2045 ■ ALABAMA CONCRETE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
660 Adams Avenue, Suite 188
Montgomery, AL 36104
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.alconcrete.org/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in architecture, building sciences, or engineering in Alabama.
Title of Award: Alabama Concrete Industries Association Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students completing their junior year at colleges and universities in Alabama. Applicants must be enrolled in an accredited program in architecture, engineering, or building sciences. Selection is based on academic and extracurricular activity record. Additional Information: This program was established in 1993.
2046 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION
Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Carville M. Akehurst Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university. Applicants must be residents of Maryland, Virginia, or West Virginia, although they are not required to attend an institution within those states. They must be enrolled as a junior in a 4-year program or a senior in a 2-year program and have a minimum GPA of 2.7 overall and 3.0 in their major. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2002 by the Mid-Atlantic Nursery Trade Show, Inc.
2047 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION
Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/Scholarships/TandPBigelow.htm
To provide financial support to residents of New England interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Timothy Bigelow and Palmer W. Bigelow, Jr. Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Up to 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students enrolled in an accredited landscape or horticulture program in 1) the final year of a 2-year curriculum, 2) the third year of a 4-year curriculum, or 3) a graduate program. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 as undergraduates or 3.0 as graduate students. They must be a resident of 1 of the 6 New England states, although attendance at an institution within those states is not required. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work in an aspect of the nursery industry, including a business of their own, and to applicants who demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was created in 1988.
2048 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION
Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to students working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in landscape architecture or horticulture.
Title of Award: Spring Meadow Nursery Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university. Students enrolled in a vocational agriculture program are also eligible. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 overall and 2.7 in their major. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1999.
2049 ■ AMERICAN NURSERY AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION
Attn: Horticultural Research Institute
1000 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005-4914
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.anla.org/research/scholarships/index.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students working on a degree in landscape architecture or horticulture at colleges and universities in California.
Title of Award: Usrey Family Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled full time in a landscape or horticulture undergraduate or graduate program at an accredited 2-year or 4-year college or university in California. Students enrolled in a vocational agriculture program are also eligible. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 2.25 overall and 2.7 in their major. California state residency is not required. Preference is given to applicants who plan to work within the nursery industry, including nursery operations; landscape architecture, design, construction, or maintenance; interiorscape; horticultural distribution; or retail garden center. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2050 ■ AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS OF INDIAN ORIGIN
c/o Ramu Ramamurthy, Scholarship Committee Chair
47790 Pavillon Road
Canton, MI 48188
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aseio.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students of Indian origin (from India) who are majoring in architecture, engineering, or related areas.
Title of Award: ASEI Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Computer and information sciences; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Several each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students of Indian origin (by birth, ancestry, or relation). They must be enrolled full time at an accredited college or university in the United States and majoring in engineering, architecture, computer science, or allied science with a GPA of 3.2 or higher. Selection is based on demonstrated ability, academic achievement (including GPA, honors, and awards), career objectives, faculty recommendations, involvement in science fair and campus activities, and industrial exposure (including part-time work and internships). Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.
2051 ■ AQUATROLS CORPORATION
1273 Imperial Way
Paulsboro, NJ 08066
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aquatrols.com
To recognize and reward, with college scholarships, students whose parents are employed in a turf or landscape management capacity and who submit outstanding essays on a related subject.
Title of Award: Aquatrols Essay Contest Area, Field, or Subject: Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management; Water resources; Writing Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: First prize is a $2,000 scholarship and second prize is a $1,000 scholarship. Duration: The contest is held annually.
Eligibility Requirements: This competition is open to children of employees in a turf or landscape management capacity. Applicants must be enrolled or planning to enroll in an undergraduate program. They must submit an original essay of 1,500 to 2,000 words on a topic that changes annually; recently, students were invited to write on "The role of surfactants in enhancing water use and/or irrigation efficiency." Essays should be original, compelling, well-organized, readable, persuasive, and creative. Technical accuracy, composition skills, and adherence to contest rules are also considered. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.
2052 ■ ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF MINNESOTA
Capitol Office Building
525 Park Street, Suite 110
St. Paul, MN 55103-2186
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.agcmn.org
To provide financial assistance to students in Minnesota preparing for a career in the construction industry.
Title of Award: Associated General Contractors of Minnesota Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 14 of these scholarships were awarded: 2 at $2,500, 2 at $2,000, 3 at $1,000, and 7 at $750. Funds Available: Stipends range from $750 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in construction programs at colleges and universities in Minnesota. Fields of study include, but are not limited to, architecture, civil engineering, construction management, electrical engineering, and HVAC systems services. Applicants must submit a personal statement that includes information on their work-related experience, involvement in student or community organizations, honors or awards they have received, their financial situation, and other appropriate information. Selection is based on academic standing (20%), career objectives(20%), financial need (20%), personal information (20%), and overall application clarity (20%). Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.
2053 ■ ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES OF PENNSYLVANIA
101 North Front Street
Harrisburg, PA 17101-1405
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.aicup.org
To provide financial assistance to women and minority students at member institutions of the Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Pennsylvania (AICUP) who are majoring in designated fields of engineering.
Title of Award: Michael Baker Corporation Scholarship Program for Diversity in Engineering Area, Field, or Subject: Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed 1 additional year if the recipient maintains appropriate academic standards.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students at designated AICUP colleges and universities who are women and/or members of the following minority groups: American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Hawaiians, or Pacific Islanders. Applicants must be juniors majoring in architectural, civil, or environmental engineering with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on what they believe will be the greatest challenge facing the engineering profession over the next decade, and why. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program, sponsored by the Michael Baker Corporation, is available at the following AICUP colleges and universities: Bucknell University, Carnegie Mellon University, Drexel University, Gannon University, Geneva College, Grove City College, Lafayette College, Lehigh University, Messiah College, Swarthmore College, Villanova University, Widener University, and Wilkes University.
2054 ■ ASSOCIATION OF THE WALL AND CEILING INDUSTRY
Attn: Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry
803 West Broad Street, Suite 600
Falls Church, VA 22046
Web Site: http://www.awci.org/thefoundation.shtml
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate or graduate study in disciplines related to the wall and ceiling industry to employees of firms that are members of the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries-International (AWCI) and their dependents.
Title of Award: Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $10,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to employees of AWCI member companies and their dependents. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on, as a full-time student, postsecondary education in the field of construction management, engineering, or architecture. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher during their last 2 semesters of study. Students in graduate schools, technical schools, associate degree programs, and 4-year colleges and universities are all eligible.
2055 ■ ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE
Attn: Scholarship Chair
22815 Frampton Avenue
Torrance, CA 90501-5034
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.awa-la.org/scholarships.php
To provide financial assistance to women undergraduates in California who are interested in careers in architecture.
Title of Award: Association for Women in Architecture Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Graphic art and design; Illustrators and illustrations; Interior design; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year: 1 at $2,500, 1 at $1,500, and 1 at $1,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $2,500, $1,500, or $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are women students who have completed at least 1 full year of study in any of the following fields: architecture; civil, structural, mechanical, or electrical engineering as related to architecture; landscape architecture; urban and land planning; interior design; architectural rendering and illustration; or environmental design. They must be residents of California or attending school in California. Interviews are required for semifinalists. Selection is based on grades, a personal statement, financial need, recommendations, and the quality and organization of materials submitted. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.
2056 ■ BEZEK-DURST-SEISER ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS
Attn: Scholarship Program
3330 C Street, Suite 200
Anchorage, AK 99503
Fax: (907)562-6635 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bdsak.com
To provide financial assistance to Alaska Native high school seniors interested in studying architecture, planning, or interior design in college.
Title of Award: Bezek-Durst-Seiser Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Interior design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Alaska who are Natives accepted into an architecture, planning, or interior design program. Applications must be submitted through a school district or native corporation; direct applications from students are not accepted. Each school district and native corporation in the state may submit 2 applications. Students must include essays on what they are like, the school activities and interests that interest them, why they have chosen their career field, what they have done to prepare themselves to enter that field, why they chose the university or college they plan to attend, and if they plan to return to Alaska after college. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients are also offered paid internships at the Bezek-Durst-Seiser office in Anchorage during summer breaks.
2057 ■ BUILDERS ASSOCIATION OF MINNESOTA
Attn: Minnesota Building Industry Foundation
570 Asbury Street, Suite 301
St. Paul, MN 55104
Web Site: http://www.mbif.org/scholarship/cfm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Minnesota who are interested in preparing for a career in a field related to construction.
Title of Award: Building Industry Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 9 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Minnesota who are interested in continuing their education. Applicants must be interested in a program in carpentry, woodworking, residential design, architectural drafting, or residential construction management. Along with their application, they must include a list of classes they have already taken in the construction area where they are seeking further training, information on their work background, a current transcript, their attendance record, and a letter of recommendation from an instructor or counselor. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the Harold E. Swanson Scholarship Program and the Chad Woxland Wausau Homes Scholarship Program.
2058 ■ CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Attn: Division of Engineering Services
MS 9 5/2J P.O. Box 168041
Sacramento, CA 95816-8041
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/scholarships
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in California who plan to study engineering or architecture at a college or university in the state.
Title of Award: Division of Engineering Services Engineering/Architectural Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: At least 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in California and planning to enroll in an engineering or architectural program at a community college, state college, or university in the state. Applicants must submit 1) a 100-word personal statement on their college and career plans and how they believe they can make a contribution to Caltrans; 2) a 500-word essay on how they would improve California's current transportation system; 3) a list of community and school activities; 4) information on work and/or volunteer experience; and 4) letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March Additional Information: This program is jointly sponsored by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Division of Engineering Services and the California Transportation Foundation (CTF).
2059 ■ COLORADO READY MIXED CONCRETE ASSOCIATION/COLORADO ROCK PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION
Attn: Scholarship Fund
6855 South Havana Street, Suite 540
Centennial, CO 80112
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.crmca.org/scholarships/default.php
To provide financial assistance to upper-division students from Colorado who are preparing for a career in areas of interest to the Colorado Ready Mixed Concrete Association (CRMCA) and the Colorado Rock Products Association (CRPA).
Title of Award: CRMCA/CRPA Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Materials; Materials research/science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 4eachyear. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Funds are paid directly to the student's institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time juniors and seniors at colleges and universities in Colorado who have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Applicants must be preparing for a career in such fields as aggregate extraction, building construction, road building, municipal utility construction, building design, heavy equipment design, materials research or application, or other fields associated with the use of aggregates or concrete. Preference is given to students whose home residence is Colorado, have graduated from a high school in Colorado, and have a parent employed in concrete or aggregate production industries or associated or auxiliary industries. Along with their application, they must submit a brief resume of their current activities and work experience, 3 letters of character reference, and a 1-page statement on their plans for the future and career. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: July of each year.
2060 ■ COMMUNITY FOUNDATION FOR THE FOX VALLEY REGION, INC.
4455 West Lawrence Street
P.O. Box 563
Appleton, WI 54912-0563
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cffoxvalley.org/scholarship_fundslist.html
To provide financial assistance to upper-division and graduate students in Wisconsin who are working on a degree related to gardening.
Title of Award: Wisconsin Garden Club Federation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 4 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college juniors, seniors, and graduate students at colleges and universities in Wisconsin. Applicants must be majoring in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design/architecture, botany, forestry, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental studies, city planning, land management, or a related field. They must have a 3.0 GPA or higher. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by the Wisconsin Garden Club Federation. Information is also available from Carolyn A. Craig, WGCF Scholarship Chair, 900 North Shore Drive, New Richmond, WI 54017-9466, (715) 246-6242, E-mail: [email protected]
2061 ■ CONNECTICUT ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS
Attn: Executive Director
30 Realty Drive
Cheshire, CT 06410
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.casciac.org
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who plan to study the arts in college.
Title of Award: Bruce Eagleson Memorial Scholarship Awards Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Dance; Design; Music; Performing arts; Visual arts Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year: 1 at $10,000 and 2 at $5,000. Funds Available: Stipends are $10,000 or $5,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Connecticut who plan to enroll in college to study the arts, including (but not limited to) visual arts, music, theater, dance, design, and architecture. Applicants must be able to demonstrate 1) considerable experience in the arts as evidenced by involvement in shows, exhibits, performances, video productions, or similar activities; 2) involvement in service to peers and/or community through artistic or other activities; and 3) financial need. Along with their application, they must submit a 250-word statement on what led them to their decision to prepare for a career in the arts. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program is sponsored by Westfield Corporation in honor of its former East Coast Vice-President of Management who was killed while working for the company at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
2062 ■ CONNECTICUT BUILDING CONGRESS
Attn: Scholarship Fund
2600 Dixwell Avenue, Suite 7
Hamden, CT 06514-1800
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cbc-ct.org/secondpage_folder/member.html
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Connecticut who are interested in studying a field related to the construction industry in college.
Title of Award: Connecticut Building Congress Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Cartography/Surveying; Construction; Engineering; Management; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000 per year. Duration: Up to 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating seniors at high schools in Connecticut. Applicants must be interested in attending a 2- or 4-year college or university to major in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management, surveying, planning, drafting). They must submit an essay (up to 500 words) that explains how their planned studies will relate to a career in the construction industry. Selection is based on academic merit, extracurricular activities, potential, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.
2063 ■ CONNECTICUT CHAPTER OF THE AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION
c/o Alan L. Weiner, Member Services Committee
City Planner, City of Bristol
111 North Main Street
Bristol, CT 06010
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccapa.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in planning or architecture at schools in New England and New York.
Title of Award: Sam Pine Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students in planning, architecture, or a related field. Applicants must attend a college or university in New England or New York. Selection is based, first, on financial need and then on academic record. Additional Information: This program was established in 1997.
2064 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-DC METROPOLITAN CHAPTER
c/o Dave Metzger, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
Heller & Metzger PC
11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 601
Washington, DC 20036
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csidcmetro.org/warner_fund.html
To provide financial assistance to members of student chapters of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) at colleges and universities in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.
Title of Award: Franklyn E. Warner Student Fellowship for Balanced Achievement Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to CSI student members at schools in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area who are rising seniors or graduating seniors. Applicants must be majoring in architecture, engineering, or construction management. Along with their application, they must submit an essay of 500 to 750 words that demonstrates their understanding of the balanced relationships among the aesthetic, functional, technical, and managerial aspects of the built environment. Selection is based on the essay, potential as future leader in the design and construction industry, and letters of recommendation demonstrating the applicant's skills and abilities across a balanced and diversified range of professional areas. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2003.
2065 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-GRAND RAPIDS CHAPTER
c/o Lynn J. DePeal, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
IR SSC Michigan
2556 Albert Drive, S.E.
Grand Rapids, MI 49506
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.csigrandrapids.org
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities in Michigan who are preparing for a career in the construction industry.
Title of Award: Grand Rapids Chapter CSI Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,500 are available. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled at an accredited college, university, or trade school in Michigan. Applicants must be working on a degree in a field directly related to the construction industry, including architecture, engineering (electrical, mechanical, construction), management technology, and facilities maintenance. Along with their application, they must submit brief essays about 1) the kinds of activities they participate in and enjoy, and the people who participate in those activities with them; 2) how they see their career in the construction-related industry and what they think they can offer the industry; and 3) their financial need and desire for assistance. Selection is based on scholastic ability, references, overall impression of the applicant as presented in the essays, and how the applicant will benefit from receiving this scholarship. Preference is given to applicants who are members of the Construction Specifics Institute (CSI) or related to a member. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.
2066 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-MAINE CHAPTER
c/o James Beaulieu, Academic Affairs Committee Chair
27 Main Street
South Portland, ME 04106
Web Site: http://www.mecsi.org
To provide financial assistance to Maine residents preparing for a career in a field related to construction technology at a public university in the state.
Title of Award: Advancement of Construction Technology Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maine who have completed at least 1 year of study at a campus of the University of Maine system. Applicants must be preparing for a career in architectural or engineering technology. They must be able to demonstrate active involvement in a career or industry organization or association.
2067 ■ CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE-RICHMOND CHAPTER
Attn: Richmond CSI Scholarship Fund Foundation
9016 Peaks Road
Ashland, VA 23005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.richmondcsi.org/scholarship.shtml
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students in Virginia who are preparing for a construction-related career.
Title of Award: Norman F. Jacobs, Jr. Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Up to 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is at least $1,000. Funds are sent directly to the recipient's institution. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to apply are students who are enrolled full time at an accredited Virginia college or university and majoring in architecture, construction, or a construction-related field of engineering (civil, structural, mechanical, electrical). Applicants must have completed 1 year of a 2-year program or 2 full years of a 4- or 5-year bachelor's degree program. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year.
2068 ■ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Highway Administration
Attn: National Highway Institute, HNHI-20
4600 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1553
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ddetfp.asp
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate study in transportation-related fields to students at Hispanic Serving Institutions.
Title of Award: Eisenhower Hispanic-Serving Institutions Fellowships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering, Civil; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Transportation Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 18 students received support from this program. Funds Available: The stipend covers the fellow's full cost of education, including tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: These fellowships are intended for students who are enrolled at federally-designated 4-year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and who are working on a degree in a transportation-related field (i.e., engineering, accounting, business, architecture, environmental sciences, etc.). Applicants must have entered their junior year, have at least a 3.0 GPA, and have a faculty sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.
2069 ■ DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Highway Administration
Attn: National Highway Institute, HNHI-20 4600
North Fairfax Drive, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1553
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ddetfp.asp
To provide financial assistance for undergraduate study in transportation-related fields to students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
Title of Award: Eisenhower Historically Black Colleges and Universities Fellowships Area, Field, or Subject: Accounting; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering, Civil; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Transportation Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 48 students received support from this program. Funds Available: The stipend covers the fellow's full cost of education, including tuition and fees. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: These fellowships are intended for students who are enrolled at federally-designated 4-year Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and working on a degree in a transportation-related field (i.e., engineering, accounting, business, architecture, environmental sciences, etc.). Applicants must have entered their junior year, have at least a 3.0 GPA, and have a faculty sponsor. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.
2070 ■ FEDERATED GARDEN CLUBS OF CONNECTICUT, INC.
14 Business Park Drive
P.O. Box 854
Branford, CT 06405-0854
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ctgardenclubs.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to Connecticut residents who are interested in majoring in horticulture-related fields at a Connecticut college or university.
Title of Award: Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Botany; Environmental conservation; Environmental science; Forestry; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: Varies each year, depending upon the availability of funds. Funds Available: Stipends are generally about $1,000 each. Funds are sent to the recipient's school in 2 equal installments. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be legal residents of Connecticut who are studying at a college or university in the state in horticulture, floriculture, landscape design, conservation, forestry, botany, agronomy, plant pathology, environmental control, city planning, land management, or related subjects. They must be entering their junior or senior year of college or be a graduate student, have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and be able to demonstrate financial need. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from the Connecticut State Scholarship Chair, Mary Gray, 18 Long Hill Farm Road, Guilford, CT 06437, (203) 458-2784.
2071 ■ FLORIDA NURSERYMEN, GROWERS AND LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION-ACTION CHAPTER
Attn: Gina Mazzie-Forbrick, Scholarship Committee Chair
1751 Williams Road
Winter Garden, FL 34787-9162
Fax: (407)877-8684 E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to students in Florida interested in preparing for a career in horticulture.
Title of Award: FNGLA Action Chapter Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. A total of $4,000 is available through this program each year. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must have been accepted by or be currently enrolled in a Florida junior college, college, or university. They may be attending school full or part time, but they must be majoring in 1 of the following subjects: environmental horticulture, landscaping, landscape architecture, turf management, or a related field. All applicants must have at least a 2.75 GPA. Selection is based on academic record, work experience, awards received, letters of recommendation, and an essay (300 words) on the applicant's career plans. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.
2072 ■ FOUNDATION FOR AMATEUR RADIO, INC.
Attn: Scholarship Committee
P.O. Box 831
Riverdale, MD 20738
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.amateurradio-far.org/scholarships.php
To provide funding to licensed radio amateurs from selected states who are interested in studying selected subjects in college.
Title of Award: Nanticoke Amateur Radio Club Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Electronics; Engineering; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to college students who have an amateur radio license with HF privileges and are interested in majoring in architecture, engineering, electronics, science, or a related field at an institution of higher learning in the United States. They must be residents of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, or the District of Columbia. Deadline for Receipt: Requests for applications must be submitted by April of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must attend an accredited school (university, college, or technical institute) on a full-time basis.
2073 ■ HAWAI'I COMMUNITY FOUNDATION
Attn: Scholarship Department
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 800
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: (808)566-5570; 888-731-3863
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hawaiicommunityfoundation.org/scholar/scholar.php
To provide financial assistance to Hawaii residents who are interested in preparing for a career that will fill gaps in the local job market.
Title of Award: Hawai'i Community Foundation Community Scholarship Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Education; Humanities; Social sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 97 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The amount awarded varies; recently, stipends averaged $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students in Hawaii who show potential for filling a community need; demonstrate accomplishment, motivation, initiative, and vision; are residents of the state of Hawaii; intend to return to, or stay in, Hawaii to work; are able to demonstrate financial need; are interested in attending an accredited 2- or 4-year college or university as a full-time student at either the undergraduate or graduate level; plan to major in the arts, architecture, education, humanities, or social science; and are able to demonstrate academic achievement (GPA of 3.0 or higher). Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Recipients may attend school in Hawaii or on the mainland. This fund was established in 1947.
2074 ■ HISPANIC CONTRACTORS OF COLORADO
1114 West Seventh Avenue, Suite 210
Denver, CO 80204
Web Site: http://www.hispanic-contractors.org/html/scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance for college to Hispanic residents of Colorado who are interested in preparing for a career in the construction industry.
Title of Award: Hispanic Contractors of Colorado Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Colorado of Hispanic heritage who have been accepted at or are attending an accredited college, university, or technical school. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and a declared major or certificate interest in a construction-related field (e.g., architecture, construction management, construction technology, engineering, HVAC certificate). Students in a 4-year college or university program must be juniors or above. Selection is based on a statement on career goals and why the applicant has chosen a career in construction, academic achievement, 2 letters of recommendation, community service and/or extracurricular activities, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2075 ■ HOME BUILDERS ASSOCIATION OF ILLINOIS
112 West Edwards Street
Springfield, IL 62704
Web Site: http://www.hbai.org/Student/index.asp
To recognize and reward, with funds for continuing education, students in Illinois who are preparing for a career in the building industry.
Title of Award: Home Builders Association of Illinois Student of the Year Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: Awards are $2,000 for first place, $1,500 for second place, and $1,000 for third place. Funds are paid to the student's school to be used for continuing education. If the recipients is not remaining in school, they may use the award for certified graduate builder or remodeler courses offered through the home builders association. Duration: Awards are offered annually.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in a building trades or architecture program at a high school, university, community college, or technical school in Illinois. Students must be nominated by a local affiliate of the Home Builders Association of Illinois. They must have a "C+" average or higher. Selection is based on academics, involvement with the building industry, leadership and extracurricular activities, community involvement, and awards and honor.
2076 ■ ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA-GOLDEN GATE SECTION
c/o Phil Hall
1514 Gibbons Drive
Alameda, CA 94501
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.iesgg.org
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate or graduate students interested in studying or conducting research in lighting.
Title of Award: Robert W. Thunen Memorial Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering, Electrical; Filmmaking; Interior design; Lighting science; Radio and television Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College, Graduate Number Awarded: At least 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be enrolled full time as an upper-division or graduate student at an accredited 4-year educational institution in northern California, northern Nevada, Oregon, or Washington and be studying architecture, electrical engineering, film/TV, lighting design, theater, or vision with an emphasis on lighting. Undergraduate students must be proposing course work related to potential employment in the lighting field. Graduate students must be proposing to conduct a research project that will further the lighting field or industry. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 1986.
2077 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-BUFFALO CHAPTER 172
c/o Susan Zipp
Siemens Building Technologies
85 Northpointe Parkway, Suite 8
Amherst, NY 14228-1886
Web Site: http://buffalonawic.tripod.com/pr02.htm
To provide financial assistance to residents of New York attending college in the state to prepare for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Buffalo Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Design; Drafting; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New York entering the second, third, or fourth year at a 2- or 4-year college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in a construction-related program of study (e.g., architecture, construction technology, drafting and design, engineering, estimating). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: June of each year.
2078 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-GREATER OMAHA CHAPTER 116
Attn: Scholarship Committee
8712 West Dodge Road, Suite 200
Omaha, NE 68114
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.geocities.com/nawicomaha
To provide financial assistance to students in Nebraska who are preparing for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Greater Omaha Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to graduating high school seniors and current college students in Nebraska. Applicants must be preparing for a career in the construction industry (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 2.75 or higher and be enrolled or planning to enroll full time. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2079 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-MAINE CHAPTER 276
P.O. Box 366
Hallowell, ME 04347
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicmaine.org
To provide financial assistance to Maine residents who are working on a college degree in a field related to construction.
Title of Award: Maine Chapter 276 Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business; Construction; Engineering, Civil; Welding Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 7 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Maine who are enrolled in a postsecondary educational program. Applicants must be preparing for a career in construction, including carpentry, civil engineering, architecture, welding, electrical, plumbing, or construction management. Along with their application, they must submit a 50-word statement on why they have chosen a career in construction. Selection is based on academic achievement and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: Information is also available from Joyce Newman, 3 Hillcrest Street, Hallowell, ME 04347.
2080 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-METROPOLITAN DENVER CHAPTER 112
c/o Laruie Mullane
P.O. Box 40208
Denver, CO 80204-0204
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors in Colorado who are interested in preparing for a career in construction.
Title of Award: Vona J. Wagner Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, 3 to 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Money is not paid at the time of the award but only on a reimbursement basis after the recipient submits proof of enrollment at a Colorado institution and receipts for tuition, books, laboratory fees, and other school expenses; living expenses are not reimbursable. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who have applied to or been admitted to a college, university, or trade school in Colorado. Applicants must be interested in studying field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management) in college and planning to work on a bachelor's degree or certificate of completion. They must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Financial need is considered but it not an absolute requirement. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2081 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-NASHVILLE CHAPTER 16
Attn: Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 22246
Nashville, TN 37202-2246
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicnashville.com
To provide financial assistance to residents of Tennessee working on an undergraduate degree in a construction-related field.
Title of Award: Cordie Hughes Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, a total of $2,000 was available for this program. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Tennessee attending a college or university in Alabama, Georgia, or Tennessee. Applicants must be working on a degree in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 2.8 or higher and be able to demonstrate financial need. Priority is given to applicants entering their junior or senior year at a 4-year institution. If no student at a 4-year school qualifies, students at 2-year colleges are considered.
2082 ■ NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN CONSTRUCTION-SAN ANTONIO CHAPTER 11
c/o Deborah L. Schievelbein, Scholarship Chair
405 North St. Mary's Street, Suite 150
San Antonio, TX 78205
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nawicsat.org
To provide financial assistance to students in Texas working on an undergraduate degree in a construction-related field.
Title of Award: San Antonio Chapter NAWIC Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 or more each year. Funds Available: A stipend is awarded (amount not specified). Funds are paid directly to the recipient's college or university. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time students who are residents of Texas and undergraduates attending a college or university in the state. Applicants must be majoring in a field related to construction (e.g., architecture, engineering, construction management). They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Previous recipient are given priority in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year.
2083 ■ NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND
c/o Peggy Elliott, Scholarship Committee Chair
805 Fifth Avenue
Grinnell, IA 50112
Web Site: http://www.nfb.org/sch_intro.htm
To provide financial assistance for college or graduate school to blind students studying or planning to study law, medicine, engineering, architecture, or the natural sciences.
Title of Award: Howard Brown Rickard Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Law; Medicine; Natural sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year; recipients may resubmit applications up to 2 additional years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to legally blind students who are enrolled in or planning to enroll in a full-time undergraduate or graduate course of study. Applicants must be studying or planning to study law, medicine, engineering, architecture, or the natural sciences. Selection is based on academic excellence, service to the community, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: Scholarships are awarded at the federation convention in July. Recipients attend the convention at federation expense; that funding is in addition to the scholarship grant.
2084 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION
Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping in college.
Title of Award: Irrigation Association Education Foundation Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agriculture, horticulture, or landscaping. They must be in the top 10% of their class and an interest in irrigation that is confirmed by their advisor. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Irrigation Association Education Foundation.
2085 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION
Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members who wish to study agricultural journalism and related fields in college.
Title of Award: National FFA Scholarships for Undergraduates in the Humanities Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Communications; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies; generally, a total of approximately 1,000 scholarships are awarded annually by the association. Funds Available: Stipends vary, but most are at least $1,000. Duration: 1 year or more.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to current and former members of the organization who are working or planning to work full time on a degree in fields related to agricultural journalism and communications, floriculture, and landscape design. For most of the scholarships, applicants must be high school seniors; others are open to students currently enrolled in college. The program includes a large number of designated scholarships that specify the locations where the members must live, the schools they must attend, the fields of study they must pursue, or other requirements. Some consider family income in the selection process, but most do not. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for these scholarships is provided by many different corporate sponsors.
2086 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION
Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying a field related to the landscape industry in college.
