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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE. Seventeenth-and eighteenth-century settlers able to erect or purchase buildings in what later became the United States arrived with knowledge of structure and design that in their places of origin was at once fixed and changing. Time-honored ideas about what and how to build were far more commonly agreed upon than commitment to particular architectural styles, an imbalance largely explained by social location. Town and country artisans and laborers building for themselves were bound by ancient construction and compositional conventions, whereas privileged groups and institutions—landed aristocracy, urban gentry, state, church, and university—hired master craftsmen or gentlemen amateurs to supply the latest fashions.

Colonial and Postcolonial (to 1810s)

Regardless of social location, however, European settlers in North America confronted unfamiliar conditions—climate, topographies, materials—that in some cases modified how they built. Rural New Englanders, for example, whose lands were as littered with rocks as dense with trees, seized upon wood as their primary building material, even though at home they had had more experience with stone: soft species of pine were easier to cut, peg, and haul than stones to haul, dress, and lay. Stone was more efficiently deployed to mark property lines, contain animals, and construct the large hearths necessary in a cold climate.

Settlers in New Netherlands, on the other hand, quickly built kilns for firing brick—the preferred material in the Low Countries, where trees could be scarce—and in short order began erecting gabled row houses, with narrow ends to the street or to the slips they dug in the manner of Continental canal cities. Kilns had been erected even earlier in Virginia during 1611, where clay for brick and oyster shells for lime were plentiful. Adam Thoroughgood arrived as an indentured servant in 1621, but by the time he built his residence (c. 1636–1640), he owned a 5,350-acre plantation. Befitting his new standing, his brick house—which survives and may be the oldest on the Atlantic Seaboard—made reference to late Tudor Gothic style, as did Bacon's Castle (c. 1655) in Surrey County, also in brick but on a much more generous scale for the even wealthier Surrey County planter, Arthur Allen. Like houses farther north, both displayed characteristically medieval oversized chimneys, asymmetric plans, and facades. Unlike the more northerly well-to-do, however, their owners consciously emulated what they mistakenly though had remained fashionable in England. But by the time of William Byrd II built Westover (1730–1734) in Charles City County, an elegant mansion that would have appealed to London admirers of Christopher Wren, English Georgian was showing signs of becoming the architectural preference of wealthy planters and merchants from New Hampshire to the Carolinas.

Very different was Spanish California, where the principal architectural embellishments were twenty-one mission complexes strung along El Camino Real from San Diego to Alcalá (1769) to San Francisco de Solano (1823). As in the East (before the 1780s), there were no architects in the West and few craftsmen except those summoned from Mexico. Priests were the designers and superintendents of construction and of impressed indigenous labor, creating in effect tiny urban cores awaiting urban surroundings. The San Juan Capistrano mission (1776) is representative. A plastered, brick and stone, single-aisled Romanesque church with red-tiled roof, a baptistry, sacristy, and apse is attached to the corner of a large, nearly rectangular court (into which residents could retreat if attacked) surrounded by an arched colonnade. The latter fronted guest and bedrooms; kitchen, pantry, parlor, and refectory; and facilities for making hats, candles, soap, wine, woolens, shoes, and olive oil, along with forge, metal and carpentry shops, and guardhouse. A covered walkway and thick walls provided cooling while broad, undecorated stretches of facade offered an aesthetic simplicity that would not be seen again on so large a scale in North America for over a century; except, that is, in the Spanish Southwest (and Florida).

In these other Spanish holdings, California's contradictory impulses were exaggerated. The Governor's Palace (1610–1614) in Santa Fe, New Mexico, is a long, low adobe rectangle, unornamented except by structural elements: rubble plinth, round projecting rafters, and regularly spaced posts supporting the colonnade roof. Similar simplicity characterizes Mission St. Francis of Assisi (1805–1815) at Ranchos de Taos, New Mexico, the apse end of which, though crude adobe, has all the solemnity and some of the power (if nowhere the grandeur and beauty) of the Cathedral (begun 1282) at Albi, France. By contrast, Pedro Huizar's portal to the Church of San Jose y Miguel de Aguayo (1720–1731) in San Antonio, Texas, is as lavish as Spanish Baroque could possible be. Nothing in English North America rivaled this display, although private and public architecture there was, ironically, moving closer to English splendor as American independence approached.

What is called Georgian, speaking dynastically, or Palladian (after Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio), speaking architecturally, made great inroads after 1750. Whether ecclesiastical, residential, or commercial, it raised colonial standards of quality and elegance. Peter Harrison, a Newport, Rhode Island, ship captain and merchant, was not a professional architect if that means supervising construction and taking a stipulated fee, but as a gentleman amateur he kept current with the literature of his avocation. Buildings like the Redwood Library (1748–1750), Touro Synagogue (1759–1763), and the Brick Market (1761–1762) in Newport are squarely based on Renaissance and neo-Renaissance models depicted in the library he had assembled during his travels. Perfectly symmetrical, Doric or Ionic ordered, porticoed and pedimented, and built of brick and stone, his work—like that of William Buckland in the Chesapeake, Samuel McIntire in Salem, Massachusetts, and anonymous gentlemen builders elsewhere—interpreted English Georgian for traders and planters eager to announce their social prominence by architectural decree. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello (1768–1809), in Charlottesville, Virginia, one of the most famous creations by a self-taught amateur who mixed French, Roman, and Palladian sources, epitomized this impulse. Born in Boston, Charles Bulfinch may qualify as America's first professional architect in that for a time he attempted to live off his earnings. His work (c. 1787–1830) has been included in the so-called Federalist Style, a modified English Georgian well represented by three Boston townhouses (1795–1796, 1800–1802, 1805–1808) for Federalist Party leader and merchant Harrison Gray Otis. Their three or four horizontally articulated stories, forming an unpretentious cube, flat or minimally sloping roof, piano nobiles, porticos opening directly to the sidewalk, and subdued decoration, yielded a quiet elegance strongly appealing to merchants in northeastern ports, where Bulfinch was much emulated. His broad range of buildings included university and market halls, banks, hospitals, prisons, numerous churches (like his exquisite 1816 Church of Christ in Lancaster, Massachusetts), state houses for Maine and Massachusetts, and alterations at Washington, D.C. (as Architect of the Capitol) from 1817 to 1829. Even before taking that post, Bulfinch more than any other architect had raised American design to a level of functional and artistic excellence few during the colonial period might have anticipated.

Eclecticism of Taste and Style

Eclecticism in architecture—selecting aspects of diverse historical styles to form new and acceptable compositions—characterized Europe and America throughout the nineteenth century. In 1929, historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock distinguished between eclecticism of taste—different styles employed contemporaneously but only one on a given building (as with Richard Norris Hunt's two versions of the Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island, for William Vanderbilt: Loire Valley Renaissance in 1892, Genovan Renaissance the next year)—and eclecticism of style, mixing different mannerisms in the same building (for example, Frank Furness's Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia [1871–1876] with English, French, Greek, and Egyptian references). The two eclecticisms coexisted in space, time, and a given architect's work, but if eclecticism of taste dominated during the first half of the century, eclecticism of style—with some exceptions—surpassed it in the second.

Formal American independence in 1783 spurred the demand for public architecture on state and national levels, and since the new republic also considered itself in some ways democratic, its leaders looked for architectural guidance to what they understood as the wellsprings of both, namely, democratic Greece and republican Rome. But Greek and Roman architecture was available to most Americans in treatises written during and after the Renaissance, the result being that publicly funded structures—and by mimesis privately funded buildings of a public nature, such as banks, churches, and some universities—were only generically neoclassical, some more Greek (Benjamin Latrobe's Bank of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia [1799–1801]), some more Roman (Jefferson's Rotunda [1817–1826] at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville). In the end, Greek prevailed because Greek temples, pedimented and colonnaded boxes of straightforward post-and-beam construction, offered simple interior spaces adaptable to virtually any program and geometrically precise exteriors that appealed to Americans, who in 1785 had overlaid the Northwest Territory in a geometrically precise survey grid. The combination of adaptability and order resonated among those whose self-proclaimed mission was to tame the wilderness.

Beginning with public buildings like William Strickland's Second Bank of America of the United States in Philadelphia (1818, the first in the country based squarely on the Parthenon) and Ithiel Town's Connecticut State Capitol (1827) in Hartford (a generic Doric temple), what became known as Greek Revival was used for every conceivable purpose in every nook and cranny of the land until its popularity waned in the East shortly before the Civil War (1861–1865), a bit later in the West. In Hopkinton, New Hampshire, for example, one of the churches, the library, town offices, what are now the firehouse and the general store, and several main street residences are in the style, all painted white because when erected, conventional wisdom held that Greek architecture had been uniformly white. Despite corrective scholarship, no one has yet repainted, happily so, since towns like Hopkinton display a harmony of form and color seldom seen in North America.

Despite its ubiquity, Greek Revival was not unchallenged. Beginning in the 1790s and gathering momentum over the next decades until it reached a zenith of popularity in the 1840s and 1850s, the Gothic Revival (sometimes called Romantic or picturesque architecture) took hold at first with ecclesiastical structures. Prominent church architects included New Yorkers Richard Upjohn, whose work reached Texas and California, and James Renwick, whose St. Patrick's Cathedral (1858–1879) is the best-known example of the genre. Alexander Jackson Davis was as adept with neo-Greek as with neo-Gothic, but made his most singular mark with picturesque villas, the most impressive being Knoll (1838–1842), renamed Lyndhurst after its remodeling and expansion (1864–1867). But the most influential advocate for picturesque design was Andrew Jackson Downing, America's premier landscape architect, whose naturalistic gardens, widely read publications, and house designs with partner Calvert Vaux earned nationwide respect. Gothic Revival church architecture is characterized by pointed arches, steep roofs, pinnacles, and window tracery often supplemented by battlements and buttresses. Residential neo-Gothic might include these features plus steep gables, elaborately sawn trim, projecting windows, verandas, vertically siding frequently, and asymmetrical plans as often as not. (Greek Revival did not have verandas and was never asymmetrical.) Gothic Revival houses were intended to interpret site and to open to the outdoors, thus appealing to part-time gentry who purchased country estates with fortunes made in town and to those of lesser standing whose income limited them to modest lots on the city's edge. If their motives included escaping what they believed to be the gathering hordes of unruly immigrants, Downing's commitment to picturesque architecture and landscaping stemmed from the idealistic notion that individual integrity and independence was best cultivated in a natural setting. But his best intentions—publishing self-build plans for $400 working peoples' houses, for example—were heeded by those who needed them least.

The lesser appeal of Egyptian, Tuscan, and Romanesque styles had also waned by the 1860s, after which the eclecticism of taste became somewhat type-oriented: most universities in neo-Gothic, but some in neoclassical; government buildings, banks, urban railroad terminals, and exposition buildings in neoclassical, neo-Renaissance, and Beaux-Arts (after the classical-and Renaissance-oriented École des Beaux-Arts in Paris). Eclecticism of style was more common on commercial buildings and residences of the rising middle class and the very rich, although Florentine Renaissance and Loire Valley châteaux styles found acceptance with the latter.

American architects began to train in Europe, particularly at the École des Beaux-Arts, or in new architecture programs at home (the Masachusetts Institute of Technology's opened in 1868, Columbia University's in 1881). After their studies, they often toured Europe as they began to read national professional magazines (the first was launched in 1876) inevitably featuring woodcuts and, later, photographs of Continental masterpieces. They read the immensely influential John Ruskin, whose preferred style was Venetian Gothic, and translations of the authoritative Eugêne-Emmanuel Violet-le-Duc, whose ideal was French Gothic. Most importantly, as American architects began to design for an immensely wealthy social class—newly created by post-Civil War industrialization—composed of arrivistes unfamiliar with aesthetic niceties but unerringly aware, as European parvenus since at least the Renaissance had been, that architectural patronage, if interpreted as connoisseurship by established elites, might eventually lead to social acceptance and, if interpreted by the general public as social service, might temper their reputation as rapacious exploiters of the commonweal. As all this happened, expert knowledge of time-honored styles and archeological accuracy in their deployment became indispensable for American architects, whose own social standing rose in direct proportion to their ability to provide nouveaux riches with simulacra of the very architectural styles that bygone aristocrats had made their own. Hence the hegemonic eclecticism after the Civil War.

The Architecture of National Power (1880s to 1930s)

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, generic neoclassicism of lavishness not seen before began to dominate public and quasi-public architecture. State houses, city halls, courthouses, police headquarters, and other government structures no less than art museums, concert halls, libraries, and railroad terminals—sometimes grouped in City Beautiful civic centers—sprang up everywhere, not entirely as a result of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It is true that 21 million visitors, equivalent to one-third the national population, thrilled to its Courts of Honor, a water basin surrounded by nine neoclassical behemoths. But neoclassicism was already on the rise, most notably in works by McKim, Mead, and White, like the Boston Public Library (1887–1895) or the Rhode Island State Capitol (1891–1903) in Providence.

As it evolved, neoclassicism became ever more imperial. McKim, Mead, and White's Pennsylvania Station waiting room (1902–1910) in New York City was 25 percent larger in volume than the gigantic tepidarium in the Roman Baths of Caracella (a.d. 206–217) on which it was modeled, while George W. Post's Wisconsin State Capitol (1906–1917) in Madison, loosely based (its dome not so loosely) on Christopher Wren's St. Paul's Cathedral (1666–1710) in London, dominated the countryside for miles around its hilltop site. Neoclassicism had its appeal in Europe, but "nowhere outside the United States were the classical orders to be drawn up in so many parade formations," wrote Marcus Whiffen in his American Architecture since 1890: A Guide to the Styles (1969). "More marble was used in building in the United States in the years 1900–1917," he added, "than was used in the Roman Empire during its entire history."

The explanation for this explosion exemplifies how architecture is put to use outside the world of art. By 1900, the United States had successfully fulfilled its "manifest destiny" on the North American mainland and was constructing a territorial and economic empire overseas. Indigenous people there and in the American West, not to mention native-and foreign-born factory and farm laborers across the country, were increasingly attracted to Greenbackism, populism, socialism, unionization—to radical movements in their many forms—in unprecedented numbers. Memories of shattering disruptions like the 1886 Haymarket Massacre and the 1894 Pullman Strike—only the tip of the class-conflict iceberg, in any case—were made even more vivid by events like the 1911 death by fire of 146 women locked inside their Triangle Shirt-waist Company factory in lower Manhattan so that union organizers could not get to them. Political protest had never been more heated, class conflict more violent, and outright anticapitalist sentiment more widespread than during the "years of marble" from 1900 to 1917.

In this context, state authorities correctly understood that the social order was under serious attack, and for the same reasons that the National Guard armories with medieval crenellation were erected in wealthy urban neighborhoods, so was government at all levels drawn to the architecture of Rome, not of its republic but of its empire, the most enduring Western empire in fact and in collective memory. The seldom-stated but visually obvious implication was that physical assault against the state and the quasi-public institutional structure supporting it, that it in turn supported, as well as political assault on capitalist arrangements and republican forms of government, would not prevail—that the objects of assault would endure forever. To face down social upheaval and to announce imperial objectives, government and quasi-government architecture referred to the "eternal city" as often as not.

Neoclassicism waned with state suppression and the decline of outspoken dissent during and after World War I (1914–1918) but revived in the Great Depression, and throughout Europe as well, particularly under authoritarian regimes in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union. In the United States, it was much simplified from its earlier incarnation by square columns and capitals, spare ornament, crisp rectilinearity, and reduced use of pediments, porticos, and domes (which, when present, resembled spires). Examples are the Gallatin County Courthouse (1936) in Bozeman, Montana, the Library of Congress Annex (1938) in Washington, D.C., and the Soldiers Memorial (1939) in St. Louis, all erected with Works Progress Administration assistance. Fascist and National Socialist architecture differed only in scale: grander in Italy, positively grandiose in Germany. In the Soviet Union it was fussily ornate, recalling the turn of the century.

With the absence or reduction of private investment during the 1930s, governments financed an even greater amount of architecture than before, which is to say that during two historical moments of unusually high demand for social justice or social spending, authorities were unusually concerned with maintaining social order. It mattered not whether order was sustained by increased policing or liberal reform, whether the state was dictatorial or democratic, or—in the United States—whether it was the Gilded Age, the Progressive Era, or the New Deal. Regardless of political ideology, governments buttressed legitimacy by appropriating classical architecture, which in times of crisis was the artistic court of last resort.

The Rise and Decline of Modernism (1880s to 1970s)

Three 1932 productions by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and the Museum of Modern Art curator Philip Johnson—the exhibit Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, its catalog of that title, and their book, The International Style: Architecture since 1922—had the effect of equating all that was new with a single mode of expression, the name of which they invented and the existence of which they had no doubt. The characteristics of the International Style, they contended, were the sublimation of mass to volume; continuous, horizontally organized, regular but not symmetrical monochrome surfaces of one material; and the subordination of discrete rooms to free-flowing continuous spaces in open floor plans. Form and composition were determined by structure and interior program, they implied, preferably clad in steel, concrete, glass, and if need be, brick. Sixty-five of the seventy-three projects depicted in their book were European.

Book, exhibition, and catalogue were as narrowly selective as they were hugely influential, omitting, for example, all "new architecture," as it was often called in Europe, that did not conform to their aesthetic preferences. But for at least three decades, the International Style was widely accepted as real, as a distinctive school of design constituting the entirety of the so-called modern movement. Architectural modernism, however, was never a unified entity. Although it is true that repudiation of historically based styles—albeit in myriad ways—was largely worked out in Europe during the 1920s and early 1930s, rumblings of discontent had been heard on both sides of the Atlantic since at least the 1880s.

In the United States, the work of Henry Hobson Richardson in the 1880s, although distantly rooted in Romanesque, featured simplified single masses beneath unified roofs, near monochrome and mono-material, reduced applied ornament, and sensitivity to site. The Ames Gate Lodge (1880–1881) in North Easton, Massachusetts, is a striking example. The so-called Chicago School—notably Holabird and Roche, Adler and Sullivan, Burnham and Root, William Le Baron Jenney, and Solon S. Bemen—specializing in commercial architecture, took Richardson's simplifications further. Bemen's Studebaker Building in Chicago (1895) and Holabird and Roche's Mandel Brothers Store Annex (1900–1905) were grids of masonry-or metal-clad steel columns and beams infilled with glass. The full implication of dispensing with load-bearing walls was grasped in 1921–1922 when Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany proposed free-form skyscrapers entirely encased in glass panels clipped to the edges of floor slabs.

In his Prairie Houses (1900–1910s)—so-called because erected in undeveloped Chicago suburbs—Frank Lloyd Wright accented broad stretches of unadorned facade with long runs of crisp contrasting trim and windows in strips; inside, public spaces were merged to form partially open plans. His clean-lined rectilinear exteriors, more textured than the black white surfaces of a minimalist like Vienna's Adolf Loos but less ebullient than contemporary Art Nouveau and the several European Secessions (from historically based academic architecture) made considerable impact abroad. The four giants of the new European architecture—Le Corbusier in France, J. J. P. Oud in The Netherlands, Mies and Walter Gropius in Germany—each acknowledged (Corbusier later recanted) his influence. Perhaps the most innovative American other than Wright was the Californian Irving Gill, whose sharp-edged, rectilinear, virtually unornamented white stucco buildings were stripped almost as clean as Adolf Loos's.

During the 1920s, Chicago-area architecture was more widely admired in Europe, where modernism was taking firm root, than at home, where it languished among continuing historical revivals. When modernism did appear it likely came from abroad. Rudolph Schindler and Richard Neutra emigrated from Vienna in 1914 and 1923, respectively, to work briefly with Wright before settling in Los Angeles, where their houses for Philip Lovell (Schindler's, 1922–1926; Neutra's 1927–1929) in particular were closer in spirit to Corbusier's than to American contemporaries. Only two skyscrapers of the decade were truly modern: the McGraw-Hill Building (1929–1931) in New York City, by Raymond Hood and Andrè Fouilloux (from Paris), and the Philadelphia Savings and Fund Society (1929–1932), by George Howe and William Lescaze (from Zurich). Although a handful of Americans embraced the new architecture, its most conspicuous manifestations before the Wall Street Crash were by European émigrés.

The little that was erected during the depression occasionally flirted with modernism, as in the cases of New York City's Rockefeller Center (1931–1940), by a team of design firms in vertical Art Deco, or Wright's Johnson Wax Administration Building (1936–1939) at Racine, Wisconsin, in streamlined, horizontal "American moderne." But as the decade waned, the arrival of two German émigrés, Gropius in 1937 to direct Harvard's School of Design program and Mies in 1938 to assume the same position at the Illinois Institute of Technology, transformed architectural education and practice in the United States.

That was especially true with Mies, who later produced a master plan for his Chicago campus that in style and scale was revolutionary for this country. Nineteen low-rise structures (not all built) of welded steel frames painted black with glass walls or concrete infilled with brick and glass were followed by three apartment towers on Lake Shore Drive. Even before his enormously influential Seagram Building (1954–1958) in New York City was announced, others were adopting his manner, particularly Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill at their 1952 glass and metal Lever House, among others in New York City. From high-rise buildings the Miesian model spread to virtually every design type during the next two decades. What had taken hold throughout Europe immediately after World War I (1914–1918), in quantity mostly social housing sponsored by socialist and social democratic governments, found favor in the United States after World War II (1939–1945), initially among corporate clients. With the transition, modern architecture changed fundamentally, from low-rise, amply fenestrated brick and concrete structures to high-rise, almost completely fenestrated flat-roof slabs.

As modernism spread to every design genre, stylistic variations appeared, of course. But within the variety there remained commonality: either bland sterility or aggressive anonymity, especially apparent when modern buildings clustered—along Park and Sixth Avenues in New York City, for example, or at the University of Illinois Chicago Circle Campus (1965–1987), mostly by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill. As large chunks of city and suburb became virtually interchangeable and as it dawned on clients that architectural conformity compromised corporate and personal identity, the appeal of glass-box architecture began to wane, noticeably in the 1970s.

The New Eclecticism (1970s–)

In his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), Robert Venturi condemned "the puritanically moral language of orthodox Modern[ism]." He favored "messy vitality over obvious unity," "the ugly and ordinary architecture" he soon embraced in Learning from Las Vegas (1972). Most architects were reluctant to fetishize "the vulgar" but were receptive to his notion that modernism's "forced simplicity" did not adequately reflect the "ambiguities of contemporary experience." Indeed, retreat from the Miesian model was already under way before Venturi wrote.

The New Formalism of the early 1960s—strictly symmetrical, smooth-skinned, flat-roofed buildings with screens and grilles—was associated with institutional work of Philip Johnson, Minuro Yamasaki, and Edward Durell Stone. The acknowledged master of neo-expressionism (said to have evolved from 1910s and 1920s German expressionism)—characterized by the sublimation of right angles to sensuously sweeping curves made possible by suspended steel cable roofs and concrete (gunite) sprayed over metal frames—was Eero Saarinen, whose TWA terminal (1956–1962) at Idlewild Airport (later Kennedy) in New York City is the most famous of its type. Brutalism referred to massive asymmetrical structures, usually in poured concrete left rough, with small openings, deep recesses, and aggressive projections emphasizing the play of light and shadow; Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building (1958–1965) at Yale University was firmly brutalistic, more so than the Jonas Salk Institute for Biological Studies (1959–1965) in La Jolla, California, or other structures by Louis Kahn, whose masterly work could not easily be categorized but who was influenced nonetheless by the genre.

As if to vindicate him, postmodernism arose shortly after Venturi's second book appeared. A kind of umbrella term in architecture in general from the late 1970s the 1990s, Pomo involved the return of ornament, poly-chrome, mixed materials, and historical design elements like Palladian windows, gables, pediments, elaborate moldings, and the classical orders, as well as unprecedented experimentation with shapes, composition, and the juxtaposition of formerly incompatible features as seen in the works of Charles Moore, Michael Graves, Robert A. M. Stern, and many others, including Venturi.

As the 1990s opened, Pomo was surpassed in media attention by Decon—deconstructivist architecture—represented by prominent figures like Peter Eisenman and Frank Gehry. As with Pomo, Decon borrowed freely from literary studies: a building was a "text" with no intrinsic meaning other than what was brought to it by "readers"—observers, critics, architects themselves. History had little to offer because knowledge is subjective, noncumulative. The architect was therefore free to design any thing in any way. The resulted surpassed even Pomo in its radical disassembling and reconstructing of parts to form heretofore unimagined wholes, perhaps most famously represented by Gehry's Guggenheim Museum (1991–1997) in Bilbao, Spain.

With architects practicing globally, with new materials and technologies at hand, and with every incentive to experiment, expressive possibility is greater than ever before, resulting in a new eclecticism. To mannerisms already mentioned, pluralism adds several identifiable categories: "green" or sustainable energy conserving design; conscious reworking of vernacular and "populist"—that is, commercial—traditions; revived classicism; neomodernism with its "minimalist" or extremely simplified versions; and high-tech, making art of structural and mechanical systems.

These categories are porous. Some architects work exclusively in one while others combine two or more in a single building or in their work as a whole, borrowing freely from each other all the while, benefiting as well from an "anything goes" professional climate. Nor are the categories as mutually exclusive or as historically correct as in the eclecticisms of taste and style. Nevertheless, "selecting aspects of diverse [but no longer exclusively] historical styles in order to form new and acceptable compositions" is the norm. In the absence of stylistic consensus, compositional possibility in the twenty-first century is virtually unlimited.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Goldberger, Paul. The Skyscraper. New York: Knopf, 1981.

Kirker, Harold. The Architecture of Charles Bulfinch. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Lambert, Phyllis, ed. Mies in America. New York: Abrams, 2001.

Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl. H. H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983.

Pierson, William H., Jr., ed. American Buildings and Their Architects. Vols. 1, 2, 4, and 5. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1978.

Riley, Terence. The International Style: Exhibition 15 and the Museum of Modern Art. Edited by Stephen Perrella. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.

Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.

———. McKim, Mead and White, Architects. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.

Saliga, Pauline, ed. Fragments of Chicago's Past: The Collection of Architectural Fragments at The Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago: The Art Institute, 1990.

Schuyler, David. Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Short, C. W., and R. Stanley-Brown. Public Buildings: Architecture under the Public Works Administration, 1933–39. New York: Da Capo, 1986.

Twombly, Robert. Frank Lloyd Wright: His Life and His Architecture. New York: Wiley, 1979.

———. Power and Style: A Critique of Twentieth-Century Architecture in the United States. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

RobertTwombly

See alsoCapitol at Washington ; Monticello ; University of Virginia .

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Architecture

Architecture

Architectural evolution

The present and future of architecture

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Although the word “architect” derives from the Greek phrase meaning “master builder,” in practice “architecture” has gradually acquired the connotation “art of building.” Today not all architects would admit that it is an art. Several of them would insist that it is an application of technology, while others would claim that it is a science. However, all would agree that the product of the discipline is real, whether it be a single building, a group of buildings, a community, or a whole city— even if the architect is concerned only with the design and conception.

The fact is that architecture started as a technique of construction, which was gradually specialized into the construction of buildings rather than the building of bridges, roads, and public works, which became the special domain of the engineer. Architecture began as a technique and was transformed into an art—sometimes completely overshadowing the technique. It began as handicraft and artisanship (the architect was the actual builder-entrepreneur), then turned to design and management. Architecture is concerned with individual houses, large composite building complexes, and even whole cities, although the latter specialization is also the province of the town planner.

Through architecture, space is compartmentalized: there is the usable interior area; the total area, that is, the shell and the means; and the external space, which is indirectly changed after the inner area has been defined. The degree to which these different kinds of space fulfill the expected requirements qualifies the degree of success of an architectural work.

Social architecture. Architecture is sometimes called a social art or social technology. This is valid in terms of the content and extent of architecture. Moreover, architecture is social in that it expresses a social trend even if that is very limited in extent. Architectural style does not represent the efforts of a single architect or of one class or even one generation but those of many persons through a number of generations, who express themselves in a way that represents all their beliefs and aspirations. For example, in ancient Greece people built timber roofs over mud-brick walls; over several centuries this particular style of construction was adapted to marble. This architecture did not have an inventor or original designer—every temple had its own master builder, who contributed minute details of refinement to an enduring style. This was a social architecture in expression and form.

Architectural needs. In every period consumers define their architectural needs in terms of quantity, volume, cost, quality, and content. In every community there is the demand for shelter; the variable occurs in the quantity and quality of shelter demanded. In the simplest effort the consumer’s needs and demands coincide, as the consumer asks first of all for what is indispensable, thus automatically adjusting his needs to the possible. When incomes and technology develop, needs increase, while the previously suppressed demand starts rising; then a gap between need and demand appears. As a result the suppressed demand rises even more, and so do the needs, causing an increase of supply, and thus we have a trend toward better and higher architectural forms. As architectural needs and demands become more complex and expand into open areas, roads and public squares take on architectural significance. They then receive corresponding attention, ranging from very elementary (for example, regulations defining rights of way and heights) to very detailed (specification of the elevations, addition of works of art, and so forth).

Architectural creation. The accumulated knowledge of modern science has changed the nature of architectural creation and modified its function. Thus, that which was once a simple, natural act of covering man with shelters and helping him to survive became more and more artificial and complicated and required the mobilization of many skills and resources for its fulfillment. At the same time, the architectural solution—derived from nature in the beginning, like a cave or a hut made out of branches—became unnatural as it moved away from the simplest forms. Such an evolution had its impact on the process of creation of architectural styles. One may suppose that the outstanding builders in every community were given the most important jobs, the temple or church, the mosque or the ruler’s palace, bridges or fortifications. By trial and error they learned how to produce the best; public taste was strongly influenced by the master builders and, in turn, influenced and shaped the general architectural evolution. Over a long period of time, under relatively constant external conditions, this process resulted in the creation of an architectural style. It usually took several centuries for a naturally evolving architecture to acquire its own characteristics, a specific style. The fact that in our era the distance from the natural architectural creation is increasing, together with the fact that economic, social, political, technological, and cultural conditions change so quickly, explains why we do not have our own recognizable architectural style. This lack of a distinct style creates a confusion of ideas about architecture. Today many architects try, in a completely unjustified and facile way, to create their own “styles,” as if one man or group of men could overnight replace the action of a whole society over a long period of years.

Client-architect relationship. For hundreds of years the client-architect relationship was quite simple. When in need of a building, the client turned to the architect, and together they worked out an agreement for full services—from advice to design, construction, procurement of materials and labor, transport, and perhaps even financing—until the building was completed. In some way this was similar to a constituency-politician relationship. In general, the clients selected and guided their architects, who in turn led the clients within a framework of technological possibilities. Their relationship was impersonal. This situation became complicated, confused, and sometimes irrational, especially in the twentieth century, when architects were first educated in art schools and then trained in professional schools of architecture.

Specialization has been advanced to the point where, in many developed countries, members of architectural associations are not allowed to act as builders; thus they are deprived of their most important function and the ultimate justification of their profession. There is no question that the architect, in order to practice his profession properly, now needs the assistance of a great number of experts, including research specialists in the physical and social sciences.

The architect. The evolution of architectural creation and practice had its impact on the architect himself. In the early days of architectural specialization he was a mason and a builder, while the best was called a master mason, an architect. He was an artisan, known for the quality of his product in the same way as were the best painters, sculptors, decorators, and saddle, cart, and carriage makers. During the nineteenth century the process of change began that is transforming the architectcraftsman into a white-collar worker or administrator. Today most of the people actually creating what we commonly call architecture belong to the traditional class of craftsmen, while universitytrained architects constitute a very small percentage of the total. The ratio of architects to population varies greatly from country to country—from the high percentages found in countries like Denmark and England, where architects are sufficiently numerous to deal with interior decoration and furniture, to the very low percentages of architects found in most of the developing countries.

Architectural evolution

In early human history local, natural architecture grew much like a plant (conditioned by the local climate and easily obtainable raw materials). Where conditions warranted (reasonable climate, enduring building materials, and the processes of civilization), the architectural plant thrived. Local architecture did not everywhere lead to great styles, but where it did, architectural efforts of the past continue to influence present-day traditions.

The buildings we have inherited from the Near Eastern civilizations of antiquity belong predominantly to religion—especially in Egypt—although there are some examples of fortifications and palaces. Regular houses, even of the wealthy families, seem always to have been built of materials that could not withstand weather and time; thus, we know only how people built for gods and kings, not how they built for themselves. Whatever we have inherited shows architecture as a monumental art and not at all as an art of everyday life.

In comparison with the previous monumental architecture, that of the Minoan period was much more human. In both enclosed and open spaces the builder’s interest was not to impress humanity and serve souls and gods but to serve man in the best possible way by creating functional human spaces adjusted to the climate. Mycenaean architecture was also close to the Near Eastern tradition. We know little of the architecture of the common man in either of these periods; it may have been only a simpler expression of the architecture of palaces and fortresses, or the earlier types of buildings, constructed in less durable materials, may have continued. Classical Greek architecture is admired for its character, but also because of its use of raw materials, particularly marble. The Greek temple is perhaps the apex of the pyramid of architectural achievement. Its value also lies in the fact that it was not a monument isolated from life, but the real crown of an architecture which started with humble, timbered, mud-brick and stuccoed houses, and public buildings just one degree better than the houses, and progressed to the “agora,” or central market square with its buildings, and finally, to theaters, stadiums, roads and squares, exedras, monuments, and temples. More than any other, Greek architecture was holistic, an architectural conception of the human community represented by the political unit of the city-state. The largest political unit of ancient Greece—the city-state— was so small (the average size being forty miles square) that a person standing at some height could see the entire area at once. With the acropolis at its center, the architectural composition expressed the idea of the culture.

Roman architecture differed from Greek in both content and technique. Not only did it contain greater internal differences, as between the slums of Rome and the luxurious villas and palaces; it also took big steps toward the architecture of large buildings. There were important public buildings: baths, amphitheaters, roads, bridges, and aqueducts. Brick construction played an important role, in addition to stone and marble. There still exist many examples of well-conceived and well-built Roman cities in Europe, Africa, and Asia. They do not manifest the cohesiveness of cities found in Greece, but city-fortresses paved the way for technological advancements in later periods.

At the end of the Roman Empire and with the spread of Christianity, there were two distinct movements toward new architectural forms: one followed a path from Italy to the European mainland; the other moved eastward, back to Greece, Constantinople, and the Middle East.

The first new form—Romanesque architecture— was at the beginning a major stylistic attempt to express the new religion. The Gothic style followed and became the typical architectural expression of the long medieval period with its small, walled city, where the only hope was in God, up in the sky. The architecture of the vertical and the arch reached up, as high as possible, away from the secular world. It is not strange that such architecture was more successful in churches and cathedrals than in houses and public buildings.

It was in southern Europe with its bright light and colors that man returned to an architecture much more human in content and expression. The Renaissance started first in Italy and then spread to the rest of Europe. Although in spirit it represented a return to humanism and to ancient Greece, its direct roots came from the Italian countryside, where the peasants’ houses were the prototypes of the more luxurious houses of the great landlords. When these rich men became urban dwellers— merchants or bankers—they built their cities and palaces, created their piazzas and monuments, public buildings, churches, and fortifications in a new and consistent form of architectural expression. There was continuity from the humble peasant’s house to Michelangelo’s Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome and to the Piazza della Signoria in Florence. As in other great periods, sculpture and painting were blended with architecture.

The Renaissance declined, and baroque style, with its sculpture and monuments, arose—an architecture of intellectual creation rather than a natural art having roots deep in the life of the people. The styles that followed, rococo and then neoclassicism and neoromanticism, widened this gap, emphasized by the art nouveau of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

At the southeastern end of Europe, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, local architectural expressions blended with the technology of the Romans, especially in major brick constructions, and with Greek tradition. Byzantine architecture thus combined East and West and predominated for long centuries, longer perhaps than any other style we know of, until its decline in the late nineteenth century. Although this style produced great cities, palaces, and works of art, it will be remembered mainly for its churches—from the largest, like Saint Sophia in Constantinople and the monasteries of Mount Athos, to the smallest, most humble one-room churches spread over many countries in the Balkans, Greece, and the Middle East.

Special mention should be made of the MuslimArabic style, which, born in the Middle East, followed the road to eastern Europe; then through northern Africa and the southern coast of the Mediterranean, it entered Europe via Spain, where it produced some of the best monuments of domestic and landscape architecture.

Architectural evolution, even when studied with European emphasis, is not as simple as it may look from such a division of styles by groups and periods, because styles have seldom been confined to one place, country, or era. In general, architecture has common origins and roots. The basic elements are people, whose needs are more alike than different, and building materials—mud, bricks, stone, and timber—which behave everywhere in very much the same way. Thus, architectural expressions in early human history were similar to one another; we can speak of a universal origin of all architectural styles, based on the needs and creative potential of man. Then local, semi-isolated cultures tended to develop their own architectural expressions as local or national styles. Some styles remained of importance only in certain areas, while others, especially those with more universal characteristics (generally the simplest ones) spread over wider areas, together with the civilizations and cultures to which they belonged. For example, the ancient Greek, Roman, Muslim, and Iberian styles spread to Central and South America, and the hybrid styles of northwestern Europe were brought to North America, Africa, and Asia by the Anglo-Saxons, the French, and the Dutch. As stylistic influences diffused, they became diluted, merged into one another, and tended toward a cosmopolitan mixture.

The present and future of architecture

Today we live in an era of confusion, especially with regard to the human settlements that have become mere heaps of architectural and public works. Our villages are abandoned, and our cities gradually turn into a nightmare, where all sorts of forces, people, machines, buildings, and projects of all kinds struggle for survival and control. Architecture itself, in the original meaning of the word, is losing its importance, as the value and identity of the single building decrease with the passing of time. City inhabitants do not have the opportunity to see buildings as wholes; they know them only from the inside. Public spaces have completely lost their architectural importance. Moreover, the bulldozer tears down buildings that retain historic and aesthetic value—even relatively new buildings— whenever changes in the texture of the city demand.

In this world of change, architecture finds itself in very rapid evolution. In addition to cosmopolitanism and the decline of significant styles, other phenomena have had a great impact upon architecture. Technological innovations that permitted the construction of buildings of more than the previous limit of five or six floors were made about a century ago and spread rapidly after the invention of the elevator in 1854. In the past hundred years, industrialization and urbanization have given rise to social movements that demanded better housing for the exploding population, especially for workers in overcongested areas. Architecture has not only conquered the third dimension—height; it has also changed its content as attention has turned from the construction of monuments to the provision of services and facilities for people. A rational architecture, fostered by the great revolutionaries of our era, Gropius, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and others, has begun to emerge. Architecture entered the second quarter of our century with new forces and has started the third one with enough momentum for the completion of this revolution.

In the meantime, the situation is not simple, and public opinion is still caught between academic and modern, between old and new. Many architects have turned toward a new eclecticism and are searching for a compromise, an easy way out, personal expression, and so on. This is far removed from the real needs of humanity, for architecture, if it is to be true to its great traditions, must cease to be merely the practice of an art form and once again become a technique that serves all the people in the best possible way.

In this tremendous effort, during this great era of change, concepts are confused. People mix the notion of new with that of progress and invent solutions, even when the traditional ones serve us best, or they tend to defend a local style rather than an international architecture, not because it might have greater values—very often it has—but just for the sake of tradition, which, if it does not serve the people any longer, should be abandoned.

However, today’s greatest problem is a quantitative one. The great masses of people on earth live under unbearable conditions. We must face the real issues. The world population, and especially the urban one, is increasing at a rate not matched by architectural creation. At the same time, the full recognition that we need facilities for all has increased the dimensions of the problem. We must find the way in which architecture can catch up with changing economic and social phenomena.

Architects and all those concerned with architecture and city planning fear that a revolution may easily turn into a new academism or lose its momentum and thus stagnate. In many ways the answer lies in a return to the concepts of the past, although the materials, human and technological, are different.

The architect must find a way to bring together the knowledge and experience of the engineering industries, government, and the arts and blend them with local and international demands. In order to succeed in his new role, the architect can no longer concern himself with single buildings but rather must deal with entire settlements. He must build a habitat, which is a rational entity and should correspond to human dimensions. The architect must resume his traditional role as master builder, coordinator of all aspects of architectural creation, not limiting himself to the designing.

There must be the kind of architectural synthesis that will correspond to the magnitude of expanding human settlements. The architect must participate in industry, government, and centers of research and education where new notions about ways of living, the art of living, construction, and the needs of production are being developed. In this way architectural creation will be influenced at a level with which the architect is not yet acquainted but one with which he must familiarize himself if he is to achieve his purposes. In order to utilize knowledge contributed by the physical and social sciences, he must gain a much broader education than he has at present. An attempt to realize this aim is being made through the study of “ekistics,” or the science of human settlements, which proposes to synthesize the economic, social, political, and administrative sciences, technology, and aesthetics into one coherent whole. The new type of human habitat can no longer be cast in the mold of the static city of the past but must be fashioned after the dynamic settlements of the present, which are spreading in all directions around pre-existing cities. Such a dynamically changing frame is bound to come into conflict with static architecture. That is why we need to build our new cities by using a basic cell that will be static but that can be repeated, thus allowing for growth. Such a cell would represent the “human community,” whose dimensions would correspond both to actual human needs and to the dimensions of the city of the past. Its area should not exceed 2,000 yards square, and its population should be limited to 50,000 people. Within such communities, architecture and architectural space could retain their values without being impaired by the intrusions introduced into our urban life by fast-moving machines.

Houses and buildings must be seen in a way that allows them to be, simultaneously, individual units serving separate families or functions and also connected elements of a group that has its own internal cohesion. This may mean that a group of houses will have an internal street or square for pedestrians only, so that even if cars approach every single house, there will still be a part of the whole community that brings the residents together, around a common playground, a common garden or nursery, etc. The same principle suggests that buildings be arranged around a common courtyard or around a series of courtyards where there is no access for automobiles. This would provide a continuum of human space from room to house to courtyard, paths, gardens, and squares, a continuum big enough for the creation of real architectural space, where architecture is not limited to walls and elevations but to the broadest possible conception of space for man.

Thus, the roots of the new architecture are to be found in the entire range of architecture that preceded the nineteenth century. Such an architecture is going to be urban in character and human in content and will utilize a standardized technology. In this way architecture will become more consistent in expression and tend toward a new ecumenical form. The ecumenical qualities of architecture in the past were rooted in common responses to natural conditions; now they are reinforced by the participation of architects in what is gradually coming to be a world society.

The direction of the road toward such solutions is discernible, but the road itself is not yet open. A hard and long effort will be required of all those concerned, an effort to define the subject and a return to the proper concern of architecture: construction. Our only hope is to become good masons, so that we can expect some master masons (architects) to rise from among us. And we must try to abandon the subjective for the sake of the objective approach. If we achieve these aims, it is possible that in a few generations humanity may pass from the completely rational-utilitarian architecture— on which it must now concentrate—to a new humanistic, monumental architecture and thus a new architectural style.

C. A. Doxiadis

[Directly related are the entriesCity; Planning, social, article onregional and urban planning; Style. See also the articles listed underArt.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Briggs, Martin S. 1927 The Architect in History. Oxford: Clarendon.

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE. The monumental inventions of early modern European architecture still mark the modern built environment. Vast boulevards and formal gardens focusing on public buildings denote the capital city everywhere. Domes dominate the skyline in Rome, London, and Washington. Uniform palaces and house facades define the squares of Paris and London, the canals of Amsterdam and St. Petersburg. Churches modeled on imperial Roman baths and basilicas seem to reach outwards, with spectacular baroque facades and multiple columns extending into public space, like the twin columns (inspired by Trajan's Column in Rome) of Vienna's Karlskirche (Fischer von Erlach, 17151738), or the colonnades that define the piazza of St. Peter's in Rome (Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 16561667). The countryside, too, is transformed by villas and great houses in their landscaped grounds, and in the most famous case, Versailles (Louis Levau and J. H. Mansart, 16681689), the out-of-town retreat became the capital of an absolute monarch.

The language of all these buildings is classical, using the columns, arches, cornices, vaults, and triangular pediments still visible in the ruins of ancient Rome, integrating them according to the ancient treatise of Vitruvius, and in some cases directly imitating the few ancient buildings that survived, such as the Pantheon and the Colosseum. But this language was transformed in several ways, going beyond the accomplishments of the Renaissance. In its baroque form, space becomes more complex, and surfaces more agitated and ornate; straight moldings and flat walls curve and break apart, columns spiral, circles turn into ovals, ceilings dissolve into vast trompe l'oeil paintings that seem open to heaven, and solid ornament imitates the movement of angels or the sudden burst of light. Secular buildings undergo the same transformation, especially in their ceremonial staircases and uniform suites of reception rooms that create the impression of infinite power. The best of these designs is orderly and monumental rather than capricious or excessive, yet periodically architects reacted against the baroque, instigating a calmer and more rational classicism. A well-known example is Palladianism, a revival of the late Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio (15081580) that came to dominate English country house design in the eighteenth century in reaction to the ornate formality of Versailles and its English baroque rival, John Vanbrugh's Blenheim (17051716).

Individual buildings and urban spaces conveyed a powerful message of confidence and control through new forms and crystalline geometry even when they were not very large. Thus Francesco Borromini's (15991667) church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome (16341667), though only the size of one of the piers of St. Peter's, created a stir among visitors and critics who praised its curved facade and oval domeor execrated them in equal measure. Sant' Ivo (16421660), Borromini's Star of Davidshaped chapel for the University of Rome, dazzled with its breathless spiral tower that altered the role of the adjacent Pantheon's dome. Borromini's fastidiousness for building materials and moldings was matched by his French contemporary François Mansart, but the latter's trademark at country houses such as Château Maisons near Paris (1642) and the Orleans wing of the royal palace at Blois (1635) was a limpid and austere classicism. Pietro da Cortona's (15961669) facade for Santa Maria della Pace (16561659) in Rome applied theatricality to urban design, placing a lavishly columned and curved portico in a small space that caught unprepared visitors by surprise. Paris, Turin, London, and Bath were endowed with geometrical open spaces framed with uniform porticoes and houses, to whose shapes the English word "square" fails to do justice: rather, they were triangular (Place Dauphine), circular (Place des Victoires, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, 1685; the Circus, John Wood, 1754), rectangular (Piazza San Carlo, Carlo di Castellamonte, 1620), hexagonal (Place Vendôme, Mansart, 1698), and elliptical (Royal Crescent, John Wood, Jr., 17671777). Countering these residential "squares" were the public spaces of Rome, such as Piazza Navona (Four Rivers fountain by Bernini, 16471651), the Spanish Steps (Francesco de Sanctis, 17231726), and the Trevi fountain (Nicola Salvi, 1762), each animated by generous displays of statuary, water, terraces, and views. This festive quality of the best early modern urban design was enhanced with additional ornaments, including innumerable triumphal arches, imprinting the city with commemorative meaning.

THE ARCHITECTURAL CITY

The innovations of the Italian Renaissance provided an ample foundation for the developments in architecture of the late sixteenth, the seventeenth, and the first half of the eighteenth centuries. This inheritance was enhanced by the innovations of military defense, altered social and political organizations, and new forms of organized religion. Yet despite significant research in church form and extensive construction of places of worship, the period is marked by a secularization of architecture and urban space.

The seventeenth century was an urban century, whose great citiesdefined by the size of the population (according to Giovanni Botero) and the magnificence of their rulersconstituted its new wealth. A large population can be attained through prosperity and security, and the architecture of the early modern era defined the prosperity of the social order and ensured its safety in the face of enemies. Distinguished buildings, significant historical inheritance, artistic collections, and public safety attracted visitors to the great city. Thus consumerism and tourism developed in tandem with the early modern city and its architectural expression.

