FRENCH PSYCHOLOGIST, INTELLIGENCE RESEARCHER
SORBONNE, DOCTORATE IN NATURAL SCIENCE, 1894
Alfred Binet is best remembered as the developer of the first useful test for measuring intelligence. Along with Théodore Simon, Binet developed the Binet-Simon Scale, the forerunner of modern IQ tests. Binet's original goal for the scale was relatively modest and very practical. In the early years of the 1900s, the French government had just enacted laws requiring that all children be given a public education. For the first time, mentally "subnormal" children—those who today might be called mentally retarded or developmentally disabled—were to be provided with special classes, rather than simply ignored by the schools. However, this raised the issue of how to identify which children would benefit from special programs. Binet and Simon set out to solve this problem. In the process, they developed a revolutionary approach to testing mental abilities.
Yet intelligence testing was only one small part of Binet's highly productive career. Although his work was cut short when he died at age 54, he still managed to author almost 300 published books, articles, and reviews. His wide-ranging interests included sensitivity to touch, mental associations, hypnosis, child development, personality, memory, eyewitness testimony, and creativity, to name just a few. The breadth of his interests led him to study a wide spectrum of the population, including schoolchildren, experts at chess and mental arithmetic, authors, mentally retarded individuals, and his own two daughters.
Nevertheless, Binet is mainly remembered for his groundbreaking intelligence test. It was so useful for predicting school performance that a variation, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, is still in use today. In a 1930 essay, Lewis Terman, the American psychologist who developed the Stanford-Binet, described his great predecessor this way: "My favorite of all psychologists is Binet; not because of his intelligence test, which was only a by-product of his life work, but because of his originality, insight, and openmindedness, and because of the rare charm of personality that shines through all his writings."
Binet's life is notable for both its successes and its failures. On one hand, Binet's intelligence test became one of the most influential tests in the history of psychology. On the other hand, his innovative ideas about child development and memory had a much more limited impact. Both of these results can be traced, at least in part, to the independence that marked Binet's career. Self-taught in psychology, he never held a position as a university professor. This kept him from building alliances with other professors and from training many students to follow in his footsteps. Yet it also gave him free rein to nurture his own tremendous curiosity and creativity.
The early years
Binet was born on July 8, 1857, in Nice, France. He was the only child of a father who was a physician and a mother who dabbled in art. His wealthy parents separated when he was young, leaving his mother, Moïna Binet, with most of the responsibility for raising him. Until age 15, Binet attended school in Nice. He also spent some summers at a boardinghouse in England, where he undoubtedly improved his fluency in English. This paid off later, when he was able to read the English and American psychological literature.
Once Binet turned 15, his mother took him to Paris so that he could attend a renowned school, the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Binet studied there for three years. Upon graduating, he had trouble deciding what career path he wanted to pursue. He first earned a law license in 1878; however, he seems to have almost immediately concluded that practicing law was not for him. Next came a brief stint studying medicine. There was a strong medical tradition in his family; his father and both of his grandfathers had been physicians. This choice, too, proved short-lived. Binet suffered an emotional breakdown and dropped out of medical school.
False starts and lessons learned
Discouraged and directionless, Binet began spending time in the Bibliothèque Nationale, a great library in Paris. There, he started browsing through books on psychology. He was fascinated by what he found. In particular, his interest was drawn to experiments on the two-point threshold, the smallest distance at which touching the skin at two different points at once is felt as two sensations rather than just one. Previous research had shown that this distance varied from one part of the body to another. For example, the distance was about 30 times greater on the small of the back than on the tip of the index finger. Several theories had been proposed explaining the differences. After trying a few simple experiments on himself and his friends, Binet concluded that these theories contained some errors. In 1880, he published his ideas in a paper titled "On the Fusion of Similar Sensations." He soon learned a lesson about the hazards of rushing into print. Joseph Delboeuf, a Belgian physiologist who had already done much more complex research on the subject, published an article outlining the flaws in Binet's work. Fortunately, Binet's interest in psychology was strong enough to withstand the blow.
Early on, Binet became an avid reader of British philosopher John Stuart Mill. In his theory of associationism, Mill had proposed that the flow of thoughts and ideas through a person's consciousness was controlled by the associations among these ideas. Mill had also outlined the basic laws that he believed determined which ideas would arise from a particular thought. In 1886, Binet published his first book, a fervent defense of associationism. In the book, titled The Psychology of Reasoning, Binet argued that the laws of associationism could explain everything that happened in the mind. Yet cracks in this theory had already become apparent. For example, associationism was unable to explain how one starting idea might lead to totally different trains of thought under different circumstances. Binet realized that he was on shaky ground once again. He soon gave up the position that associationism alone could explain all mental phenomena. However, he never stopped believing in the great, although incomplete, power of mental associations. Years later, he would argue that intelligence could not be studied without considering an individual's personal associations, circumstances, and experiences.
Not all of Binet's early ideas about psychology came from books. In 1883, Binet began working as an unpaid researcher for Jean Martin Charcot, director of the Salpêtrière, a famous hospital in Paris. Charcot was one of the most esteemed neurologists in the world. At the time, he was studying hypnosis, a temporary state of altered attention. Charcot noted that, under hypnosis, good subjects often became unable to move, insensitive to pain, or unable to remember what had happened. These were very much like the symptoms seen in patients with hysteria, a mental disorder in which people had physical ailments when no physical cause could be found. In fact, the similarities were so striking that Charcot jumped to some wrong conclusions. He believed that the ability to be hypnotized was actually a sign of hysteria. He also believed that the unusual behavior seen under hypnosis was caused by some underlying feature of the nervous system. In fact, it turned out to be caused by nothing more than the subject's response to suggestions given by the hypnotist.
When Binet first arrived at the Salpêtrière, however, he accepted the older man's theories without question. Binet and a young doctor named Charles Féré spent the next seven years doing research under Charcot's guidance. The two researchers were assigned to study a woman named Blanche Wittmann, called Wit in their writings. Recalling the days when hypnotism was known as "animal magnetism," Binet and Féré found that they could reverse Wit's physical symptoms or emotional state under hypnosis simply by reversing a magnet. One minute, Wit would be laughing. The next minute, with a turn of the magnet, she was sobbing. Not surprisingly, when Binet and Féré published their findings, other scientists reacted with skepticism. One skeptic was Delboeuf, the same physiologist who had debunked Binet's earlier work on the two-point threshold. Delboeuf finally traveled to Paris to observe Wit in person. He immediately saw the obvious: The hypnotist was reversing the large magnet right in front of Wit. It seemed clear that Wit was responding to the hypnotist, rather than the magnet. At first, Binet defended his findings. Slowly, however, the truth dawned. He was forced to admit that he had been blinded by Charcot's reputation.
- The Psychology of Reasoning. Paris: Alcan, 1886. Translated by A. G. Whyte. Chicago: Open Court, 1886.
- With Charles Féré. Animal Magnetism. Paris: Alcan, 1887. New York: Appleton, 1892.
- The Experimental Study of Intelligence. Paris: Schleicher Frères, 1903.
- With Théodore Simon. "New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals." L'Année psychologique 12 (1905): 191–244.
- With Théodore Simon. "A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children." Bulletin de la Société Libre pour l'Etude Psychologique de l'Enfant 70–1 (1911): 187–248. Translated by C. H. Town. Chicago: Medical Book Co., 1913.
- Translated by E. S. Kite. The Development of Intelligence in Children. Vineland, NJ: Publications of the Training School at Vineland, 1916.
- With Théodore Simon. "The Development of Intelligence in Children." L'Année psychologique 14 (1908): 1–94. Translated by E. S. Kite. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1916.
- Modern Ideas About Children. Paris: Flammarion, 1909. Translated by Suzanne Heisler. Menlo Park, CA: 1984.
Binet's career was off to a rocky start. After public missteps in work on the two-point threshold, associationism, and hypnosis, Binet appeared destined for anything but greatness. Yet these setbacks just seemed to strengthen his resolve to move ahead and make his mark on psychology.
The psychologist at home
The years at the Salpêtrière were a time of growth and change in Binet's home life as well. In 1884, Binet married Laure Balbiani, daughter of biologist E. G. Balbiani. Two daughters soon followed: Madeleine, born in 1885, and Alice, born in 1887. Ever the scientist, Binet began coming up with tests and puzzles for his young daughters to solve. He proved to be a keen observer of their developing minds and personalities. In papers about his observations, Binet called the girls Marguerite and Armande.
Many of the first tests Binet tried were based on the ones used by two earlier pioneers in intelligence research, Francis Galton and James McKeen Cattell. Both men had tried to measure mental ability using physiological tests. For example, some tests measured reaction time, the split-second needed for mental processing between the time when an event occurs and the time when the muscles start responding to it. Such tests were thought to measure how efficiently the nervous system worked. Other tests, such as the two-point threshold, measured the sharpness of the senses. The idea was that intelligence requires information, and this information comes from sensations.
When Binet tried reaction-time tests with his daughters and their young friends, he found that their average reaction times were indeed longer than those of adults. However, the children's individual reaction times varied widely. Sometimes, the children reacted just as quickly as adults, but other times, they were much slower. Binet concluded that the real difference between children and adults was not in the speed with which they could react, but in their ability to pay attention to the task. When the children's attention wandered, as it often did, their reaction times suffered. These observations led Binet to doubt that simple physiological tests could ever be useful for sorting out the differences between immature and mature minds. Instead, it seemed that more complex tests, such as those requiring sustained attention, would be needed. This realization probably played a role in shaping the kinds of tasks Binet chose for his intelligence test years later.
In hindsight, many of the ideas that Binet formed about child development seem ahead of their time. Several of them appear to foreshadow the later work of Jean Piaget, the famous Swiss psychologist who described four stages in children's mental development. Like Piaget, Binet believed that the purpose of mental development was to adapt effectively to the demands of the outside world. He also thought that new information was incorporated into existing ways of thinking. In addition, he believed that intelligence played a role in all human activities, from the simple to the complex.
Binet did not believe in distinct stages of development. Yet some of his descriptions of mental differences between children and adults come close to Piaget's descriptions of various stages. For example, Binet noted that a young child might be struck by a detail on an object that an adult would overlook. Yet that same child might be unable to see the object as a whole the way an adult could.
Might the similarities between the ideas of Binet and those of Piaget be more than just coincidence? This question is still unclear. Piaget never acknowledged any such influence. After Binet's death, however, Piaget spent time working in Paris with Simon, coauthor of the Binet-Simon Scale. In this setting, it seems likely that some of Binet's ideas might have rubbed off on Piaget.
Along with watching his daughters' developing mental abilities, Binet also observed their personality differences. Madeleine tended to be thoughtful and cautious in her actions, while Alice tended to be impulsive and easily distracted. This observation convinced Binet that problem-solving was a matter not only of ability level, but also of personal style. It was another theme that would reappear in his later work on intelligence.
A second chance at success
After the split from Charcot, Binet found himself at loose ends. Although his family wealth meant he did not need to work for money, he was still eager to get on with his research. In 1891, Binet happened to meet Henri Beaunis in a railway station at Rouen, France. Beaunis, a physiologist, was director of the new Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, a world-famous college in Paris. During the hypnosis controversy, Beaunis had publicly criticized Binet. It must have taken courage and perhaps desperation on Binet's part to ask Beaunis for a job in his lab. Yet that is exactly what Binet did, offering to work without pay. Beaunis, for his part, was struggling to staff the lab with limited funds. He agreed to give Binet a position. It turned out to be an excellent bargain. In 1895, when Beaunis retired, Binet took over as director. This job, which Binet held until his death, lent him legitimacy and gave him freedom to pursue his own research ideas.
Binet flourished at the Sorbonne laboratory. The events during just two years, 1894–95, show how amazingly productive he could be, given the right environment. During this period, Binet published two books. One was an introduction to experimental psychology, and the other described his research on experts at chess and mental calculations. He and Beaunis also founded and edited the first French psychological journal, L'Année psychologique, for which Binet himself wrote 85 reviews and four original articles. In addition, Binet was appointed to the board of a new American journal, Psychological Review. At the same time, he studied optical illusions and developed a method for making a graphic record of piano playing. With Jacques Passy, he studied dramatic authors. With Victor Henri, he studied memory in schoolchildren.
Somehow, Binet also found time to finish his doctoral degree in 1894. Six years earlier, he had begun studying biology in his father-in-law's laboratory. Over time, he grew fascinated by the behavior, anatomy, and physiology of insects. His thesis, titled "A Contribution to the Study of the Subintestinal Nervous System of Insects," was filled with detailed drawings, most of which he made himself. This detour into natural science just added to Binet's credentials as a well-rounded scientist and skilled observer.
Binet continued to be very interested in child development as well. With the authority of his new job behind him, he was no longer limited to just studying his own daughters. Now, he could gain access to the schools to observe subjects of all ages. During this period, Binet and Henri conducted studies of children's memory that are still surprisingly up-to-date. In experiments on prose memory, the researchers presented schoolchildren with paragraphs, and then asked the children to write down what they remembered. The researchers found that the children tended to remember general ideas better than specific words. The longer the delay between testing and recall, the more pronounced this difference became. Also, the more important an idea was within the overall paragraph, the more likely it was to be recalled. Binet and Henri concluded that memory processes for connected ideas and memory processes for isolated words were totally different. Once again, Binet was ahead of the curve. These findings were eventually borne out by studies on prose memory in the 1970s.
Binet's research also foretold later findings on eyewitness testimony. In one study, Binet presented schoolchildren with a poster depicting several objects and a scene. The children were allowed to look at the poster for just a matter of seconds. Afterward, they were asked about what they remembered. The answers tended to vary depending on how the questions were worded, a result that has been confirmed many times in recent years.
Although Binet had clearly learned the value of testing his ideas in larger groups of subjects, he also continued to conduct in-depth case studies of individuals. By studying a handful of individuals with extraordinary skill at playing chess or doing mental arithmetic, he explored the nature and limits of these mental abilities. By studying the working habits of leading French authors, he explored creativity. Of course, Binet's longest-running case studies were of his own daughters. As they grew older, he continued to test them on everything from number judgment and memory to inkblot interpretation and storytelling. He described the results from 20 of these tests in a 1903 book called The Experimental Study of Intelligence. Despite its title, however, the book was less about intelligence than about general mental development and personality.
The stage is set for greatness
In 1896, Binet and his assistant, Henri, published a paper describing what they called "individual psychology." As they explained it, general psychology dealt with broad psychological properties that are common to everyone. Individual psychology, in contrast, dealt with properties that vary from one person to another. Their aim was to study this variation both within and across individuals. In order to do that, however, Binet soon realized that he needed practical tests of psychological functioning. He set an ambitious goal for himself: to devise a series of such tests that could be given in less than two hours and would assess 10 major psychological processes. The processes were memory, imagery, imagination, attention, comprehension, suggestibility, aesthetic sentiment, moral sentiment, muscular strength and willpower, and motor ability and eye-hand coordination.
Unfortunately, the tests Binet and Henri devised were a flop. In one influential study, Stella Sharp, a graduate student at Cornell University, gave the tests to seven of her fellow psychology students. She found little evidence of a meaningful pattern in the scores. There was also a troubling lack of relationship among the scores for subtests that were supposed to measure the same ability. Binet himself found similarly disappointing results. In 1904, after eight years of effort, Binet admitted defeat. Today, the goal of developing a quick yet complete test of psychological functioning remains elusive. Yet Binet's time had not been wasted. It had prepared him well for his next challenge: devising an intelligence test.
Several other events also helped to set the stage for Binet's achievement. In 1899, Simon began to perform doctoral research under Binet's supervision. At the time, Simon was a young doctor working at a large institution for the mentally retarded, and Binet was eager to try out his tests on this new group of subjects. Their collaboration was the most fruitful of Binet's career, and the two researchers became close friends.
The next year, Binet played a key role in organizing the new Free Society for the Psychological Study of the Child. This was a group of psychologists and educators who banded together to seek solutions to problems facing the schools. Binet became a leader of the group and founded its Bulletin for publishing members' research. One of the most pressing problems was how to carry out new laws requiring that all French children be provided a public education. This included mentally retarded children, who in earlier years would never have gone to school or would have dropped out early. In 1904, the French government appointed Binet to a commission that was charged with improving the education of this previously overlooked group of children.
Binet soon zeroed in on a critical problem: identifying which children should be considered mentally retarded and placed in special educational programs. Binet and Simon set out to solve this problem by developing a test. Traditionally, mentally retarded individuals had been divided into three categories: profoundly retarded (called idiots), moderately retarded (called imbeciles), and mildly retarded. Binet called the mildly retarded group débiles, or "weak ones." His English translators later substituted the term moron, from a Greek word meaning "dull." The test was intended to sort out children who belonged in one of these categories from the children whose intelligence could be considered normal. The first Binet-Simon Scale was introduced in 1905. That same year, Binet opened a research center in the school at Belleville, a working-class neighborhood of Paris. The next several years were spent improving his test. Revisions followed in 1908 and 1911.
