover 41 percent of the state and 82 percent of land in the north, and the state receives 100 million acre-feet of water annually in the form of rain and snow, to supply 16,000 miles of rivers and streams. The most important tributary is the Snake River, which flows for 1,000 miles before draining into the Columbia. Culturally, the state is divided between the Mormon southeast, the new high-tech industries of Boise and the southwest, and the north, formerly devoted to mining and lumbering, and now working to develop tourist attractions.

Indians and Trappers

Native American settlement in Idaho was split between the Shoshones of the Great Basin in the south, who had access to the resources of the Snake and Boise Rivers with their fish and game, and the Nez Perce and Coeur d'Alene tribes in the north. The arrival of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 preceded the entry of trappers and traders into the region. In 1810, Fort Henry was erected as the first American habitation. A trade war was pursued between the Hudson's Bay Company and independent American trappers, which lasted into the 1840s. Fort Hall and Fort Boise were established as part of this competition, but ultimately came to be staging posts on the Oregon Trail. The rise of Oregon "fever" in the 1840s led 53,000 settlers to take the trail in the next two decades.

Miners and Mormons

Idaho Territory had no formal settlements until the incorporation of Franklin in 1860. In the north, however, there were a set of mining camps, which were illegally established on the Nez Perce Indian reservation to service the diggings at Orofino Creek and Pierce City. The gold rush proved alluring to depression-hit farmers, and the territory produced $3 million of gold dust by 1861. Such communities were unstable and had a large proportion of saloons and theaters. Mormon pioneers made their first permanent settlement in Idaho in the 1860s as part of Brigham Young's plans for colonization. Theirs was a much harder existence but a more stable community life, centered on family and religion, with homesteads clustered around a ward meetinghouse and supported by cooperative organizations.

State Formation

In 1853, Washington Territory was separated from Oregon and the future Idaho Territory was divided between them. Six years later, Oregon became a state and southern Idaho was added to Washington Territory. Idaho Territory was created in 1863, with only 32,342 residents. Congress removed portions of the future territories of Montana and

Wyoming in 1868, but Idaho was still too sprawling to be well administered. The north fought to be annexed by Washington Territory in the 1880s, but President Grover Cleveland vetoed a bill to separate it. The territorial legislature propitiated the north by locating the state university at Moscow. In 1889, Idaho held a special convention and drafted a constitution that Congress approved, and a year later it became a state.

Developing the Land

There was little active government in Idaho during the Civil War, and many Confederate sympathizers and migrants from the border states settled in the region. In 1864, the legislature moved the capital to Boise, a site with much fertile land and a mild climate. Boise became a trade and transportation hub and two-thirds of Idaho farms were located in the Boise area by 1870. Cattle raising became common in the 1860s, and farming succeeded mining as the principal occupation in the 1870s, although it was as dependent as mining on outside financing. With irrigation, the Snake River valley became capable of development, and in the northern region of the Palouse, wheat growing was developed on a grand scale.

Silver Mining and Lumber Production

Lead and silver strikes at Wood River (1880) and the Coeur d'Alene (1883-1884) produced a new source of wealth for Idaho. The town of Hailey near Wood River had Idaho's first electric lighting and first telephone service. Initial placer methods were succeeded by hard-rock mining financed by outside investors, most notably the Sunshine Mine in the Coeur d'Alene, with the largest recorded silver production in the world. Eastern and Californian demand for timber spurred the creation of the Clearwater Timber Company by Frederick Weyerhaeuser in 1900, and by 1903, most private timberland was in the hands of the big timber companies. In 1904, production had reached 350 million board feet and by 1925, 1,100 million board feet.

Building a Transport Network

Mining, lumbering, and wheat growing companies required an effective railroad network to transport their products. In 1882, Pocatello, in the southeast, became a major railroad center, with a complex of railroad shops that was more unionized and ethnically diverse than other parts of the state, and far less Mormon than most towns in the east. The expansion of the network continued into the twentieth century, and by 1918, there were 2,841 miles of track in Idaho. Railroad stations were a matter of community pride and stimulated town growth, even though they also created dependency on the railroad timetable.

Immigration and Anti-Mormonism

The changes of the 1880s brought newcomers to Idaho. These included the Basques, who were known to work as shepherds but often worked in mining and dam construction; they developed their own hotels and boardinghouse culture. The 1880s also saw the rise of anti-Mormonism, because of the perception of the Latter-day Saints as outsiders who tended to vote as a bloc for the Democratic Party. Under the leadership of Fred Dubois, a campaign was waged against the Mormon practice of polygamy, and the legislature passed a measure in 1882 that barred Latter-day Saints from voting, holding office, or serving on a jury, although most of these restrictions were abandoned in 1893.

The Politics of the 1890s

During the 1890s, miners' support for silver monetization made Populism a political force in Idaho. Organized labor grew rapidly, and in 1907, there were forty-five unions with 2,240 members. In the Coeur d'Alene in 1892 and 1899, there were violent attacks on mine property. In 1899, Governor Frank Steunenberg declared martial law and many miners were imprisoned. In 1905, Harry Orchard planted a bomb at Steunenberg's home that killed the governor. The subsequent kidnap and prosecution of miners' leader William Haywood in 1906 set the stage in the following year for one of the more colorful trials of the century, with Senator William Borah as the prosecutor and the radical lawyer Clarence Darrow for the defense.

Idaho in the Progressive Era

Violent protest was not, however, the only means of bringing about reform. During the 1890s, Boise's Columbian Club created the first traveling library in the West. In 1900, there were about fifteen reform clubs in Idaho that pushed for progressive legislation. Although the Republican Party was strong in the state, Idaho saw the introduction of the direct primary, initiative, referendum, recall, and workers' compensation, as well as prohibition. Equally important was the irrigation of the Snake River plain, with the assistance of the federal Reclamation Bureau. By 1915, over 19 million acres (about 35 percent of state) had been formed into twenty-two national forests. Such assistance, however, created a problem of dependence on federal resources and technological expertise. The rise of irrigated land led to the "selling" of Idaho in the East by communities and railroads. Tourism was also pushed through such instruments as National Geographic.

Idaho in the 1920s

During World War I, Idaho contributed 20,000 men to the armed forces; produced food, minerals, and timber for aircraft; and purchased many war bonds and savings stamps. The state also fought the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World, who were campaigning in the mining towns and lumbering camps for an eight-hour day and higher wages. Governor Moses Alexander asked for federal troops to quell unrest in the towns of Wallace and Lewiston, and the state legislature passed a criminal syndicalism law. The agricultural depression of 1921 prompted some out-migration and twenty-seven banks failed in the 1920s. Nevertheless, Idaho completed a basic network of highways and electric railroads for a number of communities, including Boise. Motorization spurred the creation of all-weather roads and then larger schools, and caused the demise of many remote villages. A north-south highway was completed by 1920, making possible direct communication between the two halves of the state. During the 1920s, Idaho experienced a farm revolt that led to the creation of the Progressive Party, which elected candidates in 1922 and controlled three county governments. But the Republican Party remained dominant.

The Great Depression

Of the Pacific Northwest states, Idaho suffered most during the Great Depression. Farm prices fell 44 percent between 1929 and 1930; the Snake River plain experienced severe drought and declining production through the early 1930s; and average income fell 49.3 percent between 1929 and 1932. The Democrat C. Ben Ross was elected governor in 1930 and Idaho voted strongly for the Democrats in 1932. The state was fifth in the nation in New Deal per capita spending, with programs for construction, electricity in the countryside, and agricultural relief. The development of hydroelectric power by the federal government was a serious political issue in the Pacific Northwest, but Idaho proved less keen on the idea of public power than Washington and Oregon, and the legislature rejected public utility districts in 1937.

World War II and the Transformation of Idaho

During World War II, 60,000 Idahoans—11 percent of the state's population—served in the armed forces. Air bases were established at Boise and Pocatello, while the largest inland naval base was located at Sandpoint, training 293,381 sailors. After the war, the Strategic Air Command maintained Mountain Home Air Force Base for refueling, while on the Snake River, the federal government built the National Reactor Testing Station with fifty-two reactors, which produced the first electricity from nuclear power in 1951.

Postwar Reconstruction

After 1945, Idaho saw the rise of manufacturing and of firms like Morrison-Knudsen, a construction company that had worked on Hoover Dam, Albertson's grocery and drugs, one of the largest retail outlets in the United States, and the J. R. Simplot Company, with interests in food processing, fertilizers, and ranching. Other employers included Boise Cascade, one of the nation's largest producers of plywood; Micron Technology, a semiconductor company founded in 1978; and Hewlett Packard. The federal Idaho National Engineering Laboratory employed 10,000 people in the early 1990s or 5 percent of the state's jobs. Boise emerged as a major northwestern city, experienced suburban growth, and retained its small-town ambiance. It was the only city in the central Northwest with more than 100,000 residents. Big growth in the 1970s was followed by a recession in the early 1980s, especially in mining and timber. Resource-based communities turned to tourism for salvation and a large inmigration took place, mostly from California, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. During the 1990s, the state's population grew 28.5 percent.

Politics in the Late Twentieth Century

Despite holding the governorship from 1971 to 1994 and producing influential figures like Senator Frank Church, the Democratic Party became increasingly irrelevant in Idaho. The Republicans held the majority of seats in the state legislature from 1961 to the beginning of the twentyfirst century. During the 1980s, union power declined, and Idaho's first right-to-work law was enacted. Idahoans voted for Republican Bob Dole over Democrat Bill Clinton by a margin of 18 percent in 1996 and for Republican George W. Bush over Democrat Al Gore by a margin of 39 percent in 2000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arrington, Leonard J. History of Idaho. 2 vols. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1994.

Ashby, LeRoy. The Spearless Leader: Senator Borah and the Progressive Movement in the 1920s. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972.

Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 36–51.

Fahey, John. The Inland Empire: Unfolding Years, 1879–1929. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Malone, Michael P. C. Ben Ross and the New Deal in Idaho. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970.

May, Dean L. Three Frontiers: Family, Land, and Society in the American West, 1850–1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Schwantes, Carlos A. In Mountain Shadows: A History of Idaho. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Wells, Merle W. Gold Camps and Silver Cities: Nineteenth Century Mining in Central and Southern Idaho. Moscow: Idaho Department of Lands, Bureau of Mines and Geology, 1983.

JeremyBonner

See alsoCoeur d'Alene Riots ; Oregon Trail ; Silver Prospecting and Mining ; Tribes: Northwestern .

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Idaho

Idaho (ī´dəhō), one of the Rocky Mt. states in the NW United States. It is bordered by Montana and Wyoming (E), Utah and Nevada (S), Oregon and Washington (W), and the Canadian province of British Columbia (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 83,557 sq mi (216,413 sq km). Pop. (2010) 1,567,582, a 21.1% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Boise. Statehood, July 3, 1890 (43d state). Highest pt., Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,862 m); lowest pt., Snake River, 710 ft (217 m). Nickname, Gem State. Motto,Esto Perpetua [It Is Perpetual]. State bird, mountain bluebird. State flower, syringa. State tree, white pine. Abbr., ID

Geography

Much of Idaho has an unspoiled beauty, with rugged slopes and towering peaks, a vast expanse of timberland, scenic lakes, wild rivers, cascades, and spectacular gorges. From the northern Panhandle, where Idaho is about 45 mi (72 km) wide, the state broadens south of the Bitterroot Range to 310 mi (499 km) in width. The Snake River flows in a great arc across S Idaho; with its tributaries the river has been harnessed to produce hydroelectric power and to reclaim vast areas of dry but fertile land. To the north of the Snake River valley, in central and north central Idaho, are the massive Sawtooth Mts. and the Salmon River Mts., which shelter magnificent wilderness areas, including the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, the Selway Bitterroot Wilderness Area, and the Idaho Primitive Area.

In the central and north central regions and in the Panhandle there are tremendous expanses of national forests covering approximately two fifths of the state and constituting one of the largest areas of national forests in the nation. Idaho's jagged granite peaks include Mt. Borah, which is 12,662 ft (3,859 m) high. Hells Canyon, which at one point is 7,900 ft (2408 m) below the mountaintops, is the deepest gorge in North America. The state also contains Craters of the Moon National Monument and a protected grove of ancient cedars at Upper Priest Lake.

Rushing rivers such as the Salmon and the Clearwater, and many lakes, notably Lake Pend Oreille, Lake Coeur d'Alene (often described as one of the world's loveliest), and Priest Lake, as well as the state's mountain areas, make Idaho a superb fish and game preserve and vacation land. The state is especially inviting to campers, anglers, and hunters (Idaho has one of the largest elk herds in the nation). The state's climate ranges from hot summers in the arid southern basins to cold, snowy winters in the high wilderness areas of central and northern Idaho. The capital and largest city is Boise; other cities of importance are Pocatello and Idaho Falls.

Economy

Manufacturing has recently supplanted agriculture as the most important sector of Idaho's economy. Cattle and dairy goods are among the leading agricultural products. Idaho's chief crops are potatoes (for which the state, easily the nation's largest producer, is famous), hay, wheat, peas, beans, and sugar beets. Electronic and computer equipment, processed foods, lumber, and chemicals are the major manufactured items.

The unspoiled quality of much of Idaho's land has nourished one of the youngest of Idaho's businesses—the tourist trade. Sun Valley, one of the nation's best-known year-round vacation spots, is an example of the development of resorts in Idaho. Mining, once the major source of income, and still economically important, produces phosphates, gold, silver, molybdenum, antimony, lead, zinc, and other minerals.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Idaho's constitution, adopted in 1889, became effective in 1890 upon statehood. The state's chief executive is a governor elected for a term of four years. The legislature consists of a 42-member senate and an 84-member house of representatives. The state also elects two representatives and two senators to the U.S. Congress and has four electoral votes.

Idaho is a Republican state in national politics but had Democratic governors from 1970 to 1994. Cecil D. Andrus, elected governor in 1970 and reelected in 1974, served as secretary of the interior during the Carter administration; he was elected governor again in 1986 and 1990. Republican Phil Batt, elected governor in 1994, was succeeded by Republican Dirk Kempthorne, elected in 1998 and reelected in 2002. Kempthorne was appointed secretary of the interior in 2006. He was succeeded as governor by Lt. Gov. James E. Risch, also a Republican. Republican Butch Otter was elected to the post later in the year and was reelected in 2010 and 2014.

Outstanding among Idaho's institutions of higher learning are the Univ. of Idaho, at Moscow; Idaho State Univ., at Pocatello; and Boise State Univ., at Boise.

History

Early Explorers and Fur Traders

Probably the first nonnatives to enter the area that is now Idaho were members of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1805. They were not far ahead of the fur traders who came to the region shortly thereafter. A Canadian, David Thompson of the North West Company, established the first trading post in Idaho in 1809. The next year traders from St. Louis penetrated the mountains, and Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company established a post near present-day Rexburg, the first American trading post established in the area.

In this period the fortunes of the Idaho region were wrapped up with those of the Columbia River region, and the area encompassed by what is now the state of Idaho was part of Oregon country, held jointly by the United States and Great Britain from 1818 to 1846. Fur traders in an expedition sent out by John Jacob Astor came to the Snake River region to trap for furs after having established (1811) a trading post at Astoria on the Columbia River. In 1821 two British trading companies operating in the Idaho region, the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were joined together as the Hudson's Bay Company which, after 1824, came into competition with American mountain men also trapping in the area. By the 1840s the two groups had severely depleted the region's fur supply.

Gold, Settlement, and Resistance

In 1846 the United States gained sole claim to Oregon country south of the 49th parallel by the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain. The area was established as a territory in 1848. Idaho still had no permanent settlement when Oregon Territory became a state in 1859 and the eastern part of Idaho was added to Washington Territory. A Mormon outpost founded at Franklin in 1860 is considered the first permanent settlement, but it was not until the discovery of gold that settlers poured into Idaho.

Gold was discovered on the Clearwater River in 1860, on the Salmon in 1861, in the Boise River basin in 1862, and gold and silver were found in the Owyhee River country in 1863. The usual rush of settlers followed, along with the spectacular but ephemeral growth of towns. Most of these settlements are only ghost towns now, but the many settlers who poured in during the gold rush—mainly from Washington, Oregon, and California, with smaller numbers from the east—formed a population large enough to demand new government administration, and Idaho Territory was set up in 1863.