This was accompanied by the widespread acceptance and application of the revived classical style of architecture in places outside the Italian peninsulain France, England, the Netherlands, the Germanic states, Sweden, Russia, and the British colonies in the Americas. A specifically Counter-Reformation style of classical architecture, emphasizing massive, ornate spaces and animated forms that propagate the faith by captivating the audience, was disseminated in the colonial towns of Spanish and Portuguese settlers, and in the missionary convents of religious orders in Central and South America, on the western coast of Africa, and on the Indian subcontinent.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, architecture became an instrument of state control and organization, not only signifying the cultural advantages of its sponsors (as in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) but also assuming a defining role in the identity of nascent national states. Thus secularized, classicized, and politicized, architecture transformed the early modern city. The architectural product continued to be defined through three types of designchurch, palace, and public squarebut each underwent extensive refinement and redefinition. We have cathedrals, parish churches, and monastic churches as before, though now competing for attention through the offer of urban amenities such as colonnades, fountains, and elaborately decorated facades, transformed by the worldly social agenda of the Counter-Reformation. The palace building type came to encompass not only aristocratic town residences (called hôtels in France) and the communal homes of religious orders, but also the state agencies of control, management, and reform (such as prisons, almshouses, hospitals, and city halls). The open spaces of the city surrounded by this evolving set of buildings (housing new functions and organized into streets and squares more or less geometrically defined and ordered) became the principal sites of urban meaning. The definition of urban architecture was ultimately achieved through the enclosure of a city within a fortification belt (walls, bastions, outworks, and gateways) that effectively created the separation between town and country and allowed each to develop firm boundaries.

This defining separation was the major contribution of military urbanism. Other military-influenced architectural features were the triumphal arch, the pentagonal citadel, the wide, uniformly framed straight boulevard, and the equestrian statue of the victorious ruler placed at the center of squares used for parades and festivities. The pacification brought about by military architecture encouraged the development of the rural palace or agrarian villa. Palladio's urbane villas (such as the Rotonda outside Vicenza, 15661569, and the Villa Barbaro at Maser, 15541558) offered a residential type that resonates throughout early modern architecture. Modeled on the French royal château, the palaces at Blenheim, Tsarskoe Selo (Bartolomeo Rastrelli, 17491756), and Schönbrunn (Fischer von Erlach, 16961711) are among the most prominent examples of the "Versailles syndrome" that swept through eighteenth-century Europe.

This new understanding of architecture, urbane even in its country houses, was promoted through the burgeoning medium of print: illustrated books, single sheets, and specialized studies turned the newly defined city and its buildings into a subject of study, and were collected by all those with pretensions to learning: for the first time in the history of Western civilization, the achievements of architects could be appreciated, studied, and imitated without leaving home. Nonetheless, this graphic documentation stimulated travel in the pursuit of architectural education, making Romethen Paris, London, and Amsterdamthe destinations for nonreligious pilgrimage.

BAROQUE ROME AND BEYOND

The issues involved in large building operationsbudget, conflicting interests of patrons, and variable design talents of architectscan best be illustrated by the seemingly interminable reconstruction of St. Peter's in Rome. Its dome, completed (Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta, 1590) after nearly a century of indecision and uncertainty, the much desired Renaissance plan of the ideal church as centrally plannedpromoted by Bramante (1506) and Michelangelo (c. 1546), the two most acclaimed architects of the sixteenth centurywas definitively abandoned. The extension of the church by Carlo Maderno (16071612), and the immense facade designed by him, completed the body of the church proper. This signified the coming importance of building elevations in a development that has been labeled facadismcountering the Renaissance's failure to complete the public front of important religious and secular buildings (the facade of San Lorenzo in Florence, for example, whose interior includes Michelangelo's Medicean library and chapel, remains unclad). The elliptical space before St. Peter's, defined by a carefully planted forest of columns, was not completed until the late 1660s by Bernini. The area framed by the facade and colonnade, where pilgrims to Rome were taken to the bosom of the church and whose center was defined by the largest Egyptian obelisk in Rome, represented the epitome of baroque space. The placement of the obelisk under the direction of Domenico Fontana in 1586 marks an important achievement in the history of engineering, considered by architectural historians to be the most influential moment of early modern city planning and a spur to later developments. Facadism then is a crucial element of the concern with the appearance of public space that dominates Western architectural design in the seventeenth century.

Like Florence in the fifteenth century, Rome in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was an artistic hub of the highest order. The papal government (with its huge numbers of retainers and accompanying families), the missionary orders that made their headquarters in the city, and the large numbers of pilgrims constituted the elements of a varied and rich patronage system that attracted the best artists to the city. Milan and Naples, Rome's most important rivals in wealth and size of population, were dominated by the Spanish viceroys, whose cultural contributions were more modest; Spanish monarchs beginning with Philip II concentrated their architectural patronage on the remote palace-monastery El Escorial (Juan de Herrera, 15681584). Architects came to work in Rome, but they also came to study, forming "national" groupings lodged among their compatriots in distinct parts of the multicultural city.

By the end of the seventeenth century the Italian tour, though highly recommended, was no longer a requirement for a successful career in architecture. Thus Christopher Wren and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, unlike their predecessors Inigo Jones and Jacques Lemercier, built highly visible religious monumentsSt Paul's in London (16751711) and the Invalides church in Paris (16791691)modeled on St. Peter's without setting foot in the old city. Inigo Jones put his Italian experience to work designing the queen's house in Greenwich (16161635, outside London), a royal villa that later became the centerpiece of Wren's naval hospital (16961716), and the Whitehall Banqueting House (16191622), which emulated the urban palaces of Palladio in Vicenza. Although his buildings were few, he sowed the seeds of Palladianism, the single most significant classicizing movement in England, whose influence continued through the eighteenth century in the houses designed by John Wood in Bath and Lord Burlington, William Kent, and Robert Adam in the British countryside near London (Chiswick, Syon) and East Anglia (Holkham Hall).

The Dutch version of classicism turned Amsterdam into a Venice of the north and provided the stimulation for the design of St. Petersburg. Russian neoclassicism in the later eighteenth century was leavened by the presence of both Charles Cameron and Giacomo Quarenghi, whose cool white and stripped-down temples and pavilions for the empress Catherine were rooted in the more recent archaeology of the mid-century. Architects at the French Academy in Rome made an inestimable contribution to neoclassicism: they measured and drew antiquities, offering the most accurately reproduced illustrations for those unwilling to travel. By anatomizing antiquities, they acquired a familiarity with the classical forms that led to the transformation of this inheritance, stripping it of baroque accretions.

ARCHITECTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS

Architecture in this period solved problems that had been researched for centuries: how to express the status and ambitions of the patron and how to connect the buildings' public and private functions. Thus the formation of palace facades in Rome, Turin, Venice, Paris, and Vienna can be seen as billboards that explicate the position of their owners. This meant articulating the relation between the exterior (the street or garden facade) and the interior, which in turn must be divided into entry, passage, principal reception room, and private apartments.

While palace and church elevations had been recognized as essential areas of relation between public and interior space (and as carriers of meaning), the formal manipulation of these surfaces was determined by concerns for the appearance of dignity and sobriety. The baroque facade became strongly articulated and richly ornamented with the entire arsenal of architectural vocabulary available to designers. While the liveliness of church facades was meant to stimulate a Counter-Reformation participation, the facades of palaces became essential elements in the highly ritualized definition of power exchanges.

The major architectural innovationsSt. Peter's in Rome, Palladio's villas, the Louvre in Paris (1666), and the palace at Versaillessoon acquired the authority earlier associated with ancient Roman and Greek buildings such as the Parthenon, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, and the ancient theater. The new standards were serially emulated, though not always with distinguished results. Thus St. Peter's was the source not only for Mansart's Invalides in Paris and Wren's St. Paul's in London, but also for Jacques-Germain Soufflot's Panthéon (17551780) in Paris, stretching as far as the nineteenth-century capitol buildings in Washington and in Providence, Rhode Island. Versailles, itself distantly modeled on the Escorial, spawned numerous imitations in the German principalities and in Vienna, as well as in Sweden and Russia. Palladio's villa designs, capable of absorbing variations in scale, were the basis (through Inigo Jones) for innumerable British country houses, and for Thomas Jefferson's influential Monticello. Bernini's designs for the Louvre, and the realized version by Louis Le Vau and Claude Perrault, drew upon the Farnese palace in Rome, the grandest of Renaissance homes, and propagated countless urban houses, from Guarino Guarini's Carignano palace (16791683) in Turin to Viennese town palaces of the eighteenth century.

See also Baroque ; Bernini, Gian Lorenzo ; Borromini, Francesco ; Britain, Architecture in ; City Planning ; Estates and Country Houses ; France, Architecture in ; Gardens and Parks ; Mansart, François ; Neoclassicism ; Palladio, Andrea, and Palladianism ; Rome, Architecture in ; Wren, Christopher.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ackerman, James S. The Villa: Form and Ideology of Country Houses. Princeton, 1990.

Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture of France 1500 to 1700. New Haven, 1999. First published in 1953.

Botero, Giovanni. Della grandezza delle città. 1608.

Millon, Henry, ed. The Triumph of the Baroque: Architecture in Europe 16001750. Milan, 1999.

Millon, Henry, and Vittorio Lampugnani, eds. The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The Representation of Architecture. New York, 1994.

Payne, Alina. The Architectural Treatise in the Italian Renaissance: Architectural Invention, Ornament, and Literary Culture. Cambridge, U.K., 1999.

Pollak, Martha. Turin, 15641680: Urban Design, Military Culture and the Creation of the Absolutist Capital. Chicago, 1991.

Rykwert, Joseph. The First Moderns: The Architects of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass., 1980.

Summerson, John. The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century. London, 1986.

. The Classical Language of Architecture. London, 1980.

Waddy, Patricia. Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and Art of the Plan. New York and Cambridge, Mass., 1990.

Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture of Italy, 16001750. New Haven, 2001. First published in 1958.

Martha Pollak

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

an area of great cultural creativity.

The architecture and city planning of the countries of North Africa and the Middle East are steeped in a history that has been marked by the development of Arab and Islamic culture since the seventh century. The architectural and urban traditions generated by this culture produced a remarkable built environmentcomposed of beautiful monuments of the Islamic artand spatial typologies. Since the nineteenth century, this architectural inheritance has cohabited with and contrasted with a contemporary architecture that was produced on the one hand by an endogenous dynamics of "Westernization" developed during the Ottoman imperial period, and on the other hand by different forms of colonial domination (mainly French and British).

Since the independence of the region's countries, architecture has been the product of essentially two tendencies. In the vernacular, "minor" architecture, age-old traditions rooted in the materials, climate, and social structure of the local environment mark buildings in both rural areas and in new urban districts, where the self-construction is encouraged. There, the population produces an architecture without architects, and old forms cohabit, harmoniously or in a disjointed way, with modern structures. By contrast, in official, "major" architecture, buildings whose construction relied on governmental or institutional patronage have undergone a metamorphosis that has altered dramatically historical traditions and reflects the increasing impact of international styles and construction methods.

In addition to this influence, during the last thirty years the rate of construction in this part of the world has been intense, so architectural development has been rapid and buildings production radically transformed. However, as Udo Kulter-mann explained in Contemporary Architecture in the Arab States, this "rapidity and gigantic dimension of the transformation caused problems, among them waste, inefficiency, and misstated priorities, [and] the focus of international architectural activity shifted from Europe and North America to the Arab states as the world elite of the architectural profession competed with each other and with the emerging generation of Arab architects" (p. 1).

The Islamic Legacy

In the contemporary architecture, the influence of the Islamic legacy and local traditions is apparent not only superficially, in building forms and ornaments; instead, it affects the very design process. It "became, as the Aga Khan said, an instinctive manner of expression for any architect designing anywhere in the Islamic world" (The Aga Khan, 1979, cited by Kultermann, p.4). Old principles that governed the organization of space and the Isalmic aesthetic are actualized according to modern building requirements and are reintroduced to satisfy the religious rules and the climate. In addition, new buildings are least likely to complement the existing buildings so changes to the city environment are generally made house by house, block by block, and not by urban overhaul. If planned buildings are close to cities' historic districts, architects and governments build with care and sensitivity, but in cities' peripheries, they often propose buildings that do not correspond to the population's needs or lifestyles.


The Colonial Legacy

Even before the establishment of colonial empires in the Middle East, economic decline had reduced the quantity and quality of official patronage of architecture. Simultaneously, European styles influenced the building of European embassies and commercial concerns and the way that official patronage relied upon architects and builders who had traveled or studied in Europe, European publications on architecture, and changing tastes in Islamic courts. In the Ottoman Empire, for example, the Balyan family provided three generations of official architects for the sultans beginning in 1822, producing mosques, palaces, and other official buildings that reflected a mixture of European styles.

European governments, banks, commercial trading enterprises, and missionary institutions began to erect buildings in the European style. French styles prevailed in Algeria and later in the Maghrib; the style of the Balyans and later the Italian architect Montani gained currency in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul); in Egypt, Muhammad Ali (r. 18051848) favored buildings in a Europeanized Ottoman style, and the Khedive Ismaʿil ibn Ibrahim (r. 18631879), who had studied in Europe, imported European architects to build his palaces and to make over modern Cairo in the image of Paris under the Second Empire. Elsewhere on the Mediterranean littoral, and to an extent in Iran, French, Italian, and British architectural ideas left their stamp on museums and government buildings.


Nationalism and Architecture

By the end of the nineteenth century, European architectural ideas had provoked reactions from Middle Eastern architects and from Europeans who were sensitive to local traditions. Moreover, as the neo-Islamic building style gained popularity in Europe in the nineteenth century, it began to appear in the Middle East as well. In Egypt a substantial number of Islamic Revival buildings were erected by local and foreign architects in Cairo and in Alexandria; these used European construction methods and floor plans but were decorated with Islamic motifs. Examples include Alfonso Manescalo's Islamic Museum (19031904) and Mahmud Fahmi's Awqaf Ministry building (after 1898). In the Ottoman Empire a revival of governmental patronage in the late nineteenth century led to an early-twentieth-century Ottoman Revival style, whose chief practitioners were the architects Kemalettin Bey and Mehmet Vedat, and to a new-Islamic style that drew its inspiration from Spain and the Maghrib, exemplified by the Valide Mosque (1873) by Montani, and by the mid-nineteenth-century neo-Marinid gateway to what is now Istanbul University. In Casablanca, the Law Courts and other official buildings that were built under the French protectorate reflected an attempt to understand and to promote "appropriate" local styles.

Nationalist architecture in the Middle East emerged during the twentieth century. The Ottoman Revival under the Young Turks in the early twentieth century manifested a new Turkish nationalism and sparked a tradition reflected today in the neo-Ottoman contemporary buildings of Sedad Hakki Eldem, such as his many Bosporus villas (yah) and the massive central complex of Istanbul University. After the Atatürk revolution, German architects were invited to devise a city plan for modern Ankara; public monuments in European styles often drew upon what their designers believed were the pre-Islamic Hittite and Assyrian traditions of Anatolia.

Similar attention to the pre-Islamic past was seen in the architecture of Iran under the Pahlavis, where the monarchy stressed cultural continuity not only with the Safavid Islamic past but also with a Persian heritage stretching back to Cyrus the Great. The government of Reza Pahlavi spent vast sums on restoring monuments, especially those that had been built with earlier royal patronage, while largely adopting the modern international style in its new institutional buildings. The regime's Islamic successor has produced no significant architecture that indicates its own political and religious agenda, mostly because of the country's economic decline and the demands of its war with Iraq.

Morocco's independence from the French, gained in 1956, led to a pronounced nationalism in architecture, first expressed in the tomb complex of Muhammad V in Rabat, and in the 1990s in a series of laws that required that the construction budgets for all institutional and governmental buildings allot a substantial percentage of funds to strictly defined traditional Moroccan crafts.

In Egypt, by contrast, the revolution of the 1950s led to a socialist government whose official architecture often imitated the monumental style popular in the Soviet Union, best exemplified in the massive and forbidding Central Government Building in Cairo. National revolutions thus developed architectural patronage that reflected their own ideologies. For example, the secularist Baʿthist regime in Iraq, when it drew on the past for inspiration, typically looked to the neo-Babylonian period rather than to traditional Islam, a tendency that increased under the government of Saddam Hussein. In a parallel though far less pronounced tendency, Egypt has sought pharaonic inspiration for building styles and public monuments. In Central Asia, Russia first pushed its Stalinist architectural agenda, then later espoused the Soviet version of modernism. At the same time, the Soviet governments in Central Asia put significant effort into restoring Islamic monuments such as the giant mosque of Bibi Khanym in Samarkand, and religious monuments in Tashkent and Bukhara.


Contemporary Dilemmas

Middle Eastern attempts to adapt modern Western architecture often conflicts with the desire to bring about a renaissance of traditional architecture, or to produce a modern Islamic architecture that can keep its distinctive local or regional style while drawing upon the best of the new technology. There have been several institutional attempts to deal with this dilemma, but none has been more influential than the Aga Khan Awards, established in the late 1970s by the leader of the world's Ismaʿili Muslims. Beginning in 1980 an international jury composed of architects and others from the Islamic world, Europe, and the United States has periodically awarded prizes for contemporary Middle Eastern architecture that best reflects Islamic traditions and values combined with artistic distinction. The honored styles have varied widely, from the neotraditionalist architecture of Hassan Fathy in Egypt, typified in his buildings for the Wissa Wassef Foundation in Harraniya, near Giza, to the technically and formally avant-garde water towers designed for Kuwait City by the Swedish firm VBB. In general, the juries have shown remarkable breadth of vision and have taken an inclusive and eclectic (rather than ideological and purist) approach to the enormous range of distinctive modern Middle Eastern architectural styles. Awards have been given for domestic architecture, historical restoration, institutional buildings, adaptive reuse, and commercial buildings. The first awards were memorialized in 1983 in a publication edited by Renata Holod; subsequent years' awards, and other subjects of Middle Eastern architecture, have been featured in the periodical Mimar: Architecture in Development (up to 1994).

Three main issues confront governments, patrons, architects, and urban planners in the Middle East today. The first is how and whether there should be an ideology of architecture; the answer in Morocco has been an unequivocal yes, reflected in neotraditionalist building codes that emphasize traditional ornament and decorative crafts while utilizing modern technology to the fullest. For example, the mosque of Hassan II in Casablanca (thought of as a pendant to the impressive twelfth-century ruins of the Almohad mosque in Rabat), although constructed in classical Moroccan forms and proportions with classical decoration, is an outsized reinforced-concrete giant whose skyscraper minaret is surmounted by a huge laser that sends beams far into the sky. Its construction has been hailed for its Islamic symbolism and condemned for its extravagance during a time of financial difficulties. Similar ideology prevailed in the reconstruction of the two major pilgrimage shrines in Mecca and Medina by the Saudi government. Although they greatly facilitate the comfort and ease (if not the safety) of vastly increased numbers of pilgrims, these structures, lavish in size and decoration and traditional in style, raise more questions than they answer about the future of Middle Eastern religious architecture.

Examples of the opposite approach, which could be termed "creative pluralism," are found in Turkey and Tunisia, where many different styles, structures, and forms of decoration exist side by side in a creative mixture. The issue remains: Is appropriate architecture to consist of a traditional decorative veneer on what are essentially Western buildings in plan and construction, or is the new architecture of the Middle East going to be based from the ground up on the rich mosaic of social, environmental, and historical traditions? In fact, with few exceptions, local vernacular architecture is disappearing, replaced by undistinguished modern structures or by an equally alien homogenized national traditionalism that often consists of little more than employing the arch solely as a decorative device on building surfaces.

The second issue is curricula in architectural schools and colleges. The twentieth-century conflict about the role of teaching and learning the art and architecture of the past exists in the Middle East as it does elsewhere; the almost universal acceptance of Western-originated construction techniques and equipment (reinforced concrete, steel, glass, the tower crane, and so on) lends an almost surreal quality to some of these debates, and the issues often have been obscured as much as illumined by the polemics against the West exercised by individuals such as the late Ismaʿil Faruqi. The dialectic between historicism and artistic creativity is as old as art itself, however, and these debates are bound to survive as an essential part of the creative process.

The third issue is one that confronts architects and patrons everywhere. Even an examination of the record of the Aga Khan Awards demonstrates an impressive array of beautiful structures that are creative in design and impressive in sensitivity to tradition, but for the most part, whether they are private houses or public monuments, expensive to construct and affordable to few. Whether architecture in the Middle East can fulfill its implicit roleto provide decent housing and urban environments for exploding populations while reflecting its national and local traditions and remaining affordableis a dilemma that will not easily be resolved.

see also atatÜrk, mustafa kemal; balyan family; baʿth, al-; eldem, sedad hakki; fahmi, mahmud pasha; hussein, saddam; ismaʿil ibn ibrahim; istanbul university; kemalettin bey; muhammad ali; pahlavi, reza; young turks.


Bibliography

The Aga Khan. Introduction of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Proceedings. Instanbul: Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 1979.

Akbar, Jamel. Crisis in the Built Environment: The Case of the Muslim City. Singapore: Concept Media Pte Ltd., 1998.

Evin, Ahmed. Architecture Education in the Islamic World. Singapore: Concept Media Pte. Ltd./Aga Khan Award for Architecture 1986.

Faruqi, Ismail al-. "Islam and Architecture." In Fine Arts in Islamic Civilization, edited by M. A. J. Berg. Kuala Lumpur: Alif International, 1981.

Holod, Renata, and Rastorfer, Darl, eds. Architecture and Community: Building in the Islamic World Today. New York: Aperture, 1983.

Kultermann, Udo. Contemporary Architecture in Arab States. Renaissance of a Region. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Sakr, Tarek Mohamed Refaat. Early Twentieth-Century Islamic Architecture in Cairo. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1993.

Walter Denny

Updated by Azzedine G. Mansour

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Architecture

Architecture

MEANING IN ARCHITECTURE

THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF ARCHITECTURE

NEW ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Architecture is the art and science of building the human environment. Because that environment is meant to enclose, enhance, and shape human activity, architecture thus extends beyond abstract issues of formal geometrical design and structural science into a far broader social dimension. As Winston Churchill is famous for saying to Parliament in 1943: First we shape our buildings, and then our buildings shape us.

Exactly when the conscious, deliberate shaping of the human environment began defies dating, since the earliest structures most likely were made of organic materials that quickly returned to earth. Archaeological evidence discovered near Marseille, France, however, revealed repeated construction of wood-framed dwellings dating back as far as 300,000 to 400,000 years ago, and several skin coverings and wooden house frames from 13,500 years ago were surprisingly preserved at a Chilean site called Monte Verde. The well-known stone structures of megalithic Europe date to 6,000 years ago, but it is significant that these were almost universally built for ceremonial or religious purposes, while the construction of dwellings apparently still relied on vegetable and animal materials long since vanished. Hence, the first intentionally permanent architecture was shaped for the most fundamental of social communal purposesto bring a sense of visible order to the cosmos and to provide a link to the dead.

Architecture is a decidedly social activity, for it involves the interactions of many individuals, beginning with the patronindividual, committee, or organizationwho calls a building into being. The architect and assistants, or architectural firm, then translate the clients wishes into abstracted drawings and other construction documents that are used in turn by an army of construction specialists to fabricate the final product. At every step of this process, social exchanges, discussions, and negotiations are required to adjust the design to changing needs and costs. This multidisciplinary social process involves large numbers of people specializing in many occupations, such as drawing and computer design, materials acquisition, preparing written specifications, scheduling construction, arranging construction materials, assembling the prepared materials, and applying the interior finishes, among many others. For the most complex buildings, additional management specialists are required to ensure that materials and subassemblies arrive at the building site with optimal timing to prevent costly delays.

As a social art, architecture is subject to a range of controlling forces to ensure public safety. In ancient Rome, huge privately financed urban apartment blocks, called insulae, sometimes were so shoddily built that they collapsed. With the establishment of a firmer centralized authority during the Roman Empire, regulations were enforced to curb the worst of these building shortcuts. Later, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, governing authorities in France and Britain similarly instituted building regulations to reduce the spread of urban fires. In the United States, following disastrous fires in Boston and Chicago in the late nineteenth century, building codes and regulations were instituted in larger cities. To ensure general public safety, nearly every community now has zoning regulations and building codes controlling where types of buildings can be located and governing density as well as engineering requirements of design and durability of building materials. These regulations apply equally to commercial and governmental buildings, as well as to private residences.

Making architecture involves the shaping of space in a way reached by no other art. Whether fully enclosed or an open external area, architectural space has several different properties. Initially designed to accommodate some function of human activity, this space is definable as square feet or meters. If the space is enclosed by glass, then the users view extends beyond the physically enclosed space, and this larger reach constitutes perceptual space less easily quantified. If some substantial object is permanently fixed in that spacea large table, for examplethe physical presence of that object emphatically conditions human use of the space, giving definition to the social parameters of behavioral space.

Beyond these three-dimensional aspects, another important spatial quality is the distance members of a particular species place between themselves. This strong determinant of social behavior, called personal space, can be seen in the way birds space themselves along a telephone wire. Seemingly genetically programmed, impinging upon personal space may produce socially aberrant behavior. Among humans, however, Edward T. Hall notes in The Hidden Dimension (1966) that personal space seems to be significantly determined by culture in addition to any fixed internal programming.

Making places for human use extends from the design of a single room and its interior furnishings in ever-increasing scales: from a small building to a large multistory office or institutional structure, to a group of interconnected buildings such as a college campus, to an urban neighborhood, even to the planned organization and pattern of use of a region. Architectural design involves not only physical structures but also the landscape in which the buildings are placed.

MEANING IN ARCHITECTURE

Buildings embody wishes and aspirations on several levels, beginning with the desires of the client. Typically, images a client might envision for a building are part of a general collection of accepted communal formal qualities, evolved over time and called by a style name. These stylistic qualities are understood by most of the community and symbolize its values at any given time.

This concept is the iconography of a particular architectural style. To later historians, additional layers of meaning might be discernible, but these interpretations may not have been part of the consciousness of the original builders. This more embracing concept is the iconol-ogy of a time period.

THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF ARCHITECTURE

In sketching the general iconological content of past architecture, one might make several observations:

  • that ancient Greek architecture, particularly temples, represented humans striving to achieve the highest level of excellence in construction;
  • that ancient Roman architecture borrowed details from Grecian architecture for use in buildings of vast scale devoted to public purposes;
  • that the most important medieval architecture served to reinforce human religious life in anticipation of an eternity in heaven;
  • that Renaissance architecture sought to fuse this inherited religious meaning with a renewed appreciation of the geometric logic of classical architecture; and
  • that Baroque architecture endeavored to appeal to emotions to enhance religious mysticism (in the ecclesiastical realm) or to make a political impression through magnificence or vastness of scale (in the aristocratic realm).

Architects of the nineteenth century struggled to master new industrial technologies while attempting to understand the enormously rich and complex history of architecture around globe.

What changed in the early twentieth century was an added layer of social utopianism, an outgrowth of the Arts and Crafts movement in England. Through the exploitation of industrial production processes, and using industrial materials such as concrete, steel, and glass, architects were challenged to devise a radically new architectural style that would eliminate slum housing. Moreover, this new millennial architecture was to be shaped by an idealistic view of the way things should be (at least in the eyes of the architects and theorists), rather than shaped by the way things actually were. The resulting new communities were to provide fresh air, clean water, and open space in the belief that these transformations would permanently improve society. Architect and polemicist Charles-Édouard Jenneret (who called himself Le Corbusier) declared in his 1923 Vers une Architecture that it was either this new architecture or social revolution. He even suggested the creation of a normative typeone building type for all people everywhere. Begun in Europe at the dawn of the twentieth century, the new architecture became public policy in the 1920s and 1930s, with more limited application in the United States. Although this social utopianism was well intended, it often fell short of the objective. It may have been supremely utilitarian, but as Hannah Arendt would observe in her 1958 The Human Condition, utility established as meaning generates meaninglessness.

The perceived lack of referential meaning in the International Modern style (as it came to be known by mid-twentieth century) led to a reaction by a new generation of architects, particularly Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown in the United States. Beginning with the use of broadly and whimsically altered historic details, postmodern architecture appeared in the mid-1960s, entering the professional mainstream by the end of the 1980s and extending worldwide by the 1990s. In referencing the past, postmodernism also validated reexamination of traditional regional architectural styles around the globe. Architects in Hungary, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and scores of other nations began to draw inspiration from their own ancient regional traditions in new buildings of wholly original design and construction; such architecture proved rich in meaning to its users. Architecture in the late twentieth century was viewed once again as capable of being a powerful element in how people envision themselves in time and place.

NEW ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

The end of the twentieth century was marked by the emergence of certain mega-architects identified by their unique building forms. Most notable was Frank Gehry, known for his multiply curved, metal-clad, irregularly shaped swoosh buildings. Exploitation of computer-aided design has rendered such complex building forms more cost effective, marking a dramatic change in the imagining and construction of buildings and doing away with traditional drafting instruments largely unaltered for centuries. The unfolding effect of this fundamental change in design methodology will shape twenty-first century architecture.

An equally significant shift in the nature of the discipline is the emergence of women in a field dominated for centuries by men. Women began to make important contributions beginning at the dawn of the twentieth century, but their names were seldom widely known and their numbers were few. This advent of women as major players in the discipline was vividly demonstrated by the award of the prestigious international Pritzker Architecture Prize to Zaha Hahid in 2003.

Perhaps more significant for Earths future is the movement toward sustainable green architecture. The traditional energy-consuming methods of making construction materialstoxic in themselves and leaving toxic residue from their manufactureresulted in buildings that, once completed, further consumed prodigious amounts of energy for lighting, heating, cooling, and ventilating. Nowhere was this old-style architecture more evident than in the thin-walled modernist glass-sheathed boxes of the mid-twentieth century. In contrast, the emerging philosophy of sustainable green architecture promotes using less toxic materials and forming buildings in ways that allow them to work with, rather than against, nature. For example, windows can be shaded by calculating orientation and latitude to prevent internal solar heat gain, and buildings may be cooled in part by facilitating natural ventilation, practices of architect Ken Yeang. The future social implications of such a design approach, especially in the reduction of long-term operating costs, are enormous.

SEE ALSO Archaeology; Cities; Human Ecology; Material Culture; Postmodernism; Religion; Rituals; Telecommunications Industry; Urbanization

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Le Corbusier. 1977. Vers une Architecture, rev. ed. Paris: Arthaud. (Orig. pub. 1923).

Gauldie, Sinclair, 1969. Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hall, Edward T. 1966. The Hidden Dimension. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Kostof, Spiro, ed. 1977. The Architect: Chapters in the History of the Profession. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kostof, Spiro. 1991. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. New York: Little, Brown.

Kostof, Spiro. 1995. A History of Architecture: Setting and Rituals, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moffett, Marian, Michael Fazio, and Lawrence Wodehouse. 2004. Buildings Across Time: An Introduction to World Architecture. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian. 1975. Meaning in Western Architecture. New York: Praeger.

Prak, Niels Luning. 1968. The Language of Architecture: A Contribution to Architectural Theory. The Hague: Mouton.

Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. 1962. Experiencing Architecture, 2nd ed. Eve Wendt, trans. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Roth, Leland M. 2006. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning, 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Trachtenberg, Marvin, and Isabelle Hyman. 2002. Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity, 2nd ed. New York: Abrams.

Watkin, David. 2005. A History of Western Architecture, 4th ed. New York: Watson-Guptill.

Leland M. Roth

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture of medieval Rus, initially influenced by Byzantine architecture, developed a distinct set of styles between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. As Moscow established its dominance and as contacts with western European culture increased in the late fifteenth century, Russian motifs began to blend with Western ones. By the eighteenth century the design of Russia's public buildings followed Western styles. Rapid social change at the turn of the twentieth century and the establishment of Soviet power after 1917 generated new bursts of architectural experimentation.

medieval and muscovitearchitecture (c. 10001700)

Little is known of pre-Christian architecture among the eastern Slavs, but with the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev in 988, the construction of masonry churches spread throughout Rus. The largest and most complex of these early churches was Kiev's Cathedral of Divine Wisdom (10371050s), commissioned by Prince Yaroslav the Wise and built with the direction of Greek masters. The interior contained extensive mosaics as well as frescoes. Other major churches of this period include the Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (10451052), the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Chernigov (10311050s), and the Cathedral of the Dormition at the Kiev Cave Monastery (10731078; destroyed in 1941).

Regardless of size, the churches adhered to a plan known as the "inscribed cross": a cuboid structure with a dome marking the intersection of the main aisles. The dome was elevated on a cylinder supported by the four main piers. The facades usually culminated in curved gables known as zakomary.

In addition to Kiev, Novgorod, and neighboring cities, the third center of architecture in pre-Mongol Rus was the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, whose limestone churches were distinguished by carved decoration and precision of design. Grand Prince Yury Dolgoruky commissioned the first of these churches, such as the Transfiguration in Pereslavl-Zalessky (11521157). His son Andrei Bogolyubsky began the great era of limestone building in this area with the Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir (11581160); his palace church at Bogolyubovo (11581165) of which only fragments remain; and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165). His successor, Vsevolod III, enlarged the Dormition Cathedral (11851189) and built the Cathedral of St. Dmitry in Vladimir (11941197), whose upper tier is covered with elaborate carving representing Biblical and secular motifs.

After the Mongol invasion of 12371241, church construction sharply declined; but by the middle of the fourteenth century, masonry construction revived, particularly in Novgorod, with the support of wealthy merchants and neighborhood craft guilds. The Church of St. Theodore Stratilates on the Brook (13601361) and the Church of Transfiguration on Elijah Street (1374; frescoes by Theophanes the Greek) exemplified a distinct local style with steeply pitched roofs. Moscow also enjoyed an architectural revival in the construction of limestone churches, but not until the last quarter of the fifteenth century did the major churches of the Kremlin take shape under the direction of Italian masters imported by Ivan III.

During the sixteenth century, Moscow's brick churches displayed boldly inventive designs, also with Italian influence. The culmination of this period occurs in the most famous of Russian churches, the Intercession on the Moat, popularly known as Basil the Blessed (15551561). Built on what later became known as Red Square, in celebration of Ivan IV's conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, the structure consists of a central tent tower surrounded by eight tower churches. The latter part of the sixteenth century also witnessed the building of major brick fortresses, most notably the citadel at Smolensk (15951602) by Fyodor Kon. With the restoration of order after the Time of Troubles (16051612), the building of brick churches occurred on an unprecedented scale, especially during the reign of Alexei (16451676).

the imperial period (c. 17001917)

The assimilation of Western architectural styles, which had begun in the late seventeenth century, increased radically during the reign of Peter I (16821725). In 1703 Peter founded St. Petersburg, which became the Russian capital in 1711. Western European architects Jean Baptiste Le Blond (16791719) and Domenico Trezzini (16701734) submitted plans for its development. At this stage Petersburg's architecture owed much to the northern European baroque, particularly in Sweden and Holland. The stuccoed brick walls of the city's baroque buildings were painted, with white trim for window surrounds and other details. Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli (17001771) defined the high baroque style during the reigns of Anna (17301740) and Elizabeth (17411762). Among his major projects are the Stroganov Palace (17521754), the final version of the Winter Palace (17541764), and the Smolny Convent with its Resurrection Cathedral (17481764). In addition Rastrelli greatly enlarged the existing imperial palaces at Peterhof (17461752) and Tsarskoye Selo (17481756).

During the reign of Catherine the Great (17621796), imperial architecture moved from the baroque to neoclassicism. With the support of Catherine, a constellation of architects endowed the city during the second half of the eighteenth century with a grandeur inspired by classical Rome. Charles Cameron (ca.17401812), the leading proponent of neoclassicism, designed the palace at the imperial estate of Pavlovsk (17801796), a gift from Catherine to her son Grand Duke Paul. Andrei Voronikhin (17591814) created a still more obvious example of the Roman influence in his Cathedral of the Kazan Mother of God (18011811), with its sweeping colonnade reminiscent of the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome.

The reign of Alexander I (18011825) witnessed a new campaign to create an interconnecting system of architectural ensembles and public space throughout the center of Petersburg. The rebuilding of the Admiralty (18061823) by Andreyan Zakharov (17611811) reaffirmed that structure and its spire as dominant elements in the city plan. The culmination of the imperial design fell to Carlo Rossi (17761849), who created four major ensembles, including the General Staff Building and Arch (18191829), facing Palace Square. Neoclassicism in Moscow appeared primarily in houses and other institutions built by the nobility and wealthy merchants. Of particular note are mansions and churches designed by Matvei Kazakov (17381812).

During the reign of Nicholas I (18251855), classical unity in Petersburg yielded to eclectic styles and innovations in construction engineering, both of which are evident in the final version of St. Isaac's Cathedral (18181858) by Auguste Montferrand (17861858). Of special significance was the Russo-Byzantine style, supported by Nicholas I and implemented by Constantine Thon (17941881), builder of the Great Kremlin Palace (18381849). The major work in this style was Ton's Church of Christ the Redeemer (18371883; destroyed in 1931 and rebuilt in the 1990s), created as a memorial to Russian valor in the 1812 war.

By the 1870s there arose a new national style based on decorative elements from sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Muscovy as well as on motifs from folk art and traditional wooden architecture. Major examples of the Russian style in Moscow include the Historical Museum (18741883), built on the north side of Red Square to a design by Vladimir Shervud (18331897); the Moscow City Duma (18901892) by Dmitry Chichagov (18351894); and the Upper Trading Rows (18891893) by Alexander Pomerantsev (18481918), assisted by the construction engineer Vladimir Shukhov (18531939). In Petersburg the Russian style was used by Alfred Parland (18451892) for the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior "on the Blood" (18831907).

The "new style," or style moderne, that arose in Russian architecture at the turn of the century emphasized the innovative use of materials such as glass, iron, and glazed brick in functional yet highly aesthetic designs. The style flourished in Moscow primarily, where its leading practitioner was Fyodor Shekhtel (18591926), architect for patrons among Moscow's entrepreneurial elite, such as the Ryabushinskys. In Petersburg the style moderne appeared primarily in the design of apartment buildings. In contrast to their American contemporaries, Russian architects did not design large buildings with steel frames, but became experts at the use of reinforced concrete construction.

soviet architecture (19171991)

The economic chaos engendered in Russia by World War I proved catastrophic for building activity, and the ensuing revolution and civil war brought architecture to a standstill. With the recovery of the economy in the 1920s, bold new designsoften utopian in conceptbrought Russia to the attention of modern architects throughout the world. Constructivism, the most productive modernist movement, included architects such as Moysei Ginzburg (18921946), Ilya Golosov (18831945), Grigory Barkhin (18801969), and the Vesnin brothers: Leonid (18801933), Viktor (18821950), and Alexander (18831959). Their designs, primarily in Moscow, set a standard for functional design in administrative and apartment buildings, as well as social institutions such as workers' clubs. Another modernist active during the same period, but not a part of Constructivism, was Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov (18901974), known for his bold designs for exposition pavilions and workers' clubs.

During the 1930s more conservative trends asserted themselves, as designs inspired by classical, Renaissance, and historical models received the party's approval. After World War II architectural design became still more firmly locked in traditional, often highly ornate eclectic styles, epitomized by the postwar skyscrapers in Moscow and other Soviet cities. After 1953 pressing social needs, particularly in housing, led to a return to functionalism, heavily dependent on standardized designs and prefabricated components. With the demise of the communist system in Russia, the revival of private practice in architecture seems likely to change the face of the profession, even as new problems arise in zoning and resource allocation.

wooden architecture

Throughout Russian history wood has been used for almost every type of construction, from churches and fortress walls to peasant dwellings and grand country villas. Fire and rot have destroyed most wooden structures from the distant past, and there is no extensive evidence that wooden structures appeared before the late sixteenth century. Yet the basic forms of wooden architecture are presumably rooted in age-old traditions. Remarkable for their construction logic, wooden churches also display elaborate configurations. One example is the Church of the Transfiguration at Kizhi (1714), whose pyramid of recessed levels supports twenty-two cupolas. Although such structures achieved great height, the church interior was usually limited by a much lower ceiling. Log houses also ranged from simple dwellings to large three-story structures peculiar to the far north, with space for the family as well as shelter for livestock during the winter. Wooden housing is still used extensively, not only in the Russian countryside, but also in provincial cities (particularly in Siberia and the Far East), where the houses often have plank siding and carved decorative elements.

See also: kievan rus; moscow; novgorod the great; st. petersburg

bibliography

Brumfield, William Craft. (1991). The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brumfield, William Craft. (1993). A History of Russian Architecture. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cracraft, James. (1988). The Petrine Revolution in Russian Architecture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hamilton, George Heard. (1983). The Art and Architecture of Russia. New York: Penguin Books.

Khan-Magomedov, Selim O. (1987). Pioneers of Soviet Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.

William Craft Brumfield

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architecture

architecture. British architecture has a strongly national character, often nurturing indigenous traditions while at the same time developing distinctive, and occasionally imitative, versions of European or international styles. Scottish architecture tended to develop independently (to some extent even after the union of the crowns in 1603), until the Act of Union of 1707. Here castles, towers, and fortified manor houses, often with turrets and ‘crow-stepped’ gables, predominated during the Middle Ages; the 16th and 17th cents. saw the beginnings of the Renaissance, with a distinct French influence.

In England, after the Norman Conquest, Saxon architecture, often of wooden construction, was replaced by ‘Norman’; this was, in effect, a version of the European Romanesque style, with fine ashlar masonry, heavy columns, and round arches. The Normans built castles and cathedrals which were not only centres of power in their own right, but symbolized the cultural and political superiority of the new regime.

The Gothic style flourished from c.1200 to the early 16th cent., with many uniquely British developments such as the late ‘Perpendicular’ phase. Further potential development along Gothic lines was curtailed by Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries in 1536. Henry's break with Rome over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon inhibited possible Italian Renaissance influence, then permeating Europe, as a result of which Tudor architecture often exhibits a curious mixture of Gothic, and half-digested Renaissance forms borrowed from German or Flemish pattern books. However, the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods saw the development of the first great aristocratic country houses (the so-called ‘prodigy houses’ such as Longleat, Wiltshire (from 1553), Burghley, near Stamford (1575–85), Wollaton, Nottinghamshire (1580–8), and Hatfield, Hertfordshire (from 1611) ). The era also witnessed the emergence of the first designers to whom the word ‘architect’ was applied: John Shute (fl. 1550–70) was the first native architect to go to Italy and published in 1563 The First and Chief Groundes of Architecture, while Robert Smythson (c.1536–1614) had a substantial hand in the design of both Longleat and Wollaton.

Meanwhile, a more European culture was developing around the Stuart court; Rubens and Van Dyck were given patronage as was Inigo Jones (1573–1652), who made at least two lengthy visits to Italy. Jones's surviving works, much inspired by Andrea Palladio (1508–80), include the Queen's House, Greenwich (1616–35), and the Banqueting House, Whitehall (1619–22). Jones brought Britain once again into the mainstream of European architecture but was essentially a court architect and the Civil War prevented any widespread dissemination of his ideas. The Restoration saw the reintroduction of classicism, but in a different form. The architects of the ‘English baroque’ (c.1660–c.1720) turned for inspiration to the Italian baroque and to contemporary French architecture, although adapting this to English, and in ecclesiastical terms, specifically Protestant, taste. They include: Sir Christopher Wren (1632–1723)—many churches in the city of London following the Great Fire of 1666 and, above all, St Paul's cathedral (begun 1666); Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661–1736)—the churches of St Mary Woolnoth (1716–27) and St George, Bloomsbury (1720–30), both in London, and Easton Neston House, Northamptonshire (completed 1702); and Sir John Vanbrugh (1664–1726)—Castle Howard, Yorkshire (1699–1726), Blenheim, Oxfordshire (1704–20), and Seaton Delaval, Northumberland (c.1718–29).

Following the Act of Union and the establishment of the Hanoverian dynasty, a desire to create a specifically British, rather than English, national identity saw the rise of the Palladian style (c.1720–c.1760). Numerous country houses (invariably surrounded by landscaped parks) and villas were built in this style: harmonious, symmetrical, and perfectly proportioned, so much so that practical considerations were often sacrificed for the correct adherence to classical rules.

The country house during the first half of the 18th cent. became virtually an emblem of cultural and political authority (e.g. Holkham Hall, Norfolk, mainly by William Kent, from 1734). One of the initiators of Palladianism was Richard Boyle, 3rd earl of Burlington (1694–1753), whose villa, Chiswick House, near London (c.1723–9), was inspired by the Villa Rotunda, near Vicenza, by Palladio himself. Palladian architects include Colen Campbell (1676–1729), William Kent (1685–1748), the latter closely associated with Burlington and also a painter, designer, and landscape gardener, and James Paine (1717–89). Palladian principles were also successfully adopted in the planning of cities and towns, as at Bath, and in the development of London's Georgian streets and squares.

By the third quarter of the century there was some reaction against this established taste; Robert Adam (1728–92) was able to create a fashionable style based on the introduction of neo-classical elements culled principally from the antique. Indeed, increasing interest in antiquity led to the ‘Greek Revival’ and to the further development of the Gothic Revival, the origins of which lie earlier in the century. Sir John Soane (1753–1837) developed an extremely personal neo-classical style, as in his now largely demolished works at the Bank of England from 1788, and played a part in architectural education and in furthering the status of the profession. His rival John Nash (1752–1835) was a versatile exponent of Picturesque architecture and was responsible for George IV's metropolitan ‘improvements’ in the area of what is now Regent's Park, London (1821–30).

The 19th cent. saw a continuing emphasis on stylistic revivals, particularly the Gothic Revival; Victorian architecture tends to be large in scale and highly decorative, reflecting the era's wealth and prosperity. Major Victorian architects include: Sir Charles Barry (1795–1860), A. W. N. Pugin (1812–52)—collaborators in the neo-Gothic rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament after 1835— Sir G. G. Scott (1811–78), Norman Shaw (1831–1912), and G. E. Street (1824–81). Late in the century, the Arts and Crafts movement, influenced by the ideas of William Morris (1834–96), rejected the dependence upon historical styles in design. An extremely talented exponent of Arts and Crafts ideas in his early work, and of classicism in his later, was Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944).

Twentieth-cent. British architecture tended to be conservative, apart from the work of comparatively isolated figures such as the Glaswegian Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868–1928), at least until the Second World War; after this European modernism, with its simplified, functional forms, became universally accepted, partly due to the need for urban reconstruction. Major works of British modernism include the Royal Festival Hall, London (completed 1951 to the designs of Leslie Martin and Robert Matthew) and Coventry cathedral by Sir Basil Spence (completed 1961); also the New Towns of the 1950s and 1960s and many inner city housing estates (some of which are now regarded less sympathetically than at the time of their construction). A version of modernism, emphasizing the use of exposed concrete, became known as ‘brutalism’; Sir Denys Lasdun's National theatre, South Bank, London, and the nearby Hayward Gallery/Queen Elizabeth Hall complex are examples of this (both designed in the 1960s). More recently, ‘high-tech.’ architecture, which celebrates the most up-to-date use of technology, has become important, as with Sir Richard Rogers's Lloyd's of London Building and Sir Norman Foster's Stansted Airport, Essex (both completed during the 1980s).

Throughout the British Isles there was a strong tradition of vernacular architecture until at least the 19th cent., when more standardized forms of design took over as a result of improved communications, the growth of the architectural profession (the Institute, later the Royal Institute, of British Architects founded 1834), and, with this, the influence of books and magazines. This makes use of local materials and techniques and therefore differs according to the region in which it is found. It tends to be relatively plain and functional, although it may incorporate features from ‘high’ or ‘polite’ styles.

T. E. Faulkner

Bibliography

Colvin, H. M. , A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 (3rd edn. 1995);
Summerson, J. , Architecture in Britain 1530–1830 (9th edn. 1993);
Watkin, D. , English Architecture (1979).

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architecture

architecture, the art of building in which human requirements and construction materials are related so as to furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.

The analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras. Behind each of the greater styles lies not a casual trend nor a vogue, but a period of serious and urgent experimentation directed toward answering the needs of a specific way of life. Climate, methods of labor, available materials, and economy of means all impose their dictates. Each of the greater styles has been aided by the discovery of new construction methods. Once developed, a method survives tenaciously, giving way only when social changes or new building techniques have reduced it. That evolutionary process is exemplified by the history of modern architecture, which developed from the first uses of structural iron and steel in the mid-19th cent.

Until the 20th cent. there were three great developments in architectural construction—the post-and-lintel, or trabeated, system; the arch system, either the cohesive type, employing plastic materials hardening into a homogeneous mass, or the thrust type, in which the loads are received and counterbalanced at definite points; and the modern steel-skeleton system. In the 20th cent. new forms of building have been devised, with the use of reinforced concrete and the development of geodesic and stressed-skin (light material, reinforced) structures.