Triumphs and disappointments
Binet was busy revising the scale when he died in Paris on October 18, 1911. He was at the height of a remarkable career. Binet's final years, however, were marked by disappointments as well as triumphs. Perhaps the greatest disappointment was his failure to secure a position as a university professor. In 1895, Binet visited the University of Bucharest in Romania as a guest lecturer. His lectures were a hit with the students, and he was invited to stay on as a professor. He turned down the offer, partly because he hoped to get a similar post in France. As was the custom of the time, he proposed himself for two such positions: one at the College of France, and one at the Sorbonne. He was not chosen for either post, however.
Binet's family life had once been a source of comfort. He and his wife lived in Paris when they were first married, but they later moved to a suburb called Meudon. The Binets stayed there until 1908, when they returned to Paris. Life in Meudon seems to have been quite pleasant for several years. The family shared interests in art and drama. They also enjoyed a lovely home and garden, pets, bicycling, long walks, and summer vacations.
After about 1900, however, Binet's family life took a turn for the worse. His wife became depressed and ill, and the couple rarely went out socially. His daughters had been isolated, too, since they were schooled at home. As the girls grew into young women, Binet worried about their ability to form healthy friendships. He also fretted about Alice's health and Madeleine's marriage, of which he did not approve. The gloomy atmosphere at home may have been reflected in Binet's hobby. In the last years of his life, he wrote plays with dramatist André de Lorde, nicknamed "The Prince of Terror." The plays all dealt with ghoulish themes, such as a released mental patient who committed murder and a scientist who tried to bring his dead daughter back to life.
In the ultimate irony, even Binet's intelligence test was largely ignored and even ridiculed in France during his lifetime. It was already being hailed abroad, however. After Binet's death, his test and those that followed had a profound impact on psychology, education, and society at large. Binet's name became forever linked with intelligence tests.
Although Binet intended his intelligence test to be a practical tool, it became impossible to separate this tool from the theoretical questions it raised: What was intelligence? How can it be tested? And how should researchers use the test results? These questions remain at the heart of a lively debate over intelligence testing.
Binet's ideas about intelligence were rooted in his earlier theory of individual psychology. He continued to stress variation, both within and across individuals. Based on his previous work, Binet was also convinced that such individual differences could best be detected by studying complex mental processes, such as memory, attention, imagination, and comprehension.
What is intelligence? Binet was always more concerned with measuring intelligence than with defining it. Nevertheless, the test he developed embodied his ideas about the nature of intelligence. Binet believed that intelligence was not a single entity. Instead, he viewed it as a collection of specific processes. Therefore, any general test of intelligence needed to sample the whole range of mental processes, rather than just one or two isolated abilities.
Binet also believed that people's mental abilities differed in quality as well as quantity. His observations of his daughters apparently convinced him of this point. From a very young age, Madeleine seemed to think things through more carefully, while Alice seemed to act more impulsively. When the girls were learning to walk, for example, Binet noticed that Madeleine would go only to objects a short distance away. Alice, on the other hand, would head straight for an empty part of the room, apparently unconcerned about whether or not it contained an object she could grab for support.
Based on such observations, Binet was well aware that two children might arrive at the same overall result on his test by two very different paths. He wrote about the importance of noting the specific errors made by a child on the test, in order to get a more complete picture of how that child's mind worked. Unlike many psychologists who followed, Binet was unwilling to reduce a person's whole intelligence to a single number. In fact, the concept of an IQ score was not introduced until after Binet's death.
Binet also believed that intelligence was changeable within limits, rather than fixed; consequently, an individual's intelligence level could be raised through proper education. Binet acknowledged, however, that each person probably had an upper limit, but he thought that very few people came close to reaching it. Therefore, there was usually room for improvement. This was especially true of the mentally retarded children that Binet's test was designed to identify. In a 1909 book, titled Modern Ideas About Children, Binet decried the "brutal pessimism" of psychologists and educators who believed intelligence to be fixed at a set level.
Binet never set forth a rigorous definition of intelligence. In a 1905 paper, however, he and Simon argued that judgment played a central role:
It seems to us that in intelligence there is a fundamental faculty, the alteration or lack of which, is of the utmost importance for practical life. This faculty is judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances. To judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well, these are the essential activities of intelligence.
To Binet, the very essence of intelligence was rooted in practical experience.
How can intelligence be tested? To develop his test, Binet started with groups of children who had been identified by teachers or doctors as mentally retarded or of normal intelligence. Binet then had both groups perform a wide variety of tasks. He hoped to find tasks that would clearly differentiate the groups. He quickly ran into a snag, however. It proved nearly impossible to find tasks that were almost always done successfully by the normal intelligence group, but almost never by the retarded group. There was always some overlap in the results.
Then, Binet had one of the most important insights of his career. He realized that age made a critical difference. Both the retarded children and those with normal intelligence might eventually master the same skill. However, the normal intelligence children did so at a younger age. This idea has become so widely accepted that it seems like common sense today. Before Binet, however, other researchers had missed the crucial connection.
With this insight as a starting point, Binet and Simon came up with 30 tasks of gradually increasing difficulty. The simplest tasks were at the very basic level of intelligence seen in normal infants or in the most profoundly retarded children of any age. The hardest tasks could be passed easily by normal 11- or 12-year-olds, but were beyond the grasp of even the oldest and most capable retarded children. These items, and the others in between, made up the first Binet-Simon Scale of 1905.
A child's score on the total scale revealed his mental level. For example, a seven-year-old child who passed all the tasks normally passed by children of his age would have a mental level of seven. However, if that same child could only pass the tasks normally passed by five-year-olds, he would have a mental level of five. Binet noted that it was common for children to have a mental level that lagged behind their chronological age by a year. Most of these children did fine in a regular classroom. If a child's mental level trailed his chronological age by at least two years, however, and if the child came from an ordinary French background and was healthy and alert when he took the test, then a diagnosis of mental retardation could be considered.
Binet wanted his test to be psychological rather than educational. Therefore, he avoided tasks that relied heavily on reading, writing, and other school-related skills. Yet he also believed that the test should assess judgment in lifelike situations. Therefore, he included many tasks that required a basic knowledge of French culture and life. Binet knew this meant that his test would only be valid for children who had grown up in the mainstream French culture, but he reasoned that it would be able to accurately assess most of the French schoolchildren for whom the test was designed.
Although the Binet-Simon Scale of 1905 was a groundbreaking achievement, it had some flaws. For one thing, the mental levels were based on research that had studied only 50 normal-intelligence children and 45 mentally retarded children. Therefore, the levels provided only rough guidelines. In addition, more than half of the tasks were geared to very young or severely retarded children. Yet, in real life, most of the tough decisions that needed to be made involved older children around the borderline between mental retardation and normal intelligence. Binet and Simon attempted to correct these flaws in the 1908 and 1911 revisions of the scale.
To do this, the researchers set out to expand and refine the tasks that made up the test. Starting in 1905, they tested numerous tasks in a larger number of children between the ages of three and 13. For a task to be assigned a mental level of seven, for example, it had to be passed by only a few of the six-year-olds, most of the seven-year-olds, and even more of the eight-year-olds with normal intelligence. Of course, not all tasks broke down neatly this way. By 1908, however, Binet and Simon had found 58 tasks that met their criteria. These refined tasks made up the 1908 revision of the Binet-Simon Scale.
That same year, Simon left Paris to become director of a mental hospital in Rouen. He and Binet continued to work together afterward, but not as closely as before. Meanwhile, Binet expanded the intelligence scale up to a mental level of 15. He also adjusted the test so that there were exactly five items for each age level. In an effort to better standardize and quantify the test, Binet came up with a formula. It calculated the mental level of a child by counting one-fifth of a year for each subtest passed. Binet worried that dividing year levels into fifths implied a misleading degree of precision, however. He warned that the fractions "do not merit absolute confidence." Even for the same person, they could vary noticeably from one test-taking to another. The higher age level and the new formula were included in the 1911 revision of the test.
How should intelligence test results be used? For Binet, there were at least two reasons why intelligence test results should not be considered exact measurements of mental ability. One, the test itself was imperfect, containing sources of error and unreliability. Two, he believed intelligence could change over time. The latter view set Binet apart from some of the psychologists who expanded upon his test in the decades after his death. It also led Binet to recommend frequent retesting.
Before the Binet-Simon Scale, children had been placed in special educational programs based on nothing more than subjective opinions. Binet knew that such opinions were often biased. For example, teachers in regular schools might label troublemakers as mentally retarded to get them out of their classes. Conversely, teachers in special schools might exaggerate their students' achievements to makes themselves look good. Likewise, parents might understate their children's mental ability to escape responsibility for them. Or, they might overstate to avoid embarrassment. Even professional evaluators tended to be quite inconsistent. For example, one principal claimed not to have a single mentally retarded child at his school, while another claimed to have 50 of them. Clearly, a more objective means of assessment was needed.
Binet argued that his test should be adopted for two reasons. First, it avoided the bias and inconsistency that occurred when placement decisions were based strictly on subjective opinions. Instead, the test was rooted in objective data. Second, the test tried to assess mental capability rather than school-based learning. Therefore, a child's performance on the test was thought to be relatively independent of his or her past school experiences.
Binet thought his test could identify which children would be able to succeed in regular classrooms and which would need special educational programs. He also believed, however, that the categories of normal and retarded were not carved in stone. Steps could be taken to raise the intelligence of mentally retarded children, at least to a degree. To this end, he helped design a series of exercises called "mental orthopedics." Binet had noted that retarded children, much like young children of normal intelligence, had trouble paying attention to anything for very long. Therefore, many of the exercises were geared to helping children increase their attention span. For example, one exercise was the game Statue. The teacher would give a signal to freeze, and the children would try to hold their position until they were told to relax.
Binet had begun his career by studying mental ability using simple physiological measures, such as the two-point threshold and reaction time. Eventually, however, he concluded that measures of complex mental processes—such as memory, attention, imagination, and comprehension—were needed to sort out individual differences in intelligence. Therefore, his intelligence test included tasks that were intended to assess these complex processes.
Binet-Simon Scale of 1905 The first Binet-Simon Scale included 30 items. They are listed below in order from easiest to most difficult.
- Le regard. This item tested a child's ability to follow a lighted match with his or her eyes. The goal was to assess a very basic capacity for attention.
- Prehension provoked by a tactile stimulus. This item tested a child's ability to grasp a small object placed in his or her hand, hold it without letting it fall, and carry it to the mouth.
- Prehension provoked by a visual perception. This item was similar to the previous one; however, it tested a child's ability to reach for and grab an object placed within his or her view.
- Recognition of food. In this task, a piece of chocolate was placed next to a little cube of wood. The aim was to see whether the child could tell by sight alone which of the objects was food.
- Quest of food complicated by a slight mechanical difficulty. In this task, a piece of candy was shown to the child and then wrapped in paper. The aim was to see whether the child would unwrap the candy.
- Execution of simple commands and imitation of simple gestures. This item tested whether the child knew how to shake hands with the examiner and comply with simple spoken or gestured commands. The goal was to assess very basic social and language skills. Children with normal intelligence could pass the first six items on the test by age two. Some of the items, however, were too difficult for the most profoundly retarded children. Therefore, profound retardation came to be defined as a mental level no higher than that of a two-year-old with normal intelligence, including the inability to interact socially and use language.
- Verbal knowledge of objects. In this task, the examiner asked the child to point to various parts of the body. The child was then asked to give the examiner various common objects, such as a cup and a key.
- Verbal knowledge of pictures. In this task, the child was asked to point to familiar objects in a picture, such as a window and a broom.
- Naming of designated objects. This item was the opposite of the previous one. Using another picture, the examiner pointed to familiar objects and asked the child to name them.
- Immediate comparison of two lines of unequal lengths. In this task, the child was shown pieces of paper with pairs of lines on them. One line was always 4 cm long; the other, 3 cm. The child was asked to indicate which line was longer.
- Repetition of three figures. This item tested a child's ability to repeat back a string of three numbers.
- Comparison of two weights. In this task, the child was shown two boxes that looked identical, but were of different weights. The child was asked to decide which box was heavier.
- Suggestibility. In some of the previous tasks, the examiner would make false suggestions to see how the child would respond. For example, after asking the child to point to various common objects, the examiner would ask the child about an object that was not there.
- Verbal definition of known objects. This item tested a child's ability to give simple definitions for familiar things, such as a house and a fork.
- Repetition of sentences of 15 words. This item tested a child's ability to repeat back sentences averaging 15 words long. These last nine items on the test could be passed by children with normal intelligence by age five. The items assessed simple vocabulary and language skills as well as basic judgment and memory. This particular item was considered the cut-off point for moderate retardation. That is, moderately retarded children were thought to operate at the level of a two- to five-year-old with normal intelligence.
- Comparison of known objects from memory. In this task, the child was asked to state the differences between pairs of common objects, such as a piece of wood and a piece of glass.
- Exercise of memory on pictures. In this task, the child was shown several pictures of familiar objects for a brief time. The child was then asked to name the objects from memory.
- Drawing a design from memory. In this task, the child was briefly shown two geometric designs, then asked to draw them from memory.
- Immediate repetition of figures. This item was identical to the earlier one in which the examiner asked the child to repeat back a string of three numbers. Now, however, the examiner gave greater weight to the nature of any errors.
- Resemblances of several known objects given from memory. In this task, the child was asked to state the similarities between sets of objects, such as a fly, an ant, a butterfly, and a flea.
- Comparison of lengths. In this task, the child was shown pieces of paper with pairs of lines on them. The child was asked to indicate which line was longer. While this was similar to an earlier task, the differences in line lengths were smaller this time.
- Five weights to be placed in order. This item required the child to arrange five identical-looking boxes in order of heaviness. The boxes varied in weight from 3 grams to 15 grams.
- Gap in weights. After the previous task, one of the middle boxes was removed while the child closed his or her eyes. The child was then asked to figure out which box was missing by hand-weighing.
- Exercise upon rhymes. This item tested the child's ability to name words that rhymed with the French word obéissance.
- Verbal gaps to be filled. This item tested the child's ability to fill in the blanks in simple spoken sentences. For example, one sentence was: "The weather is clear, the sky is (blue)."
- Synthesis of three words in one sentence. In this task, the child was given three words: "Paris," "river," and "fortune." The child was then asked to make up a sentences using all the words.
- Reply to an abstract question. This item tested the child's ability to answer 25 questions dealing with practical problem-solving and social judgment. The questions ranged from very easy to fairly difficult. For example, one medium-difficulty question asked: "When anyone has offended you and asks you to excuse him, what ought you to do?"
- Reversal of the hands of a clock. This item tested the child's ability to figure out in his or her head what time it would be if the large and small hands on a clock were reversed for various times.
- Paper cutting. In front of the child, the examiner folded a paper into quarters, and then cut out a triangle at the edge with a single fold. Without actually unfolding the paper, the child was then asked to draw the design he would see if the paper were opened.
- Definitions of abstract terms. In this task, the child was asked to state the differences between two abstract terms, such as weariness and sadness.
These last 15 items on the test contained the boundary line between mild retardation and normal intelligence. In general, these items could be passed by children of normal intelligence between the ages of 5 and 11. However, some of the most difficult tasks near the end were not always passed by even 11-year-olds with normal intelligence.
Binet-Simon Scale of 1911 The final version of the Binet-Simon Scale included similar items. Some examples are given below. The ages refer to the age at which typical children of normal intelligence were able to perform certain tasks.
- Age three: Pointing as told to the eyes, nose, and mouth; naming common objects in a picture; repeating back a string of two numbers; repeating a six-syllable sentence; knowing their last names.
- Age six: Telling the difference between morning and evening; telling an "attractive" face from an "ugly" one in a picture; copying a diamond-shaped design from memory; counting 13 pennies; giving simple definitions for familiar things, such as a fork and a table.
- Age 10: Copying line drawings from memory; composing a sentence with the words "Paris," "fortune," and "river"; placing five identical-looking boxes in order by weight; answering questions involving social judgment; finding and explaining absurdities in statements. Some of the latter statements showed Binet's fascination with ghoulish themes, similar to the subject matter of the plays he was writing at the time. For example, one item asked children to explain what was wrong with this statement: "The body of an unfortunate girl was found, cut into 18 pieces. It is thought that she killed herself."
- Age 15: Repeating back a string of seven numbers; naming three rhymes for the French word obéissance; repeating a 26-syllable sentence; giving appropriate explanations for pictured scenes of people; solving problems such as this one: "My neighbor has just been receiving strange visitors. He has received in turn a doctor, a lawyer, and then a priest. What is taking place?"
Test-giving procedures Binet and Simon provided general instructions on how to give their test. Many of these echo the procedures still used in individual testing today. For example, the test was to be given in a quiet room with no distractions. When the child met the examiner for the first time, a familiar person, such as a relative or the school principal, was to be present. The examiner was to greet the child with "friendly familiarity," to help put the child at ease. Binet realized that the child's emotional state and motivation could affect the results, so he stressed that these factors should not be ignored.