Title of Award: PLANET Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year: 1 to a high school senior and 1 to a current college student. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,500 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are either high school seniors or already enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a 2-year or 4-year degree in a field directly related to the landscape industry. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET), formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA).
2087 ■ NATIONAL FFA ORGANIZATION
Attn: Scholarship Office
6060 FFA Drive
P.O. Box 68960
Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ffa.org
To provide financial assistance to FFA members interested in studying designated agricultural specialties in college.
Title of Award: Spraying Systems Company TeeJet Spray Products Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Engineering, Agricultural; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Turfgrass management Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year. Funds are paid directly to the recipient. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to members who are graduating high school seniors planning to enroll full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a 4-year college degree in agronomy, agricultural engineering/mechanization, landscape/turfgrass management, or horticulture. Selection is based on academic achievement (10 points for GPA, 10 points for SAT or ACT score, 10 points for class rank), leadership in FFA activities (30 points), leadership in community activities (10 points), and participation in the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program (30 points). U.S. citizenship is required. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this scholarship is provided by Spraying Systems Company, manufacturer of TeeJet brand spray products.
2088 ■ NATIONAL HOUSING ENDOWMENT
1201 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nationalhousingendowment.com/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students interested in preparing for a career in the building industry (particularly as a manager).
Title of Award: Centex Homes Build Your Future Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 18 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,000. Funds are made payable to the recipient and sent to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to full-time undergraduate students working on a degree in a housing-related program, such as construction management, residential building, construction technology, civil engineering, architecture, or a trade specialty. Applicants must have at least a 2.5 GPA in all courses and at least a 3.0 GPA in core curriculum classes. Preference is given to applicants who would be unable to afford college without financial assistance and to applicants who demonstrate their interest in residential construction through 1 or more of the following activities: 1) experience/internships in the industry; 2) membership and participation in service organizations and activities related to the building industry; and 3) membership in a student chapter of the National Association of Home Builders. Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their reasons for becoming a professional in the housing industry and their career goals. Selection is based on financial need, career goals, academic achievement, employment history, extracurricular activities, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The National Housing Endowment is the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Home Builders. Centex Homes established this scholarship in 1999.
2089 ■ NATIONAL HOUSING ENDOWMENT
1201 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nationalhousingendowment.com/Scholarships.htm
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students, especially women, interested in preparing for a career in the building industry.
Title of Award: NAHB Women's Council Strategies for Success Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering, Civil Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 2 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000. Funds are made payable to the recipient and sent to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors and current undergraduates who are enrolled or planning to enroll full time at a 2- or 4-year college or university or vocational program. Applicants must be working on or planning to work on a degree in a housing-related program, such as construction management, building, construction technology, civil engineering, architecture, or a trade specialty. They must have at least a 2.5 GPA in all courses and at least a 3.0 GPA in core curriculum classes. Preference is given to 1) women; 2) applicants who would be unable to afford college without financial assistance; and 3) students who are current members (or will be members in the upcoming semester) of a student chapter of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). Along with their application, they must submit an essay on their reasons for becoming a professional in the housing industry and their career goals. Selection is based on financial need, career goals, academic achievement, employment history, extracurricular activities, and letters of recommendation. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The National Housing Endowment is the philanthropic arm of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). Its women's council established this scholarship in 2001.
2090 ■ PROFESSIONAL LANDCARE NETWORK
Attn: ALCA Educational Foundation
950 Herndon Parkway, Suite 450
Herndon, VA 20170
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.landcarenetwork.org/cms/programs/foundation.html
To provide financial assistance to students at colleges and universities that have a connection to the Professional Landcare Network (PLANET).
Title of Award: ALCA Educational Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Recently, 37 of these scholarships were awarded: 1 at $2,500, 1 at $1,500, 34 at $1,000, and 1 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends range from $500 to $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students at colleges and universities that 1) have an accredited PLANET landscape contracting curriculum, 2) have a PLANET student chapter, and/or 3) participate in PLANET student career days activities. Applicants must provide information on awards, honors, and scholarships received in high school or college; high school, college, and community activities related to horticulture; PLANET events attended; work experience; and brief essays on what they have learned about financial management as part of their education that will help them in their career, how their landscape industry related curriculum has helped them in achieving their career goals, the kind of training and work experience they will complete to attain their goals, their plan to attain more leadership and human relations skills, their reasons for desiring the scholarship, their career objectives as they relate to the field of landscape contracting and horticulture, and where they see their career 5 years after graduation. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: PLANET was formed in 2005 as the result of a merger between the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) and the Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA). It offers the following named scholarships: the Akerman Family Scholarship, Theodore W. Brickman Jr. Scholarship, Chapel Valley/Reeve Family Scholarship, Damgaard Family Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Davey Tree Expert Company-Commercial Grounds Management Division Scholarship, John Deere Green Industry Scholarship, Gachina Family Scholarship, Parley Glover Memorial Scholarship, Glowacki Family Scholarship, Gravely Landscape Maintenance Scholarship, Groundmasters Scholarship, Leonard Harris Memorial Scholarship, Hunt Family Scholarship, Hunter Industries Scholarship, Husqvarna Forest & Garden Scholarship, Ron and Sally Kujawa Scholarship, Tom and Carol Lied Scholarship, Shirley B. Mangum Family Scholarship, Vito Mariani, Sr. Scholarship, Marjorie and B.E. Minor Scholarship, Moore Landscapes Scholarship, William F. and Mary B. Murdy Scholarship, Richard J. Ott Family Scholarship, Stihl Landscape Contracting Scholarship, Thornton Landscape/Doesburg Family Scholarship, Toro Company/Exmark Scholarship, and Trugreen Landcare Scholarship.
2091 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-ARKANSAS POST
P.O. Box 867
Little Rock, AR 72203-0867
Web Site: http://www.same.org/arkansas
To provide financial assistance to Arkansas high school seniors interested in studying architecture or engineering in college.
Title of Award: Arkansas Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year: 2 at $1,000 and 2 at $500. Funds Available: Stipends are $1,000 or $500. Duration: 1 year. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Arkansas. Applicants must be interested in studying architecture or engineering in college. Additional Information: Information is also available from Mike Callahan, Second Vice President, Cromwell Architects Engineers, (501) 372-2900, ext. 177, E-mail: [email protected]
2092 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-BALTIMORE POST
c/o Al-Nisa Montague Aduwu
McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc.
10440 Little Patuxent Parkway, Suite 530
Columbia, MD 21044
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same-balt.org/Scholarship/scholarship_home.htm
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors who plan to attend a college or university in the Baltimore area and major in engineering, architecture, or a related science.
Title of Award: Baltimore Post 4-Year Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 1or more each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,000 per year. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who plan to attend a designated university in the Baltimore area and major in engineering, architecture, or a related science. Applicants must plan to enroll on a full-time basis; be Maryland residents and U.S. citizens, and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Extracurricular activities and financial need are also considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: September of each year. Additional Information: Recipients must enroll as full-time students at the following colleges and universities in the Baltimore area: Johns Hopkins University; Loyola College; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Maryland, Baltimore County; or Morgan State University. Other schools may also be designated annually.
2093 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-BOSTON POST
c/o John M. Gerstenlauer
73 Mt. Wayte Avenue
Framingham, MA 01701-9160
Web Site: http://www.sameboston.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of New England majoring in a college program related to construction.
Title of Award: Boston Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Construction; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Approximately 25 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is approximately $2,000 per year. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of New England who are currently enrolled in an accepted engineering or architecture program, preferably in civil engineering, environmental engineering, architecture, or other construction-related program. Applicants must have completed at least 1 academic year and have at least 1 year remaining. Preference is given to applicants enrolled in ROTC (preferably not a recipient of an ROTC scholarship) or interested in or having prior U.S. military service. U.S. citizenship is required. Interested students are invited to submit an application form, transcripts, documentation of financial need, and a personal letter describing their qualifications and needs. An interview is required. Selection is based on academic achievements, financial need, extracurricular activities, and the interview. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year.
2094 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-GUAM POST
c/o Lt. Titania B. Cross
PSC 455. Box 175
FPO, AP 96540-2200
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same.org/guam
To provide financial assistance to residents of Guam who are interested in majoring in engineering or architecture in college.
Title of Award: Charlie Corn Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 per year for high school seniors, $2,000 per year for students already in college, or $500 per year for students at Guam Community College. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed if the recipient maintains full-time enrollment and a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Guam and the islands within the geographic area known as Micronesia. Applicants must be 1) high school seniors planning to attend their first year of college to work on a bachelor's degree in engineering or architecture; 2) upper-division students working on a bachelor's degree in engineering or architecture at an accredited college or university; and 3) students planning to attend Guam Community College to work on a 2-year engineering technology degree. They must demonstrate a sincere interest in returning to Guam or Micronesia after graduation to begin a professional career. Selection is based on that interest as well as scholastic achievement, aptitude, attitude, character, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.
2095 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-HONOLULU POST
Attn: LCDR Dustin Hamacher, Scholarship Committee Chair
USCG Naval Engineering Unit Honolulu
Sand Island Road
Honolulu, HI 96819-4398
Web Site: http://www.same.org/honolulu
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors from Hawaii who are interested in attending college to work on a degree in engineering or architecture.
Title of Award: Honolulu Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $2,500. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to seniors graduating from high schools in Hawaii who plan to work full time on an undergraduate degree in engineering or architecture at an accredited college or university. Applicants must be U.S. citizens with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Military affiliation or experience (i.e., ROTC, member or dependent of a member of the Society of Military Engineers (SAME), military dependent, Junior ROTC) is not required but is given preference. Applicants must submit a transcript; a resume of work experience, academic activities, and extracurricular accomplishments; and an essay (1 page) written around an architecture or engineering theme and its impact on society and the nation's defense or homeland security. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2096 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-NEW JERSEY POST
c/o John Booth
P.O. Box 60
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.same.org/newjersey
To provide financial assistance to students in New Jersey working on an undergraduate degree in architecture, engineering, or a related field.
Title of Award: New Jersey Post SAME Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 1 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students working on a degree in architecture, engineering, or a related field. Candidates must be nominated by a member of the New Jersey Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME). Selection is based on school and community activities, educational goals, academics, recommendations, and employment. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2097 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-VIRGINIA PENINSULA POST
c/o Jeffrey B. Merz, Scholarship Chair
129 Andrews Street, Suite 102
Langley AFB, VA 23665-2769
E-mail: [email protected]
To provide financial assistance to students at universities in Virginia and dependents of members of the Virginia Peninsula Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) who have a commitment to future military service and are majoring in engineering or architecture.
Title of Award: Virginia Peninsula Post Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 3 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000 and 1-year's membership in the society. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in an engineering or architecture program at the sophomore level or above. Applicants must be 1) attending a college or university in Virginia, or 2) the dependent of a SAME Virginia Peninsula Post member attending anywhere. They must have demonstrated commitment to future military service by enrolling in an ROTC program, a commissioning program, or an extended enlistment. Selection is based on financial need, academic standing, and involvement in university and community programs. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year.
2098 ■ SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS-WASHINGTON DC POST
c/o Al O'Konski, Scholarship Committee Chair
2020 K Street, N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20006-1806
E-mail: Al_O'[email protected]
Web Site: http://www.samedcpost.org/scholarship.html
To provide financial assistance to students interested in majoring in engineering, architecture, or environmental sciences.
Title of Award: Washington DC Post Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Environmental conservation; Environmental science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 8 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: The current stipend is $1,200. Funds are paid to the recipient's school after college enrollment is confirmed. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students who are enrolled full time at an accredited university as rising freshmen, sophomores, or juniors, are U.S. citizens, are of good character, and are majoring in engineering, architecture, or environmental science. Applicants must submit a 2-page narrative addressing the following topics: their academic performance, academic and professional goals, financial need, extracurricular activities, a summary of previous military service (if any), and a statement of why they should be considered for the award. Preference is given to applicants in the Washington, D.C. area. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: This program includes the following named scholarships: the Paul Brott Scholarship, the Linda McCarthy Scholarship, the T-Bird/RPI Environmental Scholarship, and the Ronald Hubbard Scholarship.
2099 ■ TREE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ENDOWMENT FUND
Attn: Executive Director
711 East Roosevelt Road
Wheaton, IL 60187
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.treefund.org/grants/Grants.aspx
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and technical school students interested in preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture.
Title of Award: Robert Felix Memorial Scholarship Area, Field, or Subject: Agricultural sciences; Entomology; Horticulture; Landscape architecture and design; Soil science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: 4 each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $3,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student members of the International Society of Arboriculture who are entering the second year of a 2-year program or the third or fourth year of a 4-year program. Applicants must be preparing for a career in commercial arboriculture. They must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 1,000-word essay describing their reasons for pursuing their chosen career, their goals and objectives, and why they should be chosen for this scholarship. Financial need is not considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Additional Information: The Tree Research and Education Endowment (TREE) Fund was established in 2002 as the result of a merger of the International Society of Arboriculture Research Trust (established in 1976) and the National Arborist Foundation (established in 1985). Fields of study often considered appropriate for a career in commercial arboriculture include agriculture, entomology, horticulture, landscape architecture, or soils science.
2100 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE
Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/hsschol/types.php
To provide financial assistance to high school seniors or graduates who are interested in joining Air Force ROTC in college and are willing to serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC High School Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Approximately 2,000 each year. Funds Available: Type 1 scholarships provide payment of full tuition and most laboratory fees, as well as $600 for books. Type 2 scholarships pay the same benefits except tuition is capped at $15,000 per year; students who attend an institution where tuition exceeds $15,000 must pay the difference. Type 7 scholarships pay full tuition and most laboratory fees, but students must attend a college or university where the tuition is less than $9,000 per year or a public college or university where they qualify for the in-state tuition rate; they may not attend an institution with higher tuition and pay the difference. Approximately 5% of scholarship offers are for Type 1, approximately 20% are for Type 2, and approximately 75% are for type 7. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $250 per month as a freshman, $300 per month as a sophomore, $350 per month as a junior, and $400 per month as a senior. Duration: 4 years.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to high school seniors who are U.S. citizens at least 17 of age and have been accepted at a college or university with an Air Force ROTC unit on campus or a college with a cross-enrollment agreement with such a college. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher and an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT score of 1100 (mathematics and verbal portion only) or higher. At the time of their commissioning in the Air Force, they must be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Deadline for Receipt: November of each year. Additional Information: Recently, approximately 70% of these scholarships were offered to students planning to major in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Approximately 30% were offered to students in all other fields. While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must enroll in 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus; students may also attend nearly 900 other colleges that have cross-enrollment agreements with the institutions that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years. Most cadets incur a 4-year active-duty commitment. Pilots incur a 10-year active-duty service commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training and navigators incur a 6-year commitment after successfully completing Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training. The minimum service obligation for intelligence and Air Battle Management career fields is 5 years.
2101 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE
Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUC
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
Web Site: http://www.afrotc.com/scholarships/incolschol/incolProgram.php
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students who are willing to join Air Force ROTC in college and serve as Air Force officers following completion of their bachelor's degree.
Title of Award: Air Force ROTC In-College Scholarship Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Cadets selected in Phase 1 are awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year. A limited number of cadets selected in Phase 2 are also awarded type 2 AFROTC scholarships, but most are awarded type 3 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $9,000 per year. Cadets selected in Phase 3 are awarded type 6 AFROTC scholarships with tuition capped at $3,000 per year. All recipients are also awarded a book allowance of $600 and a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during the sophomore year, $350 during the junior year, and $400 during the senior year. Duration: 3 years for students selected as freshmen or 2 years for students selected as sophomores.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens enrolled as freshmen or sophomores at 1 of the 144 colleges and universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Applicants must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher and be able to pass the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test and the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. At the time of commissioning, they may be no more than 31 years of age. They must agree to serve for at least 4 years as active-duty Air Force officers following graduation from college. Phase 1 is open to students enrolled in the Air Force ROTC program who do not currently have a scholarship but now wish to apply. Phase 2 is open to Phase 1 nonselects and students not enrolled in Air Force ROTC. Phase 3 is open only to Phase 2 nonselects. Recently, the program gave preference to students majoring in the science and technical fields of architecture, chemistry, computer science, engineering (aeronautical, aerospace, astronautical, architectural, civil, computer, electrical, environmental, or mechanical), mathematics, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, operations research, or physics. Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Additional Information: While scholarship recipients can major in any subject, they must complete 4 years of aerospace studies courses at 1 of the 144 colleges or universities that have an Air Force ROTC unit on campus. Recipients must also attend a 4-week summer training camp at an Air Force base, usually between their sophomore and junior years; 2-year scholarship awardees attend in the summer after their junior year. Current military personnel are eligible for early release from active duty in order to enter the Air Force ROTC program. Following completion of their bachelor's degree, scholarship recipients earn a commission as a second lieutenant in the Air Force and serve at least 4 years.
2102 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE
Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE
Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/ASCP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a bachelor's degree in approved majors by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Airman Scholarship and Commissioning Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awards are type 2 AFROTC scholarships that provide for payment of tuition and fees, to a maximum of $15,000 per year, plus an annual book allowance of $600. All recipients are also awarded a tax-free subsistence allowance for 10 months of each year that is $300 per month during their sophomore year, $350 during their junior year, and $400 during their senior year. Duration: 2 to 4 years, until completion of a bachelor's degree.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to active-duty enlisted members of the Air Force who have completed at least 1 year of continuous active duty and at least 1 year on station. Applicants normally must have completed at least 24 semester hours of graded college credit with a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. If they have not completed 24 hours of graded college credit, they must have an ACT score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. They must also have scores on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) of 15 or more on the verbal scale and 10 or more on the quantitative scale and be able to pass the Air Force ROTC Physical Fitness Test. Applicants must have been accepted at a college or university (including crosstown schools) offering the AFROTC 4-year program. When they complete the program and receive their commission, they may not be 31 years of age or older. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Selectees separate from the active-duty Air Force, join an AFROTC detachment, and become full-time students. Upon completing their degree, they are commissioned as officers and returned to active duty in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.
2103 ■ U.S. AIR FORCE
Attn: Headquarters AFROTC/RRUE
Enlisted Commissioning Section
551 East Maxwell Boulevard
Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-5917
Tel: (334)953-2091; (866)423-7682
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.afoats.af.mil/AFROTC/EnlistedComm/POCERP.asp
To allow selected enlisted Air Force personnel to earn a baccalaureate degree by providing financial assistance for full-time college study.
Title of Award: Professional Officer Course Early Release Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Atmospheric science; Chemistry; Computer and information sciences; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Engineering, Architectural; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Computer; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Environmental science; General studies/Field of study not specified; Mathematics and mathematical sciences; Meteorology; Operations research; Physics Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Participants receive a stipend for 10 months of the year that is $350 per month during the first year and $400 per month during the second year. Scholarship recipients earn the Professional Officer Course Incentive of $3,000 per year for tuition and $600 per year for books. Duration: 2 years (no more and no less).
Eligibility Requirements: Eligible to participate in this program are enlisted members of the Air Force under the age of 30 (or otherwise able to be commissioned before becoming 35 years of age) who have completed at least 1 year on continuous active duty, have served on station for at least 1 year, and have no more than 2 years remaining to complete their initial baccalaureate degree. Scholarship applicants must be younger than 31 years of age when they graduate and earn their commission. All applicants must have been accepted at a college or university offering the AFROTC 4-year program and must have a cumulative college GPA of 2.5 or higher. Their Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) scores must be at least 15 on the verbal and 10 on the quantitative. Applicants who have not completed 24 units of college work must have an ACT composite score of 24 or higher or an SAT combined verbal and mathematics score of 1100 or higher. U.S. citizenship is required. Recently, awards were presented according to the following priorities: 1) computer, electrical, and environmental engineering; 2) aeronautical, aerospace, architectural, astronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering and meteorology and atmospheric sciences; 3) all other ABET-accredited engineering majors, architecture, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, operations research, and physics; 4) all other majors. Deadline for Receipt: October of each year. Additional Information: Upon completing their degree, selectees are commissioned as officers in the Air Force with a 4-year service obligation. Further information is available from base education service officers or an Air Force ROTC unit.
2104 ■ U.S. NAVY
Attn: Commander, Naval Service Training Command
250 Dallas Street, Suite A Pensacola, FL 32508-5268
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.navy.com/careers/officerplanner/enlistedtoofficer
To allow outstanding enlisted Navy personnel to complete a bachelor's degree and receive a commission in the Civil Engineer Corps (CEC).
Title of Award: Civil Engineer Corps Option of the Seaman to Admiral-21 Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Awardees continue to receive their regular Navy pay and allowances while they attend college on a full-time basis. They also receive reimbursement for tuition, fees, and books up to $10,000 per year. If base housing is available, they are eligible to live there. Participants are not eligible to receive benefits under the Navy's Tuition Assistance Program (TA), the Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB), Navy College Fund, or the Veterans Educational Assistance Program (VEAP). Duration: Selectees are supported for up to 36 months of full-time, year-round study or completion of a bachelor's degree, as long as they maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to U.S. citizens who are currently serving on active duty in the Navy as enlisted personnel of occupational field 13 (Seabees). Applicants must have completed at least 4 years of active duty, of which at least 3 years were in an other than formal training environment. They must be high school graduates (or GED recipients) who are able to complete requirements for a professional Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) engineering degree or National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) architectural degree within 36 months or less. Preferred specialties are for civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. When applicants complete their degree requirements, they must be younger than 35 years of age. Within the past 3 years, they must have taken the SAT test (and achieved scores of at least 500 on the mathematics section and 500 on the verbal or critical reading section) or the ACT test (and achieved a score of 41 or higher, including at least 21 on the mathematics portion and 20 on the English portion). Deadline for Receipt: July of each year. Additional Information: This program was established in 2001 as a replacement for the Civil Engineer Corps Enlisted Commissioning Program (CECECP). Upon acceptance into the program, selectees attend the Naval Science Institute (NSI) in Newport, Rhode Island for an 8-week program in the fundamental core concepts of being a naval officer (navigation, engineering, weapons, military history and justice, etc.). They then enter a college or university with an NROTC unit that is designated for the CEC and pursue full-time study for a bachelor's degree. They become members of and drill with the NROTC unit. When they complete their degree, they are commissioned as ensigns in the United States Naval Reserve and assigned to initial training as an officer in the CEC. After commissioning, 5 years of active service are required.
2105 ■ U.S. NAVY
Attn: Navy Personnel Command
5722 Integrity Drive
Millington, TN 38055-5057
Tel: (901)874-4034; (866)CEC-NAVY
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cec.navy.mil/scholarships.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students in architecture and engineering who are interested in serving in the Navy's Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) following graduation.
Title of Award: Civil Engineer Corps Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Engineering, Civil; Engineering, Electrical; Engineering, Mechanical; Engineering, Ocean Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Master's, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: Students accepted as undergraduates receive E-3 pay (approximately $2,000 per month), allowance, and benefits; after completing 12 months of the program or being referred to other specified programs, they may be advanced to E-4 or E-5 levels. Graduate students receive payment of tuition and fees plus full officers' salary and allowances. Duration: Up to 24 months for the Exceptional Student Program, up to 12 months for the Collegiate Program, and up to 18 months (6 months of undergraduate school plus 12 months of graduate school) for the Graduate Program.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and master's degree students who are U.S. citizens between 19 and 35 years of age. Applicants must be enrolled in an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) or an architecture program accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Eligible majors include civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, ocean engineering, or architecture. For the Exceptional Student Program, they must apply at the end of their sophomore year. For the Collegiate Program, they must apply at the end of their junior year. For the Graduate Program, they must apply upon acceptance to an accredited graduate school and when they are within 6 months of completing a bachelor's degree in engineering. Preference is given to applicants who have engineering or architecture work experience and registration as a Professional Engineer (P.E.) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT). Students majoring in mathematics, physics, non-engineering programs, and engineering or architectural technology are not eligible. Applicants must also be able to meet the Navy's physical fitness requirements. Additional Information: While in college, selectees have no uniforms, drills, or military duties. After graduation with a bachelor's or master's degree, they enter the Navy and attend 13 weeks at Officer Candidate School (OCS) in Pensacola, Florida, followed by 15 weeks at Civil Engineer Corps Officers School (CECOS) in Port Hueneme, California. They then serve 4 years in the CEC, rotating among public works, contract management, and the Naval Construction Force (Seabees).
2106 ■ VERMONT STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION
Champlain Mill Attn: Scholarship Programs
P.O. Box 2000
Winooski, VT 05404-2601
Tel: (802)654-3798; 888-253-4819
Fax: (802)654-3765 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.vsac.org
To provide financial assistance to residents of Vermont who are interested in working on an undergraduate or graduate degree in a field related to design.
Title of Award: Alfred T. Granger Student Art Fund Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Art; Engineering, Architectural; Graphic art and design; Interior design; Lighting science Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: 2 graduate scholarships and 4 undergraduate scholarships are awarded each year. Funds Available: The stipend is $5,000 per year for graduate students or $2,500 per year for undergraduates. Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of Vermont who are graduating high school seniors, high school graduates, or GED recipients. Applicants must be interested in attending an accredited postsecondary institution to work on a degree in architecture, interior design, fine arts, architectural engineering, mechanical drawing, or lighting design. Selection is based on academic achievement, a portfolio, letters of recommendation, required essays, and financial need. Deadline for Receipt: May of each year.
2107 ■ WESTERN INTERSTATE COMMISSION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
Attn: Student Exchange Programs
3035 Center Green Drive
P.O. Box 9752
Boulder, CO 80301-9752
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wiche.edu/sep/psep
To underwrite some of the cost of out-of-state professional schooling for students in selected western states.
Title of Award: Professional Student Exchange Program Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Dentistry; Library and archival sciences; Medical assisting; Medicine; Medicine, Osteopathic; Nursing; Occupational therapy; Optometry; Pharmaceutical sciences; Physical therapy; Podiatry; Public health; Veterinary science and medicine Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year. Funds Available: The assistance consists of reduced levels of tuition, usually resident tuition in public institutions or reduced standard tuition at private schools. The home state pays a support fee to the admitting school to help cover the cost of the recipient's education. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to residents of 13 western states who are interested in pursuing professional study at selected out-of-state institutions, usually because those fields of study are not available in their home states. The eligible programs, and the states whose residents are eligible, presently include: 1) architecture (master's degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona. California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, or Washington); 2) dentistry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, or Washington; 3) library studies (master's degree), for residents of New Mexico and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Hawaii, or Washington; 4) medicine, for residents of Montana and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, or Utah; 5) nursing (graduate degree), for residents of Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Hawaii, North Dakota, or Oregon; 6) occupational therapy (bachelors' or master's degree), for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 7) optometry, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California or Oregon; 8) osteopathic medicine, for residents of Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona or California; 9) pharmacy, for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Nevada, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, or Wyoming; 10) physical therapy (master's or doctoral degree), for residents of Alaska, Hawaii, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 11) physician assistant, for residents of Alaska, Arizona, Nevada, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, or Washington; 12) podiatry, for residents of Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at a designated institution in California; 13) public health, for residents of Montana and New Mexico, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, or Washington; and 14) veterinary medicine, for residents of Arizona, Hawaii, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, to study at designated institutions in California, Colorado, Oregon, or Washington. The financial status of the applicants is not considered. Interested students must apply for admission and for PSEP assistance directly from the institution of their choice. They must be certified by their state of residence to become an exchange student and be seeking enrollment at the first professional degree level. Deadline for Receipt: In most states, the deadline for receiving completed applications for certification is in October. After obtaining certification, students must still apply to the school of their choice, which also sets its own deadline.
2108 ■ WISCONSIN FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT COLLEGES, INC.
Attn: Program Manager
735 North Water Street, Suite 600
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4100
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wficweb.org/scholar.html
To provide financial assistance to students majoring in selected fields at member institutions of the Wisconsin Foundation for Independent Colleges (WFIC).
Title of Award: Sentry Insurance Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Architecture; Business administration; Design; Economics; Information science and technology; Interior design; Mathematics and mathematical sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Four Year College Number Awarded: 20 each year: 1 at each of the participating schools. Funds Available: The stipend is $1,000. Duration: 1 year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to student enrolled or planning to enroll at WFIC member colleges and universities. Applicants must have a declared major in 1 of the following fields: business, economics, mathematics, management information systems, industrial design, communication design, or interior architecture and design. They must have a GPA of 3.3 or higher; entering freshmen must rank in the top 25% of their high school class. Financial need is considered in the selection process. Deadline for Receipt: Each participating college sets its own deadline. Additional Information: The WFIC member schools are Alverno College, Beloit College, Cardinal Stritch University, Carroll College, Carthage College, Concordia University of Wisconsin, Edgewood College, Lakeland College, Lawrence University, Marian College, Marquette University, Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Mount Mary College, Northland College, Ripon College, St. Norbert College, Silver Lake College, Viterbo University, and Wisconsin Lutheran College. This program is supported by the Sentry Insurance Foundation.
2109 ■ WISCONSIN SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM
c/o University of Wisconsin at Green Bay
Department of Natural and Applied Sciences
2420 Nicolet Drive
Green Bay, WI 54311-7001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uwgb.edu/wsgc/students/us.asp
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate students at colleges and universities participating in the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium (WSGC).