See also articles under countries, e.g., American architecture; styles, e.g., baroque; periods, e.g., Gothic architecture and art; individual architects, e.g., Andrea Palladio; individual stylistic and structural elements, e.g., tracery, orientation; specific building types, e.g., pagoda, apartment house.

Architecture of the Ancient World

In Egyptian architecture, to which belong some of the earliest extant structures to be called architecture (erected by the Egyptians before 3000 BC), the post-and-lintel system was employed exclusively and produced the earliest stone columnar buildings in history. The architecture of W Asia from the same era employed the same system; however, arched construction was also known and used. The Chaldaeans and Assyrians, dependent upon clay as their chief material, built vaulted roofs of damp mud bricks that adhered to form a solid shell.

After generations of experimentation with buildings of limited variety the Greeks gave to the simple post-and-lintel system the purest, most perfect expression it was to attain (see Parthenon; orders of architecture). Roman architecture, borrowing and combining the columns of Greece and the arches of Asia, produced a wide variety of monumental buildings throughout the Western world. Their momentous invention of concrete enabled the imperial builders to exploit successfully the vault construction of W Asia and to cover vast unbroken floor spaces with great vaults and domes, as in the rebuilt Pantheon (2d cent. AD; see under pantheon).

The Evolution of Styles in the Christian Era

The Romans and the early Christians also used the wooden truss for roofing the wide spans of their basilica halls. Neither Greek, Chinese, nor Japanese architecture used the vault system of construction. However, in the Asian division of the Roman Empire, vault development continued; Byzantine architects experimented with new principles and developed the pendentive, used brilliantly in the 6th cent. for the Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

The Romanesque architecture of the early Middle Ages was notable for strong, simple, massive forms and vaults executed in cut stone. In Lombard Romanesque (11th cent.) the Byzantine concentration of vault thrusts was improved by the device of ribs and of piers to support them. The idea of an organic supporting and buttressing skeleton of masonry (see buttress), here appearing in embryo, became the vitalizing aim of the medieval builders. In 13th-century Gothic architecture it emerged in perfected form, as in the Amiens and Chartres cathedrals.

The birth of Renaissance architecture (15th cent.) inaugurated a period of several hundred years in Western architecture during which the multiple and complex buildings of the modern world began to emerge, while at the same time no new and compelling structural conceptions appeared. The forms and ornaments of Roman antiquity were resuscitated again and again and were ordered into numberless new combinations, and structure served chiefly as a convenient tool for attaining these effects. The complex, highly decorated baroque style was the chief manifestation of the 17th-century architectural aesthetic. The Georgian style was among architecture's notable 18th-century expressions (see Georgian architecture). The first half of the 19th cent. was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.

New World, New Architectures

The architects of the later 19th cent. found themselves in a world being reshaped by science, industry, and speed. A new eclecticism arose, such as the architecture based on the École des Beaux-Arts, and what is commonly called Victorian architecture in Britain and the United States. The needs of a new society pressed them, while steel, reinforced concrete, and electricity were among the many new technical means at their disposal.

After more than a half-century of assimilation and experimentation, modern architecture, often called the International style, produced an astonishing variety of daring and original buildings, often steel substructures sheathed in glass. The Bauhaus was a strong influence on modern architecture. As the line between architecture and engineering became a shadow, 20th-century architecture often approached engineering, and modern works of engineering—airplane hangars, for example—often aimed at and achieved an undeniable beauty. More recently, postmodern architecture (see postmodernism), which exploits and expands the technical innovations of modernism while often incorporating stylistic elements from other architectural styles or periods, has become an international movement.

Bibliography

See S. F. Kimball and G. H. Edgell, A History of Architecture (1946, repr. 2002); T. Hamlin, Architecture through the Ages (rev. ed. 1953); S. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings & Rituals (1985); M. Trachtenberg and I. Hyman, Architecture: From Pre-History to Post-Modernism (1986); H. A. Millon, Key Monuments of the History of Architecture (1964); A. E. Richardson and H. O. Corfiato, The Art of Architecture (3d ed. 1972); K. Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Architecture (1996); J. Fleming et al., The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (5th ed. 1999); N. Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture (1st rev. ed., intro. by M. Forsyth, 2009); C. Harris, Dictionary of Architecture and Construction (4th ed. 2006); P. Goldberger, Why Architecture Matters (2011).

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Architecture

Architecture

Sources

Amateurs and Imitators. Architecture in colonial America was the work of amateurs. Most buildings were built to serve practical functions rather than aesthetic ideals. The cost of building materials made it difficult to execute elaborate designs and purely decorative ornaments. In the third quarter of the eighteenth-century, more public buildings, usually churches, were built and their builders showed more interest in aesthetics. Because such projects were so infrequent, it is difficult to identify any architect who achieved a career in the colonies without devoting most of his time to other forms of work. Given the scarcity of architectural projects, it should not be surprising that colonial architecture tends to be noteworthy less for originality than for novelty. Most colonial buildings imitated particular buildings in London. St. Pauls Chapel in New York City, for example, imitated the interior of Londons St. Martin in the Fields.

Domestic Architecture. The most important change in colonial architecture was in domestic styles. As Northern merchants, Southern planters, and imperial administrators grew wealthy, they sought to display their genteel status through the consumption of imported goods and the display of cosmopolitan tastes in clothing, furniture, books, and especially their houses. If architecture in the colonies did not have the status of a professional art, it nevertheless reveals the pervasive influence of cosmopolitan tastes in the New World. British influence in colonial culture came from recent immigrants, from travel to Europe, or more commonly through books and prints imported from England. Books were particularly important for bringing British tastes, especially in homebuilding and interior decoration, to the colonies. By the end of 1750, there were eighteen different architecture books circulating in the colonies, but by 1760 there were fifty-one. These books account for not only the sometimes remarkable sophistication of particular elements of colonial mansions, but also the eclectic confusion of their overall design. George Masons Gunston Hall (17551759), for example, drew on five different books for its details of woodworking, plaster, and doorframes. Designer William Buckland used two books that had not even been published when he started building. The end result was a purely classical drawing room, Gothic Rococo arches in another room, and the first expression in American architecture of Chinese taste in the dining room. Like other impressive houses built in the late colonial era, Gunston Hall was built to showcase the latest tastes in architecture.

Harrison and Palladio. Peter Harrison, the first architect in the colonies who had more than one building to his credit, spent the majority of his life working as a customs official in New Haven. He designed the first

public synagogue (17591763) in Newport, Rhode Island, as well as Christ Church in Cambridge, Massachusetts (17601761). In these buildings and others, Harrison introduced elements of classical design that came to be known as Anglo-Palladianism. When he died in 1775, Harrison had a library of twenty-seven architecture books, the largest collection in the colonies. Andrea Palladio, an Italian architect during the Renaissance, had led the revival of Roman architecture, writing an influential book based on his intensive studies of the ancient ruins. Building Venetian palazzos and villas in the surrounding countryside, Palladio followed the classical example closely, using stately symmetrical logic and rectangular serenity. He used creative grouping and combination of columns and arches to achieve unity in his designs, which became a trademark of the Palladian influence so evident in the neoclassical architecture in Britain and America in the eighteenth century. The flowering of classical archaeology in Greece in the 1750s and 1760s provided new inspiration to architects on both sides of the Atlantic.

Monticello. Thomas Jefferson was the most talented and accomplished architect in Revolutionary America. For his home at Monticello he managed to draw myriad classical elements together in an overall innovative design. Begun in 1771 and built over the course of Jeffersons life, Monticello used a hilltop site typical of Roman country homes, but it reversed the usual Palladian scheme, in which service wings flanked a central entrance court. By extending and lowering these wings to the back of the main building, Jefferson used the slopes of the site to transform the flat roofs of the wings into terrace walks. The interior paraded a series of Romaninspired details, with each room including a frieze from an ancient temple and educated the visitor in the variations of classical orders. The Hall is in the Ionic, the Dining Room in the Doric, the Parlor is in the Corinthian, and the Dome in the Attic, Jefferson wrote. In the other rooms are introduced several different forms of these orders, all in the truest proportions according to Palladio. Jefferson tinkered with and added to the building over forty years, and in this way it was much like the government he had helped design for the new nationan ongoing experiment that self-consciously drew on the true, rational proportions of the ancient Republics but which in its eclectic and ahistorical combination of elements and values defied precedent. Monticello was a beautiful and awkward structure that was much more than the sum of its parts, a testament to the ongong idealism by which Jefferson and others of the founding generation sought to give form to timeless laws of nature, to adapt their prodigious learning and study to the practical problems of living.

Sources

Robert Hughes, American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America (New York: Knopf, 1997);

G. E. Kidder-Smith, Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the 10th Century to the Present (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996);

Fiske Kimball, Domestic Architecture in Colonial America and the Early Republic (New York: Scribners, 1922);

Marcus Whiffen and Frederick Keeper, American Architecture 16071976 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981).

PATIENCE WRIGHT, SCULPTOR AND SPY

The first known American sculptor was a woman, Patience Lovell Wright. Wright molded busts and figures in wax, specializing in the sort of realistic wax tableaux that were made famous by Madame Tussaud in the nineteenth century. Wright turned to sculpture after she was left a widow with five children in 1769. Wrights life-size portraits of hands and faces were so detailed and accurate that when they were attached to clothed figures, she seemed to have captured people in suspended animation. After touring the colonies Wright moved to London, where she became known not only for her artistic skill but also for her charismatic personality, and in polite society she became notorious for her slightly wild manner of speaking and looking upon her subjects. A major personality during the Revolutionary War, Wright was also a spy who passed on any information that she gleaned from her influential and wealthy circle of patrons. She often hid messages in wax heads of Lord North and various British celebrities that she sent to her sister Rachel in Philadelphia, who would then pass them on to Washington.

Source: Wayne Craven, Sculpture in America (New York: Crowell, 1968).

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Architecture

Architecture

Architecture, which is generally defined as the art and science of designing and constructing edifices of any kind for human use, is one of the main design activities humankind has developed to modify its environment. Architecture is often cited among the oldest existing professions on Earth. Indeed, the way architects have approached their design problems, realized their designs through construction, and practiced their profession had not changed significantly over many centuries until the emergence of computers.

Computers typically allow architects to create, store, and retrieve data describing design; to generate design solutions automatically; to test prospective solutions for their applicability; and to collaborate and communicate with clients, constructors, engineers, and other designers during design and construction processes. The early uses of computers in architecture and design did not come directly from the discipline itself, however.

The introduction of computer graphics commenced in the late 1940s through the U.S. Navy's Whirlpool project, a general-purpose flight simulator. However, incorporating computer graphics and usage with design activities took speed only after 1963 when American engineer Ivan E. Sutherland developed the Sketchpad system for his Ph.D. thesis at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Sketchpad allowed a mechanical engineer to generate designs by sitting at an interactive graphics terminal. The tool manipulated drawings displayed on the screen by use of a keyboard and a light pena selecting tool with a light sensing device, such as a photocell, which generates an electrical pulse to identify the portion of the display being pointed to. Sketchpad cleaned up rough drawings by straightening and connecting lines and constructing geometric patterns; therefore, it was conceived as the first computational drawing assistant.

Although Sketchpad's major application domain was mechanical design, it opened the way to the development of computer-aided design (CAD) tools for architecture and other design disciplines. Most of the early CAD systems were applications for engineering design. Architecture lagged considerably behind, primarily due to economic reasons. As computers developed and the costs became more affordable for architectural firms and university-based research groups, utilization of the technology became an increasingly widespread reality for architects.

Software for Architects

The first milestone applications specifically developed for architectural usage were designed to help with planning and research of a project, using basic algorithms to draw shapes, to calculate engineering formulas involved in building design both correctly and automatically, and to help manage conflicting constraints. These computer tools mostly focused on the following areas of architectural design:

  • Structural and mechanical calculations, such as those needed to determine what capacity of heating and ventilating equipment should be used;
  • Cost estimation to determine the cost impact of design, materials, and construction decisions before the building is constructed;
  • Documentation of building specifications (specs) that outline specifically which materials should be used, and how, and in what order for each building component;
  • Automatic layout generation to figure out how spaces, equipment, or furniture should be allocated in a given area.

The widespread availability of personal computers starting in the early 1980s marks the beginning of the boom in commercial CAD software for architects. The major impact of these developments has been in the daily routines of how architects work in the office. Computerized drawing, three-dimensional modeling, and graphics editing applications have replaced paper, pen, and rulers, the traditional tool set of an architect. Architectural software offers speed, accuracy, ease of revision-making, and the ability to create rapid prototypes . Moreover, some allow multiple users to work simultaneously on the same file, facilitating teamwork.

Computer-aided architectural design is a technology intensive field that is strongly dependent on processor capabilities, display technologies, and software and algorithm capabilities of the tools developed. Hardware technology has been capable of answering these demands for architects in their office environment with the introduction of devices such as high resolution and color printers, scanners, plotters, and advanced processors.

On the construction site, tools increasing accuracy also help advance the quality of building design. For example, hand-held computers make it possible for users to access a central building database, whether they are architects on the building site or in the office. Increased and accurate communication via networked computers means that efficient revision management strategies can be employed to deal with worksite issues. Similarly, laser-scanning technology is used to collect data from existing buildings, which used to be done manually. Very high-resolution three-dimensional models are created using these data; the resulting drawings are used for renovation projects.

Specialized Tools

Architectural design is a special kind of problem-solving process with unique research and analysis needs. Computer-based research can help architects by providing automated decision-making tools. Generative systems, case-based design systems, and performance analysis tools are among the most popular application areas that aim to enhance an architect's design thinking pattern with the use of computer tools. A generative system explores alternative ways of solving the design problem by assembling various design elements in different combinations. Case-based design tools retrieve previously stored design information when a new problem is encountered. They function like a digital library where a previous design becomes the base for solving a new problem. Performance analysis tools complement these design tools by computationally supporting the evaluation of various design solutions according to how they behave under certain conditions such as daylight, noise, weight loads, and more.

Architectural software designers are now focused on developing computational tools and methods that are more streamlined and easier for architects to use. New sketching tools and applications that seamlessly handle the collection, processing, and dissemination of information take the lead in research and development. The pace of change in the computer industry often means that software applications are outdated before disciplines with unique problems such as architectural design can modify the programs to suit their needs. For that reason, there is always a considerable need for new software and devices to serve the needs of the architectural profession.

see also CAD/CAM, CA Engineering; Graphic Devices.

Ipek Özkaya

Bibliography

Akin, Omer. Psychology of Architectural Design. London: Pion Ltd., 1986.

Carrara, Gianfranco, and Yehuda Kalay, eds. Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design. New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Mitchell, William J., and Malcolm McCullough. Digital Design Media, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995.

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Architecture

20. Architecture

See also 60. BUILDINGS ; 212. HOUSES

acropolis
a citadel or elevated fortification of a settlement.
architectonics
the science of architecture. See also 23. ART ; 312. PHILOSOPHY . architectonic, architectonical, adj.
Asiaticism
a style of architecture distinguished by excessive ornamentation or floridity. Asiatical, adj.
baroque
a highly decorated form of art or ornamentation. baroque, adj.
Brutalism
an aggressive 20th-century style, usually in rough-textured and unfinished materials, that frankly exhibits both structural and mechanical systems.
bungaloid
a 20th-century style dwelling, usually of one story, imitative of the true bungalow form characterized by low, sweeping roof gables and a large verandah in the front.
classicism
1. the employment of compositional formulas and decorative techniques based upon the architecture of ancient Greece or Rome, but often including new ideas.
2. the employment of formulas and decorative techniques with an emphasis upon the subordination of utility in order to stress perfection of form.
columniation
1. the use of columns in architectural design.
2. the pattern of columns used.
cuspidation
a form of ornamentation composed of cusps or curves meeting in pairs at a tangent to the area being decorated. cuspidate, cuspidal, adj.
eclecticism
an international movement, most in vogue from 1820 until about 1930, characterized by almost total freedom of choice among historical styles of both overall composition and decoration in the design of public buildings, the freedom tempered by the intended use or location of the building.
Egyptian Revivalism
a style imitative of antique Egyptian temple architecture, most influential after Napoleons campaign in Egypt and lasting in the U.S. into the early 20th century.
entasis
the slight convexity or outward curve given to a tower or other tall, narrow structure.
eurhythmy
harmonious proportions in a building.
Federalism
an American style based upon the classical theories and decorations of the English architect Robert Adams and his contemporaries, with lightness and delicacy as its outstanding qualities; practiced from 1775 until overwhelmed by Greek Revivalism, its most typical external features are doorways with fanlights and sidelights (often with attenuated pilasters) and the play of other curved elements against a basically boxlike structure. Also called Early Federal Style, Early Republican.
functionalism
a philosophy of architectural design rather than a separate style, expressed in Louis Sullivans form follows function and Le Corbu-siers concept of a house as a machine for living in, under the premise that buildings ought to express construction, materials, and accommodation of purpose, usually with the assumption that the result would be aesthetically significant. Also called structuralism . functionalist, n., adj.
Georgianism
1. in England, the modes of architecture, furniture, decoration, and silver produced from about 1714 to 1830; architecturally, it embraced several styles: Palladian, Early Gothic Revival, Chinese, and various other classical and romantic manners.
2. in America, the architectural style of the English colonies during the 18th century, based first upon the ideas of Christopher Wren and James Gibbs and later upon the Palladian style. It is typically characterized by construction in red brick with white or colored trim and double-hung windows, central halls, elaborately turned stair balusters, paneled and warmly colored walls, fine woodwork, and white plastered ceilings.
Gothicism, Gothic
the general term employed to denote the several phases of European architecture in the period 1100-1530 that employ the pointed arch, or their imitations.
Gothic Revivalism
a universal style current since its inception in Britain in the late 18th century, passing from a period of superficial decoration to one in which true Gothic massing yielded such masterpieces as the British Houses of Parliament and Pittsburghs Cathedral of Learning.
Greek Revivalism
an austere American style of the period 1798-1850, embracing in either form or decoration such Greek features as bilateral symmetry, low-pitched roofs, frontal porticos with pediments, and horizontal doorheads; often executed in wood and painted white, the structures usually featured modifications of the classical orders and occasional imaginative use of interior vaulting.
intercolumniation
the space between columns; the pattern of spacing between columns.
Internationalism, International Style
a style, current since the 1920s, that makes use of modern constructional advances to create buildings reflecting characteristic industrial forms and emphasizing both volume and horizontality through ribbon windows, smooth and undecorated wall surfaces, and flat roofs, with contrasts introduced by curved or cylindrical forms and cantilevered projecting features.
Neo-Expressionism
a current style emphasizing dynamism achieved by employment of sweeping curves, acute angles, and pointed arches.
New Formalism
a current American manner, characterized by buildings that are freestanding blocks with symmetrical elevation, level rooflines (often with heavy, projecting roof slabs), many modeled columnar supports, and frequent use of the arch as a ruling motif to produce a kind of classicism without classical forms.
Palladianism
the classical style evolved by the 16th-century architect Andrea Palladio, featuring harmonic proportion based upon mathematics, extensive use of porticos, a neat contrast between openness and solidity, and features of Roman decoration; partially influential today in the so-called Palladian motif, a window or other opening consisting of a central high arch flanked by lower rectangular areas, the whole supported by four columns (a feature actually invented before Palladios time and used only sparingly by him).
Renaissance Revivalism
a style originating in England c.1830 and influential in the U.S. from 1850 through 1930, derived from the Renaissance palace architecture of Rome, Florence, and Venice; in the U.S., the structures were executed in masonry, wood, or cast iron.
structuralism
functionalism.
tectonics
a general term for the theory and techniques of construction. tectonist, n. tectonic, adj.

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architecture

architecture

The architecture of the Renaissance drew on forms and techniques recovered from ancient Greece and Rome. This classical architecture came to light with the rediscovery of the Roman architect Vitruvius, whose book On Architecture revealed building techniques that had been lost in the Middle Ages. Vitruvius's work was translated into many languages and appeared in several new editions; On Architecture inspired new treatises by Renaissance writers striving to explain and inspire the use of classical proportions and harmony. These authors, including Leon Battista Alberti and Andrea Palladio, aspired to teach universal ideals, grounded in mathematics, classical philosophy, science, geometry and the art of perspective. They were translated and spread quickly throughout Europe as the taste for the classical ideal spread. By the time of the High Renaissance, appearance in the ancient style (all'antica in Italian) gave a church, private home, or palace the stamp of an aristocratic and intellectual elitism. Giorgio Vasari, in The Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, had the honor of coining the term rinascita, or re-birth, a designation for the entire age of returning to classical ideals.

Italian architects were the first to abandon the medieval Gothic manner of designing sacred and secular buildings. The Italians saw the Gothic style as a strange and foreign importation, brought by northern barbarians and imposed on the heirs of the ancient Romans. Throwing off the old style was a point of pride; the education of many artists and architects included a pilgrimage to Rome to investigate and measure the remains of the ancient city. The work of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence was an important harbinger of the new architecture of the Renaissance. Brunelleschi's architectural masterpieces included the Santo Spirito and San Lorenzo in Florence, and the dome of the city's cathedral. In the next generation, Donato Bramante, Giovanni Amadeo, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, Antonio da Sangallo, Raphael, and Michelangelo Buonarroti carried the classical ideal throughout Italy.

Their new style emphasized symmetry, the balance of different elements, and harmonious proportions. Plain surfaces and clear lines swept away the exuberant clutter of Gothic spires and sculpture. The classical arch and dome came into style; columns in the three ancient ordersDoric, Ionic, and Corinthiangave the appearance of a classical temple, and revealed the basic geometry of a building. The facade and the interior of the building worked together, rather than being entirely separate elements as in the Middle Ages.

Church architecture was more consistent across the continent, with two major plans dominatingthe basilica in the shape of a cross, with elongated nave and short transept, and the Greek cross. The Greek cross was admired for its balance and perfect proportions of the square and circle, but after the Catholic Reformation the church, in its effort to echo the virtues of the early Christians, returned to the traditional basilica plan.

Private architecture also assumed classical models. Roman homes, with severe street fronts, individual rooms coming off long corridors, and colonnaded interior courtyards, were imitated in majestic Renaissance palaces, with the Farnese Palace of Antonio da Sanagallo in Rome one of the best-known examples. Facades were regular and symmetrical, surmounted by a cornice, and centered on immense doorways that advertised the owner's wealth and prestige. The rooms were decorated with fresco paintings, another imitation of Roman style. Country homes adopted Roman features, such as grottoes, elaborate gardens, fountains, pools, and open-air courtyards.

Accompanying new ideas in architecture was the new science and art of town planning, which began to change Europe's urban landscape. Comprehensive plans cleared away the organic web of medieval streets and replaced it with logical grid plans (borrowed from Roman colonies), large and open public squares, and wide boulevards that served as an axis of traffic and commerce. Renaissance cities were also decorated with classical features such as columns, arches, and monumental statuary. The largest example of urban renewal was the city of Rome itself, where the dark and chaotic medieval neighborhoods were cleared away and the city knit together with wide avenues, with a practical purpose of accommodating the many religious pilgrims making their way to Saint Peter's Basilica.

Italian architecture and its classicism spread throughout the rest of Europe, where builders blended the new style with techniques and traditions of their own countries. Toward the end of the sixteenth century, classicism became an international idiom, used in the monumental buildings such as the Louvre palace in Paris, and the Escorial near Madrid.

The architecture of the sixteenth century used classical buildings as a mere starting point for new innovations. The leading figure of the new Mannerist style was Michelangelo Buonarroti, who designed the Campidoglio in Rome, a beautifully proportioned public square atop the Capitoline Hill, the heart of the ancient city. Churches and aristocratic palaces were built, structures that were unknown to the ancient Romans. In France, the Renaissance style was expressed in graceful chateaus, such as Chambord and Azay-le-Rideau, that replaced the fortresslike castles of the medieval age. In England, Inigo Jones applied classical design to royal palaces and private homes in the early seventeenth century.

See Also: Alberti, Leon Battista; Bramante, Donato; Brunelleschi, Filippo; Michelangelo Buonarroti; Palladio, Andrea; Vitruvius

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Architecture

Architecture

Sources

Greek Revival. The growth of the young republic required the construction of various new buildings to house its government. Architects patterned most of the new nations public buildings after classical models. The neoclassical lines of Greek Revival buildings suggested a simplicity that differed sharply from the luxury and decay Americans associated with British aristocracy. This republican style was intended to confer a sense of both democracy and community.

Public Buildings. Architect and engineer Benjamin Latrobes work on the Bank of Pennsylvania (17981800), considered to be the first Greek Revival Structure in the United States, brought him to the attention of Thomas Jefferson. Impressed by Latrobes ability to use

and adapt Greek Revival designs to American themes, Jefferson named him surveyor of the public buildings of the United States in 1803. Latrobe oversaw the restoration of the capital after it was partially destroyed by fire in 1814. As part of this project Latrobe designed columns for the Senate wing that featured ears of corn, tobacco, and other native plants; by blending neoclassical form with native decoration, Latrobe showed that it was possible for American architecture to draw on older models while adapting them to the American environment. Two of Latrobes students, Robert Mills and William Strickland, dominated the public architectural scene through the 1840s. Mills designed the Washington Monument at Baltimore (18141829), a giant unfluted Doric column. His other important projects included the United States Treasury and the Patent Office in 1836 and the Washington Post Office in 1839. Strickland designed the Second Bank of the United States (1824) and several of its branch banks as well as the Philadelphia Merchants Exchange (18321834) and the Tennessee State capital (18441849).

Republican Homes. After the American Revolution many prominent men wanted to build houses that would reflect their commitment to the republican principles of the new nation. Architects such as Latrobe and Strickland, perhaps best known for public projects, designed homes as well. As they did in their public buildings, these architects tended to use simple, neoclassical designs as a means of illustrating the homeowners commitment to republican virtue. By using designs suggested by and related to the ancient republics of Greece and Rome, these architects and the men who hired them hoped to demonstrate their faith in the American republic and to inspire viewers to virtuous thought and action.

Pattern Books. During the early decades of the nineteenth century pattern books for house building became popular. Between 1797 and 1860, 188 architectural handbooks for builders were published in the United States. Asher Benjamins American Builders Companion (1806) went through multiple editions; in the books sixth edition, published in 1827, Benjamin incorporated illustrations of Greek Revival detailing, fashionable for houses by that time. Another well-known pattern-book author, Minard Lafever, published several different builders guides during the 1820s and 1830s, with each one carrying a larger variety of Greek Revival detailing. Lafevers third book. The Beauties of Modern Architecture (1835), contained not only house plans and diagrams but also lithographic prints showing what the finished house would look like.

Downing. In 1841 landscape gardener Andraw Jackson Downing published Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. In contrast to the pattern-book authors who stressed Greek Revival architectural style, Downing favored a nature oriented landscape and architectural design. Influenced by English domestic and landscape designers, Downing believed that civilized taste naturally progressed from the more formal and ordered garden and house sites popular in the eighteenth century to sites that seemed to blend with nature rather than stand apart from it. A modern American garden, suggested Downing, should appeal to the sense of the beautiful, picturesque, or sublime rather than to a sense of order and geometric perfection. In other words a garden was to appeal to a viewers emotions as well as reason. In his 1842 book Cottage Residences Downing applied these principles of landscape gardening to country houses. Unlike the pattern books of Benjamin. Lafever, and others, Cottage Residences was aimed at potential homeowners rather than at builders. Downing argued that architecture was not simply a utilitarian art aimed at the building of a serviceable home but was also a fine art. A home should be both beautiful and practical. Cottage Residences and Downings last book, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), contained numerous illustrations of homes in a variety of styles, all of which favored either a beautiful and harmonious look or a more rugged, picturesque appearance. Downing was also careful to include a range of houses, some inexpensive and others larger and more elaborate. Downing believed that a beautiful and morally uplifting home should be within the economic reach of every American family.

Sources

Talcott Hamlin, Benjamin Henry Latrobe (New York: Oxford University Press, 1955);

David Schuyler, Apostle of Taste: Andraw Jackson Downing, 18151852 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996);

Robert K. Sutton, Americans Interpret the Parthenon: The Progression of Greek Revival Architecture from the East Coast to Oregon, 18001860 (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992).

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Architecture

Architecture


A basic human impulse is to look for patterns in our surroundings. An example is the impulse to find patterns in time. People organize their daily activities around natural rhythms, such as the rising and setting of the Sun. Similarly, people are also driven to find patterns in space. One of the tools used to do this is mathematics. Mathematics attempts to describe relationships and patterns that emerge within ordered, logical structures. Whereas many patterns occur in the natural world, many occur in objects that humans fabricate, including homes, office buildings, concert halls, and places of worship. Behind these buildings are the architects who translate these mathematical concepts into concrete form. Today, humans continue to marvel at the mathematical constructions of ancient architectsthe pyramids, ziggurats , temples, stadiums, and even such technological feats as ancient irrigation projects.

Historical Architects

Architecture and mathematics have historically been disciplines that were indistinguishable. Architects were mathematicians, and mathematicians were often architects. In the sixth century, Byzantine emperor Justinian wanted the Hagia Sophia to be unlike any other building built before, so he assigned the job to two professors of mathematics named Isidoros and Anthemios. In the Islamic world, architects created a wealth of complex patterns, particularly in their elaborate tiling patterns.

It has been said that people used little mathematics during the medieval period, but the magnificent cathedrals of the Middle Ages sharply contradict that belief. Medieval stonemasons had a firm command of geometry, and they constructed their monuments according to mathematical principles. They did not write their mathematics down in books; instead, they wrote it down in the structures and spaces they created. These and other traditional architects developed architecture into a discipline that is, at the core, mathematical.

Architecture and Mathematical Principles

What are some of the mathematical principles that architects use? One is the use of scale. In designing a building, an architect starts with a schematic that represents the building, much as a map represents geography. When making the drawing, the architect uses a tool called an "architect's scale" calibrated in multiples of and of an inch. Using a scale enables the

architect to draw a diagram of a room or building in a way that represents its actual proportions. For example, if the architect is trying to draw a section of wall that measures 4 feet 3 inches, the markings on an architect's scale enables them to draw a line that consistently represents that distance on a smaller scale. The scale also ensures that a line representing a section of wall that will measure, as an example, 8 feet 6 inches is exactly twice as long as the 4-foot 3-inch line. Being able to measure scale enables an architect to reproduce complementary proportions throughout a structure.

Closely related to scale is what architects and geometers refer to as the Golden Mean, or sometimes the Divine Proportion. The Golden Mean is expressed as the number 1.618 and is arrived at by solving a quadratic equation . This equation defines in numbers the most aesthetically pleasing relationship of a rectangle. The use of the Golden Mean in designing buildings and rooms to maintain a pleasing sense of proportionto avoid the appearance of "squatness," for examplehas been a constant throughout the history of architecture.

Sometimes architects rely on mathematics for practical rather than aesthetic purposes. For example, in designing an overhang for a building, architects can calculate sun altitudes and azimuths . This enables them to determine the best angle and size of the overhang to provide maximum shade in the summer and solar heat in the winter. To provide adequate natural lighting in a room, they generally calculate the area of windows such that it is at least 8 percent of the room's floor area. Architects will use human dimensions to determine, for example, the best height for a counter or how much space is needed to walk and work between a kitchen counter and an island in the middle of the kitchen.

Architects also use geometry to determine the slope, or pitch, of a roof. This slope is usually expressed as a rise-over-run fraction; for example, a pitch means that for each horizontal foot, the roof line rises 6 inches; an roof would have a steeper pitch, a roof a gentler pitch. These measurements are critical if, for example, a dormer window is going to protrude from the roof. The architect has to ensure that the dormer is set back far enough from the frontbut not too farfor the window and its surrounding structure to fit and be at the correct height. For architects, such precision is very important.

see also Architect; Golden Section; Scale Drawings and Models.

Michael J. O'Neal

Bibliography

Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Bovill, Carl. Fractal Geometry in Architecture and Design. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1996.

Salingaros, Nikos A. "Architecture, Patterns, and Mathematics." Nexus Network Journal 1 (April 1999).

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architecture

architecture. Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps (1849), stated that architecture was the ‘art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man … that the sight of them’ contributes ‘to his mental health, power, and pleasure’, which proposes aesthetic, beneficial, and spiritual aspects rather than a utilitarian or Functionalist agenda. He also opined, in the same book, that ‘architecture’ should be confined to ‘that art which, … admitting … the necessities and common uses’ of a building ‘impresses on its form certain characters venerable or beautiful, but otherwise unnecessary’. He went on to note that ‘no one would call the laws architectural which determine the height of a breastwork or the position of a bastion. But if to the stone facing of that bastion be added an unnecessary feature, as a cable moulding, that is Architecture. It would be similarly unreasonable to call battlements or machicolations architectural features, so long as they consist only of an advanced gallery supported on projecting masses, with open intervals beneath for offence. But if these projecting masses be carved beneath into rounded courses, which are useless, and if the headings of the intervals be arched and tre-foiled, which is useless, that is Architecture.’ Such a simplistic and prolix definition is revealing of Ruskin's attitudes, which, to a large extent, became the general view of the subject for the next eighty years or so.

Architecture is (or historically was) concerned with the creation of order out of chaos, a respect for organization, the manipulation of geometry, and the creation of a work in which aesthetics plays a far greater role than anything likely to be found in a humdrum building. Wotton's statement that ‘well building hath three conditions: Commodity, Firmness, and Delight’ seems to have originated from Vitruvius, who insisted that architecture derives from order, arrangement, eurythmy (or harmony of proportion), symmetry, propriety, and economy. Wren spoke of ‘Beauty, Firmness, and Convenience’ in architecture. These definitions suggest that there is much in the built fabric that falls into the category of non-architecture. Architecture might be described as the art and science of designing a building having qualities of beauty, geometry, emotional and spiritual power, intellectual content and complexity, soundness of construction, convenient planning, many virtues of different kinds, durable and pleasing materials, agreeable colouring and decorations, serenity and dynamism, good proportions and acceptable scale, and many mnemonic associations drawing on a great range of precedents. Doubtless there are many more aspects that some would consider essential other than those suggested above. Philip Johnson, in the New York Times (1964), went so far as to make the dubious claim that ‘architecture is the art of how to waste space’. In C21 some architecture has been increasingly concerned with advertising, and the devaluing of symbols has led critics to question the status of many buildings as architecture.

Bibliography

Gwilt (1903);
Nicholson (1835);
W. Papworth (1852);
Ruskin Seven Lamps, ch. 1 1849)

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architecture

architecture Art and science of designing permanent buildings for human use. Architecture can express aesthetic ideas from the most restrained utilitarianism to extravagantly ornate decoration. The difference between ‘architecture’ and ‘building’ is a subject that has exercised theorists since the discipline was invented. In reality, architecture is usually a compromise between aesthetic creation and the demands of practicality. There are many different areas of architecture and, apart from the stylistic and historical periods (see individual articles), it comes under such broad categories as civic, commercial, religious, recreational, and domestic. In the 20th century, traditional barriers between separate artistic disciplines have gradually dissolved, so that it is possible to see architecture as a type of sculpture. Key figures in the development of western architectural theory include Vitruvius, who believed that architecture was merely a form of applied mathematics, and Alberti whose pioneering treatise De re Aedificatoria (1485) introduced the idea that architecture was an art form in its own right. After the 18th century, European architects tended to regard ‘building’ as a cheap substitute for their profession and something that engineers carried out. Architects began to swing back in the other direction with the arrival of the Arts and Crafts Movement, and the introduction of efficient, mass-produced materials. The 20th-century modernists, such as Walter Gropius, believed that the form of a building should follow its function. The relationship between the two extremes is continually changing.

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architecture

architecture The specification of a (digital) computer system at a somewhat general level, including description from the programming (user) viewpoint of the instruction set and user interface, memory organization and addressing, I/O operation and control, etc. The implementation of an architecture in members of a given computer family may be quite different, yet all the members should be capable of running the same program. Implementation differences may occur in actual hardware components or in subsystem implementation (e.g. microprogramming as opposed to wired control), generally in both. Different implementations may have substantially different performances and costs. An implementation feature – such as a cache memory – that is transparent to the user does not affect the architecture. Common architecture provides compatibility from the user's viewpoint.

In the context of engineering and hardware design, the term architecture is used to describe the nature, configuration, and interconnection of the major logic organs of a computer (and is thus closer to the general meaning of the word). These devices would normally include the memory and its components, the control unit and the hardware components designed to implement the control strategy, the structure, range, and capability of the ALU, and the interconnection of the input/output – such as whether star or bus connected – and the nature and capabilities of any channel controllers. A detailed block diagram or schematic of the actual (as distinct from the virtual) machine would normally form part of, or even be central to, such a description.

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architecture

ar·chi·tec·ture / ˈärkiˌtekchər/ • n. 1. the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings. ∎  the style in which a building is designed or constructed, esp. with regard to a specific period, place, or culture: Victorian architecture. 2. the complex or carefully designed structure of something: the chemical architecture of the human brain. ∎  the conceptual structure and logical organization of a computer or computer-based system: a client/server architecture. DERIVATIVES: ar·chi·tec·tur·al / ˌärkiˈtekchərəl/ adj. ar·chi·tec·tur·al·ly / ˌärkiˈtekchərəlē/ adv.

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE.

This entry includes three subentries:

Overview
Africa
Asia

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Architecture

Architecture: see ART.

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architecture

architecturecatcher, dacha, focaccia, patcher, scratcher, snatcher, stature, thatcher •facture, fracture, manufacture •capture, enrapture, rapture •flycatcher • oystercatcher •archer, departure, kwacha, marcher, starcher, viscacha •pasture •etcher, fetcher, fletcher, lecher, sketcher, stretcher •conjecture, lecture •sepulture •denture, misadventure, peradventure •divesture, gesture, vesture •texture • architecture • nature •magistrature •bleacher, creature, feature, headteacher, Katowice, Nietzsche, preacher, screecher, teacher •schoolteacher •ditcher, hitcher, pitcher, stitcher, twitcher •Chibcha •picture, stricture •filcher • simcha •cincture, tincture •scripture •admixture, commixture, fixture, intermixture, mixture •expenditure • forfeiture •discomfiture • garniture •primogeniture, progeniture •miniature • furniture • temperature •portraiture • literature •divestiture, vestiture

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE . [This article presents a thematic overview of religious architecture. Monuments associated with prehistoric religious practices are discussed in Megalithic Religion; Paleolithic Religion; and Prehistoric Religions.]

Architecture may be defined as the art of building, and consequently religious architecture refers to those buildings planned to serve religious purposes. These structures can be either very simple or highly complex. They can take the form of a circle of upright stones (megaliths) defining a sacred space or they may spread over acres like the sanctuary at Angkor Wat. They can be of any and every material from the mounds of earth reared over royal tombs to the reinforced concrete and glass of twentieth-century houses of worship.

Yet the practice of religion does not of itself require an architectural setting. Sacrifice can be offered to the gods in the open air on a hilltop; the adherents of Islam can perform their daily prayers in a railroad car or even in the street; the Christian Eucharist can be celebrated in a hospital ward. Nevertheless all the major world religions have buildings especially planned for their use, and these constitute an important source of knowledge about these faiths. They can reveal what is believed about the nature of the gods; they can provide insight into the character of the communities for which they were designed and the cultus celebrated therein.

To comprehend and appreciate the significance of these buildings it is necessary to classify them, but their variety is so great that one single method would be incomplete. Hence several typologies have to be devised if the subject matter is to be covered adequately; indeed it is possible to identify at least four. In the first place, the vocabulary applied to religious buildings can be taken as the basis for the formulation of a typology. This, however, is by no means exhaustive, and so it is essential to move on to a second typology derived from the character or nature ascribed to each building, which may differ depending upon whether it is regarded as a divine dwelling, a center of reference, a monument, or a meeting house. A third typology may be presented by analyzing the functions for which each building provides, including the service of the gods, religious teaching, the manifestation of reverence and devotion, congregational worship, and symbolization. A fourth typology is architectural rather than religious but needs to be noted: this is based upon the categories of path and place. Other factors that should be borne in mind for a complete picture relate to the different materials used, the effect of climate, culture and its expression in different styles, and also the influence of patronage.

Classification according to Terms Used

The terms used to refer to religious buildings provide a preliminary indication of both their variety and their significance.

Terms that designate a structure as a shelter

These may be further differentiated according to the class of being or thing associated with them.

For gods

The Hebrew beit Elohim is to be translated "house of God," while heikhal, a loanword from Sumerian through Babylonian (ekallu ), is used for a very special house or palace. In Greek there is naos, from naio, "to dwell in," and kuriakos ("of the Lord") lies at the origin of both kirk and church. In Latin there is aedes sacra, a "sacred edifice," as well as domus dei, a "god's home." Tabernacle (Lat., tabernaculum from taberna, a "hut") has a similar domiciliary connotation. Hinduism has prāsāda, or platform of a god, and devalaya, a residence of a god, while the Japanese word for shrine is literally "honorable house."

For objects

In English the primary term is shrine, derived from scrinium, which means a case that contains sacred things. More specifically there is chapel from capella ("cloak"), referring to the garment of Saint Martin that was venerated in a small building; there is cathedral, which shows that the particular church is where the bishop's cathedra, or throne, is located. Pagoda, which is a deformation of the Sinhala dagoba, is a tower containing relics. Agyari, a place of fire, is the designation of a Parsi temple in which the sacred flame is kept alight. The Temple of the Sleeping Buddha in Peking characterizes the form of the statue within.

For humans

The Latin domus ecclesiae points to the Christian community as the occupant of a building. Beit ha-keneset in Hebrew and sunagōgē in Greek (from sunagō, "to gather together"), with synagogue, as the English transliteration, denote a place of assembly. The term used by Quakers, meeting house, has the same implication.

Terms that indicate the character of a structure

In Greek there is to hagion, the place of dread, from azomai, "to stand in awe of," and to hieron, the "holy place." In Latin adytum is a transliteration of the Greek aduton, "not to be entered," because it is the holy abode of a divinity. Templum is a space cut off; it comes from tempus, meaning a "division" or "section," which in turn derives from the Greek temenos, referring to an area set apart for a particular purpose such as the service of a god. Temple in English has the same etymology, while sanctuary (sanctus ) emphasizes the holiness of the building.

Terms that affirm an association with a person or events

To speak of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London is to declare a link with the apostle. The Süleymaniye Mosque complex in Istanbul commemorates its patron, Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. The Roman Pantheon, which is Latinized Greek (pantheion ), was dedicated to "all the gods." The Anastasis in Jerusalem commemorates the resurrection (anastasis ) of Jesus. Basilica denotes a public building with royal (basileus ) links. The generic term is marturion (Lat., martyrium ), from martureo, "to be a witness." Such an edifice is a monument or memorial; the two terms are synonymousthe one from moneo, "to remind," and the other from memor, "to remember." It therefore preserves or promotes the memory of a person or event; the English Cathedral of Saint Albans, for example, commemorates a martyred saint, and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem recalls the birth of Christ.

Terms descriptive of the activity for which a building is used

The Hebrew devir, which denotes the holy of holies in the Jerusalem Temple, may suggest an oracle, from a verb meaning to "speak" in which case it is similar to the Latin fanum, from fari, "to speak," especially of oracles. Proseuke (Gr.) and oratorium (Lat.), in English oratory, or place of prayer, all point to a particular form of religious devotion. Baptistery (Gr., baptizō, "to dip") specifies ceremonial action, and mosque (Arab., masjid, "place of prostration" [before God]), the place of an action.

Terms indicative of the shape of the edifice

These relate mainly to funerary architecture: tholos, a "dome" or "vault," signifies a round tomb; tomb itself comes from tumulus, a sepulchral mound; pyramid suggests a geometric form and is at the same time the designation of a pharaoh's resting place; masabah is the Arabic for a bench that describes the shape of a tomb; stupa, from the Sanskrit stupa (Pali, thūpa ), signifies a reliquary "mound" or tower; ziggurat, from the Babylonian ziqqurratu, meaning "mountain peak" or "pinnacle," is descriptive of the superimposed terraces that make up this structure.

Typology according to Character

Granting the unavoidable overlap, four main types may be specified.

Divine dwelling

Taking pride of place, because the majority of terms in use emphasize this particular category, is the structure that is regarded as a divine habitation. Since the chief occupant enjoys divine status, the model is believed to have been provided from above. Gudea, ruler of Lagash in the third millennium bce, was shown the plans of his temple by the goddess herself. The shrine of Amaterasu, the Japanese sun goddess, was built according to the directions provided by an oracle. Various passages in the Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament) indicate that the Tabernacle and the Temple were considered to have transcendent exemplars. Yahveh's instructions to Moses were to this effect: "Let them make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell in their midst. According to all that I show you concerning the pattern of the tabernacle, and of all its furniture, so you shall make it. And see that you make them after the pattern for them, which is being shown you on the mountain" (Ex. 25:8f., 25:40). Similarly, when David gave the plans of the Temple of Solomon, it is reported: "All this he made clear by the writing from the hand of the Lord concerning it, all the work to be done according to the plan" (1 Chr. 28:19). In the Wisdom of Solomon, the king is represented as saying that what he has built is "a copy of the holy tabernacle which you did prepare aforehand from the beginning" (9:8). The author of the Letter to the Hebrews reproduces the same idea when he describes the Temple and its furniture as "a copy and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary" and as "copies of the heavenly things" (Heb. 8:5, 9:23).

The work of the divine architects is frequently held to include not only god-houses but entire cities. Sennacherib received the design of Nineveh drawn in a heavenly script. The New Jerusalem, in the prophet Ezekiel's vision, is described in the greatest detail, with precise dimensions included. The Indian holy city of Banaras is thought to have been not only planned but actually built by Śiva.

Similar ideas are present in Christian thought from the fourth century onward. When large churches came to be built, as distinct from the previous small house-churches, recourse was had to the Old Testament for precedent, since the New Testament provided no guidance. Thus the basilica came to be regarded as an imitation of the Jerusalem Temple: the atrium corresponded to the forecourt, the nave to the holy place (heikhal), and the area round the altar to the holy of holies (devir ). By the thirteenth century it was normal to consider a Gothic cathedral as an image of the heavenly Jerusalem, a reflection of heaven on earth.

Divine presence

The presence of the god may be represented in a number of ways, most frequently by statues as, for example, in Egyptian, Greek, and Hindu temples, and alternatively by a bas-relief, as at the Temple of Baal in Palmyra. The building is then appropriately called a shrine. The Hebrews, forbidden to have graven images of deity, which were dismissed as idols, took the ark as the center of their devotion and this eventually was regarded as a throne upon which Yahveh sat invisible. Again, mosaics or paintings can be employed, notably in the apses of early Christian basilicas or on the iconostases of Eastern Orthodox churches. But in certain religions, the entire structure is regarded as a revelation of the deity. Greek sanctuaries were so conceived, and to this day Hindu temples are not only places but objects of reverence, evoking the divine.

Precisely because this type of building is regarded as the mundane dwelling of a deity, constructed according to a transcendental blueprint, it is also understood as a meeting place of gods and humans. So the ziggurat of Larsa, in lower Babylonia, was called "the house of the bond between heaven and earth." This link may be physically represented by a sacred object. The Kaʿbah in Mecca, the holiest shrine of Islam, is the symbol of the intersection between the vertical axis of the spirit and the horizontal plane of human existence: a hollow cube of stone, it is the axis mundi of Islamic cosmology. In other religions wooden poles or stone pillars fulfill the same function; such were the asherim of the Canaanites reported in the Old Testament. The finial of a Buddhist stupa is conceived to be the top of a pillar passing through the whole structure and providing the point of contact between earth and heaven.

The divine is also associated with mountains that rear up into the sky; Olympus in ancient Greece was one such place, and in the myths of the Maasai, Mount Kilimanjaro on the border of Kenya and Tanzania is dubbed the "house of god." This symbolism can be applied to the religious building itself. Each Egyptian temple was believed to represent the primordial hillock, while the Babylonian ziggurats were artificial high places. Hindu temples, such as the one at Ellora, are sometimes called Kailasa, which is the name of Śiva's sacred mountain. Their superstructure is known as the "crest" (śikhara ) of a hill, and the contours and tiered arrangement of the whole building derive from a desire to suggest the visual effect of a mountain.