Binet had not forgotten his early mistake made when studying hypnosis; specifically, that the subject's behavior had unintentionally been changed by suggestions from the hypnotist. Binet's research on memory in schoolchildren had also underscored the power of suggestion to affect behavior. Therefore, Binet was well aware that unwitting suggestions by an examiner might affect children's performance on the intelligence test. In a 1905 paper, he and Simon warned: "It is a difficult art to be able to encourage a subject, to hold his attention, to make him do his best without giving aid in any form by an unskillful suggestion."
In his 1909 book, Modern Ideas About Children, Binet noted four mental processes that he thought played a key role in intelligence. He also described how these processes might look in young children of normal intelligence. Of course, these descriptions also fit older children and adults with moderate retardation.
- Comprehension. This term referred to the ability to notice and understand things. Binet wrote that young children experienced the world largely through their senses. They also tended to see parts of things rather than the whole, and they had trouble differentiating unimportant details from important ones. When it came to language, the children used few adjectives and conjunctions. They also tended to use concrete words rather than abstract ones. In short, they had "a comprehension that remains always on the surface."
- Inventiveness. This concept referred to the ability to describe and interpret things. Binet wrote that young children still used words in a very limited and rather dull way. When shown a picture, the children described it in vague terms that could describe any number of pictures.
- Direction. This term referred to the ability to pay attention and stay on task. Binet noted that young children frequently forgot what they were doing. They tended to get carried away by fantasy, losing track of their real-world aims. When speaking, the children jumped from subject to subject, based on chance associations rather than logical connections.
- Criticism. This referred to the ability to make critical judgments. Binet noted that this ability, too, was quite limited in young children. The children naively accepted the most absurd explanations. They also told lies because of their weak ability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy. In addition, young children were highly suggestible.
Like everyone else, Binet was shaped by the times in which he lived. In part, his intelligence test was a reaction to earlier efforts by two of his colleagues, British Sir Francis Galton and American James McKeen Cattell, who each had tried to assess mental ability with physiological measures.
Galton and hereditary intelligence
The first person to try to develop a scientific intelligence test was Francis Galton. This British scientist, a half-cousin of English naturalist Charles Darwin, was a polymath, a person who is knowledgeable in many scientific areas. His interests included studying weather, fingerprints, and the peoples of Africa. Galton argued that plants and animals varied in systematic ways, and he devised new statistical methods for studying heredity. When it came to people, Galton proposed a controversial idea: the planned selection of superior parents as a means of improving the human race. To this end, he coined the term "eugenics" for the theoretical science of human breeding.
Before a practical program of eugenics could gain wide support, however, Galton had to show that his ideas were sound. Galton had been greatly influenced by his famous half-cousin's theory of evolution. A basic premise of that theory is that the variation among members of any species is inherited. The differences among parents in one generation are passed down to their offspring in the next generation. In an 1869 book titled Hereditary Genius, Galton set out to show that high mental ability was passed down this way. It is likely that Galton's own family tree inspired this line of thinking, since both he and Darwin were grandsons of Erasmus Darwin, a noted physician and naturalist in his own right.
For the book, Galton picked a sample of people who had achieved great enough success in their careers to be listed in biographical reference works. Galton then researched their family backgrounds and found that about 10% had at least one close relative who was successful enough to be listed, too. Although this was a small percentage, it was still a much higher rate than would have been expected based on chance alone. This finding was consistent with Galton's theory of hereditary ability. It did not settle the issue, however, since most individuals in the same family share not only genes, but also similar lifestyles and experiences. Thus began the great nature-nurture debate, which asks: How much of people's intelligence is due to nature (the genes they inherited from their parents), and how much is due to nurture (the way they were raised and the experiences they have had)? This question continues to be hotly debated today.
In 1865, Galton suggested that a test might be devised to measure inherited differences in mental ability. When it came time to actually develop such a test, however, he was stumped. All he had was a vague notion that the inherited differences must arise from measurable differences within the brain and nervous system. Eventually, Galton developed a series of physiological tests for measuring reaction time, the sharpness of the senses, and physical energy. He hoped these tests would show the efficiency of a person's nervous system and, thus, the basis for his or her hereditary intelligence.
In 1884, Galton set up a laboratory at the South Kensington Museum in London to measure individual differences in mental ability. For a small fee, people could be tested there. Today, Galton's choice of tests seems amusingly misguided. For one test, he used a special whistle to measure the highest pitch people could hear. For another, he tested people's sensitivity to the smell of roses. Perhaps it is not surprising, then, that the tests did not work out as well as Galton had hoped. People with sharp senses and fast reaction times did not, as a group, turn out to especially gifted in other areas. Still, about 9,000 people paid for Galton's services, and scientists took note. If nothing else, Galton's laboratory was very successful at introducing the idea of intelligence testing to scientists and to the public.
Cattell and mental tests
James McKeen Cattell, an American psychologist, soon built upon Galton's physiological method of measuring intelligence. In 1890, he published a set of "mental tests," a catchy term he coined. Cattell suggested 10 mental tests for use with the general public.
- Dynamometer pressure. This test measured the strength of a person's hand grip. Cattell explained that he included this test because "it is impossible to separate bodily from mental energy."
- Rate of hand movement. This test measured how quickly a person could move his or her hand across 50 centimeters.
- Two-point threshold. A researcher touched a pair of rubber-tipped compass points to the back of a person's hand. When the tips were very close together, the subject felt them as a single point. The researcher attempted to find the smallest distance at which the tips were felt by the subject as two separate points.
- Pressure-causing pain. An instrument was pressed against a person's forehead with increasing force. The aim was to find the amount of pressure needed to cause signs of pain.
- Weight differentiation. This test required a person to put a set of identical-looking boxes in order by weight. The boxes, which differed in weight by 1 gram, ranged from 100 to 110 grams.
- Reaction time for sound. This test measured the very brief period that elapsed between the time when a sound was made and the time when a person's muscles started reacting to it.
- Time for naming colors. A set of red, yellow, green, and blue patches, arranged in random order, was shown to a person. The aim was to measure how long it took the person to name the colors.
- Bisection of line. A 50-centimeter strip of wood with a sliding line attached was used. The person was asked to place the line as close as possible to the exact middle of the strip.
- Judgment of time. In this test, the examiner first tapped out a 10-second interval. The examiner then tapped on the table and asked the person to signal when another 10 seconds had passed.
- Number of repeated letters. This test measured how well a person could repeat back lists of random consonants.
A flurry of this kind of mental testing followed in the 1890s. When powerful new statistical methods came into use, however, it soon became clear that the tests were sorely lacking. Earlier, Galton had developed the concept of a correlation, the degree and direction of association between two things. Karl Pearson perfected the method of computing a correlation coefficient, an index of the strength of the relationship between two things when certain conditions are met. This statistic became known as the Pearson r. Now, researchers had a more sophisticated way to analyze test results.
In 1901, Clark Wissler, one of Cattell's own graduate students, dealt a death blow to this type of mental testing. Using the new statistical methods, he studied the scores of college students who had taken Cattell's tests. Wissler found virtually no correlation among the tests. In other words, a student who did well on one of the tests was not especially likely to do well on any of the other tests. Even worse, scores on the tests also did not correlate with college grades. This meant Cattell's tests and college grades were measuring different things. Since college grades were thought to reflect intelligence, it seemed Cattell's tests must be measuring something else.
Binet compared to Galton and Cattell
The failure of Galton's and Cattell's intelligence tests opened the door for Binet to develop a more practical alternative. He succeeded where they had failed at devising a test that was related to intelligent behavior in real life. Today, most useful intelligence tests for people of all ages are still based on Binet's model. Such tests require people to use several mental abilities to perform a broad range of complex tasks.
One factor that may have helped Binet succeed was his choice of study population. Galton and his followers had been mainly interested in studying intelligence in adults at the high end of the ability range. Binet, in contrast, was interested in testing the intelligence of children at the low end. Because he worked with children, Binet was able to see the way intelligence developed over time. And because he looked at less advanced mental processes, basic patterns may have been easier to notice.
Binet's own studies of very creative adults, such as dramatists, had found that there was great individuality and complexity in higher-order abilities. When the Binet-Simon Scale was introduced, Binet noted that some children had a mental level that was a year or more ahead of their age in years. Were these children destined to grow up into very bright and talented adults? At first, Binet believed that it might be possible to answer that question by extending his scale upward. By 1908, however, he had developed doubts. The mixture of mental abilities measured by his test had only been shown to be something that prevented people from being retarded. They had not been shown to be the source of high ability, talent, or genius. Therefore, the very nature of the "intelligence" measured by Binet's test seemed to be rather different from the "intelligence" Galton had had in mind.
Another major difference between Binet and Galton was their position on the nature-nurture debate. Galton mainly focused on the nature side of the equation. He viewed the upper limits of a person's ability as fixed by genetics rather than culture. Binet, in contrast, was more interested in the role of nurture. He believed that cultural factors played a large role in shaping an individual's mental abilities. He also stressed that intelligence was changeable within limits through proper education.
Because Binet saw culture and intelligence as closely related, he had no qualms about including culturally based items on his test. Of course, this meant that the test was only valid for people who came from a certain background. Galton's and Cattell's physiological tests, on the other hand, would have been more applicable to people from many different backgrounds—if only they had worked.
By a twist of fate, both Galton and Binet died in 1911. After the two men's deaths, a strange thing occurred: Binet's scale was immediately taken up by scientists whose views and goals were otherwise much closer to Galton's. Clearly, Binet's test survived because it had practical value. The theory behind the test, however, was not as quickly embraced. In part, this may have been because Binet himself was always more interested in measuring intelligence than in explaining it within a theoretical framework.
It may also have been due, in part, however, to the way the two scientists led their lives. At the time of their deaths, Galton was an old man, long past his active research days, while Binet was still in the prime of his career. Yet Galton held greater sway in scientific circles. During the last years of his life, Galton drummed up considerable support for his eugenics program and the hereditary theory of intelligence. Binet, on the other hand, had gained far fewer followers. As a result, the next generation of intelligence testers tended to use Binet's techniques to advance Galton's ideas.
Spearman and general intelligence
Around the same time that Binet introduced his intelligence test, English psychologist Charles Spearman published his own theory of intelligence. It, too, was at odds with Binet's concepts. Yet in later years, Spearman's ideas, like those of Galton and Cattell, were often promoted using Binet's test.
Spearman's early work was actually inspired by Galton and Cattell. In one experiment, he studied two dozen schoolchildren in three ways. First, he had their teacher rank them on "cleverness in school." Second, he had the two oldest children rank their classmates on "sharpness and common sense out of school." Third, Spearman himself ranked the children's performance on tests designed to measure the sharpness of their senses. Then Spearman calculated the correlations among these measures. He found a modest association between the teacher's and classmates' rankings, on one hand, and the sensory rankings, on the other. These findings differed from Clark Wissler's results, who had found no correlation. Spearman explained the difference, however, by pointing out flaws in Wissler's work. In truth, Spearman's own method was far from perfect. Later researchers have tended to confirm Wissler rather than Spearman, finding very little association between sensory abilities and mental abilities.
Nevertheless, Spearman was encouraged. He went on to study the grades that children had earned in various school subjects. He found that children who did well in one subject tended to do well in the others, too. Likewise, children who did poorly tended to do so across the board. Taken together, Spearman's findings seemed to point to a common thread tying together all these measures of mental ability. Spearman referred to this single, broad capability as general intelligence, or g. He first published his theory of general intelligence in an influential 1904 paper.
Spearman viewed general intelligence as a single, broad entity. Binet, in contrast, viewed intelligence as a group of mental processes that were arranged in different patterns within different people. Unlike Spearmen, Binet did not focus on finding a unifying factor for these processes.
Although Spearman disagreed with Binet's theory, he was quite impressed by the Binet-Simon Scale. Even Spearman realized that his own method of measuring intelligence with teacher rankings, classmate rankings, and grades was not ideal. For one thing, it was too closely tied to school performance. Binet's test offered a useful alternative that was not as greatly affected by past classroom experiences.
Of course, Spearman saw Binet's test from his own point of view. When Spearman calculated the correlations among individual items on the test, he found a familiar trend: Children who did well on one item tended to also do well on the others. Spearman took this as evidence that the items were actually measuring general intelligence to a large extent. He argued that Binet's test worked precisely because the overall result provided a useful estimate of a person's level of general intelligence. In addition, he believed that a person's general intelligence level owed more to heredity than to lifestyle and experiences. This became a popular view, even though Binet himself did not share many of Spearman's ideas.
When Binet died, he considered his test to be a work in progress. He was still constantly striving to improve it. Yet this imperfect test was itself widely adopted, and it became the model for other tests that have had an enormous impact on society. Since Binet's death, the field of intelligence testing has attracted both ardent supporters and vocal critics. Few other areas of psychology have proven to be such lightning rods for controversy.
Stern and the intelligence quotient
Today, the terms "intelligence test" and "IQ test" are often used interchangeably. Therefore, many people assume incorrectly that Binet came up with the idea of an intelligence quotient (IQ), a single number for expressing the overall result on an intelligence test. This distinction actually goes to German psychologist William Stern. In fact, Binet resisted the idea of reducing a person's intelligence to a single number. When Stern introduced the concept of IQ in 1912, Binet was no longer alive to complain. But his coauthor, Simon, later called the IQ concept a betrayal of their original ideas.
Nevertheless, Stern's concept caught on quickly; it involved some seemingly small but critical changes in the way Binet's test results were used. Binet had talked about the mental level of children who took his test. Stern recast this as mental age, which implied a more precise measurement scale. Then, Stern proposed that mental age could be divided by chronological age to yield a handy numerical score. In 1916, the American psychologist Lewis Terman suggested multiplying this score by 100 to get rid of fractions. For example, consider a seven-year-old child with a mental age of six. To calculate this child's IQ, an examiner would divide six by seven, then multiply the answer by 100. The child's IQ would be 86.
Most people would agree that a five-year-old with a mental age of three has a more serious delay than a 15-year-old with a mental age of 13. Using Binet's method, both children would simply be regarded as being two years behind. Using the IQ method, however, the differences in severity would be more obvious. The 15-year-old would have an IQ of 87 (in the normal intelligence range), while the five-year-old would have an IQ of only 60 (in the mentally retarded range). The 15-year-old would need to have a mental age of nine to get an IQ score that low. As this example shows, the use of IQs helped to equalize the scores for children who had roughly the same degree of mental retardation or normal intelligence, but who were of different ages.
Expressing intelligence as a single number also had other effects however. For one thing, it encouraged people to look at intelligence as a single entity, along the lines of Spearman's General Intelligence. For another thing, it gave researchers a number they could use in correlational studies. A flood of studies followed in which researchers looked at the association between "intelligence" (as measured by IQ tests) and an endless list of other variables. Yet many people had—and still have—grave doubts about whether something as complex as intelligence could really be boiled down into something as simple as a numerical score.
Goddard and negative eugenics
Stern may have come up with the IQ formula, but American psychologist Henry Goddard did the most to popularize the Binet-Simon Scale in the early days. As director of research at the Training School for the Feebleminded in Vineland, New Jersey, Goddard was eager to learn all about the latest advances in the mental retardation field. In 1908, he traveled to Europe to see what was being doing there. Although he visited Paris, he never met Binet. At the time, Binet had yet to earn prestige within his own country, and Goddard got the impression that Binet was making little progress. In fact, Goddard did not even realize that Binet had just published a revision of his scale. As Goddard wrote in his travel diary: "Visited Sorbonne. Binet's lab is largely a myth. Not much being done. . ."
When Goddard reached Belgium, however, he found out just how wrong he had been, learning there about the latest revision of the Binet-Simon Scale. Back in New Jersey, Goddard translated the test. Although skeptical at first, he gave the test to the mentally retarded children at his school. He became an instant convert when he saw how well the test classified the children's degree of retardation. By 1915, Goddard had distributed more than 22,000 copies of the translated test and 88,000 answer blanks around the United States.
Goddard was a fan of Binet's test, but not of his ideas. Instead, Goddard believed firmly in hereditary intelligence and eugenics. In fact, he took these views to an extreme. Galton, the founder of eugenics, had mainly wanted to foster breeding among people at the upper end of the intelligence range. Binet, the opposing voice, had wanted to promote the education and improve the lives of people at the lower end. Goddard, in contrast to both, was determined to prevent breeding among people with low intelligence—a policy called negative eugenics. Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel's basic laws of heredity, which had gone unnoticed when he proposed them in the 1860s, had been rediscovered in the early 1900s. Influenced by the excitement over Mendel's laws, Goddard incorrectly believed that mental retardation was caused by a single gene, and he thought it could be wiped out by preventing people with defective intelligence genes from having children.
In 1912, Goddard published a popular book titled The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness. This book was a sensationalized account of two branches of a family. One branch supposedly had a gene for feeblemindedness, which showed up in all manner of unsavory and immoral behavior among the relatives. The other branch, which supposedly lacked the gene, was filled with upstanding citizens. Goddard's methods of gathering and presenting data for this book were later shown to be quite biased. Yet, even taking his arguments at face value, they failed to prove his hereditary theory. As with Galton's earlier study of genius, it was impossible to separate the effects of nature and nurture.
While Goddard's book may not have been great science, it was certainly effective propaganda. As a result of his book and others like it, several states passed laws requiring the involuntary sterilization of people with mental retardation. Intelligence tests were used to help identify which individuals would be candidates for sterilization.