Title of Award: Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Undergraduate Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Aerospace sciences; Architecture; Business administration; Engineering; Engineering, Aerospace/Aeronautical/Astronautical; Law; Medicine; Nursing; Science; Space and planetary sciences Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 26 of these scholarships were awarded. Funds Available: Stipends up to $1,500 per year are available. Duration: 1 academic year.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate students enrolled at universities participating in the WSGC. Applicants must be U.S. citizens; be working full time on a bachelor's degree in space science, aerospace, or interdisciplinary space studies (including, but not limited to, engineering, the sciences, architecture, law, business, nursing, and medicine); and have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. The consortium especially encourages applications from underrepresented minorities, women, and students with disabilities. Selection is based on academic performance and space-related promise. Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Additional Information: Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The schools participating in the consortium include the University of Wisconsin campuses at Fox Valley, Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Parkside, Superior, and Whitewater; Alverno College; Marquette University; College of the Menominee Nation; Carroll College; Lawrence University; Milwaukee School of Engineering; Ripon College; Medical College of Wisconsin; Western Wisconsin Technical College; and Wisconsin Lutheran College.
2110 ■ WORLDSTUDIO FOUNDATION
200 Varick Street, Suite 507
New York, NY 10014
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.worldstudio.org/schol/index.html
To provide financial assistance to undergraduate and graduate students, especially minorities, who wish to study fine or commercial arts, design, or architecture.
Title of Award: Worldstudio Foundation Scholarships Area, Field, or Subject: Advertising; Architecture; Art; Art industries and trade; Crafts; Design; Fashion design; Filmmaking; Graphic art and design; Interior design; Landscape architecture and design; Photography; Urban affairs/design/planning Level of Education for which Award is Granted: Graduate, Undergraduate Number Awarded: Varies each year; recently, 24 scholarships and 7 honorable mentions were awarded. Funds Available: Basic scholarships range from $1,000 to $2,000, but awards between $3,000 and $5,000 are also presented at the discretion of the jury. Honorable mentions are $100. Funds are paid directly to the recipient's school. Duration: 1 academic year. Recipients may reapply.
Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to undergraduate and graduate students who are currently enrolled or planning to enroll at an accredited college or university and major in 1 of the following areas: advertising (art direction only), architecture, crafts, environmental graphics, fashion design, film/video (direction or cinematography only), film/theater design (including set, lighting, and costume design), fine arts, furniture design, graphic design, industrial/product design, interior design, landscape architecture, new media, photography, surface/textile design, or urban planning. Although not required, minority status is a significant factor in the selection process. International students may apply if they are enrolled at a U.S. college or university. Applicants must have a GPA of 2.0 or higher. Along with their application, they must submit a 600-word statement of purpose that includes a brief autobiography, an explanation of how their experiences have influenced their creative work and/or their career plans, and how they see themselves contributing to the community at large in the future. Selection is based on that statement, the quality of submitted work, financial need, minority status, and academic record. Deadline for Receipt: March of each year. Additional Information: The foundation encourages the scholarship recipients to focus on ways that their work can address issues of social and environmental responsibility. This program includes the following named awards: the Sherry and Gary Baker Award, the Bobolink Foundation Award, the Bombay Sapphire Awards, the Richard and Jean Coyne Family Foundation Awards, the David A. Dechman Foundation Awards, the Philip and Edina Jennison Award, the Kraus Family Foundation Awards, the Dena McKelvey Award. the New York Design Center Award, the Rudin Foundation Awards, the Starr Foundation Awards, and the John F. Wright III Award.
ARCHITECTURE . [This article presents a thematic overview of religious architecture. Monuments associated with prehistoric religious practices are discussed in Megalithic Religion; Paleolithic Religion; and Prehistoric Religions.]
Architecture may be defined as the art of building, and consequently religious architecture refers to those buildings planned to serve religious purposes. These structures can be either very simple or highly complex. They can take the form of a circle of upright stones (megaliths) defining a sacred space or they may spread over acres like the sanctuary at Angkor Wat. They can be of any and every material from the mounds of earth reared over royal tombs to the reinforced concrete and glass of twentieth-century houses of worship.
Yet the practice of religion does not of itself require an architectural setting. Sacrifice can be offered to the gods in the open air on a hilltop; the adherents of Islam can perform their daily prayers in a railroad car or even in the street; the Christian Eucharist can be celebrated in a hospital ward. Nevertheless all the major world religions have buildings especially planned for their use, and these constitute an important source of knowledge about these faiths. They can reveal what is believed about the nature of the gods; they can provide insight into the character of the communities for which they were designed and the cultus celebrated therein.
To comprehend and appreciate the significance of these buildings it is necessary to classify them, but their variety is so great that one single method would be incomplete. Hence several typologies have to be devised if the subject matter is to be covered adequately; indeed it is possible to identify at least four. In the first place, the vocabulary applied to religious buildings can be taken as the basis for the formulation of a typology. This, however, is by no means exhaustive, and so it is essential to move on to a second typology derived from the character or nature ascribed to each building, which may differ depending upon whether it is regarded as a divine dwelling, a center of reference, a monument, or a meeting house. A third typology may be presented by analyzing the functions for which each building provides, including the service of the gods, religious teaching, the manifestation of reverence and devotion, congregational worship, and symbolization. A fourth typology is architectural rather than religious but needs to be noted: this is based upon the categories of path and place. Other factors that should be borne in mind for a complete picture relate to the different materials used, the effect of climate, culture and its expression in different styles, and also the influence of patronage.
Classification according to Terms Used
The terms used to refer to religious buildings provide a preliminary indication of both their variety and their significance.
Terms that designate a structure as a shelter
These may be further differentiated according to the class of being or thing associated with them.
The Hebrew beit Elohim is to be translated "house of God," while heikhal, a loanword from Sumerian through Babylonian (ekallu ), is used for a very special house or palace. In Greek there is naos, from naio, "to dwell in," and kuriakos ("of the Lord") lies at the origin of both kirk and church. In Latin there is aedes sacra, a "sacred edifice," as well as domus dei, a "god's home." Tabernacle (Lat., tabernaculum from taberna, a "hut") has a similar domiciliary connotation. Hinduism has prāsāda, or platform of a god, and devalaya, a residence of a god, while the Japanese word for shrine is literally "honorable house."
In English the primary term is shrine, derived from scrinium, which means a case that contains sacred things. More specifically there is chapel from capella ("cloak"), referring to the garment of Saint Martin that was venerated in a small building; there is cathedral, which shows that the particular church is where the bishop's cathedra, or throne, is located. Pagoda, which is a deformation of the Sinhala dagoba, is a tower containing relics. Agyari, a place of fire, is the designation of a Parsi temple in which the sacred flame is kept alight. The Temple of the Sleeping Buddha in Peking characterizes the form of the statue within.
The Latin domus ecclesiae points to the Christian community as the occupant of a building. Beit ha-keneset in Hebrew and sunagōgē in Greek (from sunagō, "to gather together"), with synagogue, as the English transliteration, denote a place of assembly. The term used by Quakers, meeting house, has the same implication.
Terms that indicate the character of a structure
In Greek there is to hagion, the place of dread, from azomai, "to stand in awe of," and to hieron, the "holy place." In Latin adytum is a transliteration of the Greek aduton, "not to be entered," because it is the holy abode of a divinity. Templum is a space cut off; it comes from tempus, meaning a "division" or "section," which in turn derives from the Greek temenos, referring to an area set apart for a particular purpose such as the service of a god. Temple in English has the same etymology, while sanctuary (sanctus ) emphasizes the holiness of the building.
Terms that affirm an association with a person or events
To speak of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London is to declare a link with the apostle. The Süleymaniye Mosque complex in Istanbul commemorates its patron, Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. The Roman Pantheon, which is Latinized Greek (pantheion ), was dedicated to "all the gods." The Anastasis in Jerusalem commemorates the resurrection (anastasis ) of Jesus. Basilica denotes a public building with royal (basileus ) links. The generic term is marturion (Lat., martyrium ), from martureo, "to be a witness." Such an edifice is a monument or memorial; the two terms are synonymous—the one from moneo, "to remind," and the other from memor, "to remember." It therefore preserves or promotes the memory of a person or event; the English Cathedral of Saint Albans, for example, commemorates a martyred saint, and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem recalls the birth of Christ.
Terms descriptive of the activity for which a building is used
The Hebrew devir, which denotes the holy of holies in the Jerusalem Temple, may suggest an oracle, from a verb meaning to "speak" in which case it is similar to the Latin fanum, from fari, "to speak," especially of oracles. Proseuke (Gr.) and oratorium (Lat.), in English oratory, or place of prayer, all point to a particular form of religious devotion. Baptistery (Gr., baptizō, "to dip") specifies ceremonial action, and mosque (Arab., masjid, "place of prostration" [before God]), the place of an action.
Terms indicative of the shape of the edifice
These relate mainly to funerary architecture: tholos, a "dome" or "vault," signifies a round tomb; tomb itself comes from tumulus, a sepulchral mound; pyramid suggests a geometric form and is at the same time the designation of a pharaoh's resting place; masṭabah is the Arabic for a bench that describes the shape of a tomb; stupa, from the Sanskrit stupa (Pali, thūpa ), signifies a reliquary "mound" or tower; ziggurat, from the Babylonian ziqqurratu, meaning "mountain peak" or "pinnacle," is descriptive of the superimposed terraces that make up this structure.
Typology according to Character
Granting the unavoidable overlap, four main types may be specified.
Taking pride of place, because the majority of terms in use emphasize this particular category, is the structure that is regarded as a divine habitation. Since the chief occupant enjoys divine status, the model is believed to have been provided from above. Gudea, ruler of Lagash in the third millennium bce, was shown the plans of his temple by the goddess herself. The shrine of Amaterasu, the Japanese sun goddess, was built according to the directions provided by an oracle. Various passages in the Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament) indicate that the Tabernacle and the Temple were considered to have transcendent exemplars. Yahveh's instructions to Moses were to this effect: "Let them make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell in their midst. According to all that I show you concerning the pattern of the tabernacle, and of all its furniture, so you shall make it.… And see that you make them after the pattern for them, which is being shown you on the mountain" (Ex. 25:8f., 25:40). Similarly, when David gave the plans of the Temple of Solomon, it is reported: "All this he made clear by the writing from the hand of the Lord concerning it, all the work to be done according to the plan" (1 Chr. 28:19). In the Wisdom of Solomon, the king is represented as saying that what he has built is "a copy of the holy tabernacle which you did prepare aforehand from the beginning" (9:8). The author of the Letter to the Hebrews reproduces the same idea when he describes the Temple and its furniture as "a copy and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary" and as "copies of the heavenly things" (Heb. 8:5, 9:23).
The work of the divine architects is frequently held to include not only god-houses but entire cities. Sennacherib received the design of Nineveh drawn in a heavenly script. The New Jerusalem, in the prophet Ezekiel's vision, is described in the greatest detail, with precise dimensions included. The Indian holy city of Banaras is thought to have been not only planned but actually built by Śiva.
Similar ideas are present in Christian thought from the fourth century onward. When large churches came to be built, as distinct from the previous small house-churches, recourse was had to the Old Testament for precedent, since the New Testament provided no guidance. Thus the basilica came to be regarded as an imitation of the Jerusalem Temple: the atrium corresponded to the forecourt, the nave to the holy place (heikhal), and the area round the altar to the holy of holies (devir ). By the thirteenth century it was normal to consider a Gothic cathedral as an image of the heavenly Jerusalem, a reflection of heaven on earth.
The presence of the god may be represented in a number of ways, most frequently by statues as, for example, in Egyptian, Greek, and Hindu temples, and alternatively by a bas-relief, as at the Temple of Baal in Palmyra. The building is then appropriately called a shrine. The Hebrews, forbidden to have graven images of deity, which were dismissed as idols, took the ark as the center of their devotion and this eventually was regarded as a throne upon which Yahveh sat invisible. Again, mosaics or paintings can be employed, notably in the apses of early Christian basilicas or on the iconostases of Eastern Orthodox churches. But in certain religions, the entire structure is regarded as a revelation of the deity. Greek sanctuaries were so conceived, and to this day Hindu temples are not only places but objects of reverence, evoking the divine.
Precisely because this type of building is regarded as the mundane dwelling of a deity, constructed according to a transcendental blueprint, it is also understood as a meeting place of gods and humans. So the ziggurat of Larsa, in lower Babylonia, was called "the house of the bond between heaven and earth." This link may be physically represented by a sacred object. The Kaʿbah in Mecca, the holiest shrine of Islam, is the symbol of the intersection between the vertical axis of the spirit and the horizontal plane of human existence: a hollow cube of stone, it is the axis mundi of Islamic cosmology. In other religions wooden poles or stone pillars fulfill the same function; such were the asherim of the Canaanites reported in the Old Testament. The finial of a Buddhist stupa is conceived to be the top of a pillar passing through the whole structure and providing the point of contact between earth and heaven.
The divine is also associated with mountains that rear up into the sky; Olympus in ancient Greece was one such place, and in the myths of the Maasai, Mount Kilimanjaro on the border of Kenya and Tanzania is dubbed the "house of god." This symbolism can be applied to the religious building itself. Each Egyptian temple was believed to represent the primordial hillock, while the Babylonian ziggurats were artificial high places. Hindu temples, such as the one at Ellora, are sometimes called Kailasa, which is the name of Śiva's sacred mountain. Their superstructure is known as the "crest" (śikhara ) of a hill, and the contours and tiered arrangement of the whole building derive from a desire to suggest the visual effect of a mountain.
Sacred and profane
As noted above, while a religious building can be called a house, it is not any kind of house: there is something special about it, and hence words denoting "great house" or "palace" are used. But its particular distinction derives from the nature of the being who inhabits it and who invests it with something of his or her own character. In most religions the divine is a being apart; his or her habitation must consequently be a building apart, and so it is regarded as a holy place in sharp opposition to profane space.
To speak of the sacred and the profane in this way is to refer to two antithetical entities. The one is potent, full of power, while the other is powerless. They cannot therefore approach one another without losing their proper nature: either the sacred will consume the profane or the profane will contaminate and enfeeble the sacred. The sacred is therefore dangerous. It both attracts and repels human beings—it attracts them because it is the source of power, and it repels them because to encounter it is to be in peril. The sacred is "the wholly other"; it is a reality of an entirely different order from "natural realities." Contacts can only be intermittent and must be strictly regulated by rites, which can have either a positive or a negative character. Among the former are rites of consecration whereby someone or something is introduced into the realm of the holy. The negative takes the form of prohibitions, raising barriers between the two. These rites allow a certain coming and going between the two spheres since they provide the conditions within which intercourse is possible. But any attempt, outside the prescribed limits, to unite sacred and profane brings confusion and disaster.
Underlying all this dualism is the concept of two worlds: a sacred world and a secular world. Two realms of being are envisaged, and this opposition finds its visible expression in holy places. The sacred space, defined by the religious building or precinct, is first of all a means of ensuring the isolation and so the preservation of both the sacred and the profane. The wall that keeps the one out also serves to keep the other in; it is the demarcation line (temenos, tempus, templum ) between the two worlds. But within the sacred enclosure, the profane world is transcended and hence the existence of the holy place makes it possible for humans to pass from one world to another. The door or gate is then an object of great importance, for it is the means of moving from profane to sacred space. The name Babylon itself literally means "gate of the gods," and Jacob at Bethel declared: "This is the gate of heaven." In the same realm of ideas is to be found the royal doors that provide access through the iconostasis to the altar of the Eastern Orthodox church and the "Gates of Paradise," which is the name given by Michelangelo to Lorenzo Ghiberti's sculpted doors at the Florence Baptistery.
The precise location of these holy places is ultimately determined by their association with divine beings. The Nabataean high place at Petra is legitimized by being on a mountain top that, as seen above, has religious connotations. Equally holy were caves, linked in the religious consciousness with the womb, rebirth, the darkness of Hades, initiation rites, and so forth: many a Hindu holy place enshrines a cavern in a cliff. A theophany too constitutes a holy place. David knew where to build the Temple in Jerusalem because of a manifestation at the threshing floor of Araunah (Ornan) the Jebusite. Under the Roman Empire, augurs were consulted, sacrifices offered, and the divine will thereby discovered. The shrine at Monte Sant'Angelo in the Gargano (c. 1076) was built because it was believed that the archangel Michael had visited the place. Similarly the sixteenth-century Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, near Mexico City, marks the spot where the Virgin Mary presented herself to a peasant. Rites of consecration can act as substitutes if there is a lack of any definite command from above; by their means a space is declared set apart, and the god is besought to take up residence with confidence that the prayer will be answered.
Center of reference
Both individuals and communities require some center of reference for their lives so that amid the vagaries of a changing world there is a pivot that may provide an anchor in the ultimate. Religious buildings can and do constitute such centers to such an extent that the idea of a middle point has been taken quite literally. Every Egyptian temple was considered to be located where creation began and was therefore the navel of the earth. In Jewish thought the selfsame term has been applied to Jerusalem, and the site of the Temple is held to be the place of the original act of creation. In Greek religion it was the shrine of Apollo at Delphi that was declared to be the earth's midpoint. According to Hinduism, Meru is the axial mountain at the center of the universe, and the name Meru is also used in Bali for the superstructure of a temple. The main shrine of the Tenrikyo sect of Shintō at Tenrishi marks the cradle of the human race and encloses a sacred column indicating the center of the world.
Within the same ambit of ideas is the view that a religious building may be related to cosmic forces and therefore assist in geomancy. Hence, for example, the monumental structures at Teotihuacán in Mexico are arranged within a vast precinct in such a way as to observe the relations of the earth to the sun. The orientation of Christian churches so that their sanctuary is at the east end is another way of affirming this cosmic link, while the concern of Hindu architects for the proportions and measurements of their designs rests upon the conviction that the universe as a whole has a mathematical basis that must be embodied in every temple.
In Hinduism too the temple plan functions as a maṇḍala —a sacred geometrical diagram of the essential structure of the cosmos. This interpretation of religious buildings is widespread in time and space. The "big house" of the Delaware Indians of North America stands for the world: its floor is the earth, the four walls are the four quarters, and the vault is the sky. An identical understanding of Christian churches is to be found as early as the seventh century and is typical of Eastern Orthodox thought; the roof of Saint Sophia in Edessa was compared to the heavens, its mosaic to the firmament, and its arches to the four corners of the earth. Medieval cathedrals in the West, such as the one at Chartres, were similarly regarded as models of the cosmos and as providing foretastes of the heavenly Jerusalem.
Monument or memorial
The essentials of a sacred place are location and spatial demarcation rather than buildings, but when there are edifices, they too serve to locate and spatially demarcate. Their importance is to be found not so much in the specific area as in the events that occurred there and that they bring to remembrance. In other words the locations are mainly associated with notable happenings in the life of a religious founder or with the exploits of gods and goddesses, and they stand as memorials (remembrancers) or monuments (reminders). One of the units in the complex erected by Emperor Constantine in fourth-century Jerusalem was known as the Martyrium, the testimony to or evidence and proof of the reality of Christ's death and resurrection, which were believed to have occurred at that very site. Also in Jerusalem is the Muslim Dome of the Rock, which enshrines the spot whence the prophet Muḥammad is believed to have ascended to heaven, a site already associated in Jewish tradition with Solomon's Temple, the tomb of Adam, and the sacrifice of Isaac. At Bodh Gayā in the state of Bihar, India, the Mahābodhi Temple is situated in front of the bodhi tree under which Gautama attained enlightenment. At Sarnath, near Banaras, a stupa commemorates the Buddha's first sermon delivered in the Deer Park to five ascetics.
Not only founders but also individual followers may be honored in this way. Numerous stupas are monuments to Buddhist sages, and many a martyrium in the days of the early church was set up on the very spot where a martyr (martus, "witness") had testified to his faith with his blood. The buildings also serve as shrines to protect their remains and can therefore be classified as tombs. Indeed every tomb that assumes a monumental character is a reminder of the dead, whether in the form of separate memorials to individuals, as found in the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris, or of a single edifice to a person representative of many, such as the tomb of the unknown warrior beneath the Arc de Triomphe in the same city.
Many religious buildings that function as memorials enclose space: the pyramids of Giza have within them the burial chambers of pharaohs; the Cenotaph in London, on the other hand, a monument to the dead of two world wars shelters nothing. It corresponds to the second of the four fundamental modes of monumental architecture. First, there is the precinct, which shows the limits of the memorial area and finally develops through a typological series to the stadium. Second is the cairn, which makes the site visible from afar and indicates its importance, the ultimate development of this type is the pyramid. Third is the path that signals a direction and can take the sophisticated form of a colonnaded street, thus dignifying the approach to the main shrine. Fourth, there is the hut that acts as a sacred shelter, with the cathedral as one of its most developed types.
A religious building that is regarded as a divine dwelling, or domus dei, is a meeting place of heaven and earth, but when it is understood as a meetinghouse, it is more correctly styled a domus ecclesiae because it is a building where the people of god assemble. Solomon had been led to question the validity of the temple type when he asked "Will God indeed dwell upon earth?" (1 Kgs. 8:27). However, it was not until the birth of Christianity that a full-scale attack was directly launched upon the whole idea of an earthly divine domicile; in the words of Stephen, "The Most High does not dwell in houses made with hands" (Acts 7:48). In the light of the later development of Christian thought it is difficult to appreciate how revolutionary this new attitude was.
The early believers committed themselves to an enfleshed god, to one who was no longer apart or afar off but had drawn near; at his sacrificial death the Temple veil had split in two so that the Holy of Holies was no longer fenced off. The living community now became the temple of the divine presence. A new concept of the holy was minted: there can no longer be anything common or profane for Christians (pro, "in front of," or outside the fanum ) since they constitute the naos of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 3:16). The dining room of a private house is a suitable venue for the assembly; the proud boast is that "we have no temples and no altars" (Minucius Felix, c. 200). All this was to change drastically in the fourth century when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and took over the public functions of the pagan cults. It was not until the Protestant Reformation that the New Testament understanding was given a fresh lease of life when divines such as John Calvin objected to the idea of special holy places. Such a view is not peculiar to Christianity; Judaism has its synagogues for meeting together, and Islam has its mosques, which are equally congregational. If a building as a divine dwelling is at one end of a spectrum, then the meetinghouse is at the other extreme.
Typology according to Function
The different types of building just delineated provide for the fulfillment of certain purposes in that they accommodate religious activities; it is consequently both possible and necessary to specify a second typology according to function, which stems from but also complements the previous typology according to character.
Service of the deities
At home, resident within their temples, the gods require their devotees to perform certain services for them. Perhaps the most striking illustration of need is provided by the toilet ceremonies of ancient Egypt. Each morning the cult image was asperged, censed, anointed, vested, and crowned. At the present day very similar ceremonies are conducted in Hindu temples, where the images are cooled with water in hot weather, anointed, clad in beautiful clothes, and garlanded. During the day it used to be the custom to divert them with the performances of the devadāsī s, or temple dancers. At night they are accompanied by a procession to their beds. Food may be provided, from the simple gift of grain in an African village to the hecatombs of Classical Greece. Another normal form of worship is sacrifice, ranging from human victims to a dove or pigeon, from the first fruits of the harvest to shewbread.
Positive and negative functions
The motives for such services can be diverse; sometimes they are prompted by the concern to provide sustenance, while at other times they are to establish communion, to propitiate, to seek favors. Functions now become reciprocal: the service of the gods is expected to obtain a response from the gods, in that they now serve human needs. Two examples, for many, will suffice to illustrate this.
Since the temple is a divine dwelling, to enter its precincts is to come into the presence of the god and so be under his or her protection. As a sacred place, the building is inviolable, and no one can be removed from it by force; to do so would be sacrilege, since a person who is inside the area of holiness has been invested with some of the sacredness inherent in it and thus cannot be touched as long as he or she does not emerge. This is the rationale of sanctuary as it was practiced in the classical world. The most famous case was that of Demosthenes who in 322 bce sought sanctuary in the Temple of Poseidon on the island of Calauria. When, in the post-Constantine era, church buildings were included in the same class as pagan temples, as specially holy places, it was natural that the idea of sanctuary should also be connected to them. The right of fugitives to remain under the protection of their god became legally recognized and in western Europe continued to be so for centuries; indeed, in England it was not until 1723 that all rights of sanctuary were finally declared null.
The second example of the gods themselves fulfilling a function on behalf of their followers is the practice of incubation. This is a method of obtaining divine favors by passing a length of time in one of their houses, usually sleeping there. Its primary aspect is medical, to obtain a cure, either immediately or after obeying the divine will disclosed in a vision. In the Temple of Ptah at Memphis therapeutic oracles were delivered and various remedies were revealed through dreams to those who slept there. The two principal healing gods in the Greek and Roman pantheons were Asklepios and Sarapis, and there is record of a shrine of the former at Aegae where those who passed the night were restored to health. The apparent success of these two gods ensured their continued popularity, and their cults only fell into disuse when churches replaced their temples as centers of healing believed to be accomplished by Christ through his saints. Among the most successful of the Christian holy men to cure illness were Cosmas and Damian, to whom a church was dedicated in Constantinople. Running this center a close second was the Church of Saint Menas near Alexandria; there some patients stayed for over a year and the church itself was so completely filled with mattresses and couches that they had to overflow into the sacristy. Incubation has had a continuous history down to the present day; in eastern Europe, for example, it can still be witnessed.
These several functions may all be regarded as positive in character, but a corollary of viewing a religious building as a holy place is the requirement for negative rituals to safeguard it by purifying those who wish to enter. Such rituals determine some of the furnishing, and so, for example, the forecourts of mosques have tanks and/or fountains for ablutions. Holy water stoups are to be found just inside the entrance of Roman Catholic churches; baptismal fonts were originally placed either in rooms separate from the main worship area or in entirely distinct buildings. The removal of shoes before entering a Hindu temple, of hats before going into a Christian church—all of these testify to the seriousness of entering a holy place. Many religious buildings have guardians to protect their entrances. The giant figures in the royal complex at Bangkok, the bull Nandin in the temples of Śiva, the scenes of the Last Judgment in the tympana over the west doors into medieval cathedrals—these are but a few examples.
Determination of form
The interior disposition of those religious buildings conceived to be divine dwellings is very much determined by the forms of the services offered. Where, for example, processions are a habitual feature of the ceremonial, then corridors for circumambulation have to be designed, as in the complex of Horus at Idfu; this also explains the labyrinthine character of many Hindu temples. When a statue is only to be seen by a special priesthood and has to be shielded from profane gaze, an inner chamber is created, often entirely dark, to protect humankind from the brilliant light of the divine presence, and this sanctuary may be protected itself by a series of surrounding rooms or courtyards. Where there are sacrifices, altars are needed, but these are frequently outside the shrine so that the individual worshiper can actually witness what the priest is doing with his or her gift. Classical Greek temples sheltered statues of the tutelary deities, but the all-important altars were outside; on the Athenian Akropolis, for example, it was in front of the Parthenon. Sometimes altars can themselves be architectural in character: the Altar of Zeus of Pergamum (c. 180 bce), now in Berlin, has a crepidoma measuring 36.44 by 34.20 meters, and the Altar of Hieron II (276–222 bce) at Syracuse is some 200 meters long and 27 wide.
Conveyance of revelation and teaching
As a center of reference, a religious building may accommodate activities that convey meaning, guidance, and instruction in the faith. Many Babylonian temples, for example, were sources of divination and even had a full complement of soothsayers, exorcists, and astrologers. Daoist temples equally are resorted to for divinatory purposes. The oracle was consulted at Delphi, to instance the greatest focus of this activity in the ancient world. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem had cultic prophets on its staff.
Where a sacred book is central to a religion, provision for its reading and exposition has to be made. In synagogues there has to be a shrine for the Torah and a desk from which to comment on the text. In Christian churches there are lecterns for the Bible and pulpits for the sermon. Islam has its stands for the Qurʾān, and its minbar is the equivalent of the Christian pulpit, although the shape differs in that it is a miniature flight of stairs rising away from the congregation whom the preacher faces down the steps. Sikh worship concentrates on the reading of the Granth, which is accompanied by prayers and exposition. In these ways religious buildings function as centers of meaning.
Manifestation of reverence and celebration of festivals
The religious building as memorial, it will be recalled, often contains relics of religious founders or particularly saintly people. Reverence for these can be shown by visitation, sometimes to offer thanks for benefits received and sometimes to petition for help. Those who seek healing go in great numbers to the shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes to bathe in the sacred spring. In this and similar instances the designs of the buildings are affected by the need to accommodate the sick for short or long stays. In the Muslim world the virtue of a saint is believed to be available to those who follow him (or her) or touch some object associated with him. If he be dead, then his tomb, which is his memorial, becomes a center of his supernatural power (barakah ) and attracts many visitors. Pilgrimages are one of the forms that these visits may take. So too Hindus travel to Hardwar (North India), which displays a footprint of Viṣṇu in stone. Jains go to Mount Abu, also in India, where the last tīrthaṅkara (guide), named Mahavira, spent the thirty-seventh year of his life. Buddhists go to Adam's Peak in Sri Lanka, where there is a footprint of Gautama; adherents of Islam make the ḥājj to Mecca, and indeed it is one of the five duties of Islam. Christians have their holy places in Israel and Jordan or visit the catacombs in Rome.