Sacred and profane

As noted above, while a religious building can be called a house, it is not any kind of house: there is something special about it, and hence words denoting "great house" or "palace" are used. But its particular distinction derives from the nature of the being who inhabits it and who invests it with something of his or her own character. In most religions the divine is a being apart; his or her habitation must consequently be a building apart, and so it is regarded as a holy place in sharp opposition to profane space.

To speak of the sacred and the profane in this way is to refer to two antithetical entities. The one is potent, full of power, while the other is powerless. They cannot therefore approach one another without losing their proper nature: either the sacred will consume the profane or the profane will contaminate and enfeeble the sacred. The sacred is therefore dangerous. It both attracts and repels human beingsit attracts them because it is the source of power, and it repels them because to encounter it is to be in peril. The sacred is "the wholly other"; it is a reality of an entirely different order from "natural realities." Contacts can only be intermittent and must be strictly regulated by rites, which can have either a positive or a negative character. Among the former are rites of consecration whereby someone or something is introduced into the realm of the holy. The negative takes the form of prohibitions, raising barriers between the two. These rites allow a certain coming and going between the two spheres since they provide the conditions within which intercourse is possible. But any attempt, outside the prescribed limits, to unite sacred and profane brings confusion and disaster.

Underlying all this dualism is the concept of two worlds: a sacred world and a secular world. Two realms of being are envisaged, and this opposition finds its visible expression in holy places. The sacred space, defined by the religious building or precinct, is first of all a means of ensuring the isolation and so the preservation of both the sacred and the profane. The wall that keeps the one out also serves to keep the other in; it is the demarcation line (temenos, tempus, templum ) between the two worlds. But within the sacred enclosure, the profane world is transcended and hence the existence of the holy place makes it possible for humans to pass from one world to another. The door or gate is then an object of great importance, for it is the means of moving from profane to sacred space. The name Babylon itself literally means "gate of the gods," and Jacob at Bethel declared: "This is the gate of heaven." In the same realm of ideas is to be found the royal doors that provide access through the iconostasis to the altar of the Eastern Orthodox church and the "Gates of Paradise," which is the name given by Michelangelo to Lorenzo Ghiberti's sculpted doors at the Florence Baptistery.

The precise location of these holy places is ultimately determined by their association with divine beings. The Nabataean high place at Petra is legitimized by being on a mountain top that, as seen above, has religious connotations. Equally holy were caves, linked in the religious consciousness with the womb, rebirth, the darkness of Hades, initiation rites, and so forth: many a Hindu holy place enshrines a cavern in a cliff. A theophany too constitutes a holy place. David knew where to build the Temple in Jerusalem because of a manifestation at the threshing floor of Araunah (Ornan) the Jebusite. Under the Roman Empire, augurs were consulted, sacrifices offered, and the divine will thereby discovered. The shrine at Monte Sant'Angelo in the Gargano (c. 1076) was built because it was believed that the archangel Michael had visited the place. Similarly the sixteenth-century Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, near Mexico City, marks the spot where the Virgin Mary presented herself to a peasant. Rites of consecration can act as substitutes if there is a lack of any definite command from above; by their means a space is declared set apart, and the god is besought to take up residence with confidence that the prayer will be answered.

Center of reference

Both individuals and communities require some center of reference for their lives so that amid the vagaries of a changing world there is a pivot that may provide an anchor in the ultimate. Religious buildings can and do constitute such centers to such an extent that the idea of a middle point has been taken quite literally. Every Egyptian temple was considered to be located where creation began and was therefore the navel of the earth. In Jewish thought the selfsame term has been applied to Jerusalem, and the site of the Temple is held to be the place of the original act of creation. In Greek religion it was the shrine of Apollo at Delphi that was declared to be the earth's midpoint. According to Hinduism, Meru is the axial mountain at the center of the universe, and the name Meru is also used in Bali for the superstructure of a temple. The main shrine of the Tenrikyo sect of Shintō at Tenrishi marks the cradle of the human race and encloses a sacred column indicating the center of the world.

Within the same ambit of ideas is the view that a religious building may be related to cosmic forces and therefore assist in geomancy. Hence, for example, the monumental structures at Teotihuacán in Mexico are arranged within a vast precinct in such a way as to observe the relations of the earth to the sun. The orientation of Christian churches so that their sanctuary is at the east end is another way of affirming this cosmic link, while the concern of Hindu architects for the proportions and measurements of their designs rests upon the conviction that the universe as a whole has a mathematical basis that must be embodied in every temple.

In Hinduism too the temple plan functions as a maala a sacred geometrical diagram of the essential structure of the cosmos. This interpretation of religious buildings is widespread in time and space. The "big house" of the Delaware Indians of North America stands for the world: its floor is the earth, the four walls are the four quarters, and the vault is the sky. An identical understanding of Christian churches is to be found as early as the seventh century and is typical of Eastern Orthodox thought; the roof of Saint Sophia in Edessa was compared to the heavens, its mosaic to the firmament, and its arches to the four corners of the earth. Medieval cathedrals in the West, such as the one at Chartres, were similarly regarded as models of the cosmos and as providing foretastes of the heavenly Jerusalem.

Monument or memorial

The essentials of a sacred place are location and spatial demarcation rather than buildings, but when there are edifices, they too serve to locate and spatially demarcate. Their importance is to be found not so much in the specific area as in the events that occurred there and that they bring to remembrance. In other words the locations are mainly associated with notable happenings in the life of a religious founder or with the exploits of gods and goddesses, and they stand as memorials (remembrancers) or monuments (reminders). One of the units in the complex erected by Emperor Constantine in fourth-century Jerusalem was known as the Martyrium, the testimony to or evidence and proof of the reality of Christ's death and resurrection, which were believed to have occurred at that very site. Also in Jerusalem is the Muslim Dome of the Rock, which enshrines the spot whence the prophet Muammad is believed to have ascended to heaven, a site already associated in Jewish tradition with Solomon's Temple, the tomb of Adam, and the sacrifice of Isaac. At Bodh Gayā in the state of Bihar, India, the Mahābodhi Temple is situated in front of the bodhi tree under which Gautama attained enlightenment. At Sarnath, near Banaras, a stupa commemorates the Buddha's first sermon delivered in the Deer Park to five ascetics.

Not only founders but also individual followers may be honored in this way. Numerous stupas are monuments to Buddhist sages, and many a martyrium in the days of the early church was set up on the very spot where a martyr (martus, "witness") had testified to his faith with his blood. The buildings also serve as shrines to protect their remains and can therefore be classified as tombs. Indeed every tomb that assumes a monumental character is a reminder of the dead, whether in the form of separate memorials to individuals, as found in the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris, or of a single edifice to a person representative of many, such as the tomb of the unknown warrior beneath the Arc de Triomphe in the same city.

Many religious buildings that function as memorials enclose space: the pyramids of Giza have within them the burial chambers of pharaohs; the Cenotaph in London, on the other hand, a monument to the dead of two world wars shelters nothing. It corresponds to the second of the four fundamental modes of monumental architecture. First, there is the precinct, which shows the limits of the memorial area and finally develops through a typological series to the stadium. Second is the cairn, which makes the site visible from afar and indicates its importance, the ultimate development of this type is the pyramid. Third is the path that signals a direction and can take the sophisticated form of a colonnaded street, thus dignifying the approach to the main shrine. Fourth, there is the hut that acts as a sacred shelter, with the cathedral as one of its most developed types.

Meetinghouse

A religious building that is regarded as a divine dwelling, or domus dei, is a meeting place of heaven and earth, but when it is understood as a meetinghouse, it is more correctly styled a domus ecclesiae because it is a building where the people of god assemble. Solomon had been led to question the validity of the temple type when he asked "Will God indeed dwell upon earth?" (1 Kgs. 8:27). However, it was not until the birth of Christianity that a full-scale attack was directly launched upon the whole idea of an earthly divine domicile; in the words of Stephen, "The Most High does not dwell in houses made with hands" (Acts 7:48). In the light of the later development of Christian thought it is difficult to appreciate how revolutionary this new attitude was.

The early believers committed themselves to an enfleshed god, to one who was no longer apart or afar off but had drawn near; at his sacrificial death the Temple veil had split in two so that the Holy of Holies was no longer fenced off. The living community now became the temple of the divine presence. A new concept of the holy was minted: there can no longer be anything common or profane for Christians (pro, "in front of," or outside the fanum ) since they constitute the naos of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 3:16). The dining room of a private house is a suitable venue for the assembly; the proud boast is that "we have no temples and no altars" (Minucius Felix, c. 200). All this was to change drastically in the fourth century when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and took over the public functions of the pagan cults. It was not until the Protestant Reformation that the New Testament understanding was given a fresh lease of life when divines such as John Calvin objected to the idea of special holy places. Such a view is not peculiar to Christianity; Judaism has its synagogues for meeting together, and Islam has its mosques, which are equally congregational. If a building as a divine dwelling is at one end of a spectrum, then the meetinghouse is at the other extreme.

Typology according to Function

The different types of building just delineated provide for the fulfillment of certain purposes in that they accommodate religious activities; it is consequently both possible and necessary to specify a second typology according to function, which stems from but also complements the previous typology according to character.

Service of the deities

At home, resident within their temples, the gods require their devotees to perform certain services for them. Perhaps the most striking illustration of need is provided by the toilet ceremonies of ancient Egypt. Each morning the cult image was asperged, censed, anointed, vested, and crowned. At the present day very similar ceremonies are conducted in Hindu temples, where the images are cooled with water in hot weather, anointed, clad in beautiful clothes, and garlanded. During the day it used to be the custom to divert them with the performances of the devadāsī s, or temple dancers. At night they are accompanied by a procession to their beds. Food may be provided, from the simple gift of grain in an African village to the hecatombs of Classical Greece. Another normal form of worship is sacrifice, ranging from human victims to a dove or pigeon, from the first fruits of the harvest to shewbread.

Positive and negative functions

The motives for such services can be diverse; sometimes they are prompted by the concern to provide sustenance, while at other times they are to establish communion, to propitiate, to seek favors. Functions now become reciprocal: the service of the gods is expected to obtain a response from the gods, in that they now serve human needs. Two examples, for many, will suffice to illustrate this.

Since the temple is a divine dwelling, to enter its precincts is to come into the presence of the god and so be under his or her protection. As a sacred place, the building is inviolable, and no one can be removed from it by force; to do so would be sacrilege, since a person who is inside the area of holiness has been invested with some of the sacredness inherent in it and thus cannot be touched as long as he or she does not emerge. This is the rationale of sanctuary as it was practiced in the classical world. The most famous case was that of Demosthenes who in 322 bce sought sanctuary in the Temple of Poseidon on the island of Calauria. When, in the post-Constantine era, church buildings were included in the same class as pagan temples, as specially holy places, it was natural that the idea of sanctuary should also be connected to them. The right of fugitives to remain under the protection of their god became legally recognized and in western Europe continued to be so for centuries; indeed, in England it was not until 1723 that all rights of sanctuary were finally declared null.

The second example of the gods themselves fulfilling a function on behalf of their followers is the practice of incubation. This is a method of obtaining divine favors by passing a length of time in one of their houses, usually sleeping there. Its primary aspect is medical, to obtain a cure, either immediately or after obeying the divine will disclosed in a vision. In the Temple of Ptah at Memphis therapeutic oracles were delivered and various remedies were revealed through dreams to those who slept there. The two principal healing gods in the Greek and Roman pantheons were Asklepios and Sarapis, and there is record of a shrine of the former at Aegae where those who passed the night were restored to health. The apparent success of these two gods ensured their continued popularity, and their cults only fell into disuse when churches replaced their temples as centers of healing believed to be accomplished by Christ through his saints. Among the most successful of the Christian holy men to cure illness were Cosmas and Damian, to whom a church was dedicated in Constantinople. Running this center a close second was the Church of Saint Menas near Alexandria; there some patients stayed for over a year and the church itself was so completely filled with mattresses and couches that they had to overflow into the sacristy. Incubation has had a continuous history down to the present day; in eastern Europe, for example, it can still be witnessed.

These several functions may all be regarded as positive in character, but a corollary of viewing a religious building as a holy place is the requirement for negative rituals to safeguard it by purifying those who wish to enter. Such rituals determine some of the furnishing, and so, for example, the forecourts of mosques have tanks and/or fountains for ablutions. Holy water stoups are to be found just inside the entrance of Roman Catholic churches; baptismal fonts were originally placed either in rooms separate from the main worship area or in entirely distinct buildings. The removal of shoes before entering a Hindu temple, of hats before going into a Christian churchall of these testify to the seriousness of entering a holy place. Many religious buildings have guardians to protect their entrances. The giant figures in the royal complex at Bangkok, the bull Nandin in the temples of Śiva, the scenes of the Last Judgment in the tympana over the west doors into medieval cathedralsthese are but a few examples.

Determination of form

The interior disposition of those religious buildings conceived to be divine dwellings is very much determined by the forms of the services offered. Where, for example, processions are a habitual feature of the ceremonial, then corridors for circumambulation have to be designed, as in the complex of Horus at Idfu; this also explains the labyrinthine character of many Hindu temples. When a statue is only to be seen by a special priesthood and has to be shielded from profane gaze, an inner chamber is created, often entirely dark, to protect humankind from the brilliant light of the divine presence, and this sanctuary may be protected itself by a series of surrounding rooms or courtyards. Where there are sacrifices, altars are needed, but these are frequently outside the shrine so that the individual worshiper can actually witness what the priest is doing with his or her gift. Classical Greek temples sheltered statues of the tutelary deities, but the all-important altars were outside; on the Athenian Akropolis, for example, it was in front of the Parthenon. Sometimes altars can themselves be architectural in character: the Altar of Zeus of Pergamum (c. 180 bce), now in Berlin, has a crepidoma measuring 36.44 by 34.20 meters, and the Altar of Hieron II (276222 bce) at Syracuse is some 200 meters long and 27 wide.

Conveyance of revelation and teaching

As a center of reference, a religious building may accommodate activities that convey meaning, guidance, and instruction in the faith. Many Babylonian temples, for example, were sources of divination and even had a full complement of soothsayers, exorcists, and astrologers. Daoist temples equally are resorted to for divinatory purposes. The oracle was consulted at Delphi, to instance the greatest focus of this activity in the ancient world. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem had cultic prophets on its staff.

Where a sacred book is central to a religion, provision for its reading and exposition has to be made. In synagogues there has to be a shrine for the Torah and a desk from which to comment on the text. In Christian churches there are lecterns for the Bible and pulpits for the sermon. Islam has its stands for the Qurʾān, and its minbar is the equivalent of the Christian pulpit, although the shape differs in that it is a miniature flight of stairs rising away from the congregation whom the preacher faces down the steps. Sikh worship concentrates on the reading of the Granth, which is accompanied by prayers and exposition. In these ways religious buildings function as centers of meaning.

Manifestation of reverence and celebration of festivals

The religious building as memorial, it will be recalled, often contains relics of religious founders or particularly saintly people. Reverence for these can be shown by visitation, sometimes to offer thanks for benefits received and sometimes to petition for help. Those who seek healing go in great numbers to the shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes to bathe in the sacred spring. In this and similar instances the designs of the buildings are affected by the need to accommodate the sick for short or long stays. In the Muslim world the virtue of a saint is believed to be available to those who follow him (or her) or touch some object associated with him. If he be dead, then his tomb, which is his memorial, becomes a center of his supernatural power (barakah ) and attracts many visitors. Pilgrimages are one of the forms that these visits may take. So too Hindus travel to Hardwar (North India), which displays a footprint of Viu in stone. Jains go to Mount Abu, also in India, where the last tīrthakara (guide), named Mahavira, spent the thirty-seventh year of his life. Buddhists go to Adam's Peak in Sri Lanka, where there is a footprint of Gautama; adherents of Islam make the ājj to Mecca, and indeed it is one of the five duties of Islam. Christians have their holy places in Israel and Jordan or visit the catacombs in Rome.

Festivals are the celebrations of the births or deaths of saints, and they commemorate key events in the sacred history of a religion. For Jews, to celebrate Passover in Jerusalem is a traditional goal. For Christians, too, there is a certain fittingness in observing Christmas, the Feast of the Nativity, in Bethlehem itself. Religious buildings then function as centers for such celebrations.

Congregational worship

It is important, if this particular category is to be appreciated, to distinguish it clearly, despite some overlap, from the service of the deities described above, with which it can easily be confused. The essential difference can be made plain by applying the term cult to the first function and reserving worship for this fourth one. The basic understanding of cult is evident from its etymology. It derives from colere, which means "to till the ground" and hence to take care of, or attend to, with the aim that the object of attention should bear fruit or produce some benefit. Next it signifies "to honor" and finally "to worship." The cultus is therefore a cultivating of the gods, a cherishing of them, seeing to their needs; it is the bestowal of labor upon them and the manifestation of regard toward them. There is more than a hint of doing something to obtain a favor, as in the phrase "to cultivate someone's acquaintance." Cultus stems from the human side, whereas worship, as it is used here to describe this fourth function, is from the side of the gods. Not only are they the ones who provide the form and matter of worship, but through it they come to encounter their community.

Worship of this kind is characterized as congregational to differentiate it further from cultus, which is primarily individualistic. Worship then is meeting: the religious building is the meeting house. What takes place is not an activity aimed at or on behalf of the gods; the gods take the initiative. Hence worship is a memorial celebration of the saving deeds of the gods, and by it the people are created and renewed again and again. So, in Christian terms, the Body of Christ (the Christian community) progressively becomes what it is by feeding upon the sacramental body of Christ. Worship fosters community identity, and hence in the chapels of Christian monasteries the seating frequently faces inward, thus promoting a family atmosphere.

The precise interior disposition of a building will also depend upon the particular understanding or form of the communal rite. Religions that center on a book of revelation, such as Judaism, Islam, and Sikhism, require auditoria. Protestantism, concentrating upon the word of God, similarly tends to arrange its congregations in rows suitable for an audience (audientes, a group of "hearers"). Roman Catholicism, with its greater emphasis on the Mass, stresses the visual dominance of the altar, which is now no longer outside the building, as with Roman and Greek exemplars, but inside.

If the act of worship is understood to be conducted by a professional hierarchy on behalf of the community as a whole, then some separation is likely, ranging from the Eastern Orthodox iconostasis at one extreme to communion rails at others. Where there is no sharp differentiation of role, as in Islam (since the imam is simply a prayer leader and is in no sense an ordained minister), the space is not partitioned; instead there is lateral disposition, with the worshipers shoulder to shoulder facing toward Mecca.

Symbolization

On whatever basis a typology of religious buildings may be constructed and whatever purposes they may serve, there is one overall function that must be considered: symbolization. Each building proclaims certain beliefs about the deities to whom it is dedicated. One has only to contrast a Gothic cathedral with a Quaker meeting house to appreciate this. The former in all its grandeur speaks of a god who is high and lifted up, remote, awesome in majesty, fearful in judgment, demanding obeisance; the latter in all its simplicity witnesses to a being who is to be known in the midst of life, who is not separate, whose dwelling is with humankind, offering fellowship. The one speaks of power and might, the other of self-emptying and servanthood.

Sometimes the symbolism is intellectually apprehended before it is given visible form, and then it needs interpretation. Baptism, for example, is a sacrament of dying and rising with Christ. A detached baptistery may be hexagonal or octagonal: in the former case it refers to the sixth day of the week, Friday, on which Jesus died and in the latter, to the eighth day, or the first day of a new week when he rose from the dead. The dome, surmounting many a baptistery, is also a habitual feature of Byzantine churches and Muslim mosques, and as the baldachin or canopy it can enshrine any holy object or complete a memorial structure. Its popularity derives from its ideological context: it is a representation of the transcendental realm, an image of heaven. It is a not-inappropriate roofing for tombs, and many baptisteries took the shape of contemporary burial edifices precisely because of the meaning of the purificatory rite. Different parts of a building can have their own messages: towers declare heavenly aspirations; monumental doorways can impress with regal authority. Sculpture, painting, mosaic can and do fulfill a symbolic function. Gargoyles ward off evil spirits; paintings recall events or persons in sacred history; Christ as creator mundi holds his worshipers within his downward gaze. The handling of light is frequently symbolic. In a mosque it testifies to God as the light of heaven and earth; in Gothic architecture it is a basic constituent and is regarded as a manifestation of the glory of God.

Architectural Types

There is yet another typology to be reviewed that applies to all buildings whatever their function, and religious buildings are no exception. This is a dual typology that divides structures into the categories of path and place. For a path to be identifiable, it must have (1) strong edges, (2) continuity, (3) directionality, (4) recognizable landmarks, (5) a sharp terminal, and (6) end-from-end distinction. For a place to be identifiable, it must be (1) concentrated in form with pronounced borders, (2) a readily comprehensible shape, (3) limited in size, (4) a focus for gathering, (5) capable of being experienced as an inside in contrast to a surrounding exterior, and (6) largely non-directional.

The application of these types to religious buildings can be briefly illustrated by contrasting a basilica and a centralized mosque. A basilica is a path leading toward the altar; every detail of the design confirms this. The nave, framed by aisles, has firm edges; there is continuity provided by floor patterns and advancing rows of columns, which themselves indicate a directioneverything points toward the holy table framed in a triumphal arch and backed by the embracing shape of the apse. For a pilgrim people, for those who have here no abiding city, such a royal road is obviously very appropriate. A centralized mosque, on the other hand such as those designed by Sinan in Istanbul, suggests no movement, it is a place, a point of reference and gathering, it is concentrated. Once within, there is no incentive to leave and every enticement to stay. Embodying perfect equipoise, it promotes contemplation; it is indeed embracing architecture. Its spaciousness expresses not the specificity of the Christian doctrine of the incarnation but the omnipresence of the divine; it manifests tawhid, which is the metaphysical doctrine of the divine unity as the source and culmination of all diversity.

The difference then between basilica and mosque is not stylistic; they are distinct architectural types, which in these two instances correspond to each religion's self-understanding. This circumstance does not, however, provide support for the nineteenth-century theory that every religion develops its own supreme architectural form to best express its ethos and spirit. The character of any building at any epoch is affected by many factors: technical aptitude, climate, availability of materials, function, and so on. Patronage has also played an important role. The Temple in Jerusalem, for example, was in origin Solomon's royal chapel, and indeed, not a few English medieval churches were on the estates of local lords, who regarded them as their own possessions. One effect of this influence was the monumentalization of many religious buildings: they were designed to display the power and authority not only of a heavenly being but of an earthly ruler. In this way many a Mughal mosque in India proclaimed the might of the ruling house. Royal, princely, and ducal boxes and galleries were inserted, and in western Europe the well-to-do could provide for their continued well-being by constructing private chantry chapels within existing parish churches. Communal patronage was not necessarily less concerned with outward show. Civic pride and congregational piety can result in costly programs.

Yet the study of the architecture of the world religions is not just a part of social history; it is an important element in understanding the religious traditions themselves. Since cult or worship is at the heart of any faith, and such an activity can only be studied and appreciated fully within its own special setting, it would be an abstraction to concentrate upon texts alone. Moreover, the symbolic function of architectural forms is in itself an additional source of knowledge to be taken into account.

Throughout the ages human beings have found meaning and succor in sacred places enshrined in their religious buildings. In a secularized society there still survives a need for centers of reference, meeting places, and memorials, but they then become associated with national figures and national identity. The Kremlin wall where leaders of the Russian Revolution are buried, together with Lenin's tomb, constitute one such place for Russian citizens. The Lincoln Memorial in Washington has a spacious chamber containing a seated statue and having the words of the Gettysburg and the Second Inaugural addresses incised on its walls; both president and texts have important contributions to make to United States identity. The White House in Washington and Buckingham Palace in London are seen as the dwellings of those who have about them a semidivine aura. The birthplaces or museums containing souvenirs (relics) of film and pop stars become centers of pilgrimage. A monument to Egypt's first president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, overlooks the Aswan Dam on the Nile. The former concentration camp at Dachau has become a memorial of the Nazi Holocaust. At the same time temples, cathedrals, mosques, and the like continue to be built: sacred sites, whether overtly religious or not, are a continuing feature of the human scene.

See Also

Axis Mundi; Banaras; Basilica, Cathedral, and Church; Biblical Temple; Circle; Circumambulation; Cities; Cosmology; Jerusalem; Kaʿbah; Labyrinth; Monastery; Mosque, article on Architectural Aspects; Orientation; Pilgrimage; Portals; Procession; Pyramids; Relics; Sacred Space; Shrines; Synagogue; Temple; Tombs; Towers; Worship and Devotional Life.

Bibliography

Arnheim, Rudolf. The Dynamics of Architectural Form. Berkeley, 1977.

Davies, J. G. The Secular Use of Church Buildings. London, 1968.

Davies, J. G. Temples, Churches and Mosques: A Guide to the Appreciation of Religious Architecture. New York, 1982.

Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane. New York, 1959.

Grabar, André. Martyrium: Recherches sur le culte des reliques et l'art chrétien antique (1946). 2 vols. Reprint, London, 1972.

Smith, Baldwin. The Dome: A Study in the History of Ideas (1950). Reprint, Princeton, 1978.

Turner, Harold W. From Temple to Meeting House: The Phenomenology and Theology of Places of Worship. The Hague, 1979.

New Sources

Arnheim, Rudolf. The Split and the Structure: Twenty-eight Essays. Berkeley, 1996.

Downey, Susan B. Mesopotamian Religious Architecture: Alexander through the Parthians. Princeton, 1988.

Humphrey, Caroline, and Piers Vitebsky. Sacred Architecture. Boston, 1997.

Jones, Lindsay. The Hermeneutics of Sacred Architecture: Experience, Interpretation, Comparison. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass., 2000.

Lawlor, Anthony. The Temple in the House: Finding the Sacred in Everyday Architecture. New York, 1994.

Pearman, Hugh. Contemporary World Architecture. London, 1998.

Petruccioli, Attilio, and Khalil K. Priani. Understanding Islamic Architecture. London, 2002.

Richer, Jean. Sacred Geography of the Ancient Greeks: Astrological Symbolism in Art, Architecture, and Landscape. Albany, N.Y., 1994.

Scully, Vincent J. Architecture: The Natural and the Manmade. New York, 1991.

Taylor, Mark C. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. Chicago, 1992.

Williams, Peter W. Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States. Urbana, Ill., 1997.

J. G. Davies (1987)

Revised Bibliography

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Architecture

Architecture

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Title of Award: Associated General Contractors of Minnesota Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 14 of these scholarships were awarded: 2 at $2,500, 2 at $2,000, 3 at $1,000, and 7 at $750. Funds Available: Stipends range from $750 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in construction programs at colleges and universities in Minnesota. Fields of study include, but are not limited to, architecture, civil engineering, construction management, electrical engineering, and HVAC systems services. Applicants must submit a personal statement that includes information on their work-related experience, involvement in student or community organizations, honors or awards they have received, their financial situation, and other appropriate information. Selection is based on academic standing (20%), career objectives(20%), financial need (20%), personal information (20%), and overall application clarity (20%). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

2053 ■ ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA

101 North Front Street
Harrisburg, PA 17101-1405
Tel: (717)232-8649
Fax: (717)233-8574
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aicup.org
To provide financial assistance to women and minority students at member institutions of the Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Pennsylvania (AICUP) who are majoring in designated fields of engineering.
Title of Award: Michael Baker Corporation Scholarship Program for Diversity in Engineering Area, Field, or Subject: Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains appropriate academic standards.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at designated AICUP colleges and universities who are women and/or members of the following minority groups: American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Hawaiians, or Pacific Islanders. Applicants must be juniors majoring in architectural, civil, or environmental engineering with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on what they believe will be the greatest challenge facing the engineering profession over the next decade, and why. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program, sponsored by the Michael Baker Corporation, is available at the following AICUP colleges and universities: Bucknell University, Carnegie Mellon University, Drexel University, Gannon University, Geneva College, Grove City College, Lafayette College, Lehigh University, Messiah College, Swarthmore College, Villanova University, Widener University, and Wilkes University.

2054 ■ ASSOCIATION OF THE WALL AND CEILING INDUSTRY

Attn: Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry
803 West Broad Street, Suite 600
Falls Church, VA 22046
Tel: (703)538-1615
Fax: (703)534-8307
Web Site: http://www.awci.org/thefoundation.shtml
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate study in disciplines related to the wall and ceiling industry to employees of firms that are members of the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries-International (AWCI) and their dependents.
Title of Award: Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to employees of AWCI member companies and their dependents. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on, as a full-time student, postsecondary education in the field of construction management, engineering, or architecture. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher during their last 2 semesters of study. Students in graduate schools, technical schools, associate degree programs, and 4-year colleges and universities are all eligible.

2055 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE

Attn: Scholarship Chair
22815 Frampton Avenue
Torrance, CA 90501-5034
Tel: (310)534-8466
Fax: (310)257-6885
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.awa-la.org/scholarships.php
To provide financial assistance to women undergraduates in California who are interested in careers in architecture.
Title of Award: Association for Women in Architecture Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Graphic art and design; Illustrators and illustrations; Interior design; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year: 1 at $2,500, 1 at $1,500, and 1 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500, $1,500, or $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are women students who have completed at least 1 full year of study in any of the following fields: architecture; civil, structural, mechanical, or electrical engineering as related to architecture; landscape architecture; urban and land planning; interior design; architectural rendering and illustration; or environmental design. They must be residents of California or attending school in California. Interviews are required for semifinalists. Selection is based on grades, a personal statement, financial need, recommendations, and the quality and organization of materials submitted. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

2056 ■ BEZEK-DURST-SEISER ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS

Attn: Scholarship Program
3330 C Street, Suite 200
Anchorage, AK 99503
Tel: (907)562-6076
Fax: (907)562-6635 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bdsak.com
To provide financial assistance to Alaska Native high school seniors interested in studying architecture, planning, or interior design in college.
Title of Award: Bezek-Durst-Seiser Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Interior design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Alaska who are Natives accepted into an architecture, planning, or interior design program. Applications must be submitted through a school district or native corporation; direct applications from students are not accepted. Each school district and native corporation in the state may submit 2 applications. Students must include essays on what they are like, the school activities and interests that interest them, why they have chosen their career field, what they have done to prepare themselves to enter that field, why they chose the university or college they plan to attend, and if they plan to return to Alaska after college. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are also offered paid internships at the Bezek-Durst-Seiser office in Anchorage during summer breaks.

2057 ■ BUILDERS ASSOCIATION OF MINNESOTA

Attn: Minnesota Building Industry Foundation
570 Asbury Street, Suite 301
St. Paul, MN 55104
Tel: (651)646-7959
Free: 800-654-7783
Fax: (651)646-2860
Web Site: http://www.mbif.org/scholarship/cfm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Minnesota who are interested in preparing for a career in a field related to construction.
Title of Award: Building Industry Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 9 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Minnesota who are interested in continuing their education. Applicants must be interested in a program in carpentry, woodworking, residential design, architectural drafting, or residential construction management. Along with their application, they must include a list of classes they have already taken in the construction area where they are seeking further training, information on their work background, a current transcript, their attendance record, and a letter of recommendation from an instructor or counselor. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the Harold E. Swanson Scholarship Program and the Chad Woxland Wausau Homes Scholarship Program.

2058 ■ CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Attn: Division of Engineering Services
MS 9 5/2J P.O. Box 168041
Sacramento, CA 95816-8041
Tel: (916)227-8126
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in California who plan to study engineering or architecture at a college or university in the state.
Title of Award: Division of Engineering Services Engineering/Architectural Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: At least 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in California and planning to enroll in an engineering or architectural program at a community college, state college, or university in the state. Applicants must submit 1) a 100-word personal statement on their college and career plans and how they believe they can make a contribution to Caltrans; 2) a 500-word essay on how they would improve California's current transportation system; 3) a list of community and school activities; 4) information on work and/or volunteer experience; and 4) letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March Additional Information: This program is jointly sponsored by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Division of Engineering Services and the California Transportation Foundation (CTF).

2059 ■ COLORADO READY MIXED CONCRETE ASSOCIATION/COLORADO ROCK PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION

Attn: Scholarship Fund
6855 South Havana Street, Suite 540
Centennial, CO 80112
Tel: (303)290-0303
Fax: (303)290-8008
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.crmca.org/scholarships/default.php
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students from Colorado who are preparing for a career in areas of interest to the Colorado Ready Mixed Concrete Association (CRMCA) and the Colorado Rock Products Association (CRPA).
Title of Award: CRMCA/CRPA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Materials; Materials research/science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 4eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the student's institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors at colleges and universities in Colorado who have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Applicants must be preparing for a career in such fields as aggregate extraction, building construction, road building, municipal utility construction, building design, heavy equipment design, materials research or application, or other fields associated with the use of aggregates or concrete. Preference is given to students whose home residence is Colorado, have graduated from a high school in Colorado, and have a parent employed in concrete or aggregate production industries or associated or auxiliary industries. Along with their application, they must submit a brief resume of their current activities and work experience, 3 letters of character reference, and a 1-page statement on their plans for the future and career. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year.

2060 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION FOR THE FOX VALLEY REGION, INC.

Attn: Scholarships
4455 West Lawrence Street
P.O. Box 563
Appleton, WI 54912-0563
Tel: (920)830-1290
Fax: (920)830-1293
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cffoxvalley.org/scholarship_fundslist.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in Wisconsin who are working on a degree related to gardening.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Garden Club Federation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students at colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be majoring in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design/architecture, botany, forestry, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental studies, city planning, land management, or a related field. They must have a 3.0 GPA or higher. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the Wisconsin Garden Club Federation. Information is also available from Carolyn A. Craig, WGCF Scholarship Chair, 900 North Shore Drive, New Richmond, WI 54017-9466, (715) 246-6242, E-mail: [email protected]

2061 ■ CONNECTICUT ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS

Attn: Executive Director
30 Realty Drive
Cheshire, CT 06410
Tel: (203)250-1111
Fax: (203)250-1345
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.casciac.org
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who plan to study the arts in college.
Title of Award: Bruce Eagleson Memorial Scholarship Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Dance; Design; Music; Performing arts; Visual arts Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year: 1 at $10,000 and 2 at $5,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $10,000 or $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Connecticut who plan to enroll in college to study the arts, including (but not limited to) visual arts, music, theater, dance, design, and architecture. Applicants must be able to demonstrate 1) considerable experience in the arts as evidenced by involvement in shows, exhibits, performances, video productions, or similar activities; 2) involvement in service to peers and/or community through artistic or other activities; and 3) financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 250-word statement on what led them to their decision to prepare for a career in the arts. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by Westfield Corporation in honor of its former East Coast Vice-President of Management who was killed while working for the company at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

2062 ■ CONNECTICUT BUILDING CONGRESS

Attn: Scholarship Fund
2600 Dixwell Avenue, Suite 7
Hamden, CT 06514-1800
Tel: (203)281-3183
Fax: (203)281-8932
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbc-ct.org/secondpage_folder/member.html
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who are interested in studying a field related to the construction industry in college.
Title of Award: Connecticut Building Congress Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Cartography/Surveying; Construction; Engineering; Management; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000 per year. Duration: Up to 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating seniors at high schools in Connecticut. Applicants must be interested in attending a 2- or 4-year college or university to major in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management, surveying, planning, drafting). They must submit an essay (up to 500 words) that explains how their planned studies will relate to a career in the construction industry. Selection is based on academic merit, extracurricular activities, potential, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

2063 ■ CONNECTICUT CHAPTER OF THE AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION

c/o Alan L. Weiner, Member Services Committee
City Planner, City of Bristol
111 North Main Street
Bristol, CT 06010
Tel: (860)584-6225
Fax: (860)584-3838
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccapa.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in planning or architecture at schools in New England and New York.
Title of Award: Sam Pine Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students in planning, architecture, or a related field. Applicants must attend a college or university in New England or New York. Selection is based, first, on financial need and then on academic record. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997.

2064 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-DC METROPOLITAN CHAPTER

c/o Dave Metzger, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
Heller & Metzger PC
11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 601
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202)364-2222
Fax: (202)234-5502
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csidcmetro.org/warner_fund.html
To provide financial assistance to members of student chapters of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) at colleges and universities in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.
Title of Award: Franklyn E. Warner Student Fellowship for Balanced Achievement Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to CSI student members at schools in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area who are rising seniors or graduating seniors. Applicants must be majoring in architecture, engineering, or construction management. Along with their application, they must submit an essay of 500 to 750 words that demonstrates their understanding of the balanced relationships among the aesthetic, functional, technical, and managerial aspects of the built environment. Selection is based on the essay, potential as future leader in the design and construction industry, and letters of recommendation demonstrating the applicant's skills and abilities across a balanced and diversified range of professional areas. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2003.

2065 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-GRAND RAPIDS CHAPTER

c/o Lynn J. DePeal, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
IR SSC Michigan
2556 Albert Drive, S.E.
Grand Rapids, MI 49506
Tel: (616)285-8009
Fax: (616)285-8009
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csigrandrapids.org
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities in Michigan who are preparing for a career in the construction industry.
Title of Award: Grand Rapids Chapter CSI Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,500 are available. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled at an accredited college, university, or trade school in Michigan. Applicants must be working on a degree in a field directly related to the construction industry, including architecture, engineering (electrical, mechanical, construction), management technology, and facilities maintenance. Along with their application, they must submit brief essays about 1) the kinds of activities they participate in and enjoy, and the people who participate in those activities with them; 2) how they see their career in the construction-related industry and what they think they can offer the industry; and 3) their financial need and desire for assistance. Selection is based on scholastic ability, references, overall impression of the applicant as presented in the essays, and how the applicant will benefit from receiving this scholarship. Preference is given to applicants who are members of the Construction Specifics Institute (CSI) or related to a member. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

2066 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-MAINE CHAPTER

c/o James Beaulieu, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
Ledgewood Construction
27 Main Street
South Portland, ME 04106
Tel: (207)767-1866
Fax: (207)767-1869
Web Site: http://www.mecsi.org
To provide financial assistance to Maine residents preparing for a career in a field related to construction technology at a public university in the state.
Title of Award: Advancement of Construction Technology Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maine who have completed at least 1 year of study at a campus of the University of Maine system. Applicants must be preparing for a career in architectural or engineering technology. They must be able to demonstrate active involvement in a career or industry organization or association.

2067 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-RICHMOND CHAPTER

Attn: Richmond CSI Scholarship Fund Foundation
9016 Peaks Road
Ashland, VA 23005
Tel: (804)307-3282
Fax: (804)752-2670
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.richmondcsi.org/scholarship.shtml
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in Virginia who are preparing for a construction-related career.
Title of Award: Norman F. Jacobs, Jr. Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Up to 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $1,000. Funds are sent directly to the recipient's institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are students who are enrolled full time at an accredited Virginia college or university and majoring in architecture, construction, or a construction-related field of engineering (civil, structural, mechanical, electrical). Applicants must have completed 1 year of a 2-year program or 2 full years of a 4- or 5-year bachelor's degree program. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.

2068 ■ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Highway Administration
Attn: National Highway Institute, HNHI-20
4600 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1553
Tel: (703)235-0538
Fax: (703)235-0593
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ddetfp.asp
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate study in transportation-related fields to students at Hispanic Serving Institutions.
Title of Award: Eisenhower Hispanic-Serving Institutions Fellowships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering, Civil; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Transportation Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 18 students received support from this program. Funds Available: The stipend covers the fellow's full cost of education, including tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: These fellowships are intended for students who are enrolled at federally-designated 4-year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and who are working on a degree in a transportation-related field (i.e., engineering, accounting, business, architecture, environmental sciences, etc.). Applicants must have entered their junior year, have at least a 3.0 GPA, and have a faculty sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

2069 ■ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Highway Administration
Attn: National Highway Institute, HNHI-20 4600
North Fairfax Drive, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1553
Tel: (703)235-0538
Fax: (703)235-0593
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ddetfp.asp
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate study in transportation-related fields to students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
Title of Award: Eisenhower Historically Black Colleges and Universities Fellowships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering, Civil; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Transportation Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 48 students received support from this program. Funds Available: The stipend covers the fellow's full cost of education, including tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: These fellowships are intended for students who are enrolled at federally-designated 4-year Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and working on a degree in a transportation-related field (i.e., engineering, accounting, business, architecture, environmental sciences, etc.). Applicants must have entered their junior year, have at least a 3.0 GPA, and have a faculty sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

2070 ■ FEDERATED GARDEN CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT, INC.

14 Business Park Drive
P.O. Box 854
Branford, CT 06405-0854
Tel: (203)488-5528
Fax: (203)488-5528
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctgardenclubs.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to Connecticut residents who are interested in majoring in horticulture-related fields at a Connecticut college or university.
Title of Award: Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending upon the availability of funds. Funds Available: Stipends are generally about $1,000 each. Funds are sent to the recipient's school in 2 equal installments. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be legal residents of Connecticut who are studying at a college or university in the state in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design, conservation, forestry, botany, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental control, city planning, land management, or related subjects. They must be entering their junior or senior year of college or be a graduate student, have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from the Connecticut State Scholarship Chair, Mary Gray, 18 Long Hill Farm Road, Guilford, CT 06437, (203) 458-2784.

2071 ■ FLORIDA NURSERYMEN, GROWERS AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION-ACTION CHAPTER

Attn: Gina Mazzie-Forbrick, Scholarship Committee Chair
ForemostCo, Inc.
1751 Williams Road
Winter Garden, FL 34787-9162
Tel: (407)877-8876
Fax: (407)877-8684 E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to students in Florida interested in preparing for a career in horticulture.
Title of Award: FNGLA Action Chapter Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. A total of $4,000 is available through this program each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have been accepted by or be currently enrolled in a Florida junior college, college, or university. They may be attending school full or part time, but they must be majoring in 1 of the following subjects: environmental horticulture, landscaping, landscape architecture, turf management, or a related field. All applicants must have at least a 2.75 GPA. Selection is based on academic record, work experience, awards received, letters of recommendation, and an essay (300 words) on the applicant's career plans. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

2072 ■ FOUNDATION FOR AMATEUR RADIO, INC.

Attn: Scholarship Committee
P.O. Box 831
Riverdale, MD 20738
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.amateurradio-far.org/scholarships.php
To provide funding to licensed radio amateurs from selected states who are interested in studying selected subjects in college.
Title of Award: Nanticoke Amateur Radio Club Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Electronics; Engineering; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college students who have an amateur radio license with HF privileges and are interested in majoring in architecture, engineering, electronics, science, or a related field at an institution of higher learning in the United States. They must be residents of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, or the District of Columbia. Deadline for Receipt: Requests for applications must be submitted by April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must attend an accredited school (university, college, or technical institute) on a full-time basis.

2073 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION

Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
Fax: (808)521-6286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career that will fill gaps in the local job market.
Title of Award: Hawai'i Community Foundation Community Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Education; Humanities; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount awarded varies; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Hawaii who show potential for filling a community need; demonstrate accomplishment, motivation, initiative, and vision; are residents of the state of Hawaii; intend to return to, or stay in, Hawaii to work; are able to demonstrate financial need; are interested in attending an accredited 2- or 4-year college or university as a full-time student at either the undergraduate or graduate level; plan to major in the arts, architecture, education, humanities, or social science; and are able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 3.0 or higher). Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in Hawaii or on the mainland. This fund was established in 1947.

2074 ■ HISPANIC CONTRACTORS OF COLORADO

1114 West Seventh Avenue, Suite 210
Denver, CO 80204
Tel: (303)893-3893
Fax: (303)893-2877
Web Site: http://www.hispanic-contractors.org/html/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college to Hispanic residents of Colorado who are interested in preparing for a career in the construction industry.
Title of Award: Hispanic Contractors of Colorado Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Colorado of Hispanic heritage who have been accepted at or are attending an accredited college, university, or technical school. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and a declared major or certificate interest in a construction-related field (e.g., architecture, construction management, construction technology, engineering, HVAC certificate). Students in a 4-year college or university program must be juniors or above. Selection is based on a statement on career goals and why the applicant has chosen a career in construction, academic achievement, 2 letters of recommendation, community service and/or extracurricular activities, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2075 ■ HOME BUILDERS ASSOCIATION OF ILLINOIS

112 West Edwards Street
Springfield, IL 62704
Tel: (217)753-3963
Fax: (217)753-3811
Web Site: http://www.hbai.org/Student/index.asp
To recognize and reward, with funds for continuing education, students in Illinois who are preparing for a career in the building industry.
Title of Award: Home Builders Association of Illinois Student of the Year Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: Awards are $2,000 for first place, $1,500 for second place, and $1,000 for third place. Funds are paid to the student's school to be used for continuing education. If the recipients is not remaining in school, they may use the award for certified graduate builder or remodeler courses offered through the home builders association. Duration: Awards are offered annually.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in a building trades or architecture program at a high school, university, community college, or technical school in Illinois. Students must be nominated by a local affiliate of the Home Builders Association of Illinois. They must have a "C+" average or higher. Selection is based on academics, involvement with the building industry, leadership and extracurricular activities, community involvement, and awards and honor.

2076 ■ ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA-GOLDEN GATE SECTION

c/o Phil Hall
1514 Gibbons Drive
Alameda, CA 94501
Tel: (510)208-5005
Fax: (510)864-8511
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.iesgg.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students interested in studying or conducting research in lighting.
Title of Award: Robert W. Thunen Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering, Electrical; Filmmaking; Interior design; Lighting science; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be enrolled full time as an upper-division or graduate student at an accredited 4-year educational institution in northern California, northern Nevada, Oregon, or Washington and be studying architecture, electrical engineering, film/TV, lighting design, theater, or vision with an emphasis on lighting. Undergraduate students must be proposing course work related to potential employment in the lighting field. Graduate students must be proposing to conduct a research project that will further the lighting field or industry. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1986.

2077 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-BUFFALO CHAPTER 172

c/o Susan Zipp
Siemens Building Technologies
85 Northpointe Parkway, Suite 8
Amherst, NY 14228-1886
Tel: (716)568-0983
Web Site: http://buffalonawic.tripod.com/pr02.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of New York attending college in the state to prepare for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Buffalo Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Design; Drafting; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New York entering the second, third, or fourth year at a 2- or 4-year college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in a construction-related program of study (e.g., architecture, construction technology, drafting and design, engineering, estimating). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.

2078 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-GREATER OMAHA CHAPTER 116

Attn: Scholarship Committee
8712 West Dodge Road, Suite 200
Omaha, NE 68114
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.geocities.com/nawicomaha
To provide financial assistance to students in Nebraska who are preparing for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Greater Omaha Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating high school seniors and current college students in Nebraska. Applicants must be preparing for a career in the construction industry (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be enrolled or planning to enroll full time. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2079 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-MAINE CHAPTER 276

P.O. Box 366
Hallowell, ME 04347
Tel: (207)623-4683
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicmaine.org
To provide financial assistance to Maine residents who are working on a college degree in a field related to construction.
Title of Award: Maine Chapter 276 Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business; Construction; Engineering, Civil; Welding Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 7 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maine who are enrolled in a postsecondary educational program. Applicants must be preparing for a career in construction, including carpentry, civil engineering, architecture, welding, electrical, plumbing, or construction management. Along with their application, they must submit a 50-word statement on why they have chosen a career in construction. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Joyce Newman, 3 Hillcrest Street, Hallowell, ME 04347.

2080 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-METROPOLITAN DENVER CHAPTER 112

c/o Laruie Mullane
P.O. Box 40208
Denver, CO 80204-0204
Tel: (303)571-5377
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Colorado who are interested in preparing for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Vona J. Wagner Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 3 to 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Money is not paid at the time of the award but only on a reimbursement basis after the recipient submits proof of enrollment at a Colorado institution and receipts for tuition, books, laboratory fees, and other school expenses; living expenses are not reimbursable. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who have applied to or been admitted to a college, university, or trade school in Colorado. Applicants must be interested in studying field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management) in college and planning to work on a bachelor's degree or certificate of completion. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Financial need is considered but it not an absolute requirement. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2081 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-NASHVILLE CHAPTER 16

Attn: Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 22246
Nashville, TN 37202-2246
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicnashville.com
To provide financial assistance to residents of Tennessee working on an undergraduate degree in a construction-related field.
Title of Award: Cordie Hughes Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, a total of $2,000 was available for this program. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Tennessee attending a college or university in Alabama, Georgia, or Tennessee. Applicants must be working on a degree in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 2.8 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Priority is given to applicants entering their junior or senior year at a 4-year institution. If no student at a 4-year school qualifies, students at 2-year colleges are considered.