Tragically, events in Nazi Germany during the 1930s and 1940s would highlight all too clearly the dark side of eugenics. In the early years of Nazism, more than 200,000 "degenerates" of all types, including people with mental retardation, were sterilized in Germany. Later, Germans with mental retardation and physical disabilities were among the millions of people killed alongside the Jews during the Holocaust. Once the extent of these atrocities became known, public revulsion helped turn opinion against negative eugenics, including the practice of involuntary sterilization. Today, some states still have involuntary sterilization laws on the books, but the policy is rarely enforced.
It is sad that it took such a brutal turn of events to make a crucial point: The improvement of the human race depends not only on heredity, but also on providing a better environment and improved education. Modern social policy often focuses on environmental and educational programs. Thus, society has come full circle to embrace the views of Binet and his "mental orthopedics." Yet it is ironic that Binet's test was used by others to justify policies that were so at odds with his personal philosophy.
Terman and the Stanford-Binet intelligence scales
While Goddard introduced Binet's test to the United States, it was Lewis Terman who ensured its lasting popularity. At the same time that Binet and Simon were developing the first version of their scale in France, Terman was working on his doctoral thesis at Clark University in Massachusetts. A former teacher, Terman had noted that some students seemed to sail through all of their classes, while other students always struggled. He wanted to find mental tests that would distinguish one group of students from the other. To do this, he gave a series of tests to 14 schoolboys—seven of whom had been singled out by their teachers as exceptionally bright, and seven of whom had been singled out as exceptionally dull. Although Terman was still unaware of Binet's work, the tests he chose were more similar to those of Binet than to those of Galton or Cattell. The tests involved creative imagination, logic, mathematical ability, language mastery, interpretation of fables, the game of chess, memory, and motor skill.
As Terman had expected, the bright boys did better, on average, than the dull boys on all the tests except those for motor skill. There was some overlap, however. On most of the tests, the best of the "dull" boys outdid the worst of the "bright" boys. As a result, Terman was disappointed by his findings. Yet the results only seemed like a failure because Terman had downplayed a key factor: The dull boys were almost a full year older, on average, than the bright ones. Had the two groups been the same age, the differences in their performance would have been greater. At the time, however, Binet had not yet pointed out the critical need for age standards in intelligence testing. Terman had failed to appreciate just how important age was.
In 1910, Terman accepted a teaching position at Stanford University. Around this time, he also learned about the Binet-Simon Scale. He immediately saw the advantage of using age standards. When age was taken into account, both his test items and those on the Binet-Simon Scale did a relatively good job of predicting school success. However, Terman also saw that the Binet-Simon Scale needed to be adapted for a U.S. audience. Terman showed that, in its original form, the Binet test seriously overestimated intelligence in young American children, but underestimated it in older children. Clearly, some of the test items and scoring needed to be adjusted.
Terman set out to assess Binet's test items on a large number of American children. Several new items, some of which were based on Terman's doctoral research, were assessed as well. Since Terman used better methods for choosing children on whom to try out the test, his results were more accurate than those of Binet. In 1916, Terman published his Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Scale, an unwieldy name that was quickly shortened to Stanford-Binet. The new test was more than a mere translation of the Binet-Simon Scale, however—it was a big leap forward. Forty new test items had been added, and some of the less reliable original items had been dropped. In addition, Terman had borrowed Stern's idea of expressing results on the test as an IQ score.
The Stanford-Binet was an advance in other ways as well. For example, it was the first published intelligence test to include very specific, detailed instructions on test giving and scoring. It also offered alternate items to be used under certain circumstances; for example, if the examiner made a mistake when giving the regular item.
The Stanford-Binet quickly became the best intelligence test in the world and the gold standard by which future tests would be judged. It included six tasks at each age level. Following are two examples.
- Age four: Saying which of two horizontal lines is longer; matching shapes; counting four pennies; copying a square; repeating a string of four numbers; answering a question such as: "What must you do when you are sleepy?"
- Age nine: Knowing the current day of the week and year; arranging five weights from heaviest to lightest; doing mental arithmetic; repeating a string of four numbers backward; producing a sentence using three specified words; finding rhymes.
In 1926, Terman began working on a revision of the test with his colleague Maude Merrill. The project took them 11 years to complete. The 1937 revision offered two equivalent forms of the test. It also added new types of tasks for preschool and adult test takers.
Another revision of the test was already well under way at the time of Terman's death in 1956. Published in 1960, this third edition of the Stanford-Binet offered only one form of the test, composed of the best items from the two earlier forms. No new items were added. There was one big change, however: the introduction of a new way of calculating IQ. No longer was it simply a matter of dividing mental age by chronological age, then multiplying by 100. Instead, a deviation IQ was used. The deviation IQ was based on a comparison of the performance of an individual with the performance of a group of same-aged people during the test's development phase. Test performance was converted to a score where the average was always 100, and the standard deviation, a measure of variance in the scores, was 16. In the current version of the Stanford-Binet, the standard deviation is 15, but the average is still 100.
To understand how this works, it helps to picture the range of scores fitting neatly into a bell-shaped curve. About two-thirds of all scores fall between the average (at the top of the bell) and one standard deviation on either side. In other words, about two-thirds of all people have IQ scores between 85 and 115. Ninety-five percent of all scores fall between the average and two standard deviations on either side. In other words, only 5% of all people have IQ scores lower than 70 or higher than 130. This type of test, with an average of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, has become the industry standard in intelligence testing.
Binet compared to Terman
Binet's method of intelligence testing was an excellent match for Terman's own interests and background. With Binet's work as a starting point, Terman made great strides in refining the intelligence test. One way he did this was by focusing on standardization, the process of test development in which a test is given to a representative sample of individuals under clearly specified conditions, and the results are scored and interpreted according to set criteria. The goal is to spell out a standardized method of giving, scoring, and interpreting the test in the future. This approach helps to ensure that as much as possible of the variance in scores is caused by true differences in individual ability, and not by differences in the testing situation.
A key part of this process is the selection of the standardization sample: the group of people on whom the test is tried out during the development phase. The underlying assumption is that this group is representative of the whole population of people who will eventually take the test. Terman's sample was much larger than Binet's, and he went to what were then unprecedented lengths to select his standardization sample. By modern standards, however, Terman's sample still fell short. It was not representative of the full spectrum of people living in the United States.
It is not just the standardization sample that needs to reflect the whole test population, however. The test materials need to do so as well. Otherwise, the test may be biased against those who find the materials less familiar or relevant. Binet recognized that his own test was valid only for children with a a knowledge of mainstream French culture. Terman's Stanford-Binet also tended to focus heavily on the majority culture in the United States. For example, the pictures in the test kit depicted mainly white people and middle-class situations. Critics argued that the test was biased against members of certain racial, ethnic, and social groups.
In addition, the test seemed to reward conformity. For example, Terman added this item to the test: "An Indian who had come to town for the first time in his life saw a white man riding along the street. As the white man rode by, the Indian said—'The white man is lazy; he walks sitting down.' What was the white man riding on that caused the Indian to say, 'He walks sitting down.'" The only answer accepted as correct was bicycle. Cars and other vehicles were considered incorrect, because legs don't go up and down on them. A horse was considered incorrect, because it was assumed that the Indian would know a horse if he saw one. Creative responses, such as a person riding on someone else's back, were also marked wrong. Critics noted that the test seemed to measure conventional, rather than creative, thinking.
Both Terman and Binet were interested in educational uses for their tests. Binet was concerned primarily with identifying mentally retarded children who might need special educational programs. Terman, on the other hand, was fascinated by gifted children. In fact, he is remembered as much today for his research on the gifted as for his intelligence test. In the early 1900s, many people believed the popular catchphrase "early ripe, early rot." In other words, they thought that child prodigies often burned out at an early age. Terman suspected that the reverse was actually true, but he needed evidence. Binet's testing method seemed tailor-made for such research.
One of the first hurdles Terman faced was showing that high IQ scores in childhood really were good predictors of high achievement in adulthood. One way he tried to address this was by having a graduate student, Catherine Cox, study the childhood biographies of some 300 people rated to be among history's greatest geniuses. The goal was to estimate their childhood IQs based on reports of the ages at which they had reached various landmarks in mental development. Obviously, this method left a lot to be desired. In many cases, little was known about the childhoods of these geniuses, and the information that was available was clearly not objective. Nevertheless, Terman and Cox believed that the study confirmed their basic point: These geniuses had "ripened" early, but they had certainly not gone to rot as adults.
Encouraged, Terman undertook a more ambitious project. In the early 1920s, his assistants tested more than 250,000 California schoolchildren. From this sample, Terman identified nearly 1,500 children with high IQs of 135 or above. Extensive background information was gathered on these children, nicknamed Terman's Termites. In what turned out to be the longest-running study ever done, the children have been followed ever since. This study showed that most of the children were normal, happy, and healthy. As the Termites grew up, they continued to thrive as a group. Most of them were also relatively healthy, successful, and content with their lives as adults. Although the study had its flaws, it went a long way toward disproving the "early rot" myth.
When it came to people with less exalted IQs, however, Terman's views could be less benign. Binet had wanted to identify children with below-normal intelligence so that they could be helped to learn and improve their lot in life. Terman, on the other hand, often seemed more concerned with putting a ceiling on what people could hope to achieve. He believed that, in an ideal world, everyone would be tested and then channeled into a job deemed appropriate for his or her intelligence. In general, he thought, jobs offering much in the way of status or money should be reserved for people with IQs over 100.
On the surface, this might seem logical enough. Yet there were at least two dangerous flaws in Terman's logic. First, Terman's IQ test was not a perfect predictor of true ability. Therefore, a low score might have kept someone from getting a good job that he or she would have been quite capable of doing. Second, the test had been criticized as being unfair to members of certain racial, ethnic, and social groups. If the test were indeed biased against individuals from these groups, then they would be likely to get lower-than-average scores for reasons unrelated to their actual intelligence. Yet those same scores could then be used to limit opportunities for advancement. Thus, it had become all too easy to turn IQ scores into a means of perpetuating social inequality. Binet himself would surely have been dismayed by this misuse of his creation.
Yerkes, Brigham, and group intelligence tests
Terman and Goddard had introduced intelligence testing to America. Soon, world events would turn it into a national priority. In 1917, the year after Terman first published the Stanford-Binet, the United States entered World War I. Like many other Americans, psychologist Robert Yerkes was eager to serve his country. As president of the American Psychological Association, he also wanted show the value of the young science he represented. Yerkes set up committees to explore the military uses of psychology. He made himself chairman of a committee that was charged with developing an intelligence test for matching military recruits to the right jobs. Terman and Goddard were included among the other psychologists named to the committee.
The task Yerkes had taken on was extremely difficult, however. First, given the sheer number of recruits, the individual testing method developed by Binet and refined by Terman would not have been practical. A whole new kind of group intelligence test, which could be given to several people at once, would need to be developed. Second, the test would have to not only screen out those with low ability, but also identify those with high ability who might be officer material. Third, the test would have to be designed specifically for adults, rather than for children. Fourth, the test development would have to be accomplished very quickly, since results were needed right away.
Yerkes' committee promptly put together two prototype tests: one for recruits who could read English, and another for those who could not. A trial on 80,000 men impressed the Army enough that it authorized the testing of all new recruits by the beginning of 1918. The tests were revised and renamed Army Alpha (for literate recruits) and Beta (for illiterate recruits). Soon, the tests were being given to some 200,000 men per month. By the time war ended in November 1918, about 1,750,000 men had taken one of the tests. This prodigious feat brought intelligence testing to the attention of the public. It introduced the idea of nearly universal testing, and it opened up a huge market for group tests after the war. In addition, the massive amount of data collected on the Army tests became the subject of intense study and led to much public debate about the state of intelligence in American society.
In 1921, Yerkes published Psychological Examining in the United States Army, an 800-page book analyzing the Army test data. Two years later, one of his junior colleagues named Carl Brigham published A Study of American Intelligence, which explored the same topic. The books made several questionable claims. For one thing, they claimed that the average mental age for all Army recruits was about 13 years. At the time, the mental age for an average adult was thought to be 16, and a mental age of 12 in an adult was considered the upper borderline for mild retardation. Therefore, the supposed mental age of the recruits was shockingly low. It might have been logical to conclude that the hastily thrown-together tests had been less than accurate. Yerkes, however, concluded that the results indicated a distressingly low level of intelligence in society at large.
Some of Yerkes' and Brigham's other conclusions were even more controversial. For example, the psychologists noted that, compared to native-born whites, immigrants and blacks tended to score lower on the tests. Once again, it might have been sensible to conclude that the tests had been biased toward members of the majority American culture. On the Alpha test, for example, individuals were expected to know that Overland cars were made in Toledo and that Crisco was a food product. On the Beta test, individuals were expected to be familiar with pictures of middle-class objects, such as a tennis court or a phonograph. Yet Yerkes and Brigham instead took the position that the lower scores obtained by immigrants and blacks indicated lower levels of natural mental ability in those groups.
At the time, racial segregation and discrimination were the norms in much of American society. Public sentiment had also turned sharply against immigration. In fact, in 1924, Congress passed a bill that set strict immigration quotas for each national group. This social climate helped to support Yerkes' and Brigham's conclusions. Yet, even at the time, there were opposing voices. One belonged to Franz Boas, a German immigrant himself and a leading American anthropologist of the early 1900s. Boas argued that many racial and ethnic characteristics were passed from generation to generation not by heredity, but by culture, through such mechanisms as shared values, language, and child-rearing customs.
American Otto Klineberg, a graduate student in psychology, was one of the first researchers to apply Boas' ideas to group differences in intelligence test scores. While studying Yakima Indian children in the state of Washington, he noticed that they seemed indifferent to time limits. They took their time, no matter how much they were urged to hurry, but they also made relatively few mistakes. Klineberg noted that, in Yakima culture, speed was not considered a sign of intelligence. On the contrary, it was thought to reflect carelessness. This was clearly a cultural rather than a genetic difference. Yet it put the Yakima children at a disadvantage on timed intelligence tests. Similar observations in other cultures soon added up to a convincing case. By the 1930s, all but the most diehard eugenicists had conceded that culture played an important role in causing group differences in IQ scores.
In 1926, Brigham made his mark on group intelligence testing in another way. He introduced a brandnew kind of standardized test of mental ability. IQ tests looked at general thinking ability. This new type of test, however, looked more specifically at the kinds of word and number skills that were used in school. Brigham's test became the forerunner of the SAT, a test that is still very familiar to high-school students.
Thurstone and the structure of intelligence
Meanwhile, research on the structure of intelligence was moving ahead as well. One of the most important figures in this field was American psychologist Louis Thurstone. He challenged Spearman's ideas and, in the process, changed the way many psychologists viewed intelligence.
Spearman had proposed the existence of a unifying factor called general intelligence. He believed that all of the variation in intelligence test scores could be explained by the pervasive influence of general intelligence, combined with specific effects that were unique to the particular test activity at hand. Thurstone developed new statistical methods, and when he applied them to intelligence test scores, he noted that mental abilities tended to cluster into several groups rather than just one. In 1938, Thurstone published a book titled Primary Mental Abilities, in which he proposed that there were actually seven clusters of mental abilities. He called the clusters verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning.
When originally introduced, Spearman's and Thurstone's findings seemed to be directly opposed to each other. One currently popular view of intelligence, however, combines the two theories. Intelligence is often seen as having a three-level, hierarchical structure. General intelligence is on the top. Clusters of mental abilities make up the second level. Although separate from each other, in combination they all form general intelligence. A host of specific mental abilities make up the various clusters on the third level. Even psychologists who accept this structure, however, have different opinions about which level to emphasize. Some still see general intelligence as the most crucial consideration. Others, however, think it is more worthwhile to focus on each person's distinctive pattern of strengths and weaknesses at the second level. The latter viewpoint echoes the view of intelligence put forth by Binet many decades before.
The Stanford-Binet after Terman
Terman died in 1956, but his legacy lives on. The fourth edition of the Stanford-Binet was introduced in 1972, 16 years after Terman's death. This version contained major changes. Previous versions of the Stanford-Binet had included age scales, in which test items were grouped together by the age at which most individuals could pass them. The fourth edition, in contrast, introduced a point scale, in which all the test items of a particular type were grouped together. The test was then evaluated in terms of how many items of each type were answered correctly, rather than in terms of an age level. By the 1970s, this was a very common test structure. It was also the type of structure used for the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, which had by then eclipsed the Stanford-Binet as the most widely used intelligence tests.
Previous editions of the Stanford-Binet had yielded an overall IQ score, considered to be a measure of general intelligence. The fourth edition, however, went beyond just providing a general IQ. It contained 15 subtests that also yielded scores on four clusters of mental abilities: verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory.
- Vocabulary. In this subtest, individuals are asked to identify pictured objects and define words.
- Comprehension. These items range from identifying parts of the body to answering more complex questions using social judgment; for example, "Why should people be quiet in a hospital?"
- Absurdities. Individuals are asked to identify what is wrong or silly about a picture.