Festivals are the celebrations of the births or deaths of saints, and they commemorate key events in the sacred history of a religion. For Jews, to celebrate Passover in Jerusalem is a traditional goal. For Christians, too, there is a certain fittingness in observing Christmas, the Feast of the Nativity, in Bethlehem itself. Religious buildings then function as centers for such celebrations.
It is important, if this particular category is to be appreciated, to distinguish it clearly, despite some overlap, from the service of the deities described above, with which it can easily be confused. The essential difference can be made plain by applying the term cult to the first function and reserving worship for this fourth one. The basic understanding of cult is evident from its etymology. It derives from colere, which means "to till the ground" and hence to take care of, or attend to, with the aim that the object of attention should bear fruit or produce some benefit. Next it signifies "to honor" and finally "to worship." The cultus is therefore a cultivating of the gods, a cherishing of them, seeing to their needs; it is the bestowal of labor upon them and the manifestation of regard toward them. There is more than a hint of doing something to obtain a favor, as in the phrase "to cultivate someone's acquaintance." Cultus stems from the human side, whereas worship, as it is used here to describe this fourth function, is from the side of the gods. Not only are they the ones who provide the form and matter of worship, but through it they come to encounter their community.
Worship of this kind is characterized as congregational to differentiate it further from cultus, which is primarily individualistic. Worship then is meeting: the religious building is the meeting house. What takes place is not an activity aimed at or on behalf of the gods; the gods take the initiative. Hence worship is a memorial celebration of the saving deeds of the gods, and by it the people are created and renewed again and again. So, in Christian terms, the Body of Christ (the Christian community) progressively becomes what it is by feeding upon the sacramental body of Christ. Worship fosters community identity, and hence in the chapels of Christian monasteries the seating frequently faces inward, thus promoting a family atmosphere.
The precise interior disposition of a building will also depend upon the particular understanding or form of the communal rite. Religions that center on a book of revelation, such as Judaism, Islam, and Sikhism, require auditoria. Protestantism, concentrating upon the word of God, similarly tends to arrange its congregations in rows suitable for an audience (audientes, a group of "hearers"). Roman Catholicism, with its greater emphasis on the Mass, stresses the visual dominance of the altar, which is now no longer outside the building, as with Roman and Greek exemplars, but inside.
If the act of worship is understood to be conducted by a professional hierarchy on behalf of the community as a whole, then some separation is likely, ranging from the Eastern Orthodox iconostasis at one extreme to communion rails at others. Where there is no sharp differentiation of role, as in Islam (since the imam is simply a prayer leader and is in no sense an ordained minister), the space is not partitioned; instead there is lateral disposition, with the worshipers shoulder to shoulder facing toward Mecca.
On whatever basis a typology of religious buildings may be constructed and whatever purposes they may serve, there is one overall function that must be considered: symbolization. Each building proclaims certain beliefs about the deities to whom it is dedicated. One has only to contrast a Gothic cathedral with a Quaker meeting house to appreciate this. The former in all its grandeur speaks of a god who is high and lifted up, remote, awesome in majesty, fearful in judgment, demanding obeisance; the latter in all its simplicity witnesses to a being who is to be known in the midst of life, who is not separate, whose dwelling is with humankind, offering fellowship. The one speaks of power and might, the other of self-emptying and servanthood.
Sometimes the symbolism is intellectually apprehended before it is given visible form, and then it needs interpretation. Baptism, for example, is a sacrament of dying and rising with Christ. A detached baptistery may be hexagonal or octagonal: in the former case it refers to the sixth day of the week, Friday, on which Jesus died and in the latter, to the eighth day, or the first day of a new week when he rose from the dead. The dome, surmounting many a baptistery, is also a habitual feature of Byzantine churches and Muslim mosques, and as the baldachin or canopy it can enshrine any holy object or complete a memorial structure. Its popularity derives from its ideological context: it is a representation of the transcendental realm, an image of heaven. It is a not-inappropriate roofing for tombs, and many baptisteries took the shape of contemporary burial edifices precisely because of the meaning of the purificatory rite. Different parts of a building can have their own messages: towers declare heavenly aspirations; monumental doorways can impress with regal authority. Sculpture, painting, mosaic can and do fulfill a symbolic function. Gargoyles ward off evil spirits; paintings recall events or persons in sacred history; Christ as creator mundi holds his worshipers within his downward gaze. The handling of light is frequently symbolic. In a mosque it testifies to God as the light of heaven and earth; in Gothic architecture it is a basic constituent and is regarded as a manifestation of the glory of God.
There is yet another typology to be reviewed that applies to all buildings whatever their function, and religious buildings are no exception. This is a dual typology that divides structures into the categories of path and place. For a path to be identifiable, it must have (1) strong edges, (2) continuity, (3) directionality, (4) recognizable landmarks, (5) a sharp terminal, and (6) end-from-end distinction. For a place to be identifiable, it must be (1) concentrated in form with pronounced borders, (2) a readily comprehensible shape, (3) limited in size, (4) a focus for gathering, (5) capable of being experienced as an inside in contrast to a surrounding exterior, and (6) largely non-directional.
The application of these types to religious buildings can be briefly illustrated by contrasting a basilica and a centralized mosque. A basilica is a path leading toward the altar; every detail of the design confirms this. The nave, framed by aisles, has firm edges; there is continuity provided by floor patterns and advancing rows of columns, which themselves indicate a direction—everything points toward the holy table framed in a triumphal arch and backed by the embracing shape of the apse. For a pilgrim people, for those who have here no abiding city, such a royal road is obviously very appropriate. A centralized mosque, on the other hand such as those designed by Sinan in Istanbul, suggests no movement, it is a place, a point of reference and gathering, it is concentrated. Once within, there is no incentive to leave and every enticement to stay. Embodying perfect equipoise, it promotes contemplation; it is indeed embracing architecture. Its spaciousness expresses not the specificity of the Christian doctrine of the incarnation but the omnipresence of the divine; it manifests tawhid, which is the metaphysical doctrine of the divine unity as the source and culmination of all diversity.
The difference then between basilica and mosque is not stylistic; they are distinct architectural types, which in these two instances correspond to each religion's self-understanding. This circumstance does not, however, provide support for the nineteenth-century theory that every religion develops its own supreme architectural form to best express its ethos and spirit. The character of any building at any epoch is affected by many factors: technical aptitude, climate, availability of materials, function, and so on. Patronage has also played an important role. The Temple in Jerusalem, for example, was in origin Solomon's royal chapel, and indeed, not a few English medieval churches were on the estates of local lords, who regarded them as their own possessions. One effect of this influence was the monumentalization of many religious buildings: they were designed to display the power and authority not only of a heavenly being but of an earthly ruler. In this way many a Mughal mosque in India proclaimed the might of the ruling house. Royal, princely, and ducal boxes and galleries were inserted, and in western Europe the well-to-do could provide for their continued well-being by constructing private chantry chapels within existing parish churches. Communal patronage was not necessarily less concerned with outward show. Civic pride and congregational piety can result in costly programs.
Yet the study of the architecture of the world religions is not just a part of social history; it is an important element in understanding the religious traditions themselves. Since cult or worship is at the heart of any faith, and such an activity can only be studied and appreciated fully within its own special setting, it would be an abstraction to concentrate upon texts alone. Moreover, the symbolic function of architectural forms is in itself an additional source of knowledge to be taken into account.
Throughout the ages human beings have found meaning and succor in sacred places enshrined in their religious buildings. In a secularized society there still survives a need for centers of reference, meeting places, and memorials, but they then become associated with national figures and national identity. The Kremlin wall where leaders of the Russian Revolution are buried, together with Lenin's tomb, constitute one such place for Russian citizens. The Lincoln Memorial in Washington has a spacious chamber containing a seated statue and having the words of the Gettysburg and the Second Inaugural addresses incised on its walls; both president and texts have important contributions to make to United States identity. The White House in Washington and Buckingham Palace in London are seen as the dwellings of those who have about them a semidivine aura. The birthplaces or museums containing souvenirs (relics) of film and pop stars become centers of pilgrimage. A monument to Egypt's first president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, overlooks the Aswan Dam on the Nile. The former concentration camp at Dachau has become a memorial of the Nazi Holocaust. At the same time temples, cathedrals, mosques, and the like continue to be built: sacred sites, whether overtly religious or not, are a continuing feature of the human scene.
Axis Mundi; Banaras; Basilica, Cathedral, and Church; Biblical Temple; Circle; Circumambulation; Cities; Cosmology; Jerusalem; Kaʿbah; Labyrinth; Monastery; Mosque, article on Architectural Aspects; Orientation; Pilgrimage; Portals; Procession; Pyramids; Relics; Sacred Space; Shrines; Synagogue; Temple; Tombs; Towers; Worship and Devotional Life.
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J. G. Davies (1987)
ARCHITECTURE. The monumental inventions of early modern European architecture still mark the modern built environment. Vast boulevards and formal gardens focusing on public buildings denote the capital city everywhere. Domes dominate the skyline in Rome, London, and Washington. Uniform palaces and house facades define the squares of Paris and London, the canals of Amsterdam and St. Petersburg. Churches modeled on imperial Roman baths and basilicas seem to reach outwards, with spectacular baroque facades and multiple columns extending into public space, like the twin columns (inspired by Trajan's Column in Rome) of Vienna's Karlskirche (Fischer von Erlach, 1715–1738), or the colonnades that define the piazza of St. Peter's in Rome (Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1656–1667). The countryside, too, is transformed by villas and great houses in their landscaped grounds, and in the most famous case, Versailles (Louis Levau and J. H. Mansart, 1668–1689), the out-of-town retreat became the capital of an absolute monarch.
The language of all these buildings is classical, using the columns, arches, cornices, vaults, and triangular pediments still visible in the ruins of ancient Rome, integrating them according to the ancient treatise of Vitruvius, and in some cases directly imitating the few ancient buildings that survived, such as the Pantheon and the Colosseum. But this language was transformed in several ways, going beyond the accomplishments of the Renaissance. In its baroque form, space becomes more complex, and surfaces more agitated and ornate; straight moldings and flat walls curve and break apart, columns spiral, circles turn into ovals, ceilings dissolve into vast trompe l'oeil paintings that seem open to heaven, and solid ornament imitates the movement of angels or the sudden burst of light. Secular buildings undergo the same transformation, especially in their ceremonial staircases and uniform suites of reception rooms that create the impression of infinite power. The best of these designs is orderly and monumental rather than capricious or excessive, yet periodically architects reacted against the baroque, instigating a calmer and more rational classicism. A well-known example is Palladianism, a revival of the late Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) that came to dominate English country house design in the eighteenth century in reaction to the ornate formality of Versailles and its English baroque rival, John Vanbrugh's Blenheim (1705–1716).
Individual buildings and urban spaces conveyed a powerful message of confidence and control through new forms and crystalline geometry even when they were not very large. Thus Francesco Borromini's (1599–1667) church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome (1634–1667), though only the size of one of the piers of St. Peter's, created a stir among visitors and critics who praised its curved facade and oval dome—or execrated them in equal measure. Sant' Ivo (1642–1660), Borromini's Star of David–shaped chapel for the University of Rome, dazzled with its breathless spiral tower that altered the role of the adjacent Pantheon's dome. Borromini's fastidiousness for building materials and moldings was matched by his French contemporary François Mansart, but the latter's trademark at country houses such as Château Maisons near Paris (1642) and the Orleans wing of the royal palace at Blois (1635) was a limpid and austere classicism. Pietro da Cortona's (1596–1669) facade for Santa Maria della Pace (1656–1659) in Rome applied theatricality to urban design, placing a lavishly columned and curved portico in a small space that caught unprepared visitors by surprise. Paris, Turin, London, and Bath were endowed with geometrical open spaces framed with uniform porticoes and houses, to whose shapes the English word "square" fails to do justice: rather, they were triangular (Place Dauphine), circular (Place des Victoires, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, 1685; the Circus, John Wood, 1754), rectangular (Piazza San Carlo, Carlo di Castellamonte, 1620), hexagonal (Place Vendôme, Mansart, 1698), and elliptical (Royal Crescent, John Wood, Jr., 1767–1777). Countering these residential "squares" were the public spaces of Rome, such as Piazza Navona (Four Rivers fountain by Bernini, 1647–1651), the Spanish Steps (Francesco de Sanctis, 1723–1726), and the Trevi fountain (Nicola Salvi, 1762), each animated by generous displays of statuary, water, terraces, and views. This festive quality of the best early modern urban design was enhanced with additional ornaments, including innumerable triumphal arches, imprinting the city with commemorative meaning.
THE ARCHITECTURAL CITY
The innovations of the Italian Renaissance provided an ample foundation for the developments in architecture of the late sixteenth, the seventeenth, and the first half of the eighteenth centuries. This inheritance was enhanced by the innovations of military defense, altered social and political organizations, and new forms of organized religion. Yet despite significant research in church form and extensive construction of places of worship, the period is marked by a secularization of architecture and urban space.
The seventeenth century was an urban century, whose great cities—defined by the size of the population (according to Giovanni Botero) and the magnificence of their rulers—constituted its new wealth. A large population can be attained through prosperity and security, and the architecture of the early modern era defined the prosperity of the social order and ensured its safety in the face of enemies. Distinguished buildings, significant historical inheritance, artistic collections, and public safety attracted visitors to the great city. Thus consumerism and tourism developed in tandem with the early modern city and its architectural expression.
This was accompanied by the widespread acceptance and application of the revived classical style of architecture in places outside the Italian peninsula—in France, England, the Netherlands, the Germanic states, Sweden, Russia, and the British colonies in the Americas. A specifically Counter-Reformation style of classical architecture, emphasizing massive, ornate spaces and animated forms that propagate the faith by captivating the audience, was disseminated in the colonial towns of Spanish and Portuguese settlers, and in the missionary convents of religious orders in Central and South America, on the western coast of Africa, and on the Indian subcontinent.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, architecture became an instrument of state control and organization, not only signifying the cultural advantages of its sponsors (as in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) but also assuming a defining role in the identity of nascent national states. Thus secularized, classicized, and politicized, architecture transformed the early modern city. The architectural product continued to be defined through three types of design—church, palace, and public square—but each underwent extensive refinement and redefinition. We have cathedrals, parish churches, and monastic churches as before, though now competing for attention through the offer of urban amenities such as colonnades, fountains, and elaborately decorated facades, transformed by the worldly social agenda of the Counter-Reformation. The palace building type came to encompass not only aristocratic town residences (called hôtels in France) and the communal homes of religious orders, but also the state agencies of control, management, and reform (such as prisons, almshouses, hospitals, and city halls). The open spaces of the city surrounded by this evolving set of buildings (housing new functions and organized into streets and squares more or less geometrically defined and ordered) became the principal sites of urban meaning. The definition of urban architecture was ultimately achieved through the enclosure of a city within a fortification belt (walls, bastions, outworks, and gateways) that effectively created the separation between town and country and allowed each to develop firm boundaries.
This defining separation was the major contribution of military urbanism. Other military-influenced architectural features were the triumphal arch, the pentagonal citadel, the wide, uniformly framed straight boulevard, and the equestrian statue of the victorious ruler placed at the center of squares used for parades and festivities. The pacification brought about by military architecture encouraged the development of the rural palace or agrarian villa. Palladio's urbane villas (such as the Rotonda outside Vicenza, 1566–1569, and the Villa Barbaro at Maser, 1554–1558) offered a residential type that resonates throughout early modern architecture. Modeled on the French royal château, the palaces at Blenheim, Tsarskoe Selo (Bartolomeo Rastrelli, 1749–1756), and Schönbrunn (Fischer von Erlach, 1696–1711) are among the most prominent examples of the "Versailles syndrome" that swept through eighteenth-century Europe.
This new understanding of architecture, urbane even in its country houses, was promoted through the burgeoning medium of print: illustrated books, single sheets, and specialized studies turned the newly defined city and its buildings into a subject of study, and were collected by all those with pretensions to learning: for the first time in the history of Western civilization, the achievements of architects could be appreciated, studied, and imitated without leaving home. Nonetheless, this graphic documentation stimulated travel in the pursuit of architectural education, making Rome—then Paris, London, and Amsterdam—the destinations for nonreligious pilgrimage.
BAROQUE ROME AND BEYOND
The issues involved in large building operations—budget, conflicting interests of patrons, and variable design talents of architects—can best be illustrated by the seemingly interminable reconstruction of St. Peter's in Rome. Its dome, completed (Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta, 1590) after nearly a century of indecision and uncertainty, the much desired Renaissance plan of the ideal church as centrally planned—promoted by Bramante (1506) and Michelangelo (c. 1546), the two most acclaimed architects of the sixteenth century—was definitively abandoned. The extension of the church by Carlo Maderno (1607–1612), and the immense facade designed by him, completed the body of the church proper. This signified the coming importance of building elevations in a development that has been labeled facadism—countering the Renaissance's failure to complete the public front of important religious and secular buildings (the facade of San Lorenzo in Florence, for example, whose interior includes Michelangelo's Medicean library and chapel, remains unclad). The elliptical space before St. Peter's, defined by a carefully planted forest of columns, was not completed until the late 1660s by Bernini. The area framed by the facade and colonnade, where pilgrims to Rome were taken to the bosom of the church and whose center was defined by the largest Egyptian obelisk in Rome, represented the epitome of baroque space. The placement of the obelisk under the direction of Domenico Fontana in 1586 marks an important achievement in the history of engineering, considered by architectural historians to be the most influential moment of early modern city planning and a spur to later developments. Facadism then is a crucial element of the concern with the appearance of public space that dominates Western architectural design in the seventeenth century.
Like Florence in the fifteenth century, Rome in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was an artistic hub of the highest order. The papal government (with its huge numbers of retainers and accompanying families), the missionary orders that made their headquarters in the city, and the large numbers of pilgrims constituted the elements of a varied and rich patronage system that attracted the best artists to the city. Milan and Naples, Rome's most important rivals in wealth and size of population, were dominated by the Spanish viceroys, whose cultural contributions were more modest; Spanish monarchs beginning with Philip II concentrated their architectural patronage on the remote palace-monastery El Escorial (Juan de Herrera, 1568–1584). Architects came to work in Rome, but they also came to study, forming "national" groupings lodged among their compatriots in distinct parts of the multicultural city.
By the end of the seventeenth century the Italian tour, though highly recommended, was no longer a requirement for a successful career in architecture. Thus Christopher Wren and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, unlike their predecessors Inigo Jones and Jacques Lemercier, built highly visible religious monuments—St Paul's in London (1675–1711) and the Invalides church in Paris (1679–1691)—modeled on St. Peter's without setting foot in the old city. Inigo Jones put his Italian experience to work designing the queen's house in Greenwich (1616–1635, outside London), a royal villa that later became the centerpiece of Wren's naval hospital (1696–1716), and the Whitehall Banqueting House (1619–1622), which emulated the urban palaces of Palladio in Vicenza. Although his buildings were few, he sowed the seeds of Palladianism, the single most significant classicizing movement in England, whose influence continued through the eighteenth century in the houses designed by John Wood in Bath and Lord Burlington, William Kent, and Robert Adam in the British countryside near London (Chiswick, Syon) and East Anglia (Holkham Hall).
The Dutch version of classicism turned Amsterdam into a Venice of the north and provided the stimulation for the design of St. Petersburg. Russian neoclassicism in the later eighteenth century was leavened by the presence of both Charles Cameron and Giacomo Quarenghi, whose cool white and stripped-down temples and pavilions for the empress Catherine were rooted in the more recent archaeology of the mid-century. Architects at the French Academy in Rome made an inestimable contribution to neoclassicism: they measured and drew antiquities, offering the most accurately reproduced illustrations for those unwilling to travel. By anatomizing antiquities, they acquired a familiarity with the classical forms that led to the transformation of this inheritance, stripping it of baroque accretions.
Architecture in this period solved problems that had been researched for centuries: how to express the status and ambitions of the patron and how to connect the buildings' public and private functions. Thus the formation of palace facades in Rome, Turin, Venice, Paris, and Vienna can be seen as billboards that explicate the position of their owners. This meant articulating the relation between the exterior (the street or garden facade) and the interior, which in turn must be divided into entry, passage, principal reception room, and private apartments.
While palace and church elevations had been recognized as essential areas of relation between public and interior space (and as carriers of meaning), the formal manipulation of these surfaces was determined by concerns for the appearance of dignity and sobriety. The baroque facade became strongly articulated and richly ornamented with the entire arsenal of architectural vocabulary available to designers. While the liveliness of church facades was meant to stimulate a Counter-Reformation participation, the facades of palaces became essential elements in the highly ritualized definition of power exchanges.
The major architectural innovations—St. Peter's in Rome, Palladio's villas, the Louvre in Paris (1666), and the palace at Versailles—soon acquired the authority earlier associated with ancient Roman and Greek buildings such as the Parthenon, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, and the ancient theater. The new standards were serially emulated, though not always with distinguished results. Thus St. Peter's was the source not only for Mansart's Invalides in Paris and Wren's St. Paul's in London, but also for Jacques-Germain Soufflot's Panthéon (1755–1780) in Paris, stretching as far as the nineteenth-century capitol buildings in Washington and in Providence, Rhode Island. Versailles, itself distantly modeled on the Escorial, spawned numerous imitations in the German principalities and in Vienna, as well as in Sweden and Russia. Palladio's villa designs, capable of absorbing variations in scale, were the basis (through Inigo Jones) for innumerable British country houses, and for Thomas Jefferson's influential Monticello. Bernini's designs for the Louvre, and the realized version by Louis Le Vau and Claude Perrault, drew upon the Farnese palace in Rome, the grandest of Renaissance homes, and propagated countless urban houses, from Guarino Guarini's Carignano palace (1679–1683) in Turin to Viennese town palaces of the eighteenth century.
See also Baroque ; Bernini, Gian Lorenzo ; Borromini, Francesco ; Britain, Architecture in ; City Planning ; Estates and Country Houses ; France, Architecture in ; Gardens and Parks ; Mansart, François ; Neoclassicism ; Palladio, Andrea, and Palladianism ; Rome, Architecture in ; Wren, Christopher.
Ackerman, James S. The Villa: Form and Ideology of Country Houses. Princeton, 1990.
Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture of France 1500 to 1700. New Haven, 1999. First published in 1953.
Botero, Giovanni. Della grandezza delle città. 1608.
Millon, Henry, ed. The Triumph of the Baroque: Architecture in Europe 1600–1750. Milan, 1999.
Millon, Henry, and Vittorio Lampugnani, eds. The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The Representation of Architecture. New York, 1994.
Payne, Alina. The Architectural Treatise in the Italian Renaissance: Architectural Invention, Ornament, and Literary Culture. Cambridge, U.K., 1999.
Pollak, Martha. Turin, 1564–1680: Urban Design, Military Culture and the Creation of the Absolutist Capital. Chicago, 1991.
Rykwert, Joseph. The First Moderns: The Architects of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass., 1980.
Summerson, John. The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century. London, 1986.
——. The Classical Language of Architecture. London, 1980.
Waddy, Patricia. Seventeenth-Century Roman Palaces: Use and Art of the Plan. New York and Cambridge, Mass., 1990.
Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture of Italy, 1600–1750. New Haven, 2001. First published in 1958.
ARCHITECTURE. Seventeenth-and eighteenth-century settlers able to erect or purchase buildings in what later became the United States arrived with knowledge of structure and design that in their places of origin was at once fixed and changing. Time-honored ideas about what and how to build were far more commonly agreed upon than commitment to particular architectural styles, an imbalance largely explained by social location. Town and country artisans and laborers building for themselves were bound by ancient construction and compositional conventions, whereas privileged groups and institutions—landed aristocracy, urban gentry, state, church, and university—hired master craftsmen or gentlemen amateurs to supply the latest fashions.
Colonial and Postcolonial (to 1810s)
Regardless of social location, however, European settlers in North America confronted unfamiliar conditions—climate, topographies, materials—that in some cases modified how they built. Rural New Englanders, for example, whose lands were as littered with rocks as dense with trees, seized upon wood as their primary building material, even though at home they had had more experience with stone: soft species of pine were easier to cut, peg, and haul than stones to haul, dress, and lay. Stone was more efficiently deployed to mark property lines, contain animals, and construct the large hearths necessary in a cold climate.
Settlers in New Netherlands, on the other hand, quickly built kilns for firing brick—the preferred material in the Low Countries, where trees could be scarce—and in short order began erecting gabled row houses, with narrow ends to the street or to the slips they dug in the manner of Continental canal cities. Kilns had been erected even earlier in Virginia during 1611, where clay for brick and oyster shells for lime were plentiful. Adam Thoroughgood arrived as an indentured servant in 1621, but by the time he built his residence (c. 1636–1640), he owned a 5,350-acre plantation. Befitting his new standing, his brick house—which survives and may be the oldest on the Atlantic Seaboard—made reference to late Tudor Gothic style, as did Bacon's Castle (c. 1655) in Surrey County, also in brick but on a much more generous scale for the even wealthier Surrey County planter, Arthur Allen. Like houses farther north, both displayed characteristically medieval oversized chimneys, asymmetric plans, and facades. Unlike the more northerly well-to-do, however, their owners consciously emulated what they mistakenly though had remained fashionable in England. But by the time of William Byrd II built Westover (1730–1734) in Charles City County, an elegant mansion that would have appealed to London admirers of Christopher Wren, English Georgian was showing signs of becoming the architectural preference of wealthy planters and merchants from New Hampshire to the Carolinas.
Very different was Spanish California, where the principal architectural embellishments were twenty-one mission complexes strung along El Camino Real from San Diego to Alcalá (1769) to San Francisco de Solano (1823). As in the East (before the 1780s), there were no architects in the West and few craftsmen except those summoned from Mexico. Priests were the designers and superintendents of construction and of impressed indigenous labor, creating in effect tiny urban cores awaiting urban surroundings. The San Juan Capistrano mission (1776) is representative. A plastered, brick and stone, single-aisled Romanesque church with red-tiled roof, a baptistry, sacristy, and apse is attached to the corner of a large, nearly rectangular court (into which residents could retreat if attacked) surrounded by an arched colonnade. The latter fronted guest and bedrooms; kitchen, pantry, parlor, and refectory; and facilities for making hats, candles, soap, wine, woolens, shoes, and olive oil, along with forge, metal and carpentry shops, and guardhouse. A covered walkway and thick walls provided cooling while broad, undecorated stretches of facade offered an aesthetic simplicity that would not be seen again on so large a scale in North America for over a century; except, that is, in the Spanish Southwest (and Florida).
In these other Spanish holdings, California's contradictory impulses were exaggerated. The Governor's Palace (1610–1614) in Santa Fe, New Mexico, is a long, low adobe rectangle, unornamented except by structural elements: rubble plinth, round projecting rafters, and regularly spaced posts supporting the colonnade roof. Similar simplicity characterizes Mission St. Francis of Assisi (1805–1815) at Ranchos de Taos, New Mexico, the apse end of which, though crude adobe, has all the solemnity and some of the power (if nowhere the grandeur and beauty) of the Cathedral (begun 1282) at Albi, France. By contrast, Pedro Huizar's portal to the Church of San Jose y Miguel de Aguayo (1720–1731) in San Antonio, Texas, is as lavish as Spanish Baroque could possible be. Nothing in English North America rivaled this display, although private and public architecture there was, ironically, moving closer to English splendor as American independence approached.
What is called Georgian, speaking dynastically, or Palladian (after Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio), speaking architecturally, made great inroads after 1750. Whether ecclesiastical, residential, or commercial, it raised colonial standards of quality and elegance. Peter Harrison, a Newport, Rhode Island, ship captain and merchant, was not a professional architect if that means supervising construction and taking a stipulated fee, but as a gentleman amateur he kept current with the literature of his avocation. Buildings like the Redwood Library (1748–1750), Touro Synagogue (1759–1763), and the Brick Market (1761–1762) in Newport are squarely based on Renaissance and neo-Renaissance models depicted in the library he had assembled during his travels. Perfectly symmetrical, Doric or Ionic ordered, porticoed and pedimented, and built of brick and stone, his work—like that of William Buckland in the Chesapeake, Samuel McIntire in Salem, Massachusetts, and anonymous gentlemen builders elsewhere—interpreted English Georgian for traders and planters eager to announce their social prominence by architectural decree. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello (1768–1809), in Charlottesville, Virginia, one of the most famous creations by a self-taught amateur who mixed French, Roman, and Palladian sources, epitomized this impulse. Born in Boston, Charles Bulfinch may qualify as America's first professional architect in that for a time he attempted to live off his earnings. His work (c. 1787–1830) has been included in the so-called Federalist Style, a modified English Georgian well represented by three Boston townhouses (1795–1796, 1800–1802, 1805–1808) for Federalist Party leader and merchant Harrison Gray Otis. Their three or four horizontally articulated stories, forming an unpretentious cube, flat or minimally sloping roof, piano nobiles, porticos opening directly to the sidewalk, and subdued decoration, yielded a quiet elegance strongly appealing to merchants in northeastern ports, where Bulfinch was much emulated. His broad range of buildings included university and market halls, banks, hospitals, prisons, numerous churches (like his exquisite 1816 Church of Christ in Lancaster, Massachusetts), state houses for Maine and Massachusetts, and alterations at Washington, D.C. (as Architect of the Capitol) from 1817 to 1829. Even before taking that post, Bulfinch more than any other architect had raised American design to a level of functional and artistic excellence few during the colonial period might have anticipated.