2082 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-SAN ANTONIO CHAPTER 11

c/o Deborah L. Schievelbein, Scholarship Chair
405 North St. Mary's Street, Suite 150
San Antonio, TX 78205
Tel: (210)476-0400
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicsat.org
To provide financial assistance to students in Texas working on an undergraduate degree in a construction-related field.
Title of Award: San Antonio Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students who are residents of Texas and undergraduates attending a college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Previous recipient are given priority in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.

2083 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND

c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Tel: (641)236-3366
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to blind students studying or planning to study law, medicine, engineering, architecture, or the natural sciences.
Title of Award: Howard Brown Rickard Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Law; Medicine; Natural sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are enrolled in or planning to enroll in a full-time undergraduate or graduate course of study. Applicants must be studying or planning to study law, medicine, engineering, architecture, or the natural sciences. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.

2084 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping in college.
Title of Award: Irrigation Association Education Foundation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping. They must be in the top 10% of their class and an interest in irrigation that is confirmed by their advisor. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Irrigation Association Education Foundation.

2085 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agricultural journalism and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Humanities Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to agricultural journalism and communications, floriculture, and landscape design. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.

2086 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying a field related to the landscape industry in college.
Title of Award: PLANET Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 to a high school senior and 1 to a current college student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either high school seniors or already enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in a field directly related to the landscape industry. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET), formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA).

2087 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION

Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
Tel: (317)802-4321
Fax: (317)802-5321
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying designated agricultural specialties in college.
Title of Award: Spraying Systems Company TeeJet Spray Products Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Engineering, Agricultural; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agronomy, agricultural engineering/mechanization, landscape/turfgrass management, or horticulture. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Spraying Systems Company, manufacturer of TeeJet brand spray products.

2088 ■ NATIONAL HOUSING ENDOWMENT

1201 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: (202)266-8483
Free: 800-368-5242
Fax: (202)266-8177
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nationalhousingendowment.com/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students interested in preparing for a career in the building industry (particularly as a manager).
Title of Award: Centex Homes Build Your Future Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 18 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000. Funds are made payable to the recipient and sent to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students working on a degree in a housing-related program, such as construction management, residential building, construction technology, civil engineering, architecture, or a trade specialty. Applicants must have at least a 2.5 GPA in all courses and at least a 3.0 GPA in core curriculum classes. Preference is given to applicants who would be unable to afford college without financial assistance and to applicants who demonstrate their interest in residential construction through 1 or more of the following activities: 1) experience/internships in the industry; 2) membership and participation in service organizations and activities related to the building industry; and 3) membership in a student chapter of the National Association of Home Builders. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their reasons for becoming a professional in the housing industry and their career goals. Selection is based on financial need, career goals, academic achievement, employment history, extracurricular activities, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The National Housing Endowment is the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Home Builders. Centex Homes established this scholarship in 1999.

2089 ■ NATIONAL HOUSING ENDOWMENT

1201 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: (202)266-8483
Free: 800-368-5242
Fax: (202)266-8177
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nationalhousingendowment.com/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students, especially women, interested in preparing for a career in the building industry.
Title of Award: NAHB Women's Council Strategies for Success Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 2 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds are made payable to the recipient and sent to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and current undergraduates who are enrolled or planning to enroll full time at a 2- or 4-year college or university or vocational program. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a degree in a housing-related program, such as construction management, building, construction technology, civil engineering, architecture, or a trade specialty. They must have at least a 2.5 GPA in all courses and at least a 3.0 GPA in core curriculum classes. Preference is given to 1) women; 2) applicants who would be unable to afford college without financial assistance; and 3) students who are current members (or will be members in the upcoming semester) of a student chapter of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their reasons for becoming a professional in the housing industry and their career goals. Selection is based on financial need, career goals, academic achievement, employment history, extracurricular activities, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The National Housing Endowment is the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). Its women's council established this scholarship in 2001.

2090 ■ PROFESSIONAL LANDCARE NETWORK

Attn: ALCA Educational Foundation
950 Herndon Parkway, Suite 450
Herndon, VA 20170
Tel: (703)736-9666
Free: 800-395-ALCA
Fax: (703)736-9668
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.landcarenetwork.org/cms/programs/foundation.html
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities that have a connection to the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET).
Title of Award: ALCA Educational Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 37 of these scholarships were awarded: 1 at $2,500, 1 at $1,500, 34 at $1,000, and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at colleges and universities that 1) have an accredited PLANET landscape contracting curriculum, 2) have a PLANET student chapter, and/or 3) participate in PLANET student career days activities. Applicants must provide information on awards, honors, and scholarships received in high school or college; high school, college, and community activities related to horticulture; PLANET events attended; work experience; and brief essays on what they have learned about financial management as part of their education that will help them in their career, how their landscape industry related curriculum has helped them in achieving their career goals, the kind of training and work experience they will complete to attain their goals, their plan to attain more leadership and human relations skills, their reasons for desiring the scholarship, their career objectives as they relate to the field of landscape contracting and horticulture, and where they see their career 5 years after graduation. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: PLANET was formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA). It offers the following named scholarships: the Akerman Family Scholarship, Theodore W. Brickman Jr. Scholarship, Chapel Valley/Reeve Family Scholarship, Damgaard Family Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Davey Tree Expert Company-Commercial Grounds Management Division Scholarship, John Deere Green Industry Scholarship, Gachina Family Scholarship, Parley Glover Memorial Scholarship, Glowacki Family Scholarship, Gravely Landscape Maintenance Scholarship, Groundmasters Scholarship, Leonard Harris Memorial Scholarship, Hunt Family Scholarship, Hunter Industries Scholarship, Husqvarna Forest & Garden Scholarship, Ron and Sally Kujawa Scholarship, Tom and Carol Lied Scholarship, Shirley B. Mangum Family Scholarship, Vito Mariani, Sr. Scholarship, Marjorie and B.E. Minor Scholarship, Moore Landscapes Scholarship, William F. and Mary B. Murdy Scholarship, Richard J. Ott Family Scholarship, Stihl Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Thornton Landscape/Doesburg Family Scholarship, Toro Company/Exmark Scholarship, and Trugreen Landcare Scholarship.

2091 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-ARKANSAS POST

P.O. Box 867
Little Rock, AR 72203-0867
Web Site: http://www.same.org/arkansas
To provide financial assistance to Arkansas high school seniors interested in studying architecture or engineering in college.
Title of Award: Arkansas Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 2 at $1,000 and 2 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Duration: 1 year. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Arkansas. Applicants must be interested in studying architecture or engineering in college. Additional Information: Information is also available from Mike Callahan, Second Vice President, Cromwell Architects Engineers, (501) 372-2900, ext. 177, E-mail: [email protected]

2092 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-BALTIMORE POST

c/o Al-Nisa Montague Aduwu
McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc.
10440 Little Patuxent Parkway, Suite 530
Columbia, MD 21044
Tel: (410)715-9462
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same-balt.org/Scholarship/scholarship_home.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors who plan to attend a college or university in the Baltimore area and major in engineering, architecture, or a related science.
Title of Award: Baltimore Post 4-Year Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who plan to attend a designated university in the Baltimore area and major in engineering, architecture, or a related science. Applicants must plan to enroll on a full-time basis; be Maryland residents and U.S. citizens, and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Extracurricular activities and financial need are also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must enroll as full-time students at the following colleges and universities in the Baltimore area: Johns Hopkins University; Loyola College; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Maryland, Baltimore County; or Morgan State University. Other schools may also be designated annually.

2093 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-BOSTON POST

c/o John M. Gerstenlauer
Perini Corporation
73 Mt. Wayte Avenue
Framingham, MA 01701-9160
Tel: (508)628-2442
Fax: (508)628-2537
Web Site: http://www.sameboston.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of New England majoring in a college program related to construction.
Title of Award: Boston Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 25 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is approximately $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New England who are currently enrolled in an accepted engineering or architecture program, preferably in civil engineering, environmental engineering, architecture, or other construction-related program. Applicants must have completed at least 1 academic year and have at least 1 year remaining. Preference is given to applicants enrolled in ROTC (preferably not a recipient of an ROTC scholarship) or interested in or having prior U.S. military service. U.S. citizenship is required. Interested students are invited to submit an application form, transcripts, documentation of financial need, and a personal letter describing their qualifications and needs. An interview is required. Selection is based on academic achievements, financial need, extracurricular activities, and the interview. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.

2094 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-GUAM POST

c/o Lt. Titania B. Cross
PSC 455. Box 175
FPO, AP 96540-2200
Tel: (671)339-3820
Fax: (671)339-4955
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same.org/guam
To provide financial assistance to residents of Guam who are interested in majoring in engineering or architecture in college.
Title of Award: Charlie Corn Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year for high school seniors, $2,000 per year for students already in college, or $500 per year for students at Guam Community College. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Guam and the islands within the geographic area known as Micronesia. Applicants must be 1) high school seniors planning to attend their first year of college to work on a bachelor's degree in engineering or architecture; 2) upper-division students working on a bachelor's degree in engineering or architecture at an accredited college or university; and 3) students planning to attend Guam Community College to work on a 2-year engineering technology degree. They must demonstrate a sincere interest in returning to Guam or Micronesia after graduation to begin a professional career. Selection is based on that interest as well as scholastic achievement, aptitude, attitude, character, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

2095 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-HONOLULU POST

Attn: LCDR Dustin Hamacher, Scholarship Committee Chair
USCG Naval Engineering Unit Honolulu
Sand Island Road
Honolulu, HI 96819-4398
Tel: (808)843-3871
Web Site: http://www.same.org/honolulu
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors from Hawaii who are interested in attending college to work on a degree in engineering or architecture.
Title of Award: Honolulu Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Hawaii who plan to work full time on an undergraduate degree in engineering or architecture at an accredited college or university. Applicants must be U.S. citizens with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Military affiliation or experience (i.e., ROTC, member or dependent of a member of the Society of Military Engineers (SAME), military dependent, Junior ROTC) is not required but is given preference. Applicants must submit a transcript; a resume of work experience, academic activities, and extracurricular accomplishments; and an essay (1 page) written around an architecture or engineering theme and its impact on society and the nation's defense or homeland security. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2096 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-NEW JERSEY POST

c/o John Booth
CTSC
P.O. Box 60
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
Tel: (732)544-0995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same.org/newjersey
To provide financial assistance to students in New Jersey working on an undergraduate degree in architecture, engineering, or a related field.
Title of Award: New Jersey Post SAME Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students working on a degree in architecture, engineering, or a related field. Candidates must be nominated by a member of the New Jersey Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME). Selection is based on school and community activities, educational goals, academics, recommendations, and employment. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2097 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-VIRGINIA PENINSULA POST

c/o Jeffrey B. Merz, Scholarship Chair
HQ ACC/CEP
129 Andrews Street, Suite 102
Langley AFB, VA 23665-2769
Tel: (757)764-6579
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to students at universities in Virginia and dependents of members of the Virginia Peninsula Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) who have a commitment to future military service and are majoring in engineering or architecture.
Title of Award: Virginia Peninsula Post Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 and 1-year's membership in the society. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in an engineering or architecture program at the sophomore level or above. Applicants must be 1) attending a college or university in Virginia, or 2) the dependent of a SAME Virginia Peninsula Post member attending anywhere. They must have demonstrated commitment to future military service by enrolling in an ROTC program, a commissioning program, or an extended enlistment. Selection is based on financial need, academic standing, and involvement in university and community programs. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.

2098 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-WASHINGTON DC POST

c/o Al O'Konski, Scholarship Committee Chair
URS Corporation
2020 K Street, N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20006-1806
Tel: (202)872-0277
Fax: (202)872-0282
E-mail: Al_O'[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.samedcpost.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to students interested in majoring in engineering, architecture, or environmental sciences.
Title of Award: Washington DC Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 8 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The current stipend is $1,200. Funds are paid to the recipient's school after college enrollment is confirmed. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are enrolled full time at an accredited university as rising freshmen, sophomores, or juniors, are U.S. citizens, are of good character, and are majoring in engineering, architecture, or environmental science. Applicants must submit a 2-page narrative addressing the following topics: their academic performance, academic and professional goals, financial need, extracurricular activities, a summary of previous military service (if any), and a statement of why they should be considered for the award. Preference is given to applicants in the Washington, D.C. area. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the following named scholarships: the Paul Brott Scholarship, the Linda McCarthy Scholarship, the T-Bird/RPI Environmental Scholarship, and the Ronald Hubbard Scholarship.

2099 ■ TREE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ENDOWMENT FUND

Attn: Executive Director
711 East Roosevelt Road
Wheaton, IL 60187
Tel: (630)221-8127
Fax: (630)690-0702
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.treefund.org/grants/Grants.aspx
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and technical school students interested in preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture.
Title of Award: Robert Felix Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Entomology; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Soil science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student members of the International Society of Arboriculture who are entering the second year of a 2-year program or the third or fourth year of a 4-year program. Applicants must be preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1,000-word essay describing their reasons for pursuing their chosen career, their goals and objectives, and why they should be chosen for this scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The Tree Research and Education Endowment (TREE) Fund was established in 2002 as the result of a merger of the International Society of Arboriculture Research Trust (established in 1976) and the National Arborist Foundation (established in 1985). Fields of study often considered appropriate for a career in commercial arboriculture include agriculture, entomology, horticulture, landscape architecture, or soils science.

2100 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/hsschol/types.php
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors or graduates who are interested in joining Air Force ROTC in college and are willing to serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC High School Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Approximately 2,000 each year. Funds Available: Type 1 scholarships provide payment of full tuition and most laboratory fees, as well as $600 for books. Type 2 scholarships pay the same benefits except tuition is capped at $15,000 per year; students who attend an institution where tuition exceeds $15,000 must pay the difference. Type 7 scholarships pay full tuition and most laboratory fees, but students must attend a college or university where the tuition is less than $9,000 per year or a public college or university where they qualify for the in-state tuition rate; they may not attend an institution with higher tuition and pay the difference. Approximately 5% of scholarship offers are for Type 1, approximately 20% are for Type 2, and approximately 75% are for type 7. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $250 per month as a freshman, $300 per month as a sophomore, $350 per month as a junior, and $400 per month as a senior. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are U.S. citizens at least 17 of age and have been accepted at a college or university with an Air Force ROTC unit on campus or a college with a cross-enrollment agreement with such a college. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT score of 1100 (mathematics and verbal portion only) or higher. At the time of their commissioning in the Air Force, they must be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Recently, approximately 70% of these scholarships were offered to students planning to major in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Approximately 30% were offered to students in all other fields. While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must enroll in 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus; students may also attend nearly 900 other colleges that have cross-enrollment agreements with the institutions that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years. Most cadets incur a 4-year active-duty commitment. Pilots incur a 10-year active-duty service commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training and navigators incur a 6-year commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training. The minimum service obligation for intelligence and Air Battle Management career fields is 5 years.

2101 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/incolschol/incolProgram.php
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students who are willing to join Air Force ROTC in college and serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC In-College Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Cadets selected in Phase 1 are awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year. A limited number of cadets selected in Phase 2 are also awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships, but most are awarded type 3 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $9,000 per year. Cadets selected in Phase 3 are awarded type 6 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $3,000 per year. All recipients are also awarded a book allowance of $600 and a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during the sophomore year, $350 during the junior year, and $400 during the senior year. Duration: 3 years for students selected as freshmen or 2 years for students selected as sophomores.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens enrolled as freshmen or sophomores at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to pass the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test and the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. At the time of commissioning, they may be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Phase 1 is open to students enrolled in the Air Force ROTC program who do not currently have a scholarship but now wish to apply. Phase 2 is open to Phase 1 nonselects and students not enrolled in Air Force ROTC. Phase 3 is open only to Phase 2 nonselects. Recently, the program gave preference to students majoring in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must complete 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges or universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must also attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years; 2-year scholarship awardees attend in the summer after their junior year. Current military personnel are eligible for early release from active duty in order to enter the Air Force ROTC program. Following completion of their bachelor's degree, scholarship recipients earn a commission as a second lieutenant in the Air Force and serve at least 4 years.

2102 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE
Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/ASCP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a bachelor's degree in approved majors by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Airman Scholarship and Commissioning Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awards are type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year, plus an annual book allowance of $600. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during their sophomore year, $350 during their junior year, and $400 during their senior year. Duration: 2 to 4 years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to active-duty enlisted members of the Air Force who have completed at least 1 year of continuous active duty and at least 1 year on station. Applicants normally must have completed at least 24 semester hours of graded college credit with a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. If they have not completed 24 hours of graded college credit, they must have an ACT score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. They must also have scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) of 15 or more on the verbal scale and 10 or more on the quantitative scale and be able to pass the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. Applicants must have been accepted at a college or university (including crosstown schools) offering the AFROTC 4-year program. When they complete the program and receive their commission, they may not be 31 years of age or older. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Selectees separate from the active-duty Air Force, join an AFROTC detachment, and become full-time students. Upon completing their degree, they are commissioned as officers and returned to active duty in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.

2103 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE

Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE
Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Fax: (334)953-6167
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/POCERP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a baccalaureate degree by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Professional Officer Course Early Release Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Participants receive a stipend for 10 months of the year that is $350 per month during the first year and $400 per month during the second year. Scholarship recipients earn the Professional Officer Course Incentive of $3,000 per year for tuition and $600 per year for books. Duration: 2 years (no more and no less).
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are enlisted members of the Air Force under the age of 30 (or otherwise able to be commissioned before becoming 35 years of age) who have completed at least 1 year on continuous active duty, have served on station for at least 1 year, and have no more than 2 years remaining to complete their initial baccalaureate degree. Scholarship applicants must be younger than 31 years of age when they graduate and earn their commission. All applicants must have been accepted at a college or university offering the AFROTC 4-year program and must have a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. Their Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) scores must be at least 15 on the verbal and 10 on the quantitative. Applicants who have not completed 24 units of college work must have an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Upon completing their degree, selectees are commissioned as officers in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.

2104 ■ U.S. NAVY

Attn: Commander, Naval Service Training Command
250 Dallas Street, Suite A Pensacola, FL 32508-5268
Tel: (850)452-9563
Fax: (850)452-2486
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.navy.com/careers/officerplanner/enlistedtoofficer
To allow outstanding enlisted Navy personnel to complete a bachelor's degree and receive a commission in the Civil Engineer Corps (CEC).
Title of Award: Civil Engineer Corps Option of the Seaman to Admiral-21 Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awardees continue to receive their regular Navy pay and allowances while they attend college on a full-time basis. They also receive reimbursement for tuition, fees, and books up to $10,000 per year. If base housing is available, they are eligible to live there. Participants are not eligible to receive benefits under the Navy's Tuition Assistance Program (TA), the Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB), Navy College Fund, or the Veterans Educational Assistance Program (VEAP). Duration: Selectees are supported for up to 36 months of full-time, year-round study or completion of a bachelor's degree, as long as they maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are currently serving on active duty in the Navy as enlisted personnel of occupational field 13 (Seabees). Applicants must have completed at least 4 years of active duty, of which at least 3 years were in an other than formal training environment. They must be high school graduates (or GED recipients) who are able to complete requirements for a professional Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) engineering degree or National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) architectural degree within 36 months or less. Preferred specialties are for civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. When applicants complete their degree requirements, they must be younger than 35 years of age. Within the past 3 years, they must have taken the SAT test (and achieved scores of at least 500 on the mathematics section and 500 on the verbal or critical reading section) or the ACT test (and achieved a score of 41 or higher, including at least 21 on the mathematics portion and 20 on the English portion). Deadline for Receipt: July of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2001 as a replacement for the Civil Engineer Corps Enlisted Commissioning Program (CECECP). Upon acceptance into the program, selectees attend the Naval Science Institute (NSI) in Newport, Rhode Island for an 8-week program in the fundamental core concepts of being a naval officer (navigation, engineering, weapons, military history and justice, etc.). They then enter a college or university with an NROTC unit that is designated for the CEC and pursue full-time study for a bachelor's degree. They become members of and drill with the NROTC unit. When they complete their degree, they are commissioned as ensigns in the United States Naval Reserve and assigned to initial training as an officer in the CEC. After commissioning, 5 years of active service are required.

2105 ■ U.S. NAVY

Attn: Navy Personnel Command
5722 Integrity Drive
Millington, TN 38055-5057
Tel: (901)874-4034; (866)CEC-NAVY
Fax: (901)874-2681
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cec.navy.mil/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students in architecture and engineering who are interested in serving in the Navy's Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) following graduation.
Title of Award: Civil Engineer Corps Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Engineering, Ocean Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Students accepted as undergraduates receive E-3 pay (approximately $2,000 per month), allowance, and benefits; after completing 12 months of the program or being referred to other specified programs, they may be advanced to E-4 or E-5 levels. Graduate students receive payment of tuition and fees plus full officers' salary and allowances. Duration: Up to 24 months for the Exceptional Student Program, up to 12 months for the Collegiate Program, and up to 18 months (6 months of undergraduate school plus 12 months of graduate school) for the Graduate Program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and master's degree students who are U.S. citizens between 19 and 35 years of age. Applicants must be enrolled in an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) or an architecture program accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Eligible majors include civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, ocean engineering, or architecture. For the Exceptional Student Program, they must apply at the end of their sophomore year. For the Collegiate Program, they must apply at the end of their junior year. For the Graduate Program, they must apply upon acceptance to an accredited graduate school and when they are within 6 months of completing a bachelor's degree in engineering. Preference is given to applicants who have engineering or architecture work experience and registration as a Professional Engineer (P.E.) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT). Students majoring in mathematics, physics, non-engineering programs, and engineering or architectural technology are not eligible. Applicants must also be able to meet the Navy's physical fitness requirements. Additional Information: While in college, selectees have no uniforms, drills, or military duties. After graduation with a bachelor's or master's degree, they enter the Navy and attend 13 weeks at Officer Candidate School (OCS) in Pensacola, Florida, followed by 15 weeks at Civil Engineer Corps Officers School (CECOS) in Port Hueneme, California. They then serve 4 years in the CEC, rotating among public works, contract management, and the Naval Construction Force (Seabees).

2106 ■ VERMONT STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

Champlain Mill Attn: Scholarship Programs
P.O. Box 2000
Winooski, VT 05404-2601
Tel: (802)654-3798; 888-253-4819
Fax: (802)654-3765 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vsac.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of Vermont who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a field related to design.
Title of Award: Alfred T. Granger Student Art Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Engineering, Architectural; Graphic art and design; Interior design; Lighting science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 graduate scholarships and 4 undergraduate scholarships are awarded each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year for graduate students or $2,500 per year for undergraduates. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Vermont who are graduating high school seniors, high school graduates, or GED recipients. Applicants must be interested in attending an accredited postsecondary institution to work on a degree in architecture, interior design, fine arts, architectural engineering, mechanical drawing, or lighting design. Selection is based on academic achievement, a portfolio, letters of recommendation, required essays, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.

2107 ■ WESTERN INTERSTATE COMMISSION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

Attn: Student Exchange Programs
3035 Center Green Drive
P.O. Box 9752
Boulder, CO 80301-9752
Tel: (303)541-0210
Fax: (303)541-0291
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wiche.edu/sep/psep
To underwrite some of the cost of out-of-state professional schooling for students in selected western states.
Title of Award: Professional Student Exchange Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Dentistry; Library and archival sciences; Medical assisting; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Physical therapy; Podiatry; Public health; Veterinary science and medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The assistance consists of reduced levels of tuition, usually resident tuition in public institutions or reduced standard tuition at private schools. The home state pays a support fee to the admitting school to help cover the cost of the recipient's education. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of 13 western states who are interested in pursuing professional study at selected out-of-state institutions, usually because those fields of study are not available in their home states. The eligible programs, and the states whose residents are eligible, presently include: 1) architecture (master's degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona. California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, or Washington); 2) dentistry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, or Washington; 3) library studies (master's degree), for residents of New Mexico and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Hawaii, or Washington; 4) medicine, for residents of Montana and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, or Utah; 5) nursing (graduate degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Hawaii, North Dakota, or Oregon; 6) occupational therapy (bachelors' or master's degree), for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 7) optometry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California or Oregon; 8) osteopathic medicine, for residents of Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona or California; 9) pharmacy, for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Nevada, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, or Wyoming; 10) physical therapy (master's or doctoral degree), for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 11) physician assistant, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Nevada, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 12) podiatry, for residents of Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at a designated institution in California; 13) public health, for residents of Montana and New Mexico, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, or Washington; and 14) veterinary medicine, for residents of Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, Oregon, or Washington. The financial status of the applicants is not considered. Interested students must apply for admission and for PSEP assistance directly from the institution of their choice. They must be certified by their state of residence to become an exchange student and be seeking enrollment at the first professional degree level. Deadline for Receipt: In most states, the deadline for receiving completed applications for certification is in October. After obtaining certification, students must still apply to the school of their choice, which also sets its own deadline.

2108 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.

Attn: Program Manager
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
Tel: (414)273-5980
Fax: (414)273-5995
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/scholar.html
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in selected fields at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Sentry Insurance Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business administration; Design; Economics; Information science and technology; Interior design; Mathematics and mathematical sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: 1 at each of the participating schools. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student enrolled or planning to enroll at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants must have a declared major in 1 of the following fields: business, economics, mathematics, management information systems, industrial design, communication design, or interior architecture and design. They must have a GPA of 3.3 or higher; entering freshmen must rank in the top 25% of their high school class. Financial need is considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating college sets its own deadline. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is supported by the Sentry Insurance Foundation.

2109 ■ WISCONSIN SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM

c/o University of Wisconsin at Green Bay
Department of Natural and Applied Sciences
2420 Nicolet Drive
Green Bay, WI 54311-7001
Tel: (920)465-2108
Fax: (920)465-2376
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uwgb.edu/wsgc/students/us.asp
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at colleges and universities participating in the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium (WSGC).
Title of Award: Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Law; Medicine; Nursing; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 26 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,500 per year are available. Duration: 1 academic year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students enrolled at universities participating in the WSGC. Applicants must be U.S. citizens; be working full time on a bachelor's degree in space science, aerospace, or interdisciplinary space studies (including, but not limited to, engineering, the sciences, architecture, law, business, nursing, and medicine); and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. The consortium especially encourages applications from underrepresented minorities, women, and students with disabilities. Selection is based on academic performance and space-related promise. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The schools participating in the consortium include the University of Wisconsin campuses at Fox Valley, Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Parkside, Superior, and Whitewater; Alverno College; Marquette University; College of the Menominee Nation; Carroll College; Lawrence University; Milwaukee School of Engineering; Ripon College; Medical College of Wisconsin; Western Wisconsin Technical College; and Wisconsin Lutheran College.

2110 ■ WORLDSTUDIO FOUNDATION

200 Varick Street, Suite 507
New York, NY 10014
Tel: (212)366-1317
Fax: (212)807-0024
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.worldstudio.org/schol/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students, especially minorities, who wish to study fine or commercial arts, design, or architecture.
Title of Award: Worldstudio Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Architecture; Art; Art industries and trade; Crafts; Design; Fashion design; Filmmaking; Graphic art and design; Interior design; Landscape architecture and design; Photography; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 24 scholarships and 7 honorable mentions were awarded. Funds Available: Basic scholarships range from $1,000 to $2,000, but awards between $3,000 and $5,000 are also presented at the discretion of the jury. Honorable mentions are $100. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 academic year. Recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students who are currently enrolled or planning to enroll at an accredited college or university and major in 1 of the following areas: advertising (art direction only), architecture, crafts, environmental graphics, fashion design, film/video (direction or cinematography only), film/theater design (including set, lighting, and costume design), fine arts, furniture design, graphic design, industrial/product design, interior design, landscape architecture, new media, photography, surface/textile design, or urban planning. Although not required, minority status is a significant factor in the selection process. International students may apply if they are enrolled at a U.S. college or university. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 600-word statement of purpose that includes a brief autobiography, an explanation of how their experiences have influenced their creative work and/or their career plans, and how they see themselves contributing to the community at large in the future. Selection is based on that statement, the quality of submitted work, financial need, minority status, and academic record. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The foundation encourages the scholarship recipients to focus on ways that their work can address issues of social and environmental responsibility. This program includes the following named awards: the Sherry and Gary Baker Award, the Bobolink Foundation Award, the Bombay Sapphire Awards, the Richard and Jean Coyne Family Foundation Awards, the David A. Dechman Foundation Awards, the Philip and Edina Jennison Award, the Kraus Family Foundation Awards, the Dena McKelvey Award. the New York Design Center Award, the Rudin Foundation Awards, the Starr Foundation Awards, and the John F. Wright III Award.

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Architecture

Architecture

Sources

Practical Structures. Medieval secular architecture—that is, the structures in which peasants, townspeople, and nobles lived their daily lives—was practical. Function determined design. Peasants needed basic structures that were cheap to build and easy to maintain. For this reason, most peasant structures were built from local materials such as wood, grasses, mud, and, in select cases, stone. These one-room buildings could be built by local craftsmen, and they followed standard patterns; only in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were specialized design elements, such as stone fireplaces, incorporated. Through most of the Middle Ages many noble homes were only larger versions of peasant structures built with more durable and costly materials, such as stone and large logs, to fit the nobles’ wealth and pretensions. They were designed to provide basic protection, shelter dozens of individuals, store several months’ supplies, and proclaim a lord’s superiority to the surrounding population. Even famous medieval castles were designed with practical purposes in mind: protection and surveillance. Most of their technological and architectural innovations were made to counter medieval military innovations. Only in the later thirteenth and fourteenth centuries did noble houses and castles begin to include decorative and other design elements that suggest aesthetic purposes. At that time stone carvings were added to the private rooms, elaborate mantels began to grace wall fireplaces, and window seats were set next to windows of colored glass. In these cases, however, secular architecture depended greatly on the design and technological innovations already developed in religious buildings.

Romanesque. In 1871 the French architectural historian Arcisse de Caumont described a series of medieval buildings as Romanesque, a term meaning “in the Roman manner” and expressing medieval Europeans’ indebtedness to Roman architectural principles. This name has since been used to describe many medieval structures built from about 950 until 1060 primarily in France, Italy, and northern Spain—though similar buildings are also scattered through much of western and central Europe. Romanesque structures are characteristically strong and weighty with heavy vaulted ceilings, which required the building of extremely thick walls with strong piers and massive buttresses. Most commonly, churches were built in this style, and they followed a basic cruciform (cross-shaped) ground plan. To provide space within the church, large rounded vaults (barrel vaults) supported the roof and walls. Only a few, small windows could be placed in these structures because the heavy walls were necessary to hold up the building. These windows had the same arched design as the vaults and became increasingly smaller the higher they were on the building. Despite these technological limitations, Romanesque churches could be enormous, well over 150 feet tall, and impressive versions of this style were constructed at Durham in England, Speyer in Germany, and Pisa in Italy. Their massiveness communicated power and permanence, architectural goals that their creators reinforced by modeling their buildings on the ruins of the most powerful and permanent empire of their historical memory: the Roman Empire.

Romanesque Architecture and the Compostela Pilgrimage. By the middle of the eleventh century impressive Romanesque churches could be found in many parts of Europe and had developed distinctive regional characteristics. In southern Germany, Romanesque monastic cloisters showed an Irish influence, while that built at Ripoll in Catalonia was influenced by Arabic design elements. Among the most impressive Romanesque churches were those found along one of the most famous pilgrimage routes in medieval Europe: the roads through France to the shrine of St. James at Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain. Along these three routes, the churches of St. Sernin, St. Pierre, and Ste. Foi in southern France were built in a more-developed form of Romanesque architecture. Large barrel vaults are the primary architectural element in each of these churches, designed to provide space for large numbers of pilgrims. Also, to facilitate visits and impress pilgrims, the churches have wide galleries and aisles. Each of the churches has elaborate sculptural decorations, and in each the entrance and facade are modeled after Roman gates. The church at Santiago de Compostela is more massive than the churches along the pilgrims’ route, with a nave (the long section of a cruciform church) around 250 feet long, as befitted the third most-important pilgrimage site of medieval Europe, the supposed burial place of St. James the Apostle. Construction of the church was complete

by the mid twelfth century. At that time, the floor plan followed the typical cruciform pattern modeled on St. Peter’s in Rome. The aisles and ambulatory were especially wide, and additional altars were placed on the sides of the church to accommodate pilgrims. The elaborate decoration of the church includes examples of various phases in Romanesque art. For example, the west end, also known as the Portico de la Gloria (Gate of Glory), was constructed and carved in 1168-1188, at the end of the Romanesque period, and foreshadows later, more naturalistic Gothic styles, while the south end, the Puerta de las Platerías (Door of the Silversmiths), dating from 1078-1103, is more sparse and rigid in keeping Romanesque design principles.

Byzantine and Moorish Architecture. When Robert of Clari, a French crusader, saw the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, in 1204, he was awestruck and wrote, “Not since the world was made was there ever seen or won so great a treasure, or so noble or so rich, nor in the time of Alexander, nor in the time of Charlemagne, nor before, nor after, nor do I think myself that in the forty richest cities of the world had there been so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world.” His reaction to Byzantine style was quite similar to that of his distant ancestors. Left with impressive examples of Byzantine structures in Italian cities such as Ravenna, later medieval rulers and clergy incorporated Byzantine design elements into their structures, hoping thereby to profit from the reflected glory of that powerful Eastern Empire. Charlemagne’s churches, particularly at Aachen, included

the elaborate mosaics, octagonal structure, and detailed decoration that typifies western European Byzantine design, and his descendants followed in his footsteps, eventually including some of these elements in the Romanesque style. In the same way, the elaborate sculptural elements of Muslim design influenced architecture in southern Europe, particularly in northern Spain and along the Mediterranean coast. Although neither the Byzantine nor the Moorish styles spread throughout Europe, their pervasive use of complicated geometric patterns, whether sculptural or mosaic, added distinctive aspects to Romanesque and Gothic design in neighboring regions.

Ottoman and Cluniac Styles. In northern and central Europe other styles influenced Romanesque and coexist alongside it. These styles are called Ottonian and Cluniac after the dynasty (Ottonian) and the religious order (Cluny) that promoted them. Inspired by Carolingian and Byzantine architecture, bishoprics such as Mainz, Speyer, and Bamburg, monastic centers at Echternach and Reichenau, and cultural crossroads such as Cologne and Trier began using innovative designs in the middle of the tenth century. Ottonian churches are notable for their monumental scale and spatial experimentation. The

RENOVATING THE CHURCH OF ST. DENIS

Abbot Suger of St. Denis renovated the Church of St. Denis according to the latest trends and most lofty goals of medieval ecclesiastical architecture. He explained his motivation in his De Adm’inistratione and Scriptum Consecrationis:

I found myself, under the inspiration of the Divine will and because of that inadequacy which we often saw and felt on feast days, namely the Feast of the blessed Denis, the Fair, and very many others (for the narrowness of the place forced the women to run toward the altar upon the heads of the men as upon a pavement with much anguish and noisy confusion), encouraged by the counsel of wise men and by the prayers of many monks (lest it displease God and the Holy Martyrs) to enlarge and amplify the noble church consecrated by the Hand Divine; and I set out at once to begin this very thing. In our chapter as well as in church I implored Divine mercy that He Who is the One, the beginning and the ending, Alpha and Omega, might join a good end to a good beginning by a safe middle; that He might not repel from the building of the temple a bloody man who desired this very thing, with his whole heart, more than to obtain the treasures of Constantinople. Thus we began work at the former entrance with the doors. We tore down a certain addition asserted to have been made by Charlemagne on a very honorable occasion … and we set our hand to this part. As is evident we exerted ourselves incessantly with the enlargement of the body of the church as well as with the trebling of the entrance and the doors, and with the erection of high and noble towers.…

Source: De Administratione and Scriptum Consecrationis, translated and edited by Erwin Panofsky (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946).

Ottonian church most often used as a model was that of Saint Cyriakus (built 961-965). It adapted the basic Carolingian plan but made it more geometrically proportioned to create a more harmonious structure. Churches at Hildesheim and the imperial cathedrals in the Rhineland, particularly at Mainz, improved on these early designs in the twelfth century, reflecting the aspirations of the Ottonian dynasty and the leading churchmen who were its servants. The architects of Cluny in eastern France made similar architectural and technological developments that culminated in the third version of the main church at Cluny, generally known as Cluny III. Its plan featured double transepts, a huge ambulatory (a section parallel to the nave) with radiating chapels, and an impressive portal. This church was dedicated in 1130 and completed under the leadership of the learned Abbot Peter the Venerable. The ordered and measured harmony stressed by its architects greatly influenced Romanesque architecture and buildings throughout eastern France. This harmony was also key to Cluniac spirituality, and this link between spirituality and design was also apparent in the many chapels that radiated out from the main church, allowing for the constant chanting of divine service, an important element in Cluniac religious practice. As such, Ottonian buildings and Cluny III both exemplify the close link between architecture and mind-set throughout the Middle Ages.

The Rise of Gothic Architecture. Gothic architecture is often seen as a distinctively medieval architecture, but its medieval creators developed their style from preexisting architectural forms and placed little emphasis on the “newness” of their work. Italian Renaissance artists and historians in the fifteenth century first named this style “Gothic,” using the term in a pejorative sense. For these Renaissance artists, who desired to rediscover classical structures, the architecture of “the Goths” was interpreted as the alien, mutilated work of the northern “barbarians.” Such characterization is built on errors. Gothic architecture originated in northern France, not “Gothic” Germany. Its domination of European architecture began in the twelfth century, not during the early medieval barbarian invasions. Moreover, there were various styles of Gothic architecture during this time; it was not as static as Renaissance writers implied. High and light walls, ribbed vaults, pointed arches, and flying buttresses characterize Gothic church architecture. The ability of Gothic architects to solve the problem of thrust and weight enabled them to lighten the massive wall structure of the Romanesque church and to transform God’s house into a pillar of light. The Romanesque vault, which was ribbed from side to side and divided the roof into several square bays, gave way to two semicircular ribs joining all four corners of the bay to create a square of ribs (groin vaulting). As it further developed, two diagonal ribs formed a cross between the corners (rib vaulting). This development allowed the triangular section between the ribs to be constructed of lighter stonework. In addition, diagonal ribs broke the round clean lines of the Romanesque vault and rose much higher. From the pillars it was possible to raise the reinforcing arches supporting the pillars to the same height as the diagonal ribs. The architect was also able to transfer structural thrust from the horizontal to the vertical axis. In so doing, the size of supporting columns could be reduced, but the church could still be built higher than Romanesque structures. Cities throughout northern and central France competed to build the tallest and most elaborate Gothic cathedrals, leading to further innovations that allowed even greater height and airiness in these buildings. Flying buttresses allowed architects to spread the weight over the smaller side aisles of the cathedrals, giving essential support to the nave of the church. In the process the walls no longer had to be load bearing and could thus hold large windows that allowed for unprecedented amounts of light. The Abbey of St. Denis, rebuilt under the direction of Abbot Suger around 1135, is generally seen as the earliest example of Gothic architecture and retains many Romanesque aspects. The cathedrals of Notre Dame and Chartres are examples of classic Gothic structures built at the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth, while the cathedral at Beauvais, with its weak tiled foundations and excessive height (157 feet), represents

the limits of Gothic engineering. The nave collapsed in 1284 and was rebuilt with added flying buttresses to support its weight. Although built on a much smaller scale, the Ste. Chapelle that Louis IX of France had built into the royal palace in Paris during the 1240s is often treated as the best representative of a flamboyant, radiant Gothic style.

Theories of Gothic Architecture . Medieval architects and their patrons seldom commented about the inspirations for their structures. One of the earliest Gothic innovators, however, Abbot Suger of St. Denis, left a record of what he and his fellow clergy were trying to achieve. For example, the redesigned portal for St. Denis encorporates design elements of Roman gates and medieval fortifications, suggesting the power of the French king—the defender of the realm—who was crowned in that church. More commonly, however, Suger and his followers stress the importance of light in their spirituality and in the architecture. For the medieval person, a Gothic cathedral was anything but the pale museum-like remnant that remains today. The medieval European was engaged in an act of public worship in a “living City of God.” This city in Gothic design created an experience of light and color. With its walls painted with biblical stories and its multicolored stained-glass windows, a Gothic church became a magnificent cinemascopic vision. Another new feature was the attempt by the Gothic artist and architect to give a comprehensive vision and detailed depiction of the universe of nature and of God. An analogy for this vision was the many important summations of theology and philosophy that medieval scholars produced, particularly the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas, written in 1265–1273. The intellectual and artistic movements that inspired Gothic architecture—and that Gothic buildings embodied—are frequently described as a mysticism and metaphysics of light.

Gothic Beyond the Frankish Lands. For those who lived in the Middle Ages, the new Gothic style in architecture was called “the work of the French” or “the style of the French” (opus francigenum). Although some of the earliest and best-known Gothic structures were built in the Frankish kingdoms, master masons, builders, and architects from all over Europe were trained in this style and took it back to their homes. Gothic masterpieces were constructed at Westminster Abbey in England, the church of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy, and the cathedrals in Burgos and Toledo in Spain. In many ways Gothic architecture replaced local styles in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but regional design elements frequently crept back in. Several examples of these transformations occurred in German Gothic churches. The churches of St. Elizabeth at Marburg (built 1235–1283) and the Wiesenkirche at Soest (built around 1331) have various openings in the arches, spreading diffuse light inside the entire building and making them less dark than the French Gothic cathedrals. As time passed, the Gothic style began to be used for other public buildings, such as city and guild halls. Gothic architecture, however, required technological sophistication, expensive materials, and expert masons and sculptors, so only the wealthiest and most powerful individuals and cities, such as Ypres in Belgium, could afford to have their cloth and town halls built in this style.

Sources

Robert G. Calkins, Medieval Architecture in Western Europe: from A.D. 300 to 1500 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Paul Franki, Gothic Architecture, revised edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).

Hans Erich Kubach, Romanesque Architecture (New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1988).

Otto Von Simson, The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order, third edition, enlarged (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).

James Snyder, Medieval Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, 4th–14th Century (New York: Abrams / Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989).

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Architecture

Architecture

INSPIRATION

PRAISE FOR PHEIDIAS’S ZEUS

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Late Geometric Period: 800-700 b.c.e. Architectural materials of the 700s b.c.e. tended to be of mudbrick, thatch, and wood, but some temple foundations of reasonable size have been unearthed, including one to Hera on Samos that measured one hundred feet in length. A restored clay model from the same period found at another sanctuary to Hera near Corinth gives an indication of eighth-century architecture. It could represent the temple itself or the house of the person who made the offering. More enduring innovations in architecture followed in the next century, inspired to some extent by contacts with Egypt. Indeed, by the early 600s b.c.e. the visual arts in Greece were reponding to the arts of the Near East in ways that both developed and departed from the achievements and style of much Geometric Period art.

Early Archaic Period: 700-600 b.c.e.. Architecture of the early seventh century developed the canonical forms of the Doric order, probably invented at Corinth, and the Ionic order. Early materials were wood, but stone was later employed and was needed to support the roof, now made of terra-cotta tiles instead of thatch. The more austere Doric order had twenty-two grooves along each column shaft, and featured triglyphs (vertical incisions) next to spaces called metopes (which sometimes were filled with sculptures) on the area above the columns. The Ionic order had taller, slender columns which were surmounted by two heavy volutes (or spirals); each column had twenty-four gooves along its length. The Ionic order did not include metopes or triglyphs, but had a continuous sculpted frieze above the colonnade.

Influence from Abroad. Egypt played a role in influencing Greek architecture and sculpture at this stage, particularly in the eastern Greek regions of Ionia. Political and trading contacts between Egypt and eastern Greek regions increased from about 660 b.c.e. onward under the reign of the Egyptian king Psammetichus, who hired Ionian mercenaries for his military campaigns and established a trading post with the Greeks at Naucratis. Ionian architects were supposed to have witnessed large-scale Egyptian stone architecture, and it is clear that some Egyptian forms were adapted to Greek temple styles. However, the Greeks were also familiar with large-scale architecture and sculpture from the Mycenaean Period (1600-1200 b.c.e.), so influences came from both local and international sources. Also, the inventions of the detail in Doric and Ionic forms, as well as roof tiling, are essentially Greek achievements. Temple sculptures were painted and decorated the open triangular pediments above the front and rear, and sometimes were included on the friezes of temples in Ionic style. Temples generally were surrounded by an outer colonnade (row of columns) on all four sides, often, but not always, comprised of a formula of a fixed number at the front and twice that number plus one more at the side (for example, six by thirteen). Large-scale temples to various gods appear at this time, notably to Poseidon near Corinth, to Apollo at Thermon in northwest Greece, and an enlargement of the temple to Hera on the island of Samos.

INSPIRATION

Strabo, a geographer of the first century b.c.e., writes:

And they recount this tradition about Pheidias. When Panaenus asked him what model he intended to employ in making the image of Zeus, he replied that it was the model provided by Homer in the following lines of the Iliad (1.528-530): “Thus spoke the son of Kronos and nodded his dark brow, and the ambrosial locks flowed down from the lord’s immortal head, and he made great Olympus shake.”

Source: Strabo, 8.3.30

Middle and Later Archaic Periods: 600-480 b.c.e.. Increasing prosperity enjoyed by many poleis (city-states) and their colonies, as well as familiarity with Eastern models, led to developments in large-scale architecture and sculpture in the sixth century b.c.e., especially Greek temples and sanctuaries. A notable example was the temple of Artemis at Ephesus—one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but now completely destroyed. At Corcyra a large temple to Artemis was constructed about 590-580 b.c.e., which featured impressive, but now fragmentary, pedimental sculptures depicting the Gorgon Medusa in the center, and her two children Chrysaor, and the famous

winged horse, Pegasus. Western colonies in southern Italy and Sicily, some governed by tyrants, expressed their civic power and prosperity in constructing large-scale temples in Doric style that competed in size and grandeur with many on mainland Greece. The remains of the temple to Hera at Paestum in southern Italy, built around 540 b.c.e., indicate something of its original imposing presence. In Attica the Acropolis underwent an extensive face-lift from about 560, which included a large temple to Athena, famous for its pedimental sculptures depicting the hero Heracles wrestling sea monsters. Although this building program probably began earlier, much of it is associated with the tyrant Peisistratus, who also built a Royal Stoa (or colonnade) and began a huge temple to Olympian Zeus that was finally completed under the Roman emperor Hadrian nearly seven hundred years later.

Treasuries. Secular architecture and sculpture also reached new heights at this time. Treasuries built by various poleis at Panhellenic centers like Delphi were competitive expressions of power and success, often funded by spoils won in war. This competitiveness could lead to a variety of architectural styles and ornamentation. The treasury of the Sicyonians at Delphi was built circa 540 b.c.e. in Doric style while adjacent to it was the Siphnian treasury, in Ionic fashion, circa 530. On the best-preserved east and north faces of the continuous frieze of the Siphnian treasury were depicted such scenes as the gods on Olympus, battles between heroes at Troy (Achilles and Memnon), and the famous battle between the gods and giants, called the gigantomachy. There were highly accomplished elements such as the use of overlapping in depicting figures, such as appeared on the Chigi vase; there was also fuller, more naturalistic rendering of bodies compared to the Daedalic style; and there were impressive three-quarter-angle views of certain heads such as that of the giant, being mauled by the lion. Heads were no longer restricted to being rendered frontally or in profile as before. Such interesting angles in depicting figures occurs on the Doric-style Athenian treasury built circa 500-490 b.c.e., whose metopes depicted Heracles’ and Theseus’s independent labors. One shows Heracles capturing the Cerynian hind with the taut, muscled hero seeming to leap out of the background over the animal in a burst of energy.