Native Americans, mostly Kootenai, Nez Percé, Western Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, and Pend d'Oreille, became upset by the incursion of settlers and some resisted violently. The federal government had subdued many of these groups by 1858, placing them on reservations. The Bannock were defeated in 1863 and again in 1878. In 1876–77 the Nez Percé, led by Chief Joseph, made their heroic but unsuccessful attempt to flee to Canada while being pursued by U.S. troops.

Development and Disputes

A new mining boom started in 1882 with the discovery of gold in the Coeur d'Alene, and although the gold strike ended in disappointment, it prefaced the discovery there of some of the richest silver mines in the world. Coeur d'Alene and Kellogg became notable mining centers, and the Bunker Hill and Sullivan (a lead mine) became extremely famous mines. Severe labor troubles in the mines at the end of the century led to political uprisings. Frank Steunenberg, who as governor had used federal troops to put down the uprisings, was assassinated in 1905. The trial of William Haywood and others accused of involvement in the murder drew national attention and marked the beginning of the long career of William E. Borah (who had prosecuted the mine leaders) as an outstanding Republican party leader in the state and nation.

The late 19th cent. also witnessed the growth of cattle and sheep ranching, along with the strife that developed between the two groups of ranchers over grazing areas. The coming of the railroads (notably the Northern Pacific) through Idaho in the 1880s and 90s brought new settlers and aided in the founding of such cities as Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and American Falls.

Putting Water and the Atom to Work

Expanding Idaho farming led to private irrigation projects. Some of these aroused public opposition, which led to establishment of state irrigation districts under the Carey Land Act of 1894. The Reclamation Act of 1902 brought direct federal aid. Notable among public reclamation works are the Boise and Minidoka projects. Both public and private, these have also helped to increase the development of Idaho's enormous hydroelectric potential. Further private hydroelectric projects along the Snake River were put into operation between 1959 and 1968.

In 1949 the Atomic Energy Commission built the National Reactor Testing Station in SE Idaho. Now known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the facility in 1955 provided energy for nearby Arco, the first American town to be lighted by electricity from a nuclear power plant.

Idaho suffered during the recession of the early 1980s but rebounded later in the decade by attracting new business, including high-technology firms. The growth of the winter sports industry has helped make Idaho a leading tourist state. These improvements in its economy made Idaho one of the nation's fastest-growing states in population between 1990 and 2000.

Bibliography

See Federal Writers' Project, Idaho (1938, rev. ed. 1950); M. W. Wells, Idaho: An Illustated History (1980).

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Idaho

IDAHO


One of the most sparsely populated states, Idaho remained undeveloped until gold and silver strikes began to attract eager prospectors. Like other areas of the Great Plains and the West, Idaho was at first just a place to cross during a westward journey, not a place to settle. As mining and agriculture began to take hold and the transcontinental railroad made settlement and commerce more feasible more people began to make Idaho their new home. Contemporary Idaho has a number of important industries and significant agricultural products, especially potatoes. Idaho's tourist industry is also strong, attracting thousands annually to the state's ski resorts and scenic areas.

During the first quarter of the nineteenth century Idaho was part of the vast territory known as the Oregon Country, claimed at various times by the United States, Great Britain, Spain, and Russia. Until 1805 no known white explorers had disturbed the Native American tribes who were the only residents of Idaho. When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark's expedition reached the region that year the Native Americans helped supply the explorers for their journey to the Columbia River and the Pacific. Fur trappers and missionaries soon followed. Although the Oregon Trail crossed Idaho and the area officially became United States land in 1846, no one thought the territory worthy of settlement until 1860. In that year, Mormons established the first permanent settlement at Franklin and a gold rush began in northern Idaho. The Idaho Territory was organized in 1863. According to historian F. Ross Peterson, "It is a sad fact of American history that while hundreds of thousands of uniformed Americans in Virginia, Tennessee, and Maryland were trying to kill each other [in the American Civil War (18611865)], thousands of Americans in the West were running from creek to brook to river trying to get rich quickly."

In the following two decades Idaho grew rapidly with Boise established as the capital in 1863. The Boise Basin became the most developed part of the state, reaching a population of 6,000 by 1864. Two years later $24 million in gold was produced during the Boise Basin strike. By then more than $50 million in gold had been taken from the Idaho mountains with little regard for possible damage to the environment.

As mining boom towns came and went agriculture was becoming more important in Idaho. Telegraph service and the transcontinental railway reached the state, and the population increased twofold between 1870 and 1880. The Utah and Northern Railroad, owned by mogul Jay Gould, was the first major railroad in the state which hastened the settlement of northern Idaho. Many Mormons, encouraged by their Utah church leaders, migrated to Idaho during this time to establish farms and communities such as Blackfoot and Victor. The Oregon Short Line was completed through Idaho in 1884 and a traveler could now reach Portland, Oregon, from Omaha, Nebraska, in five daysa trip that had taken Lewis and Clark 18 months to complete in 1805. The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Milwaukee, Saint Paul, and Pacific railroads also made possible the development of lead-silver lode mining in the area of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains. During the late 1870s, as in all territories settled by whites, Native American residents were gradually pushed off their land by a series of wars. The most famous Idaho battle was the Nez Perc war, after which Chief Joseph surrendered and his people were pushed onto reservations.

Another rush of prospectors came to Idaho between 1880 and 1884 after silver and lead were discovered in south central Idaho and the panhandle region. Idaho became the 43rd state in 1890, having reached a population of more than 88,000 that same year. During the 1890s Idaho was plagued with violent labor disputes in the mining regions and political bickering among Mormons and non-Mormons.

Further economic growth was made possible in the early twentieth century by federal land and irrigation projects. A very large sawmill at Potlatch was an indication of an increasingly prosperous timber industry, and agriculture also began to grow in importance in the state. The development of the russet potato in the 1920s gave Idaho its signature agricultural product. A farm depression in the 1920s, however, lasted through the Great Depression of the 1930s and did not end until World War II (19391945). Both agriculture and industry were important after the war, especially the fertilizer and potato businesses. Development was encouraged even more after the construction of a nuclear reactor testing and power plant at Idaho Falls in 1951, the first such generating station in the country. Idaho's mountains and open spaces also created a thriving tourist business. Today, the Sun Valley ski resort and other scenic areas attract thousands of tourists each year.

Contemporary Idaho faces new problems as the population expands and environmentalists push for better land use planning. Controversies also arise over mineral development and over water supply and dam construction. A major economic and human disaster occurred in 1976 when the new Teton Dam in eastern Idaho collapsed, causing loss of lives and $400 million in property damage.

Idaho's economy in the 1990s was largely dependent on agriculture, mining, forest products, and food processing. Idaho is the nation's leader in potato production; most potatoes are grown in the Snake River plain, and about three-fourths of the crop is used for processed potato products such as french fries or instant mashed potatoes. Other important crops produced by Idaho include hay, wheat, barley, and sugar beets. This agricultural bounty is made possible because nearly 64 percent of all land used for farming in the state is under irrigation. Mining is only a small percentage of the state's annual gross product, but a variety of minerals, such as garnet, phosphate rock, construction sand and gravel, silver, lead, and pumice are produced. It is one of the few places that produces molybdenum, in a reopened mine at Thompson Creek.

Manufacturing in the state is concentrated in the resource industriesfood processing, chemical manufacturing, and lumber production. In the late 1970s and early 1980s a number of northern California computer concerns, such as Hewlett Packard, opened or expanded plants in Idaho. The leading food producer is Ore-Ida Foods, and J.R. Simplot processes both food and fertilizers. Some of the wood products industries include Boise Cascade and Louisiana-Pacific.

The state survived a downturn during the recession of the early 1980s by restructuring its major industries. Although the number of workers employed in many industries in the state has shrunk, chemical manufacturing employment grew 36 percent during the 1980s, and paper industry employment rose by 30 percent. Between 1982 and 1991, tourism employment increased by 35 percent, and jobs in the high-technology industry increased by 50 percent between 1986 and 1990. In 1996 the average per capita income in the state was $19,539, ranking 43rd in the nation. Although Idaho was a pioneer in establishing fair labor practices only 8.1 percent of all workers belong to unions, and the state is now a right-to-work state.


FURTHER READING

Arrington, Leonard J. History of Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1994.

Domitz, Gary, and Leonard Hitchcock, eds. Idaho History: A Bibliography. Pocatello: Idaho State University Press, 1991.

Beal, Merrill D., and Merle W. Wells. History of Idaho. New York: Lewis, 1959.

Peterson, F. Ross. Idaho: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.

Young, Virgil. The Story of Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1984.

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Idaho

IDAHO


Boise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

Nampa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

The State in Brief

Nickname: Gem State

Motto: Esto perpetua (Let it be perpetual)

Flower: Syringa

Bird: Mountain bluebird

Area: 83,570 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 14th)

Elevation: Ranges from 710 feet to 12,662 feet above sea level

Climate: Tempered by Pacific westerly winds, varying by altitude; hot summers in the arid south, cold snowy winters in the central and northern mountains

Admitted to Union: July 3, 1890

Capital: Boise

Head Official: Governor Dirk Kempthorne (R) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 944,000

1990: 1,006,749

2000: 1,293,953

2004 estimate: 1,393,262

Percent change, 19902000: 28.5%

U.S. rank in 2004: 39th

Percent of residents born in state: 47.2% (2000)

Density: 15.6 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 42,547

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 1,177,304

Black or African American: 5,456

American Indian and Alaska Native: 17,645

Asian: 11,889

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 1,308

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 101,690

Other: 54,742

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 97,643

Population 5 to 19 years old: 316,222

Percent of population 65 years and over: 11.3%

Median age: 33.2 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 21,823

Total number of deaths (2003): 10,466 (infant deaths,158)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 274

Economy

Major industries: Mining, lumbering, agriculture, high technology, tourism

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (February 2005)

Per capita income: $25,583 (2003; U.S. rank: 46th)

Median household income: $40,230 (3-year average,2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 11.8%(1999)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 1.6% to 7.8%

Sales tax rate: 6.0%

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Idaho

Idaho State in nw USA, on the border with Canada; the capital and largest city is Boise. The discovery of gold in 1860 brought many immigrants, although the Native-American population was not subdued until 1877. The state was admitted to the Union in 1890 and soon began to develop its resources. The terrain is dominated by the Rocky Mountains and is drained chiefly by the Snake River, whose waters are used to generate hydroelectricity and for irrigation. Principal crops are potatoes, hay, wheat and sugar beet, and cattle are reared. Silver, lead, antimony and zinc are mined. Industries: timber. Area: 216,412sq km (83,557sq mi). Pop. (2000) 1,293,953.

Statehood :

July 3, 1890

Nickname :

Gem state

State bird :

Mountain bluebird

State flower :

Mock orange

State tree :

Western white pine

State motto :

It is forever


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Idaho

Idaho •Tajo •boho, coho, Moho, Soho •Idaho • Arapaho • Navajo

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Idaho

IDAHO

IDAHO , state in northwestern U.S. Idaho had fewer Jews than any other state; in 2005 the estimated population of Idaho was 1,347,000 and the Jewish population was 1,000. Two Jews of unknown name, one of whom reportedly perished, are said to have belonged to a pioneering party that was caught struggling toward shelter in Orofino in the winter of 1861–62, but the first identifiable Jew to have set foot in Idaho was J.D. Farmer, who braved a gold-rush trail from Boise to Call's Fort in January 1864, a month after Idaho was officially declared a territory. A handful of permanent Jewish settlers lived in Boise after 1865 and in Hailey after 1881, when both places were little more than raw mining camps. Most of these early arrivals were hardy young pioneers of German Jewish ancestry; becoming merchants of staples, potato farmers, and ranchers, they generally prospered and were quickly integrated into local life. In 1895 the first Jewish congregation in Idaho was organized in Boise by Moses *Alexander, later mayor of the city and governor of the state. The congregation, called Beth Israel, adopted the Reform ritual and erected a temple in 1896 that is still in use. A B'nai B'rith lodge was formed in Boise in 1899 and a second, Orthodox, congregation, Ahavath Israel, in 1912. In Pocatello, in the southeast, a B'nai B'rith lodge was formed in 1923 and an organized congregation in 1924. Idaho's tiny Jewish population had no rabbi in 1970. Its three synagogues had lay leaders: two in Boise, whose Jewish community of about 120 was Idaho's largest, and one in Pocatello. Pocatello's Temple Emanuel, dedicated in 1960, is shared by three groups, Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform, each numbering 40 to 50 congregants and including members from outlying districts, and each having its own plot in the city cemetery. There is a Sunday school; Sabbaths and occasionally other holidays are observed, and a community seder is an annual tradition. Some of the Jewish scientists attached to the Atomic Energy Commission experiment station in nearby Idaho Falls, where there is a Hadassah chapter, also participate in temple life. There are handfuls of Jews in Caldwell, Weiser, Hailey, and at the University of Idaho in Moscow, but aside from the annual statewide United Jewish Appeal there is no organized Jewish life in any of these places, and little interest in adult Jewish learning exists. The intermarriage rate is low around Boise, higher in the Pocatello region. Since Moses Alexander's time a number of Idaho Jews have served as mayors, state assemblymen, members of state and county commissions, presidents of state associations, heads of county and city civic bodies, and leaders of Masonic lodges. By the mid-1980s, gradually, the two synagogues in Boise (Beth Israel, Reform; Ahavath Israel, originally Orthodox but long Conservative) merged and became Ahavath Beth Israel. It is affiliated with the Reform movement, but serves both Reform and Conservative communities. It now has a full time rabbi, Dan Fink, who has served for more than a decade.

The synagogue is still in its historic synagogue building, erected in 1896 – but no longer located on its original site. In 2003 the building was picked up and moved about three miles to its new location, where a campus was built around it. Boise no longer has a B'nai B'rith lodge, but does have an active Hadassah chapter. As of spring of 2004, Boise also has a Chabad affiliate. There is also a congregation in Ketchum/Hailey/Sun Valley, which is a resort area for skiing where Jews from other states own homes, that is affiliated with the Reform movement. They do not have a synagogue building but do have a full time rabbi, Martin Levy. The Jewish Community of Moscow is organized but still does not have a building or rabbi. The Jews of Caldwell, Weiser, Nampa are now part of the Boise metro area. There is a small Jewish community in northern Idaho (Sandpoint and Coeur d'Alene) that is affiliated with the synagogue in Spokane, and an active Jewish community in Pocatello. Pocatello's Temple Emanuel was dedicated in 1960 and also serves congregants from neighboring towns (Rupert, Blackfoot, Idaho Falls, etc). Services are Reform in character, but many in the congregation come from Conservative, and occasionally Orthodox backgrounds. There are Sabbath services on alternative weeks with lively discussions of Torah. Major holidays are celebrated, and there is a children's school and a consecrated cemetery. Too small to hire a rabbi, Temple Emanuel has a long tradition of lay leadership with religious leaders typically serving for many years. The Jews of Temple Emanuel have excellent relations with local churches and mosques, though the small far-right fringe occasionally causes concern.

bibliography:

L.L. Watters, Pioneer Jews of Utah (1952), index; B. Postal and L. Koppman, Jewish Tourist's Guide to the U.S. (1954), index.

[Louis Zucker /

Dan Fink (2nd ed.)]

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Idaho

Idaho ★½ 1943x

On a mission to close down houses of ill repute, Rodgers teams up with Autry's old sidekick Burnette. 70m/B VHS, DVD . Roy Rogers, Harry Shannon, Virginia Grey, Smiley Burnette, Ona Munson; D: Joseph Kane.