- Verbal relations. Individuals are given four words; for example, "newspaper," "magazine," "book," "television." They are asked to state what is similar about the first three things, but different about the fourth.
- Pattern analysis. These tasks, which must be completed within a set time limit, range from putting cutout forms into a form-board to copying complex designs with blocks.
- Copying. Individuals are asked to copy designs with blocks or by drawing.
- Matrices. Individuals are shown an incomplete matrix—a systematic arrangement of geometric symbols, letters, or common objects. They are then asked to pick the object that is needed to complete the matrix.
- Paper folding and cutting. In these multiple-choice items, individuals are asked to decide how a folded and cut piece of paper will look when unfolded.
- Quantitative subtest. These items range from simple counting to knowledge of arithmetic concepts and operations.
- Number series. Individuals are asked to complete a sequence of numbers with the number that would come next.
- Equation building. Individuals are asked to rearrange a scrambled arithmetic equation so that it makes sense.
Alfred Binet may have invented intelligence testing, but the distinction of developing the most popular IQ test used today goes to David Wechsler. Wechsler was born in Romania in 1896. He moved with his family to the United States when he was six years old. By the time the United States entered World War I, Wechsler was a young graduate student studying psychology at Columbia University. At the start of the war, Wechsler served for a time as a volunteer scorer of the Army Alpha test. Once he became a junior officer, he was assigned to give the Stanford-Binet test to recruits who had been referred for extra testing. This experience gave Wechsler a firsthand glimpse of the strengths and weaknesses of the leading intelligence tests of the day. In particular, he became aware that the Stanford-Binet test did not always work well for assessing intelligence in adults.
After the war, Wechsler completed his Ph.D. and continued to conduct intelligence testing in the course of his work as a psychologist. In 1932, he became chief psychologist at Bellevue Hospital in New York, where he oversaw the testing of thousands of mentally ill patients. More convinced than ever that existing intelligence tests were insufficient, Wechsler set out to develop an alternative. First, he wanted his test to be tailored to the needs of adults rather than children. Second, he wanted it to be suitable for people from diverse ethnic, linguistic, and social backgrounds. Third, he wanted it to include a point scale, rather than an age scale, that would yield a deviation IQ. The latter method of calculating IQs converted test performance to a score where the average was always 100 and the standard deviation was 15. This method became so successful that it was soon adopted by almost all intelligence test developers, including those researchers who developed later revisions of the Stanford-Binet.
The test created by Wechsler gave equal weight to verbal items, similar to those on the Stanford-Binet and Army Alpha tests, and nonverbal performance items, similar to those on the Army Beta test. It yielded a Verbal Scale IQ and Performance Scale IQ as well as a Full Scale IQ. Wechsler introduced his Wechsler Bellevue Scale for adults in 1939. This was replaced by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) in 1955. The test was so well received that Wechsler also developed two versions for children: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for those of school age, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) for preschoolers. Wechsler died in 1981, but the latest versions of his tests are still widely used.
- Bead memory. In this subtest, individuals study a picture of a bead sequence for five seconds. They are then asked to reproduce the sequence using actual beads of varying color and shape.
- Memory for sentences. Individuals are asked to repeat sentences ranging in length from two to 22 words.
- Memory for digits. Individuals are asked to repeat strings of numbers.
- Memory for objects. In this subtest, familiar objects are presented at one-second intervals. Individuals are then asked to recall the objects in the correct order.
The fifth and latest edition of the Stanford-Binet was published in 2003. It is the most recent attempt to wed the rich tradition of this test with the newest research on mental abilities and intelligence testing. In the fifth edition, the traditional age scale has been brought back. Like the fourth edition, however, the test now yields scores on several clusters of mental abilities as well as on general intelligence.
In recent versions of the Stanford-Binet, developers have tried to weed out any systematic bias against members of particular racial, ethnic, or social groups. For example, the test kit now contains pictures showing children of different races and with disabilities, and the word "brunette" has been cut from the vocabulary test because it was not as meaningful to black children as to whites. A broader standardization sample has been chosen to better reflect the entire population of the nation. And psychologists from various racial and ethnic backgrounds have reviewed the materials for potential problems. Nevertheless, the test remains a product of its culture, and it may well be impossible to eliminate all bias.
A common criticism of previous versions of the Stanford-Binet test was that they relied too heavily on verbal abilities. The test was often unfavorably compared in this regard to the popular Wechsler Intelligence Scales, which David Wechsler first introduced in 1939. The Wechsler tests have two parts: Verbal and Performance. While the Verbal tasks are heavy on word skills, the Performance tasks rely less on language abilities. Instead, they involve nonverbal activities, such as completing pictures, making block designs, solving mazes, and using abstract symbols. This kind of test may be better suited to people for whom language is a barrier, as well as to those who have higher nonverbal abilities. The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet, for the first time, tries to offer a better balance of verbal and nonverbal items.
One advantage of the Stanford-Binet is that it is an adaptive test, which means it is tailored to each test taker's individual needs. The examiner uses information about a person to decide where to begin testing. This approach reduces the frustration that the person might feel if he or she was asked to complete tasks that were much too hard or too easy. It also cuts down on wasted time. Nevertheless, the Stanford-Binet is still an individual test, which means it is given by a trained examiner to only one person at a time, rather than to a group. The test usually takes about 45 to 60 minutes to give. As a result, it would usually not be feasible to give it to every student in a school, for example. Like the Wechsler scales and other individual tests, the Stanford-Binet typically is given only to individuals who have already been singled out as needing extra testing.
THEORIES IN ACTION
Today, psychologists can choose from among many different individual and group intelligence tests. These tests are used for a wide variety of purposes. Indeed, intelligence testing has become one of the most widespread uses of psychology in everyday life. Research using intelligence tests has also helped fuel the ongoing debate over the very nature of intelligence.
Research on the nature of intelligence
What is intelligence? Binet struggled with this question in his day, and modern scientists are still grappling with it. In the 1920s, one of the more infamous answers was offered by American psychologist Edwin Boring, who pronounced that "intelligence is what the tests test." This kind of circular reasoning may be amusing, but it is not very instructive for scientists seeking serious answers.
Whatever it is that intelligence tests measure, though, the tests seem to work best for predicting academic success. In study after study, intelligence test scores have been found to have a correlation of 0.4 to 0.6 (on a 0 to 1 scale) with school grades. Statistically speaking, this is considered a moderate to large correlation. But even a test that predicts school grades with a correlation of 0.5, however, still accounts for only 25% of the variation in school performance among individual students. This means that 75% of the variation is due to other factors. Clearly, the kind of intelligence that is measured on IQ tests is not the only predictor of academic performance. Other factors, such as good schools and high individual motivation, also seem to count for a lot.
Once researchers moved beyond the classroom and into the workplace, the predictive power of intelligence tests grew even weaker. In general, studies have found correlations between IQ scores and work performance of about 0.3. This means that the tests accounted for just 10% of the variation in performance among individual workers; therefore, 90% of the variation must be explained by other factors. In 1990, American psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer coined the term "emotional intelligence" to describe the emotional abilities and interpersonal skills that may play a critical role in workplace success.
This idea raises a related question: Is intelligence really just one thing or is it many? Some modern theorists have suggested that there may actually be several types of intelligence, some of which are not assessed by standard intelligence tests at all. One of these theorists is Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University. In 1983, Gardner published a book called Frames of Mind, in which he introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner thinks there are several different "intelligences" that are separate but equal in the mind. Some people learn more easily by using one kind of intelligence; others, by using another. So far, Gardner has described eight intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Of these, linguistic and logical-mathematical are most similar to the kinds of word and number skills used in school and assessed on IQ tests.
Fresh ideas such as Salovey and Mayer's emotional intelligence and Gardner's multiple intelligences are intriguing. Yet research on these alternate intelligences has been hampered by the lack of well-validated tests to measure them. Only time will tell whether these new concepts will hold up to rigorous testing as well as General Intelligence has.
Research on the nature-nurture debate
Another research question remains as relevant today as it was in Galton's time: Is intelligence mainly the result of nature or nurture? Modern research methods are shedding some new light on this old puzzle. Some of the most interesting findings have come from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. For this study, the researchers brought together from all over the world sets of twins who had been separated during childhood and, in most cases, have lived apart ever since. The twins were then put through a week of intense psychological and medical testing, including intelligence tests.
Since Galton's time, scientists have realized that twin studies presented a unique opportunity for exploring the genetic basis of intelligence. Identical twins share exactly the same genetic makeup. Therefore, their inherited intelligence should theoretically be the same. When identical twins are reared apart, the resulting differences in their intelligence should be largely due to differences in their separate environments. Of course, this is not perfectly true. For one thing, twins do share at least one crucial part of their lives: the prenatal part in the womb. For another thing, even when twins have been reared apart, they may have been placed in similar homes. Nevertheless, twin studies are one of the best tools psychologists have for separating the effects of nature and nurture.
1857: Born on July 8 in Nice, France.
1878: Receives a license in law, a career he chose not to pursue.
1879 or 1880: Began reading about psychology in a Paris library.
1880: Publishes his first article, "On the Fusion of Similar Sensations."
1884: Marries Laure Balbiani, daughter of biologist E. G. Balbiani.
1885: Birth of his daughter, Madeleine.
1886: Publishes his first book, The Psychology of Reasoning.
1887: Birth of his daughter, Alice.
1894: Receives a doctoral degree in natural science from the Sorbonne.
1895: Helps found the first French psychological journal.
1896: Publishes a paper outlining "individual psychology" with Victor Henri.
1899: Began working with Théodore Simon.
1900: Helps organize the Free Society for the Psychological Study of the Child.
1905: Along with Simon, introduces the first version of the Binet-Simon Scale.
1911: Makes the last revision of the Binet-Simon Scale. Dies on October 18.
The Minnesota study showed that identical twins who had been raised apart grew up to be almost as similar in intelligence as identical twins who had been raised together. The degree of similarity was impressive. For example, one test the twins took was the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, currently the most widely used IQ test for adults. The scores of identical twins reared apart correlated at 0.69, a high correlation that was not much different from the 0.88 correlation in the scores of identical twins reared together. On some other tests of mental ability, the correlations were even closer. For example, on a test called Raven's Progressive Matrices, the correlation for the reared apart identical twins was 0.78. For the reared-together identical twins, it was 0.76.
Overall, the Minnesota study and others like it have found that about half of the differences in intelligence within a group of people may be due to differences in genes. Of course, this also means that half of the differences are due to other things. In addition, what is true for a group of people is not always true for a particular individual. In the Minnesota study, for example, one pair of twins scored almost 30 points apart in IQ.
Studies of extreme cases are another way of exploring the nature and limits of intelligence. The nearly 1,500 high-IQ children who took part in Lewis Terman's long-running study of giftedness have become one of the best-researched groups in history. Over the years, some participants have chosen to reveal their identities, and reports have been published documenting their personal triumphs and tribulations. The life stories of Terman's Termites, as the study's participants came to be called, reveal a lot about the benefits and limitations of having a high IQ.
As a group, the Termites have fared relatively well. Although no world-class geniuses emerged from the group, some members achieved success and even a measure of fame as adults. For example, Jess Oppenheimer became the creator, producer, and head writer of I Love Lucy, one of the best-loved television shows of all time. Ancel Keys discovered the link between cholesterol and heart disease. Others in the group included Norris Bradbury, former director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Shelley Smith Mydans, a one-time journalist for Life magazine. Yet none of the Termites ever won a Nobel or Pulitzer Prize. It is an interesting footnote that two of children who were tested for the study but whose IQs failed to make the cut did go on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics: William Shockley in 1956 and Luis Alvarez in 1968.
Another Termite who eventually made a name for himself was Edward Dmytryk. At age 14, Edward was picked up by the authorities as a runaway. He had reportedly left home to escape an abusive father, who was said to have torn up his schoolbooks and clubbed him with a board. The father wanted Edward returned, although a caseworker suspected that this might have been only because Edward brought home income. Terman wrote a letter to the authorities on Edward's behalf, and the boy wound up being placed in a good foster home instead. This kind of meddling by a researcher in his subject's lives was typical of Terman. It may have affected the results of his study, thereby undermining the data from a scientific perspective, but it also demonstrated the deep interest that Terman took in the children. As an adult, Dmytryk went on to direct 23 movies, including The Caine Mutiny, a classic 1954 film starring Humphrey Bogart.
Of course, not all of Terman's Termites achieved happiness and success as adults. For example, the study included two half-sisters raised by the same mother, both of whom went to college at Stanford University. One became well-known as a freelance writer. The other died of alcoholism. Terman's study showed that high IQ was helpful in adulthood, but, by itself, it was clearly no guarantee of the good life. Among the personal traits that seemed to be associated with adult success were the ability to set goals and the perseverance to achieve them. In addition, a stable marriage and a satisfying job also were related to happiness as an adult. If nothing else, then, the study underscored the fact that people with high IQs have basically the same needs and desires as everyone else. At best, they may just have a running start at fulfilling those needs.
Relevance to modern readers
Until recently, two-thirds of school districts in the United States used group intelligence tests on a routine basis to screen 90% of their students. The remaining 10% were given individual tests. Over the last few decades, though, concerns over the potential for error and bias have curtailed the routine use of group tests. Many states have passed laws banning the use of group test scores alone for placing children in different educational tracks. Nevertheless, group intelligence test scores are still sometimes used by school districts for educational planning. The scores can also identify children who might need more detailed assessment with individual tests.
Such children include not only those with developmental and learning disabilities but also those with special gifts. Thanks to Terman, the idea of IQ as an index of giftedness is firmly rooted in American society. Yet Binet himself had doubts about the ability of intelligence tests to identify gifted or talented individuals, and some modern psychologists share his concerns. It seems that highly creative thinking might, by its very nature, defy conventional testing. In addition, there are many kinds of valuable abilities—including musical, artistic, athletic, and leadership skills—only a few of which are tapped by standard IQ tests. Today, various states and school districts use a wide range of methods for identifying gifted students. Many use standardized tests. Along with intelligence tests, however, assessment for gifted programs may involve tests for creative thinking, artistic ability, leadership, or motivation. In addition, screening might involve non-test measures, such as teacher checklists, teacher or parent recommendations, or the student's work in a portfolio.
Another common use for group tests is to help predict which high school students are likely to do well in college. The SAT is one familiar example of this kind of scholastic aptitude test. The scores from such tests tend to be highly correlated with IQ, and many psychologists regard scholastic aptitude tests as just another kind of intelligence test. Along with high school grades, SAT scores often play a big role in deciding who gets into a particular college and who does not. In 2003, 1.4 million high-school students took the SAT. Once those students are in college, similar tests are often used to help determine which of them will be admitted to graduate, medical, law, or business school.
The use of the SAT and similar tests to make educational decisions has long been the subject of controversy. The main advantage of the tests is that they make it easier to compare people coming from different schools and backgrounds. Grades are less comparable, since they reflect not only a student's ability, but also the difficulty of the courses the student has taken and the standards of the school. On the other hand, SAT scores show nothing about factors such as a student's motivation and work habits. Most psychologists now agree that, even when SAT scores are used, grades and other evidence of past performance also need to be considered.
Today, Robert Sternberg is one of the world's leading authorities on intelligence. His relationship with intelligence tests got off to an unpromising start, however. Born in 1949 in New Jersey, Sternberg struggled with IQ tests as a youngster. As he later recalled in his 1996 book Successful Intelligence, "I was incredibly test-anxious. Just the sight of the school psychologist coming into the classroom to give a group IQ test sent me into a wild panic attack."
Fortunately, Sternberg overcame his test phobia. He went on to earn a Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University in 1975. That same year, he took a position at Yale University, where he has taught psychology ever since. In 1985, Sternberg published an influential book titled Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence, in which he outlined a three-part structure for intelligence. This view was later expanded into his theory of successful intelligence, which refers to the capacity to achieve real-world success in everyday life.
According to Sternberg,
successfully intelligent individuals succeed in part because they achieve a functional balance among a 'triarchy' of abilities: analytical abilities, which are used to analyze, evaluate, judge, compare and contrast; creative abilities, which are used to create, invent, discover, imagine; practical abilities, which are used to apply, utilize, implement, and activate.
Sternberg believes that while successful people do not necessarily possess high aptitude in all three ability areas, they do find a way to effectively use their particular pattern of abilities. Of the three types of talents described by Sternberg, only analytical abilities are tapped by conventional intelligence tests. As a result, one of the basic premises of his work is that ordinary IQ tests often miss important kinds of mental talent. Sternberg also believes that all three kinds of abilities can be improved through training and practice.
Individual tests, such as the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Scales, are still widely used as well. They are often used for diagnosing specific educational or developmental problems. Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, helped solidify this role in the United States for intelligence tests. This law, and others that followed it, required the development of individualized educational plans for children with learning, mental, and physical disabilities. A key step in developing such plans is evaluating each disabled child's level of mental functioning.
Interestingly, the latter use for intelligence testing is very close to the one originally envisioned by Binet. In his critically acclaimed 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man, American paleontologist and author Stephen Jay Gould commented:
Ironically, many American school boards have come full cycle, and now use IQ tests only as Binet originally recommended: as instruments for assessing children with specific learning problems. Speaking personally, I feel that tests of the IQ type were helpful in the proper diagnosis of my own learningdisabled son. His average score, the IQ itself, meant nothing, for it was only an amalgam of some very high and very low scores; but the pattern of low values indicated his areas of deficit.