Eclecticism of Taste and Style
Eclecticism in architecture—selecting aspects of diverse historical styles to form new and acceptable compositions—characterized Europe and America throughout the nineteenth century. In 1929, historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock distinguished between eclecticism of taste—different styles employed contemporaneously but only one on a given building (as with Richard Norris Hunt's two versions of the Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island, for William Vanderbilt: Loire Valley Renaissance in 1892, Genovan Renaissance the next year)—and eclecticism of style, mixing different mannerisms in the same building (for example, Frank Furness's Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia [1871–1876] with English, French, Greek, and Egyptian references). The two eclecticisms coexisted in space, time, and a given architect's work, but if eclecticism of taste dominated during the first half of the century, eclecticism of style—with some exceptions—surpassed it in the second.
Formal American independence in 1783 spurred the demand for public architecture on state and national levels, and since the new republic also considered itself in some ways democratic, its leaders looked for architectural guidance to what they understood as the wellsprings of both, namely, democratic Greece and republican Rome. But Greek and Roman architecture was available to most Americans in treatises written during and after the Renaissance, the result being that publicly funded structures—and by mimesis privately funded buildings of a public nature, such as banks, churches, and some universities—were only generically neoclassical, some more Greek (Benjamin Latrobe's Bank of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia [1799–1801]), some more Roman (Jefferson's Rotunda [1817–1826] at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville). In the end, Greek prevailed because Greek temples, pedimented and colonnaded boxes of straightforward post-and-beam construction, offered simple interior spaces adaptable to virtually any program and geometrically precise exteriors that appealed to Americans, who in 1785 had overlaid the Northwest Territory in a geometrically precise survey grid. The combination of adaptability and order resonated among those whose self-proclaimed mission was to tame the wilderness.
Beginning with public buildings like William Strickland's Second Bank of America of the United States in Philadelphia (1818, the first in the country based squarely on the Parthenon) and Ithiel Town's Connecticut State Capitol (1827) in Hartford (a generic Doric temple), what became known as Greek Revival was used for every conceivable purpose in every nook and cranny of the land until its popularity waned in the East shortly before the Civil War (1861–1865), a bit later in the West. In Hopkinton, New Hampshire, for example, one of the churches, the library, town offices, what are now the firehouse and the general store, and several main street residences are in the style, all painted white because when erected, conventional wisdom held that Greek architecture had been uniformly white. Despite corrective scholarship, no one has yet repainted, happily so, since towns like Hopkinton display a harmony of form and color seldom seen in North America.
Despite its ubiquity, Greek Revival was not unchallenged. Beginning in the 1790s and gathering momentum over the next decades until it reached a zenith of popularity in the 1840s and 1850s, the Gothic Revival (sometimes called Romantic or picturesque architecture) took hold at first with ecclesiastical structures. Prominent church architects included New Yorkers Richard Upjohn, whose work reached Texas and California, and James Renwick, whose St. Patrick's Cathedral (1858–1879) is the best-known example of the genre. Alexander Jackson Davis was as adept with neo-Greek as with neo-Gothic, but made his most singular mark with picturesque villas, the most impressive being Knoll (1838–1842), renamed Lyndhurst after its remodeling and expansion (1864–1867). But the most influential advocate for picturesque design was Andrew Jackson Downing, America's premier landscape architect, whose naturalistic gardens, widely read publications, and house designs with partner Calvert Vaux earned nationwide respect. Gothic Revival church architecture is characterized by pointed arches, steep roofs, pinnacles, and window tracery often supplemented by battlements and buttresses. Residential neo-Gothic might include these features plus steep gables, elaborately sawn trim, projecting windows, verandas, vertically siding frequently, and asymmetrical plans as often as not. (Greek Revival did not have verandas and was never asymmetrical.) Gothic Revival houses were intended to interpret site and to open to the outdoors, thus appealing to part-time gentry who purchased country estates with fortunes made in town and to those of lesser standing whose income limited them to modest lots on the city's edge. If their motives included escaping what they believed to be the gathering hordes of unruly immigrants, Downing's commitment to picturesque architecture and landscaping stemmed from the idealistic notion that individual integrity and independence was best cultivated in a natural setting. But his best intentions—publishing self-build plans for $400 working peoples' houses, for example—were heeded by those who needed them least.
The lesser appeal of Egyptian, Tuscan, and Romanesque styles had also waned by the 1860s, after which the eclecticism of taste became somewhat type-oriented: most universities in neo-Gothic, but some in neoclassical; government buildings, banks, urban railroad terminals, and exposition buildings in neoclassical, neo-Renaissance, and Beaux-Arts (after the classical-and Renaissance-oriented École des Beaux-Arts in Paris). Eclecticism of style was more common on commercial buildings and residences of the rising middle class and the very rich, although Florentine Renaissance and Loire Valley châteaux styles found acceptance with the latter.
American architects began to train in Europe, particularly at the École des Beaux-Arts, or in new architecture programs at home (the Masachusetts Institute of Technology's opened in 1868, Columbia University's in 1881). After their studies, they often toured Europe as they began to read national professional magazines (the first was launched in 1876) inevitably featuring woodcuts and, later, photographs of Continental masterpieces. They read the immensely influential John Ruskin, whose preferred style was Venetian Gothic, and translations of the authoritative Eugêne-Emmanuel Violet-le-Duc, whose ideal was French Gothic. Most importantly, as American architects began to design for an immensely wealthy social class—newly created by post-Civil War industrialization—composed of arrivistes unfamiliar with aesthetic niceties but unerringly aware, as European parvenus since at least the Renaissance had been, that architectural patronage, if interpreted as connoisseurship by established elites, might eventually lead to social acceptance and, if interpreted by the general public as social service, might temper their reputation as rapacious exploiters of the commonweal. As all this happened, expert knowledge of time-honored styles and archeological accuracy in their deployment became indispensable for American architects, whose own social standing rose in direct proportion to their ability to provide nouveaux riches with simulacra of the very architectural styles that bygone aristocrats had made their own. Hence the hegemonic eclecticism after the Civil War.
The Architecture of National Power (1880s to 1930s)
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, generic neoclassicism of lavishness not seen before began to dominate public and quasi-public architecture. State houses, city halls, courthouses, police headquarters, and other government structures no less than art museums, concert halls, libraries, and railroad terminals—sometimes grouped in City Beautiful civic centers—sprang up everywhere, not entirely as a result of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It is true that 21 million visitors, equivalent to one-third the national population, thrilled to its Courts of Honor, a water basin surrounded by nine neoclassical behemoths. But neoclassicism was already on the rise, most notably in works by McKim, Mead, and White, like the Boston Public Library (1887–1895) or the Rhode Island State Capitol (1891–1903) in Providence.
As it evolved, neoclassicism became ever more imperial. McKim, Mead, and White's Pennsylvania Station waiting room (1902–1910) in New York City was 25 percent larger in volume than the gigantic tepidarium in the Roman Baths of Caracella (a.d. 206–217) on which it was modeled, while George W. Post's Wisconsin State Capitol (1906–1917) in Madison, loosely based (its dome not so loosely) on Christopher Wren's St. Paul's Cathedral (1666–1710) in London, dominated the countryside for miles around its hilltop site. Neoclassicism had its appeal in Europe, but "nowhere outside the United States were the classical orders to be drawn up in so many parade formations," wrote Marcus Whiffen in his American Architecture since 1890: A Guide to the Styles (1969). "More marble was used in building in the United States in the years 1900–1917," he added, "than was used in the Roman Empire during its entire history."
The explanation for this explosion exemplifies how architecture is put to use outside the world of art. By 1900, the United States had successfully fulfilled its "manifest destiny" on the North American mainland and was constructing a territorial and economic empire overseas. Indigenous people there and in the American West, not to mention native-and foreign-born factory and farm laborers across the country, were increasingly attracted to Greenbackism, populism, socialism, unionization—to radical movements in their many forms—in unprecedented numbers. Memories of shattering disruptions like the 1886 Haymarket Massacre and the 1894 Pullman Strike—only the tip of the class-conflict iceberg, in any case—were made even more vivid by events like the 1911 death by fire of 146 women locked inside their Triangle Shirt-waist Company factory in lower Manhattan so that union organizers could not get to them. Political protest had never been more heated, class conflict more violent, and outright anticapitalist sentiment more widespread than during the "years of marble" from 1900 to 1917.
In this context, state authorities correctly understood that the social order was under serious attack, and for the same reasons that the National Guard armories with medieval crenellation were erected in wealthy urban neighborhoods, so was government at all levels drawn to the architecture of Rome, not of its republic but of its empire, the most enduring Western empire in fact and in collective memory. The seldom-stated but visually obvious implication was that physical assault against the state and the quasi-public institutional structure supporting it, that it in turn supported, as well as political assault on capitalist arrangements and republican forms of government, would not prevail—that the objects of assault would endure forever. To face down social upheaval and to announce imperial objectives, government and quasi-government architecture referred to the "eternal city" as often as not.
Neoclassicism waned with state suppression and the decline of outspoken dissent during and after World War I (1914–1918) but revived in the Great Depression, and throughout Europe as well, particularly under authoritarian regimes in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union. In the United States, it was much simplified from its earlier incarnation by square columns and capitals, spare ornament, crisp rectilinearity, and reduced use of pediments, porticos, and domes (which, when present, resembled spires). Examples are the Gallatin County Courthouse (1936) in Bozeman, Montana, the Library of Congress Annex (1938) in Washington, D.C., and the Soldiers Memorial (1939) in St. Louis, all erected with Works Progress Administration assistance. Fascist and National Socialist architecture differed only in scale: grander in Italy, positively grandiose in Germany. In the Soviet Union it was fussily ornate, recalling the turn of the century.
With the absence or reduction of private investment during the 1930s, governments financed an even greater amount of architecture than before, which is to say that during two historical moments of unusually high demand for social justice or social spending, authorities were unusually concerned with maintaining social order. It mattered not whether order was sustained by increased policing or liberal reform, whether the state was dictatorial or democratic, or—in the United States—whether it was the Gilded Age, the Progressive Era, or the New Deal. Regardless of political ideology, governments buttressed legitimacy by appropriating classical architecture, which in times of crisis was the artistic court of last resort.
The Rise and Decline of Modernism (1880s to 1970s)
Three 1932 productions by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and the Museum of Modern Art curator Philip Johnson—the exhibit Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, its catalog of that title, and their book, The International Style: Architecture since 1922—had the effect of equating all that was new with a single mode of expression, the name of which they invented and the existence of which they had no doubt. The characteristics of the International Style, they contended, were the sublimation of mass to volume; continuous, horizontally organized, regular but not symmetrical monochrome surfaces of one material; and the subordination of discrete rooms to free-flowing continuous spaces in open floor plans. Form and composition were determined by structure and interior program, they implied, preferably clad in steel, concrete, glass, and if need be, brick. Sixty-five of the seventy-three projects depicted in their book were European.
Book, exhibition, and catalogue were as narrowly selective as they were hugely influential, omitting, for example, all "new architecture," as it was often called in Europe, that did not conform to their aesthetic preferences. But for at least three decades, the International Style was widely accepted as real, as a distinctive school of design constituting the entirety of the so-called modern movement. Architectural modernism, however, was never a unified entity. Although it is true that repudiation of historically based styles—albeit in myriad ways—was largely worked out in Europe during the 1920s and early 1930s, rumblings of discontent had been heard on both sides of the Atlantic since at least the 1880s.
In the United States, the work of Henry Hobson Richardson in the 1880s, although distantly rooted in Romanesque, featured simplified single masses beneath unified roofs, near monochrome and mono-material, reduced applied ornament, and sensitivity to site. The Ames Gate Lodge (1880–1881) in North Easton, Massachusetts, is a striking example. The so-called Chicago School—notably Holabird and Roche, Adler and Sullivan, Burnham and Root, William Le Baron Jenney, and Solon S. Bemen—specializing in commercial architecture, took Richardson's simplifications further. Bemen's Studebaker Building in Chicago (1895) and Holabird and Roche's Mandel Brothers Store Annex (1900–1905) were grids of masonry-or metal-clad steel columns and beams infilled with glass. The full implication of dispensing with load-bearing walls was grasped in 1921–1922 when Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany proposed free-form skyscrapers entirely encased in glass panels clipped to the edges of floor slabs.
In his Prairie Houses (1900–1910s)—so-called because erected in undeveloped Chicago suburbs—Frank Lloyd Wright accented broad stretches of unadorned facade with long runs of crisp contrasting trim and windows in strips; inside, public spaces were merged to form partially open plans. His clean-lined rectilinear exteriors, more textured than the black white surfaces of a minimalist like Vienna's Adolf Loos but less ebullient than contemporary Art Nouveau and the several European Secessions (from historically based academic architecture) made considerable impact abroad. The four giants of the new European architecture—Le Corbusier in France, J. J. P. Oud in The Netherlands, Mies and Walter Gropius in Germany—each acknowledged (Corbusier later recanted) his influence. Perhaps the most innovative American other than Wright was the Californian Irving Gill, whose sharp-edged, rectilinear, virtually unornamented white stucco buildings were stripped almost as clean as Adolf Loos's.
During the 1920s, Chicago-area architecture was more widely admired in Europe, where modernism was taking firm root, than at home, where it languished among continuing historical revivals. When modernism did appear it likely came from abroad. Rudolph Schindler and Richard Neutra emigrated from Vienna in 1914 and 1923, respectively, to work briefly with Wright before settling in Los Angeles, where their houses for Philip Lovell (Schindler's, 1922–1926; Neutra's 1927–1929) in particular were closer in spirit to Corbusier's than to American contemporaries. Only two skyscrapers of the decade were truly modern: the McGraw-Hill Building (1929–1931) in New York City, by Raymond Hood and Andrè Fouilloux (from Paris), and the Philadelphia Savings and Fund Society (1929–1932), by George Howe and William Lescaze (from Zurich). Although a handful of Americans embraced the new architecture, its most conspicuous manifestations before the Wall Street Crash were by European émigrés.
The little that was erected during the depression occasionally flirted with modernism, as in the cases of New York City's Rockefeller Center (1931–1940), by a team of design firms in vertical Art Deco, or Wright's Johnson Wax Administration Building (1936–1939) at Racine, Wisconsin, in streamlined, horizontal "American moderne." But as the decade waned, the arrival of two German émigrés, Gropius in 1937 to direct Harvard's School of Design program and Mies in 1938 to assume the same position at the Illinois Institute of Technology, transformed architectural education and practice in the United States.
That was especially true with Mies, who later produced a master plan for his Chicago campus that in style and scale was revolutionary for this country. Nineteen low-rise structures (not all built) of welded steel frames painted black with glass walls or concrete infilled with brick and glass were followed by three apartment towers on Lake Shore Drive. Even before his enormously influential Seagram Building (1954–1958) in New York City was announced, others were adopting his manner, particularly Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill at their 1952 glass and metal Lever House, among others in New York City. From high-rise buildings the Miesian model spread to virtually every design type during the next two decades. What had taken hold throughout Europe immediately after World War I (1914–1918), in quantity mostly social housing sponsored by socialist and social democratic governments, found favor in the United States after World War II (1939–1945), initially among corporate clients. With the transition, modern architecture changed fundamentally, from low-rise, amply fenestrated brick and concrete structures to high-rise, almost completely fenestrated flat-roof slabs.
As modernism spread to every design genre, stylistic variations appeared, of course. But within the variety there remained commonality: either bland sterility or aggressive anonymity, especially apparent when modern buildings clustered—along Park and Sixth Avenues in New York City, for example, or at the University of Illinois Chicago Circle Campus (1965–1987), mostly by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill. As large chunks of city and suburb became virtually interchangeable and as it dawned on clients that architectural conformity compromised corporate and personal identity, the appeal of glass-box architecture began to wane, noticeably in the 1970s.
The New Eclecticism (1970s–)
In his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), Robert Venturi condemned "the puritanically moral language of orthodox Modern[ism]." He favored "messy vitality over obvious unity," "the ugly and ordinary architecture" he soon embraced in Learning from Las Vegas (1972). Most architects were reluctant to fetishize "the vulgar" but were receptive to his notion that modernism's "forced simplicity" did not adequately reflect the "ambiguities of contemporary experience." Indeed, retreat from the Miesian model was already under way before Venturi wrote.
The New Formalism of the early 1960s—strictly symmetrical, smooth-skinned, flat-roofed buildings with screens and grilles—was associated with institutional work of Philip Johnson, Minuro Yamasaki, and Edward Durell Stone. The acknowledged master of neo-expressionism (said to have evolved from 1910s and 1920s German expressionism)—characterized by the sublimation of right angles to sensuously sweeping curves made possible by suspended steel cable roofs and concrete (gunite) sprayed over metal frames—was Eero Saarinen, whose TWA terminal (1956–1962) at Idlewild Airport (later Kennedy) in New York City is the most famous of its type. Brutalism referred to massive asymmetrical structures, usually in poured concrete left rough, with small openings, deep recesses, and aggressive projections emphasizing the play of light and shadow; Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building (1958–1965) at Yale University was firmly brutalistic, more so than the Jonas Salk Institute for Biological Studies (1959–1965) in La Jolla, California, or other structures by Louis Kahn, whose masterly work could not easily be categorized but who was influenced nonetheless by the genre.
As if to vindicate him, postmodernism arose shortly after Venturi's second book appeared. A kind of umbrella term in architecture in general from the late 1970s the 1990s, Pomo involved the return of ornament, poly-chrome, mixed materials, and historical design elements like Palladian windows, gables, pediments, elaborate moldings, and the classical orders, as well as unprecedented experimentation with shapes, composition, and the juxtaposition of formerly incompatible features as seen in the works of Charles Moore, Michael Graves, Robert A. M. Stern, and many others, including Venturi.
As the 1990s opened, Pomo was surpassed in media attention by Decon—deconstructivist architecture—represented by prominent figures like Peter Eisenman and Frank Gehry. As with Pomo, Decon borrowed freely from literary studies: a building was a "text" with no intrinsic meaning other than what was brought to it by "readers"—observers, critics, architects themselves. History had little to offer because knowledge is subjective, noncumulative. The architect was therefore free to design any thing in any way. The resulted surpassed even Pomo in its radical disassembling and reconstructing of parts to form heretofore unimagined wholes, perhaps most famously represented by Gehry's Guggenheim Museum (1991–1997) in Bilbao, Spain.
With architects practicing globally, with new materials and technologies at hand, and with every incentive to experiment, expressive possibility is greater than ever before, resulting in a new eclecticism. To mannerisms already mentioned, pluralism adds several identifiable categories: "green" or sustainable energy conserving design; conscious reworking of vernacular and "populist"—that is, commercial—traditions; revived classicism; neomodernism with its "minimalist" or extremely simplified versions; and high-tech, making art of structural and mechanical systems.
These categories are porous. Some architects work exclusively in one while others combine two or more in a single building or in their work as a whole, borrowing freely from each other all the while, benefiting as well from an "anything goes" professional climate. Nor are the categories as mutually exclusive or as historically correct as in the eclecticisms of taste and style. Nevertheless, "selecting aspects of diverse [but no longer exclusively] historical styles in order to form new and acceptable compositions" is the norm. In the absence of stylistic consensus, compositional possibility in the twenty-first century is virtually unlimited.
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ARCHITECTURE.PATHS TO MODERNISM
ARCHITECTURE AND IDEOLOGY
A RESTLESS SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES
ARCHITECTURE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALISM
"Should there be a new style for the twentieth century?" This was the question many European architects had asked in a time of unprecedented social and technological change. But in spite of creative experiments, art nouveau chief among them, most architecture remained traditional as World War I began in 1914. The post-war world was distinctly different: old assumptions in politics and philosophy were aggressively discarded and new answers demanded. Architects responded with feverish attempts throughout the 1920s to devise a truly innovative approach that would suit modern conditions.
In Germany the shattering effects of war led a younger generation of architects to shake themselves free from nineteenth-century ideological freight. A new mode emerged, expressionism. It was novel, yet rooted in prewar art nouveau and experiments with steel and glass in industrial buildings, including those of Peter Behrens (1868–1940), whose later IG Farben Dyeworks (1920–1924) was much admired. Expressionism was highly Romantic, borrowing forms from nature or the arts of the medieval German past. The 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus interior, Berlin, by Hans Poelzig (1869–1936), engulfed theatergoers in what appeared an astonishing cavern of sharp stalactites. Here one sees close affinities to expressionism in contemporary painting and cinema. Erich Mendelsohn (1887–1953) was involved pre-1914 with the Blaue Reiter group of Munich painters and doodled expressionist designs that mostly went unbuilt. Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919–1921), was an exception: a sketch come to life in a curvaceous, sculptural mass of concrete, as if the astronomical observatory were morphing into a living organism. Caught up in the politics of the hour, expressionists called for art and architecture to serve the masses, a goal taken up in 1919 by Walter Gropius (1883–1969) at the Weimar Bauhaus design school, where a medieval handicraft aesthetic at first prevailed before machine-inspired functionalism took over. Expressionism proved short-lived and produced few tangible monuments, but many subsequent twentieth-century architects found its creativity and giddy, nature-based experimentalism inspiring as an alternative to the machine aesthetic.
Whereas expressionism flourished in postwar Germany, the Italian avant-garde developed futurism, founded upon an anti-Romantic obsession with machines of speed and war. Futurist painting, sculpture, and music had already spawned countless shrill manifestos when Antonio Sant'Elia (1888–1916) wrote Manifesto of Futurist Architecture (1914), calling for a complete break with nineteenth-century thinking and a rejection of classical, gothic, and other traditional styles. Monumentalism and heaviness should give way to lightness and energy, the airplane and the race car should provide inspiration. The futurist city would be as agile and dynamic as a shipyard; the futurist house would resemble a machine. As was the case for all futurists, Sant'Elia's tone was strident as he loudly proclaimed his hatred of the architecture of the past. When first starting out as an architect, he had been influenced by the Vienna Secession movement (headed by Joseph Maria Olbrich [1867–1908] and Otto Wagner [1841–1918]), but he soon turned away from decorative and ornamental approaches to the bare look of industrial facilities. In exquisite drawings exhibited as Città Nuova (1914) he envisioned a utopian city of the future where the machine aesthetic reigns triumphant. These illustrations uncannily predicted the coming form of the European city—but Sant'Elia did not live to see that future, as he died in battle in 1916.
The modernist architecture of the fledgling Soviet state in Russia was at first of a fantasy variety too, as the economic situation was desperate and little could be built. There were no clear lines between the dreams of architects, stage designers, and artists. The painter Vladimir Tatlin (1885–1953) conceived a colossal Monument to the Third International (1919–1920), a kind of reconceptualized Eiffel Tower in the form of an off-kilter dynamic spiral, exciting but entirely impractical. Tatlin's notions of constructivism were promulgated by the OSA (Union of Contemporary Architects) in 1925–1930, during which period a few constructivist buildings were actually erected. The culmination of this first phase of Soviet architecture came in 1931 with a competition for the Palace of the Soviets, Moscow. Architects from across Europe put forward some of the most exciting functionalist schemes ever proposed, including one by Le Corbusier (Charles-Éduoard Jeanneret, 1887–1965) for a parabolic arch that would support the main auditorium with suspended cables. It incorporated some of the dynamism of Tatlin. But the winning entry was anything but modernist—Boris Iofan's (1891–1976) overblown, stripped-classical wedding-cake skyscraper topped with a herculean statue of Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924). From here on, the government would sanction only a dull socialist realism style in art and architecture.
In Germany, the Bauhaus enshrined the "form follows function" approach, a reductivist mode that abolished ornament and historical reference and followed the cues of steel frames and plate glass, everything rectilinear and mechanical. Gropius was a key figure, but so too was his fellow countryman Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969), one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. The son of a stonemason, he worked under his father and later with Behrens but had no formal architectural training, thereby freeing him to experiment. The American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) briefly lived in Germany, and the young Mies was awed by an exhibition of his work in Berlin and the published Wasmuth Portfolio of Wright's architectural drawings (1910–1911). After a stint in the army, Mies participated in the visionary daydreaming of the early 1920s; his Glass Skyscraper drawings (1919–1921) pointed prophetically to the future in their embrace of the curtain wall—a non-loadbearing skin of glass that sheathes the steel skeleton inside. By 1926 Mies was in charge of the Deutscher Werkbund, an association of artists and designers that had been struggling to decide whether to stick with the medieval handicraft aesthetic of expressionism or plunge into functionalism.
Mies epitomized the latter camp, and under his leadership Deutscher Werkbund became a leading force in promoting the functionalist credo through its journal, Die Form, and a much-lauded housing estate in Stuttgart, the Weissenhofsiedlung (1927). Mies laid it out, and seventeen mostly young European architects contributed designs, including himself, Gropius, Le Corbusier, Behrens, and Poelzig. Here some half-million visitors experienced architectural modernism, often for the first time. Traditionalists decried the general white-walled starkness, and the flat-roofed aesthetic later found deliberate antithesis in the peaked medieval roofs of clay tile promulgated by the Nazis, who detested Deutscher Werkbund modernism as degenerate, left-wing internationalism. They never got around to demolishing the Weissenhofsiedlung, and it has been restored (1981–1987) as a major world monument of the modern movement. A museum is currently proposed for one house designed by Le Corbusier and his cousin Pierre Jeanneret (1896–1967), a shoe box elevated on their trademark piers or pilotis and marked by long "ribbon" windows. It epitomizes Le Corbusier's "Five Points of a New Architecture" as spelled out in 1926: pilotis, roof terrace, open plan, ribbon windows, and free-façade design. His Citrohan house also debuted here, a low-cost type assembled from standardized parts.
The Weissenhofsiedlung attracted wide attention to modernism and made Mies famous. The Weimar government chose him to design the German Pavilion for the International Exposition, Barcelona (1928–1929). The forward-looking and democratic nature of the Weimar regime was given visual expression through a compendium of functionalist concepts: a flat, cantilevered roof-slab resting on slender steel columns; wall planes carefully arranged to provide an open plan; generous use of floor-to-ceiling plate glass; a grid system organizing the whole. The stonecutter's son chose sumptuous materials, including green marble, golden onyx, and Roman travertine for a stunning look. The original pavilion was dismantled in 1930, but so important has it become as a leitmotif of twentieth-century modernism, it was re-created in 1983–1986 on its original site.
Like Gropius, Mies fled to America to escape the Nazis and advocated for modernism there. He was greeted warmly by an intelligentsia familiar with his work from the landmark 1932 Museum of Modern Art show in New York and accompanying book, The International Style: Architecture Since 1922, organized by art historians Philip Johnson (1906–2005) (later an important architect in his own right) and Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903–1987). Love it or hate it, Mies van der Rohe's sleek, functionalist European modernism was taken up by corporate America post-1945. Late in life he built in Germany again: the Neue Nationalgalerie art museum, Berlin (1962–1968), has cruciform columns and a cantilevered roof harkening back to Barcelona. It forms part of the Kulturforum, the remaining buildings of which are by the architect Hans Scharoun (1893–1972), whose approach was very different from that of Mies: an exuberant sculpturalism in part derived from the expressionism Mies had sought in the 1920s to destroy. The rectilinear minimalism of Mies's museum could hardly be more different from Scharoun's Berlin Philharmonie Concert Hall (1956–1963) with its dramatic staggered terraces of seats under a soaring tentlike roof. Mies thought he had solved the central problem of twentieth-century architecture with his dictum, "Less Is More," but many subsequent architects have found this unsatisfactory—including the recent postmodernists, who declare, "Less Is a Bore."
Inspired by the cubist paintings of Mondrian as well as by Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio, a group of young Dutchmen created an architecture of extraordinary geometrical purity, De Stijl ("the style"). Their chief monument is the Schröder House, Utrecht, by Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), an odd intruder in a plain nineteenth-century neighborhood of brick rowhouses. Rietveld was a furniture designer whose cubistic Red Blue Chair of wooden panels was painted in primary colors (1917–1918); he approached the design of the house in the same way, assembling cardboard models that showed walls, roof slabs, and balconies as free-flowing sculptural units that appear to slide past each other and that are picked out in whites, grays, or touches of red or yellow.