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Idaho

Idaho

■ ALBERTSON COLLEGE OF IDAHO M-2

2112 Cleveland Blvd.
Caldwell, ID 83605-4494
Tel: (208)459-5011
Free: 800-244-3246
Admissions: (208)459-5689
Fax: (208)454-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.albertson.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1891. Setting: 50-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $39 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6398 per student. Total enrollment: 818. Faculty: 71 (66 full-time, 5 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 924 applied, 84% were admitted. 34% from top 10% of their high school class, 70% from top quarter, 90% from top half. 1 National Merit Scholar. Full-time: 761 students, 58% women, 42% men. Part-time: 39 students, 51% women, 49% men. Students come from 21 states and territories, 28% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 1% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 3% 25 or older, 52% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 76% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; history; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters plus 6-week Winter term. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Northwest Nazarene University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 6/1, 11/15 for early action. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $22,191 includes full-time tuition ($16,000) and college room and board ($6191). College room only: $2700. Part-time tuition: $670 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 55 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 12% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Scarlet Masque Drama Group, Latino American Students, International Studies Association. Major annual events: Spring Fling, Midnight Finals Breakfast, Campus Ministry Late Nite Chapel. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 517 college housing spaces available; 431 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Terteling Library with 183,308 books, 28,751 microform titles, 703 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $338,787. 240 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ APOLLO COLLEGE N-3

1200 North Liberty Rd.
Boise, ID 83704
Tel: (208)377-8080
Free: 800-473-4365
Fax: (208)322-7658
Web Site: http://www.apolloboise.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Administratively affiliated with U.S. Education Corporation. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1980. Total enrollment: 469. Full-time: 444 students, 90% women, 10% men. Part-time: 25 students, 44% women, 56% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 21% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 65% 25 or older, 1% transferred in. Calendar: semesters.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Required: high school transcript, 3 recommendations, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Required for some: essay. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 3/1. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual events: graduation reception, Christmas Dance, Plato's Place. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Apollo College with 20,000 books, 10,000 serials, 109 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 55 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BOISE BIBLE COLLEGE N-3

8695 West Marigold St.
Boise, ID 83714-1220
Tel: (208)376-7731
Free: 800-893-7755
Fax: (208)376-7743
Web Site: http://www.boisebible.edu/

Description:

Independent nondenominational, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1945. Setting: 17-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $507,870. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4604 per student. Total enrollment: 134. 71 applied, 94% were admitted. 11% from top 10% of their high school class, 42% from top quarter, 63% from top half. Students come from 9 states and territories, 24% 25 or older. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 3 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 5 open to all. Most popular organizations: concert choir, Missions, Women's TLC, Spiritual Families, Drama Club. Major annual events: Spiritual Emphasis Week, High School Preview, Spring Conference. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: patrols by police officers. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. Boise Bible College Library with 29,431 books and 115 serials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $35,153. 8 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY N-3

1910 University Dr.
Boise, ID 83725-0399
Tel: (208)426-1011
Free: 800-824-7017
Admissions: (208)426-1177
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.boisestate.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Idaho System of Higher Education. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: 130-acre urban campus. Endowment: $50.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $8.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5617 per student. Total enrollment: 18,586. Faculty: 1,127 (578 full-time, 549 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 3,340 applied, 90% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 28% from top quarter, 64% from top half. Full-time: 10,840 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 6,085 students, 55% women, 45% men. Students come from 35 states and territories, 47 other countries, 9% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 1% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 42% 25 or older, 8% live on campus, 6% transferred in. Retention: 63% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 7/12. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $2568 full-time, $138 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9976 full-time, $138 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1304 full-time, $57 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $5566. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 176 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Latter-Day Saints Student Association, Residence Hall Association, Organization of Student Social Workers, Marching Band Association, Teacher Education Association. Major annual events: homecoming, Student Organizational Fair, Spring Fling. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 1,200 college housing spaces available; 900 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Albertsons Library with 675,000 books, 1 million microform titles, 5,000 serials, 60,000 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.2 million. 900 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Boise, the capital of Idaho and its largest city, is located on the Boise River at the upper end of the Boise Valley. It enjoys mild winters with very little snow and temperate summers with cool nights. Community facilities include hospitals and libraries. The Idaho Concert and Artists Association features artists of national and international fame. Points of interest are the State Capitol, Ann Morrison and Julia Davis Parks, Platt Gardens, State Historical Museum, Pioneer Village, Urquides Village, Boise Heights, Idaho City, and Silver City. The latter two are pioneer gold rush communities. Year-round recreational opportunities are available in and around Boise.

■ BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY -IDAHO M-11

Rexburg, ID 83460-1650
Tel: (208)496-2011
Admissions: (208)496-1026
Fax: (208)496-1220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.byui.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed, affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Awards transfer associate and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1888. Setting: 255-acre small town campus. Total enrollment: 10,100. 6,500 applied, 95% were admitted. Students come from 50 states and territories, 64% from out-of-state, 2% 25 or older, 20% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: electronic application. Required: essay, high school transcript, interview, SAT or ACT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 2/15. Notification: 4/1. Preference given to Latter-Day Saints Church members.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 5% of eligible men and 10% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: R Friends, Dance Committee, Student Activities Committee. Major annual events: Homecoming, Men's Week, Women's Week. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. Options: men-only, women-only housing available. David O. McKay Library with 134,423 books, 124,788 microform titles, 889 serials, 34,556 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 380 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN IDAHO P-6

PO Box 1238
Twin Falls, ID 83303-1238
Tel: (208)733-9554
Admissions: (208)732-6232
Fax: (208)736-3014
Web Site: http://www.csi.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1964. Setting: 287-acre small town campus. Endowment: $15 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6220 per student. Total enrollment: 7,105. Full-time: 3,175 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 3,930 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 29 states and territories, 27 other countries, 3% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 49% 25 or older, 10% live on campus. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing program. Option: Common Application. Required: high school transcript, ACT COMPASS. Required for some: recommendations, interview, ACT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

State resident tuition: $1900 full-time, $95 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5300 full-time, $265 per credit part-time. College room and board: $3870. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all. Most popular organizations: BPA, Dex, Chi Alpha (Christian Group), Vet Tech Club, Equine Club. Major annual events: Lane of Trees, Halloween Carnival, Ski Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, controlled dormitory access. 246 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. College of Southern Idaho Library with 62,556 books, 374 serials, 4,216 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $549,680. 750 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Twin Falls, a pleasant residential town with a population of 30,000, is the county seat of Twin Falls County, the cultural and trade center of South Central Idaho's Magic Valley. The city is located at the junction of Transcontinental Highway 30 and International Highway 93. Buses, railroads, and airlines serve the area. Due to the climate, location, and natural surroundings, there are an unlimited variety of outdoor recreational facilities and activities. The city serves as headquarters for the Sawtooth National Forest.

■ EASTERN IDAHO TECHNICAL COLLEGE N-11

1600 South 25th East
Idaho Falls, ID 83404-5788
Tel: (208)524-3000
Free: 800-662-0261
Fax: (208)524-3007
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eitc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1970. Setting: 40-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7001 per student. Total enrollment: 755. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 631 applied, 42% were admitted. Full-time: 229 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 526 students, 79% women, 21% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 0.01% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 47% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, COMPASS. Required for some: essay. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/21.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1578 full-time, $79 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5784 full-time, $158 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $124 full-time, $15 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Major annual events: Fall BBQ, Spring Banquet, Halloween Party. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Richard and Lila Jordan Library plus 1 other with 18,000 books, 64,350 microform titles, 125 serials, 150 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $167,886. 105 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ IDAHO STATE UNIVERSITY O-10

921 South 8th Ave.
Pocatello, ID 83209
Tel: (208)282-0211
Admissions: (208)282-2578
Web Site: http://www.isu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's and first professional certificates. Founded 1901. Setting: 972-acre small town campus. Endowment: $25.1 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $12.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $7506 per student. Total enrollment: 13,977. Faculty: 908 (651 full-time, 257 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 3,566 applied, 77% were admitted. 13% from top 10% of their high school class, 32% from top quarter, 61% from top half. Full-time: 7,745 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 3,907 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 37 states and territories, 49 other countries, 5% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 43% 25 or older, 4% live on campus, 10% transferred in. Retention: 57% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Idaho, National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: 3/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. One-time mandatory fee: $660. Nonresident tuition: $7700 full-time. Mandatory fees: $4000 full-time. College room and board: $5030. College room only: $2100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 127 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: International Students Association, Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, Latter Day Saints Student Association, Student American Dental Hygienists Association, Academy of Students of Pharmacy. Major annual events: homecoming, Springfest, Greek Olympiad. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 423 college housing spaces available; 65 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Eli M. Oboler Library with 712,041 books, 2 million microform titles, 6,672 serials, 923 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.3 million. 562 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Pocatello is located in a farming and industrial area of southeastern Idaho where the climate is dry and sunny. Planes and buses provide transportation. The community facilities include many churches, two hospitals, the district health department, hotels, motels, etc. The municipal park has facilities for archery, baseball, field games, and includes a swimming pool and a zoo. Other facilities outside of Pocatello are in the intermountain region, which offers some of the best hunting and fishing in the United States. Camping, hiking, snowmobiling, swimming, boating, horseback riding and skiing available for the outdoor life. Rodeos and the Indian Sun Dances are special annual events.

■ ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE N-3

12302 West Explorer Dr.
Boise, ID 83713
Tel: (208)322-8844
Fax: (208)322-0173
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Part of ITT Educational Services, Inc. Awards terminal associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1906. Setting: 1-acre urban campus. Core.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, Wonderlic aptitude test. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. College housing not available.

■ LEWIS-CLARK STATE COLLEGE G-2

500 Eighth Ave.
Lewiston, ID 83501-2698
Tel: (208)792-5272
Free: 800-933-LCSC
Admissions: (208)792-2210
Fax: (208)799-2063
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lcsc.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1893. Setting: 44-acre small town campus. Endowment: $1.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $182,591. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6099 per student. Total enrollment: 3,451. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 1,108 applied. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 26% from top quarter, 55% from top half. Full-time: 2,281 students, 59% women, 41% men. Part-time: 1,170 students, 65% women, 35% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 33 other countries, 14% from out-of-state, 5% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 42% 25 or older, 8% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 57% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; education; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA. Required for some: interview, SAT or ACT, ACT COMPASS. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Area resident tuition: $185 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $3714 full-time, $185 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,266 full-time. Mandatory fees: $11 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4500. College room only: $1900. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 57 open to all. Most popular organizations: Business Students Organization, Ambassadors Club, International Club, honors society, Explorers. Major annual events: Welcome Back Faire, Dogwood Festival, Native American Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 202 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Lewis-Clark State College Library with 139,499 books, 155,600 microform titles, 1,612 serials, 6,957 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.1 million. 88 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Lewiston is a small urban area that is a major community in the Nez Perce National Park area; climate is temperate. It is the center of a vast lumbering, mining, farming and ranching territory. Planes, buses and trains serve the area. Community facilities include libraries, museums, YWCA, hospital, clinics, community concert series and shopping areas. Part-time employment opportunities are good. Facilities are good for boating, fishing and big game hunting. Boat trips up Hell's Canyon of the Snake River are spectacular journeys; shorter trips are available. The Lewiston Roundup and Dogwood festival are special events.

■ NEW SAINT ANDREWS COLLEGE F-2

PO Box 9025
Moscow, ID 83843
Tel: (208)882-1566
Fax: (208)882-4293
Web Site: http://www.nsa.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Founded 1993. Calendar: 4 8-week terms.

■ NORTH IDAHO COLLEGE D-3

1000 West Garden Ave.
Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814-2199
Tel: (208)769-3300; 877-404-4536
Admissions: (208)769-3303
Fax: (208)769-3273
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nic.edu/

Description:

State and locally supported, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1933. Setting: 42-acre small town campus. Endowment: $5.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3874 per student. Total enrollment: 4,099. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 3,148 applied, 59% were admitted. 9% from top 10% of their high school class, 24% from top quarter, 52% from top half. Full-time: 2,492 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 1,607 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 16 other countries, 2% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 0.4% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 36% 25 or older, 14% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at Lewis-Clark State College, University of Idaho.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required for some: essay, high school transcript, county residency certificate. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 8/20.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Area resident tuition: $1068 full-time, $67 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2068 full-time, $129 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5620 full-time, $351 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $820 full-time, $60 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $5010. College room only: $3210. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 25 open to all. Most popular organizations: Ski Club, Fusion, Baptist student ministries, Journalism Club, Phi Theta Kappa. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service. 202 college housing spaces available; 180 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Molstead Library Computer Center with 60,893 books, 751 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $771,133. 145 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Coeur d'Alene is located on the north shore of Lake Coeur d'Alene, 33 miles east of Spokane, Washington. The area is a popular resort for summer and winter events. Two major ski areas are only minutes away from downtown and the lake offers many water sports activities. Average summer high temperature is 82 degrees and average summer lows are 51 degrees, average winter high temperature is 38 degrees and the average low is 26 degrees. There is an average of 50 inches of snow each year and total average precipitation is 26 inches. Transportation facilities for the Spokane/Coeur d'Alene area include bus, train and airline. Facilities of the community include library, hospital, county health unit and active civic clubs. The college hosts art and music programs for the community in its 1,200 seat Boswell Hall auditorium. Coeur d'Alene draws its industry from tourism, high tech, forestry products and agricultural. Outdoor sports are boating, biking, hunting, fishing, golfing, water and snow skiing, sailing, windsurfing, swimming, and mountain biking.

■ NORTHWEST NAZARENE UNIVERSITY N-3

623 Holly St.
Nampa, ID 83686-5897
Tel: (208)467-8011; 877-668-4968
Admissions: (208)467-8000
Fax: (208)467-8645
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nnu.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed, affiliated with Church of the Nazarene. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1913. Setting: 85-acre small town campus. Endowment: $14 million. Total enrollment: 1,625. Faculty: 100 (95 full-time, 5 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 923 applied, 52% were admitted. 24% from top 10% of their high school class, 49% from top quarter, 80% from top half. 3 National Merit Scholars. Full-time: 1,073 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 91 students, 57% women, 43% men. 60% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 1% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 70% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 71% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; theology and religious vocations. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at CCCU Exchange programs. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.5 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, SAT or ACT. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 8/8, 12/15 for early action. Notification: continuous, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,780 includes full-time tuition ($18,430), mandatory fees ($340), and college room and board ($5010). Part-time tuition: $798 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, Are You Serving Him (RUSH), ministry clubs, service clubs, science clubs. Major annual events: Malibu-A Spring Festival, RUSH Days, Intramural Snowball Game. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, residence hall check-in system, on-campus police hub. 776 college housing spaces available; 637 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. John E. Riley Library with 100,966 books, 821 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Nampa, located in southwestern Idaho, has a mild climate with an average mean temperature of 51 degrees and average rainfall of 13 inches. It is the agricultural, industrial and transportation center of southwest Idaho. Industries are processing and packing food, building mobile homes, feed mills, and seed houses; Zilog, a computer chip manufacturer is located here. Community facilities include excellent library, churches representing 22 denominations, hospitals, motels and hotels. One hundred fifty civic, fraternal, and veterans organizations are active. Part-time employment is available. Recreational facilities consist of a state-of-the-art recreation center, six parks, softball and baseball fields, horseshoe courts, tennis courts, roller skating rink and bowling alleys; other facilities are Lake Lowell for swimming, boating, fishing and hunting. A ski run is within 35 miles. Points of interest are the Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Givens' Hot Springs, Lakeview Park and Silver City and De Lamar, old mining towns. The Snake River Stampede, a rodeo, is an annual event held in July.

■ UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO F-2

875 Perimeter Dr., PO Box 442282
Moscow, ID 83844-2282
Tel: (208)885-6111; 888-884-3246
Admissions: (208)885-6326
Fax: (208)885-6911
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uidaho.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1889. Setting: 1,450-acre small town campus. Endowment: $143.5 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $125.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $10,514 per student. Total enrollment: 12,476. Faculty: 586 (564 full-time, 22 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 4,444 applied, 82% were admitted. 20% from top 10% of their high school class, 46% from top quarter, 77% from top half. 8 National Merit Scholars, 31 class presidents, 71 valedictorians, 30 student government officers. Full-time: 8,380 students, 45% women, 55% men. Part-time: 1,123 students, 49% women, 51% men. 28% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 1% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 18% 25 or older, 55% live on campus. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; engineering. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at National Student Exchange. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Naval, Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.2 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: SAT. Required for some: essay. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8770 full-time, $130 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3968 full-time, $190 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and program. College room and board: $5342. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 132 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 16% of eligible men and 13% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Alpha Phi Omega, Campus Crusade for Christ, Student International Association, OELA, Students of Human Resource Management. Major annual events: Jazz Festival, Palouse-A-Fest, homecoming. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center, Career/Professional Planning, Academic Advising, Employment Program. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,950 college housing spaces available; 1,600 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. University of Idaho Library plus 1 other with 1.4 million books, 1.5 million microform titles, 14,230 serials, 8,717 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.5 million. 670 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The location is rural, combining the peace, calm, and simplicity of the country with the intellectual atmosphere of a progressive college town. Moscow is in Idaho's Palouse Hill country and leads the nation in the production and processing of seed peas and lentils. Community facilities include a library, churches, clinics, hospital, hotels and motels and 2 shopping malls. Air, bus and railroads serve the area. Part-time work is available. Apartments and rooms may be rented. Eight miles away is Washington State University, the land grant institution for the state of Washington. There is an active faculty exchange, cross registration, and multiple library resources.

■ UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-IDAHO CAMPUS D-8

3080 Gentry Way, Ste. 150
Meridian, ID 83642-3014
Tel: (208)888-1505
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Fax: (208)888-4775
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Setting: urban campus. Total enrollment: 767. Faculty: 116 (2 full-time, 114 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. 14 applied. Full-time: 656 students, 51% women, 49% men. 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Hispanic, 0.3% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 37% international, 91% 25 or older. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; computer and information sciences; security and protective services. Core. Calendar: continuous. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: 1 recommendation. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9900 full-time, $330 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available. University Library with an OPAC and a Web page. System-wide operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.2 million.

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Idaho

Idaho

ALBERTSON COLLEGE OF IDAHO

2112 Cleveland Blvd.
Caldwell, ID 83605-4494
Tel: (208)459-5011
Free: 800-244-3246
Admissions: (208)459-5689
Fax: (208)454-2077
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.albertson.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert Hoover
Registrar: E. Ann Kuck
Admissions: Charlene Brown
Financial Aid: Juanitta Pearson
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 98.4% SAT M 400+; 29.4% ACT 18-23; 55.2% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 84 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: June 01 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $22,191 includes full-time tuition ($16,000) and college room and board ($6191). College room only: $2700. Part-time tuition: $670 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 761, PT 39, Grad 18 Faculty: FT 66, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 52 Library Holdings: 183,308 Credit Hours For Degree: 124 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Golf M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

APOLLO COLLEGE

1200 North Liberty Rd.
Boise, ID 83704
Tel: (208)377-8080
Free: 800-473-4365
Fax: (208)322-7658
Web Site: http://www.apolloboise.com/
President/CEO: Judy Groothuis
Admissions: Kevin Price
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: U.S. Education Corporation Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 444, PT 25 Faculty: FT 19, PT 30 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 20,000 Professional Accreditation: ABHES, ADA

BOISE BIBLE COLLEGE

8695 West Marigold St.
Boise, ID 83714-1220
Tel: (208)376-7731
Free: 800-893-7755
Fax: (208)376-7743
Web Site: http://www.boisebible.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Charles A. Crane
Registrar: Ross Knudsen
Admissions: Ross Knudsen
Financial Aid: Joyce Anderson
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: nondenominational Scores: 75% SAT V 400+; 63% SAT M 400+; 38% ACT 18-23; 16% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Not available Faculty: FT 6, PT 7 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 81 Library Holdings: 29,431 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AABC

BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY

1910 University Dr.
Boise, ID 83725-0399
Tel: (208)426-1011
Free: 800-824-7017
Admissions: (208)426-1177
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.boisestate.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Robert Kustra
Registrar: Tim Ebner
Admissions: Barbara Fortin
Financial Aid: David Tolman
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Idaho System of Higher Education Scores: 94% SAT V 400+; 94% SAT M 400+; 48% ACT 18-23; 26% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 90 Application Deadline: July 12 Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. State resident tuition: $2568 full-time, $138 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9976 full-time, $138 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1304 full-time, $57 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load. College room and board: $5566. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 10,840, PT 6,085, Grad 1,661 Faculty: FT 578, PT 549 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 49 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 8 Library Holdings: 675,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 128 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACCE, ACA, ACF, ADA, AHIMA, CARC, CSWE, JRCEDMS, JRCERT, JRCEPAT, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NAST, NCATE, NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Gymnastics W; Skiing (Downhill) W; Soccer W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY -IDAHO

Rexburg, ID 83460-1650
Tel: (208)496-2011
Admissions: (208)496-1026
Fax: (208)496-1220
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.byui.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David Bednar
Registrar: Kevin Miyasaki
Admissions: Gordon Westenskow
Financial Aid: Dan Gulbransen
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Scores: 49.4% ACT 18-23; 41.4% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Student-Faculty Ratio: 25:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 20 Library Holdings: 134,423 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, FIDER, NASM, NLN, NCCU

COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN IDAHO

PO Box 1238
Twin Falls, ID 83303-1238
Tel: (208)733-9554
Admissions: (208)732-6232
Fax: (208)736-3014
Web Site: http://www.csi.edu/
President/CEO: Gerald R. Meyerhoeffer
Registrar: Dr. John S. Martin
Admissions: Dr. John S. Martin
Financial Aid: Colin Randolph
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: State resident tuition: $1900 full-time, $95 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5300 full-time, $265 per credit part-time. College room and board: $3870. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,175, PT 3,930 Faculty: FT 160, PT 45 Student-Faculty Ratio: 26:1 Exams: ACT, Other % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 10 Library Holdings: 62,556 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M & W; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Volleyball M & W

EASTERN IDAHO TECHNICAL COLLEGE

1600 South 25th East
Idaho Falls, ID 83404-5788
Tel: (208)524-3000
Free: 800-662-0261
Fax: (208)524-3007
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.eitc.edu/
President/CEO: William A. Robertson
Registrar: Suzanne Robison
Admissions: Dr. Steve Albiston
Financial Aid: Tony Siebers
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 42 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 21 Application Fee: $10.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $10. State resident tuition: $1578 full-time, $79 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5784 full-time, $158 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $124 full-time, $15 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 229, PT 526 Faculty: FT 41, PT 70 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Library Holdings: 18,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, AAMAE, NCCU

IDAHO STATE UNIVERSITY

921 South 8th Ave.
Pocatello, ID 83209
Tel: (208)282-0211
Admissions: (208)282-2578
Web Site: http://www.isu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard Bowen
Registrar: Nathan Peterson
Admissions: Alan Frantz, PhD
Financial Aid: Douglas Severs
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 88% SAT V 400+; 92% SAT M 400+; 53% ACT 18-23; 22% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 77 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. One-time mandatory fee: $660. Nonresident tuition: $7700 full-time. Mandatory fees: $4000 full-time. College room and board: $5030. College room only: $2100. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,745, PT 3,907, Grad 2,078 Faculty: FT 651, PT 257 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: ACT, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 71 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 4 Library Holdings: 712,041 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credits, Associates; 128 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AACN, AAMAE, ACPhE, ACA, ACF, ADA, ADtA, AHIMA, AOTA, APTA, APA, ASLHA, CEPH, CSWE, NAACLS, NASM, NCATE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

12302 West Explorer Dr.
Boise, ID 83713
Tel: (208)322-8844
Fax: (208)322-0173
Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/
President/CEO: Jennifer Kandler
Admissions: Jennifer Kandler
Financial Aid: Larry Hallam
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: ITT Educational Services, Inc Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $100.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $100. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Exams: Other Credit Hours For Degree: 96 credit hours, Associates; 180 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACICS

LEWIS-CLARK STATE COLLEGE

500 Eighth Ave.
Lewiston, ID 83501-2698
Tel: (208)792-5272
Free: 800-933-LCSC
Admissions: (208)792-2210
Fax: (208)799-2063
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.lcsc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Dene K. Thomas
Registrar: Diane Johnson
Admissions: Steve Bussolini
Financial Aid: Laura Hughes
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 84% SAT V 400+; 87% SAT M 400+; 54% ACT 18-23; 15% ACT 24-29 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Area resident tuition: $185 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $3714 full-time, $185 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,266 full-time. Mandatory fees: $11 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition varies according to course load and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $4500. College room only: $1900. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,281, PT 1,170 Faculty: FT 158, PT 71 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: Other, SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 70 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 8 Library Holdings: 139,499 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates; 128 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACN, CSWE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

NEW SAINT ANDREWS COLLEGE

PO Box 9025
Moscow, ID 83843
Tel: (208)882-1566
Fax: (208)882-4293
Web Site: http://www.nsa.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Roy Alden Atwood
Registrar: Beverlee Atwood
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Calendar System: Miscellaneous Professional Accreditation: TACCS

NORTH IDAHO COLLEGE

1000 West Garden Ave.
Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814-2199
Tel: (208)769-3300; 877-404-4536
Admissions: (208)769-3303
Fax: (208)769-3273
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nic.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Michael Burke
Registrar: Richard Bevans
Admissions: Maxine Gish
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 59 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 20 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Area resident tuition: $1068 full-time, $67 per credit part-time. State resident tuition: $2068 full-time, $129 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $5620 full-time, $351 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $820 full-time, $60 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, program, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $5010. College room only: $3210. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,492, PT 1,607 Faculty: FT 155, PT 142 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Library Holdings: 60,893 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: NLN, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

NORTHWEST NAZARENE UNIVERSITY

623 Holly St.
Nampa, ID 83686-5897
Tel: (208)467-8011; 877-668-4968
Admissions: (208)467-8000
Fax: (208)467-8645
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nnu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard A. Hagood
Registrar: Merilyn Thompson
Admissions: Stacey Berggren
Financial Aid: Randy Dalzell
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Church of the Nazarene Scores: 51% ACT 18-23; 31% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 52 Admission Plans: Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 08 Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $23,780 includes full-time tuition ($18,430), mandatory fees ($340), and college room and board ($5010). Part-time tuition: $798 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,073, PT 91, Grad 461 Faculty: FT 95, PT 5 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 72 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 70 Library Holdings: 100,966 Credit Hours For Degree: 124 semester credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACN, ACA, ACBSP, CSWE, NASM, NCATE, NCCU Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Soccer W; Softball W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO

875 Perimeter Dr., PO Box 442282
Moscow, ID 83844-2282
Tel: (208)885-6111; 888-884-3246
Admissions: (208)885-6326
Fax: (208)885-6911
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uidaho.edu/
President/CEO: Gary Michael
Registrar: Reta W. Pikowsky
Admissions: Dan Davenport
Financial Aid: Dr. Daniel Davenport
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 97% SAT V 400+; 95.8% SAT M 400+; 46.34% ACT 18-23; 35.36% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 82 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 01 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $0 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $8770 full-time, $130 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3968 full-time, $190 per credit part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level and program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and program. College room and board: $5342. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 8,380, PT 1,123, Grad 2,657 Faculty: FT 564, PT 22 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 59 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 55 Library Holdings: 1,355,911 Credit Hours For Degree: 128 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Navy, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAFCS, ABA, ACA, ADtA, ASLA, AALS, CORE, NASAD, NASM, NCATE, NRPA, NCCU, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M; Riflery M & W; Rugby M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-IDAHO CAMPUS

3080 Gentry Way, Ste. 150
Meridian, ID 83642-3014
Tel: (208)888-1505
Free: 800-228-7240
Admissions: (480)557-1712
Fax: (208)888-4775
Web Site: http://www.phoenix.edu/
President/CEO: Julie Johnson
Admissions: Nina Omelchanko
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $110.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $110. Tuition: $9900 full-time, $330 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $560 full-time, $70 per course part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 656, Grad 111 Faculty: FT 2, PT 114 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Regional Accreditation: North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

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Idaho

Idaho

ALBERTSON COLLEGE OF IDAHO

Accounting, B

Anthropology, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Creative Writing, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

History, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Economics, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Mathematics, B

Music, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

APOLLO COLLEGE

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Medical Office Management/Administration, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

BOISE BIBLE COLLEGE

Bible/Biblical Studies, AB

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), AB

Modern Greek Language and Literature, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, AB

Religion/Religious Studies, AB

Religious Education, AB

Religious/Sacred Music, AB

BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Advertising, B

Anthropology, B

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Bilingual and Multilingual Education, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Machine Repairer, A

Business Teacher Education, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, A

Civil Engineering, BM

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Comparative Literature, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, M

Computer Science, BM

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Criminology, M

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Curriculum and Instruction, MD

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, B

Education, BMD

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Electrical Engineering, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Health, B

Environmental Policy and Resource Management, M

Environmental Studies, B

Ethnic and Cultural Studies, B

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

French Language and Literature, B

Geology/Earth Science, BM

Geophysics and Seismology, BMD

Geosciences, M

German Language and Literature, B

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, BM

Horticultural Science, A

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, AB

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, BM

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Materials Engineering, M

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Mechanical Engineering, M

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, BM

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, AB

Operations Management and Supervision, B

Perfusion Technology/Perfusionist, A

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physician Assistant, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Engineering, A

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, BM

Public Health, M

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Public Policy Analysis, M

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, AB

Reading Teacher Education, BM

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, BM

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, BM

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

Technical and Business Writing, B

Technical Communication, M

Welding Technology/Welder, A

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY -IDAHO

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Advertising, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agricultural Economics, A

Agriculture, A

Agronomy and Crop Science, A

Animal Sciences, A

Apparel and Textiles, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Army JROTC/ROTC, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Botany/Plant Biology, A

Broadcast Journalism, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemical Engineering, A

Chemistry, A

Child Development, A

Chinese Language and Literature, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communication Disorders, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Dairy Science, A

Dance, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drafting/Design Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Ecology, A

Economics, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, A

Engineering Technology, A

English Language and Literature, A

Family and Community Services, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, A

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, A

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Fashion/Apparel Design, A

Finance, A

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, A

Forestry, A

French Language and Literature, A

Geography, A

Geology/Earth Science, A

German Language and Literature, A

History, A

Horticultural Science, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, A

Industrial Design, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Interior Design, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Landscape Architecture, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Mathematics, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Metallurgical Technology/Technician, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, A

Ornamental Horticulture, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Photography, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Sciences, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Physics, A

Piano and Organ, A

Plastics Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Psychology, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

Radio and Television, A

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Range Science and Management, A

Russian Language and Literature, A

Social Work, A

Sociology, A

Spanish Language and Literature, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Technology Education/Industrial Arts, A

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

Zoology/Animal Biology, A

COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN IDAHO

Accounting, A

Agricultural Business and Management, A

Agriculture, A

Anthropology, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Botany/Plant Biology, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Commerce, A

Cabinetmaking and Millwork/Millwright, A

Chemistry, A

Child Development, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Dental Assisting/Assistant, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Environmental Studies, A

Equestrian/Equine Studies, A

Finance, A

Foreign Languages and Literatures, A

Forestry, A

Geography, A

Geology/Earth Science, A

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Library Science, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Music, A

Natural Sciences, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, A

Photography, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Physician Assistant, A

Physics, A

Political Science and Government, A

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, A

Psychology, A

Public Health Education and Promotion, A

Range Science and Management, A

Real Estate, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Sociology, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Woodworking, A

Zoology/Animal Biology, A

EASTERN IDAHO TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Prepress/Desktop Publishing and Digital Imaging Design, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

IDAHO STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Aircraft Powerplant Technology/Technician, A

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, MDO

American Indian/Native American Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, A

American Sign Language (ASL), A

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anthropology, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, AB

Audiology/Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathology/Pathologist, B

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, AB

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business Machine Repairer, A

Business/Commerce, AB

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, ABM

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Civil Engineering, BM

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Microbiology, M

Clinical Psychology, D

Communication Disorders, MD

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, AB

Communications Systems Installation and Repair Technology, A

Community Health and Preventive Medicine, O

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Counseling Psychology, O

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Dance, M

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, BM

Dental Laboratory Technology/Technician, A

Dentistry, O

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drafting/Design Engineering Technologies/Technicians, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Ecology, B

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MO

Educational Leadership and Administration, DO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, A

Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering Technology, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MDO

English, MD

English Language and Literature, AB

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, M

Environmental Sciences, M

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Farm/Farm and Ranch Management, AB