Indeed, many of Binet's ideas still seem timely today, a century after he first stated them. Binet stressed that intelligence test results should never be used to label people as innately incapable. Instead, the results should be used to help people make the most of their inborn mental abilities. Some of Binet's earliest followers failed to heed this part of his message. Over the years, however, society has learned from its mistakes. Most modern psychologists have come to appreciate the wisdom of Binet's views.
Becker, Kirk A. "History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Content and Psychometrics." Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition: Assessment Service Bulletin 1 (2003) 1–14.
Fancher, Raymond E. The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.
Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. Rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996.
Minton, Henry L. "Introduction to 'New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Levels of Subnormals.' Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon (1905)." In Christopher D. Green, ed. Classics in the History of Psychology. York University, 1998 [cited March 9, 2004]. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Binet/intro.htm.
Nicolas, Serge, and Ludovic Ferrand. "Alfred Binet and Higher Education." History of Psychology 5 (2002) 264–83.
Pollack, Robert H., and Margaret W. Brenner, eds. The Experimental Psychology of Alfred Binet: Selected Papers. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1969.
Siegler, Robert S. "The Other Alfred Binet." Developmental Psychology 28 (1992) 179–90.
Terman, Lewis M. "Autobiography of Lewis M. Terman." In Carl Murchison, ed. History of Psychology in Autobiography, Volume 2. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 1930, 297–331. Republished by Christopher D. Green, ed. Classics in the History of Psychology. York University, 1998 [cited March 9, 2004]. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Terman/murchison.htm.
Wolf, Theta H. Alfred Binet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Zazzo, René. "Alfred Binet." Prospects: The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 23 (1993): 101–12.
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, 1999.
Deary, Ian J. Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Green, Christopher D., ed. Classics in the History of Psychology. York University [cited March 9, 2004]. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca.
Kline, Paul. Intelligence: The Psychometric View. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Mackintosh, N. J. IQ and Human Intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Shurkin, Joel N. Terman's Kids: The Groundbreaking Study of How the Gifted Grow Up. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Fifth Edition. Riverside Publishing [cited March 26, 2004]. http://www.riverpub.com/products/clinical/sbis/home.html.
Sternberg, Robert J., ed. Handbook of Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Sternberg, Robert J. "How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?" Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence 9 (1998) 12–17.
Sternberg, Robert J. Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life. New York: Plume, 1996.
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)
Alfred Binet is perhaps best remembered for his role in elaborating the first numerical scale of intelligence, but his contributions to individual psychology, experimental science, and applied pedagogy transcended the confines of intelligence testing. Binet was a pioneering scholar whose diverse and eclectic research interests fundamentally transformed the scientific study of the child in France as well as abroad.
Binet was born in Nice but moved to Paris at age twelve to study at the prestigious Lycée Louis le Grand; he spent the rest of his life in the capital region. Descended from at least two generations of medical doctors, Binet hesitated in choosing a career, passing his licence in law in 1878 but abandoning legal studies in favor of the emerging field of psychology; he earned a doctorate in natural sciences in 1894. Fascinated by the work of English associationists, particularly John Stuart Mill, Binet began an exceptionally prolific publishing career with an 1880 Revue philosophique article on the psychology of sensations; under the direction of the embryologist E. G. Balbiani (whose daughter, Laure, he would marry in 1884), he soon launched an equally prolific experimental career. In 1883 Binet joined the laboratory of the preeminent Parisian neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière hospital. During his seven-year tenure at the laboratory, Binet became embroiled in the controversies surrounding Charcot's studies of hypnosis, loyally defending Charcot against charges that his demonstrations had been tainted by experimenters' unintentional suggestions to the patients.
In 1891, chagrined by his experiences in Charcot's laboratory, Binet joined the Sorbonne's new Laboratory of Experimental Psychology; in 1894, he was named director of the laboratory and became cofounder of the Année psychologique, a journal he would edit until his death. In the mid-1890s Binet became increasingly fascinated with the higher mental faculties, breaking with the preoccupation of the first generation of scientific psychologists; he also devoted substantial attention to questions of experimental method. Perhaps most significant, his interest in children's mental faculties, first evident in a trio of 1890 articles about his two daughters, combined with his search for suitable experimental subjects to produce a research agenda that would dominate the rest of his career. The pupils of public primary schools in several working-class districts of Paris became important research subjects, and Binet quickly became the preeminent member of the Société libre pour l'etude psychologique de l'enfant, established in 1899. Elected president in 1902, Binet became a tireless advocate for rigorous experimentation in numerous educational and developmental domains.
At a time when the French governing elites were preoccupied with problems of juvenile delinquency and educational inefficacy, Binet's work soon attracted legislative attention. When, in 1904, the French government established a commission to explore ways of diagnosing and educating children who were described as "abnormal" and "backward," Binet was invited to become a member; it was in this context that he and Théodore Simon developed the first version of their metric intelligence scale. Meanwhile Binet received permission in 1905 to open a laboratory of experimental pedagogy at the public primary school in Paris's rue de la Grange-aux-Belles. He soon transferred the bulk of his activities to this laboratory. Until his sudden death in 1911 he pursued an ambitious research agenda, equally eager to improve the condition of "abnormal" children and to trace the contours of "normal" child development. Although contemporaries were skeptical about his insistence that education be adapted to the individual needs of all children, such ideas attracted additional interest after World War I, and in the late twentieth century French scholars began to grant Binet overdue recognition as one of the founders not only of scientific pedagogy but also of French experimental psychology.
See also: Child Development, History of the Concept of; Child Psychology; Intelligence Testing.
Avanzini, Guy. 1969. La Contribution de Binet à l'élaboration d'une pédagogie scientifique. Paris: Vrin.
Avanzini, Guy. 1999. Alfred Binet. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Binet, Alfred. 1890. "Perceptions d'enfants." Revue philosophique 30: 582-611.
Binet, Alfred. 1900. La Suggestibilité. Paris: Schleicher.
Binet, Alfred. 1909. Les Idées modernes sur les enfants. Paris: Flammarion.
Binet, Alfred, J. Philippe, and V. Henri. 1894. Introduction à la psychologie expérimentale. Paris: Alcan.
Binet, Alfred, and Théodore Simon. 1907. Les Enfants anormaux. Guide pour l'admission des enfants anormaux dans les classes de perfectionnement. Paris: Colin.
Binet, Alfred, and N. Vaschide. 1898. "La Psychologie à l'école primaire." Année psychologique 4: 1-14.
Vial, Monique. 1990. Les Enfants anormaux à l'école. Aux origines de l'éducation spécialisée, 1882-1909. Paris: Armand Colin.
Zazzo, René. 1993. "Alfred Binet (1857-1911)." Perspectives: Revue trimestrielle d'éducation comparée 23, nos. 1-2: 101-112.
Alfred Binet (1857–1911), French psychologist, was born in Nice. His father was a doctor, as were many of his ancestors on both sides of his family. If he owed to this medical tradition the concern for observing facts that was to mark all his work, it was no doubt from his mother, a painter, that he derived the artistic inclinations that later led to his interest in the psychological aspects of literature and art. He also wrote some quite successful plays. He studied at the lycée in Nice and then at the Lycée Louis le Grand in Paris. Initially he studied law, received a diploma as licentiate, and at the age of 20 took his first examination for a doctorate in law. Then his intellectual interests shifted entirely.
The 1880s saw the beginnings of scientific psychology in France. Taine had blazed the trail in 1870 with the publication of Intelligence. Influenced by John Stuart Mill and English positivism, Taine laid particular stress on pathology. Charcot, a physician at the Salpétrière hospital, had begun to study hysteria in 1871, and then hypnosis. His clinical lectures attracted large audiences. Taine attended them, as did a young philosopher, Théodule Ribot, who was to become the true founder of scientific psychology in France. Ribot’s program was set forth in an article in Mind in 1877 in which he severely criticized official doctrine and proclaimed his adherence to Mill and Taine. He advocated that French psychologists should emu-late the work done in England and Germany and that they should use the natural sciences, physiology, and psychiatry as models. Psychology should be purely experimental and should not deal with the soul; its scope should include the behavior of animals and genetic development. This program was placed under the aegis of Herbert Spencer and Ribot was rewarded by appointment first to the Sorbonne in 1885 and then to a chair of experimental psychology at the Collège de France in 1892.
Binet met Ribot in 1877 and on his advice went into psychology, initially the field of psychopathology, which was traditionally French. “With a few rare exceptions,” Binet wrote in 1889, “the psychologists of my country have left psychophysical research to the Germans and the study of comparative psychology to the English. They have devoted themselves almost exclusively to the study of pathological psychology” (Delay 1958, p. 86). And so he went to the Salpétrière and worked there with Charles Féré, a pupil of Charcot’s. At that time the Salpétrière was the center of psychological research in France. In 1885 Charcot founded the Société Française de Psychologie Physiologique, and in 1889 the First International Congress of Psychology was held under his chairmanship. He was surrounded by eminent colleagues who were interested in psychology: the physiologist Charles Richet, a future Nobel laureate; the neurologist Babinski; Féré foreign physicians like Sigmund Freud who came to him to study; young philosophers like Pierre Janet who, under Ribot’s influence, were turning toward psychology.
The school of Charcot was interested above all in the neuroses, especially hysteria, and in hypnosis. It was to these subjects that Binet devoted himself; his resulting work is contained in a series of publications: The Psychology of Reasoning (1886); Animal Magnetism, in collaboration with Féré (1887); On Double Consciousness (1889); and Alterations of Personality (1892). It is hard to judge these works fairly without taking into consideration the atmosphere in which they were conceived. (Axel Munthe’s The Story of San Michele gives a picturesque, if not entirely faithful, idea of that atmosphere.) Charcot’s authoritarian personality, his proclivity for systematization, and his great prestige in both Parisian and international medical circles created in his students an attitude of complete submissiveness to his views. A result of this was the hystérie de culture, or artificially induced hysteria. Its symptoms accorded with Charcot’s definitive description but were produced in part by more or less conscious suggestions made to the patient by Charcot’s students during preliminary examinations prior to his appearance before Charcot himself. Later Binet was very critical of Charcot, accusing him of allowing his stu-dents to deceive him: “The masters of science,” he wrote in 1909, “are like kings, surrounded by skillful courtiers, who tint the truth” (Binet & Simon 1910, p. 70). Binet himself, as a member of Charcot’s court, was led, no doubt unconsciously, to believe in facts that supported his mentor’s theory, as when he asserted that “the magnet and other aesthesiogenic agents may affect the transfer of cataleptic attitudes” (Binet & Féré 1887, p. 125). All the work Binet did before he was 30 is good work of its kind, but too much marked with the Zeitgeist to have other than historical interest.
While working at the Salpétrière, Binet decided that he needed biological training. No doubt his marriage to the daughter of Balbiani, professor of histology at the Collège de France, had something to do with this decision. He obtained a licence ès sciences and then a doctorat ès sciences naturelles, with a thesis, “Système nerveux sous-intestinal des insectes,” written with Henneguy, the successor to his father-in-law. In 1888, when a chair of experi-mental psychology was created for Ribot at the Collége de France, a laboratory was attached to it. Ribot asked that it be given to the physiologist Beaunis, a professor in the faculty of medicine at Nancy. Beaunis, who knew Binet through his family, asked him to collaborate, and so in 1891 Binet abandoned the Salpétrière. The quarters of the laboratory were in the Sorbonne buildings, but administratively the laboratory was connected with a national research institution, the École Pratique des Hautes Études. Binet, at first préparateur, became assistant director and, upon the retirement of Beaunis in 1895, director, a position he retained until his death in 1911. The title was actually honorific, for practically no salary was attached to it. Fortunately, Binet had independent means that enabled him to carry on his work. His efforts to win more official university recognition were in vain. Although he was a candidate for the chair at the Collége de France left vacant by the departure of Ribot, Pierre Janet was chosen for it. He then ap-plied for a chair at the Sorbonne, but the objection was raised that he was a doctor of natural sciences and not a docteur ès lettres, and Georges Dumas was elected. In 1895 his former fellow student Take Jonescu, a Rumanian who had become an important political figure in his own country, secured an appointment for him at the University of Bucharest, and Binet taught psychology there for several months.
Between 1891 and 1900, Binet in effect established experimental psychology in France. Trained as he was in the school of the Salpétrière and by his reading of Mill, Taine, and Ribot, he was not interested in psychophysiology or, in particular, in the study of sensation that absorbed the first German psychologists. In contrast to Wundt, he affirmed that higher psychic processes can be studied experimentally. While Wundt developed a “general psychology,” Binet, for the rest of his life, was to construct an “individual,” or as we would now say, a differential psychology.
The direction of Binet’s interest derived from a number of sources. First, the scientific atmosphere of the time was dominated by evolutionist ideas. Spencer had acted as an intermediary between Darwin and Ribot. Now, evolution gave prominence to individual differences, which Darwin’s cousin, Francis Galton, had taken as the subject of his researches. Second, the industrial revolution had brought with it a social transformation, one of its most obvious aspects being the specialization of tasks within the framework of the division of labor. At the same time, the industrial revolution had made universal primary education indispensable. This development made it necessary to take into consideration individual differences, and it was in this context that Binet tried to develop an experimentally based differential psychology.
Under the influence of Ribot, Binet declared that “there is nothing much to be gained by turning the pages of authors who work apart from observation and experimentation” (1900, p. 330). It is only facts that count, and more than that, “We must always be hospitable to the facts that go counter to our theories” (1903, p. 130). At the outset of his career, Binet gave priority to facts gathered by introspection. He thought that the higher processes were accessible only by “the act by which we directly perceive what is going on in us, our thoughts, our memories, our emotions” (1894a, p. 95). But although it is necessary to take into account what the subject experiences, and in particular what he says, it is at the same time necessary to observe what he does. From a position initially dominated by Taine’s associationism, Binet’s thought gradu-ally evolved. In 1903 he published the Étude expérimentale de I intelligence, undoubtedly his best book, in which he studied his two daughters, Madeleine and Alice, from the perspective of differential psychology. By the painstaking observation of behavior, coupled with introspection, he came to contrast two types of intellectual functioning, “subjective” and “objective,” which foreshadowed Jung’s “introversion” and “extraversion.” But at the same time he recognized that “imageless thought” exists. Most important, he noted that the observation of an individual’s behavior with regard to a set task provides the best information about his intellectual performance. This was the first step along the road that was to lead Binet, at the end of his life, to recognize that “there are very large portions of our psychic life that are by their very nature inaccessible to consciousness” (1911c, p. 9), and to declare that psychology “has become a science of action” (Binet & Simon 1909, p. 146).
In 1905 Binet made the discovery that brought him fame. After 1900 he virtually abandoned his laboratory in favor of work in the schools and institutions for the feeble-minded, and at his suggestion, a commission was set up in the Ministry of Education to study the establishment of classes for the mentally abnormal. It was soon found that clinical methods could not detect accurately those children who could not profit by normal instruction. Within less than a year, Binet proposed a diagnostic method for determining the intelligence of children. In an article written with the psychiatrist Th. Simon, “Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux” (1905), which appeared in the Année psychologique, Binet presented a series of 30 intelligence tests of increasing difficulty; revisions and minor improvements appeared later (Binet & Simon 1908; Binet 1911b).
The success of Binet’s diagnostic method was im-mediate, and Cyril Burt has humorously described the astonishment and admiration of the English psychologists, who were surprised that Binet’s tests, unlike certain French wines, lost none of their qualities in crossing the Channel. Several factors contributed to this success. In the first place, Binet implicitly assumed the existence of a “general intelligence,” a hypothesis which ran counter to the psychology of “mental functions” that he had him-self used in his other works. This eclectic approach was noted with some acerbity by Charles Spear-man, whose first article on factorial analysis had appeared a year earlier than Binet’s article.
A little more than a year afterwards appeared the great work of Binet and Simon. Here, this paradoxical recommendation to make a hotchpot was actually adopted in practice. Nevertheless the elaborate correlational theory which had in point of fact generated the idea, and had supplied the sole evidence for its validity, was now passed over. The said authors employed a popular substitute. “Intelligence,” as measured by the pool, was depicted as a “general level” of ability. So far as doctrine is concerned, this is the only thing introduced by them that was novel. And most surprisingly Binet, although in actual testing he took account of this “general level” alone, still in all his theoretical psychology continued to rely altogether upon his old formal faculties, notwithstanding that these and the “general level” appear to involve doctrines quite incompatible with each other. (Spearman 1927, p. 60)
The second factor that contributed to Binet’s success was his opportunity to use the method of comparing groups, i.e., normal school children and the mentally retarded children of the hospital at Perray-Vaucluse. To be sure, there had been many psychologists before Binet who had used this method, starting with Galton. The work published by Bolton (1892), Gilbert (1894), and Bagley (1901) in the United States had compared the subjects’ test results with their performance in school. But here the third, and no doubt most important, factor in Binet’s success enters in. His predecessors, in the tradition of Wundt’s psychology, had employed tests that were presumed to be “elemental,” i.e., psychophysical, and the correlations they obtained were too low to have any practical value. This was true for Cattell’s researches in the United States as well as for those of Spearman in England. Binet declared instead that it was possible to get at the higher mental functions directly and above all to create suitable tests that would produce significant results. Finally, on the practical level, the success of the Binet scale was furthered by the discovery of the notion of mental age (which, incidentally, was not introduced until the 1908 revision). Whatever the drawbacks of this unit of measurement may be (and they have by now led to its almost total abandonment, even for children), when it was first proposed it could so easily be understood even by nontechnicians—e.g., teachers and physicians—that it facilitated the acceptance of the method of tests.