Temple of Aphaia. Developments in the vitality of architectural sculptures can be seen on the pediment of the temple to Aphaia on the island of Aegina (now housed in Munich). The two pediments seem to have been sculpted about ten years apart (circa 500-490 b.c.e.), each depicting scenes of the sack of Troy with Athena at the center. The older west pediment still has some more Archaic elements to it; for instance, one figure still has the so-called Archaic smile and props himself in a relatively upright frontal pose when shot by an arrow. On the east pediment a dying warrior appears to sag under the pain of wounds inflicted in war, as his head drops and hand falls out of his shield; in addition, his gritted teeth and flared nostrils give a new sense of vividness to the depiction of a hero in the throes of death on a battlefield.

Early and High Classical Periods: 480-400 b.c.e.. Much of the expansion in the arts at this time was heralded by Athens, whose wealth came from its empire and the tribute exacted from her subjects, who were once her allies in the Delian League. The confidence and wealth in the aftermath of victory over Persia is most famously expressed in the Acropolis, rebuilt under Pericles after 450 b.c.e. This renovation featured the work of the legendary sculptor Pheidias and his workshop, especially on the new Parthenon, the great temple to Athena, which ever since has become a potent symbol of the “glory days” of Athens. Before 450, however, the most famous and largest building in Greece was the temple to Zeus at Olympia. It was built circa 470-456 in the Doric style and funded by the people of Elis from spoils won in war against Pisa. The temple measured 64.12 by 27.68 metres, had the canonical six columns at the front and thirteen at the side, and included sculptures in its pediments of Apollo and the centauro-machy at one end and Zeus presiding over the combatants in a chariot race at the other; the labors of Heracles were depicted on its metopes. Its most famous feature was the

great chryselephantine statue of Zeus by Pheidias, constructed circa 435 b.c.e. The Zeus figure was larger than the cult statue Pheidias made for the Parthenon, and was seated, holding a Winged Victory in his right hand and sceptre in his left. The throne was embellished with Graces, Sphinxes, mythological scenes, and heroic battles; the screen between its legs was painted by Pheidias’s brother (or nephew), Panaenus, and represented some of Heracles’ labors and Achilles’ battles; the base depicted the birth of Aphrodite. Pheidias’s Zeus became one of the Seven Wonders of the World, inspired stories as to its creation, and was an object of profound veneration.

Parthenon. Crowning the Athenian Acropolis was the Doric style Parthenon, built between 447-432 b.c.e. by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates. It measured 69.5 by 30.88 metres and had eight columns at the front and seventeen at the side, and contained sculptures in its pediments depicting the birth of Athena in one end and her contest with Poseidon for the role of Attica’s patron deity in the other. Its metopes depicted the Sack of Troy, the battle with Amazons, gigantomachy, and centauromachy; it also had one continuous frieze depicting a cavalcade, the Olympian gods and a ritual procession. The taller, slender columns and inclusion of a frieze give the Parthenon some Ionic touches, even though it is ostensibly a Doric temple; such combinations of architectural styles in the one building were to be more common in later fifth-and fourth-century buildings. Further interesting refinements in the Parthenon are in the slightly convex, inward leaning columns and the upward curve of the stylobate; these have been interpreted to have optical effects so as to appear straighter and firmer when seen from a distance. The chryselephantine cult statue of Athena by Pheidias was nearly forty feet high, helmeted with a triple-plumed crest, wearing a miniature aegis, and standing with a Winged Victory in her right hand; her left hand held a spear and shield also propped up by a serpent. Images of heroic battles against the Amazons, gods against giants, Lapiths and Centaurs adorned her shield and sandals, and the birth of Pandora was depicted on the statue base. The Parthenon seems to have been part of the same plan as the Doric style Propylaia, the grandiose gateway to the Acropolis. Designed by Mnesicles in 437-432 b.c.e., it also featured some interior Ionic columns and a picture gallery, which included works by Polygnotus, one of the great masters of fifth-century painting.

Other Temples. Athens’ architectural embellishments, begun under Pericles, continued after his death in 429 b.c.e. Elsewhere on the Acropolis was the Erechtheum, built in 421-407, in a varied style on several elevations to fit on the uneven terrain. It housed cult relics and featured Caryatids on its south projection. Another Ionic temple was known as the temple of Athena Nike to the west of the Propylaia, built in the late fifth century and famous for its elaborate sculptures on its balustrade. Some further novel features in late fifth-century architecture are found in the temple to Apollo at Bassai in Arcadia that had external Doric columns, Ionic in the interior, and one free-standing Corinthian column, which develops the Ionic style into a more vegetal form. In the agora of Athens a fine, well-preserved Doric temple to Hephaestus measuring 31.77 by 13.71 meters (and six by thirteen columns), was begun circa 449 b.c.e. Like the Parthenon, this temple contained certain Ionic elements such as a frieze in the pronaos (front porch) and opisthodomos (back porch). Its metopes depicted the labors of Heracles and adventures of Attica’s own hero, Theseus.

Later Classical Period: 400-323 B.C.E. The fourth century b.c.e. may be viewed as a transitional period that witnessed violent political change in the Greek world from the era of city-states, often at war with each other, to the rise of the monarchy imposed by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander. Much in art was a continuation of Classical trends, but there were significant innovations in all major areas which clearly ushered in the Hellenistic styles of succeeding centuries. There tended to be fewer temples built during this period, but at Epidauros the extensive sanctuary to Asklepios was given a new temple to the god, near the well-preserved theater, famous for its magnificent acoustics and also built in the middle of the fourth century.

PRAISE FOR PHEIDIAS’S ZEUS

Dio Chrysostom (“Golden-Mouthed”), a philosopher and orator from Bithynia of the first century C.E., addresses an imaginary Pheidias in his Olympian Oration (12.50-2), and extols the powers of his statue:

O best and noblest of artists, that you have created a sweet and engaging sight, an inescapable delight for the vision, for all those Greeks and non-Greeks who have come here on many different occasions — this nobody will deny. For it would even overwhelm those beings in creation that have an irrational nature, the animals, if they could see this work…. And among men, whoever might be burdened with pain in his soul, having borne many misfortunes and pains in his life, and never being able to attain sweet sleep, even that man, I believe, standing before this image would forget all the terrible and harsh things which one must suffer in human life. Such is the vision which you have conceived and rendered into art, a vision which is really; ‘An assuager of sorrow, gentle, an obscurer of the memory of all evils’. Such is the light and such is the grace that comes from your art. For not even Hephaestus himself would find fault with the work, if he judged it by the pleasure and delight it gives to mortal eyes.

Variations. Notable features in fourth-century temple architecture were variations in style and proportion of Doric and Ionic orders. For instance, the temple to Athena Alea at Tegea in the Peloponnese, designed by Scopas, had taller, more slender Doric columns than usual, low entablature and an elongated cella plan lined by Corinthian and Ionic columns close against the walls,

instead of being a genuine colonnade. Monuments to individual rulers became conspicuous in the fourth century, such as the Nereid Monument (circa 400 b.c.e.) in Lycia; it featured Ionic columns and a pediment mounted on a podium with free-standing sculptures between columns, and a frieze depicting scenes of the life of Achilles. The most famous example of a monument to an individual of this time is the Mausoleum, or tomb of Mausolus, an eastern ruler, who governed in Halicarnassus in 377-353 b.c.e.; the monument was probably completed by the 340s. Mausolus employed famous Greek artists of the day to work on it, including Scopas and Praxiteles, among others. There are difficulties in reconstructing the Mausoleum, but ancient descriptions and the foundations indicate that its base was about thirty-six by thirty-six meters and was about forty-forty-five meters high. It had thirty-six Ionic columns mounted on a podium; atop the colonnade was a pyramid of twenty-four steps, surmounted by a charioteer group. There were free-standing statues between columns and figures on the base of the podium; two have been identified as Mausolus and his wife (and sister) Artemisia, but their identity is not certain. Its frieze, sixty centimeters below colonnade was thirty meters above ground and depicted the battles against Amazons and centaurs; thus, Mausolus showed further “Hellenising” trends in his choice of images, as well as employing Greek artists. Famous in antiquity, the Mausoleum was another of the Seven Wonders of the World, but the edifice was felled in an earthquake in the 1200s and later quarried by the Knights of St. John at Rhodes.

Sources

William R. Biers, The Archaeology of Greece: An Introduction (Ithaca, N.Y. & London: Cornell University Press, 1996).

John Boardman, Greek Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1996).

Jeffrey M. Hurwit , The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. (Ithaca, N.Y. & London: Cornell University Press, 1985).

Nigel Spivey, Greek Art (London: Phaidon, 1997).

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Architecture

Architecture

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA

Sources

Tang Architecture. The architecture of the Tang dynasty (618-907) is magnificent, lofty, symmetrical, elegant, and not fragile. Architectural technology significantly developed during this era, and various materials were used—including earth, stone, brick, iron, wood, and bamboo. They were decorated with tiles, glaze, bronze, and various kinds of paint. Many Tang palaces and temples consisted of groups of buildings. Usually, two or more main buildings were constructed along an axis line with other smaller structures on either side of the line. This arrangement resulted in the formation of subordinate compounds. In front of the major building was a large central courtyard, and the entire square compound was surrounded by walls.

Tang Capitals. The Tang capital of Chang’an in Shanxi Province, originally constructed in 582, was one of the largest cities in the world during that era. Based on the principle of the square, the city was built on a symmetrical plan with the 108 square or rectangular blocks defined by streets and alleys running north-south and east-west, reflecting the ideal order and hierarchy to which the ruler aspired. Each block was enclosed by its own wall and had gates that were closed at nightfall. Shops were clustered in east and west markets, each occupying a single block. The palaces and the forbidden city were in the northern section of the city. The forbidden city, where the political and military offices and the imperial temples were located, was 2,820.3 meters long and 1,843.6 meters wide. It had three gates each on its north and south sides and two gates each on its east and west sides. A 220-meter path to the north linked the forbidden city to the city of palaces, which was the same length as the forbidden city and 1,492.1 meters in width. The Taijigong (Ultimate Palace), the office and residence of the emperor, was at the center of the city of pal-aces with other residential and official palaces on its east and west. The city palaces had five gates on its southern side, four each on its northern and western sides, and one on its eastern side. To the north of the city of palaces was the forbidden garden. The Tang had another capital at Luoyang, whose scale and layout were similar to those at Chang’an, but the plan of this eastern capital conformed more to the physical features of its location.

Tang Palaces. The Palace of Great Clarity was built in 634 on the plain of Dragon Head Hill in the northwest section of Chang’an, from which one could overlook the entire city. An imperial resort with residential and official structures, it was built with great attention to security. The city wall was 10.5 meters wide at the bottom. With double walls on three sides and triple gates on the northern wall, the palace complex included three great halls as well as several pavilions and small halls. North of the palace was the garden with a lake, a hill, halls, and pavilions. The Hanyuandian (Hall of Origin), the principal hall in the palace complex, was flanked by two pavilions to which it was linked by winding passageways. Designed and constructed in accordance with the natural shape of the Hill of Dragon Head, this magnificent palace represented the power of the Tang emperors, whose symbol was the dragon. Northwest of the Hall of Origin was the Lindedian (Hall of Unicorn Virtue), which was used for feasts, entertainment, Buddhist ceremonies, and meditation. It had pavilions at its back, center, and front. None of the Tang palaces have survived, and modern knowledge of them is based on archaeological discoveries.

Tang Temples. Most Tang-dynasty temples have also been destroyed. Only two have survived: the Nanchan (Temple of the Southern Chan), built in 782, and the Foguang Shizheng (Temple of Buddhist Light), built in 857—both located on the Wutaishan (Mountain of Five Terraces) in Shanxi Province. The Temple of Buddhist Light perfectly combines art and architecture. The roof beams and pillars of the temple were placed to create three independent arches beneath the roof, creating maximum space and a sense of symmetry. The temple looks dignified, stable, and beautiful.

Tang Pagodas. Among the existing Tang pagodas, the oldest and most important example is the Xuanzhangta, built in 669, the five-story tomb-pagoda of a monk named Xuanzhang. It has five stories and is known for its simplicity. The well-known Dayanta (Great Wild Goose Pagoda), built in the early eighth century at Cien Temple in Chang’an, has lost its original appearance through extensive reconstruction during the Ming dynasty. The Qianxunta (Thousand Xun Pagoda), built late in the Tang era at the Chongshenshi (Lofty and Saint Temple) of Dali in

Yunnan Province, is an example of the multi-eaved pagoda, which typically has a high first story topped by many courses of eaves, which do not necessarily correspond with the number of stories in the pagoda. With sixteen sets of eaves the Thousand Xun Pagoda is one of the tallest surviving Tang pagodas. The Minghui dashita (Pagoda of Master Minghui), built in 877 at the Haihuiyuan (Academy of Ocean Meeting) in Pingshun County of Shanxi Province, is an exquisite one-story square stone pagoda with four layers of beautifully crafted sculptures of gods. During the second half of the seventh century, Sutra towers became a part of Buddhist architecture and were built in multistory shapes with beautiful carvings. Sutra towers were similar to pagodas, but they were used to hold sutra texts instead of for worshiping Buddha.

Tang Gardens and Private Residences. There are no remaining examples of Tang residential architecture. Knowl-edge of Tang building practices comes from paintings on the walls of the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu Province, as well as other paintings and books of the period. A Tang house usually had a central axis with a symmetrical arrangement of rooms on each side, and they were grouped in a rect-angular compound (siheyuan). There were also simpler thatched cottages in a triangular compound (sanheyuan) enclosed by a wooden fence. Tang noble families followed the tradition of building a garden in the back of their residence or constructing a resort in a suburban area. Hills and ponds were the main features in Tang gardens, which also might have included bridges, small islands, pavilions, flowers, trees, and stones. Gardens were intended to convey “poetic feeling and pictorial ideas.” For instance, at the home and garden of the well-known poet Bai Juyi (772-846) in Luoyang, housing occupied one-third of the 2.9 acres of land, with ponds on one-fifth, bamboo trees on one-ninth, and the rest given over to paths, trees, halls, platforms, and pavilions. Three small islands, each with a pavilion, were connected to each other by bridges. A path ran along the water. The focus was on bamboo trees and water. Rough and rare stones were piled up to make a hill—a feature that became a prevalent Tang garden feature.

Song Architecture. The architecture of the Song dynas-ties (960-1279) was smaller in scale but more beautiful and more splendid than that of the Tang era. By this time the use of brick for city walls, city roads, pagodas, and tombs had significantly increased. The heights of pillars and the degree of roof slope increased, while the size of the cantilever bracket supporting the roof was reduced, simplifying the architectural structure and increasing space within a house. Song architectural styles varied and included complexly designed pavilions and buildings with sophisticated decorations and paintings. Construction parts became standardized. In northern China, Liao (916-1115) architecture inherited the Tang style, while that of the Jin (1115-1234) followed the style of the Song dynasty. The use of wood imitating stone was widespread. Flat and coffered ceilings became more common, and painted decorations became more colorful.

Song Cities. By the Song era, commercial development had broken up the traditional block-style urban plan with concentrated and fixed marketplaces. The Song government destroyed the walls that enclosed blocks, but for its convenience still used the lanes to divide cities into administrative units. Many streets were developed along business and professional lines, and many restaurants, stores, and entertainment centers were also established. There were also many market fairs and Buddhist gardens. Kaifeng, the eastern capital of the Northern Song dynasty (960-1125), included three walled enclosures, each protected by a moat. The perimeter of the outer city was nineteen kilometers. There were three land gates and two water gates on the south border, four gates each on the north and the east borders, and five gates on the west border. At each gate a defense tower was built. The inner city—with a perimeter of nine kilometers and three gates on each of the four sides—was located in the center of the outer city. The palace city, with one gate each on four sides and a tower on each corner of its wall, was almost in the center of the inner city. Within the palace city were many halls and a large imperial garden. Pingjiang (Suzhou), a major city during the Tang and Song dynasties, had water and land transportation systems. Each residential and official building faced a street and had a river behind it.

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA

The Great Wall of China, or the Chinese Wall, is one of the major architectural achievements of the pre-modern world. Around the seventh century B.C.E., the state of Chou in North China started to construct a permanent frontier-defense system, and by the third century B.C.E. various other northern kingdoms had followed suit. Although subsequent dynasties, such as the Han (206 B.C.E. -220 C.E.) and the Sui (589-618), improved various sections of wall, it was not until the Ming empire (1368-1644) that many fragments were connected into one continuous wall. The emperor Hongzhi (reigned 1487-1505) ordered most of the work on the existing Great Wall in order to repel another Mongolian invasion.

The Ming Great Wall is approximately 4,500 miles long, extending from the mountains of Korea to the Gobi Desert (the distance between Miami, Florida, and the North Pole). It follows the contours of the mountains, some of which are seven thousand feet above sea level and have ridges that climb at an angle of seventy degrees. The wall is made of beaten earth, bricks, and stones. It has thousands of towers and individual forts. During the Ming empire the fortifications were garrisoned by one million troops. At each strategic pass there is a fortified gate. The height of the wall varies from fifteen feet to thirty feet, and its width at the base measures anywhere from fifteen feet to twenty-five feet; the walkway on top of the wall is thir-teen feet wide.

Sources: Jonathan Fryer, The Great Wall of China (London: New English Library, 1975),

William Lindesay, The Great Wall (Hong Kong: Odyssey, 1998).

Arthur Waldron, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

Luo Zewen and others, The Great Wall (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981).

Song and Liao Temples. The Shengmudian (Goddess Hall), built in 1023-1032, at the Jinci (Jin Temple) in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, is an ancestral temple with a front hall and main hall as well as a garden. Flying beams designed in harmony with the terrain support a bridge across a square fishpond in front of the main hall and a platform within. The inside of the main hall looks spacious because extra-long beams bear the roof and the only pillars are in the corners. The external features of the hall are soft and feminine and quite different from the masculine style of Tang architecture. The Longxingshi (Temple of Prosperity) in Zhengding County, Hebei Province, is an important surviving example of Song Buddhist temples. The first rectangular courtyard has bell towers on the left and the right sides. The Hall of the Sixth Master, in its center, has been destroyed. To the north is another rectangular courtyard with the Moni Hall in the center and secondary halls on either side. The Moni Hall is built on a square base with a projecting portico on each of its four sides. It has thick walls, and the only window is in its front door. Further north, beyond a second gate, is a grand temple complex, including towers, pavilions, and halls. This complex was constructed along a central axis extending northward, with interrelated courtyards and buildings of varying heights. The major buildings have two or three stories, illustrating the Song tendency to construct multistory structures, as well as tall buildings to accommodate large Buddhist sculptures. One example of such a building is the Guanyin Hall, built in 984 at the Duleshi (Temple of Lonely Happiness) in Jixian County, Hebei Province, when it was occupied by the Liao empire (916-1115). Combining the masculine style of the Tang and the feminine style of the Song, the hall seems from the outside to be a two-story building, but it has a “secret” story inside and an open center to accommodate its tall statue of the Buddha. The base of the building

is low, and its pillars lean inward. An external balcony circles the building under the upper eaves. Also dating from the Liao period, the Huayanshi (Grand Hall of the Temple of Chinese Rigorousness)—built about 1140 in Datong, Shanxi Province—is the largest surviving early single-eave wooden building. The two-story Hall of Sakya Sutra at the Huayanshi is also an important Liao building. The two sets of cabinets for sutra manuscripts in this library building are connected by a bridge on which a five-room pavilion is built.

Song and Liao Pagodas. The Pagoda of Sakyamuni, built in 1056 at the Fogongshi (Temple of the Buddhist Palace) in Ying County, Shanxi Province, is the oldest extant wooden pagoda in China and one of the tallest wooden buildings in the world. Octagonal in shape, it is 30.27 meters wide at its base and is 67.3 meters tall. It has only five stories but has six levels of eaves because the first floor has two sets of eaves. Inside, each of the four upper stories has a mezzanine level; thus, it may be said to have four “secret” stories for a total of nine. Although it is huge, this building does not have a heavy appearance because its sets of eaves form an elegant shape and give the observer a sense of upward motion. Among all Song sutra towers, the one in the Zhao County of Hebei Province is the most representative and the largest. Entirely made of stone and more than 15 meters tall, it has a beautiful shape and features vivid carvings of gods, noblewomen, and dancing girls. The stone pagoda reached the peak of its development during the Song dynasty.

Song Houses and Gardens. A rural house during the Song dynasty was typically a simple, one-story dwelling with either a thatched roof or a half-thatched, half-tiled roof. Several houses were usually grouped together. Under the eaves and near the ceiling were windows covered by bamboo material. There were also windows near the roof peak at the gable ends for cross ventilation. Urban mansions were usually constructed as compounds with tile roofs. The entry room was often built to allow a horse and wagon to be driven into the central courtyard. Galleries or halls began to connect the various buildings in a compound. Song private gardens developed differently in various regions. The gardens in Luoyang usually tended to be natural and were built on a large scale with only a few halls and pavilions. “Borrowing scenes,” purposely constructing a high point or window from which to view a neighbor’s scenery, was a significant characteristic of many Song gar-dens. The gardens of the South were subtle and complicated. Symmetry was emphasized, and gardens were organized into different “rooms” separated by gargles stones (or, gargled lake stones, which were of various shapes and could be found only in certain lakes; such as Panyang Lake in South China) paths, walls, and flower beds. Poetry, painting, calligraphy, and carving became integral parts of the garden. Appreciation of lake stones was widespread, and a water feature was always included. Flowers were arranged in patterns but not according to strict conformity. Several flowers had their symbolic implications. Chrysanthemums represented culture; water lilies stood for purity and peace; and the bamboo tree was a token of lasting friendship, loyalty, and flexibility. The salt merchants of Yangzhou built many gardens. Suzhou, home to many nobles and landlord families, is also renowned for its gardens, including the Canglangting (Garden of the Blue-Waves Pavilion), which was built during the Song dynasty, and the Shizilin (Garden of the Stone Forest), dating to the Yuan dynasty. The Xiyuan (Western Garden) in Beijing was initially built during the Liao dynasty and was later enlarged by the Jin and Yuan dynasties. Combining features of the natural landscape with manmade components, this garden has water as its main feature. At its center is the White Tower on Jade Island in a naturally existing lake. The long lakeshore is dotted by several exquisite pavilions.

The Yuan Capital at Beijing. In 1264 the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) began to construct Dadu (Grand Capital) on the site of present-day Beijing. Completed eight years later, the Yuan capital is a well-designed, large-scale city (7,400 meters by 6,650 meters) with many grand palaces. The wall had two gates on the north side and three gates on each of the other three sides. The city was divided into sixty administrative sections, which were not walled. The city drainage system was well planned and built of brick. The grand canal was used as the water supply and for transportation. Yuan palaces were located in the Imperial City and the Palace City. The Imperial City had a pond, garden, and three groups of palaces. The Palace City wall had four gates in the front and back and a tower on each corner. The palaces were symmetrically arranged on each side of a central axis line. Yuan palaces were extravagant and built with many precious materials.

Yuan Religious Architecture. The Deningdian (Hall of Virtue and Peace) at the Beiyuemiao (Temple of North Mountain) in Quyang County, Hebei Province; the Yonglegong (Palace of Perpetual Happiness) in Yongji County, Shanxi Province; and the Shuishenmiao (Temple of the River God), built in 1324 near the future site of the Mingera Guangshengshi (Temple of Wide Victory, built in 1515-1527) in Hongdong, Shanxi Province, are representatives of Yuan religious architecture. They are built in the styles of Song temples or those of the Jin empire in northern China but on a larger scale. During the Yuan dynasty the spread of Lamaism resulted in the construction of several Lamaist buildings, of which the pagoda of the Miaoyingshi (Temple of Wonderful Response), built in 1271 in the Grand Capital, is the most notable. This brick pagoda was 50.86 meters tall and painted with white lime. Although it is uncarved and quite plain, it looks magnifi-cent and powerful. The guojieta (street pagoda) was a common form of Lamaist architecture, but no complete street pagoda has survived. The Temple of Shajia (mid thirteenth century) and the Temple of Xialu (mid fourteenth century) are typical Lamaist temples. Mosques built during the Yuan dynasty sometimes adopted Central Asian models, while others were based on traditional Chinese models.

The Huajuexiang mosque in the Lane of Conversion and Enlightenment of Xian, Shanxi Province, was established in 1392.

Ming Architecture. By the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) many roof shapes had developed, and the use of brick had become common. The framework for the city gate became a brick arch instead of wood pillars and a cross beam. The production of glazed tiles to cover walls reached its height in terms of both quality and quantity. Ming official architecture, interior design, and construction practices became much standardized, which to a certain extent stifled creativity. In his Book of Wood carpenter Yu Hao recorded the accumulated knowledge of Chinese architects.

Ming Beijing. After the Ming dynasty decided to move its capital from Nanking to Beijing in 1403, Beijing was significantly reconstructed and enlarged according to the feudal hierarchical concept for convenience of political control. All the important buildings were built along a 7.5-kilometer axis with a central path running north from the Yongdingmen (Gate of Lasting Peace) at the south wall of the outer city through the Zhengyangmen (Meridian Gate) of the Gugong (Forbidden City) to the palace complex. Ming imperial architecture followed exactly the feudal rules of “three halls” in the front for court gatherings, “three pal-aces” in the back for imperial residences, and “five gates.” They also followed the ritual requirement that the temple for ancestor worship should be on the left (east) and the ceremonial altar for community ceremonies on the right (west). On either side of the central axis, near the Gate of Lasting Peace, were two large architectural complexes, the Tiantan (Temple of Heaven) and the Xiannongtai (Temple of Agriculture).

The Temple of Heaven. The Temple of Heaven is considered the best example of Ming ceremonial architecture. Built in 1534 on the site of the Altar of Heaven and Earth, it occupies 280 acres of land planted with many cypress trees and is surrounded by walls. The enclosed area is nearly square. The north corners of the wall are rounded, however, to symbolize the ancient belief in “round heaven and square earth.” On the southern end of a 360-meter axis (representing the days in a Chinese year) is a large circular white-stone altar from which the emperor prayed to heaven. It has three levels and looks massive and solemn. At the north end of the axis is the Qiniandian (Hall of

Prayer for Good Harvest). Built on a high base of white stone, it is a huge, round, wooden building with three tiers of eaves. The roof is covered with blue tiles representing heaven and curves gracefully upward to a golden point.

The Forbidden City. From 1407 to 1420 the Ming court employed 20,000-30,000 laborers to build the Forbidden City, which was divided into outer and inner courts. The outer court was used mainly for administrative and ceremonial activities. The inner court, with an imperial garden, was designed as living space for the emperor, his wives, and their servants and eunuchs. To avoid creating hiding places for assassins, no trees were planted in the outer court, and the ground was covered with fifteen large rock slabs to prevent enemies of the emperor from tunneling into the Forbidden City. The front gate—the Noon Gate—was not only a gate but also a palace hall for announcing government proclamations and emperors’ edicts. Within the Forbidden City the path continued northward from the Noon Gate to the Damingmen (Gate of Great Clarity), which opened onto a vast, paved court-yard bordered on the north by five stone bridges crossing the Inner Golden River to the stone lions and ornamental columns on the Tiananmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace). Inside this gate the Ming emperors built three halls for the administration of their imperial government: the Taihedian (Hall of Ultimate Peace), the Zhonghedian (Hall of Central Peace), and the Baohedian (Hall of Lasting Peace), as well as smaller government buildings in the same style. The similarity between the major and minor buildings reinforced the relationship among the buildings. The Hall of

Ultimate Peace, which was the site of the most important ceremonies, was taller and more elaborate than the other buildings, with two sets of eaves supported by a large number of cantilevered brackets, and three tiers of white-stone steps.

The Inner Court. From the three halls the path then continues north to the Duanmen (Gate of Origin), which leads to the complex of royal palaces. The emperor’s palace, the Qianqinggong (Palace of Heavenly Purity), has been destroyed by fire several times, and the present palace was rebuilt according to the original plans after a major fire in 1797. To the north of this palace is a square pavilion, which was used as the empress’s throne room, and her palace, the Kunninggong (Palace of Earthly Tranquillity), with the Imperial Garden on its north. The inner court also includes smaller residences. Toward the northern end of the axis, in the Forbidden City, is the Jingshan (Prosperity Hill), which at fifty meters tall is the highest point of the city. The imperial path then continues north through the Dianmen (Gate of Earthly Peace) and ends at the Bell Tower and the Drum Tower.

The Center of Government. This plan met the needs of the ruling class by putting the government at the center of the city, but it severely impeded city transportation. Throughout the Forbidden City the imperial colors, gold and red, were liberally employed, as were images of the dragon and the phoenix, symbols of the emperor and empress.

Ming Temples. The magnificent Tiantan (Temple of Heaven) in Beijing, constructed in 1534, is the best example of a Ming imperial ceremonial temple, demonstrating the ability of its architect to organize space. It consists of two groups of buildings connected by a broad path that is 360 meters long, representing the number of days in the Chinese year. In addition to the two main buildings, there are others for preparing sacrifices, ceremonial dancing, and fasting.

Ming Pagodas. The Feihongta (Pagoda of the Flying Rainbow)—built in 1515-1527 at the Guangsheng Shangshi (Upper Temple of Wide Victory) in Hongdong County, Shanxi Province—is a typical Ming pagoda. This octagonal, thirteen-story structure is 47.63 meters high. Its surface is decorated with terra-cotta gods and animal figures glazed in various colors. The diamond-shaped pagodas originated in India. They appeared in Tang-era paintings on the walls of the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu Province, but the earliest surviving example in China is the Vajrasana (Diamond Throne Pagodas), built in 1473 at the Da zhengjueshi (Temple of True Awakening) in Beijing. This five-pagoda cluster sits on a single, tall, diamond-shaped base on which gods, lions, peacocks, and the “eight treasures” of Lamaist Buddhism are carved. The five multieaved pagodas and the small hall that is also on the base have similar carvings. The Tai minority community built a distinctive style of pagoda complex during the Ming dynasty. Typically, a tall slim pagoda was surrounded by smaller pagodas and strange animal figures. The various shapes and elaborate carvings of these pagodas made them especially attractive.

Uighur Mosques. In the fifteenth century the Uighur people of Mongolia and eastern Turkestan converted to Islam, and the Uighur architectural style has influenced the construction of Chinese mosques ever since. Uighur Muslim structures—including mosques, religious schools, and tombs—are decorated with colorful tiles, carved plaster, paintings, and elaborate window lattices.

Ming Houses and Gardens. The Ming dynasty began many grand imperial gardens—such as the Yuanmingyuan (Garden of Perfect Clarity), the Yiheyuan (Summer Palace), and the Bishu shanzhuang (Summer Imperial Village), all in Beijing—that were not completed until the Qing dynasty. During the same period more much-admired gardens were built in the town of Suzhou: the Zhuozhengyuan (Humble Administrator’s Garden), the Liuyuan (Lingering Garden), and the Wufengyuan (Garden of Five Mountains). Together with earlier Suzhou gar-dens, they formed a vast garden of forest and mountain. Ming gardening became a science with the publication in 1634 of Ji Cheng’s Yuanye (Garden Enterprise). By the Ming period various styles of residential architecture had developed. In Beijing and elsewhere in the north, quadrangular compounds of buildings with thick roofs and walls became standard. Walled courtyards with thin roofs and walls prevailed in the South. Hakka people, northern Chinese people who migrated to Southern China during the last years of the Song dynasty, lived together as clans in large group residences. In western China, cave rooms were built on the sides of mountains, while in rainy tropical areas houses were raised to prevent water damage. Tibetan houses were made of stone, while Uighur people lived in beaten-earth houses with openings in the ceiling to release heat. The nomadic Mongolians lived in yurts, collapsible circular domed tents.

Sources

Andrew Boyd, Chinese Architecture and Town Planning, 1500 B.C.-A.D. 1911 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962).

Liang Ssu-ch’eng, A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture: A Study of the Development of Its Structural System and the Evolution of Its Types, edited by Wilma Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass. 8c London: MIT Press, 1984).

Liu Dunzhen, Zhongguo gudai jianzhushi (Taipei, Taiwan: Enlightening Literature Press, 1994).

Liu and Liu Xujie, Liu Dunzhen jianzhushi lunvjen xuanji (Beijing: Chinese Architectural Industry Press, 1997).

Michele Pirazzoli-T’Serstevens, Living Architecture: Chinese, translated by Robert Allen (London: Macdonald, 1972).

Ru Jinghua and Peng Hualiang, Palace Architecture: Ancient Chinese Architecture, translated by Zang Erzhong and others (Vienna & New York: Springer, 1998).

Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of China (New York: Penguin, 1984).

Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, fourth edition, expanded and revised (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

Wang Tianxing and Liang Faming, Tiantan (Beijing, China: China Esperanto Press, 1993).

Xiao Mo, Zhongguo Jianzhu (Beijing: Culture and Arts Press, 1999).

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Architecture

Architecture

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Mesopotamian Architecture. Knowledge of architecture in Mesopotamia is generally restricted to monumental public buildings such as palaces and temples. Occasionally, however, archaeological excavations have uncovered ordinary houses and other sorts of buildings.

Late Uruk Period, circa 3300 – circa 2900 B.C.E. During this period urbanism took spectacular form in southern Mesopotamia. The site of Uruk provides the most extensive evidence. In an area later dedicated to the heaven god Anu, a temple was built on top of a high terrace that had been rebuilt at least seven times. The best-preserved shrine is the so-called White Temple, which has a tripartite plan, identical to the layout of ordinary buildings known elsewhere in Mesopotamia a millennium earlier. The terrace, built of thousands of small rectangular mud bricks known as Riemchen, rose with sloping and recessed walls. The tops of the terrace and stair walls were strengthened and decorated with inset rows of clay beakers, their open mouths at the surface. Some fifty meters to the east of the Anu terrace was the E-ana Precinct, probably dedicated then, as later, to the Sumerian goddess Inana. This area had a variety of buildings with plans that are often complex tripartite arrangements. (In a tripartite building, a rectangular floor plan is divided in thirds lengthwise; the central third is usually left as a long narrow room while the flanking rooms are often subdivided. More-complex buildings were made by assembling tripartite subunits parallel to and/or at right angles to each other.) These buildings in the E-ana complex are usually described as temples, but they lack altars or other features often found in such buildings. One of the earliest structures is the stone-built Limestone Temple (70 x 30 meters). Close by, the walls of the Cone Mosaic Court were decorated with zigzag and lozenge patterns formed by the black, red, and white painted heads of thousands of

baked clay cones inserted into the plaster. Alongside was a raised area consisting of a double row of massive cylindrical columns, more than two meters in diameter, which—together with four half columns at either end—probably supported the roof of a hall. The columns too were decorated with painted clay cones. The Cone Mosaic Court was later filled in and replaced with even more massive buildings. In the Late Uruk period, southern-style Mesopotamian settlements were established on the upper Euphrates. The best-known sites are at Jebel Aruda and Habuba Kabira, the earliest example of a planned city with the kind of mud-brick wall that became common in the later part of the Early Dynastic Period.

Early Dynastic Period, circa 2900 – circa 2340 B.C.E. Some temples built in this period resemble private houses in plan, with shrines and other rooms grouped around an open courtyard. Others—such as those at Khafajeh, Lagash, and Tell al-Ubaid—are raised on platforms within large oval enclosing walls. Surviving shrines are narrow with an altar at one end. The entrance was normally through a door in the long wall, giving a “bent axis” approach to the altar. Temples such as the one to Inana at Nippur could have accommodated only a few people, presumably priests.

The First Palaces. The first evidence of palaces dates from the Early Dynastic Period. (Some of the earlier monumental buildings at sites such as Uruk may have had both ceremonial and administrative uses.) At Kish, the so-called “A” palace is one of the best examples of royal architecture. It is divided into several separate units that seem to include domestic, administrative, and storage areas. The building has an exceptional ceremonial suite with a pillared portico that is decorated with stone and shell inlay representing soldiers and naked prisoners. Parts of the building date to Early Dynastic II (circa 2750 - circa 2600 b.c.e.), though much of the surviving evidence is from the Early Dynastic III (circa 2600 - circa 2340 b.c.e.) period. Further north, in Syria, the Royal Palace at Ebla also consisted of a large complex of units. One of these, the so-called Administrative Quarter, stretched east of an open square with porches from which a monumental gateway, with a long staircase, led to the central area of the Royal Palace. The Administrative Quarter included several rooms, some of which served as an archive for cuneiform tablets. At Mari, on the middle Euphrates, parts of a third-millennium b.c.e. royal palace have been excavated. As at Ebla, the Mari complex consists of various units including a temple and a throne room with columns. In addition, six separate temples have been unearthed: the Shamash and Ishtarat temples, one on a raised platform; the so-called Massif Rouge; and buildings dedicated to the goddesses Ishtar, Ninni-ZA.ZA, and Ninhursanga. Each temple has a large covered hall, where offerings were made and which provided access to the cult room. The hall of the Ninni-ZA.ZA temple was equipped with a baetyl, an oblong stone standing upright in the center. In the Ninhursanga and Ishtar temples the cult room was compact, while in the Ninni-ZA.ZA temple, it was longer. At Tell Asmar in the Diyala region, a palace has an audience hall attached to the administrative block.

Akkadian Period, circa 2340 – circa 2200 b.c.e.. There is evidence that during this period, at the so-called Northern Palace at Tell Asmar, some industrial activity may have taken place within the complex, which was well supplied with drains. The succeeding phase of construction was apparently not a palace but a building devoted to manufacturing.

Ur III and Early Isin-Larsa Periods, circa 2100 – circa 1900 B.C.E. In the two centuries following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, there were changes in the architectural layouts of palaces and temples. In shrines the approach to the image of the god changed from “bent axis” to a direct path from a door opposite the altar. This new orientation may have resulted either from a change in religious thought or perhaps in the way people now approached kings, who, beginning in the reign of Shulgi (circa 2094 – circa 2047 b.c.e.), were deified. The most spectacular religious monuments of this period are the great ziggurats, or staged towers, of which the best surviving example is that of Ur-Namma at Ur. The exterior is decorated with buttresses and recesses to break the monotony of the flat surfaces and allow the play of light and shade. Ziggurats may have been thought of as ladders to heaven, or perhaps they symbolized the mountains in which the gods were believed to live (like Mount Olympus in later Greek mythology). Also at Ur was the subterranean vaulted tomb or “mausoleum” of the Ur III kings. It may originally have had a structure at ground level where offerings were made to the dead rulers. Some of the best evidence for private houses of the Ur III period and the succeeding Isin-Larsa period comes from Ur. They were built around courtyards with blank walls on the narrow streets. The wealthier houses, which may have had an upper story, sometimes had a private chapel and a paved bathroom with a lavatory. Late in the Ur III period the city ruler of Eshnunna, a city on the Diyala River, had a temple built to his overlord, the deified king of Ur, Shu-Sin (circa 2037 – circa 2029 b.c.e.). The temple was square in plan with exceptionally thick walls. With the collapse of the Ur III Empire (circa 2004 b.c.e.), a palace of the local rulers of Eshnunna was built abutting the Shu-Sin temple, which was incorporated into the palace.

Old Assyrian (circa 2000 – circa 1780 b.c.e.) and Old Babylonian (circa 1894 – circa 1595 b.c.e.) Periods. Impressive architecture at Ashur on the Tigris dates back to the time of Shamshi-Adad I (circa 1813 – circa 1781 b.c.e.). There were three ziggurats, one of which consisted of two temple towers dedicated to the gods Anu and Adad. Of the thirty-eight temples mentioned in inscriptions, only four have been excavated. The Ishtar Temple went through seven rebuildings. Like the palace further south at Eshnunna, on the Diyala, the so-called Old Palace next to the main ziggurat at Ashur has many chambers and storerooms ranged around courtyards. During the early first millennium b.c.e. the Old Palace was converted into a royal mausoleum. One of the best-known palace buildings of the second millennium b.c.e. is at Mari, on the middle Euphrates. It had nearly three hundred rooms at ground level covering an area of some six acres. The rooms are ranged around two open courtyards. There was probably a second story over most of the building. During this period monumental mud-brick buildings were often decorated with half columns. Tell el-Rimah in northern Mesopotamia had some of the most elaborate examples of columns, hundreds of which adorned the external and courtyard facades of a temple. To make these columns, carved bricks were laid in complicated sequences to represent spirals or two kinds of palm trunk. A sharing of style across Mesopotamia is suggested by palm-trunk columns at Ur, far to the south, which show an identical construction technique. Unlike ziggurats built in the south, which stood apart from other structures, the ziggurat at Tell el-Rimah was attached to a temple and was approached from the temple roof.

Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian Periods, circa 1500 – circa 1200 b.c.e.. From around 1500 B.C.E. Mesopotamia was divided between the Kassite-dominated south (Babylonia) and the northern power of Mitanni. At Uruk an elaborate Kassite baked-brick facade, with images of deities set in niches, decorated the Inana Temple. To the west of modern Baghdad was founded a grandiose new city, Dur-Kurigalzu, consisting of several palaces, temples with rectangular platforms faced with baked bricks, and a ziggurat. Nothing is known of Mitanni architecture—its capital city, Washukanni, remains undiscovered—with the exception of a “palace” at Tell Brak in the Khabur plains. This large building combined administrative, manufacturing, and residential functions. The best evidence about architecture of this period comes from the site of Ugarit on the coast of Syria, where a royal palace was constructed in several phases. It covers three acres, and the quality of its construction from cut stones, wood, and rubble is superb. A dozen stone staircases and several walls to the floor of the upper level have been preserved. As at Mari and elsewhere, the floor plan includes complexes of rooms devoted to administrative, public, official, and private uses.

Neo-Assyrian Period, 934–610 B.C.E. The imperial power of the Assyrian Empire period is represented by the palaces and temples built at Ashur, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Nineveh. These huge buildings were constructed almost entirely of mud brick and usually built on solid mud-brick foundation platforms. Floors open to the elements were paved with baked bricks or stone slabs. Temples and palaces were constructed around courtyards. Exterior doorways, which were often arched, led through gate chambers into a courtyard, and interior rooms opened either from courtyards or other rooms. Many such palaces have been excavated. The best understood are the so-called Northwest Palace at Nimrud (dating from the reign of Ashurnasirpal II, 883–859 b.c.e.), the palace at Khorsabad (dating from the reign of Sargon II, 721–705 b.c.e.), and the Southwest Palace at Nineveh (dating from the reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 b.c.e.). As part of their building programs the Assyrian kings also had extensive aqueducts constructed to bring water from the highlands to their cities.

Late Babylonian Period, 610–539 B.C.E. With the collapse of the Assyrian Empire in 610 b.c.e., major building projects shifted to the new capital of Babylon. The first evidence for a ziggurat at Babylon appears in the inscriptions of Sennacherib, though it may have been a more ancient structure. Greatly refurbished under Nebuchadnezzar II (604–562 b.c.e.), this ziggurat may have been the archetype for the Tower of Babel referred to in the Hebrew Bible. The royal palaces at Babylon are known as the Southern palace, the Northern palace, and the Summer palace. Their design was similar to that of Neo-Assyrian palaces. Decoration using glazed bricks, an ancient tradition in Babylonia, replaced the stone wall reliefs found in Assyria.

Achaemenid Period, 538–331 B.C.E. The early rulers of the Achaemenid Empire established administrative and ceremonial centers in the Persian homeland of southwest Iran. After his conquest of Lydia, circa 547 b.c.e., Cyrus II (ruled Persia 559–530 b.c.e. and Babylon 538–530 b.c.e.) founded his royal city at Pasargadae. Its buildings incorporate Western techniques and forms such as characteristic Lydian and Ionian stone-working methods and styles. However, Near Eastern forms of decoration—such as colossal Assyrian-style guardian bulls at the main doors—are also evident. This mixture of styles resulted from the use of craftsmen brought to Iran from throughout the empire and the incorporation of ideas from the conquered regions. This assimilation of different forms continued under Darius I (521–486 b.c.e., also known as Darius the Great) when he founded the city of Persepolis around 520 b.c.e., not far from the earlier capital at Pasargadae. Here the architecture draws on Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and East Greek traditions. The message presented by the architecture and decoration is of a harmonious world order in which the king defeats the forces of chaos. Persepolis was set on fire and destroyed by Alexander in 330 b.c.e.

Seleucid Period, 311–129 B.C.E. The survival and reworking of traditional Mesopotamian temple forms appears to have been a deliberate policy on the part of the Seleucid rulers to foster traditional religious forms in the old cities. At Babylon, archaeological and textual evidence suggest restoration work was carried out on the great ziggurat E-temenanki and on the E-sangil temple. At Uruk the largest ziggurat in Mesopotamia was erected and dedicated to the sky god Anu. Nearby the massive Resh temple was constructed for the god and his consort, Antu. A second great sanctuary, the Irigal, was built nearby, dedicated to the goddess Ishtar.

Sources

John Boardman, Persia and the West: An Archaeological Investigation of the Genesis of Achaemenid Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000).

Susan B. Downey, Mesopotamian Religious Architecture: Alexander through the Parthians (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).

Henri Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, fifth edition, with supplementary notes and bibliography by Michael Roaf and Donald Matthews (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

Ernst Heinrich, Die Pӓlaste im alten Mesopotamien, Deutsches Archӓolo-gisches Institut, Denkmӓler antiker Architektur, 15 (Berlin: De Press, 1982).

Heinrich, Die Temple und Heiligtümer im alten Mesopotamien, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Denkmäler antiker Architektur, 14 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982).

John Malcolm Russell, Sennacherib’s Palace without Rival at Nineveh (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

C. Leonard Woolley and others, Ur Excavations, Publications of the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia, 10 volumes (London & Pennsylvania: Published for the Trustees of the British Museum and the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, 1927–1976).

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Architecture

Architecture

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Architecture. A West African village, town, or city included a complex system of buildings, agriculturalpastoral spaces, storage and food-preparation centers, clusters of specialist industries, market centers, community common areas, and roadways intersecting according to definable patterns. In other words, architecture was more than structures. The functions and spatial relationships of buildings revealed much about the worldviews, lifestyles, and aesthetic values of the residents. Access to water and wood resources was an important factor in determining the location of a community. In several ethnic regions of West Africa, there are distinct networks of urban and rural settlements located for ease of access to water, wood, and resources for specialized crafts such as iron smelting as well as for the facilitation of trade in craftspeople’s goods and other products.

The Compound. The plans of most cities, towns, and villages were based on the common idea of a compound, a group of related spaces that housed core and extended families. The many sociocultural organizational patterns and belief systems of different ethnic groups influenced building styles and the internal and external arrangement of dwelling spaces. As Roderick J. McIntosh has written,

urban clusters reflect a different social contract. The settlements are occupied by ethnic or specialist corporate groups. As opposed to centralized power used to prevent class conflict and to maintain the privileges of the elite, the urban clusters present an opportunity for multiple agencies of authority, maintaining peace by a sense of belonging to the community within the larger horizontally-integrated urban system.

Settlements included architectural spaces for public rituals and performances, while family compounds had places for functions such as births and naming, betrothal, and marriage ceremonies, as well as wakes, funerals, second burials, parties, play, and other social gatherings. Within family living spaces, women’s rooms often included storage spaces for daily culinary, domestic, and personal needs. Small gardens and family cooking facilities were frequently on the periphery or in adjacent outer spaces. The design and location of granaries and silos for food storage also followed distinct culturally and regionally defined patterns. In some cases, areas adjacent to compounds were reserved for small marketing activities or workshops for craftspeople. In other cases, family farmlands were located within walking distance of the main family dwelling. Areas for livestock were often located outside compounds. Particularly in villages and towns, some food-preparation areas—for tasks such as brewing beer or drying meats, fish, skins, and peppers— also lay beyond the compound in well-defined areas. Archaeological evidence and oral traditions indicate that West African family compounds, villages, towns, and urban centers were generally circular, rectangular, diamond, or oval in shape. Most were surrounded by fences, trees, bush, or open areas. Individual houses were often rectangular or round. In many instances, the walls and verandas of certain dwellings were decorated with specific designs and colors.

[Image not available for copyright reasons]

Architectural Styles. West African architecture has always been influenced by climate and availability of materials, as well as by the worldview, lifestyle, and cosmological belief system of a given population. Susan Denyer has described three different styles of West African architecture—the Sudanese, Impluvial, and Hill styles—each of which was influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Although it is difficult to date their origins precisely, some archaeological evidence suggests that all three styles predate the Muslim influences of the tenth century and later and evolved before any contact with the eastern region of the Nile Valley or the European strangers along the Atlantic coastline.