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

French Language and Literature, AB

General Studies, AB

Geographic Information Systems, M

Geology/Earth Science, ABMO

Geophysics and Seismology, M

Geosciences, MO

German Language and Literature, AB

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, A

Hazardous Materials Management and Waste Technology/Technician, M

Health Education, M

Health Information/Medical Records Technology/Technician, A

Health Services/Allied Health/Health Sciences, B

Health Teacher Education, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, AB

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, M

Industrial Education, M

Information Science/Studies, B

Instrumentation Technology/Technician, A

Interdisciplinary Studies, M

Laser and Optical Technology/Technician, A

Latin Language and Literature, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Management Information Systems and Services, MO

Management of Technology, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, ABMD

Mechanical Engineering, BM

Mechanics, M

Mechanics and Repairers, A

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, AB

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, M

Microbiology, BM

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Nuclear Engineering, MDO

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, O

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, M

Operations Research, M

Oral and Dental Sciences, MO

Pharmaceutical Administration, MDP

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MD

Pharmacognosy, M

Pharmacology, MD

Pharmacy, MDP

Pharmacy Technician/Assistant, A

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BM

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, D

Physician Assistant, M

Physics, ABM

Political Science and Government, ABM

D Psychology, BMD

Public Administration, M

Public Health, M

Reading Teacher Education, M

School Psychology, O

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, AB

Special Education and Teaching, BMO

Speech and Interpersonal Communication, M

Survey Technology/Surveying, B

Theater, M

Vocational and Technical Education, M

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Zoology/Animal Biology, B

ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, B

Business Administration and Management, B

CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician, A

Computer and Information Systems Security, B

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Software Technology/Technician, B

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, A

LEWIS-CLARK STATE COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, AB

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, AB

Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician, AB

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, AB

Behavioral Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, AB

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Computer Science, B

Corrections, B

Creative Writing, B

Diesel Mechanics Technology/Technician, AB

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, AB

Electrical/Electronics Equipment Installation and Repair, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Fire Science/Firefighting, AB

Graphic and Printing Equipment Operator Production, AB

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, AB

Hospitality Administration/Management, AB

Industrial Electronics Technology/Technician, AB

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, AB

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Manufacturing Technology/Technician, AB

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Mechanics and Repairers, AB

Medical Office Assistant/Specialist, AB

Medical/Health Management and Clinical Assistant/Specialist, AB

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Natural Sciences, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Psychology, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, A

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Small Business Administration/Management, AB

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster, AB

Welding Technology/Welder, AB

NORTH IDAHO COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Agriculture, A

American Indian/Native American Studies, A

Anthropology, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Astronomy, A

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Botany/Plant Biology, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business Teacher Education, A

Carpentry/Carpenter, A

Chemistry, A

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Education, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Elementary Education and Teaching, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Environmental Health, A

Forestry, A

French Language and Literature, A

Geology/Earth Science, A

German Language and Literature, A

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, A

Heating, Air Conditioning, Ventilation and Refrigeration Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Heavy Equipment Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

History, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Journalism, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse Training, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marine Technology, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Mathematics, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, A

Music Teacher Education, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Sciences, A

Physics, A

Political Science and Government, A

Psychology, A

Social Sciences, A

Sociology, A

Spanish Language and Literature, A

Welding Technology/Welder, A

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, A

Wildlife Biology, A

Zoology/Animal Biology, A

NORTHWEST NAZARENE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer Science, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Divinity/Ministry (BD, MDiv.), B

Education, M

Educational Leadership and Administration, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

Engineering Physics, B

English Language and Literature, B

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Finance, B

Forensic Science and Technology, B

Graphic Design, B

Health and Physical Education, B

History, B

History Teacher Education, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Missions/Missionary Studies and Missiology, B

Music, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Theory and Composition, B

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Painting, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Pastoral Studies/Counseling, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Radio and Television Broadcasting Technology/Technician, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Religion/Religious Studies, BM

Religious Education, B

Religious/Sacred Music, B

Sculpture, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Spanish Language Teacher Education, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

Theology/Theological Studies, B

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO

Accounting, BM

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, B

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, MDO

Agricultural Business and Management, B

Agricultural Economics, BM

Agricultural Education, M

Agricultural Engineering, MD

Agricultural Mechanization, B

Agricultural Sciences, M

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agricultural/Biological Engineering and Bioengineering, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Animal Sciences, BMD

Anthropology, BM

Apparel and Textiles, B

Applied Mathematics, B

Architecture, BM

Art Education, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, MD

Bioinformatics, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Botany/Plant Biology, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Education, MD

Business Teacher Education, B

Cartography, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Child Development, B

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computational Biology, MD

Computer Engineering, BM

Computer Science, BMD

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MDO

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Dance, B

Design and Applied Arts, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, MDO

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MDO

English, M

English as a Second Language, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, BMD

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MDO

Environmental Sciences, M

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Film, Television, and Video Production, M

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Fish, Game and Wildlife Management, MD

Food Science, B

Food Science and Technology, M

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

Forestry, BMD

French Language and Literature, BM

General Studies, B

Geography, BMD

Geological Engineering, M

Geological/Geophysical Engineering, B

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geophysics and Seismology, M

German Language and Literature, B

Hazardous Materials Management and Waste Technology/Technician, M

History, BMD

Home Economics, M

Horticultural Science, BMD

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, M

Industrial Education, MD

Industrial Engineering, B

Industrial Technology/Technician, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, M

Interior Architecture, B

Interior Design, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, B

Landscape Architecture, BM

Latin American Studies, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Law and Legal Studies, P

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Materials Engineering, MD

Materials Sciences, MD

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Metallurgical Engineering, BMD

Metallurgy, MD

Microbiology, MD

Military Technologies, B

Mineral/Mining Engineering, MD

Mining and Mineral Engineering, B

Molecular Biology, BMD

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, M

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, B

Music Theory and Composition, B

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, BMD

Nuclear Engineering, MD

Operations Management and Supervision, B

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Philosophy, B

Photography, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMD

Physics, BMD

Plant Sciences, BMD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, BM

Public Administration, M

Public Affairs, MD

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Radio and Television, B

Range Science and Management, BMD

Recreation and Park Management, MD

Rural Sociology, M

School Psychology, DO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Sciences, MD

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Sociology, B

Soil Science and Agronomy, B

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Special Education and Teaching, BM

Statistics, M

Systems Engineering, M

Technical Teacher Education, B

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Theater, M

Trade and Industrial Teacher Education, B

Veterinary Sciences, MD

Vocational and Technical Education, MDO

Voice and Opera, B

Wildlife and Wildlands Science and Management, B

Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology, B

Writing, M

Zoology/Animal Biology, B

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX-IDAHO CAMPUS

Accounting, BM

Business Administration, Management and Operations, BM

Computer and Information Sciences, B

E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Management of Technology, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

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Idaho

IDAHO

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Dr. Dave Dean, Professional Development Coordinator
Idaho Division of Professional-Technical Education
P.O. Box 83720
650 W. State St., Rm. 324
Boise, ID 83720-0095
(208)334-3216

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

Through laws enacted by the Legislature of Idaho, private schools are required to be registered. Any person operating within or without the State of Idaho who sells or distributes any course or courses, shall register and hold a valid certificate of compliance issued by the State Board of Education. The certificate of compliance expires the 30th day of June each year. The registration is not to be considered as an approval by the State Board of Education of the registrant or of any courses offered.
The Legislature specifically prohibits the registrant or the agent of the registrant from making any statement to the effect that the school has been approved by the State Board of Education or any statement that implies such an approval has been granted.
Before a permit is issued, the applicant is required to post with the Board of Education a penal bond in the sum of $10,000. Whenever it appears to the State Board of Educatin that a registrant has knowingly made any misrepresentation in selling, distributing, or publicizing any course, the State Board of Education may suspend or revoke the certificate of compliance.
It is to be noted that Idaho's law requires registration only, and no attempt is made to accredit or approve such schools.

BLACKFOOT

SAGE Technical Services (Blackfoot)

80 Doud St., Blackfoot, ID 83221. Trade and Technical.(866)270-7243, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com; Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com/sage-contact_sage.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,925-$4,035. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Heavy Equipment (150 Hr); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (150 Hr)

BOISE

Academy of Professional Careers

8590 W. Fairview Ave., Boise, ID 83704. Trade and Technical. Contact: Gary Yasuda, President, (208)672-9500, 888-207-9460, Web Site: http://www.apcschool.edu; Web Site: http://www.apcschool.edu/contact.asp. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $10,387. Enrollment: Total 425. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Dental Assisting (720 Hr); Holistic Health; Legal Administration (720 Hr); Massage Therapy (730 Hr); Medical Receptionist (720 Hr); Pharmacy Technician (720 Hr)

Apollo College

1200 N. Liberty St., Boise, ID 83704. Allied Medical. Founded 1976. Contact: Judy Groothuis, (208)377-8080, 877-520-3061, Fax: (208)322-7658, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.aiht.com; Web Site: http://www.aiht.com/contact.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $7,695-$35,000 (includes, books and uniform costs). Tuition costs quoted covers course term in entirety. Enrollment: Total 500. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ABHES; ADA; AOTA; CAAHEP; JRCERT; AMTA; CARC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dental Assisting (30 Wk); Dental Hygiene (5 Sm); Medical Assistant (30 Wk); Medical Office Management (2 Yr); Medical Transcription (30 Wk); Occupational Therapy Assistant (5 Sm); Pharmacy Technician (30 Wk); Physical Therapy Aide (30 Wk); Secretarial, Medical (30 Wk)

Bcri Career Training

1951 S. Saturn Way, No. 120, Boise, ID 83709. Trade and Technical. Contact: Leanne Hobbs, Corporate compliance, (208)322-8517, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cri.org; Web Site: http://www.cri.org/contact%20sheet.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $28,480. Enrollment: Total 7. Degrees awarded: Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Computer Literacy (900 Hr); Court Reporting

Boise Bible College

8695 W. Marigold St., Boise, ID 83714. Other. Founded 1945. Contact: Charles Faber, Academic Dean, (208)376-7731, 800-893-7755, Fax: (208)376-7743, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.boisebible.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $3,200 per semester. Enrollment: Total 136. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: ABHE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Bible Study (2-4 Yr); Christian Service (2-4 Yr); Minister (2-4 Yr); Music (2-4 Yr)

Boise State University (Selland College of Applied Technology)

1910 University Dr., Boise, ID 83725. Trade and Technical. Founded 1932. Contact: Dir. Larry Barnhardt, Dean, (208)426-1431, 800-824-7017, Fax: (208)426-3155, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://selland.boisestate.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 321, women 252. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU; ABET; ACCE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (1-2 Yr); Auto Body Design (1-2 Yr); Automotive Technology (1-2 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Business Technology (1-2 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (1-2 Yr); Computer Networking (1-2 Yr); Computer Servicing - Theory & Systems (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (1-2 Yr); Dental Assisting (1-2 Yr); Diesel Technology (1-2 Yr); Drafting Technology (1-2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Horticulture (1-2 Yr); Industrial Maintenance (1 Yr); Machine Tool Programming Technology (1-2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Mechanical Technology (2 Yr); Mechanics, Heavy Equipment (1-2 Yr); Metal Trades Technology (1 Yr); Nursing, Practical (1 Yr); Power Lineman (1 Yr); Recreational Vehicle Repair (1-2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Small Engine Repair (1-2 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr); Truck Driving (15 Wk); Welding Technology (2 Yr)

Headmasters School of Hair Design-Boise

5823 W. Franklin Rd., Boise, ID 83709. Cosmetology, Trade and Technical. Contact: Rene Homco, (208)429-8070, Web Site: http://www.headmastersschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $10,250. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available.

ITT Technical Institute

12302 W. Explorer Dr., Boise, ID 83713-1529. Trade and Technical. Founded 1906. Contact: Terry Lowder, Dir. of Recruitment, (208)322-8844, 800-666-4888, Fax: (208)322-0173, Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu; Web Site: http://www.itt-tech.edu/contact/form.cfm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $14,196 per year. Enrollment: Total 508. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration (96 Credits); Computer Aided Drafting & Design (96 Credits); Computer Networking (96 Credits); Computer Programming, Games (96 Credits); Criminal Justice (96 Credits); Data Processing - Programming Operations (96 Credits); Electrical Engineering Technology (96 Credits); Electronics & Communication (96 Credits); Information Systems (96 Credits); Multimedia Design (96 Credits); Software Development/Engineering (96 Credits); Web Development (96 Credits)

Scot Lewis Schools-Paul Mitchell Partner School

1270 S.Vinnell Way, Boise, ID 83709. Cosmetology. Contact: Louis Starita IV, Manager, (208)375-0190, Fax: (208)375-7723, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.scotlewisschools.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $12,015. Enrollment: Total 128. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Nail Technology

Shadow Mountain Business Careers

11911 Ustick Rd., Boise, ID 83713. Business. Founded 1982. Contact: Verda or Robert Newell, (208)323-0358, (208)375-5802, Fax: (208)375-5802, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.shadmtn.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $315 per month full-time; $220 per month half-time. Enrollment: Total 46. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Bookkeeping; Business Automation; Legal Assistant; Paralegal; Receptionist; Secretarial, General; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical

CALDWELL

SAGE Technical Services (Caldwell)

418 S. Kit Ave., Caldwell, ID 83606. Trade and Technical.800-858-6304, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com; Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com/sage-contact_sage.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,925-$4,035. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Heavy Equipment (150 Hr); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (150 Hr)

COEUR D'ALENE

Headmasters School of Hair Design (Coeur d'Alene)

317 Coeur d'Alene Ave., Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814. Two-Year College, Cosmetology. Contact: Debra Ludwig, (208)664-0541, Web Site: http://www.headmastersschool.com. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $10,800. Enrollment: Total 17. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1000 Hr); Nail Technology (450 Hr)

North Idaho College

1000 W. Garden Ave., Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814. Two-Year College. Founded 1933. Contact: Maxine Gish, Admissions Dir., (208)769-3300, (208)769-3313, 877-404-4536, Fax: (208)769-3399, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nic.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $944/semester (in-state); $3,126/semester (out-of-state); tech program: $2,568-$5,096 in state; $6,940-$11,355 out-of-st. Enrollment: Total 4,519. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NLNAC; NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (32 Wk); Auto Body & Fender Repair (36 Wk); Auto Mechanics (40 Wk); Carpentry (36 Wk); Computer Science (64 Wk); Culinary Arts (36 Wk); Diesel Technology (40 Wk); Drafting Technology (64 Wk); Electronics, Industrial (64 Wk); Human Services (64 Wk); Law Enforcement (64 Wk); Machine Technology (64 Wk); Millwright (40 Wk); Nursing, Practical (40 Wk); Office, General (32 Wk); Pharmacy Technician (42 Wk)

SAGE Technical Services (Coeur d'Alene)

2845 W. Seltice Way, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814. Trade and Technical.800-400-0779, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com; Web Site: http://www.sageschools.com/sagecontact_sage.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,925-$4,035. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Heavy Equipment (150 Hr); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (150 Hr)

IDAHO FALLS

Eastern Idaho Technical College

1600 S. 25th E., Idaho Falls, ID 83404. Trade and Technical. Founded 1970. Contact: Todd Wightman, Dir. College Relations, (208)524-3000, 800-662-0261, Fax: (208)525-7026, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.eitc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $76 per credit, resident; $152 per credit, non resident. Enrollment: Total 800. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Dental Assisting (1 Yr); Environmental Technology (2 Yr); Hazardous Waste Technology (2 Yr); Landscaping (2 Yr); Marketing Management (2 Yr); Mechanics, Diesel (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Nursing, Practical (2 Yr); Office Technology (2 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Technician, Electronic Service (2 Yr); Web Development (2 Yr); Welding, Arc & Gas (2 Yr)

Vogue Beauty College

247 Cliff St., Idaho Falls, ID 83402. Cosmetology. Founded 1959. Contact: Carolyn Groesbeck, (208)523-2520, Fax: (208)524-1808, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Year. Tuition: $3,000. Enrollment: Total 25. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1 Yr); Cosmetology Instructor (3 Mo); Manicurist (3 Mo)

LEWISTON

Headmasters School of Hair Design, Lewiston

602 Main St., Lewiston, ID 83501. Cosmetology, Trade and Technical. Founded 1981. Contact: Peggy Foster, Owner, (208)743-1512, Fax: (208)743-9014, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://headmastersschoolhairdesign.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,000 Cosmetology; $2,520 Cosmetology Instructor Training. Enrollment: men 3, women 42. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (1000 Hr)

Lewis-Clark State College Professional - Technical Programs

500 8th Ave., Lewiston, ID 83501-2698. Two-Year College. Founded 1893. Contact: Dene Kay Thomas, (208)792-2225, (208)792-5272, 800-933-5272, Fax: (208)792-2174, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.lcsc.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,857 semester (resident); $5,133 semester (non-resident). Enrollment: Total 3,500. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (1 and 2 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (1 and 2 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 and 2 Yr); Bookkeeping (2 Yr); Business Management (2 Yr); Communications, Electronic (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Diesel Technology (1 and 2 Yr); Electronics, Digital (1 and 2 Yr); Electronics Technology (1 and 2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Graphic Arts (1 and 2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (1 and 2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (1 and 2 Yr); Mechanics, Basic (1 and 2 Yr); Medical Office Management (1 and 2 Yr); Office Technology (1 and 2 Yr); Paralegal (3 Yr); Printing Technology (1 and 2 Yr); Retail Management (1 Yr); Secretarial, Legal (1 and 2 Yr); Web Development (1 and 2 Yr); Welding Technology (1 and 2 Yr)

Mr. Leon's School of Hair Design (Lewiston)

205 10th St., Lewiston, ID 83501. Contact: Lisa Salisbury, Owner, (208)882-2923. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $7,105.