The iconic twentieth-century architect is Le Corbusier, a kind of grand impresario whose oversize pronouncements and astounding breakthroughs drew the attention of every practitioner—for admiration or vilification, depending on their views of his brand of modernism. So important is his body of work that plans were begun in 2004 to inscribe all of it on the prestigious UNESCO World Heritage List. To this day his urban planning ideas inspire anger among those who blame him for advocating, all too effectively, for the destruction of old urban centers. First put forth in drawings for a "Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants" (1922), his urbanistic schemes were later promulgated by CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne), a kind of working group of top modernist architects from many European countries. It was founded in a meeting in Switzerland in 1928 (CIAM I). In subsequent gatherings there was much discussion of the problems of low-cost housing, part of the leftist agenda of the group. CIAM IV met on a cruise ship, SS Patris II, in 1933 and considered how European cities could be redesigned to render them less dense. The CIAM participant José Luis Sert (1902–1983) went on to consider the thorny issues in a book, Can Our Cities Survive? (1942). Codifying the Patris discussions was Le Corbusier's doctrinaire Athens Charter (1943)—the ship had been steaming toward Athens—that pointed the way to heavy-handed approaches in postwar urban redevelopment, specifically the tall apartment tower surrounded by windswept open space. CIAM continued to meet for many more sessions. The Swiss critic Sigfried Giedion (1888–1968) was especially influential. His Space, Time and Architecture (1941) soon became a classic theoretical text of modernism. The early CIAM meetings were important for achieving a critical mass in the nascent modernist movement and forging a functionalist consensus out of the myriad localized approaches of the 1920s. Postwar meetings grappled with what some increasingly perceived as functionalism's straitjacket.
Thanks in part to the tireless proselytizing of CIAM, modernism invaded every corner of Europe. In Sweden, Erik Gunnar Asplund (1885–1940) had already bridged nineteenth-century approaches and modernism: inspired by a pre–World War I trip to Italy, he embraced a simplified classicism. His City Library, Stockholm (1920–1928), was minimalist: a cube of reading rooms topped by a gigantic simple cylinder lighting the main hall with clerestory windows. He owed the concept to the eighteenth-century French rationalist Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736–1806). As chief architect of the Stockholm Exhibition in summer 1930, Asplund decisively introduced modernism to Scandinavia with constructivist-derived functionalism, including a tall skeletal mast brilliant with neon signs. The furniture and interior design there launched the great twentieth-century Swedish tradition of modernist innovation for everyday living. Asplund's classicism inspired his affable friend Alvar Aalto (1898–1976) in Finland. By 1928 Aalto had embraced modernism. His concrete Paimio Sanatorium, Turku (1929–1933), had tall, radiating wings among the pine trees, oriented toward sunlight and view. The small house called Villa Mairea, Noormarkku (1937–1939), synthesized classicism, functionalism, and the Finnish vernacular, with a special feeling for wood. Later Aalto would assist in post–World War II reconstruction of damaged cities, seeking to soften technological modernism and mass-produced housing designs with references to nature.
Totalitarianism darkened Europe as economies collapsed in the 1930s. Architecture played a critical role in Adolf Hitler's (1889–1945) plans for a reinvigorated Germany. A onetime Viennese water-colorist with a penchant for architectural subjects, Hitler saw the value of great public buildings in boosting national pride and signaling the permanence of his Thousand-Year Reich. His friend Paul Troost (1879–1934) had designed interiors for luxury ships and understood his Führer's lust for theatricality. Troost's Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Munich (1933–1937), was a museum for "pure" art, not the "degenerate" modernism then being purged. Its style became the official Nazi one: grandiose classicism, but simplified and rendered rigid and coldly sublime. The German architectural tradition of Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781–1841) was married to a primitive Greek classicism. After Troost died, Albert Speer (1905–1981) took his place in Hitler's affections, conceiving a utopian rebuilding of Berlin as "Germania" with a preposterously oversized dome as its focus. Like Hitler, Speer saw Germany as a new Roman Empire dominating all of Europe and developed a suitably grandiose architecture, clad in stone. His built projects shared a megalomania, including the Zeppelinfeld Stadium, Nuremberg (1934–1937), for mass Nazi rallies and the Reich Chancellery, Berlin (1938), center of Hitler's cult of personality. Its echoing halls, one nearly five hundred feet long, were meant to instill awe in visiting dignitaries. Hitler's grim final days were spent in an underground bunker out back. Much of Speer's work was bombed to rubble during World War II, and he was later imprisoned for his role in organizing slave labor and death camps. He is the twentieth century's most controversial architect.
If the totalitarian regime in Germany rejected modernism, that in Italy was more receptive. Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) found an avid following among a young generation of architects, including the brilliant but short-lived Giuseppe Terragni (1904–1943), who helped found Gruppo 7 in 1926. Gruppo 7 was a gathering of Milanese modernists who pressed for what they called Rationalismo: anti-individualistic and pro-Fascist; embracing functionalism in design but tempering it with historical references to the glories of the Italian past. Terragni's Casa del Fascio, Como (1933–1936), a Fascist headquarters and community center, evolved through various conceptions into a harmonious and cubistic work of pure geometries and white walls stripped of any ornament. Its rationalist composition embodied in a grid-like reinforced concrete frame was apparently simple but actually quite complex, blending functionalist dicta with principles from the Roman past, including perfect proportions, an interior atrium, and marble cladding. It has won a legion of admirers. In time for Terragni's centennial in 2004 the New York architect Peter Eisenman (b. 1932) published Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques, a book he had worked on for forty years that celebrated the subtleties of Casa del Fascio and Casa Giuliani-Frigerio, also in Como. Never built was Terragni's proposed monument to the poet Dante (1265–1321) (1938) in the Roman Forum, likewise a fusion of modernist rationalism with reference to the historical past, specifically the hypostyle halls of Egyptian temples, where columns stood as thickly as trees in a forest—only at the Danteum the columns were to have been of glass. World War II discredited fascism, but the ideas of Terragni later helped inspire postmodernism: Aldo Rossi (1931–1997) pioneered neo-rationalism in the 1960s, seeking to infuse history into the modernist vocabularies of concrete, glass, and steel, much as Terragni had done.
No sooner had international style come to the fore in the 1930s than did some architects seek to refine or even replace it. At the same time they experimented with new materials, trying to develop novel aesthetic approaches based on the innate qualities and strengths of each. Concrete was arguably twentieth-century architecture's signature material; it was used on a scale previously undreamed-of and with great boldness. Properly speaking it is ferro-concrete, a combination of concrete with steel reinforcing bars or meshes that can be used in many clever ways to create rigid or shell-like structures that mark a complete break from the architecture of previous centuries. Early applications were frequently technological, as in the pre–World War I bridges of Swiss civil engineer Robert Maillart (1872–1940). After the war he introduced a series of exciting innovations, designing concrete bridges that were ever-lighter and free from visual reference to earlier masonry technologies, culminating with the Salginatobel Bridge, Schiers (1929–1930). It comprises one sweeping arch hundreds of feet above a rocky mountain gorge, the whole forming a seamless structural unit of hollow-box reinforced concrete. Engineers still travel from around the world to admire this aesthetic gem. Maillart's influence was huge, for example on the concrete "shell structures" of the Spanish-born Félix Candela (1910–1997) in Mexico. The European genius in concrete after Maillart was Pier Luigi Nervi (1891–1979) in Rome, who combined technical innovations with an unsurpassed feel for pure sculptural geometries. At Valentino Park, Turin (1947–1949), he built exhibition halls that span hundreds of feet in one leap. They are formed of poured concrete arches and, between them, precast shells pierced by window openings. He collaborated with Gio Ponti (1891–1979) on Italy's tallest building, Pirelli Tower, Milan (1956–1958), its unusual lozenge-like plan and sleek surfaces an instant emblem of corporate sophistication in the postwar world (restored after being struck by an airplane in 2002). Ponti exemplifies the twentieth-century architect in the mold of Le Corbusier who participated in poetry, painting, writing, and design, all with a spirit of passionate exuberance. The magazine he edited for decades, Domus (meaning "house"), transmitted ideas of cutting-edge architecture and design to a wide readership in Europe and abroad. Like several top European architects, by the 1960s Ponti was designing buildings around the world.
For truthful expression of concrete as a structural material, all eyes were on Le Corbusier in the 1950s. With uncompromising rawness he allowed concrete to show at his Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly, France (1951–1955), much copied by younger architects in Europe and America. Exposed, rough concrete (béton brut), still showing the imprint of the wooden formwork into which it was poured, was likewise the keynote of his Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles (1946–1952) and other notable works of this period. A British husband-and-wife team, Alison (1928–1993) and Peter Smithson (1923–2003), greatly admired Le Corbusier's honesty and helped coin the term "new brutalism" in 1954 for any sort of tough, gritty functionalism, whether using béton brut or not. Their Hunstanton Secondary Modern School, Norfolk, completed that year, defined brutalism in England: the steel structure exposed to view and the whole complex resembling a gleaming-new industrial site, with a nod to Mies van der Rohe's recent Chicago work. (Later critics blasted it for a prison-like bleakness hardly appropriate for teaching children.) The Smithsons were active in Team 10, a group of young architects that broke away from CIAM and expressed appreciation for the rough new Britain of housing tracts and slum streets. At the Economist headquarters, London (1959–1964), the Smithsons offered a more refined approach, three small office towers rising above a pedestrian plaza and clad in fossiliferous Portland stone—a sensitive effort to resolve problems of urban site and scale.
In France, Jean Prouvé (1901–1984) was likewise among the important twentieth-century experimenters with situation-specific architectural design and the honest expression of materials, including unconventional ones. With no architectural training, he entered the field as an iron-worker, brainstorming with Le Corbusier and Jeanneret about portable housing units made of lightweight materials. His aluminum Tropical House (1949–1951), of small prefabricated pieces assembled on a grid system, was flown by airplane to the Congo as a demonstration of the possibilities for colonialist housing. At the same time he designed inexpensive homes for French citizens dislocated by war. Prouvé is a lodestar for recent architects who seek to use cheap materials in extraordinary ways, and Tropical House was retrieved from Africa in 2001 and taken on a celebratory tour of American museums.
Critiques of modernism coalesced in the 1970s into a definite revolt. It was called insensitive, inhumane, and authoritarian ("heroic" had a bad connotation to the counterculture). It had destroyed old neighborhoods for "urban renewal" and encouraged bland, box-like building. The high-rise apartment towers beloved of CIAM were singled out as especially awful to look at and live in, and many alternatives were put forward. In Britain, Team 10 member Ralph Erskine (1914–2005) designed Byker Wall, Newcastle (1969–1975), a multistory housing development that sought to diversify the modernist idiom (a complex, stepped profile; house-like shed roofs; brickwork of bold colors and patterns; varied balcony forms) and even engaged future residents in planning consultations in an effort to be democratic. Architects increasingly sought to avoid the bombast of the mid-twentieth-century "megastructure" by breaking up big compositions and paying sensitive attention to local context. The British architects Sir James Stirling (1926–1992) and Michael Wilford's (b. 1938) German museum, the Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (1977–1984) defined the emerging postmodern approach: the complex subdivided to render its scale more human and enlivened with brightly colored elements to engage the ordinary visitor; an abundance of witty allusions to the architecture of the past, from Rome and Schinkel to Le Corbusier and Aalto, all in a peppy pastiche; an embracing of the "complexity and contradiction" that American Robert Venturi (b. 1925) pinpointed as sadly lacking in modernism. Stirling called his museum "representational and abstract, monumental and informal, traditional and high tech." These tensions and ironies crop up frequently throughout subsequent postmodernism.
At century's end architectural practice had gone global, with major firms routinely engaged in projects on many continents. Europe no longer enjoyed its old cultural preeminence. Perhaps sensing the shift, in the 1980s the French president, François Mitterrand (1916–1996), funded a series of architectural showpieces meant to demonstrate his nation's continuing greatness, the Grands Projets. Jean Nouvel (b. 1945) won rave reviews for his Institut du Monde Arabe (1987–1988): its south-facing wall forms a silvery metal-and-glass curtain suggestive of Islamic screens, with thirty thousand small, light-sensitive diaphragms that close like a camera lens to cut out sun glare—an innovative use of "smart" materials that respond to their environment. Another Mitterrand landmark was the Bibliothèque Nationale (1989–1997) by Dominique Perrault (b. 1953), four L-shaped glass towers each reminiscent of an open book and embracing a monumental central space. Paris has seen many important museums; previously, the Italian architect Renzo Piano (b. 1937) had collaborated with the Englishman Richard Rogers (b. 1933) on Centre Georges Pompidou (1971–1977), one of modern Europe's most recognizable buildings, visited by 160 million persons since it opened, five times the expected crowds. To keep the interior wide open for the display of art, the architects placed the steel support structure and mechanical systems on the outside, daringly exposed to view and color-coded for visual effect (blue=air ducts, green=water pipes, yellow=electricity), with escalators rising in clear plastic tubes.
In pursuit of ever-more-sweeping interior spaces, Rogers would go on to design London's Millennium Dome (1999), using a newly perfected technology, a mast-supported network of cables that suspend a tent-like roof. The Dome spans an incredible 738 feet, entirely free from interrupting supports. It improved upon the continental experiments of the German engineer Frei Otto (b. 1925), who collaborated with the architect Gunter Behnisch (b. 1922) on the striking Olympic Stadium, Munich (1968–1972): tall steel poles supported spidery cables that held up complex, flowing tent roofs of polyester fabric coated in plastic. All these innovations were extremely novel, suggesting new avenues toward solving the old problem of enclosing generous space.
Worldwide attention was brought to bear on Berlin after the reunification of the city in 1990 and the relocation of the national government there from Bonn. In ruins since the days of Hitler, the former parliamentary building, the Reichstag, was restored by Sir Norman Foster (b. 1935), a London architect, in 1993–1999. Mindful of history, he preserved the graffiti left on the blackened walls by Soviet soldiers in 1945. His landmark glass dome, a strikingly contemporary note atop the more-than-century-old building, was lit from inside at night. It symbolizes the transparency of democratic governments. A mirrored cone occupies the center of the dome to enhance the daylighting of a spiraling pedestrian ramp. The much-honored Foster and Partners firm has worked in forty-eight countries. Their 850-foot Commerzbank Tower, Frankfurt (1997), was Europe's tallest building upon completion. Their breathtaking cable-stayed road bridge, the Millau Viaduct, France (2001–2005), is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with seven concrete piers each higher than the Eiffel Tower.
No longer are great European buildings necessarily designed by Europeans, as evinced by the fame of two recent museums by Americans. I. M. Pei (b. 1917) created a glass pyramid for the Louvre, Paris (1985–1989), a controversial intrusion of the modern into a historic complex. For the much-praised Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain (1992–1997), the Californian Frank Gehry (b. 1929) conceived a fantastically complex, deconstructivist design clad in a shiny titanium skin. Critics heaped praise on it as boldly pointing the way to coming twenty-first-century approaches, which they predicted would be marked by increasing fragmentation and freedom. Daniel Libeskind's (b. 1946) annex to the Berlin Historical Museum and Peter Eisenman's Berlin Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, both works by American architects, are two other striking cases in point.
Deconstructivism gained notoriety in the 1980s as a transatlantic alternative to both international style and postmodernism. It defined an architecture that seemed to have been wrenched violently apart, twisted, and contorted, its complex visual effects made possible by computer-aided design (CAD) software. The Viennese firm Coop Himmelb(l)au emerged as a leading practitioner. Their UFA Cinema Center, Dresden (1993–1998), is a movie theater entered through a weirdly tilted glass structure resembling a faceted crystal. The architect Rem Koolhaas (b. 1944) started out as a writer whose Delirious New York (1978) earned him fame as a visionary theorist with a radical, streetwise approach: forget trying to improve modern cities, he says, and instead embrace "the culture of congestion," the vibrant chaos of modern life. Subsequently he has gone on to develop a worldwide practice, and he won architecture's highest honor, the Pritzker Prize, in 2000. As the twenty-first century began, his status among young architecture students was cult-like, many calling him the greatest living architect. His firm, the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), has produced designs that defy categorization but are often classed with deconstructivism. They have inspired diverse reactions: admiration for their hip, intellectualized analysis of contemporary problems; dislike for their harsh, formless geometries and brash rawness.
OMA's largest executed planning project was a new city center for Lille, France (1988–2004), called Euralille, designed to accommodate commercial growth owing to the new Channel Tunnel linking France and Britain. Koolhaas embraces "bigness" and designed at a scale meant to be appreciated not on foot but from a hurtling high-speed train. Contrary to most contemporary thinkers, he favors big, signature buildings to capture the public imagination. Some saw in this a return to discredited principles of CIAM. Koolhaas's major building at Lille, erected on a tight budget, is the Grand Palais exhibition hall or Congrexpo (1994), nicknamed The Egg for its distinctive form, which is surfaced in black-pebbled concrete and corrugated plastic. He likes ovals, thinking back to New York and Wright's Guggenheim Museum, but here the oval embraces wild dissonance in its internal forms, shapes, and materials, the whole sometimes garish and vulgar, much like the modern cities Koolhaas so passionately admires. His followers are many, including the 2004 Pritzker Prize winner Zaha Hadid (b. 1950), born in Iraq but now a resident of London. Among her few built projects is the Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck, Austria (1999–2002), a towering structure of pure sculptural drama.
At the dawn of the twenty-first century, London was the setting for some of the most dramatic architectural developments in Europe. Foster and Partners experimented with strange CAD forms, including the warped glass ovoid of London City Hall (1998–2002), which has no front or back. Its shape is precisely configured to minimize the area exposed to direct sunlight and reduce dependence upon air conditioning. Many European architects have lately embraced this kind of ecologically sustainable or "green" design. Also by Foster and Partners is the extraordinary-looking 30 St. Mary Axe, or Swiss Re Headquarters (1997–2004), nicknamed the Gherkin for its swelling, bullet-like form. Advertised as London's first ecologically friendly skyscraper, its round plan helps drive a system of natural ventilation via openings in the curving, glazed façade, so the building uses only half the energy of a typical office tower. The same firm collaborated with engineers and a sculptor on Millennium Bridge, a stylish footway over the Thames (1996–2000). It connects to a new museum, Tate Modern (1995–2000), by a Swiss firm, Herzog & de Meuron—a good example of the postmodern preference for historic preservation, as it occupies a former power plant. Piano began work in 2000 on what was planned to be the tallest building in Europe, 1,016-foot London Bridge Tower, so thin and crystalline it was instantly nicknamed the Shard when the drawings were unveiled. If completed, it will be an appropriate symbol of London's growing financial and cultural preeminence among European cities. Designed at the very end of the period 1914–2004, the Shard proposal intriguingly recalls Mies van der Rohe's Glass Skyscraper scheme of more than eighty years earlier, history coming full circle. For all the phases it has undergone and challenges it has faced, architectural modernism remains exciting and innovative in Europe, constantly seeking new approaches and new relevance for an ever-changing world.
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W. Barksdale Maynard
The architecture of medieval Rus, initially influenced by Byzantine architecture, developed a distinct set of styles between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. As Moscow established its dominance and as contacts with western European culture increased in the late fifteenth century, Russian motifs began to blend with Western ones. By the eighteenth century the design of Russia's public buildings followed Western styles. Rapid social change at the turn of the twentieth century and the establishment of Soviet power after 1917 generated new bursts of architectural experimentation.
medieval and muscovitearchitecture (c. 1000–1700)
Little is known of pre-Christian architecture among the eastern Slavs, but with the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev in 988, the construction of masonry churches spread throughout Rus. The largest and most complex of these early churches was Kiev's Cathedral of Divine Wisdom (1037–1050s), commissioned by Prince Yaroslav the Wise and built with the direction of Greek masters. The interior contained extensive mosaics as well as frescoes. Other major churches of this period include the Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (1045–1052), the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Chernigov (1031–1050s), and the Cathedral of the Dormition at the Kiev Cave Monastery (1073–1078; destroyed in 1941).
Regardless of size, the churches adhered to a plan known as the "inscribed cross": a cuboid structure with a dome marking the intersection of the main aisles. The dome was elevated on a cylinder supported by the four main piers. The facades usually culminated in curved gables known as zakomary.
In addition to Kiev, Novgorod, and neighboring cities, the third center of architecture in pre-Mongol Rus was the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, whose limestone churches were distinguished by carved decoration and precision of design. Grand Prince Yury Dolgoruky commissioned the first of these churches, such as the Transfiguration in Pereslavl-Zalessky (1152–1157). His son Andrei Bogolyubsky began the great era of limestone building in this area with the Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir (1158–1160); his palace church at Bogolyubovo (1158–1165) of which only fragments remain; and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165). His successor, Vsevolod III, enlarged the Dormition Cathedral (1185–1189) and built the Cathedral of St. Dmitry in Vladimir (1194–1197), whose upper tier is covered with elaborate carving representing Biblical and secular motifs.
After the Mongol invasion of 1237–1241, church construction sharply declined; but by the middle of the fourteenth century, masonry construction revived, particularly in Novgorod, with the support of wealthy merchants and neighborhood craft guilds. The Church of St. Theodore Stratilates on the Brook (1360–1361) and the Church of Transfiguration on Elijah Street (1374; frescoes by Theophanes the Greek) exemplified a distinct local style with steeply pitched roofs. Moscow also enjoyed an architectural revival in the construction of limestone churches, but not until the last quarter of the fifteenth century did the major churches of the Kremlin take shape under the direction of Italian masters imported by Ivan III.
During the sixteenth century, Moscow's brick churches displayed boldly inventive designs, also with Italian influence. The culmination of this period occurs in the most famous of Russian churches, the Intercession on the Moat, popularly known as Basil the Blessed (1555–1561). Built on what later became known as Red Square, in celebration of Ivan IV's conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, the structure consists of a central tent tower surrounded by eight tower churches. The latter part of the sixteenth century also witnessed the building of major brick fortresses, most notably the citadel at Smolensk (1595–1602) by Fyodor Kon. With the restoration of order after the Time of Troubles (1605–1612), the building of brick churches occurred on an unprecedented scale, especially during the reign of Alexei (1645–1676).
the imperial period (c. 1700–1917)
The assimilation of Western architectural styles, which had begun in the late seventeenth century, increased radically during the reign of Peter I (1682–1725). In 1703 Peter founded St. Petersburg, which became the Russian capital in 1711. Western European architects Jean Baptiste Le Blond (1679–1719) and Domenico Trezzini (1670–1734) submitted plans for its development. At this stage Petersburg's architecture owed much to the northern European baroque, particularly in Sweden and Holland. The stuccoed brick walls of the city's baroque buildings were painted, with white trim for window surrounds and other details. Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli (1700–1771) defined the high baroque style during the reigns of Anna (1730–1740) and Elizabeth (1741–1762). Among his major projects are the Stroganov Palace (1752–1754), the final version of the Winter Palace (1754–1764), and the Smolny Convent with its Resurrection Cathedral (1748–1764). In addition Rastrelli greatly enlarged the existing imperial palaces at Peterhof (1746–1752) and Tsarskoye Selo (1748–1756).
During the reign of Catherine the Great (1762–1796), imperial architecture moved from the baroque to neoclassicism. With the support of Catherine, a constellation of architects endowed the city during the second half of the eighteenth century with a grandeur inspired by classical Rome. Charles Cameron (ca.1740–1812), the leading proponent of neoclassicism, designed the palace at the imperial estate of Pavlovsk (1780–1796), a gift from Catherine to her son Grand Duke Paul. Andrei Voronikhin (1759–1814) created a still more obvious example of the Roman influence in his Cathedral of the Kazan Mother of God (1801–1811), with its sweeping colonnade reminiscent of the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome.
The reign of Alexander I (1801–1825) witnessed a new campaign to create an interconnecting system of architectural ensembles and public space throughout the center of Petersburg. The rebuilding of the Admiralty (1806–1823) by Andreyan Zakharov (1761–1811) reaffirmed that structure and its spire as dominant elements in the city plan. The culmination of the imperial design fell to Carlo Rossi (1776–1849), who created four major ensembles, including the General Staff Building and Arch (1819–1829), facing Palace Square. Neoclassicism in Moscow appeared primarily in houses and other institutions built by the nobility and wealthy merchants. Of particular note are mansions and churches designed by Matvei Kazakov (1738–1812).
During the reign of Nicholas I (1825–1855), classical unity in Petersburg yielded to eclectic styles and innovations in construction engineering, both of which are evident in the final version of St. Isaac's Cathedral (1818–1858) by Auguste Montferrand (1786–1858). Of special significance was the Russo-Byzantine style, supported by Nicholas I and implemented by Constantine Thon (1794–1881), builder of the Great Kremlin Palace (1838–1849). The major work in this style was Ton's Church of Christ the Redeemer (1837–1883; destroyed in 1931 and rebuilt in the 1990s), created as a memorial to Russian valor in the 1812 war.
By the 1870s there arose a new national style based on decorative elements from sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Muscovy as well as on motifs from folk art and traditional wooden architecture. Major examples of the Russian style in Moscow include the Historical Museum (1874–1883), built on the north side of Red Square to a design by Vladimir Shervud (1833–1897); the Moscow City Duma (1890–1892) by Dmitry Chichagov (1835–1894); and the Upper Trading Rows (1889–1893) by Alexander Pomerantsev (1848–1918), assisted by the construction engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939). In Petersburg the Russian style was used by Alfred Parland (1845–1892) for the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior "on the Blood" (1883–1907).
The "new style," or style moderne, that arose in Russian architecture at the turn of the century emphasized the innovative use of materials such as glass, iron, and glazed brick in functional yet highly aesthetic designs. The style flourished in Moscow primarily, where its leading practitioner was Fyodor Shekhtel (1859–1926), architect for patrons among Moscow's entrepreneurial elite, such as the Ryabushinskys. In Petersburg the style moderne appeared primarily in the design of apartment buildings. In contrast to their American contemporaries, Russian architects did not design large buildings with steel frames, but became experts at the use of reinforced concrete construction.
soviet architecture (1917–1991)
The economic chaos engendered in Russia by World War I proved catastrophic for building activity, and the ensuing revolution and civil war brought architecture to a standstill. With the recovery of the economy in the 1920s, bold new designs—often utopian in concept—brought Russia to the attention of modern architects throughout the world. Constructivism, the most productive modernist movement, included architects such as Moysei Ginzburg (1892–1946), Ilya Golosov (1883–1945), Grigory Barkhin (1880–1969), and the Vesnin brothers: Leonid (1880–1933), Viktor (1882–1950), and Alexander (1883–1959). Their designs, primarily in Moscow, set a standard for functional design in administrative and apartment buildings, as well as social institutions such as workers' clubs. Another modernist active during the same period, but not a part of Constructivism, was Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov (1890–1974), known for his bold designs for exposition pavilions and workers' clubs.
During the 1930s more conservative trends asserted themselves, as designs inspired by classical, Renaissance, and historical models received the party's approval. After World War II architectural design became still more firmly locked in traditional, often highly ornate eclectic styles, epitomized by the postwar skyscrapers in Moscow and other Soviet cities. After 1953 pressing social needs, particularly in housing, led to a return to functionalism, heavily dependent on standardized designs and prefabricated components. With the demise of the communist system in Russia, the revival of private practice in architecture seems likely to change the face of the profession, even as new problems arise in zoning and resource allocation.
Throughout Russian history wood has been used for almost every type of construction, from churches and fortress walls to peasant dwellings and grand country villas. Fire and rot have destroyed most wooden structures from the distant past, and there is no extensive evidence that wooden structures appeared before the late sixteenth century. Yet the basic forms of wooden architecture are presumably rooted in age-old traditions. Remarkable for their construction logic, wooden churches also display elaborate configurations. One example is the Church of the Transfiguration at Kizhi (1714), whose pyramid of recessed levels supports twenty-two cupolas. Although such structures achieved great height, the church interior was usually limited by a much lower ceiling. Log houses also ranged from simple dwellings to large three-story structures peculiar to the far north, with space for the family as well as shelter for livestock during the winter. Wooden housing is still used extensively, not only in the Russian countryside, but also in provincial cities (particularly in Siberia and the Far East), where the houses often have plank siding and carved decorative elements.
Brumfield, William Craft. (1991). The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hamilton, George Heard. (1983). The Art and Architecture of Russia. New York: Penguin Books.
Khan-Magomedov, Selim O. (1987). Pioneers of Soviet Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.
William Craft Brumfield
Although the word “architect” derives from the Greek phrase meaning “master builder,” in practice “architecture” has gradually acquired the connotation “art of building.” Today not all architects would admit that it is an art. Several of them would insist that it is an application of technology, while others would claim that it is a science. However, all would agree that the product of the discipline is real, whether it be a single building, a group of buildings, a community, or a whole city— even if the architect is concerned only with the design and conception.
The fact is that architecture started as a technique of construction, which was gradually specialized into the construction of buildings rather than the building of bridges, roads, and public works, which became the special domain of the engineer. Architecture began as a technique and was transformed into an art—sometimes completely overshadowing the technique. It began as handicraft and artisanship (the architect was the actual builder-entrepreneur), then turned to design and management. Architecture is concerned with individual houses, large composite building complexes, and even whole cities, although the latter specialization is also the province of the town planner.