Sudanese Style. Found predominately in areas between the Niger and Chad basins, the Sudanese style is characterized by four rectangular-shaped buildings around an open courtyard. Denyer cites archaeological evidence from northern Ghana to date the design of such structures before the arrival of Islam. The Sudanese style is more associated with urban environments than the Impluvial and Hill styles, in part because Sudanese buildings were constructed of various combinations of mud, brick, and stone—important building materials in dry areas where fire posed a constant threat. The courtyard is a common feature of the Sudanese style throughout the region, but building materials vary. Rectangular sun-dried mud bricks were common, but burned bricks (mud bricks hardened by heat from an open fire) were used throughout the Chad basin. The Hausa used pear-shaped mud bricks in their construction, while dwellings built of stone and mud mortar and then plastered with mud were common in Oualata. Roofs were usually flat and made of mud or dome-shaped vaulted designs made of mud or thatch. When mud roofs were used, they were supported by palm-frond joists and forms. In fourteenth-century Mali, roofs were shaped like camel backs, perhaps to mimic that dominant mode of transportation used by trans-Saharan travelers.

Impluvial Style. The Impluvial style developed in the forest zones. Iron Age houses excavated south of Lake Chad include many elements of this style. Like the Sudanese style, Impluvial-style construction is characterized by four rectangular buildings around a courtyard. The term impluvial refers to the use of the courtyard to collect water for the household, an important feature in an area where drinking and cooking water are scarce, particularly during the dry season. Draining rainwater from roofs into tanks or pots also helped to prevent erosion. Impluvial structures were built of mud and always had thatched roofs. Depending on location, the four buildings around a courtyard were either thatched separately and linked by a screen wall, or they were covered by one continuous roof that extended around the courtyard. A variation on this style includes abutting roof corners of the four buildings to form groins. Impluvial structures often included verandas, or the side of a room facing the courtyard was left open to allow for good ventilation while maintaining privacy. Potsherds were often used to make decorative pavements. Notable examples were created by the Ashanti, Yoruba, and Benin peoples. The Impluvial style was used in both rural and urban environments.

Hill Style. With some examples dating back to the ninth century, Hill-style architecture required intensive labor and technical skill. Remarkably similar Hill-style settlements may be found on highlands throughout Africa. West African Hill-style settlements were built by the Dogon of Mali, the Gwari on the Jos plateau of Nigeria, the Dagomba of Ghana, and residents of other mountainous areas. Though hill communities have sometimes been called inhospitable, they were often quite pleasant in terms of climate, aesthetics, and access to food and water. Stone appears to be the dominant material used in the construction of these dwellings, and it was especially common in the foundations, walls, terraces, and the walls of livestock enclosures. Houses were usually round with conical, thatched roofs. These communities typically housed dense populations.

Courtyard or Large-Compound Structures. Courtyard or large-compound structures are common throughout most of West Africa. The organization of compounds was based on social and philosophical beliefs as well as individual family needs. In polygamous and multigenerational households, the inner compound served, as it does today, as a center of socialization for children and as the location for family activities. Such compounds also exemplify the holistic view of West African lifestyles that incorporated family, food, child development, aesthetics, and art. Familial, cultural, and social organization influenced the outer living spaces of West Africans, suggesting their view of living as a creative act.

Communal Gatherings. Open space within the compound and external to it reflects the dominant belief in holding communal gatherings for festivals, celebrations, rites of passage, and other events. Where internal spaces are reserved for family and friends, the external spaces are the purview of the community at large and a constant reminder of the integral relationship among members of the village, town, or urban area. In some instances, special communal spaces may be reserved for rituals and royal ceremonies or for general public gatherings and local events. In some rural communities, ritual activities may be held within an adjacent designated forest space.

Palaces and Places of Worship. Palaces and palace compounds are distinguished from the homes of the general populace more by their size and location than by their style. While the style may be consistent with other buildings in an environment, features such as the size of the structure, the inclusion of additional functional structures, or the large size of the common area indicate the leadership role of the occupant. Cultural worldview and historical experience

[Image not available for copyright reasons]

[Image not available for copyright reasons]

influenced the location of palaces and palace compounds. The marketplace or center of trade was frequently close to the seat of power in many rural and urban communities. In other instances, the location of central indigenous shrines or mosques determined the location of a ruling court and its entourage.

Sources

Margaret Courtney-Clark, African Canvas: The Art of West African Women (New York: Rizzoli, 1990).

Susan Denyer, African Traditional Architecture: An Historical and Geographical Perspective (New York: Africana Publishing, 1978).

David Hughes, Afrocentric Architecture:A Design Primer (Columbus, Ohio: Greyden Press, 1994).

Elizabeth Isichei, A History of African Societies to 1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Roderick]. McIntosh, “Early Urban Clusters in China and Africa,” Journal of Field Archaeology, 18 (1991): 199-212.

Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh, Jenne-jeno, An Ancient African City <http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~ant/arch/niger/broch-eng.html>.

West Africa Architecture Album <http://www.dogon-lobi.ch/architecturealbum.htm>.

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Architecture

Architecture

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Architecture to 1900...229

Modern Architecture...235

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

Islamic architecture is in part comprised of those buildings and built environments intended for use in Islamic worship, commemoration, and instruction. Among the architecture of this group are mosques, madrasas or schools, mausoleums, and shrines. Islamic architecture may also be considered as the creation of patrons and builders who profess Islam or those that live in a region ruled by Muslims. These buildings can generally be described as secular, and include suqs (marketplaces), hammams (public baths), khans (inns), caravanseries or roadside inns, palaces, and houses.

Defining Islamic Architecture

Although Islamic architecture is infinitely varied in plan, elevation, building material, and decorative programs, there are several recurring forms found in all types of buildings, be they religious, secular, public, or private. These basic components are the dome, the arch, and the vault (Fig. 1 a–c). Before describing the different aspects of Islamic architecture it is important to pause and ask if such a categorization is viable.

This question stems from three considerations. First is the fact that the forms and decorative practices of these buildings are largely adaptations of pre-Islamic models. Thus it is not improper to ask if Islamic architecture should in fact be labeled Classical, Sassanian, or Hindu. If all that was being considered were forms emptied of meaning and function then the answer to this question would be a resounding yes. The second consideration derives from the fact that many of the architectural forms considered as Islamic architecture were built for secular purposes. How, then, can a religious category designate houses, inns, baths, or even cities? Are there essential qualities of these secular spaces that give them meaning as Islamic architecture? Finally, there is a question of fit. If Christians, Jews, and Hindus living within an Islamic region build similar forms then would not the designation be too narrow? And, conversely is the designation too broad? For how can a Malaysian congregational mosque built in the twenty-first century be placed under the same analytic category as an Umayyad congregational mosque of the eighth century, when they are not built of the same materials and do not display common decorative practices or forms?

While such considerations are beyond the scope of this article, it is important to realize that contemporary historians of Islamic architectural history weigh these questions critically. Some have responded by introducing more specified categories of Islamic architecture, such as those based on regional, dynastic, and chronological designations. Others have introduced new analytic models, for example, by studying the development of certain architectural forms, such as the minaret, or a practice, such as the use of public inscriptions. Taken together, recent scholarship of Islamic architecture presents a more historically contingent and culturally varied approach to the study of Islamic architecture. Many of the problems associated with the category of Islamic architecture arise from what is taken as the meaning of architecture. If Islamic architecture is simply a material entity, composed of classical forms, then the notion of Islamic architecture as being distinct from Byzantine or Sassanian becomes questionable. However, if by architecture we mean a dynamic space that produces relationships between people and helps individuals understand and articulate their identity through their engagement (or disengagement) with that space then the meaningfulness of Islamic architecture can be seen as a distinct construction.

The Mosque

The mosque is the preeminent dynamic space that stands at the center of Islamic society and culture. It is both a spiritual site of worship and a social site of education, debate, and discussion of religion, politics, and current events. Arab caliphs and their governors were the first builders of architectural mosques. Emerging from a Bedouin culture that did not necessitate permanent architecture, these early Islamic rulers adopted and adapted the building traditions of the cultures they conquered to guide the formation and style of the new mosques. Two notable sources that contributed to the early mosques's forms and styles were the Byzantine and Sassanian Empires. In the conquered regions previously dominated by these cultures Arabs established garrison cities and ordered the founded mosques to provide the Islamic community with a space to meet and pray. The mosques that appeared in the first centuries of Islamic history were either renovated structures, for example, Christian churches converted into mosques, or they were new buildings constructed from recycled parts of abandoned buildings, particularly columns of Roman ruins. Some Islamic rulers, such as the Umayyad builders of the Dome of the Rock (completed in 692 c.e.) and the Great Mosque of Damascus (706–714 c.e.), employed Byzantine artisans practiced in mosaic design to decorate their structures with dazzling images of vegetation, jewelry, and Qur˒anic inscriptions. Over time, the practice of employing local building techniques, decorative practices, and architectural forms resulted in mosques of different regions and periods of the Islamic world appearing visually dissimilar. They are, however, all connected by their principal function: to provide a central space for the Islamic community to unite, pray, and exchange information.

The prophet Muhammad's house was the first constructed mosque (Fig. 2). Established soon after his community moved to Medina in 622 c.e., it was a simple, unremarkable enclosure. The principal consideration of Muhammad's mosque was to provide a large, open, and expandable courtyard so the ever-growing community could meet in one place. The walls of the courtyard were made of mud-brick and had three openings. The walls surrounded an open space of about 61 square yards (56 meters). On the east side of the courtyard were the modest living quarters of Muhammad and his family. Palm tree trunks were used for the columns and palm leaves for the roof of a covered area called the zulla, which was built to protect worshipers from the midday sun. The zulla marked the direction Muslim prayer was originally oriented—north, toward the holy and venerated city of the Jews, Jerusalem. Later, Muhammad, while in prayer, received divine enlightenment that caused him to change the direction of prayer south to the Ka˓ba in Mecca. The zulla was therefore moved to concur with the new qibla (direction of prayer). Besides the qibla, another architectural form introduced at the first mosque was the minbar (stepped platform or pulpit) from which Muhammad addressed the growing Islamic community.

The Prophet's mosque, with its austere plan, large square enclosure, orientation toward the qibla, and minbar, provides the basic elements of subsequent mosque architecture. The first mosque type to emerge was the hypostyle plan (Fig. 3). Its basic unit, the bay (a covered area defined by four columns), could be expanded upon so the mosque could grow with the community. The hypostyle mosque typically has an inner courtyard, called the sahn, surrounded by colonnades or arcades (riwaqs) on three sides. Within the courtyard there is usually an ablutions fountain, where the wudu˒ (minor ablution) is performed before the salat (prayer). There are three entrances into the sahn. The principal entrance can be a monumental portal as built in Cairo in the Fatimid Mosque of al-Hakim (1002 c.e.). Passing through the sahn, the worshiper walked into a covered sanctuary area or haram. The haram of the Great Mosque of Cordoba (786, 962–966 c.e.) is one of the most visually breathtaking. The arches of the double-arch arcades are composed of alternating red brick courses and pale stone voussoirs that when viewed from within the sanctuary produce a visually captivating labyrinthine configuration over one's head. Once inside the sanctuary of a mosque the focus is the qibla, a directional wall that indicated which way to pray. In the center of the wall was often a semicircular niche with an arched top, known as the mihrab. In large mosques a minbar located to the right of the mihrab was also included. It was from atop the minbar that on Fridays the khutba (sermon) was delivered by the imam or prayer-leader. The minbar is based on the stepped platform that was used by Muhammad. It ranges from a simple three-step elevation to a highly decorated monumental stairway of many steps. The very top of the minbar is never occupied as it is symbolically reserved as the space of Muhammad, the original imam.

In large mosques another platform called the dikka is provided at the rear of the sanctuary, or in the courtyard, and along the same axis as the mihrab. A qadi repeats the sermon and prayer from the dikka for those standing too far from the minbar. Located outside of some mosques is a minaret that, along with the dome, has become the architectural symbol of Islam due to its ubiquitous presence and high visibility. Constructed as a tower, it either stands outside the mosque precinct or it is attached to the outer walls or portals of the mosque. The minaret varies in shape, ornamentation, and number depending on the region and building conventions of the patron. Besides visually broadcasting the presence of the mosque and Islam within a city or landscape the minaret also serves as an effective place for the mu˒adhdhin or "caller" (also muezzin) to perform the adhan (call to prayer) and be heard for a great distance. The maqsurah is a later addition made to the hypostyle-plan mosque. It is a differentiated, protective space, adjacent to the qibla wall. The maqsurah is found in mosques where the imam or ruler wanted either to be protected or ceremonially separated from the congregation. It was originally built as a raised platform separated with a wooden screen that allowed total to partial concealment of its occupants.

Types of Mosques. There are two general types of mosques. The first is the congregational mosque, known as the jami˓ masjid. The jami˓ (from the Arabic word for "to gather") is built on a large scale to accommodate the entire Islamic community of a town or city. The second type is known simply as masjid (from the Arabic word meaning "to prostrate oneself"). Masjids are small community mosques used daily by members of a quarter, or an ethnic group within a city. Masjids were also constructed as subsidiary structures next to mausoleums, palaces, caravanseries, and madrasas. Early masjids and jami˓ masjids, while different in size, shared the same architectural forms and style. However, as Islamic rulers grew in wealth and power starting in the late seventh century, they built monumental jami˓ masjids in their cities to reflect the preeminence of Islam and the permanence of their dynasty. Adapting the basic building elements of vaults, arches, and domes, these rulers built mosques that from the exterior appeared to span large areas and soar to great heights. To create a stunning visual experience in the interior the jami˓ masjids were ornamented with complex geometric and arabesque or vegetal decoration in mosaic and stucco. Quartered marble decorated the lower walls, or dados, and Qur˒anic and historical inscriptions in stucco and mosaic Arabic script engaged the intellect.

Regional Variation of Mosques. Although there is no one style to unify the mosques of the Islamic world, they can be divided into broad regional variants. The mosque style of central Arabia was an early development influenced by church-building of the Syrian Byzantine Empire and palace-building of the Sassanian Persian Empire. In the east, the ground plans of the Great Mosques of Kufa (638 c.e.) and Basra (635 c.e.) were square like those of Zoroastrian temples. When the Great Mosque of Kufa was rebuilt in 670, its haram was based on the apadanas or throne rooms of Achaemenian kings: five rows of tall stone columns supporting a teak ceiling. Similarly, the Great Mosque of Damascus, built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walid between 706–714, was based on indigenous building conventions. Architects used the preexisting enclosure of the temenos and church, but since the mosque had to be oriented to the south, the qibla wall was on the longer side of the rectangular space. Also, due to the constraints of the preexisting quadrangle, the courtyard was transversal in orientation rather than longitudinal. The haram contained a short, wide central nave with a gabled roof and a wooden dome in its center. Three aisles of double-tiered arches, parallel to the qibla wall, supported a gabled ceiling. Al-Walid, wanting to outdo the neighboring churches and temples, employed Syrian-Christian artisans to richly decorate the interior of the mosque with imported gold and colored mosaics and marble, and even used rock crystal for the mihrab.

The early Abbasid caliphate, ruling from Baghdad from 749 to 847, first built their mosques with square floor plans as the early Umayyads had done in the region. However, after the Abbasids moved their capital to Samarra, their mosques reflected the rectangular hypostyle form favored by the later Umayyads. The Great Mosque of Samarra, built by al-Mutawakkil from 848 to 852, was the largest hypostyle mosque of its time with nine rows of columns in the sanctuary that supported a thirty-five-foot-high ceiling. The mosque is most famous for Malwiyya, the colossal spiral minaret. Once faced with gold tiles, Malwiyya's great size and unusual shape made the Great Mosque of Samarra a highly visible presence in the surrounding landscape.

Sub-Saharan West African mosques are unique in their use of organic materials that are constantly replenished over time, such as tamped earth, timber, and vegetation. Due to seasonal deterioration during the wet and dry seasons, the mosques are constantly being repaired and resurfaced. The predominant quality of these structures is their rounded organic form, reinforced with projecting timber beams or torons, which also serve as supports for scaffolding when the mosque is being resurfaced. The Great Mosque of Djenné (thirteenth century) is the most representative of the West African mosques. Its tall rounded towers and engaged columns, which act as buttresses, easily flow into each other and give the structure its characteristic verticality and overwhelming majesty.

The central-planned, domed mosque of the Ottomans is yet another distinctive type. When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in the fifteenth century they converted the Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia into a mosque by framing it with two pointed minarets. Later in the nineteenth century they added roundels inscribed with calligraphic writing of the names of Muhammad, Allah, and the early caliphs. Using the Hagia Sophia as their prototype, Ottoman rulers built mosques in the principal cities of their empire. The mosques were defined by large spherical domes, with smaller half-domes at the corners of the square, and four distinctively shaped minarets—tall, fluted, and needle-nosed—that were typically placed at the exterior corners of the mosque complex. The Selimiye Cami (Mosque of Selim) in Edirne, Turkey (1507–1574), best characterizes the central-plan Ottoman mosque.

Moving further east to Seljuk Iran, another type of mosque emerges known as the four-iwan mosque. The iwan is an open vaulted space with a rectangular portal or pishtaq. In a Seljuk mosque four of these iwans would be oriented around a central courtyard. The Great Mosque of Isfahan, built in this style in the twelfth century, is a monumental four-iwan mosque. Of these, the principal or qibla iwan is the largest, with a large domed maqsura and muqarnas vaulting. To lend it further visual impact, two minarets were added at the corners of the portal. The iwan that stood opposite the qibla iwan followed in size, and it was both smaller and shallower. The lateral iwans were the smallest. While the exterior of the mosque was unadorned, the inward-facing iwans were decorated with architectural ceramic tiles of turquoise, cobalt blue, white, deep yellow, and green. The decorative designs contained geometric and arabesque patterns as well as Kufic inscriptions. The layout of the Great Mosque of Isfahan influenced countless other mosques in Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia.

From their start, the mosques of South Asia were syncretic structures. They were the by-products of hired Hindu masons, indigenous architectural material taken from destroyed or decaying Hindu buildings, and necessary elements of mosque architecture such as the mihrab. The mosques were trabeated at first and decorated with popular Hindu motifs such as vegetal scrolls and lotuses. The plans of South Asian mosques ranged from traditional hypostyle, to Persian four-iwan types, and to single-aisle domed plans. The earliest mosques of the Delhi sultanate (1192–1451) were hypostyle and built out of reused materials from Hindu and Jain temples such as the Quwwat al-Islam in Delhi of the late twelfth century. The greatest achievement of this mosque is the monumental minaret, the Qutb Minar. Standing at 238 feet it was a victory tower that announced the power of the new religion to the surrounding landscape.

The next significant mosque type of South Asia is the single-aisle plan with five bays that used stucco and colored stones as surface decoration and squinch and muqarnas vaulting. These mosques had monumental central portals and domes. The Bara Gumbad mosque in Delhi, built by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1494, and the Qal˒a-e-Kuhna mosque of Sher Shah (1540–1545) exemplify this style. It was this basic form of mosque architecture that was later adopted by the great Mogul dynasty (1426–1848). Two exemplary Mogul-style mosques are Akbar's Great Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri (1571–1572) and Shah Jahan's Great Mosque at Delhi (1650–1656). These mosques have large courtyards and are built from the local red sandstone combined with white marble to create decorative geometric and vegetal patterns. The distinctive feature of Akbar's mosque at Fatehpur Sikri is the monumental portal on the south side called the Buland Darwaza. Its form is that of a colossal pishtaq (tall central portal), derived from Timurid origins. It is embellished with native Indian architectural elements as well such as small open pavilions called chatris and lotus-shaped medallions. Located on the west side of the great courtyard is the sanctuary, a three-domed prayer-hall with a central pishtaq. The Great Mosque of Delhi was based on the four-iwan plan. Three onion-shaped bulbous marble domes surmount the qibla iwan, the same shape used for the dome of the Taj Mahal. The minarets are divided into four parts and are capped with small pavilions. Smaller, private mosques built for the Mughal palaces of Lahore, Agra, and in Delhi reflect the fine marble carving skills of the Indian artisans. Faced with white marble, elegantly carved with vegetal patterns, these mosques were then topped with graceful onion-shaped domes with lotus molding and metallic finials. These private imperial mosques were the architectural counterparts of the elegant gems so highly prized by the Mughals.

Shrines and Mausoleums

Shrines and mausoleums that commemorate important places and people of the Islamic world comprise another important component of sacred Islamic architecture. The first great shrine was al-Haram al-Sharif or Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Built between 687 and 691 by the Umayyad caliph ˓Abd al-Malik, it covers a renowned irregular rock formation. Muslims believe that is was from this rock that Muhammad began his night journey, or isra˒, to heaven. Located on the Temple Mount of Mount Moriah its golden dome is seen for miles reflecting in the landscape. The sanctuary of the Dome of the Rock is in the shape of an octagon and is surmounted by a tall drum and dome. The rock is surrounded by a screen and then a circular arcade of alternating columns and piers. Next is an octagonal arcade that is surrounded by the outer walls that together create a double ambulatory. A frieze of Kufic inscriptions in gold tile on blue background is found on the inside and outside of the octagonal arcade. It is the first occurrence of Qur˒anic inscription in Islamic architecture. Adding to the sumptuous quality of the interior are other mosaics of turquoise, blue, and green tiles that could be depictions of the lush foliage of Paradise, and royal insignia of those vanquished by Muslim conquest.

The mausoleums of imams, rulers, the wealthy, and saints comprise the other part of Islamic commemorative architecture. Although the prophet Muhammad dictated that burials should be simple and without grave markers mausoleums are found throughout the Islamic world. Following the forms of the Dome of the Rock and the Byzantine martyrium, which the former was also inspired by, the Muslims founded their own funerary architecture. The basic form of the mausoleum was a square enclosure, derived from the shape of a house where the dead were traditionally buried, surmounted by a dome. In cities such as Mamluk Cairo (1250–1517), the domed square plan compelled builders to plan vertically instead of laterally due to spatial and structural constraints of preexisting streets. To deflect the admonitions of the Muslim orthodox that perceived tomb building as irreligious, Arab builders in North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Levant made the mausoleum part of larger religious complexes. The mausoleum is thus often one part of a complex composed of a mosque, madrasa, or religious school, and sometimes a hospital or khanqa (residence of a Sufi leader). Although the buildings had unique functions, they shared the same architectural elements. The architects unified the complex with geometric and arabesque designs to decorate the buildings, marble revetment, muqarnas or stalactite vaults (also called honeycomb vault), and ceramic tiles, among countless other regional variants and conventions.

While the mausoleum met with periodic waves of disapproval in the Arabian world it was a fully acceptable form in the Persianate world of Iran, Anatolia, Iraq, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and South Asia. The two basic forms of Persianate mausoleum are the yurt-inspired tomb tower such as the northern Iranian Gunbad-e Qabus (1007) and the domed square and later octagonal tombs, like the Tomb of the Samanids in Bukhara (tenth century), the Ilkhanid Sultaniya mausoleum of Iljeytu (early fourteenth century), and the famous Taj Mahal (1631–1643) of Shah Jahan in India. In eleventh-century Egypt another type of mausoleum emerged called the canopy mausoleum, because it was open to the elements. An example of this type is the Fatimid funerary complex of Sab˒a Banat in Fustat. A later Fatimid development of the mausoleum form is the mashhad, a large square domed tomb connected to a three-room unit entered through a portal and organized around a courtyard that served pilgrims. The mashhad of Sayyida Ruqayya, an ˓Alid saint, built in 1133, is an example of this type of mausoleum. The final type of mausoleum to be considered here makes skillful use of one of the most famous architectural forms: the muqarnas. A stalactite squinch usually found in the transitional zones between wall and dome, the muquarnas was used in all types of Islamic architecture. During the Ayyubid (1099–1250) and Mamluk (1250–1517) periods, the mausoleum was brought out of the cemetery and into the urban fabric. With their increased visibility these tombs became centers for transmitting political information and education of the Sunni religious schools of law. They were also gathering centers for the followers of Sufism. Building the mausoleum in the city of Cairo compelled a few changes in design. As there was little room to build laterally, the focus of the architecture was on the drum and dome of the building, built ever higher and with more richly textured transitional zones and domes.

Secular Architecture

One of the secular types of Islamic architecture is the palace, which matches the mosque in reflecting the rich variety of forms, ornamentation, and the sophisticated skills of artisans. Built as large complexes rather than singular units, Islamic palaces were generally self-sustaining, and most contained bastion walls, towers, gates, baths, stables, private quarters, public meeting spaces, workshops, offices, hospitals, harams or zenanas (reserved for the women of the palace), libraries, pavilions, fountains, and gardens. These palaces were built as the architectural embodiment of the ruler, the spatial metaphor of his dominion, and, if built in idyllic settings with surrounding gardens, were considered earthly paradises. The first palaces were built by the Umayyads and were modeled after Roman villas. Serving as hunting lodges or rural residences these include the Qasr al-Hayr, Khirbat al-Mafjar, and Khirbat al-Minya of the eighth century. Other wellknown palaces are the Fatimid Palace of al-Qahira (1087–1092), Umayyad Madinat al-Zahira of Cordoba (936–976), the Nasrid Alhambra in Granada, Spain (early fourteenth century), the Ottoman Topkapi complex, and Mogul Fatehpur Sikri and Red Fort, built in Delhi during the sixteenth century.

Islamic secular architecture is also public in nature. Among these buildings are the caravanseries and hammams. The caravanserai was a stopping place for travelers to rest and water and feed their animals. A typical caravanserai had a large open courtyard with a single large portal. Inside, along the walls, were covered arcades that contained identical stalls to accommodate a traveler, and his servants. Animals were usually kept in the courtyard or stables located in the corners. Caravansaries were usually fortified with bastions and turreted walls. As with mosques and palaces, caravansaries vary in ornamentation and form from region to region. Inside the city the khan housed the travelers and merchants. These structures were multistoried and overlooked a central courtyard. The animals and goods were kept on the ground floor and apartments were located above.

The public bath or hammam was another architectural form found in many Islamic cities. Along with the khan it was located in the suq or marketplace. Adopted from the Romans, the hammam was used for washing and purification before Friday prayer. It was composed of large rooms for steam baths as well as others for soaking in hot and cold water, all of which communicated through waiting halls. Utilizing marble covered floors and walls, arches, large ornamented domes that helped circulate hot air, muqarnas vaults, and stucco decoration, some public baths were highly luxurious environments. Men and women bathed separately either in their own hammam, if there were two in a town, or on different days or at designated times.

Residential Architecture

The final type of Islamic architecture to be considered is the domestic. The typical house built in Islamic societies is oriented inward. A bent entrance that turns at a sharp angle marks the transition from the outside world to the home. The entrances of homes do not usually align with those across the street, so the privacy of the interior is maintained. On the inside the rooms are arranged around a central courtyard and range from the private spaces of the family to semiprivate spaces where male guests, who were not members of the family, could enter. The open courtyard ventilates the house. A central basin or fountain, part of most courtyards, also provides a cooling effect and the soothing sound of falling water. In more prosperous households delicately carved wooden screens called mashraabiyyat were used to create private space, filter air from the outside, and allow light to enter the home. The exterior of an Islamic house is often left unadorned. Only upon entering the home will the visitor know the class status of the owner.

See alsoAdhan ; Art ; Dome of the Rock ; Holy Cities ; Jami˓ ; Manar, Manara ; Mashhad ; Masjid ; Mihrab ; Minbar (Mimbar) ; Religious Institutions .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abu-Lughod, Janet. "The Islamic City: Historical Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance." International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 19 (1987): 155–176.

Blair, Sheila S., and Bloom, Jonathan M. "The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field." Art Bulletin 85 (2003): 152–184.

Bloom, Jonathan. Minaret: Symbol of Islam. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Creswell, K. A. C. A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture. 2d ed. Aldershot, U.K.: Scholar Press, 1989.

Frishman, Martin, and Hasan-Uddin, Khan, eds. The Mosque:History, Architectural Development & Regional Diversity. London: Thames and Hudson, 1994.

Grabar, Oleg. The Formation of Islamic Art. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987.

Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function andMeaning. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Hoag, John D. Islamic Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1977.

Michell, George, ed. Architecture of the Islamic World: ItsHistory and Social Meaning (1978). New York: Thames and Hudson, 1984.

Santhi Kavuri-Bauer

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

The economic crisis in the 1930s upstaged but did not alleviate the upheaval within the architectural profession. A new austere, ahistoric architectural language, imported from Europe, won fiery adherents who proclaimed that tradition had no place in the production of contemporary architecture. The term modernism is used to denote this new style. Despite the zeal of the converts, others, with equal passion, rejected the new vocabulary. The debate over modernism polarized the architectural community as a new generation of architects not only rebelled against historic styles but also challenged the privileged place held by prominent and established practitioners. Patronage patterns also shifted as the federal government, responding to the economic distress, commissioned an unprecedented body of work. While the production of architecture for the private sector did not entirely cease, the federal government gave new prominence to specific building types and activities. Federal and civic buildings, as well as regional planning and its attendant architecture, constituted important arenas for New Deal design. The 1930s reshaped American architecture and the national landscape. By the end of World War II, modernism had triumphed, a new elite occupied the pinnacle of the architectural profession, and the federal government had blanketed the country with emblems of the federal presence.

STYLES AND THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION

Formally, the most striking characteristic of the architecture of the period was the diversity of expressions competing for the label modern. Three styles dominated. Classicism remained a viable architectural language throughout the decade. John Russell Pope's National Gallery of Art (1935–1941), on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., reaffirmed the time-honored notion that American public architecture should be classical. Pope's classicism, however, was restrained and sober rather than lavish and opulent. He simplified and reduced the classical apparatus. Orders were suggested by slightly projecting planes, and the whole was bound together by sleek horizontals and delicately scaled moldings. Despite the austerity of Pope's classicism, proponents of modernism labeled his continued commitment to the past as reactionary. The style most often associated with the period was an even more restrained, spartan interpretation described as modernized classicism. Paul Cret's Folger Shakespeare Library (1928–1932), also in the national capital, was a seminal work. The library was a simple rectangular mass of taut, thin planes. The orders, reduced to a series of fluted piers, were detailed in a stripped, simplified manner. Twin entry pavilions flank the screen of piers, which distill to a minimal essence the image of a classical colonnade. Cret's modernized classicism served as the model for many federal buildings in the New Deal period.

In the commercial realm, the comparatively reserved streamlined moderne tempered and replaced the flamboyant Art Deco of the 1920s. Exuberant flourishes, such as the telescoping spire of semicircular aluminum panels articulated with radiating lines and punched triangular openings of William Van Alen's Chrysler Building (1926–1930) in New York City, seemed out of place in the bleak economic climate. Streamlined moderne originated in the work of industrial designers such as Norman Bel Geddes and Walter Dorwin Teague. For designers of the period, the characteristic flat planar wall surfaces, rounded corners, banded windows, thin decorative horizontal stripes, and flat roofs gave built form to the idea of speed. Streamlined moderne appeared on buildings ranging from vernacular roadside diners to Frank Lloyd Wright's high-style Johnson Wax Building (1936–1939) in Racine, Wisconsin. Like Art Deco, streamlined moderne represented an attempt to create a language appropriate for the machine age.

Unlike the promoters of revival architecture or Art Deco, proponents of modernism insisted that all connections to the past be broken. As a style, modernism burst onto the architectural scene in the United States through Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson's exhibition on "Modern Architecture" at New York's Museum of Modern Art in 1932. Photographs, models, and drawings of recent buildings, primarily by European architects, supported Hitchcock and Johnson's claim that a new language, which they named the International Style, had emerged. The new vocabulary, characterized by exposed structural framing, non-load-bearing walls, and absence of applied ornament, constituted a self-conscious rejection of tradition. In addition to the architecture of the Europeans, the two curators identified George Howe and William Lescaze's Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building (1929–1932) in Philadelphia as a seminal work. The first American skyscraper inspired by European modernism pointedly turned its back on the aesthetics that had guided the design of the relatively new building type. The architects gave the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building's functional components distinct expressions on the exterior. The base, containing shops and the banking hall, the shaft for the offices, and the service tower were each distinguished by different materials and window treatments. The building was defiantly asymmetrical. The presence of the structural frame was clearly expressed on the exterior. There was no traditional ornament or detailing at door and window openings. The building and others included in the exhibition redirected American architecture in the subsequent decades. The influence of modernism was broad as well as deep.

Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater (1936–1937) at Bear Run, Pennsylvania, was an idiosyncratic blend of romantic rusticity and influences from the International Style. Eliel and Eero Saarinen and Robert F. Swanson's 1939 competition-winning but ultimately unrealized design for the Smithsonian Gallery would have defiantly placed a fully modern building directly opposite Pope's National Gallery on the Mall in the federal capital. Supplanting the stylistic diversity of the 1930s, modernism triumphed as the appropriate language for high-style buildings following World War II.

Within the architectural profession, the ascendance of modernism represented more than the triumph of a novel architectural language. Aesthetic allegiances polarized the profession along generational lines. The economic distress of the 1930s exacerbated the breach, as architects, like much of the country's workforce, faced the bleak lack of employment opportunities. Older, established architects, who were also most likely to receive commissions for prominent buildings, clung to traditional modes of expression. Aspiring architects, eager to make a mark in the field, championed modernism as they also challenged the privileged place that their established colleagues held. At the convention of the American Institute of Architects held in Washington, D.C., in 1939, the Smithsonian Gallery design served as the rallying point for the younger architects eager to overturn professional as well as aesthetic hierarchies. At stake was the design of buildings not only in the private sector but also for the architecturally activist federal government.

PATRONAGE AND BUILDING TYPES

To stimulate the depressed economy, the federal government emerged as the primary architectural patron of the period. Government agencies commissioned and produced a staggering body of work during the Depression decade. The most well-known fruit of government patronage was the federal building program that placed thousands of post offices and courthouses in cities and towns across the country. The Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department oversaw the vast building program. The style most often associated with the Supervising Architect in the 1930s was modernized classicism. Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon's post office (1931–1932) for Chattanooga, Tennessee, was one of many reinterpretations of Cret's facade composition for the Folger. However, the Office of the Supervising Architect produced federal buildings in a range of revival styles. Reginald Johnson's post office (1936–1937) for Santa Barbara, California, was a moderne Spanish colonial revival. Donald G. Anderson's Petersburg, Virginia, post office (1934–1936) was a federal reinterpretation of a fanciful, contemporary reconstruction. The facade drew heavily from the rebuilding of the colonial capitol (1928–1934) at nearby Williamsburg, Virginia. Federal architects and their collaborators made revival architecture the language of New Deal federal buildings.

Where Hitchcock and Johnson's International Style was a purely aesthetic language divorced from ideology and social purpose, a utopian tradition that extended from the English garden city movement to twentieth-century Radburn, New Jersey, inspired the New Deal's suburban town program. The project brought together a talented group of landscape architects, planners, and architects, including Henry Wright, Clarence Stein, and Catherine Bauer. The goal was to use architecture as a tool of both economic and social reform. While the work did provide models for city design, ultimately, the numbers diminished the influence of the idealistic experiment. Of the several satellite cities planned, only Greenbelt, Maryland; Greendale, Wisconsin; and Greenhills, Ohio, were built.

The boldest act of New Deal planning was the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Treating the entire 900-mile river valley that cuts through seven states as a single unit, the government corporation planned and erected a string of dams to control flooding, create inexpensive electricity, repair adjacent damaged forest and agricultural lands, and stimulate industry. The goals of the ambitious and visionary project were to bring the backward and blighted region into the twentieth century and to demonstrate the power and benefits of coordinated regional planning. At Norris Dam, Roland Wank, the authority's first chief architect, played off architecture treated as severe rectangular masses against the dynamism of water in the massive spillway beyond. Wank's grave, simple buildings of textured concrete ornamented only with crisply cut rectangular openings containing bands of windows or integral sans-serif lettering created an architectural image that vividly expressed strength, efficiency, and faith in the power of technology to produce change.

The period of the Great Depression witnessed the transformation of the architectural profession. On the other side of the decade, modernism emerged as the style of choice for high-style American buildings. A new group of talented designers, promoters of modernism, replaced the masters of academic architecture as the new leaders of the profession. The Depression-driven Roosevelt administration had commissioned an extensive body of architecture that also attested to the expanded presence of the federal government in the daily lives of its citizens.

See Also: ART; PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION (PWA); TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (TVA).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bedford, Steven McLeod. John Russell Pope: Architect of Empire. 1998.

Butler, Sara Amelia. "Constructing New Deal America: Public Art and Architecture and Institutional Legitimacy." Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 2001.

Craig, Lois, and the staff of the Federal Architecture Project. The Federal Presence: Architecture, Politics, and National Design. 1984.

Cutler, Phoebe. The Public Landscape of the New Deal. 1985.

Grossman, Elizabeth Greenwell. The Civic Architecture of Paul Cret. 1996.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, and Philip Johnson. The International Style: Architecture since 1922. 1932.

Lee, Antoinette J. Architects to the Nation: The Rise and Decline of the Supervising Architect's Office. 2000.

Reitzes, Lisa Beth. "Moderately Modern: Interpreting the Architecture of the Public Works Administration." Ph.D. diss., University of Delaware, 1989.

Short, C. W., and R. Stanley-Brown. Public Buildings: A Survey of Architecture of Projects Constructed by Federal and Other Governmental Bodies between the Years 1933 and 1939 with the Assistance of the Public Works Administration. 1939. Reprint, Public Buildings: Architecture under the Public Works Administration 1933–39, Vol. 1. 1986.

Weber, Eva. Art Deco in America. 1985.

Wilson, Richard Guy, Dianne H. Pilgrim, and Dickran Tashjian. The Machine Age in America, 1918–1941. 1986.

Wilson, Richard Guy. "Modernized Classicism and Washington, D.C." In American Public Architecture: European Roots and Native Expressions, edited by Craig Zabel and Susan Scott Munshower. 1989.

Sara A. Butler

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Architecture

Architecture

Like other art forms in the Renaissance, architecture drew increasingly on the traditions of ancient Greece and Rome. The revival of classical* forms was strongest in Italy, where the Renaissance began. Several Italian architects produced important treatises* on the principles of architectural design that provided models for others to follow. Northern Europe, by contrast, never completely abandoned the Gothic* styles of the Middle Ages. These survived in modified forms well into the 1600s.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENAISSANCE STYLE

The Renaissance style of architecture first emerged in Florence in the early 1400s. It marked a rejection of medieval* styles and a celebration of ancient forms. One pioneer of the new style was Filippo Brunelleschi, who designed the magnificent dome of Florence's cathedral, Santa Maria del Fiore.

Renaissance architecture took many different forms throughout Europe. Other parts of Italy combined the Renaissance styles that developed in and around Florence with their own local traditions, creating a variety of distinct architectural styles. Italian Renaissance architecture also spread to other areas of Europe, but slowly and unevenly. It took 100 years or more for classical styles to take hold in France, Spain, Portugal, and Northern Europe. In these areas, the Italian styles blended with local traditions and Gothic forms to produce new and original designs. Architects adapted Renaissance styles based on their areas' landscape, climate, building materials, and customs.

Although Renaissance architects copied ancient forms, they had little opportunity to observe the designs firsthand. Few examples of ancient Roman architecture remained intact. Many structures had been destroyed or badly damaged, while others had been rebuilt and modified in later periods. Architects outside Italy had even less access to ancient buildings. Only a privileged few could actually visit the Roman ruins in Italy. Most had to depend on drawings, sketches, and books handed down from master to student.

In 1416 Italians rediscovered On Architecture, a treatise written by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius around 27 b.c. This work offered a great deal of insight into the theory and practice of architecture in ancient Rome. However, Vitruvius had lived before the time of the Roman Empire, when many of the surviving ruins were built. Therefore, the structures that could be studied in Italy were quite different from those described by Vitruvius. Renaissance architects had to rely on imagination to fill in the gaps in their knowledge.


BUILDING STYLES

Although Renaissance buildings varied a great deal from region to region, they shared various common features. This was particularly true of churches because the form of the religious service imposed certain requirements on the shape of the building. Palaces and villas*, by contrast, took on distinct forms that reflected the social and cultural traditions of an area.


Church Layouts. A typical European church of the Middle Ages featured a long, narrow central hall, or nave. During the Renaissance architects began to explore the idea of creating churches with a central plan, laid out symmetrically* around a central point. Such a church might take the form of a circle or a Greek cross, with vertical and horizontal arms of equal length. However, such designs did not provide a clear separation between the priest and the congregation. They also did not hold enough people.

The tension between these two types of forms is visible in the layout of the church of St. Peter's in Rome. The Italian architect Donato Bramante originally designed the church in the form of a Greek cross topped by a huge dome. However, later architects who worked on the church, including Raphael and Michelangelo, altered the plan many times over the course of construction. By the time the church was completed in the early 1600s, it had stretched to contain a longer nave while still including Bramante's original cross shape. In this way, St. Peter's combined traditional forms with the ideal shapes—circle and square—inspired by classical architecture.

In France, most architects continued to follow Gothic styles, although they sometimes used classical forms to decorate the outsides of buildings. Spanish architects designed few major churches in the classical style, but they used some new forms to modify old Gothic buildings. During the reign of Philip II (1556–1598), Spanish architecture moved toward a simple, classical style quite unlike the elaborate forms then popular in Italy. In the Protestant countries of northern Europe, churches gradually took on a functional auditorium shape. This design reflected the Protestant churches' emphasis on preaching.


Residential Buildings. The designs of homes—particularly large and luxurious ones, such as palaces and villas—also changed during the Renaissance. In Italy during the 1300s, a typical palace had looked like it was carved out of one rough block of stone. Over time, ancient Roman styles crept into the design of palaces. Buildings such as the Farnese palace in Rome had rooms with elegant frescoes*, courtyards surrounded by columns, and ornamentation both inside and out. Architects developed precise guidelines for how much decoration a dwelling should have based on its owner's social status.

Villas, even more than urban palaces, reflected the goal of re-creating the lifestyles of ancient Rome. Pliny the Younger and other writers from that time had described the magnificent villas of wealthy Romans. The structures that survived inspired Renaissance architects, who let their imaginations run free. Their villas often contained beautiful gardens, artificial caves, courtyards filled with sculpture, and private theaters.

In France, these Roman styles never took hold. The wealthy continued to prefer traditional castles, or châteaus, in the styles of the Middle Ages. One notable architectural feature of French châteaus involved using a combination of brick and stone. This practice, which became popular in the late 1500s, helped blend large new building complexes into existing cities.


Urban Planning. During the Renaissance, architects developed theories about city design. The ruins of ancient Roman buildings provided few clues to the city's overall layout, so architects relied largely on some written sources, such as Vitruvius. However, the limited information left much to the imagination, leading architects to propose new ideas on urban design.

Two notable examples of Renaissance town planning are the Italian cities of Pienza and Palmanova. These cities use simple geometry and central planning to create a sense of order. Architects tried to apply the same ideas to existing cities, but they had few opportunities to redesign cities on a grand scale. Instead, they focused on the layout of squares and streets, placing major buildings in these areas. In the late 1500s a large-scale urban renewal in Rome transformed the city into a network of public squares and major roads.


ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

In the 1500s and 1600s, various Italian architects attempted to establish the basic principles governing architecture. They explained their ideas in treatises. Some architects looked to the natural world for ideas about the ideal proportions of objects. This approach helped to link architecture to painting, sculpture, and literature, which often tried to imitate nature. Architectural treatises helped raise the status of architecture from a technical skill to an art. They also helped spread ideas about architecture throughout Europe.

The first manuscripts on architecture appeared in the mid-1400s. Many early writers, such as Leon Battista Alberti, modeled their works on Vitruvius's On Architecture. Alberti's On the Art of Building, published in Florence in 1486, presented the basic principles of ancient architecture. Alberti copied Vitruvius in using the human body as the model for good design. He defined architectural beauty in terms of the "reasoned harmony of all the parts within a body."

Most of the early architectural treatises were aimed at scholars rather than practicing architects. One of the first authors to focus on the practical needs of architects was Sebastiano Serlio (1475–1554). He wrote seven easy-to-understand volumes in Italian, illustrated with woodcuts*, that provided a complete program of instruction for architects. The final book dealt with practical problems an architect might face, such as building on a slope.

One of the most influential Renaissance writers on architecture was Andrea Palladio. His highly popular designs helped keep classical styles alive throughout Europe during the late 1500s. Palladio's Four Books on Architecture (1570) provided a complete practical guide to architecture. The first book discussed the different parts of buildings and types of rooms. The second focused on homes of all kinds, ranging from ancient houses to palaces and villas. The third dealt with public works, such as roads and bridges, and the fourth covered ancient temples. Palladio illustrated his volumes with many woodcuts of his own work. More than any other writer, Palladio shifted the focus of architectural works from theory to practical design.

During the 1500s, architects formed academies of design, modeled on the literary academies that had recently appeared throughout Italy. The Accademia del Disegno in Florence, founded in 1563, provided architects with a professional identity and a place to discuss and teach architecture. The use of design rather than architecture in the name suggests that its founders were trying to link architecture to other art forms. Later architects explored their craft's connections to the sciences.

(See alsoArt; Cities and Urban Life; Classical Antiquity; Classical Scholarship; Luxury; Palaces and Townhouses. )

* classical

in the tradition of ancient Greece and Rome

* treatise

long, detailed essay

* Gothic

style of architecture characterized by pointed arches and high, thin walls supported by flying buttresses

* medieval

referring to the Middle Ages, a period that began around a.d. 400 and ended around 1400 in Italy and 1500 in the rest of Europe

* villa

luxurious country home and the land surrounding it

* symmetrical

balanced with matching forms on opposite sides of a structure or piece of art

see color plate 10, vol. 1

* fresco

mural painted on a plaster wall

* woodcut

print made from a block of wood with an image carved into it

Human Geometry

The ancient Roman architect Vitruvius saw the human body as the source of ideal geometric forms. He observed that a human with outstretched limbs fit precisely within the shapes of a circle and a square. Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci illustrated this idea in a drawing that became very famous. The artist saw in this drawing an image of the human body as a small-scale model of the entire universe.

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Architecture

Architecture

Architectural spaces designed for Holocaust museums and occasionally those to commemorate genocide have been instrumental in altering the design of the museum building, especially in advanced industrial societies where expense for museum space is an affordable luxury. Museums in the Western Hemisphere and Europe have changed from structures built simply to contain artifacts, art, and conceptual works to become memory forms in their own right. Because of the huge displacement of peoples in the twentieth century, which included many artists and architects who fled authoritarian regimes, the builders of museums to the crimes of genocidal regimes have felt the need to make the museum building itself a memorial space to the event.

Standing in contrast to the modern museum space, often built in a location where genocide itself did not occur, are the places of destruction themselves. The Auschwitz extermination camp, for example, became the Auschwitz State Museum. The same transition to a museum has occurred in other camps, such as Prison S-21 in Cambodia, which became the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. The architecture of the killing sites often has a strong impact on museums built as memory spaces.

One of the best and first examples of the intersection of memory and the present was James Ingo Freed's design for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., Freed, himself a refugee from Germany, visited Auschwitz in October 1986. The powerful effect of the physical space of the camp and its industrial motif convinced him that the future United States Holocaust Memorial Museum could not be a traditional museum structure. It was this careful analysis of the Auschwitz camp that led Freed to develop plans for the Washington museum that would embody symbolic aspects of the concentration camp in the memory space. This included the well-known symbols of watchtowers, glass, and barbed wire, but also the red brick of Auschwitz I, and the use of steel and other elements. However, he did not wish these symbols to be overstated so as to create a narrative with a single conclusion.

The completed United States Holocaust Museum space has been called "a place of disorientation" (Linenthal, 1995, p. 89). Cantilevered walkways, exposed steel beams, doorways that recall the centers of annihilation at Auschwitz, all help to create a memory of the site of genocide. Within this is the space for the historical narrative. However, the exhibition space at the United States Holocaust Museum does not provide for a continuous chronological narrative of the history of the Holocaust. The story is broken up by the use of modern technologies to provide fragments of events and personal stories, plus an installation tower of photographs, sometimes called the "Tower of Life," designed by Yaffa Eliach to commemorate the memory of her hometown, Eishyshok.