MERIDIAN

Dee Dee's Meridian School of Beauty

834 E. 2nd St., Meridian, ID 83642. Cosmetology. Founded 1980. Contact: Denise M. Gober, (208)888-5202, Fax: (208)888-4509. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $6,500 (cosmetology), $3,000 (skin care). Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist (450 Hr); Skin Care (600 Hr)

MOSCOW

Moscow School of Massage

600 S. Main St., Moscow, ID 83843-3040. Trade and Technical. Founded 1994. Contact: Lisa O'Leary, (208)882-7867, 800-941-1215, Fax: (208)883-1834, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.moscowschoolofmassage.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $6,900. Enrollment: Total 24. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: AMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (750 Hr)

Mr. Leon's School of Hair Design (Moscow)

618 South St., Moscow, ID 83843. Cosmetology. Founded 1962. Contact: Lisa Cover Salisbury, (208)882-2923, (208)743-6822, Fax: (208)883-5353, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $8,000. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1 Yr); Cosmetology Instructor (6 Mo); Nail Technology (10 Wk)

NAMPA

Razzle Dazzle College of Hair Design, Inc.

214 Holly St., Nampa, ID 83686. Cosmetology. Founded 1985. Contact: Jennifer Jackson, (208)463-0640, (208)465-7660, Fax: (208)463-0643, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.razzledazzlecollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $6,350 cosmetology; $1,625 nail technology. Enrollment: men 3, women 55. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (1000 Hr); Manicurist (400 Hr); Massage Therapy (600 Hr)

POCATELLO

ELS Language Centers

Idaho State University, Campus Box 8084, Pocatello, ID 83209. Other. Founded 1961. Contact: Dan Plaut, Center Dir., (208)282-5201, Fax: (208)282-5202, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.els.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Month. Tuition: $1,395 intensive; $1,045 semi-intensive. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: English As A Second Language (3-4 Wk)

Idaho State University

921 South 8th Ave., Pocatello, ID 83209. Other. Founded 1901. Contact: Robert A. Wharton, V.P. Academic Affairs, (208)282-0211, (208)282-2362, Fax: (208)282-4487, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.isu.edu; Web Site: http://www.isu.edu/feedback.shtml. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,000/semester full-time resident; $5,850/semester out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 13,802. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NCAHLC; ADA; AOTA; CAPTE; APA; ASHA; CCNE; CEPH; NASM; NCATE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Agricultural Science; Agriculture - Production; Aircraft Mechanics; Art; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Auto Parts Trade; Business Administration; Business Education; Business Machine Repair; Business Management; Civil Engineering Technology; Computer Science Terminal Operation; Cosmetology; Data Processing; Dental Hygiene; Drafting & Design Technology; Drafting, Electro-Mechanical; Electrical Technology; Electronics Technology; Finance; Food Preparation & Service; Graphic Arts; Law Enforcement; Machine Shop; Marketing; Mechanics, Diesel; Merchandising; Music; Nursing, Practical; Nursing, R.N.; Radiologic Technology; Secretarial, General; Upholstering; Welding Technology

School of Hairstyling

141 E. Chubbuck Rd., Pocatello, ID 83202. Cosmetology. Founded 1972. Contact: L. Mottishaw, (208)232-9170, Fax: (208)232-9486, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $7,250. Enrollment: women 58. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (15 Mo); Cosmetology Instructor (8 Mo); Manicurist (4 Mo)

PONDERAY

Sandpoint School of Hair Design

300 Bonner Mall Way, No. 36, Ponderay, ID 83852. Cosmetology. Founded 1948. Contact: Linda Pagel, (208)263-6874, Fax: (208)263-8305. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $335 per month. Enrollment: Total 15. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Cosmetology Instructor (1000 Hr); Manicurist (500 Hr)

REXBURG

Aero Technicians, Inc.

151 N. 1st E, Rexburg, ID 83440-1502. Flight and Ground. Founded 1973. Contact: E.C. or Lewis W. Hart, (208)356-4446, Fax: (208)359-2123. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 11, women 3. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCET; FAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Advanced Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Basic Ground; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Glider Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Helicopter Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane; Aircraft Mechanics (12 Mo); Airframe Mechanics (6 Mo); Avionics (15 Mo); Power Plant Mechanics (6 Mo)

Brigham Young University - Idaho

525 South Center St., Rexburg, ID 83460. Other. Founded 1888. Contact: Scott J. Bergstrom, Dir., Institutional Research, (208)496-2411, (208)496-1136, Fax: (208)496-1185, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.byui.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Full time: $1,320/semester LDS members; $1,980/semester non-members; 1-11 credits: $110/credit member; $165/credit non m. Enrollment: men 3,890, women 5,310. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; NASM; NLNAC; NWCCU. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (4 Yr); Agribusiness (2 Yr); Agriculture - Production (2 Yr); Animal Science - Livestock Production (2 Yr); Art, Advertising - Commercial (4 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (4 Yr); Business Management (4 Yr); Child Care & Guidance (2 Yr); Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Manufacturing (2 Yr); Computer Science (2-4 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Construction Management (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Culinary Arts (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Farm Management Technology (2 Yr); Fine Arts (4 Yr); Floristry (2 Yr); Geology (4 Yr); Graphic Design (4 Yr); Health Technology (4 Yr); Home Economics (4 Yr); Horticulture (4 Yr); Information Systems (4 Yr); Interior Design (4 Yr); Journalism (4 Yr); Landscaping (2 Yr); Livestock Management (2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Mathematics (4 Yr); Mechanical Engineering (2 Yr); Media Technology (4 Yr); Music (4 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (4 Yr); Paramedic (2 Yr); Photography (2 Yr); Physical Education (2 Yr); Public Relations (4 Yr); Theatre Arts (2 Yr); Theatre, Technical (2 Yr); Veterinary Technology (2 Yr); Welding Technology (2 Yr); Wild Life Management (2 Yr)

Career Beauty College

57 College Ave., Rexburg, ID 83440-1964. Cosmetology, Trade and Technical. Contact: Grant D. Gardner, Owner-administrator, (208)356-0222, 800-747-0340, Fax: (208)356-0486, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://careerbeautycollege.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $6,500. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr); Manicurist

TWIN FALLS

B and T Truck Driving

1300 Kimberly Rd., No. 15, Twin Falls, ID 83301. Trade and Technical. Founded 1996. Contact: Robert Esterholdt, Owner/Instructor, (208)737-4649, Fax: (208)736-4512, Web Site: http://www.bandttruckdrivingschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $3,050 (6-week course); $2,750-5 week; $2,550-4 week. Enrollment: men 6, women 2. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Truck Driving (4-6 Wk)

College of Southern Idaho

315 Falls Ave, PO Box 1238, Twin Falls, ID 83303. Two-Year College. Founded 1965. Contact: Carol L. Carlile, Admissions, (208)732-6237, (208)732-6221, 800-680-0274, Fax: (208)736-3015, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.csi.edu.Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1900/yr; $5,300 out-of-state/yr. Enrollment: Total 7,105. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NWCCU; JRCERT; NLNAC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agribusiness (2 Yr); Agriculture, General (2 Yr); Art (2 Yr); Business Education (2 Yr); Drafting & Design Technology (2 Yr); Drama - Theatre (2 Yr); Home Economics (2 Yr); Library Technology (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Nursing, Vocational (2 Yr); Office Administration (2 Yr); Secretarial, General (2 Yr)

Mr. Juan's College of Hair Design

586 Blue Lakes Blvd. N, Twin Falls, ID 83301-4033. Cosmetology. Founded 1965. Contact: E.B. Scholes, Jr., (208)733-7777, 800-834-7720, Fax: (208)735-1855, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,380. Enrollment: Total 45. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (2000 Hr)

Tech College Division

College of Southern Idaho, PO Box 1238, Twin Falls, ID 83303-1238. Two-Year College. Founded 1965. Contact: Dr. L. Devere Burton, (208)732-6280, Fax: (208)736-4785, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $765 per semester. Enrollment: men 464, women 697. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: AAMAE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agricultural Science (9-18 Mo); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (11-20 Mo); Allied Health Occupations; Auto Body & Fender Repair (11-20 Mo); Automotive Technology (9-24 Mo); Cabinet & Mill Work (11-20 Mo); Culinary Arts (9-18 Mo); Dental Assisting (11-18 Mo); Diesel Technology (11-20 Mo); Drafting Technology (11-20 Mo); Early Childhood Education (9-18 Mo); Electronics Technology (11 Mo); Emergency Medical Technology (2-9 Mo); Farm Management Technology (12-36 Mo); Fire Science (18 Mo); Health Aide (11 Mo); Horse Management (9-18 Mo); Horticulture (9-18 Mo); Human Services (18 Mo); Information Sciences Technology (9-18 Mo); Laboratory Assistant, Certified (9 Mo); Law Enforcement (11-20 Mo); Marketing Management (9-18 Mo); Medical Assistant (10 Mo); Nursing, Practical (11 Mo); Paramedic (11 Mo); Radiologic Technology (24 Mo); Surgical Technology (11-18 Mo); Teacher Assistant (12-18/24 M); Veterinary Technology (20 Mo); Water & Waste Water Pollution Technology (11-20 Mo); Welding Technology (11-20 Mo); Word Processing

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Idaho

Idaho

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Idahoans

40 Bibliography

State of Idaho

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Apparently coined by a lobbyist-politician, George M. Willing, who claimed the word came from an Indian term meaning “gem of the mountains.”

NICKNAME : The Gem State.

CAPITAL: Boise.

ENTERED UNION: 3 July 1890 (43rd).

OFFICIAL SEAL: With cornucopias at their feet, a female figure (holding the scales of justice in one hand and a pike supporting a liberty cap in the other) and a miner (with pick and shovel) stand on either side of a shield depicting mountains, rivers, forests, and a farm; the shield rests on a sheaf of grain and is surmounted by the head of a stag above whose antlers is a scroll with the state motto. The words “Great Seal of the State of Idaho” surround the whole.

FLAG: On a blue field with gilt fringe, the state seal appears in the center with the words “State of Idaho” on a red band below.

MOTTO: Esto perpetua (Let it be perpetual).

SONG: “Here We Have Idaho.”

FLOWER: Syringa.

TREE: Western white pine.

HORSE: Appaloosa.

BIRD: Mountain bluebird.

GEM: Star garnet.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. and Idaho Human Rights Day, 3rd Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 5 AM MST = noon GMT; 4 AM PST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Situated in the northwestern United States, Idaho is the smallest of the eight Rocky Mountain states and 13th in size among the 50 states. The total area of Idaho is 83,564 square miles (216,431 square kilometers), of which land comprises 82,412 square miles (213,447 square kilometers), and inland water 1,152 square miles (2,984 square kilometers). With a shape sometimes described as a hatchet, a snub-nosed pistol, or a pork chop, Idaho extends a maximum of 305 miles (491 kilometers) east-west and 479 miles (771 kilometers) north-south. Its total boundary length is 1,787 miles (2,876 kilometers).

2 Topography

Idaho is extremely mountainous. Its northern two-thirds consists of a mountain massif broken only by river and stream valleys and by two prairies: the Big Camas Prairie and the Palouse Country. The Snake River Plain extends east to west across Idaho from Yellowstone National Park to the Boise area. A forested high-mountain area juts out of the southeastern corner of the state, but the rest of Idaho’s southern edge consists mostly of low, dry mountains. More than 40 peaks rise above 10,000 feet (3,000 meters), of which the highest is Mt. Borah, at 12,662 feet (3,862 meters). Idaho’s lowest point is at 710 feet (217 meters) near Lewiston, where the Snake River leaves the Idaho border and enters Washington.

The largest lakes are Pend Oreille, at 180 square miles (466 square kilometers), Coeur d’Alene, Priest, and Bear. The Snake River—one of the longest in the United States, extending 1,038 miles (1,671 kilometers) across Wyoming, Idaho, and Washington—dominates the southern part of the state. The Salmon River, also called the “River of No Return,” is a salmon-spawning stream. The Clearwater, Kootenai, Bear, Boise, and Payette are other major rivers.

There are ice caves near Shoshone and American Falls and a large scenic cave near Montpelier. Near Arco is an expanse of lava, craters, and caves called the Craters of the Moon, another scenic attraction. At Hell’s Canyon in the northernmost part of Adams County, the Snake River cuts the deepest gorge in North America, 7,913 feet (2,412 meters) deep.

Idaho Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:1,466,465
Population change, 2000–0613.3%
Hispanic or Latino†9.1%
Population by race 
One race:98.0%
White:91.8%
Black or African American:0.4%
American Indian /Alaska Native:1.1%
Asian:1.1%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.1%
Some other race:3.5%
Two or more races:2.0%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Boise193,1614.0
Nampa71,71338.3
Pocatello53,3723.7
Idaho Falls52,3383.2
Meridian52,24049.6
Coeur d’Alene40,05916.1
Twin Falls38,63012.1
Caldwell34,43332.6
Lewiston31,0810.6
Rexburg26,26552.2

3 Climate

The four seasons are distinct in Idaho, but do not occur at the same time in all parts of the state. Boise and Lewiston are protected from severe weather by nearby mountains and have earlier springs and later winters than other areas. Eastern Idaho tends to have more extreme temperatures. Mean temperatures in Boise range from 29°f (-2°c) in January to 74°f (23°c) in July. The record low temperature in the state is -60°f (-51°c), set at Island Park Dam on 16 January 1943. The record high, 118°f (48°c), was set at Orofino on 28 July 1934. Humidity is low throughout the state. Precipitation in southern Idaho averages 13 inches (33 centimeters) per year. In the north, annual precipitation is over 30 inches (76 centimeters). The average annual snowfall in Boise is over 20 inches (53 centimeters). Much greater accumulations of snow are experienced in the mountains.

4 Plants and Animals

Idaho has some 3,000 native plants. Evergreens include Douglas fir and western white pine (the

Idaho Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population1,293,953100.0
One race1,268,34498.0
Two races24,2651.9
White andBlack or African American1,7250.1
White andAmerican Indian/Alaska Native8,1120.6
White andAsian3,9290.3
White andNative Hawaiian/Pacific Islander6730.1
White andsome other race8,0940.6
Black or African American andAmerican Indian/Alaska Native158
Black or African American andAsian79
Black or African American andNative Hawaiian/Pacific Islander12
Black or African American andsome other race222
American Indian/Alaska Native andAsian143
American Indian/Alaska Native andNative Hawaiian/Pacific Islander42
American Indian/Alaska Native andsome other race425
Asian andNative Hawaiian/Pacific Islander254
Asian andsome other race320
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander andsome other race77
Three or more races1,3440.1

state tree). Oak/mountain mahogany and ponderosa pine are among the other main forest types. Syringa is the state flower. MacFarlanes four-o’clock, water howellia, Spalding’s catchfly, and Ute ladies-tresses were the state’s four threatened plant species as of April 2006.