Within the total compass of Binet’s work on differential psychology, the scale of intelligence, which gave Binet his fame, occupies, quantitatively, only a small space. The diversity of his interests led him to take up the most varied subjects, and in every case he made an original contribution.
Binet played an important role in the development of biometrics and psychometrics. His concern with individual differences led him to propose a technique for assessing the variability of a particular trait, either over a population or for a single individual over time. He understood the inadequacy of describing an empirical distribution by its arithmetic mean and its extreme values, and he therefore abandoned Broca’s procedure (dividing the difference between the extreme values by the mean) and instead divided the difference between the means of the last and first quarters by the general mean. This method is characteristic of the period before the introduction into psychology of the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation as commonly used indexes of dispersion. Binet’s solution “may seem arbitrary, even over-simple, but on second thought it is no worse than various other measures of variability” (Schreider 1957, p. 309).
Binet tackled the problem of correlation as well as that of dispersion. One way in which he approached the problem was to use the “method of numerical scores”; a second way was to measure association as a function of ranks (Binet & Vaschide 1897; Binet & Henri 1898). The first method consists in selecting for reference one of two traits and subdividing the population into four subgroups that show this trait in order, from “weak” to “strong.” Then, for each subgroup one calculates the mean for the second trait. Inspection shows whether the variations for the two traits run parallel. The second method, which is more elaborate, is essentially identical with what was later called Spearman’s foot rule. However, it was abandoned by Binet, even though it was developed by a mathematician at his suggestion (Sée 1904).
Binet was one of the inventors of the questionnaire method. He also made the first scientific studies of graphology, of the psychology of arithmetic prodigies and chess players, and of the psychology of small groups (he even used the term “leader”), to cite only a few achievements of this “Paganini of psychology,” as Claparède called him. Toward the end of his life he again became interested in pathological psychology, having abandoned it after his days at the Salpétrière, and spent time at psychiatric hospitals and at a laboratory that he had set up in an elementary school in the Rue de la Grange aux Belles. He also studied pedagogical methods, to which his last book was devoted.
Binet had an essentially independent nature, and although he occasionally had collaborators, he never really had any students. Indeed, he lived in a kind of intellectual isolation that became painful to him toward the end of his life. He exerted an influence not so much by personal contacts, which he shunned (he never went to a scientific congress), as by his publications. In 1893 he established the Bulletin du idboratoire de psychologie physiologique de la Sorbonne as a vehicle for his works, and it was replaced two years later by the Année psychologique. This appeared annually, and most of it was edited by Binet, either alone or with some assistance, until his death. The Année psychologique played an important part in the diffusion of psychology, both by bringing together original work and by reviewing the world literature in the field.
[For the historical context of Binet’s work, see the biographies ofCattell; Charcot; Galton; Mill; Spearman. For discussions of the subsequent development of Binet’s ideas, seeEducational psychology; Hysteria; intelligence and intelligence testing; statistics, descriptive; Terman.]
(1886) 1901 The Psychology of Reasoning. London: Routledge. → First published as La psychologie du raisonnement.
1889 On Double Consciousness. Chicago: Open Court. → Published in English.
(1892) 1896 Alterations of Personality. New York: Appleton. → First published as Les altérations de la personnalité.
1894a Introduction à la psychologie experimental. Paris: Alcan.
1894b La psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs échecs. Paris: Hachette.
1897 Binet, Alfred; and Vaschide, N. Corrélation des épreuves physiques. Année psychologique 4:142–172.
1898 Binet, Alfred; and Henri, V. La fatigue intellectuelle. Paris: Schleicher.
1900 La suggestibilité. Paris: Schleicher.
1903 L’étude expérimental de i’ntelligence. Paris: Schleicher.
1905 Binet, Alfred; and Simon, Th. Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. Année psychologique 11:191–244.
(1906) 1907 Mind and the Brain. London: Routledge. → First published as L’âme et le corps.
1908 Binet, Alfred; and Simon th. Le développement de I’intelligence chez les enfants. Année psychologique 14:1–94.
1909 Binet, Alfred; and Simon, Th. L’intelligence des imbéciles. Année psychologique 15:1–147.
1910 Binet, Alfred; and Simon. Th. Hystérie. Année psychologique 16:67–122.
1911a Les idées modernes sur les enfants. Paris: Flam-marion.
1911b Nouvelles recherches sur la mesure du niveau intellectuel chez les enfants d’école. Année psychologique 17:145–201.
1911c Qu’est-ce qu’un acte intellectuel? Année psychologique 17:1–47.
[Alfred Binet.] 1957 Revue de psychologie appliquée 7:229–316. → Contains five articles about Alfred Binet by Cyril Burt, Pierre Oléron, R. Perron and J. de Gobineau, E. A. Fleishman, and Eugène Schreider.
Bertrand, FranÇois-Louis 1930 Alfred Binet et son oeuvre. Paris: Alcan.
Delay, Jean 1958 La vie et I’oeuvre d’Alfred Binet. Psychologie française 3:85–88.
[La vie et I’oeuvre d’Alfred Binet.] 1958 Psychologie française 3:85–121. → Contains five articles about Alfred Binet by Jean Delay, Henri Piéron, Piérre Pichot, Paul Fraisse, and René Zazzo.
Pichot, Pierre 1963 Alfred Binet. Volume 3, pages 209–220 in Kurt Kolle (editor), Grosse Nervenärzte. Stuttgart (Germany): Thieme.
Schreider, EugÈne 1957 La place d’Alfred Binet dans I’évolution de la biométrie. Revue de psychologie appliquée 7:305–316.
Année psychologique. → Founded by Binet in 1894. Most of his work was published in this journal.
Bagley, William C. 1901 On the Correlation of Mental and Motor Activity in School Children. American Journal of Psychology 12:193–205.
Bolton, Thaddeus L. 1892 The Growth of Memory in School Children. American Journal of Psychology 4: 362–380.
Centenaire de Th. Ribot: Jubilé de la psychologie scientifique frangaise. 1939 Agen (France) : Imprimerie moderne.
Gilbert, J. Allen 1894 Researches on the Mental and Physical Development of School Children. Yale Psychological Laboratory, Studies 2:40–100.
SÉe, A. 1904 Une formule mathématique applicable aux recherches sur la psychologic. Société libre pour 1’étude psychologique de 1’enfant, Bulletin 4:492–498.
Spearman, Charles E. 1927 The Abilities of Man: Their Nature and Measurement. London: Macmillan.
Binet, Alfred (1857–1911)
BINET, ALFRED (1857–1911)
Best known for his development with Théodore Simon of the first standardized intelligence test, Alfred Binet can be considered one of the few "renaissance" psychologists of the twentieth century. His research included the measurement of individual differences in reaction times, association of auditory times with specific colors, auditory and visual imagery, and children's memory capabilities. In his early research, Binet also investigated children's fears. Using questionnaires, he studied creative artists of his time, such as Alexandre Dumas, in an attempt to provide insight into their methods of work and the sources of their creativity. As Theta Wolf notes, Binet also was known for his severe criticism of the methods of experimental psychology for its "sterile laboratory conditions" (pp. 90–91). His work on individual differences described in a 1896 article with Victor Henri initiated his work on measuring individual differences and took into account both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of individuals' responses. Binet was also a leader in providing programs for children with mental disabilities and establishing a pedagogical institute to provide appropriate instructional methods.
Binet's choice of a career as a psychologist matured outside of any formal educational study. He first entered law school earning his license at age twenty-one and then began study for the doctorate. However, he lost interest in that field and began medical studies, but did not complete them. Soon after, he began reading books in psychology. For the next six years he worked in the laboratory of Jean-Martin Charcot, a well-known neurologist, with mental patients and also developed an interest in hypnosis. At age thirty Binet completed a paper that stressed the importance of studying the normal individual before studying persons with serious emotional problems. The paper, which received a substantial monetary award from the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, was cited for the demonstration of Binet's competence as an observer and his knowledge of the experimental method. The award committee concluded that Binet had a "gifted and uncommon mind" (Wolf, p. 6).
In 1890 Binet published papers that dealt with the observational study of his two daughters. Wolf suggests that these studies preceded those of Piaget's and possibly influenced Piaget in his research. Between 1888 and 1894 Binet studied in his father-in-law's laboratory at the College de France and took courses in botany and zoology. Wolf also noted that he became interested in comparative psychology, and researched the behavior and physiology of insects, earning a doctorate in 1894.
At the same time Binet and Henri Beaumis began the first French psychological journal. In 1894 Binet published four original papers, eighty-five reviews, and was appointed to the board of associates of the American Psychological Review. He also published two books: one on experimental psychology and other "on the psychology of master calculators and chess players" (Wolf, p. 9).
Binet's wide range of interests in a number of different academic areas was demonstrated by his authorship of several articles for biology journals and his review of research findings from the field of histology, anatomy, and physiology. In 1895 Binet was invited to give a series of lectures at the University of Bucharest. Though offered a professorship, Binet declined the appointment to return to Paris. Although Binet was now considered to be the "fore-most, if not the only French experimental psychologist," he never received an appointment at a French institution of higher learning (Wolf, p. 22). Raymond Fancher believes this was due in part to Binet's lack of official credentials resulting from his self-trained status and lack of personal support from his instructors.
Measurement of Children's Abilities
In the 1890s, Binet became associated with Théodore Simon, who had earned a medical degree and was an intern at an institution for retarded children. He became Binet's collaborator in the development of the first intelligence scale.
In 1899 Binet was invited to become a member of the new Society for the Study of the Child because of his interest in children's intellectual development. Wolf mentions that under Binet's leadership, members of the society aggressively pushed the French Ministry of Instruction to offer suitable instructional programs for children with mental disabilities. Binet's leadership also led to an appointment to a government commission to study the needs of these children in the public schools. He became convinced of the need to ascertain how to differentiate children with learning problems from those who could not learn adequately.
Wolf considers that Binet's greatest productivity was between 1901 to 1911. After his appointment to the government commission on the retarded in 1904, Binet noted that educational officials were primarily interested in administrative problems of the schools. There was no interest in how to differentiate objectively retarded children from normal children or to provide appropriate instruction for them. In 1905 Binet and his colleagues recommended special classes and schools for the retarded, which up to that time did not exist. A bill for such provisions was introduced in 1907 and in 1909 a law passed establishing classes for educational improvement. Binet and Simon were provided the criteria for entry and aided in the selection of students for the first special classes in the Paris schools. In 1905 Binet along with Simon published the first standardized scale of intelligence for which he is best known. The scale was composed of thirty items and was the product of more than fifteen years of careful investigations and experimental research with children. Subsequent revisions of the scale appeared in 1908 and 1911. A number of these items are still included in the latest (1960 and 1986) revisions of their test. During this period Binet also helped to establish the first pedagogical laboratory in France. Wolf noted that in the same time period he worked on the psychology of court testimony and, in 1909, published a popular book for teachers and parents about children, which contained many of his ideas about intelligence. In 1906 Binet and Simon published a paper that addressed "new methods for diagnosing idiocy, imbecility, and moronity," an important contribution because, for the first time, criteria were specified that allowed professionals to agree on different levels of retardation (Wolf, pp. 142–143).
Alfred Binet remains an important figure in modern psychology. He was among the first to emphasize that no child suspected of retardation should be removed from the regular classroom without undergoing a psychological and medical assessment that would help confirm the retardation. Binet and Simon emphasized that diagnostic errors could be due to lack of "attitude" on the part of the examiner; variability in the meaning of the terms used, or lack of precision in the examination of the child.
Binet and Simon stated that test items used in assessment of children needed to be graded in difficulty and be age appropriate. In their discussion of new methods for the diagnosis of retarded children, Binet and Simon emphasized the properties inherent in the assessment of intelligence. These included the need to separate natural intelligence from lack of performance due to inadequate instruction. Attempting to reduce the effects of instruction, Binet and Simon did not require the child to read or write any material. For them the heart of the meaning of intelligence was judgment, to comprehend well, and to reason well.
Binet's sophisticated comments written in 1911 on how to proceed with an examination of the child could easily be repeated word-for-word for early-twenty-first-century psychology students. He stressed the importance of the observation of children and their activities, and outlined with Simon the normal development of intelligence in children from three to twelve years of age in an article published in 1916 (b). These comments were the result of detailed presentation of many test items and careful observations of the responses of the subjects. This article also contained a revision of the 1905 scale. Their monograph could also be read in the early twenty-first century by psychologists for its observational insights in the assessment of children's abilities. Binet and Simon's discussion of the different attitudes and motivations of school personnel concerning retarded children also remains relevant. The intelligence scale of 1908 was changed from one that assessed lack of intelligence into one that classified the intelligence of the retarded, the normal child, and those of superior intelligence. Of the thirty items that composed the 1905 scale, Binet and Simon retained only fourteen without any change.
Binet established the Laboratory of Experimental Pedagogy in Paris in 1905, the first such laboratory established in a school in Europe. The purpose of the laboratory was to provide a continuing source for experimental work with children and provide consultative help to teachers who wished to teach retarded children. Because of the work in these areas of psychology and education Binet can be considered the first school psychologist in the Western world.
One result of this lab-school collaboration was a study by Binet and Simon that focused on vision problems of school children. They noted that children might be labeled slow only because of difficulty in seeing the blackboard. Their concern resulted in the development of a standardized test of vision that teachers could use without the involvement of physicians. Binet was also interested in criteria for a good school, evaluation of teacher competence, the influence of environmental factors on intelligence, such as socioeconomic status, and the provision of classes for those of superior intelligence.
See also: Assessment; Intelligence.
Binet, Alfred. 1916. "New Investigations upon the Measure of the Intellectual Level among School Children" (1911). In The Development of Intelligence in Children. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Binet, Alfred, and Simon, ThÉodore. 1916a. "Applications of the New Methods to the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level among Normal and Subnormal Children in Institutions and in Primary Schools" (1908). In The Development of Intelligence in Children, ed. Henry H. Goddard. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Binet, Alfred, and Simon, ThÉodore. 1916b. "The Development of Intelligence in the Child"(1908). In The Development of Intelligence in Children. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Binet, Alfred, and Simon, ThÉodore. 1916c. "New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals" (1905). In The Development of Intelligence in Children, ed. Henry H. Goddard. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Fancher, Raymond E. 1998. "Alfred Binet, General Psychologist." In Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology. Vol. 3, ed. Gregory A. Kimble and Michael Wertheimer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gilbert R. Gredler
Binet, Alfred (1857–1911)
Alfred Binet, the French psychologist, was born at Nice. The son of a doctor and an artist, Binet studied at the Sorbonne, qualifying in 1878 in both law and science. He embarked immediately on a doctorate under Edouard Balbiani, embryologist and professor at the Collège de France, whose daughter Binet married in 1884. In the same year he submitted an article on the fusion of images to La revue philosophique. The editor, Théodule Ribot, persuaded him in due course to devote his energies to psychology. Through Charles Féré, Binet came to work with Jean Charcot at the Salpêtrière hospital.
Binet is known mainly for his work, with his younger colleague Théodore Simon, in devising tests for assessing children's intelligence. The Binet-Simon scale, published in 1905 and revised in 1908 and 1911, constituted the first systematic, effective, and widely accepted attempt to devise sets of simple verbal and nonverbal tasks, performance on which could be quantified with a fair degree of objectivity, and on which norms for different age groups in the school population were carefully worked out. The principal American versions were produced, revised, and restandardized by L. M. Terman and his colleagues at Stanford University in 1916 and 1937. It was, however, Binet and Simon's careful studies that showed the necessity of valid data to ascertain the intellectual skills and concepts normally to be expected of children at each age before any assessment of a child's retardation can fairly be made. The revised tests are still employed for research and clinical purposes, although increasing use is now being made of the Wechsler tests.
Binet himself was well aware that cultural factors have a bearing on test performance and that interestingly different patterns of results on various subtests might be shown by children achieving similar overall scores. Hence, the conception of an intelligence quotient (IQ) as
popularly linked with Binet's name, in fact runs counter to his stress on studying and appreciating individual differences.