Daniel Libeskind's extension of the Berlin Jewish Museum, renamed the Berlin Jewish Museum addition, has prompted an important discourse about the role of architectural space in the twenty-first century. Libeskind's concept is based on a theory of absence, the absence of the Jews from Germany, which he converted into architectural "voids." The architect himself called the greater project "Between the Lines" because of what he perceived to be a complex web of connections and disconnections between Germans and Jews as a result of the Holocaust (Libeskind, 1992, p. 86). Technically, the result was not a Holocaust Museum, rather a Jewish Museum. But because the building was situated in a unified Berlin after the fall of both Nazism and communism, many refer to it as the Berlin Holocaust Museum.

From an aerial perspective Libeskind's design for the Berlin Museum appears to be a fractured Star of David. The inspiration for this came from Walter Bejamin's One Way Street, which provided a motif for the zig-zag and underground crisscrossing design that leaves the visitor disoriented. Within the space of the museum, the dominant features are the voids. These are empty spaces that literally go nowhere. Libeskind has written that in this space, "the invisible, the void, makes itself apparent as such" (1992, p. 87). In addition, the architect described the main spaces as:

There are three underground "roads" which programmatically have three separate stories. The first and longest "road", leads to the main stair, to the continuation of Berlin's history, to the exhibition spaces in the Jewish Museum. The second road leads outdoors to the E.T.A. Hoffmann Garden and represents the exile and emigration of Jews from Germany. The third axis leads to the dead end—the Holocaust Void (Libeskind, 1992).

The zinc-clad Berlin Museum with its irregular windows was completed in 1998 and opened to visitors without any displays within. More than 400,000 people came to see the empty spaces until the museum's formal opening with a permanent exhibition on Jewish life in Germany on September 9, 1991.

For many years the Imperial War Museum in London has maintained a special museum space dedicated to the liberation of the concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen by British forces in April 1945. In deciding to establish a large and permanent exhibition about the Holocaust, which opened in June 2000, the curators focused on the role of the British as bystanders to genocide as well as liberators, and stressed the necessity of including original artifacts, something which the design for the United States Holocaust Museum chose to play down. Considerations about the building itself were moot, as the structure is a well-established museum that focuses on British military history. The result is perhaps a return to the essence of what a museum is supposed to be—more about what is displayed and how it is displayed, than the architectural features of the structure. Like other Holocaust museums, the Imperial War Museum exhibition features the extensive testimony of Holocaust survivors, in this case, those living in England.

Other Holocaust museums exist in North America (e.g., Vancouver, Los Angeles, Houston, El Paso, Detroit, St. Petersburg, Florida, and New York) that are smaller in size and often situated in remodeled, already existing structures. In some cases the museum buildings are new and overemphasize some of the symbols of the Holocaust, such as chimneys and barbed wire. Displays in these museums are remarkably similar and justified for their pedagogical role in local communities. Few Holocaust museums have concern for art except as a document from the victims.

In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a museum has opened that chronicles the history of slavery; it is called America's Black Holocaust Museum. A museum initiated by the Armenian-American community is being developed in Washington, D.C.; located in a former bank building, it will serve as an educational center, library, and museum documenting the Armenian genocide of 1915 through 1922. In Rwanda the places of destruction have become both memorials and museums, while construction of a museum dedicated to telling the story of that country's genocide began in 2002 in Kigali. In Quebec architect Moshe Safdie designed the Museum of Civilization, which is "is committed to fostering in all Canadians a sense of their common identity and their shared past. At the same time, it hopes to promote understanding between the various cultural groups that are part of Canadian society" (Museum of Civilization website). However, this museum has started to discuss the possibility of including displays on the Holocaust, Armenian genocide, Cambodia, Rwanda, and genocide in the Ukraine. During 2002 a discussion and debate commenced in Ottawa, Canada, about the construction of a Canadian Museum of Genocide.

SEE ALSO Documentation; Memorials and Monuments; Memory

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dannatt, Adrian (1995). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. London: Phaidon.

Libeskind, Daniel (1992). Countersign. New York: Rizzoli.

Linenthal, Edward T. (1995). Preserving Memory. New York: Viking Press.

Young, James (2000). At Memory's Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Stephen C. Feinstein

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Architecture

Architecture

In the United States the landscape of the southern countryside was vitally influenced by tobacco. Consequently, the very buildings that supported the industry became integral components of the American landscape. While many of these buildings have long ago disappeared as tobacco's economic clout has waned, remnants of this unique architecture still remain.

Landscape

The fundamental architecture of tobacco, of course, is the natural landscape, which contains the tobacco crop itself. Usually no more than an acre, these fields see the greenish leaf mature throughout the summer before stripping in the fall.

Beyond the natural borders were a series of buildings that together constituted a common staple to those involved in tobacco production. Because of the labor-intensive nature of tobacco production, and the fact that so many growers were tenant farmers, the houses of growers were little more than hastily constructed shacks. These small houses were simple, square and rectangular homes with pitched roofs and minimal adornment and saw little in the way of paint or modern conveniences. Families came and went in these houses, which almost always rested on the plot of tobacco they raised, and the houses were often in need of extensive repair. They were excessively hot and humid in the summer, while the poor construction of the homes allowed for cold drafts to penetrate the walls throughout the winter. While not normally associated with the acres of tobacco that dotted the southern landscape, the houses of countless farmers served as a certain respite from their daily toils.

Barns

Much better known than landscape features are the tobacco barns, which were central to the curing and storing of the crop before taking it to market. Barns were built with function in mind; since so many Burley barns were air-cooled, ample ventilation was essential. In many cases, barns were built by farmers and their neighbors, adding to the sense of community in the tobacco fields. Since the design was rather simple, they could be constructed by experienced farm hands within days.

Barns had considerable interior room for hanging and curing tobacco. With a sturdy foundation, the rectangular barns were almost always finished with wooden planks with shutters and ventilators. The planks were rarely painted, but in some Burley areas they were stained with a durable black tar mixture. Roofing was often tin, although asphalt was used in the more modern barns. Surrounding the barns were sheds or other buildings used to house tools or to strip tobacco as it came from the fields. These outlying sheds could also be used to store the seedlings in the early spring before transplanting. The tobacco barn was nonetheless the central aspect of the local farm community, and when not used for curing tobacco it could also be used as a dance hall or as a place where neighbors might come together for a variety of functions.

Since a good deal of tobacco was fire-cured, the barns that contained the small fires with the hanging crop were veritable tinderboxes, and without constant supervision, were likely to catch on fire at a moment's notice. Burned-out barns, unfortunately, also became a relic of the tobacco culture.

Warehouses

Tobacco warehouses were vast colorless and windowless edifices located in the cities and towns along the tobacco market. These structures were often large enough to house a football field or two and were no more than a single story tall. Many surviving warehouses have aluminum siding, with no windows and slightly pitched roofs. In order to generate some ventilation, large fans would sometimes be placed in the upper reaches of the building. Inside, the creaky wooden floors were broken only by the timbers supporting the roof. Throughout the year, the constant aroma of loose-leaf tobacco would waft throughout the buildings and the surrounding areas.

Today, many warehouses are vacant and in disrepair. In some areas, such as Durham, North Carolina, the old warehouses have been remodeled to house modern shopping centers and restaurants. In other areas, these empty dinosaurs sometimes see tobacco come in the late fall, but are often used for flea markets, or by antique dealers, wholesale distributors, and building suppliers.

The architecture associated with tobacco thus stands as a certain symbol of what the crop meant for countless people in the industry—a world of constant work and worry, with the ever-present dread of bad weather or bad prices always present.

See Also Plantations; Processing.

▌ TRACY CAMPBELL

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Raitz, Karl B. "Tobacco Barns and Sheds." In Allan G. Noble and Hubert G. H. Wilhelm, eds., Barns of the Midwest. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Willigan, John van, and Susan C. Eastwood. Tobacco Culture: Farming Kentucky's Burley Belt. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.

stripping in the Burley and fire-cured tobacco cultures, cured leaves must be separated from the dead stalk. This is called "stripping."

tenant farmers landless farmers who rented acreage from landowners. The tenant family usually moved to a house on the rented land where they lived and worked. The rental was payable in cash or sometimes a specified amount of produce. The tenant often owned draft animals and implements and had established credit. Tenants were typically more independent than share-croppers and occupied a higher place in the hierarchy of rural America.

tar a residue of tobacco smoke, composed of many chemical substances that are collectively known by this term.

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Architecture

Architecture


This entry consists of two distinct but interrelated articles.

Overview
Richard Dozier
Gretchen G. Bank
Mikael D. Kriz

Vernacular Architecture
John Michael Vlach

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE

This entry consists of seven separate articles: American Indian, Greek Revival, Parks and Landscape, Public, Religious, Spanish Borderlands, and Vernacular.

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE.

PATHS TO MODERNISM
MODERNISM ASCENDANT
ARCHITECTURE AND IDEOLOGY
A RESTLESS SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES
ARCHITECTURE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALISM
BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Should there be a new style for the twentieth century?" This was the question many European architects had asked in a time of unprecedented social and technological change. But in spite of creative experiments, art nouveau chief among them, most architecture remained traditional as World War I began in 1914. The post-war world was distinctly different: old assumptions in politics and philosophy were aggressively discarded and new answers demanded. Architects responded with feverish attempts throughout the 1920s to devise a truly innovative approach that would suit modern conditions.

PATHS TO MODERNISM

In Germany the shattering effects of war led a younger generation of architects to shake themselves free from nineteenth-century ideological freight. A new mode emerged, expressionism. It was novel, yet rooted in prewar art nouveau and experiments with steel and glass in industrial buildings, including those of Peter Behrens (1868–1940), whose later IG Farben Dyeworks (1920–1924) was much admired. Expressionism was highly Romantic, borrowing forms from nature or the arts of the medieval German past. The 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus interior, Berlin, by Hans Poelzig (1869–1936), engulfed theatergoers in what appeared an astonishing cavern of sharp stalactites. Here one sees close affinities to expressionism in contemporary painting and cinema. Erich Mendelsohn (1887–1953) was involved pre-1914 with the Blaue Reiter group of Munich painters and doodled expressionist designs that mostly went unbuilt. Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919–1921), was an exception: a sketch come to life in a curvaceous, sculptural mass of concrete, as if the astronomical observatory were morphing into a living organism. Caught up in the politics of the hour, expressionists called for art and architecture to serve the masses, a goal taken up in 1919 by Walter Gropius (1883–1969) at the Weimar Bauhaus design school, where a medieval handicraft aesthetic at first prevailed before machine-inspired functionalism took over. Expressionism proved short-lived and produced few tangible monuments, but many subsequent twentieth-century architects found its creativity and giddy, nature-based experimentalism inspiring as an alternative to the machine aesthetic.

Whereas expressionism flourished in postwar Germany, the Italian avant-garde developed futurism, founded upon an anti-Romantic obsession with machines of speed and war. Futurist painting, sculpture, and music had already spawned countless shrill manifestos when Antonio Sant'Elia (1888–1916) wrote Manifesto of Futurist Architecture (1914), calling for a complete break with nineteenth-century thinking and a rejection of classical, gothic, and other traditional styles. Monumentalism and heaviness should give way to lightness and energy, the airplane and the race car should provide inspiration. The futurist city would be as agile and dynamic as a shipyard; the futurist house would resemble a machine. As was the case for all futurists, Sant'Elia's tone was strident as he loudly proclaimed his hatred of the architecture of the past. When first starting out as an architect, he had been influenced by the Vienna Secession movement (headed by Joseph Maria Olbrich [1867–1908] and Otto Wagner [1841–1918]), but he soon turned away from decorative and ornamental approaches to the bare look of industrial facilities. In exquisite drawings exhibited as Città Nuova (1914) he envisioned a utopian city of the future where the machine aesthetic reigns triumphant. These illustrations uncannily predicted the coming form of the European city—but Sant'Elia did not live to see that future, as he died in battle in 1916.

The modernist architecture of the fledgling Soviet state in Russia was at first of a fantasy variety too, as the economic situation was desperate and little could be built. There were no clear lines between the dreams of architects, stage designers, and artists. The painter Vladimir Tatlin (1885–1953) conceived a colossal Monument to the Third International (1919–1920), a kind of reconceptualized Eiffel Tower in the form of an off-kilter dynamic spiral, exciting but entirely impractical. Tatlin's notions of constructivism were promulgated by the OSA (Union of Contemporary Architects) in 1925–1930, during which period a few constructivist buildings were actually erected. The culmination of this first phase of Soviet architecture came in 1931 with a competition for the Palace of the Soviets, Moscow. Architects from across Europe put forward some of the most exciting functionalist schemes ever proposed, including one by Le Corbusier (Charles-Éduoard Jeanneret, 1887–1965) for a parabolic arch that would support the main auditorium with suspended cables. It incorporated some of the dynamism of Tatlin. But the winning entry was anything but modernist—Boris Iofan's (1891–1976) overblown, stripped-classical wedding-cake skyscraper topped with a herculean statue of Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924). From here on, the government would sanction only a dull socialist realism style in art and architecture.

In Germany, the Bauhaus enshrined the "form follows function" approach, a reductivist mode that abolished ornament and historical reference and followed the cues of steel frames and plate glass, everything rectilinear and mechanical. Gropius was a key figure, but so too was his fellow countryman Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969), one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. The son of a stonemason, he worked under his father and later with Behrens but had no formal architectural training, thereby freeing him to experiment. The American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) briefly lived in Germany, and the young Mies was awed by an exhibition of his work in Berlin and the published Wasmuth Portfolio of Wright's architectural drawings (1910–1911). After a stint in the army, Mies participated in the visionary daydreaming of the early 1920s; his Glass Skyscraper drawings (1919–1921) pointed prophetically to the future in their embrace of the curtain wall—a non-loadbearing skin of glass that sheathes the steel skeleton inside. By 1926 Mies was in charge of the Deutscher Werkbund, an association of artists and designers that had been struggling to decide whether to stick with the medieval handicraft aesthetic of expressionism or plunge into functionalism.

Mies epitomized the latter camp, and under his leadership Deutscher Werkbund became a leading force in promoting the functionalist credo through its journal, Die Form, and a much-lauded housing estate in Stuttgart, the Weissenhofsiedlung (1927). Mies laid it out, and seventeen mostly young European architects contributed designs, including himself, Gropius, Le Corbusier, Behrens, and Poelzig. Here some half-million visitors experienced architectural modernism, often for the first time. Traditionalists decried the general white-walled starkness, and the flat-roofed aesthetic later found deliberate antithesis in the peaked medieval roofs of clay tile promulgated by the Nazis, who detested Deutscher Werkbund modernism as degenerate, left-wing internationalism. They never got around to demolishing the Weissenhofsiedlung, and it has been restored (1981–1987) as a major world monument of the modern movement. A museum is currently proposed for one house designed by Le Corbusier and his cousin Pierre Jeanneret (1896–1967), a shoe box elevated on their trademark piers or pilotis and marked by long "ribbon" windows. It epitomizes Le Corbusier's "Five Points of a New Architecture" as spelled out in 1926: pilotis, roof terrace, open plan, ribbon windows, and free-façade design. His Citrohan house also debuted here, a low-cost type assembled from standardized parts.

The Weissenhofsiedlung attracted wide attention to modernism and made Mies famous. The Weimar government chose him to design the German Pavilion for the International Exposition, Barcelona (1928–1929). The forward-looking and democratic nature of the Weimar regime was given visual expression through a compendium of functionalist concepts: a flat, cantilevered roof-slab resting on slender steel columns; wall planes carefully arranged to provide an open plan; generous use of floor-to-ceiling plate glass; a grid system organizing the whole. The stonecutter's son chose sumptuous materials, including green marble, golden onyx, and Roman travertine for a stunning look. The original pavilion was dismantled in 1930, but so important has it become as a leitmotif of twentieth-century modernism, it was re-created in 1983–1986 on its original site.

Like Gropius, Mies fled to America to escape the Nazis and advocated for modernism there. He was greeted warmly by an intelligentsia familiar with his work from the landmark 1932 Museum of Modern Art show in New York and accompanying book, The International Style: Architecture Since 1922, organized by art historians Philip Johnson (1906–2005) (later an important architect in his own right) and Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903–1987). Love it or hate it, Mies van der Rohe's sleek, functionalist European modernism was taken up by corporate America post-1945. Late in life he built in Germany again: the Neue Nationalgalerie art museum, Berlin (1962–1968), has cruciform columns and a cantilevered roof harkening back to Barcelona. It forms part of the Kulturforum, the remaining buildings of which are by the architect Hans Scharoun (1893–1972), whose approach was very different from that of Mies: an exuberant sculpturalism in part derived from the expressionism Mies had sought in the 1920s to destroy. The rectilinear minimalism of Mies's museum could hardly be more different from Scharoun's Berlin Philharmonie Concert Hall (1956–1963) with its dramatic staggered terraces of seats under a soaring tentlike roof. Mies thought he had solved the central problem of twentieth-century architecture with his dictum, "Less Is More," but many subsequent architects have found this unsatisfactory—including the recent postmodernists, who declare, "Less Is a Bore."

Inspired by the cubist paintings of Mondrian as well as by Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio, a group of young Dutchmen created an architecture of extraordinary geometrical purity, De Stijl ("the style"). Their chief monument is the Schröder House, Utrecht, by Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), an odd intruder in a plain nineteenth-century neighborhood of brick rowhouses. Rietveld was a furniture designer whose cubistic Red Blue Chair of wooden panels was painted in primary colors (1917–1918); he approached the design of the house in the same way, assembling cardboard models that showed walls, roof slabs, and balconies as free-flowing sculptural units that appear to slide past each other and that are picked out in whites, grays, or touches of red or yellow.

MODERNISM ASCENDANT

The iconic twentieth-century architect is Le Corbusier, a kind of grand impresario whose oversize pronouncements and astounding breakthroughs drew the attention of every practitioner—for admiration or vilification, depending on their views of his brand of modernism. So important is his body of work that plans were begun in 2004 to inscribe all of it on the prestigious UNESCO World Heritage List. To this day his urban planning ideas inspire anger among those who blame him for advocating, all too effectively, for the destruction of old urban centers. First put forth in drawings for a "Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants" (1922), his urbanistic schemes were later promulgated by CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne), a kind of working group of top modernist architects from many European countries. It was founded in a meeting in Switzerland in 1928 (CIAM I). In subsequent gatherings there was much discussion of the problems of low-cost housing, part of the leftist agenda of the group. CIAM IV met on a cruise ship, SS Patris II, in 1933 and considered how European cities could be redesigned to render them less dense. The CIAM participant José Luis Sert (1902–1983) went on to consider the thorny issues in a book, Can Our Cities Survive? (1942). Codifying the Patris discussions was Le Corbusier's doctrinaire Athens Charter (1943)—the ship had been steaming toward Athens—that pointed the way to heavy-handed approaches in postwar urban redevelopment, specifically the tall apartment tower surrounded by windswept open space. CIAM continued to meet for many more sessions. The Swiss critic Sigfried Giedion (1888–1968) was especially influential. His Space, Time and Architecture (1941) soon became a classic theoretical text of modernism. The early CIAM meetings were important for achieving a critical mass in the nascent modernist movement and forging a functionalist consensus out of the myriad localized approaches of the 1920s. Postwar meetings grappled with what some increasingly perceived as functionalism's straitjacket.

Thanks in part to the tireless proselytizing of CIAM, modernism invaded every corner of Europe. In Sweden, Erik Gunnar Asplund (1885–1940) had already bridged nineteenth-century approaches and modernism: inspired by a pre–World War I trip to Italy, he embraced a simplified classicism. His City Library, Stockholm (1920–1928), was minimalist: a cube of reading rooms topped by a gigantic simple cylinder lighting the main hall with clerestory windows. He owed the concept to the eighteenth-century French rationalist Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736–1806). As chief architect of the Stockholm Exhibition in summer 1930, Asplund decisively introduced modernism to Scandinavia with constructivist-derived functionalism, including a tall skeletal mast brilliant with neon signs. The furniture and interior design there launched the great twentieth-century Swedish tradition of modernist innovation for everyday living. Asplund's classicism inspired his affable friend Alvar Aalto (1898–1976) in Finland. By 1928 Aalto had embraced modernism. His concrete Paimio Sanatorium, Turku (1929–1933), had tall, radiating wings among the pine trees, oriented toward sunlight and view. The small house called Villa Mairea, Noormarkku (1937–1939), synthesized classicism, functionalism, and the Finnish vernacular, with a special feeling for wood. Later Aalto would assist in post–World War II reconstruction of damaged cities, seeking to soften technological modernism and mass-produced housing designs with references to nature.

ARCHITECTURE AND IDEOLOGY

Totalitarianism darkened Europe as economies collapsed in the 1930s. Architecture played a critical role in Adolf Hitler's (1889–1945) plans for a reinvigorated Germany. A onetime Viennese water-colorist with a penchant for architectural subjects, Hitler saw the value of great public buildings in boosting national pride and signaling the permanence of his Thousand-Year Reich. His friend Paul Troost (1879–1934) had designed interiors for luxury ships and understood his Führer's lust for theatricality. Troost's Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Munich (1933–1937), was a museum for "pure" art, not the "degenerate" modernism then being purged. Its style became the official Nazi one: grandiose classicism, but simplified and rendered rigid and coldly sublime. The German architectural tradition of Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781–1841) was married to a primitive Greek classicism. After Troost died, Albert Speer (1905–1981) took his place in Hitler's affections, conceiving a utopian rebuilding of Berlin as "Germania" with a preposterously oversized dome as its focus. Like Hitler, Speer saw Germany as a new Roman Empire dominating all of Europe and developed a suitably grandiose architecture, clad in stone. His built projects shared a megalomania, including the Zeppelinfeld Stadium, Nuremberg (1934–1937), for mass Nazi rallies and the Reich Chancellery, Berlin (1938), center of Hitler's cult of personality. Its echoing halls, one nearly five hundred feet long, were meant to instill awe in visiting dignitaries. Hitler's grim final days were spent in an underground bunker out back. Much of Speer's work was bombed to rubble during World War II, and he was later imprisoned for his role in organizing slave labor and death camps. He is the twentieth century's most controversial architect.

If the totalitarian regime in Germany rejected modernism, that in Italy was more receptive. Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) found an avid following among a young generation of architects, including the brilliant but short-lived Giuseppe Terragni (1904–1943), who helped found Gruppo 7 in 1926. Gruppo 7 was a gathering of Milanese modernists who pressed for what they called Rationalismo: anti-individualistic and pro-Fascist; embracing functionalism in design but tempering it with historical references to the glories of the Italian past. Terragni's Casa del Fascio, Como (1933–1936), a Fascist headquarters and community center, evolved through various conceptions into a harmonious and cubistic work of pure geometries and white walls stripped of any ornament. Its rationalist composition embodied in a grid-like reinforced concrete frame was apparently simple but actually quite complex, blending functionalist dicta with principles from the Roman past, including perfect proportions, an interior atrium, and marble cladding. It has won a legion of admirers. In time for Terragni's centennial in 2004 the New York architect Peter Eisenman (b. 1932) published Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques, a book he had worked on for forty years that celebrated the subtleties of Casa del Fascio and Casa Giuliani-Frigerio, also in Como. Never built was Terragni's proposed monument to the poet Dante (1265–1321) (1938) in the Roman Forum, likewise a fusion of modernist rationalism with reference to the historical past, specifically the hypostyle halls of Egyptian temples, where columns stood as thickly as trees in a forest—only at the Danteum the columns were to have been of glass. World War II discredited fascism, but the ideas of Terragni later helped inspire postmodernism: Aldo Rossi (1931–1997) pioneered neo-rationalism in the 1960s, seeking to infuse history into the modernist vocabularies of concrete, glass, and steel, much as Terragni had done.

A RESTLESS SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES

No sooner had international style come to the fore in the 1930s than did some architects seek to refine or even replace it. At the same time they experimented with new materials, trying to develop novel aesthetic approaches based on the innate qualities and strengths of each. Concrete was arguably twentieth-century architecture's signature material; it was used on a scale previously undreamed-of and with great boldness. Properly speaking it is ferro-concrete, a combination of concrete with steel reinforcing bars or meshes that can be used in many clever ways to create rigid or shell-like structures that mark a complete break from the architecture of previous centuries. Early applications were frequently technological, as in the pre–World War I bridges of Swiss civil engineer Robert Maillart (1872–1940). After the war he introduced a series of exciting innovations, designing concrete bridges that were ever-lighter and free from visual reference to earlier masonry technologies, culminating with the Salginatobel Bridge, Schiers (1929–1930). It comprises one sweeping arch hundreds of feet above a rocky mountain gorge, the whole forming a seamless structural unit of hollow-box reinforced concrete. Engineers still travel from around the world to admire this aesthetic gem. Maillart's influence was huge, for example on the concrete "shell structures" of the Spanish-born Félix Candela (1910–1997) in Mexico. The European genius in concrete after Maillart was Pier Luigi Nervi (1891–1979) in Rome, who combined technical innovations with an unsurpassed feel for pure sculptural geometries. At Valentino Park, Turin (1947–1949), he built exhibition halls that span hundreds of feet in one leap. They are formed of poured concrete arches and, between them, precast shells pierced by window openings. He collaborated with Gio Ponti (1891–1979) on Italy's tallest building, Pirelli Tower, Milan (1956–1958), its unusual lozenge-like plan and sleek surfaces an instant emblem of corporate sophistication in the postwar world (restored after being struck by an airplane in 2002). Ponti exemplifies the twentieth-century architect in the mold of Le Corbusier who participated in poetry, painting, writing, and design, all with a spirit of passionate exuberance. The magazine he edited for decades, Domus (meaning "house"), transmitted ideas of cutting-edge architecture and design to a wide readership in Europe and abroad. Like several top European architects, by the 1960s Ponti was designing buildings around the world.

For truthful expression of concrete as a structural material, all eyes were on Le Corbusier in the 1950s. With uncompromising rawness he allowed concrete to show at his Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly, France (1951–1955), much copied by younger architects in Europe and America. Exposed, rough concrete (béton brut), still showing the imprint of the wooden formwork into which it was poured, was likewise the keynote of his Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles (1946–1952) and other notable works of this period. A British husband-and-wife team, Alison (1928–1993) and Peter Smithson (1923–2003), greatly admired Le Corbusier's honesty and helped coin the term "new brutalism" in 1954 for any sort of tough, gritty functionalism, whether using béton brut or not. Their Hunstanton Secondary Modern School, Norfolk, completed that year, defined brutalism in England: the steel structure exposed to view and the whole complex resembling a gleaming-new industrial site, with a nod to Mies van der Rohe's recent Chicago work. (Later critics blasted it for a prison-like bleakness hardly appropriate for teaching children.) The Smithsons were active in Team 10, a group of young architects that broke away from CIAM and expressed appreciation for the rough new Britain of housing tracts and slum streets. At the Economist headquarters, London (1959–1964), the Smithsons offered a more refined approach, three small office towers rising above a pedestrian plaza and clad in fossiliferous Portland stone—a sensitive effort to resolve problems of urban site and scale.

In France, Jean Prouvé (1901–1984) was likewise among the important twentieth-century experimenters with situation-specific architectural design and the honest expression of materials, including unconventional ones. With no architectural training, he entered the field as an iron-worker, brainstorming with Le Corbusier and Jeanneret about portable housing units made of lightweight materials. His aluminum Tropical House (1949–1951), of small prefabricated pieces assembled on a grid system, was flown by airplane to the Congo as a demonstration of the possibilities for colonialist housing. At the same time he designed inexpensive homes for French citizens dislocated by war. Prouvé is a lodestar for recent architects who seek to use cheap materials in extraordinary ways, and Tropical House was retrieved from Africa in 2001 and taken on a celebratory tour of American museums.

Critiques of modernism coalesced in the 1970s into a definite revolt. It was called insensitive, inhumane, and authoritarian ("heroic" had a bad connotation to the counterculture). It had destroyed old neighborhoods for "urban renewal" and encouraged bland, box-like building. The high-rise apartment towers beloved of CIAM were singled out as especially awful to look at and live in, and many alternatives were put forward. In Britain, Team 10 member Ralph Erskine (1914–2005) designed Byker Wall, Newcastle (1969–1975), a multistory housing development that sought to diversify the modernist idiom (a complex, stepped profile; house-like shed roofs; brickwork of bold colors and patterns; varied balcony forms) and even engaged future residents in planning consultations in an effort to be democratic. Architects increasingly sought to avoid the bombast of the mid-twentieth-century "megastructure" by breaking up big compositions and paying sensitive attention to local context. The British architects Sir James Stirling (1926–1992) and Michael Wilford's (b. 1938) German museum, the Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (1977–1984) defined the emerging postmodern approach: the complex subdivided to render its scale more human and enlivened with brightly colored elements to engage the ordinary visitor; an abundance of witty allusions to the architecture of the past, from Rome and Schinkel to Le Corbusier and Aalto, all in a peppy pastiche; an embracing of the "complexity and contradiction" that American Robert Venturi (b. 1925) pinpointed as sadly lacking in modernism. Stirling called his museum "representational and abstract, monumental and informal, traditional and high tech." These tensions and ironies crop up frequently throughout subsequent postmodernism.

ARCHITECTURE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALISM

At century's end architectural practice had gone global, with major firms routinely engaged in projects on many continents. Europe no longer enjoyed its old cultural preeminence. Perhaps sensing the shift, in the 1980s the French president, François Mitterrand (1916–1996), funded a series of architectural showpieces meant to demonstrate his nation's continuing greatness, the Grands Projets. Jean Nouvel (b. 1945) won rave reviews for his Institut du Monde Arabe (1987–1988): its south-facing wall forms a silvery metal-and-glass curtain suggestive of Islamic screens, with thirty thousand small, light-sensitive diaphragms that close like a camera lens to cut out sun glare—an innovative use of "smart" materials that respond to their environment. Another Mitterrand landmark was the Bibliothèque Nationale (1989–1997) by Dominique Perrault (b. 1953), four L-shaped glass towers each reminiscent of an open book and embracing a monumental central space. Paris has seen many important museums; previously, the Italian architect Renzo Piano (b. 1937) had collaborated with the Englishman Richard Rogers (b. 1933) on Centre Georges Pompidou (1971–1977), one of modern Europe's most recognizable buildings, visited by 160 million persons since it opened, five times the expected crowds. To keep the interior wide open for the display of art, the architects placed the steel support structure and mechanical systems on the outside, daringly exposed to view and color-coded for visual effect (blue=air ducts, green=water pipes, yellow=electricity), with escalators rising in clear plastic tubes.

In pursuit of ever-more-sweeping interior spaces, Rogers would go on to design London's Millennium Dome (1999), using a newly perfected technology, a mast-supported network of cables that suspend a tent-like roof. The Dome spans an incredible 738 feet, entirely free from interrupting supports. It improved upon the continental experiments of the German engineer Frei Otto (b. 1925), who collaborated with the architect Gunter Behnisch (b. 1922) on the striking Olympic Stadium, Munich (1968–1972): tall steel poles supported spidery cables that held up complex, flowing tent roofs of polyester fabric coated in plastic. All these innovations were extremely novel, suggesting new avenues toward solving the old problem of enclosing generous space.

Worldwide attention was brought to bear on Berlin after the reunification of the city in 1990 and the relocation of the national government there from Bonn. In ruins since the days of Hitler, the former parliamentary building, the Reichstag, was restored by Sir Norman Foster (b. 1935), a London architect, in 1993–1999. Mindful of history, he preserved the graffiti left on the blackened walls by Soviet soldiers in 1945. His landmark glass dome, a strikingly contemporary note atop the more-than-century-old building, was lit from inside at night. It symbolizes the transparency of democratic governments. A mirrored cone occupies the center of the dome to enhance the daylighting of a spiraling pedestrian ramp. The much-honored Foster and Partners firm has worked in forty-eight countries. Their 850-foot Commerzbank Tower, Frankfurt (1997), was Europe's tallest building upon completion. Their breathtaking cable-stayed road bridge, the Millau Viaduct, France (2001–2005), is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with seven concrete piers each higher than the Eiffel Tower.

No longer are great European buildings necessarily designed by Europeans, as evinced by the fame of two recent museums by Americans. I. M. Pei (b. 1917) created a glass pyramid for the Louvre, Paris (1985–1989), a controversial intrusion of the modern into a historic complex. For the much-praised Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain (1992–1997), the Californian Frank Gehry (b. 1929) conceived a fantastically complex, deconstructivist design clad in a shiny titanium skin. Critics heaped praise on it as boldly pointing the way to coming twenty-first-century approaches, which they predicted would be marked by increasing fragmentation and freedom. Daniel Libeskind's (b. 1946) annex to the Berlin Historical Museum and Peter Eisenman's Berlin Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, both works by American architects, are two other striking cases in point.

Deconstructivism gained notoriety in the 1980s as a transatlantic alternative to both international style and postmodernism. It defined an architecture that seemed to have been wrenched violently apart, twisted, and contorted, its complex visual effects made possible by computer-aided design (CAD) software. The Viennese firm Coop Himmelb(l)au emerged as a leading practitioner. Their UFA Cinema Center, Dresden (1993–1998), is a movie theater entered through a weirdly tilted glass structure resembling a faceted crystal. The architect Rem Koolhaas (b. 1944) started out as a writer whose Delirious New York (1978) earned him fame as a visionary theorist with a radical, streetwise approach: forget trying to improve modern cities, he says, and instead embrace "the culture of congestion," the vibrant chaos of modern life. Subsequently he has gone on to develop a worldwide practice, and he won architecture's highest honor, the Pritzker Prize, in 2000. As the twenty-first century began, his status among young architecture students was cult-like, many calling him the greatest living architect. His firm, the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), has produced designs that defy categorization but are often classed with deconstructivism. They have inspired diverse reactions: admiration for their hip, intellectualized analysis of contemporary problems; dislike for their harsh, formless geometries and brash rawness.

OMA's largest executed planning project was a new city center for Lille, France (1988–2004), called Euralille, designed to accommodate commercial growth owing to the new Channel Tunnel linking France and Britain. Koolhaas embraces "bigness" and designed at a scale meant to be appreciated not on foot but from a hurtling high-speed train. Contrary to most contemporary thinkers, he favors big, signature buildings to capture the public imagination. Some saw in this a return to discredited principles of CIAM. Koolhaas's major building at Lille, erected on a tight budget, is the Grand Palais exhibition hall or Congrexpo (1994), nicknamed The Egg for its distinctive form, which is surfaced in black-pebbled concrete and corrugated plastic. He likes ovals, thinking back to New York and Wright's Guggenheim Museum, but here the oval embraces wild dissonance in its internal forms, shapes, and materials, the whole sometimes garish and vulgar, much like the modern cities Koolhaas so passionately admires. His followers are many, including the 2004 Pritzker Prize winner Zaha Hadid (b. 1950), born in Iraq but now a resident of London. Among her few built projects is the Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck, Austria (1999–2002), a towering structure of pure sculptural drama.

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, London was the setting for some of the most dramatic architectural developments in Europe. Foster and Partners experimented with strange CAD forms, including the warped glass ovoid of London City Hall (1998–2002), which has no front or back. Its shape is precisely configured to minimize the area exposed to direct sunlight and reduce dependence upon air conditioning. Many European architects have lately embraced this kind of ecologically sustainable or "green" design. Also by Foster and Partners is the extraordinary-looking 30 St. Mary Axe, or Swiss Re Headquarters (1997–2004), nicknamed the Gherkin for its swelling, bullet-like form. Advertised as London's first ecologically friendly skyscraper, its round plan helps drive a system of natural ventilation via openings in the curving, glazed façade, so the building uses only half the energy of a typical office tower. The same firm collaborated with engineers and a sculptor on Millennium Bridge, a stylish footway over the Thames (1996–2000). It connects to a new museum, Tate Modern (1995–2000), by a Swiss firm, Herzog & de Meuron—a good example of the postmodern preference for historic preservation, as it occupies a former power plant. Piano began work in 2000 on what was planned to be the tallest building in Europe, 1,016-foot London Bridge Tower, so thin and crystalline it was instantly nicknamed the Shard when the drawings were unveiled. If completed, it will be an appropriate symbol of London's growing financial and cultural preeminence among European cities. Designed at the very end of the period 1914–2004, the Shard proposal intriguingly recalls Mies van der Rohe's Glass Skyscraper scheme of more than eighty years earlier, history coming full circle. For all the phases it has undergone and challenges it has faced, architectural modernism remains exciting and innovative in Europe, constantly seeking new approaches and new relevance for an ever-changing world.

See alsoFrance; Futurism; Germany; Italy; Nazism; Russia; Technology; United Kingdom.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Colquhoun, Alan. Modern Architecture. Oxford, U.K., and New York, 2002.

Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1996.

Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. 3rd ed. London and New York, 1992.

Ghirardo, Diane. Architecture after Modernism. New York, 1996.

Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time and Architecture. 5th ed. rev. Cambridge, Mass., 2003.

Placzek, Adolf K., ed. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects. New York and London, 1982.

Tzonis, Alexander, and Liane Lefaivre. Architecture in Europe since 1968: Memory and Invention. New York, 1992.

Yarwood, Doreen. The Architecture of Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Chicago, 1991.

W. Barksdale Maynard

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Architecture

ARCHITECTURE


In the eighteenth century the British were world masters of the architectural handbook, with innumerable volumes published in every shape and size. This stifled the development of an American literature on the subject, as everything was imported: fully twenty-eight English architectural titles of the 1780s and 1790s had arrived in the United States by 1800. The situation began to change at the turn of the nineteenth century with the appearance of Asher Benjamin's (1773–1845) Country Builder's Assistant (1797), the first American "pattern book," or builder's guide, in the long-standing British tradition. Such books taught carpenters and homeowners how to build a fashionable house, with text explaining the various illustrations (in plan, elevation, and details). Benjamin had been trained as a builder in Connecticut. As with his six subsequent books, illustrations in the Assistant were in the form of engraved copper plates. Published in Boston, these volumes followed (and helped shape) changing architectural fads. The first two copied the Roman orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) of Sir William Chambers and the Adamesque of William Pain—mainstays of America's Federal era, when stylish, attenuated classical forms were grafted onto the heavier, foursquare Georgian house form familiar since colonial times. The Practical House Carpenter (1830) and subsequent offerings shifted into Greek Revival, another British mania. Practical House Carpenter proved enormously popular, going through more than twenty-one reprintings between 1830 and 1857. Rural craftsmen used it avidly as American towns rapidly expanded during years of phenomenal population growth.

Building on the example of Benjamin was Minard Lafever (1798–1854), a New York carpenter (later a self-proclaimed "architect"), whose five books did more than anything else to spread Greek Revival nationwide. His debut volume, Young Builder's General Instructor (1829), borrowed heavily from British precedent in both text and designs. Embarrassed by its inadequacies, he withdrew it from print at considerable personal cost in favor of the improved Modern Builder's Guide (1833), his most influential work. Its Greek Revival designs were contributed in part by two architects, the British émigré James Gallier and the New Yorker James Dakin. The Greek theme was continued in the handsome Beauties of Modern Architecture (1835). Thanks in part to these portable, easy-to-use publications, Greek Revival spread as far west as California and Oregon.

The steam press fostered a publishing revolution in the 1830s, at exactly the time that new British ideas of the architectural "picturesque"—essentially Romanticism applied to the material world—launched an aesthetic revolution in the United States. An innovative kind of publication would now appear in America: not the old "pattern book" but a "villa book." These had been popular in Britain since the 1790s but now belatedly crossed the sea. Pattern books were aimed primarily at carpenters and only offered a dry text; villa books, with a rich store of pictures and accompanying prose, evoked a bright new lifestyle, intending to establish proper "taste" among the middle class. In quasi-religious language akin to that of other contemporary reform movements, readers were told that the way they embellished their homes spoke volumes about their moral proclivities and had a potentially powerful impact on their families and communities. New York and the Hudson Valley were the crucibles of this new literature, as architects building villas up and down the river partnered with New York publishers to promote their own careers and up-to-date aesthetic visions—all couched in high-minded language about social and familial improvement through architecture.

DAVIS AND DOWNING

The first American villa book was Rural Residences (1837–1838) by a New York architect, Alexander Jackson Davis (1803–1892). Owing to an economic downturn, only two sections of a projected six were published, and few of these were sold; the book was nonetheless epochal for the development of American architecture. Instead of the copper-engraved plates of Benjamin and Lafever, here were evocative lithographs (which could be purchased hand-colored for an extra price). Lithography allowed subtleties of light and shade that suggested mood, and homes were increasingly shown surrounded by verdant landscapes. The entire approach was British; indeed the title was borrowed from J. B. Papworth's Rural Residences (1818), published in London. But thoughtful attempts were made to adapt English ideas to American conditions, most famously in the promotion of "board-and-batten" construction: vertical siding with wooden strips, or battens, sealing the joints, a method made feasible by America's abundant forests and ubiquitous sawmills.

Davis soon inspired the most important of all nineteenth-century American writers on architecture, Andrew Jackson Downing (1815–1852). Owner of a thriving nursery along the Hudson and editor of the journal Horticulturist, Downing was a rabid Anglophile whose house, "Highland Garden" (1838–1839), copied an Elizabethan design (complete with parapets, mullioned windows with label moldings, and a rose window) in an English villa book. Building it and laying out its ornamental grounds whetted his interest in landscape design. In 1841 he published his landmark Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. As with Davis, who provided the illustrations, his sensibilities were heavily British, and he owed an incalculable debt to John C. Loudon's Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture (1833), published in London. For the first time an American architecture book was copiously illustrated with eighty-eight wood engravings printed integrally with the text, as this new type of printmaking allowed. Compared to the old copperplate pattern books, Downing's publications were small, compact, and affordable, meant to grace the shelves of cottages across the land. Downing quickly became famous as America's tastemaker, with Landscape Gardening selling nine thousand copies in twelve years. As his interests turned more and more to pure architecture, he followed it up with Cottage Residences (1842) and The Architecture of Country Houses (1850).

Downing brilliantly played the role of "apostle of taste." His "Highland Garden" stood as a showpiece for the picturesque, that aesthetic language borrowed from England and Romanticism. Seated at his desk beside a bay window and surrounded by busts of literary greats, he wrote earnestly to the American public in prose both eloquent and persuasive. He took high-falutin British concepts and restated them for a middle- or working-class audience, offering simple, effective examples, as in the famous illustrated contrast in the Horticulturist between "A Common Country House" (bald and unadorned) and "The Same, Improved." Downing's career was cut short by his death in a steamboat accident in 1852 as he traveled to Washington, D.C., to superintend the Smithsonian Pleasure Grounds on the Mall.

AGE OF ECLECTICISM

Downing had many eager followers and rivals as publishing expanded in the 1850s, a period that saw nearly ninety American books published on some aspect of architecture, compared to about forty in the decade before. Richard Upjohn (1802–1878), the English-born architect whose Trinity Church (1841–1846) in New York was an icon of the age, popularized its medievalizing, pointed-arch gothic style for small towns nationwide in Upjohn's Rural Architecture (1852). The Philadelphia architect Samuel Sloan's (1815–1884) lithographed plates in The Model Architect (1852–1853) and City and Suburban Architecture (1859) celebrated the tremendous proliferation of accepted styles in the design of houses. He regarded himself as an important pioneer, noting that "American works on architecture are few in number." As only about 20 percent of Sloan's vast architectural output is still standing, his writings assume great importance for architectural historians trying to reconstruct his vanished oeuvre. After the Civil War, Sloan edited the Architectural Review and American Builder's Journal (1868–1870), the first periodical in the country devoted entirely to architecture.

Downing's chief follower was Calvert Vaux (1824–1895), a young architect he brought in tow from England in 1850. They worked as partners until Downing's death. Vaux would later team up with Frederick Law Olmsted—a writer turned landscape designer—to create the immortal "Greensward" plan for New York's Central Park (1857–1858). In 1857 Vaux published Villas and Cottages, with thirty-nine buildings illustrated, mostly ones he had built himself for clients along the Hudson. This opened him to charges of "egotism" by the New York reviewer Clarence Cook, whose essay "House Building in America" denounced the whole villa book craze (and Vaux's offering in particular) as borrowing uncritically from the English author John Ruskin, whose ideas about reviving medieval craftsmanship as a means of making nineteenth-century architecture more authentic seemed to him impractical and overintellectualized. Real progress in architecture would come not from villa books with their gratuitous ornament, Cook said, but from careful study of old, vernacular American farmhouses, simple and sincere.

FUNCTIONALISM AND THOREAU

Cook's comments belong to an essentialist (and nativist) strain in American thought on architecture. In the early twenty-first century it is called "form follows function," or functionalism, and it is associated particularly with the jottings of the expatriate sculptor Horatio Greenough (1805–1852) in "American Architecture," published in the North American Review (1843), and Aesthetics at Washington (1851). Greenough corresponded with Ralph Waldo Emerson regarding "my theory of structure" based austerely on "function" and calling for "the entire and immediate banishment of all make-shift and make-believe." Emerson called these ideas a "beam of sunlight" and borrowed them in his own writing (Kowsky, pp. 86–87). He in turn was quoted by Vaux in Villas and Cottages. Functionalism was encouraged by the constant public dialogue about architectural engineering, then making astounding strides. Charles Ellet's books on American wire suspension bridges (1839–1854), for example, highlighted the fact that exciting architecture need not be historicizing or ornamental at all.

The fiercest essentialist was Emerson's young disciple Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862), whose Walden (1854) bears a complex relationship to the villa book craze. Thoreau was surrounded by new villas in the suburbs of Boston, and he critiques them sharply, with their "spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, Rumford fireplace, back plastering, Venetian blinds, copper pump, spring lock, a commodious cellar" (p. 29). He seems to quote Downing's famous advice on how to paint a dwelling—"take up a handful of the earth at your feet, and paint your house that color"—and instantly condemns it. Walden has therefore been regarded as a dismissive satire on the villa books, but actually it adapts, in a sophisticated way, the ideas of those books for radical, transcendentalist purposes. Walden has a long introductory chapter, "Economy," much like the didactic prefaces of the villa books. Again like the villa books, it features a wood-engraved frontispiece illustration showing a house designed by the author—in this case his little pond-side dwelling, ten by fifteen feet, which Thoreau took seriously enough to always call a "house," almost never a "cabin" or "hut" as it is called in the early twenty-first century. His itemized list of house-building expenses, amounting to little more than $28, has been taken to be a joke, but some villa books give similar lists with totals not much higher, aimed at an audience of laborers. Walden is meant for "poor students," Thoreau notes, and he cleverly co-opts the villa books' language and approach to critique contemporary society and manners.

AN EXPANDING LITERATURE

Thoreau was not the only literary author to use architecture and architectural ideas to telling effect. One thinks of Nathaniel Hawthorne's (1804–1864) Mosses from an Old Manse (1846) and House of the Seven Gables (1850)—drawing early attention to American colonial architecture, specifically the clapboard frame house of seventeenth-century Massachusetts—and Edgar Allan Poe's (1809–1849) chilling "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839). Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896) won sympathy for Uncle Tom by describing his log house in the time-honored language of the beloved English cottage, embowered in flowering vines. Washington Irving (1783–1859) went further, building a house for himself that imitated the Dutch colonial architecture he had evoked so vividly in his stories, complete with step gables, shaped chimneys, and two kinds of porch. "Sunnyside" (1835–1837), near Tarrytown, New York, was highly influential on Davis and Downing and still stands in the early twenty-first century as a landmark of the picturesque. In a real sense it advertised Irving to the public, as steamboat travelers on the Hudson could not miss it. In an age when architecture was constantly noticed and discussed, all kinds of promoters used it to advance their causes. P. T. Barnum, for example, erected the wildly flamboyant Moorish-style villa "Iranistan" (1846–1848) in Connecticut to call attention to his New York museum. Guests trekked to the onion dome on top, sat on a circular divan big enough for forty-five people, and viewed the landscape through diamond-shaped windows, each a different color. Awed by the appearance of "Iranistan's" on Barnum's letterhead, the Swedish singer Jenny Lind signed up with him for her sensational American tour in 1850.

Following suit, literary and newspaper outfits used architecture to advertise themselves, as i