Game mammals include the elk, mountain sheep, pronghorn antelope, black bear, moose, mule deer, mountain lion, and white-tailed deer. Pheasant, partridge, quail, and forest grouse are the main game birds. Trout, salmon, and bass are numerous in Idaho’s lakes and streams. Rare animal species include the wolverine, kit fox, and pika. As of April 2006, a total of 17 animal species were listed as threatened or endangered. They include the woodland caribou, whooping crane, three species of salmon, grizzly bear, bald eagle, woodland caribou, gray (timber) wolf, American peregrine falcon, and whooping crane.

5 Environmental Protection

The Department of Health and Welfare’s Division of Environment is responsible for enforcing environmental standards. Air quality improved greatly since 1978, following the passage of federal regulations strengthening the Clean Air Act. Vehicle emissions were responsible for high carbon monoxide levels in the Boise area in the late 1970s and 1980s. Emissions have dropped to the point that no carbon monoxide violations have occurred for several years.

Water quality is generally good. Most of the existing problems stem from runoff from agricultural lands. The state has 386,000 acres of wetlands. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has implemented plans to acquire privately owned wetlands deemed to be in danger.

Since 1953, nuclear waste has been buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory west of Idaho Falls or discharged in liquid form into the underground aquifer. Some isotopes are migrating toward the boundaries of the site. Tailings from a former uranium-ore milling operation near Lowman are a potential health hazard. A top-priority site for hazardous-waste cleanup is Bunker Hill Mining at Smelterville. Two sites in Pocatello are also considered candidates for cleanup. In 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency’s database listed 87 hazardous waste sites in the state, 6 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006.

6 Population

In 2006, Idaho ranked 39th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 1,466,465 residents. The state’s population density was 16.8 persons per square mile (7.33 per square kilometer) in 2004. The population is projected to reach nearly 1.6 million by 2015 and 1.8 million by 2025. In 2004, the median age was 34.3 years. Residents who were 65 years old or older accounted for 11% of the population, while nearly 27% were 18 or younger in 2005. Boise is the largest city. Its estimated population in 2005 was 193,161.

7 Ethnic Groups

According to the 2000 census, there were about 17,645 Native Americans living in Idaho. The largest group in the census year was the Nez Perce, with a reservation located in northern Idaho. There were 5,456 black Americans and 11,889 Asians, including 2,642 Japanese. Persons were of Hispanic or Latino origin accounted for 9.1% of the state’s population in 2006. There was also a very visible Basque community in the Boise area, with an organization devoted to preserving their language and culture. In 2000, the total number of foreign-born residents was 64,080, about 5% of the population.

8 Languages

In Idaho, English is a merger of Northern and North Midland features, with certain Northern pronunciations marking the panhandle. Of all residents five years old or older, 90.7% spoke only English in the home in 2000. Other languages spoken (and the number of speakers) were Spanish (80,241) and German (5,666).

9 Religions

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has been the leading religion in Idaho since 1860. The number of Mormons in Idaho is second only to that in Utah. In 2006, membership in the Mormon church was reported at 376,661. According to 2000 estimates, Idaho had 18,745 adherents in the Assemblies of God, and 17,683 United Methodists. There were also 130,847 Roman Catholics, and an estimated 1,050 Jews.

10 Transportation

In 2004, Idaho had 47,101 miles (75,832 kilometers) of public roads and streets, the vast majority of which were rural. The major east–west highways are I-90, I-84, and US 12. US 95, Idaho 55, US 93, and I-15 are among the most traveled north–south routes. Idaho had 1.370 million registered vehicles in 2004, including about 569,000 automobiles, 751,000 trucks, and around 1,000 buses. In that same year, there were 942,983 licensed drivers. Boise, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls have mass transit system bus lines.

In 2003, there were 1,678 miles (2,701 kilometers) of railroad right of way used by the nine railroads operating within the state. Among the two Class I railroads, the Union Pacific Railroad served southern Idaho, while the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad crossed the panhandle. As of 2006, Amtrak provided east-west passenger service to Idaho via its Empire Builder train connection at Sandpoint to Chicago, or Seattle/Portland.

The modern airport at Boise is the state’s busiest. In 2005, there were a total of 204 airports, 44 heliports, 5 seaplane bases, and 2 STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing). The Snake River port at Lewiston links Idaho, Montana, and the Dakotas with the Pacific via 464 miles (747 kilometers) of navigable waterways in Washington State.

11 History

The Shoshone, Northern Paiute, Salishan, and Shapwailutan tribal families were living in the area now known as Idaho when fur trappers and missionaries arrived in the early 1800s. The Oregon Trail opened in 1842, but for two decades people used it only to cross Idaho, not to settle there. In 1860 Mormons from Utah established Franklin, Idaho’s first permanent settlement, and began farming. Gold was discovered that summer in northern Idaho. A gold rush, lasting several years, led directly to the organizing of the Idaho Territory on 10 July 1863.

Idaho’s population nearly doubled between 1870 and 1880. The threat to Native American hunting and fishing grounds posed by growing white settlement touched off a series of wars in the late 1870s. The most famous of these conflicts was the Nez Perce War. With a population of 88,548 in 1890, Idaho was eligible to enter the Union, becoming the 43rd state on 3 July.

From 1895 onward, federal land and irrigation projects fostered rapid economic growth. The modern timber industry began in 1906 with the completion of one of the nation’s largest sawmills at Potlatch. By World War I, agriculture was a leading enterprise. Between the wars, Idaho suffered first from a farm depression in the 1920s, then from the nationwide Great Depression of the 1930s. After the war, an agro-industrial base was created, with fertilizers and potato-processing leading the way.

In the 21st century, population expansion and the push for economic growth have collided with a new interest in the environment, creating controversies over land-use planning, mineral development, and water supply and dam construction.

12 State Government

Idaho’s 1889 constitution, amended 117 times as of January 2005, continues to govern the state today.

The legislature, consisting of a 35-seat Senate and a 70-member House of Representatives, meets annually on the Monday closest to 9 January. The executive branch is headed by the governor, lieutenant governor, and five other elected officials, all of whom serve four-year terms. The governor may only serve two consecutive terms. The governor can sign or veto a bill or let it become law without his signature. Vetoes may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each legislative house.

The governor’s salary as of December 2004 was $98,500, and the legislative salary was $15,646 in that same year.

13 Political Parties

Idahoans usually vote Republican in presidential elections. In 2004 Republican George W. Bush received 68.5% of the vote while Democrat John Kerry won 30.4% of the vote. However, while the state has become increasingly conservative politically since the early 1960s, Democrats were elected governor during 1970–92.

In November 2006, Republican C. L. “Butch” Otter won election as governor. Following the 2006 elections, the state legislature had 28 Republicans and 7 Democrats in the state senate, and 51 Republicans and 19 Democrats in the state house. There were 29 women serving in the state legislature following the 2006 elections, or 27.6%. In the 2006 elections, Idaho voters again elected two Republicans to represent them in the US House. Its US senators, Larry Craig, reelected in 2002, and Mike Crapo, elected in 2004, are also Republicans. In 2004, there were 798,000 registered voters. There is no party registration in the state.

14 Local Government

As of 2005, Idaho had 44 counties, 200 municipal governments, 115 public school districts, and 798 special districts. Most counties elect three commissioners and other officers. Nearly all cities have an elected mayor and a council of four to six members.

15 Judicial System

Idaho’s highest court, the supreme court, consists of five justices. There is a three-member court of appeals. The district court is the main trial court in civil and criminal matters, while magistrates’ courts handle traffic, misdemeanor, and minor civil cases and preliminary hearings in felony cases. Idaho’s crime rates are low in almost every category. In 2004, Idaho had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault) of 244.9 incidents per 100,000 people. As of 31 December 2004, there were 6,375 inmates in Idaho’s state and federal prisons. The state permits execution by lethal injection. As of 1 January 2006, there were 20 persons under sentence of death.

Idaho Governors: 1890–2007

1890–1891George Laird ShoupRepublican
1891–1893Norman Bushnell WilleyRepublican
1893–1897William John McConnellRepublican
1897–1901Frank Steunenberg PopularistDemocrat
1901–1903Frank Williams HuntDemocrat
1903–1905John Tracey MorrisonRepublican
1905–1909Frank Robert GoodingRepublican
1909–1911James Henry BradyRepublican
1911–1913James Henry HawleyDemocrat
1913–1915John Michiner HainesRepublican
1915–1919Moses AlexanderDemocrat
1919–1923David William DavisRepublican
1923–1927Charles Calvin MooreRepublican
1927–1931H. Clarence BaldridgeRepublican
1931–1937C. Ben RossDemocrat
1937–1939Barzilla Worth ClarkDemocrat
1939–1941Clarence Alfred BottolfsenRepublican
1941–1943Chase Addison ClarkDemocrat
1943–1945Clarence Alfred BottolfsenRepublican
1945Charles Clinton GossettDemocrat
1945–1947Arnold WilliamsDemocrat
1947–1951Charles Armington RobinsRepublican
1951–1955Leonard Beck JordanRepublican
1955–1967Robert Eben SmylieRepublican
1967–1971Don William SamuelsonRepublican
1971–1977Cecil Dale AndrusDemocrat
1977–1987John Victor EvansDemocrat
1987–1995Cecil Dale AndrusDemocrat
1995–1999Philip E. BattRepublican
1999–2006Dirk KempthorneRepublican
2006James E. RischRepublican
2006–C. L. OtterRepublican

16 Migration

Idaho’s first white immigrants came from Utah, California, and Oregon in the early 1860s. By the end of the Civil War, the chief sources of immigrants were the southern and border states. Homesteaders from the Midwest, Utah, and Scandinavia arrived at the end of the 19th century.

Since 1960, immigrants have come largely from California. In 1998, 1,504 immigrants from foreign countries arrived in Idaho. In the period 2000–05, net international migration

Idaho Presidential Vote by Major Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR IDAHO WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN
* Won US presidential election.
** Independent candidate Ross Perot received 130,395 votes in 1992 and 62,518 votes in 1996.
1948*Truman (D)107,370101,514
1952*Eisenhower (R)395,081180,707
1956*Eisenhower (R)105,868166,979
1960Nixon (R)138,853161,597
1964*Johnson (D)148,920143,557
1968*Nixon (R)389,273165,369
1972*Nixon (R)380,826199,384
1976Ford (R)126,549204,151
1980*Reagan (R)110,192290,699
1984*Reagan (R)108,510297,523
1988*Bush (R)147,272253,881
1992**Bush (R)137,013202,645
1996**Dole (R)165,443256,595
2000*Bush, G. W. (R)138,637336,937
2004*Bush, G. W. (R)181,098409,235

was 14,522 people, while net domestic migration was 61,273 people, giving a net population gain of 75,795.

17 Economy

Currently, agriculture, mining, forest products, and food processing comprise Idaho’s largest industries. The early 1980s brought a national recession to Idaho. Recovery, which required a restructuring of Idaho’s mining, forest products, and agricultural industries, came slowly. In some areas of the economy, the labor force has shrunk permanently. Modernization in lumber and wood products eliminated hundreds of jobs. Employment in chemical manufacturing, the paper industry, electronics, and tourism increased, however.

Disputes with the federal government over the management of federal lands—60% of Idaho’s public land—remain central to discussion of Idaho’s economic policy. The disputes center on such matters as grazing fees, costs of water from government projects, species protection, and mining regulations.

The electronics industry grew during the 1990s, but so too did other manufacturing sectors. From 1997 to 2000 the state’s overall manufacturing output grew by 37%. However, in the national recession of 2001, there was a substantial decrease in manufacturing output. Idaho’s economy was also negatively impacted by drought conditions in 2002 that reduced grazing lands and threatened the state’s potato crop. The state’s farmers were also affected by historically low milk prices in 2002 and 2003.

Idaho’s gross state product (GSP) in 2004 was $43.571 billion, of which manufacturing accounted for the largest portion at 14.3%, followed by real estate at 11.9%, and health care and social services at 6.6% of GSP. In 2005, the state’s GSP totaled $47 billion.

In 2004, of the 43,675 businesses that had employees, 97% were small companies.

18 Income

In 2004, per capita (per person) personal income in Idaho was $26,877, which was well below the national average of $33,050. Average median household income in Idaho for the three-year period 2002 through 2004, was $42,519 compared to the national average of $44,473. In that same period, an estimated 10.5% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to 12.4% nationwide.

19 Industry

Although resource industries such as food processing, chemical manufacturing, and lumber production, continued to be important manufacturing sectors in Idaho’s economy, computer and electronic product manufacturing were the state’s primary manufacturing sectors in 2004.

Overall, the shipment value of all products manufactured in the state in 2004 totaled $16.583 billion, of which computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for $6.076 billion, followed by food manufacturing at $4.455 billion. The state’s manufacturing sector employed 56,479 people in 2004.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Idaho numbered 761,200, with approximately 25,600 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.4%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. According to preliminary nonfarm employment data for April 2006, about 8.1% of the labor force was employed in construction; 10% in manufacturing; 19.9% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 4.9% in financial activities; 12.6% in professional and business services; 10.8% in educational and health services; 9.7% in leisure and hospitality services; and 18.1% in government.

Idaho was a pioneer in establishing the eight-hour day, and in outlawing so-called “yellow dog contracts,” which were agreements workers were required to sign as a condition of employment, that prohibited them from joining a union. In 2005, a total of 31,000 of Idaho’s 606,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of a union. This represented 5.2% of those so employed, and well under the national average of 12% for that same year.

21 Agriculture

The receipts from farm marketings totaled $4.5 billion in 2005 (21st in the United States). As of 2004, Idaho led the United States in potato production, was second in sugar beet and barley production, third in hops and peppermint oil, and fourth in spearmint oil.

Development of the russet potato in the 1920s gave Idaho its most famous crop. In 2004, the state produced 131.97 million hundredweight (5.98 billion kilograms) of potatoes (29% of the US total). Most were grown on irrigated land on the Snake River plain. About three-fourths of the crop is processed into frozen french fries, instant mashed potatoes, and other products. Other leading crops were hay, wheat, barley, and sugar beets.

As of 2004, Idaho had 11.9 million acres (5.4 million hectares) in farmland, roughly 22% of the state’s land area, with an estimated 25,000 farms, (including ranches). Almost 3.5 million acres (1.4 hectares) of land were irrigated.

22 Domesticated Animals

In 2005, there were an estimated 2 million cattle and calves worth around $2.2 billion. In 2004, Idaho had an estimated 21,000 hogs and pigs worth around $2.1 million. Idaho had an estimated 404,000 dairy cows, which produced 8.8 billion pounds (3.4 million kilograms) of milk in 2003. In the same year, Idaho produced an estimated 2.3 million pounds (1 million kilograms) of chicken, and an estimated 243 million eggs worth $14.5 million. Also during 2003, the state produced an estimated 24.7 million pounds of sheep and lambs, which grossed $20.8 million for Idaho farmers. Shorn wool production in 2004 was estimated at 2.1 million pounds (0.95 million kilograms).

23 Fishing

In 2004, there were some 403,741 licensed sport fishermen catching trout along with salmon, steelhead, bass, and 32 other game-fish species. Idaho is a leading producer of farm-raised trout. The state’s 55 trout farms had $32.6 million in sales in 2004. There are about 19 state hatcheries and 3 national fish hatcheries located within the state. The Idaho Fish Health Center in Orofino is a federally sponsored research facility.

24 Forestry

As of 2004, Idaho forests covered 23.5 million acres (9.5 million hectares), or about 40% of the state’s land area, with 16,824,000 acres (6,809,000 hectares) classified as commercial timberland. Of the total forest area in 2003, the federal government controlled 79%, while the state government controlled 5%, and private owners had 16%. National forest system lands in Idaho totaled 21,575,000 acres (8,731,000 hectares) in 2005. Idaho forests are used increasingly for ski areas, hunting, and other recreation, as well as for timber and pulp. Total lumber production was 1.7 billion board feet (10th in the United States) in 2004, almost all softwoods.