Through architecture, space is compartmentalized: there is the usable interior area; the total area, that is, the shell and the means; and the external space, which is indirectly changed after the inner area has been defined. The degree to which these different kinds of space fulfill the expected requirements qualifies the degree of success of an architectural work.
Social architecture. Architecture is sometimes called a social art or social technology. This is valid in terms of the content and extent of architecture. Moreover, architecture is social in that it expresses a social trend even if that is very limited in extent. Architectural style does not represent the efforts of a single architect or of one class or even one generation but those of many persons through a number of generations, who express themselves in a way that represents all their beliefs and aspirations. For example, in ancient Greece people built timber roofs over mud-brick walls; over several centuries this particular style of construction was adapted to marble. This architecture did not have an inventor or original designer—every temple had its own master builder, who contributed minute details of refinement to an enduring style. This was a social architecture in expression and form.
Architectural needs. In every period consumers define their architectural needs in terms of quantity, volume, cost, quality, and content. In every community there is the demand for shelter; the variable occurs in the quantity and quality of shelter demanded. In the simplest effort the consumer’s needs and demands coincide, as the consumer asks first of all for what is indispensable, thus automatically adjusting his needs to the possible. When incomes and technology develop, needs increase, while the previously suppressed demand starts rising; then a gap between need and demand appears. As a result the suppressed demand rises even more, and so do the needs, causing an increase of supply, and thus we have a trend toward better and higher architectural forms. As architectural needs and demands become more complex and expand into open areas, roads and public squares take on architectural significance. They then receive corresponding attention, ranging from very elementary (for example, regulations defining rights of way and heights) to very detailed (specification of the elevations, addition of works of art, and so forth).
Architectural creation. The accumulated knowledge of modern science has changed the nature of architectural creation and modified its function. Thus, that which was once a simple, natural act of covering man with shelters and helping him to survive became more and more artificial and complicated and required the mobilization of many skills and resources for its fulfillment. At the same time, the architectural solution—derived from nature in the beginning, like a cave or a hut made out of branches—became unnatural as it moved away from the simplest forms. Such an evolution had its impact on the process of creation of architectural styles. One may suppose that the outstanding builders in every community were given the most important jobs, the temple or church, the mosque or the ruler’s palace, bridges or fortifications. By trial and error they learned how to produce the best; public taste was strongly influenced by the master builders and, in turn, influenced and shaped the general architectural evolution. Over a long period of time, under relatively constant external conditions, this process resulted in the creation of an architectural style. It usually took several centuries for a naturally evolving architecture to acquire its own characteristics, a specific style. The fact that in our era the distance from the natural architectural creation is increasing, together with the fact that economic, social, political, technological, and cultural conditions change so quickly, explains why we do not have our own recognizable architectural style. This lack of a distinct style creates a confusion of ideas about architecture. Today many architects try, in a completely unjustified and facile way, to create their own “styles,” as if one man or group of men could overnight replace the action of a whole society over a long period of years.
Client-architect relationship. For hundreds of years the client-architect relationship was quite simple. When in need of a building, the client turned to the architect, and together they worked out an agreement for full services—from advice to design, construction, procurement of materials and labor, transport, and perhaps even financing—until the building was completed. In some way this was similar to a constituency-politician relationship. In general, the clients selected and guided their architects, who in turn led the clients within a framework of technological possibilities. Their relationship was impersonal. This situation became complicated, confused, and sometimes irrational, especially in the twentieth century, when architects were first educated in art schools and then trained in professional schools of architecture.
Specialization has been advanced to the point where, in many developed countries, members of architectural associations are not allowed to act as builders; thus they are deprived of their most important function and the ultimate justification of their profession. There is no question that the architect, in order to practice his profession properly, now needs the assistance of a great number of experts, including research specialists in the physical and social sciences.
The architect. The evolution of architectural creation and practice had its impact on the architect himself. In the early days of architectural specialization he was a mason and a builder, while the best was called a master mason, an architect. He was an artisan, known for the quality of his product in the same way as were the best painters, sculptors, decorators, and saddle, cart, and carriage makers. During the nineteenth century the process of change began that is transforming the architectcraftsman into a white-collar worker or administrator. Today most of the people actually creating what we commonly call architecture belong to the traditional class of craftsmen, while universitytrained architects constitute a very small percentage of the total. The ratio of architects to population varies greatly from country to country—from the high percentages found in countries like Denmark and England, where architects are sufficiently numerous to deal with interior decoration and furniture, to the very low percentages of architects found in most of the developing countries.
In early human history local, natural architecture grew much like a plant (conditioned by the local climate and easily obtainable raw materials). Where conditions warranted (reasonable climate, enduring building materials, and the processes of civilization), the architectural plant thrived. Local architecture did not everywhere lead to great styles, but where it did, architectural efforts of the past continue to influence present-day traditions.
The buildings we have inherited from the Near Eastern civilizations of antiquity belong predominantly to religion—especially in Egypt—although there are some examples of fortifications and palaces. Regular houses, even of the wealthy families, seem always to have been built of materials that could not withstand weather and time; thus, we know only how people built for gods and kings, not how they built for themselves. Whatever we have inherited shows architecture as a monumental art and not at all as an art of everyday life.
In comparison with the previous monumental architecture, that of the Minoan period was much more human. In both enclosed and open spaces the builder’s interest was not to impress humanity and serve souls and gods but to serve man in the best possible way by creating functional human spaces adjusted to the climate. Mycenaean architecture was also close to the Near Eastern tradition. We know little of the architecture of the common man in either of these periods; it may have been only a simpler expression of the architecture of palaces and fortresses, or the earlier types of buildings, constructed in less durable materials, may have continued. Classical Greek architecture is admired for its character, but also because of its use of raw materials, particularly marble. The Greek temple is perhaps the apex of the pyramid of architectural achievement. Its value also lies in the fact that it was not a monument isolated from life, but the real crown of an architecture which started with humble, timbered, mud-brick and stuccoed houses, and public buildings just one degree better than the houses, and progressed to the “agora,” or central market square with its buildings, and finally, to theaters, stadiums, roads and squares, exedras, monuments, and temples. More than any other, Greek architecture was holistic, an architectural conception of the human community represented by the political unit of the city-state. The largest political unit of ancient Greece—the city-state— was so small (the average size being forty miles square) that a person standing at some height could see the entire area at once. With the acropolis at its center, the architectural composition expressed the idea of the culture.
Roman architecture differed from Greek in both content and technique. Not only did it contain greater internal differences, as between the slums of Rome and the luxurious villas and palaces; it also took big steps toward the architecture of large buildings. There were important public buildings: baths, amphitheaters, roads, bridges, and aqueducts. Brick construction played an important role, in addition to stone and marble. There still exist many examples of well-conceived and well-built Roman cities in Europe, Africa, and Asia. They do not manifest the cohesiveness of cities found in Greece, but city-fortresses paved the way for technological advancements in later periods.
At the end of the Roman Empire and with the spread of Christianity, there were two distinct movements toward new architectural forms: one followed a path from Italy to the European mainland; the other moved eastward, back to Greece, Constantinople, and the Middle East.
The first new form—Romanesque architecture— was at the beginning a major stylistic attempt to express the new religion. The Gothic style followed and became the typical architectural expression of the long medieval period with its small, walled city, where the only hope was in God, up in the sky. The architecture of the vertical and the arch reached up, as high as possible, away from the secular world. It is not strange that such architecture was more successful in churches and cathedrals than in houses and public buildings.
It was in southern Europe with its bright light and colors that man returned to an architecture much more human in content and expression. The Renaissance started first in Italy and then spread to the rest of Europe. Although in spirit it represented a return to humanism and to ancient Greece, its direct roots came from the Italian countryside, where the peasants’ houses were the prototypes of the more luxurious houses of the great landlords. When these rich men became urban dwellers— merchants or bankers—they built their cities and palaces, created their piazzas and monuments, public buildings, churches, and fortifications in a new and consistent form of architectural expression. There was continuity from the humble peasant’s house to Michelangelo’s Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome and to the Piazza della Signoria in Florence. As in other great periods, sculpture and painting were blended with architecture.
The Renaissance declined, and baroque style, with its sculpture and monuments, arose—an architecture of intellectual creation rather than a natural art having roots deep in the life of the people. The styles that followed, rococo and then neoclassicism and neoromanticism, widened this gap, emphasized by the art nouveau of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
At the southeastern end of Europe, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, local architectural expressions blended with the technology of the Romans, especially in major brick constructions, and with Greek tradition. Byzantine architecture thus combined East and West and predominated for long centuries, longer perhaps than any other style we know of, until its decline in the late nineteenth century. Although this style produced great cities, palaces, and works of art, it will be remembered mainly for its churches—from the largest, like Saint Sophia in Constantinople and the monasteries of Mount Athos, to the smallest, most humble one-room churches spread over many countries in the Balkans, Greece, and the Middle East.
Special mention should be made of the MuslimArabic style, which, born in the Middle East, followed the road to eastern Europe; then through northern Africa and the southern coast of the Mediterranean, it entered Europe via Spain, where it produced some of the best monuments of domestic and landscape architecture.
Architectural evolution, even when studied with European emphasis, is not as simple as it may look from such a division of styles by groups and periods, because styles have seldom been confined to one place, country, or era. In general, architecture has common origins and roots. The basic elements are people, whose needs are more alike than different, and building materials—mud, bricks, stone, and timber—which behave everywhere in very much the same way. Thus, architectural expressions in early human history were similar to one another; we can speak of a universal origin of all architectural styles, based on the needs and creative potential of man. Then local, semi-isolated cultures tended to develop their own architectural expressions as local or national styles. Some styles remained of importance only in certain areas, while others, especially those with more universal characteristics (generally the simplest ones) spread over wider areas, together with the civilizations and cultures to which they belonged. For example, the ancient Greek, Roman, Muslim, and Iberian styles spread to Central and South America, and the hybrid styles of northwestern Europe were brought to North America, Africa, and Asia by the Anglo-Saxons, the French, and the Dutch. As stylistic influences diffused, they became diluted, merged into one another, and tended toward a cosmopolitan mixture.
Today we live in an era of confusion, especially with regard to the human settlements that have become mere heaps of architectural and public works. Our villages are abandoned, and our cities gradually turn into a nightmare, where all sorts of forces, people, machines, buildings, and projects of all kinds struggle for survival and control. Architecture itself, in the original meaning of the word, is losing its importance, as the value and identity of the single building decrease with the passing of time. City inhabitants do not have the opportunity to see buildings as wholes; they know them only from the inside. Public spaces have completely lost their architectural importance. Moreover, the bulldozer tears down buildings that retain historic and aesthetic value—even relatively new buildings— whenever changes in the texture of the city demand.
In this world of change, architecture finds itself in very rapid evolution. In addition to cosmopolitanism and the decline of significant styles, other phenomena have had a great impact upon architecture. Technological innovations that permitted the construction of buildings of more than the previous limit of five or six floors were made about a century ago and spread rapidly after the invention of the elevator in 1854. In the past hundred years, industrialization and urbanization have given rise to social movements that demanded better housing for the exploding population, especially for workers in overcongested areas. Architecture has not only conquered the third dimension—height; it has also changed its content as attention has turned from the construction of monuments to the provision of services and facilities for people. A rational architecture, fostered by the great revolutionaries of our era, Gropius, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and others, has begun to emerge. Architecture entered the second quarter of our century with new forces and has started the third one with enough momentum for the completion of this revolution.
In the meantime, the situation is not simple, and public opinion is still caught between academic and modern, between old and new. Many architects have turned toward a new eclecticism and are searching for a compromise, an easy way out, personal expression, and so on. This is far removed from the real needs of humanity, for architecture, if it is to be true to its great traditions, must cease to be merely the practice of an art form and once again become a technique that serves all the people in the best possible way.
In this tremendous effort, during this great era of change, concepts are confused. People mix the notion of new with that of progress and invent solutions, even when the traditional ones serve us best, or they tend to defend a local style rather than an international architecture, not because it might have greater values—very often it has—but just for the sake of tradition, which, if it does not serve the people any longer, should be abandoned.
However, today’s greatest problem is a quantitative one. The great masses of people on earth live under unbearable conditions. We must face the real issues. The world population, and especially the urban one, is increasing at a rate not matched by architectural creation. At the same time, the full recognition that we need facilities for all has increased the dimensions of the problem. We must find the way in which architecture can catch up with changing economic and social phenomena.
Architects and all those concerned with architecture and city planning fear that a revolution may easily turn into a new academism or lose its momentum and thus stagnate. In many ways the answer lies in a return to the concepts of the past, although the materials, human and technological, are different.
The architect must find a way to bring together the knowledge and experience of the engineering industries, government, and the arts and blend them with local and international demands. In order to succeed in his new role, the architect can no longer concern himself with single buildings but rather must deal with entire settlements. He must build a habitat, which is a rational entity and should correspond to human dimensions. The architect must resume his traditional role as master builder, coordinator of all aspects of architectural creation, not limiting himself to the designing.
There must be the kind of architectural synthesis that will correspond to the magnitude of expanding human settlements. The architect must participate in industry, government, and centers of research and education where new notions about ways of living, the art of living, construction, and the needs of production are being developed. In this way architectural creation will be influenced at a level with which the architect is not yet acquainted but one with which he must familiarize himself if he is to achieve his purposes. In order to utilize knowledge contributed by the physical and social sciences, he must gain a much broader education than he has at present. An attempt to realize this aim is being made through the study of “ekistics,” or the science of human settlements, which proposes to synthesize the economic, social, political, and administrative sciences, technology, and aesthetics into one coherent whole. The new type of human habitat can no longer be cast in the mold of the static city of the past but must be fashioned after the dynamic settlements of the present, which are spreading in all directions around pre-existing cities. Such a dynamically changing frame is bound to come into conflict with static architecture. That is why we need to build our new cities by using a basic cell that will be static but that can be repeated, thus allowing for growth. Such a cell would represent the “human community,” whose dimensions would correspond both to actual human needs and to the dimensions of the city of the past. Its area should not exceed 2,000 yards square, and its population should be limited to 50,000 people. Within such communities, architecture and architectural space could retain their values without being impaired by the intrusions introduced into our urban life by fast-moving machines.
Houses and buildings must be seen in a way that allows them to be, simultaneously, individual units serving separate families or functions and also connected elements of a group that has its own internal cohesion. This may mean that a group of houses will have an internal street or square for pedestrians only, so that even if cars approach every single house, there will still be a part of the whole community that brings the residents together, around a common playground, a common garden or nursery, etc. The same principle suggests that buildings be arranged around a common courtyard or around a series of courtyards where there is no access for automobiles. This would provide a continuum of human space from room to house to courtyard, paths, gardens, and squares, a continuum big enough for the creation of real architectural space, where architecture is not limited to walls and elevations but to the broadest possible conception of space for man.
Thus, the roots of the new architecture are to be found in the entire range of architecture that preceded the nineteenth century. Such an architecture is going to be urban in character and human in content and will utilize a standardized technology. In this way architecture will become more consistent in expression and tend toward a new ecumenical form. The ecumenical qualities of architecture in the past were rooted in common responses to natural conditions; now they are reinforced by the participation of architects in what is gradually coming to be a world society.
The direction of the road toward such solutions is discernible, but the road itself is not yet open. A hard and long effort will be required of all those concerned, an effort to define the subject and a return to the proper concern of architecture: construction. Our only hope is to become good masons, so that we can expect some master masons (architects) to rise from among us. And we must try to abandon the subjective for the sake of the objective approach. If we achieve these aims, it is possible that in a few generations humanity may pass from the completely rational-utilitarian architecture— on which it must now concentrate—to a new humanistic, monumental architecture and thus a new architectural style.
C. A. Doxiadis
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Islamic architecture is in part comprised of those buildings and built environments intended for use in Islamic worship, commemoration, and instruction. Among the architecture of this group are mosques, madrasas or schools, mausoleums, and shrines. Islamic architecture may also be considered as the creation of patrons and builders who profess Islam or those that live in a region ruled by Muslims. These buildings can generally be described as secular, and include suqs (marketplaces), hammams (public baths), khans (inns), caravanseries or roadside inns, palaces, and houses.
Defining Islamic Architecture
Although Islamic architecture is infinitely varied in plan, elevation, building material, and decorative programs, there are several recurring forms found in all types of buildings, be they religious, secular, public, or private. These basic components are the dome, the arch, and the vault (Fig. 1 a–c). Before describing the different aspects of Islamic architecture it is important to pause and ask if such a categorization is viable.
This question stems from three considerations. First is the fact that the forms and decorative practices of these buildings are largely adaptations of pre-Islamic models. Thus it is not improper to ask if Islamic architecture should in fact be labeled Classical, Sassanian, or Hindu. If all that was being considered were forms emptied of meaning and function then the answer to this question would be a resounding yes. The second consideration derives from the fact that many of the architectural forms considered as Islamic architecture were built for secular purposes. How, then, can a religious category designate houses, inns, baths, or even cities? Are there essential qualities of these secular spaces that give them meaning as Islamic architecture? Finally, there is a question of fit. If Christians, Jews, and Hindus living within an Islamic region build similar forms then would not the designation be too narrow? And, conversely is the designation too broad? For how can a Malaysian congregational mosque built in the twenty-first century be placed under the same analytic category as an Umayyad congregational mosque of the eighth century, when they are not built of the same materials and do not display common decorative practices or forms?
While such considerations are beyond the scope of this article, it is important to realize that contemporary historians of Islamic architectural history weigh these questions critically. Some have responded by introducing more specified categories of Islamic architecture, such as those based on regional, dynastic, and chronological designations. Others have introduced new analytic models, for example, by studying the development of certain architectural forms, such as the minaret, or a practice, such as the use of public inscriptions. Taken together, recent scholarship of Islamic architecture presents a more historically contingent and culturally varied approach to the study of Islamic architecture. Many of the problems associated with the category of Islamic architecture arise from what is taken as the meaning of architecture. If Islamic architecture is simply a material entity, composed of classical forms, then the notion of Islamic architecture as being distinct from Byzantine or Sassanian becomes questionable. However, if by architecture we mean a dynamic space that produces relationships between people and helps individuals understand and articulate their identity through their engagement (or disengagement) with that space then the meaningfulness of Islamic architecture can be seen as a distinct construction.
The mosque is the preeminent dynamic space that stands at the center of Islamic society and culture. It is both a spiritual site of worship and a social site of education, debate, and discussion of religion, politics, and current events. Arab caliphs and their governors were the first builders of architectural mosques. Emerging from a Bedouin culture that did not necessitate permanent architecture, these early Islamic rulers adopted and adapted the building traditions of the cultures they conquered to guide the formation and style of the new mosques. Two notable sources that contributed to the early mosques's forms and styles were the Byzantine and Sassanian Empires. In the conquered regions previously dominated by these cultures Arabs established garrison cities and ordered the founded mosques to provide the Islamic community with a space to meet and pray. The mosques that appeared in the first centuries of Islamic history were either renovated structures, for example, Christian churches converted into mosques, or they were new buildings constructed from recycled parts of abandoned buildings, particularly columns of Roman ruins. Some Islamic rulers, such as the Umayyad builders of the Dome of the Rock (completed in 692 c.e.) and the Great Mosque of Damascus (706–714 c.e.), employed Byzantine artisans practiced in mosaic design to decorate their structures with dazzling images of vegetation, jewelry, and Qur˒anic inscriptions. Over time, the practice of employing local building techniques, decorative practices, and architectural forms resulted in mosques of different regions and periods of the Islamic world appearing visually dissimilar. They are, however, all connected by their principal function: to provide a central space for the Islamic community to unite, pray, and exchange information.
The prophet Muhammad's house was the first constructed mosque (Fig. 2). Established soon after his community moved to Medina in 622 c.e., it was a simple, unremarkable enclosure. The principal consideration of Muhammad's mosque was to provide a large, open, and expandable courtyard so the ever-growing community could meet in one place. The walls of the courtyard were made of mud-brick and had three openings. The walls surrounded an open space of about 61 square yards (56 meters). On the east side of the courtyard were the modest living quarters of Muhammad and his family. Palm tree trunks were used for the columns and palm leaves for the roof of a covered area called the zulla, which was built to protect worshipers from the midday sun. The zulla marked the direction Muslim prayer was originally oriented—north, toward the holy and venerated city of the Jews, Jerusalem. Later, Muhammad, while in prayer, received divine enlightenment that caused him to change the direction of prayer south to the Ka˓ba in Mecca. The zulla was therefore moved to concur with the new qibla (direction of prayer). Besides the qibla, another architectural form introduced at the first mosque was the minbar (stepped platform or pulpit) from which Muhammad addressed the growing Islamic community.
The Prophet's mosque, with its austere plan, large square enclosure, orientation toward the qibla, and minbar, provides the basic elements of subsequent mosque architecture. The first mosque type to emerge was the hypostyle plan (Fig. 3). Its basic unit, the bay (a covered area defined by four columns), could be expanded upon so the mosque could grow with the community. The hypostyle mosque typically has an inner courtyard, called the sahn, surrounded by colonnades or arcades (riwaqs) on three sides. Within the courtyard there is usually an ablutions fountain, where the wudu˒ (minor ablution) is performed before the salat (prayer). There are three entrances into the sahn. The principal entrance can be a monumental portal as built in Cairo in the Fatimid Mosque of al-Hakim (1002 c.e.). Passing through the sahn, the worshiper walked into a covered sanctuary area or haram. The haram of the Great Mosque of Cordoba (786, 962–966 c.e.) is one of the most visually breathtaking. The arches of the double-arch arcades are composed of alternating red brick courses and pale stone voussoirs that when viewed from within the sanctuary produce a visually captivating labyrinthine configuration over one's head. Once inside the sanctuary of a mosque the focus is the qibla, a directional wall that indicated which way to pray. In the center of the wall was often a semicircular niche with an arched top, known as the mihrab. In large mosques a minbar located to the right of the mihrab was also included. It was from atop the minbar that on Fridays the khutba (sermon) was delivered by the imam or prayer-leader. The minbar is based on the stepped platform that was used by Muhammad. It ranges from a simple three-step elevation to a highly decorated monumental stairway of many steps. The very top of the minbar is never occupied as it is symbolically reserved as the space of Muhammad, the original imam.
In large mosques another platform called the dikka is provided at the rear of the sanctuary, or in the courtyard, and along the same axis as the mihrab. A qadi repeats the sermon and prayer from the dikka for those standing too far from the minbar. Located outside of some mosques is a minaret that, along with the dome, has become the architectural symbol of Islam due to its ubiquitous presence and high visibility. Constructed as a tower, it either stands outside the mosque precinct or it is attached to the outer walls or portals of the mosque. The minaret varies in shape, ornamentation, and number depending on the region and building conventions of the patron. Besides visually broadcasting the presence of the mosque and Islam within a city or landscape the minaret also serves as an effective place for the mu˒adhdhin or "caller" (also muezzin) to perform the adhan (call to prayer) and be heard for a great distance. The maqsurah is a later addition made to the hypostyle-plan mosque. It is a differentiated, protective space, adjacent to the qibla wall. The maqsurah is found in mosques where the imam or ruler wanted either to be protected or ceremonially separated from the congregation. It was originally built as a raised platform separated with a wooden screen that allowed total to partial concealment of its occupants.
Types of Mosques. There are two general types of mosques. The first is the congregational mosque, known as the jami˓ masjid. The jami˓ (from the Arabic word for "to gather") is built on a large scale to accommodate the entire Islamic community of a town or city. The second type is known simply as masjid (from the Arabic word meaning "to prostrate oneself"). Masjids are small community mosques used daily by members of a quarter, or an ethnic group within a city. Masjids were also constructed as subsidiary structures next to mausoleums, palaces, caravanseries, and madrasas. Early masjids and jami˓ masjids, while different in size, shared the same architectural forms and style. However, as Islamic rulers grew in wealth and power starting in the late seventh century, they built monumental jami˓ masjids in their cities to reflect the preeminence of Islam and the permanence of their dynasty. Adapting the basic building elements of vaults, arches, and domes, these rulers built mosques that from the exterior appeared to span large areas and soar to great heights. To create a stunning visual experience in the interior the jami˓ masjids were ornamented with complex geometric and arabesque or vegetal decoration in mosaic and stucco. Quartered marble decorated the lower walls, or dados, and Qur˒anic and historical inscriptions in stucco and mosaic Arabic script engaged the intellect.
Regional Variation of Mosques. Although there is no one style to unify the mosques of the Islamic world, they can be divided into broad regional variants. The mosque style of central Arabia was an early development influenced by church-building of the Syrian Byzantine Empire and palace-building of the Sassanian Persian Empire. In the east, the ground plans of the Great Mosques of Kufa (638 c.e.) and Basra (635 c.e.) were square like those of Zoroastrian temples. When the Great Mosque of Kufa was rebuilt in 670, its haram was based on the apadanas or throne rooms of Achaemenian kings: five rows of tall stone columns supporting a teak ceiling. Similarly, the Great Mosque of Damascus, built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walid between 706–714, was based on indigenous building conventions. Architects used the preexisting enclosure of the temenos and church, but since the mosque had to be oriented to the south, the qibla wall was on the longer side of the rectangular space. Also, due to the constraints of the preexisting quadrangle, the courtyard was transversal in orientation rather than longitudinal. The haram contained a short, wide central nave with a gabled roof and a wooden dome in its center. Three aisles of double-tiered arches, parallel to the qibla wall, supported a gabled ceiling. Al-Walid, wanting to outdo the neighboring churches and temples, employed Syrian-Christian artisans to richly decorate the interior of the mosque with imported gold and colored mosaics and marble, and even used rock crystal for the mihrab.
The early Abbasid caliphate, ruling from Baghdad from 749 to 847, first built their mosques with square floor plans as the early Umayyads had done in the region. However, after the Abbasids moved their capital to Samarra, their mosques reflected the rectangular hypostyle form favored by the later Umayyads. The Great Mosque of Samarra, built by al-Mutawakkil from 848 to 852, was the largest hypostyle mosque of its time with nine rows of columns in the sanctuary that supported a thirty-five-foot-high ceiling. The mosque is most famous for Malwiyya, the colossal spiral minaret. Once faced with gold tiles, Malwiyya's great size and unusual shape made the Great Mosque of Samarra a highly visible presence in the surrounding landscape.
Sub-Saharan West African mosques are unique in their use of organic materials that are constantly replenished over time, such as tamped earth, timber, and vegetation. Due to seasonal deterioration during the wet and dry seasons, the mosques are constantly being repaired and resurfaced. The predominant quality of these structures is their rounded organic form, reinforced with projecting timber beams or torons, which also serve as supports for scaffolding when the mosque is being resurfaced. The Great Mosque of Djenné (thirteenth century) is the most representative of the West African mosques. Its tall rounded towers and engaged columns, which act as buttresses, easily flow into each other and give the structure its characteristic verticality and overwhelming majesty.
The central-planned, domed mosque of the Ottomans is yet another distinctive type. When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in the fifteenth century they converted the Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia into a mosque by framing it with two pointed minarets. Later in the nineteenth century they added roundels inscribed with calligraphic writing of the names of Muhammad, Allah, and the early caliphs. Using the Hagia Sophia as their prototype, Ottoman rulers built mosques in the principal cities of their empire. The mosques were defined by large spherical domes, with smaller half-domes at the corners of the square, and four distinctively shaped minarets—tall, fluted, and needle-nosed—that were typically placed at the exterior corners of the mosque complex. The Selimiye Cami (Mosque of Selim) in Edirne, Turkey (1507–1574), best characterizes the central-plan Ottoman mosque.
Moving further east to Seljuk Iran, another type of mosque emerges known as the four-iwan mosque. The iwan is an open vaulted space with a rectangular portal or pishtaq. In a Seljuk mosque four of these iwans would be oriented around a central courtyard. The Great Mosque of Isfahan, built in this style in the twelfth century, is a monumental four-iwan mosque. Of these, the principal or qibla iwan is the largest, with a large domed maqsura and muqarnas vaulting. To lend it further visual impact, two minarets were added at the corners of the portal. The iwan that stood opposite the qibla iwan followed in size, and it was both smaller and shallower. The lateral iwans were the smallest. While the exterior of the mosque was unadorned, the inward-facing iwans were decorated with architectural ceramic tiles of turquoise, cobalt blue, white, deep yellow, and green. The decorative designs contained geometric and arabesque patterns as well as Kufic inscriptions. The layout of the Great Mosque of Isfahan influenced countless other mosques in Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia.
From their start, the mosques of South Asia were syncretic structures. They were the by-products of hired Hindu masons, indigenous architectural material taken from destroyed or decaying Hindu buildings, and necessary elements of mosque architecture such as the mihrab. The mosques were trabeated at first and decorated with popular Hindu motifs such as vegetal scrolls and lotuses. The plans of South Asian mosques ranged from traditional hypostyle, to Persian four-iwan types, and to single-aisle domed plans. The earliest mosques of the Delhi sultanate (1192–1451) were hypostyle and built out of reused materials from Hindu and Jain temples such as the Quwwat al-Islam in Delhi of the late twelfth century. The greatest achievement of this mosque is the monumental minaret, the Qutb Minar. Standing at 238 feet it was a victory tower that announced the power of the new religion to the surrounding landscape.