The practical utility of the Binet-Simon scale has overshadowed to a large extent the rich background of inquiries from which the tests were developed. A man of wide theoretical and practical interests, Binet wrote in lucid and lively French a dozen books and some 250 articles, many of which appeared in La revue philosophique and in L'année psychologique, of which he was the editor. Seven of his books and a few articles appeared in English, which Binet wrote and spoke fluently. The Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d'échec (Paris, 1894), and L'étude expérimentale de l'intelligence (Paris, 1903), the latter reporting studies of his own children, remain neglected classics of French psychology. Both works provided evidence of individual differences in imagery and evidence that images could be less important in thinking than the associationists supposed. Furthermore, these studies, especially the former, showed that the subsequent line of thought was affected by the nature and presentation of the problem a thinker was asked to solve, by the mental set induced by that problem, and by his attitudes in other respects. The studies of his young daughters illustrate Binet's patient, systematic mode of inquiry into children's thought processes, and they enhance understanding of the developmental approach to psychology to which Jean Piaget was the heir.
Chronological scrutiny of his writing shows Binet's work on intelligence to have been the practical outcome of prolonged theoretical and experimental study of the nature of thought processes—subnormal, normal, outstanding, and abnormal. These investigations were carried out in hospitals, notably the Salpêtrière, in schools, and in the psychological laboratory at the Sorbonne, of which Binet became director. Influenced by Hippolyte Taine in France and by the British empirical tradition (including J. S. Mill, Alexander Bain, and Francis Galton), Binet had started as a narrowly orthodox associationist. His evidence for conceptual processes not involving visual imagery anticipated some of the Würzburg experimental findings on "imageless thought." This evidence and that found by Binet and his collaborators for central factors, for unconscious processes, and for attitudes influencing a train of thought led Binet slowly to change his standpoint. In doing so, he moved from treating thinking by analogy with visual inspection to emphasizing the affinities of thought and action and to stressing the importance of developmental studies. Such an approach has proved more acceptable in the 1960s than when Binet died, unfortunately leaving his own research and theory incomplete.
works by binet
"Mental Imagery." Fortnightly Review 52 (1892): 95–104.
"The Mechanism of Thought." Fortnightly Review 55 (1894): 785–799. Except for this and the preceding reference, all of Binet's works are listed in the Varon monograph (see below).
"L'intelligence des imbéciles." L'année psychologique 15 (1909): 1–147. Written with Théodore Simon. This and the following article are of salient importance for understanding Binet's later treatment of thinking.
"Qu'est ce qu'une émotion? Qu'est ce qu'un acte intellectuel?" L'année psychologique 17 (1911): 1–47.
works on binet
Bertrand, F. L. Alfred Binet et son oeuvre. Paris, 1930.
Groot, A. D. de. Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.
Reeves, Joan Wynn. Thinking about Thinking. London, 1965. Ch. 7.
Varon, Edith J. The Development of Alfred Binet's Psychology. Psychological Monographs, Vol. 46 (No. 207). Princeton, NJ, and Albany, NY: Psychological Review, 1935. Includes a full bibliography of Binet's works except for the first two cited above.
Wolf, Theta A. "An Individual Who Made a Difference." American Psychologist 16 (5) (1961): 245–248.
Joan Wynn Reeves (1967)
(b. Nice, France, 8 July 1857; d. Paris, France, 18 October 1911)
The career of Binet, the founder of French experimental psychology, developed on the periphery of the traditional institutions and established frameworks. His training was unusual: he was a licentiate in jurisprudence and a doctor of natural sciences, but he did no teaching, with the exception of a course in psychology at the University of Bucharest, where he had been invited in 1895. In 1892 he was named assistant director of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology created at the Sorbonne in 1889 and directed by Henri Beaunis. In 1895 Binet and Beaunis founded the first French journal of psychology, Année psychologique. In the same year he succeeded Beaunis at the Laboratory, now connected with the École Pratique des Hautes Études, where he worked until his death.
About 1900 Binet’s experiments began to go beyond the somewhat narrow framework of the Laboratory. He interviewed children in nurseries, schools, and school camps. In 1898 he and Ferdinand Buisson founded the Société Libre pour I’Étude Psychologique de l’Enfant, which after his death became the Société Alfred Binet. In 1904 the minister for public education appointed Binet to a commission for the study of problems connected with the education of retarded children. This appointment resulted in a series of studies leading to the creation of the metric intelligence scale.
Young Binet was interested in psychiatry; frequented the Salpêtrière, where Charcot taught; and studied Hippolyte Taine, Théodule Ribot, and John Stuart Mill. His first book, Psychologie du raisonnement (1886), based on experiments with hypnosis, related the reasoning process to an organization of images and taught associationism. It also touched off a long series of researches into intelligence and the thought process. To this series belong his studies on mathematical prodigies and chess players, retarded children, and especially the Étude expérimentale de l’intelligence (1903), which completed his break with Ribot’s associationism. The work described experiments with and observations of Binet’s two daughters, to whom he presented simple problems, insisting on justification of the replies as well as on the solution itself. These experiments demonstrated the impossibility of translating reasoning in sensory terms and proved the unity and activity of thought and its independence with respect to images. R. S. Woodworth and K. Bühler were to arrive at analogous results in 1907. Binet’s study was also a fine in-depth investigation of the individual differences of the two subjects; the experiment was made complete by introspection and was oriented toward a qualitative typology.
Binet expanded the idea of experimentation in psychology. Although he worked on esthesiometric thresholds, tactile sensibility, and optic illusions, he preferred to proceed by means of questionnaires, investigations, and personal interviews rather than the complicated apparatus and artificial techniques of the laboratory. His research covered much ground: he wrote on personality changes, suggestibility, intellectual fatigue, and graphology.
His major contribution to psychology consists in the introduction of new methods of measuring intelligence. When expansion of the educational system created the need to find criteria for detecting the mentally defective, Binet, at the government’s request, pursued his former work on the evaluation of intelligence in children. He proposed the metric intelligence scale, based on the idea of classifying the subjects according to the observed differences between individual performances. In 1905 Binet drew up a whole series of tests: a large number of short, varied problems related to daily situations, bringing into play “superior processes” such as memory and ratiocination. The series was arranged according to mental levels, and the measure of intelligence was established by comparison of the results and their classification. A revision of the scale in 1908 resulted in an important innovation: assuming that intelligence increases with age, Binet ranked the tests in accordance with age levels corresponding to performances by the average child. The mental age (the age the child attains on the scale) was distinguished from chronological age. This latter work of Binet, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, enjoyed wide popularity. It was translated, adapted, imitated, and administered on a large scale. It was the beginning of a new era in testing.
I. Original Works. Binet’s writings include La psychologie du raisonnement, recherches experimentales par l’hypnotisme (paris, 1886); Le magnétisme animal (Paris, 1887), written with C. Féré On Double Consciousness (Chicago, 1889); Les altérations de la personnalité (Paris, 1892); Contribution à l’étude du système nerveux sous-intestinal des insectes(Paris, 1894), his thesis at the Sorbonne; Introduction à la psychologie expérimentale (Paris, 1894), written with P. Courtier and V. Henri; Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d’échecs (Paris, 1894); La fatigue intellectuelle (Paris, 1898), written with V. Henri; La suggestibilityé (Paris, 1900); L’étude expérimentale de l’inlelligence (Paris, 1903); L’âme et le corps (Paris, 1906); and Les idéas modernes sur les enfants (Paris, 1911). Binet and Simon’s tests were published in Année psychologique, 11 (1905–1906), 163–336, and 14 (1908–1909), 1–94, and in the final form, in their La mesure du développement de l’intelligence chez les enfants (Paris, 1911), which has gone through numerous editions.
II. Secondary Literature. Works on Binet are F.-L. Bertrand, Alfred Binet et son oeuvre (Paris, 1930), which contains a bibliography of Binet’s writings; R. Martin, Alfred Binet (Paris, 1924); E. Varon, The Development of Alfred Binet’s Psychology, Psychological Monographs, Vol. XLVI (Lancaster, N. Y., 1935); and F. Zuza, Alfred Binet et la pédagogie expérimentale (Paris, 1948), with a bibliography of Binet’s works and secondary literature.
French psychologist and founder of experimental psychology in France and a pioneer in intelligence testing.
Alfred Binet was born in Nice, France, in 1857. After studying both law and medicine in Paris, he earned a doctorate in natural science. Binet's psychological training—mostly at Jean-Martin Charcot's neurological clinic at the Salpetriere Hospital—was in the area of abnormal psychology , particularly hysteria, and he published books on hypnosis (Le magnetisme animal, with C.S. Fere in 1886) and suggestibility (La suggestibilite, 1900). From 1895 until his death in 1911, Binet served as director of France's first psychological laboratory at the Sorbonne of the University of Paris. Also in 1895, he established the journal L'Annee psychologique. Binet had been interested in the psychology of—and individual differences in— intelligence since the 1880s and published articles on emotion , memory , attention , and problem solving. In 1899 he set up a special laboratory
where he devised a series of tests which he used to evaluate the intellectual development of his two daughters. His 1903 book, L'Etude experimentale de l'intelligence, was based on his studies of them.
In 1905, Binet and Theodore Simon created the first intelligence test to aid the French government in establishing a program to provide special education for mentally retarded children. In 1908 they revised the test, expanding it from a single scale of measurement to a battery of tests for children in different age groups, with the focus now shifted from identifying retardation to the general measurement of intelligence. A further test revision in 1911 introduced the concept of mental age . In 1916, the American psychologist Lewis Terman used the 1908 Binet-Simon scale as the basis for the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the best-known and most researched intelligence test in the United States. Binet coauthored Les enfants anormaux (Abnormal Children) (1907) with Simon and published Les idees modernes sur les enfants (Modern Ideas on Children) in 1909. He died in Paris in 1911.
See also Intelligence quotient; Mental retardation
The French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857-1911) was the founder of French experimental psychology. He devised tests for measuring intelligence that have been widely used in schools.
Alfred Binet was born in Nice on July 11, 1857. He studied law and medicine in Paris and then obtained a doctorate in natural science. He became interested in hysteria and hypnosis and frequented Jean Martin Charcot's neurological clinic at the Sâlpétrière Hospital. During this time Binet wrote La Psychologie du raisonnement (1886; The Psychology of Reasoning), Le Magnétisme animal (1887; Animal Magnetism), and On Double Consciousness (1889).
In 1891 Binet joined the Laboratory of physiological Psychology of the École Pratique des Hautes Études; the following year he became assistant director and in 1895 director. He held this post for the rest of his life. In 1895 he founded the experimental journal L'Année psychologique, in which he published articles on emotion, memory, attention, and problem solving—articles which contained a considerable number of methodological innovations.
Although trained in abnormal psychology, Binet never ceased to be interested in the psychology of intelligence and individual differences. After publishing Les Altérations de la personnalité (1892; The Alterations of the Personality) with C. Féré, Binet studied complex calculators, chess players, and literary creativity by the survey method. In 1900 he also became interested in suggestibility, a normal continuation of his work on hysteria.
Binet's major interest, however, was the development of intelligence, and in 1899 he established a laboratory at the École de la Rue de la Grange aux Belles. Here he devised a series of tests to study intellectual development in his daughters Armande and Marguerite. His wellknown work, L'Étude expérimentale de I'intelligence (1903; The Experimental Study of Intelligence), in which he showed that there could be imageless thought, was based on these studies with his daughters.
Two years later, in response to the request of the minister of public instruction to find a means for enabling learning disabled children to benefit from some kind of schooling, Binet, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, created "new methods for the diagnosis of retarded children's mental level," which were partly based on his earlier work. His scale for measuring intelligence was widely adopted. In 1908 the American psychologist Lewis M. Terman revised it (Stanford Revision). Binet himself improved his test in 1908 and 1911. He also continued to be interested in psychological applications to pedagogical problems: Les Enfants anormaux (1907; Abnormal Children), written with Simon; and Less Idées modernes sur les enfants (1909; Modern Ideas on Children). Binet died on Oct. 8, 1911.
Several of Binet's papers are collected and translated in R.H. Pollack, ed., The Experimental Psychology of Alfred Binet: Selected Papers (1969), which included a complete bibliography of Binet's work, indicating those papers which are translated into English. Edith J. Varon, The Development of Alfred Binet's Psychology (1935), appeared as vol. 46 of Psychological Monographs, edited by Joseph Peterson. The best texts on the history of psychology, such as G. A. Miller, Psychology: The Science of Mental Life (1962), discuss the contributions of Binet. the E
Wolf, Theta Holmes, Alfred Binet, Chicago, University of Chicago Press 1973. □
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)
BINET, ALFRED (1857-1911)
Alfred Binet's most significant contribution to the field of child psychology was the development of the first intelligence test.
Binet was born in Nice, France, in 1857. He received a law degree in 1878 but became interested in the field of psychology in 1880. Binet did not receive any formal graduate training in psychology. His first appointment was in a French laboratory, the Salêptriére, conducting research on hypnosis under the supervision of Jean Charcot. In 1890 Binet rejected Charcot's theories and began research on cognition at the Sorbonne's Laboratory of Physiological Psychology. In 1894 Binet became the director of the laboratory, where he worked until his death in 1911.
The unifying theme of Binet's research was the examination of individual differences and similarities in cognition. Binet studied a range of populations, including children, mental hospital patients, and professional artists. His research topics were also wide-ranging, including studies of consciousness, sensation, creativity, language development, memory development, and mental fatigue.
Binet's most influential contributions to the field of psychology were in the area of intelligence testing. In contrast to his contemporaries who supported the measurement of physical features or a single factor as an assessment of intelligence, Binet supported a functional, multidimensional view of intelligence that emphasized reasoning and comprehension. Because of his unique approach to studying intelligence, the Paris school system asked Binet to develop a test that could be used to identify children who would benefit from special education classes. In 1905 Binet and his collaborator, Theophile Simon, responded to this request by creating the first intelligence test, the Binet-Simon Scale. Binet revised the scale in 1908 and again in 1911.
A second focus of Binet's research was the cognitive development of his two daughters, Alice and Madeleine. His extensive observations and experimental studies of his daughters allowed him to develop several theories about cognitive development. Binet believed that the purpose of cognitive development is to allow children to adapt to the physical and social demands of their environment, emphasizing the fact that children learn by assimilating new experiences into their existing ways of thinking.
An important milestone in Binet's career was the creation of the first laboratory based in a European school for young children, the Laboratory of Experimental Pedagogy. The purpose of this laboratory was to develop a systematic line of experimental research with children and to provide training for teachers on how to educate mentally retarded children. The establishment of this laboratory was a major event in the formation of the field of child psychology.
In addition to Binet's considerable direct contributions to the field of psychology, his work has also influenced the research of subsequent generations of child psychologists.
Publications by Binet
Binet, Alfred, and Theophile Simon. A Method of Measuring the Development of the Intelligence of Young Children, 3rd edition. Chicago: Chicago Medical Book, 1915.
Alfred Binet played an important role in the development of experimental and child psychology. Together with Theodore Simon, he developed the first tests designed to measure intelligence and compute mental age. Many presentday intelligence tests are based on the original Binet-Simon tests.
Binet was born on July 18, 1857, in Nice, France. His father was a physician, and his mother an artist. Although trained as a lawyer, he found that the legal profession did not suit him; he was more interested in understanding the workings of the human brain. In 1878 he went to study and work at the Salpetriere Hospital in Paris under the neurologist Jean Charcot (1825-1893). He married Laure Balbiani, the daughter of an embryologist at the College de France, in 1884. He remained at the Salpetriere for 13 years, and also worked in his father-inlaw's laboratory.
In 1891, Binet began working in an experimental psychology clinic at the Sorbonne. He was appointed its director four years later, and held the position for the rest of his life. Binet was interested in measuring individual differences in mental characteristics, believing that understanding normal variations was key to developing a general theory of intellectual development. He was not convinced of the importance of research on human perception, which was stressed in Germany at that time. Instead, he attempted to measure reasoning ability using paper and pencil tests, often involving pictures. He undertook a careful study of his own two daughters as they grew, and published his observations in The Experimental Study of Intelligence. He also founded the first French psychology journal, called L'Année Psychologique, which still exists today.
In order to research practical problems regarding the education of children, Binet and Ferdinand Buisson (1841-1932) established an organization called "Societe Libre pour l'Etude Psychologique de l'Enfant." This prompted the French government to appoint Binet to a commission charged with designing a mechanism for early identification of slow learners so that they could be afforded remedial assistance. The test he developed with Theodore Simon was intended to measure the mental age of the child. It evaluated the degree to which the child could perform such tasks as following commands, copying patterns, and sorting objects. The test was administered to Paris schoolchildren so that a standard scale of expected performance could be established. The ratio of a child's measured mental age to his or her chronological age was called the intelligence quotient, or IQ.
The concept of the IQ became enormously influential, with standardized tests like the Stanford-Binet being widely administered for generations. Today the entire idea of intelligence testing is controversial. Many argue that the tests are discriminatory, or that they measure knowledge rather than inherent intelligence. In fact, there is no real agreement on the definition of general intelligence. The notion of "multiple intelligences," that is, different but equally valuable types of abilities, has become more popular.
Probably due to the rather unusual educational path he had taken in his career, Binet was never offered a professorship in France, and this bothered him greatly. After visiting Bucharest to great acclaim he was offered a chair in psychophysiology, but was not interested in moving away from Paris. He died there on October 18, 1911.
SHERRI CHASIN CALVO