25 Mining

The estimated value of nonfuel mineral production for Idaho in 2004 was $446 million. Phosphate rock, construction sand and gravel, molybdenum concentrates, silver, portland cement, and crushed stone were the leading minerals, accounting for 91% of output by value in 2004. In that same year, Idaho was second nationally in the production of phosphate rock; third in silver and lead; fourth in molybdenum concentrates and zeolites; fifth in pumice and zinc; and sixth in gemstones. In 2004, early data put the state’s production of crushed stone at 3.2 million metric tons, and sand and gravel for construction at 18.2 million metric tons.

26 Energy and Power

In 2003, net summer electric power generating capacity was 3.002 million kilowatts, with total production that same year at 10.422 billion kilowatt hours. Hydroelectric power generation accounted for 80.1% of all electricity produced, followed by 13.2% from natural gas-fired plants. The remaining output came from other types of renewable sources, and from coal-fired plants.

Idaho’s large size, widespread and relatively rural population, and lack of public transportation foster reliance on motor vehicles and imported petroleum products. Natural gas is also imported. Hot water from thermal springs is used to heat buildings in Boise. As of 2004, Idaho had no known proven reserves of, or production of crude oil, or natural gas. Nor are there any refineries located within the state.

27 Commerce

In 2002, Idaho’s wholesale trade sector registered $11.4 billion in sales, while the state’s retail trade sector had sales in that same year of $13.5 billion. Motor ve4hicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest portion of retail sales in 2002 at $3.7 billion, followed by general merchandise stores at $2.3 billion, and food and beverage stores at $1.8 billion. Exports of goods produced in Idaho totaled $3.2 billion in 2005.

28 Public Finance

Idaho’s annual budget is prepared by the Division of Financial Management. The fiscal year runs from 1 July to 30 June. The state constitution requires that the legislature pass a balanced budget, and the governor, as the chief budget officer, has regularly assured that expenditures do not exceed revenues.

Idaho had total revenues in 2004 of $7.1 billion, while total expenditures that same year were $5.76 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($2.01 billion), public welfare ($1.19 billion), and highways ($524 million). The debt of the Idaho state government at the end of 2004 was $2.38 billion, or $1,708.85 per capita (per person).

29 Taxation

As of 1 January 2006, the personal income tax schedule had eight categories, ranging from 1.6% to 7.8%. Idaho’s flat tax on corporate income was 7.6%. Idaho has a retail sales tax rate of 6%, while local sales tax rates can reach as much as 3%, making the overall sales tax rate 9%. Although groceries are not exempt from the sales tax, the state does extend a grocery tax credit. The state also levies selective sales taxes (excises) on such items as gasoline and cigarettes. Other state taxes include various kinds of license fees.

There is no state property tax. Local property taxes are the only major source of local revenue.

Total state government tax collections in 2005 were $2.934 billion, or $2,054 per person, which was under the national average of $2,192. Sales taxes accounted for the largest share of the state’s tax revenues at 38.5%, followed by 35.5% from individual income taxes, and 12.7% from excise taxes. Corporate income taxes that year, accounted for 4.8% of tax collections.

In October 2005, Idaho’s infant mortality rate was estimated at 6.3 per 1,000 live births. The state’s crude death rate in 2003 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. As of 2002, the death rates (per 100,000 people) for heart disease was 188.8; cancer 159.4; cerebrovascular disease 54.9; chronic lower respiratory disease 44.4; and diabetes 23.9. As of 2004, about 17.4% of the population were smokers. In the same year, the reported AIDS case rate was around 1.6 per 100,000 people.

In 2003, Idaho had 39 community hospitals with around 3,400 beds. There were 657 nurses per 100,000 people in 2005. In 2004, there were 175 physicians per and 824 dentists per 100,000 population. The average daily expense for hospital care was $1,235 in 2003. About 17% of the state’s population were uninsured in 2004.

31 Housing

In 2004, there were an estimated 578,774 housing units within the state, of which 515,252 were occupied. About 72.4% of all units were owner-occupied, and around 71.1% were single-family, detached homes. Mobile homes accounted for 10.8% of all homes. Most units relied on utility gas and electricity for heating. It was estimated that 22,347 units were without telephone service, 2,419 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 3,220 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household size was 2.64 people.

In 2004, a total of 18,100 privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. Median home value was at $120,825. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was about $953, while renters paid a median of $566 per month.

32 Education

As of 2004, a total of 84.7% of Idaho residents over 25 were high school graduates, while 23.8% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Total enrollment in public schools was estimated at 250,000 in fall 2003, and was expected to reach 283,000 by fall 2014. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 10,994. Expenditures for public education in 2003/2004 were estimated at $1.7 billion.

As of fall 2002, there were 72,072 students enrolled in college or graduate school. In 2005, Idaho had 14 degree-granting institutions. The leading public higher educational institutions are the University of Idaho at Moscow, Idaho State University (Pocatello), Boise State University, and Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston.

33 Arts

The Idaho Commission on the Arts, founded in 1966, offers grants to support both creative and performing artists. The Commission is a partner with the regional Western States Arts Federation. The Idaho Humanities Council was established in 1973. In 2005, the state received $530,730 dollars in the form of six grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Boise Philharmonic is Idaho’s leading professional orchestra. Other symphony orchestras are in Coeur d’Alene, Moscow, Pocatello, and Twin Falls. Boise and Moscow have seasonal theaters. The annual summer Idaho Shakespeare Festival, in Boise, presents a series of plays in its outdoor Festival Amphitheater and Reserve. Boise is also home to Ballet Idaho, the state’s professional ballet company.

34 Libraries and Museums

As of September 2001, Idaho had 106 public library systems, with 143 libraries, 39 of which were branches, and a combined book stock of 3.57 million volumes and a circulation of more than 8.7 million. The largest public library system is the Boise Public Library and Information Center. The leading academic library is at the University of Idaho (Moscow). The state also has 31 museums, notably the Boise Art Museum, Idaho State Historical Museum (Boise), and the Idaho Museum of Natural History (Pocatello). The University of Idaho Arboretum is at Moscow.

35 Communications

As of 2004, a total of 94.1% of Idaho’s occupied housing units had telephones. As of 2005, the state had 43 major operating radio stations (8 AM, 35 FM), and 13 major television stations. Several large cable systems serviced the state in 2005. A total of 21,563 Internet domain names were registered in the state in 2000. In 2003, computers were in 69.2% of all Idaho households, while 56.4% had computer access.

36 Press

Idaho, site of the first printing press in the Northwest, had 12 daily newspapers in 2005 (10 morning and 2 evening), and 8 Sunday papers. The most widely read newspaper was the Idaho Statesman, published in Boise, with a circulation of 63,023 daily and 83,857 Sundays in that same year. Caxton Printers, founded in 1902, is the state’s leading publishing house. Leading magazines from the state are Idaho magazine, and the industry trade magazines, Spudman and Sugar.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

In 2004, Idaho’s tourist industry earned $2.97 billion. Tourists come to Idaho primarily for outdoor recreation—river trips, skiing, camping, hunting, fishing, and hiking. There are 19 ski resorts, of which by far the most famous is Sun Valley. Tourist attractions include the Craters of the Moon National Monument, the Nez Percé National Historical Park, and two US parks. Portions of the Lewis and Clark Trail and the Oregon Trail lie within the state as well.

38 Sports

Although Idaho has no major league sports teams, the state is represented in college sports. The Idaho State Bengals and the University of Idaho Vandals play Division I basketball and Division I-A football in the Big Sky and Big West Conferences, respectively. Boise State University is the largest university in the Big West Conference, with a football team in Division I.

Most county seats hold quarter-horse racing a few days a year and Boise’s racing season (including thoroughbreds) runs three days a week for five months. World chariot racing championships have been held at Pocatello, as are the National Circuit Rodeo Finals. Polo was one of Boise’s leading sports from 1910 through the 1940s. Idaho cowboys have won numerous riding, roping, and steer-wrestling championships. Skiing is very popular throughout the state and there is a world-class resort at Sun Valley. Golf is also quite popular.

39 Famous Idahoans

Leading federal officeholders born in Idaho include Ezra Taft Benson (1899–1994), US secretary of agriculture from 1953 to 1961, and Cecil D. Andrus (b.Oregon, 1931), governor of Idaho from 1971 to 1977 and secretary of the interior from 1977 to 1981. Republican William E. Borah (b.Illinois, 1865–1940) served in the US Senate from 1907 until his death, chairing the foreign relations committee for 16 years. Senator Frank Church (1924–1984) became chairman of the same committee in 1979; however, he was defeated in his bid for a fifth term in 1980. Important state officeholders were the nation’s first Jewish governor, Moses Alexander (b.Germany, 1853–1932), and New Deal governor C. Ben Ross (1876–1946).

Idaho was the birthplace of poet Ezra Pound (1885–1972). Nobel Prize-winning novelist Ernest Hemingway (b.Illinois, 1899–1961) is buried at Ketchum. Gutzon Borglum (1871–1941), the sculptor who carved the Mt. Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, was an Idaho native. Baseball slugger Harmon Killebrew (b.1936), football star Jerry Kramer (b.1936), and Olympic ski champion Picabo Street (b.1971) are Idaho’s leading sports personalities.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Brown, Jonatha A. Idaho. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2007.

Kule, Elaine A. Idaho Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003.

Murray, Julie. Idaho. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Stefoff, Rebecca. Idaho. New York: Benchmark Books, 2000.

WEB SITES

Idaho Travel and Tourism. Idaho. www.visitid.org (accessed March 1, 2007).

State of Idaho. Idaho.gov. www.accessidaho.org (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Idaho

Idaho

Idaho joined the Union as the forty-third state on July 3, 1890. Situated in the northwestern United States, Idaho is the smallest of the eight Rocky Mountain states and thirteenth in size among the fifty states. It is bordered by Canada, Montana , Wyoming , Utah , Nevada , Oregon , and Washington .

Several Native American tribes lived in the region of Idaho when fur trappers and missionaries arrived in the early 1800s. The Oregon Trail opened in 1842, and pioneers used it for twenty years to pass through Idaho on their way to other points west. In 1860, gold was discovered in northern Idaho, and a gold rush ensued, lasting several years. (See California Gold Rush .) This led directly to the organizing of the Idaho Territory on July 10, 1863.

Between 1870 and 1880, Idaho's population nearly doubled. This white settlement threatened the Native American way of life and set off a series of wars in the late 1870s. The Nez Perce War is the most famous of the battles.

Idaho enjoyed an economic boom beginning in 1906 due to the completion of the country's biggest sawmill in Potlatch. With construction of this sawmill came the birth of the modern timber industry. By World War I (1914–18), agriculture was the state's leading enterprise.

As the twenty-first century progressed, Idaho experienced population expansion and the push for economic development. Both factors were in direct conflict with a new interest in the environment, and Idaho's leaders found themselves at odds regarding land use, mineral development, and water supply.

In 2006. Idaho was home to nearly 1.5 million people, 91.8 percent of them white. Boise, the capital, was the most heavily populated by far. The Nez Perce live in the northern region of the state on reservation land. The primary religion of Idaho is Mormon, and the Mormon population is second only to that in Utah. (See Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints .)

Idaho is not a wealthy state. In 2004, the average personal income was just under $27,000, far below the national average of $33,050. Many of the state's workers are employed in agriculture. Idaho's most famous crop is the russet potato, but it also grows sugar beets, barley, and hops.

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Idaho

IDAHO

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Idaho

Idaho

Esto Perpetua (It is perpetual).

At a Glance

Name: The meaning of the name Idaho is unknown, although it is believed to be of Native American origin.

Nickname: Gem State

Capital: Boise

Size: 83,574 sq. mi. (217,292 sq km)

Population: 1,293,953

Statehood: Idaho became the 43rd state on July 3, 1890.

Electoral votes: 4 (2004)

U.S. Representatives: 2 (until 2003)

State tree: western white pine

State flower: syringa

State horse: Appaloosa

Highest point: Borah Peak, 12,662 ft. (3,859 m)

The Place

Idaho is famous for its rugged scenery. The eastern part of the state is known as the Panhandle and is covered by the Rocky Mountains. This area has mineral deposits, lush pine forests, and deep gorges.

Southwest of the mountainous Panhandle region is a flatter area along the Snake River. Part of this fertile plain was formed by lava seeping through cracks in the earth.

Farmers grow a variety of crops in this part of the state. The southwestern portion of the state is much drier and more suitable for grazing cattle and sheep.

Idaho's climate is relatively mild. Mountains protect the state from cold Canadian air, while warmer air from the Pacific keeps temperatures relatively stable. Winter in Idaho is snowy, and summer is cool.

Idaho's many natural mineral deposits include silver, phosphate, and molybdenum. The state's powerful rivers, rich soils, and thick forests are its most valuable resources.

Idaho: Facts and Firsts

  1. Sun Valley was the nation's first ski resort.
  2. Hell's Canyon, along the Snake River, is the deepest gorge in North America. On average, it is more than 1 mile (1.6 km) deep.
  3. More than 3 million gallons of steaming mineral water pour through Lava Hot Springs every day.
  4. The oldest standing building in the state is the Cataldo mission, built in the mid-1800s by Jesuit priests and members of the Coeur d'Alene tribe.
  5. The highest fire lookout in the Boise National Forest sits on Trinity Mountain at an elevation of 9,500 feet (2,896 m).
  6. Idaho has many ghost towns, including Silver City, Yankee Fork, Gold Dredge, and the Sierra Silver Mine.
  7. The only captive geyser in the world is in Soda Springs. It was discovered while searching for a hot water source for a swimming pool. It is now capped, controlled by a timer, and erupts every hour on the hour.

The Past

Remains of Native American civilizations more than 10,000 years old have been found in Idaho. The Nez Percé and Shoshone tribes, among many others, made their home in Idaho at one time. In 1805, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the region during their expedition to the western United States. Soon after their visit, settlers began to trickle into the state. In 1860, E.D. Pierce's discovery of gold in Orofino Creek set off a gold rush that brought thousands of settlers to the region. Railroads built in the 1870s helped increase Idaho's population, and mining became an important industry.

Idaho: State Smart

The Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area is the largest bird of prey (raptor) habitat in the United States. About 2,500 raptors live there.

Agriculture began to expand at the beginning of the 20th century, when irrigation made more of Idaho's land suitable for farming. Idaho's farmers helped supply food for the country during the shortages of World War I. During World War II, factories were built to process much of the food grown in the state, and Idaho's food-processing industry grew. Increased tourism and manufacturing also helped build Idaho's economy.

The Present

Idaho has many important natural resources, including timber, water, and minerals, but today tourism and manufacturing account for much of the state's revenue. Idaho's Rocky Mountains ski resorts, such as Sun Valley, and other unspoiled areas nurture one of Idaho's newest businesses—the tourist trade. Idaho's lakes and rivers are popular fishing areas for visitors.

Electrical equipment and food processing are Idaho's most valuable types of manufacturing. The food-processing industry prepares many of Idaho's crops, such as potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat, for sale throughout the United States. The electrical equipment industry makes many of the parts needed in Idaho's computer industry. While manufacturing is important, the raising of sheep and cattle is essential to the economy in Idaho's drier regions.

Born in Idaho

  1. Gutzon Borglum , Mt. Rushmore sculptor
  2. Carol R. Brink , author
  3. Frank Church , U.S. senator
  4. Harmon Killebrew , baseball player
  5. Ezra Pound , poet
  6. Sacagawea , Shoshonean guide
  7. Picabo Street , skier
  8. Lana Turner , actress

The manufacturing industry is transforming Idaho into an urban state, but cattle and dairy goods are the leading agricultural products in rural areas. Mining, once a major source of income, is still important and produces phosphates, gold, silver, molybdenum, antimony, lead, zinc, and other minerals.

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"Idaho." Blackbirch Kid's Visual Reference of the United States. . Retrieved November 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/idaho

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Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

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http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Idaho

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"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 9 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 9, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-4

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Retrieved November 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-4

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Idaho

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Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 9 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 9, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-5

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Retrieved November 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-5

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Idaho

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. 9 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 9, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-6

"Idaho." College Blue Book. . Retrieved November 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/idaho-6

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.