The next significant mosque type of South Asia is the single-aisle plan with five bays that used stucco and colored stones as surface decoration and squinch and muqarnas vaulting. These mosques had monumental central portals and domes. The Bara Gumbad mosque in Delhi, built by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1494, and the Qal˒a-e-Kuhna mosque of Sher Shah (1540–1545) exemplify this style. It was this basic form of mosque architecture that was later adopted by the great Mogul dynasty (1426–1848). Two exemplary Mogul-style mosques are Akbar's Great Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri (1571–1572) and Shah Jahan's Great Mosque at Delhi (1650–1656). These mosques have large courtyards and are built from the local red sandstone combined with white marble to create decorative geometric and vegetal patterns. The distinctive feature of Akbar's mosque at Fatehpur Sikri is the monumental portal on the south side called the Buland Darwaza. Its form is that of a colossal pishtaq (tall central portal), derived from Timurid origins. It is embellished with native Indian architectural elements as well such as small open pavilions called chatris and lotus-shaped medallions. Located on the west side of the great courtyard is the sanctuary, a three-domed prayer-hall with a central pishtaq. The Great Mosque of Delhi was based on the four-iwan plan. Three onion-shaped bulbous marble domes surmount the qibla iwan, the same shape used for the dome of the Taj Mahal. The minarets are divided into four parts and are capped with small pavilions. Smaller, private mosques built for the Mughal palaces of Lahore, Agra, and in Delhi reflect the fine marble carving skills of the Indian artisans. Faced with white marble, elegantly carved with vegetal patterns, these mosques were then topped with graceful onion-shaped domes with lotus molding and metallic finials. These private imperial mosques were the architectural counterparts of the elegant gems so highly prized by the Mughals.
Shrines and Mausoleums
Shrines and mausoleums that commemorate important places and people of the Islamic world comprise another important component of sacred Islamic architecture. The first great shrine was al-Haram al-Sharif or Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Built between 687 and 691 by the Umayyad caliph ˓Abd al-Malik, it covers a renowned irregular rock formation. Muslims believe that is was from this rock that Muhammad began his night journey, or isra˒, to heaven. Located on the Temple Mount of Mount Moriah its golden dome is seen for miles reflecting in the landscape. The sanctuary of the Dome of the Rock is in the shape of an octagon and is surmounted by a tall drum and dome. The rock is surrounded by a screen and then a circular arcade of alternating columns and piers. Next is an octagonal arcade that is surrounded by the outer walls that together create a double ambulatory. A frieze of Kufic inscriptions in gold tile on blue background is found on the inside and outside of the octagonal arcade. It is the first occurrence of Qur˒anic inscription in Islamic architecture. Adding to the sumptuous quality of the interior are other mosaics of turquoise, blue, and green tiles that could be depictions of the lush foliage of Paradise, and royal insignia of those vanquished by Muslim conquest.
The mausoleums of imams, rulers, the wealthy, and saints comprise the other part of Islamic commemorative architecture. Although the prophet Muhammad dictated that burials should be simple and without grave markers mausoleums are found throughout the Islamic world. Following the forms of the Dome of the Rock and the Byzantine martyrium, which the former was also inspired by, the Muslims founded their own funerary architecture. The basic form of the mausoleum was a square enclosure, derived from the shape of a house where the dead were traditionally buried, surmounted by a dome. In cities such as Mamluk Cairo (1250–1517), the domed square plan compelled builders to plan vertically instead of laterally due to spatial and structural constraints of preexisting streets. To deflect the admonitions of the Muslim orthodox that perceived tomb building as irreligious, Arab builders in North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Levant made the mausoleum part of larger religious complexes. The mausoleum is thus often one part of a complex composed of a mosque, madrasa, or religious school, and sometimes a hospital or khanqa (residence of a Sufi leader). Although the buildings had unique functions, they shared the same architectural elements. The architects unified the complex with geometric and arabesque designs to decorate the buildings, marble revetment, muqarnas or stalactite vaults (also called honeycomb vault), and ceramic tiles, among countless other regional variants and conventions.
While the mausoleum met with periodic waves of disapproval in the Arabian world it was a fully acceptable form in the Persianate world of Iran, Anatolia, Iraq, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and South Asia. The two basic forms of Persianate mausoleum are the yurt-inspired tomb tower such as the northern Iranian Gunbad-e Qabus (1007) and the domed square and later octagonal tombs, like the Tomb of the Samanids in Bukhara (tenth century), the Ilkhanid Sultaniya mausoleum of Iljeytu (early fourteenth century), and the famous Taj Mahal (1631–1643) of Shah Jahan in India. In eleventh-century Egypt another type of mausoleum emerged called the canopy mausoleum, because it was open to the elements. An example of this type is the Fatimid funerary complex of Sab˒a Banat in Fustat. A later Fatimid development of the mausoleum form is the mashhad, a large square domed tomb connected to a three-room unit entered through a portal and organized around a courtyard that served pilgrims. The mashhad of Sayyida Ruqayya, an ˓Alid saint, built in 1133, is an example of this type of mausoleum. The final type of mausoleum to be considered here makes skillful use of one of the most famous architectural forms: the muqarnas. A stalactite squinch usually found in the transitional zones between wall and dome, the muquarnas was used in all types of Islamic architecture. During the Ayyubid (1099–1250) and Mamluk (1250–1517) periods, the mausoleum was brought out of the cemetery and into the urban fabric. With their increased visibility these tombs became centers for transmitting political information and education of the Sunni religious schools of law. They were also gathering centers for the followers of Sufism. Building the mausoleum in the city of Cairo compelled a few changes in design. As there was little room to build laterally, the focus of the architecture was on the drum and dome of the building, built ever higher and with more richly textured transitional zones and domes.
One of the secular types of Islamic architecture is the palace, which matches the mosque in reflecting the rich variety of forms, ornamentation, and the sophisticated skills of artisans. Built as large complexes rather than singular units, Islamic palaces were generally self-sustaining, and most contained bastion walls, towers, gates, baths, stables, private quarters, public meeting spaces, workshops, offices, hospitals, harams or zenanas (reserved for the women of the palace), libraries, pavilions, fountains, and gardens. These palaces were built as the architectural embodiment of the ruler, the spatial metaphor of his dominion, and, if built in idyllic settings with surrounding gardens, were considered earthly paradises. The first palaces were built by the Umayyads and were modeled after Roman villas. Serving as hunting lodges or rural residences these include the Qasr al-Hayr, Khirbat al-Mafjar, and Khirbat al-Minya of the eighth century. Other wellknown palaces are the Fatimid Palace of al-Qahira (1087–1092), Umayyad Madinat al-Zahira of Cordoba (936–976), the Nasrid Alhambra in Granada, Spain (early fourteenth century), the Ottoman Topkapi complex, and Mogul Fatehpur Sikri and Red Fort, built in Delhi during the sixteenth century.
Islamic secular architecture is also public in nature. Among these buildings are the caravanseries and hammams. The caravanserai was a stopping place for travelers to rest and water and feed their animals. A typical caravanserai had a large open courtyard with a single large portal. Inside, along the walls, were covered arcades that contained identical stalls to accommodate a traveler, and his servants. Animals were usually kept in the courtyard or stables located in the corners. Caravansaries were usually fortified with bastions and turreted walls. As with mosques and palaces, caravansaries vary in ornamentation and form from region to region. Inside the city the khan housed the travelers and merchants. These structures were multistoried and overlooked a central courtyard. The animals and goods were kept on the ground floor and apartments were located above.
The public bath or hammam was another architectural form found in many Islamic cities. Along with the khan it was located in the suq or marketplace. Adopted from the Romans, the hammam was used for washing and purification before Friday prayer. It was composed of large rooms for steam baths as well as others for soaking in hot and cold water, all of which communicated through waiting halls. Utilizing marble covered floors and walls, arches, large ornamented domes that helped circulate hot air, muqarnas vaults, and stucco decoration, some public baths were highly luxurious environments. Men and women bathed separately either in their own hammam, if there were two in a town, or on different days or at designated times.
The final type of Islamic architecture to be considered is the domestic. The typical house built in Islamic societies is oriented inward. A bent entrance that turns at a sharp angle marks the transition from the outside world to the home. The entrances of homes do not usually align with those across the street, so the privacy of the interior is maintained. On the inside the rooms are arranged around a central courtyard and range from the private spaces of the family to semiprivate spaces where male guests, who were not members of the family, could enter. The open courtyard ventilates the house. A central basin or fountain, part of most courtyards, also provides a cooling effect and the soothing sound of falling water. In more prosperous households delicately carved wooden screens called mashraabiyyat were used to create private space, filter air from the outside, and allow light to enter the home. The exterior of an Islamic house is often left unadorned. Only upon entering the home will the visitor know the class status of the owner.
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Tang Architecture. The architecture of the Tang dynasty (618-907) is magnificent, lofty, symmetrical, elegant, and not fragile. Architectural technology significantly developed during this era, and various materials were used—including earth, stone, brick, iron, wood, and bamboo. They were decorated with tiles, glaze, bronze, and various kinds of paint. Many Tang palaces and temples consisted of groups of buildings. Usually, two or more main buildings were constructed along an axis line with other smaller structures on either side of the line. This arrangement resulted in the formation of subordinate compounds. In front of the major building was a large central courtyard, and the entire square compound was surrounded by walls.
Tang Capitals. The Tang capital of Chang’an in Shanxi Province, originally constructed in 582, was one of the largest cities in the world during that era. Based on the principle of the square, the city was built on a symmetrical plan with the 108 square or rectangular blocks defined by streets and alleys running north-south and east-west, reflecting the ideal order and hierarchy to which the ruler aspired. Each block was enclosed by its own wall and had gates that were closed at nightfall. Shops were clustered in east and west markets, each occupying a single block. The palaces and the forbidden city were in the northern section of the city. The forbidden city, where the political and military offices and the imperial temples were located, was 2,820.3 meters long and 1,843.6 meters wide. It had three gates each on its north and south sides and two gates each on its east and west sides. A 220-meter path to the north linked the forbidden city to the city of palaces, which was the same length as the forbidden city and 1,492.1 meters in width. The Taijigong (Ultimate Palace), the office and residence of the emperor, was at the center of the city of pal-aces with other residential and official palaces on its east and west. The city palaces had five gates on its southern side, four each on its northern and western sides, and one on its eastern side. To the north of the city of palaces was the forbidden garden. The Tang had another capital at Luoyang, whose scale and layout were similar to those at Chang’an, but the plan of this eastern capital conformed more to the physical features of its location.
Tang Palaces. The Palace of Great Clarity was built in 634 on the plain of Dragon Head Hill in the northwest section of Chang’an, from which one could overlook the entire city. An imperial resort with residential and official structures, it was built with great attention to security. The city wall was 10.5 meters wide at the bottom. With double walls on three sides and triple gates on the northern wall, the palace complex included three great halls as well as several pavilions and small halls. North of the palace was the garden with a lake, a hill, halls, and pavilions. The Hanyuandian (Hall of Origin), the principal hall in the palace complex, was flanked by two pavilions to which it was linked by winding passageways. Designed and constructed in accordance with the natural shape of the Hill of Dragon Head, this magnificent palace represented the power of the Tang emperors, whose symbol was the dragon. Northwest of the Hall of Origin was the Lindedian (Hall of Unicorn Virtue), which was used for feasts, entertainment, Buddhist ceremonies, and meditation. It had pavilions at its back, center, and front. None of the Tang palaces have survived, and modern knowledge of them is based on archaeological discoveries.
Tang Temples. Most Tang-dynasty temples have also been destroyed. Only two have survived: the Nanchan (Temple of the Southern Chan), built in 782, and the Foguang Shizheng (Temple of Buddhist Light), built in 857—both located on the Wutaishan (Mountain of Five Terraces) in Shanxi Province. The Temple of Buddhist Light perfectly combines art and architecture. The roof beams and pillars of the temple were placed to create three independent arches beneath the roof, creating maximum space and a sense of symmetry. The temple looks dignified, stable, and beautiful.
Tang Pagodas. Among the existing Tang pagodas, the oldest and most important example is the Xuanzhangta, built in 669, the five-story tomb-pagoda of a monk named Xuanzhang. It has five stories and is known for its simplicity. The well-known Dayanta (Great Wild Goose Pagoda), built in the early eighth century at Cien Temple in Chang’an, has lost its original appearance through extensive reconstruction during the Ming dynasty. The Qianxunta (Thousand Xun Pagoda), built late in the Tang era at the Chongshenshi (Lofty and Saint Temple) of Dali in
Yunnan Province, is an example of the multi-eaved pagoda, which typically has a high first story topped by many courses of eaves, which do not necessarily correspond with the number of stories in the pagoda. With sixteen sets of eaves the Thousand Xun Pagoda is one of the tallest surviving Tang pagodas. The Minghui dashita (Pagoda of Master Minghui), built in 877 at the Haihuiyuan (Academy of Ocean Meeting) in Pingshun County of Shanxi Province, is an exquisite one-story square stone pagoda with four layers of beautifully crafted sculptures of gods. During the second half of the seventh century, Sutra towers became a part of Buddhist architecture and were built in multistory shapes with beautiful carvings. Sutra towers were similar to pagodas, but they were used to hold sutra texts instead of for worshiping Buddha.
Tang Gardens and Private Residences. There are no remaining examples of Tang residential architecture. Knowl-edge of Tang building practices comes from paintings on the walls of the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu Province, as well as other paintings and books of the period. A Tang house usually had a central axis with a symmetrical arrangement of rooms on each side, and they were grouped in a rect-angular compound (siheyuan). There were also simpler thatched cottages in a triangular compound (sanheyuan) enclosed by a wooden fence. Tang noble families followed the tradition of building a garden in the back of their residence or constructing a resort in a suburban area. Hills and ponds were the main features in Tang gardens, which also might have included bridges, small islands, pavilions, flowers, trees, and stones. Gardens were intended to convey “poetic feeling and pictorial ideas.” For instance, at the home and garden of the well-known poet Bai Juyi (772-846) in Luoyang, housing occupied one-third of the 2.9 acres of land, with ponds on one-fifth, bamboo trees on one-ninth, and the rest given over to paths, trees, halls, platforms, and pavilions. Three small islands, each with a pavilion, were connected to each other by bridges. A path ran along the water. The focus was on bamboo trees and water. Rough and rare stones were piled up to make a hill—a feature that became a prevalent Tang garden feature.
Song Architecture. The architecture of the Song dynas-ties (960-1279) was smaller in scale but more beautiful and more splendid than that of the Tang era. By this time the use of brick for city walls, city roads, pagodas, and tombs had significantly increased. The heights of pillars and the degree of roof slope increased, while the size of the cantilever bracket supporting the roof was reduced, simplifying the architectural structure and increasing space within a house. Song architectural styles varied and included complexly designed pavilions and buildings with sophisticated decorations and paintings. Construction parts became standardized. In northern China, Liao (916-1115) architecture inherited the Tang style, while that of the Jin (1115-1234) followed the style of the Song dynasty. The use of wood imitating stone was widespread. Flat and coffered ceilings became more common, and painted decorations became more colorful.
Song Cities. By the Song era, commercial development had broken up the traditional block-style urban plan with concentrated and fixed marketplaces. The Song government destroyed the walls that enclosed blocks, but for its convenience still used the lanes to divide cities into administrative units. Many streets were developed along business and professional lines, and many restaurants, stores, and entertainment centers were also established. There were also many market fairs and Buddhist gardens. Kaifeng, the eastern capital of the Northern Song dynasty (960-1125), included three walled enclosures, each protected by a moat. The perimeter of the outer city was nineteen kilometers. There were three land gates and two water gates on the south border, four gates each on the north and the east borders, and five gates on the west border. At each gate a defense tower was built. The inner city—with a perimeter of nine kilometers and three gates on each of the four sides—was located in the center of the outer city. The palace city, with one gate each on four sides and a tower on each corner of its wall, was almost in the center of the inner city. Within the palace city were many halls and a large imperial garden. Pingjiang (Suzhou), a major city during the Tang and Song dynasties, had water and land transportation systems. Each residential and official building faced a street and had a river behind it.
The Great Wall of China, or the Chinese Wall, is one of the major architectural achievements of the pre-modern world. Around the seventh century B.C.E., the state of Chou in North China started to construct a permanent frontier-defense system, and by the third century B.C.E. various other northern kingdoms had followed suit. Although subsequent dynasties, such as the Han (206 B.C.E. -220 C.E.) and the Sui (589-618), improved various sections of wall, it was not until the Ming empire (1368-1644) that many fragments were connected into one continuous wall. The emperor Hongzhi (reigned 1487-1505) ordered most of the work on the existing Great Wall in order to repel another Mongolian invasion.
The Ming Great Wall is approximately 4,500 miles long, extending from the mountains of Korea to the Gobi Desert (the distance between Miami, Florida, and the North Pole). It follows the contours of the mountains, some of which are seven thousand feet above sea level and have ridges that climb at an angle of seventy degrees. The wall is made of beaten earth, bricks, and stones. It has thousands of towers and individual forts. During the Ming empire the fortifications were garrisoned by one million troops. At each strategic pass there is a fortified gate. The height of the wall varies from fifteen feet to thirty feet, and its width at the base measures anywhere from fifteen feet to twenty-five feet; the walkway on top of the wall is thir-teen feet wide.
Sources: Jonathan Fryer, The Great Wall of China (London: New English Library, 1975),
William Lindesay, The Great Wall (Hong Kong: Odyssey, 1998).
Arthur Waldron, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Luo Zewen and others, The Great Wall (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981).
Song and Liao Temples. The Shengmudian (Goddess Hall), built in 1023-1032, at the Jinci (Jin Temple) in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, is an ancestral temple with a front hall and main hall as well as a garden. Flying beams designed in harmony with the terrain support a bridge across a square fishpond in front of the main hall and a platform within. The inside of the main hall looks spacious because extra-long beams bear the roof and the only pillars are in the corners. The external features of the hall are soft and feminine and quite different from the masculine style of Tang architecture. The Longxingshi (Temple of Prosperity) in Zhengding County, Hebei Province, is an important surviving example of Song Buddhist temples. The first rectangular courtyard has bell towers on the left and the right sides. The Hall of the Sixth Master, in its center, has been destroyed. To the north is another rectangular courtyard with the Moni Hall in the center and secondary halls on either side. The Moni Hall is built on a square base with a projecting portico on each of its four sides. It has thick walls, and the only window is in its front door. Further north, beyond a second gate, is a grand temple complex, including towers, pavilions, and halls. This complex was constructed along a central axis extending northward, with interrelated courtyards and buildings of varying heights. The major buildings have two or three stories, illustrating the Song tendency to construct multistory structures, as well as tall buildings to accommodate large Buddhist sculptures. One example of such a building is the Guanyin Hall, built in 984 at the Duleshi (Temple of Lonely Happiness) in Jixian County, Hebei Province, when it was occupied by the Liao empire (916-1115). Combining the masculine style of the Tang and the feminine style of the Song, the hall seems from the outside to be a two-story building, but it has a “secret” story inside and an open center to accommodate its tall statue of the Buddha. The base of the building
is low, and its pillars lean inward. An external balcony circles the building under the upper eaves. Also dating from the Liao period, the Huayanshi (Grand Hall of the Temple of Chinese Rigorousness)—built about 1140 in Datong, Shanxi Province—is the largest surviving early single-eave wooden building. The two-story Hall of Sakya Sutra at the Huayanshi is also an important Liao building. The two sets of cabinets for sutra manuscripts in this library building are connected by a bridge on which a five-room pavilion is built.
Song and Liao Pagodas. The Pagoda of Sakyamuni, built in 1056 at the Fogongshi (Temple of the Buddhist Palace) in Ying County, Shanxi Province, is the oldest extant wooden pagoda in China and one of the tallest wooden buildings in the world. Octagonal in shape, it is 30.27 meters wide at its base and is 67.3 meters tall. It has only five stories but has six levels of eaves because the first floor has two sets of eaves. Inside, each of the four upper stories has a mezzanine level; thus, it may be said to have four “secret” stories for a total of nine. Although it is huge, this building does not have a heavy appearance because its sets of eaves form an elegant shape and give the observer a sense of upward motion. Among all Song sutra towers, the one in the Zhao County of Hebei Province is the most representative and the largest. Entirely made of stone and more than 15 meters tall, it has a beautiful shape and features vivid carvings of gods, noblewomen, and dancing girls. The stone pagoda reached the peak of its development during the Song dynasty.
Song Houses and Gardens. A rural house during the Song dynasty was typically a simple, one-story dwelling with either a thatched roof or a half-thatched, half-tiled roof. Several houses were usually grouped together. Under the eaves and near the ceiling were windows covered by bamboo material. There were also windows near the roof peak at the gable ends for cross ventilation. Urban mansions were usually constructed as compounds with tile roofs. The entry room was often built to allow a horse and wagon to be driven into the central courtyard. Galleries or halls began to connect the various buildings in a compound. Song private gardens developed differently in various regions. The gardens in Luoyang usually tended to be natural and were built on a large scale with only a few halls and pavilions. “Borrowing scenes,” purposely constructing a high point or window from which to view a neighbor’s scenery, was a significant characteristic of many Song gar-dens. The gardens of the South were subtle and complicated. Symmetry was emphasized, and gardens were organized into different “rooms” separated by gargles stones (or, gargled lake stones, which were of various shapes and could be found only in certain lakes; such as Panyang Lake in South China) paths, walls, and flower beds. Poetry, painting, calligraphy, and carving became integral parts of the garden. Appreciation of lake stones was widespread, and a water feature was always included. Flowers were arranged in patterns but not according to strict conformity. Several flowers had their symbolic implications. Chrysanthemums represented culture; water lilies stood for purity and peace; and the bamboo tree was a token of lasting friendship, loyalty, and flexibility. The salt merchants of Yangzhou built many gardens. Suzhou, home to many nobles and landlord families, is also renowned for its gardens, including the Canglangting (Garden of the Blue-Waves Pavilion), which was built during the Song dynasty, and the Shizilin (Garden of the Stone Forest), dating to the Yuan dynasty. The Xiyuan (Western Garden) in Beijing was initially built during the Liao dynasty and was later enlarged by the Jin and Yuan dynasties. Combining features of the natural landscape with manmade components, this garden has water as its main feature. At its center is the White Tower on Jade Island in a naturally existing lake. The long lakeshore is dotted by several exquisite pavilions.
The Yuan Capital at Beijing. In 1264 the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) began to construct Dadu (Grand Capital) on the site of present-day Beijing. Completed eight years later, the Yuan capital is a well-designed, large-scale city (7,400 meters by 6,650 meters) with many grand palaces. The wall had two gates on the north side and three gates on each of the other three sides. The city was divided into sixty administrative sections, which were not walled. The city drainage system was well planned and built of brick. The grand canal was used as the water supply and for transportation. Yuan palaces were located in the Imperial City and the Palace City. The Imperial City had a pond, garden, and three groups of palaces. The Palace City wall had four gates in the front and back and a tower on each corner. The palaces were symmetrically arranged on each side of a central axis line. Yuan palaces were extravagant and built with many precious materials.
Yuan Religious Architecture. The Deningdian (Hall of Virtue and Peace) at the Beiyuemiao (Temple of North Mountain) in Quyang County, Hebei Province; the Yonglegong (Palace of Perpetual Happiness) in Yongji County, Shanxi Province; and the Shuishenmiao (Temple of the River God), built in 1324 near the future site of the Mingera Guangshengshi (Temple of Wide Victory, built in 1515-1527) in Hongdong, Shanxi Province, are representatives of Yuan religious architecture. They are built in the styles of Song temples or those of the Jin empire in northern China but on a larger scale. During the Yuan dynasty the spread of Lamaism resulted in the construction of several Lamaist buildings, of which the pagoda of the Miaoyingshi (Temple of Wonderful Response), built in 1271 in the Grand Capital, is the most notable. This brick pagoda was 50.86 meters tall and painted with white lime. Although it is uncarved and quite plain, it looks magnifi-cent and powerful. The guojieta (street pagoda) was a common form of Lamaist architecture, but no complete street pagoda has survived. The Temple of Shajia (mid thirteenth century) and the Temple of Xialu (mid fourteenth century) are typical Lamaist temples. Mosques built during the Yuan dynasty sometimes adopted Central Asian models, while others were based on traditional Chinese models.
The Huajuexiang mosque in the Lane of Conversion and Enlightenment of Xian, Shanxi Province, was established in 1392.
Ming Architecture. By the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) many roof shapes had developed, and the use of brick had become common. The framework for the city gate became a brick arch instead of wood pillars and a cross beam. The production of glazed tiles to cover walls reached its height in terms of both quality and quantity. Ming official architecture, interior design, and construction practices became much standardized, which to a certain extent stifled creativity. In his Book of Wood carpenter Yu Hao recorded the accumulated knowledge of Chinese architects.
Ming Beijing. After the Ming dynasty decided to move its capital from Nanking to Beijing in 1403, Beijing was significantly reconstructed and enlarged according to the feudal hierarchical concept for convenience of political control. All the important buildings were built along a 7.5-kilometer axis with a central path running north from the Yongdingmen (Gate of Lasting Peace) at the south wall of the outer city through the Zhengyangmen (Meridian Gate) of the Gugong (Forbidden City) to the palace complex. Ming imperial architecture followed exactly the feudal rules of “three halls” in the front for court gatherings, “three pal-aces” in the back for imperial residences, and “five gates.” They also followed the ritual requirement that the temple for ancestor worship should be on the left (east) and the ceremonial altar for community ceremonies on the right (west). On either side of the central axis, near the Gate of Lasting Peace, were two large architectural complexes, the Tiantan (Temple of Heaven) and the Xiannongtai (Temple of Agriculture).
The Temple of Heaven. The Temple of Heaven is considered the best example of Ming ceremonial architecture. Built in 1534 on the site of the Altar of Heaven and Earth, it occupies 280 acres of land planted with many cypress trees and is surrounded by walls. The enclosed area is nearly square. The north corners of the wall are rounded, however, to symbolize the ancient belief in “round heaven and square earth.” On the southern end of a 360-meter axis (representing the days in a Chinese year) is a large circular white-stone altar from which the emperor prayed to heaven. It has three levels and looks massive and solemn. At the north end of the axis is the Qiniandian (Hall of
Prayer for Good Harvest). Built on a high base of white stone, it is a huge, round, wooden building with three tiers of eaves. The roof is covered with blue tiles representing heaven and curves gracefully upward to a golden point.
The Forbidden City. From 1407 to 1420 the Ming court employed 20,000-30,000 laborers to build the Forbidden City, which was divided into outer and inner courts. The outer court was used mainly for administrative and ceremonial activities. The inner court, with an imperial garden, was designed as living space for the emperor, his wives, and their servants and eunuchs. To avoid creating hiding places for assassins, no trees were planted in the outer court, and the ground was covered with fifteen large rock slabs to prevent enemies of the emperor from tunneling into the Forbidden City. The front gate—the Noon Gate—was not only a gate but also a palace hall for announcing government proclamations and emperors’ edicts. Within the Forbidden City the path continued northward from the Noon Gate to the Damingmen (Gate of Great Clarity), which opened onto a vast, paved court-yard bordered on the north by five stone bridges crossing the Inner Golden River to the stone lions and ornamental columns on the Tiananmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace). Inside this gate the Ming emperors built three halls for the administration of their imperial government: the Taihedian (Hall of Ultimate Peace), the Zhonghedian (Hall of Central Peace), and the Baohedian (Hall of Lasting Peace), as well as smaller government buildings in the same style. The similarity between the major and minor buildings reinforced the relationship among the buildings. The Hall of
Ultimate Peace, which was the site of the most important ceremonies, was taller and more elaborate than the other buildings, with two sets of eaves supported by a large number of cantilevered brackets, and three tiers of white-stone steps.
The Inner Court. From the three halls the path then continues north to the Duanmen (Gate of Origin), which leads to the complex of royal palaces. The emperor’s palace, the Qianqinggong (Palace of Heavenly Purity), has been destroyed by fire several times, and the present palace was rebuilt according to the original plans after a major fire in 1797. To the north of this palace is a square pavilion, which was used as the empress’s throne room, and her palace, the Kunninggong (Palace of Earthly Tranquillity), with the Imperial Garden on its north. The inner court also includes smaller residences. Toward the northern end of the axis, in the Forbidden City, is the Jingshan (Prosperity Hill), which at fifty meters tall is the highest point of the city. The imperial path then continues north through the Dianmen (Gate of Earthly Peace) and ends at the Bell Tower and the Drum Tower.
The Center of Government. This plan met the needs of the ruling class by putting the government at the center of the city, but it severely impeded city transportation. Throughout the Forbidden City the imperial colors, gold and red, were liberally employed, as were images of the dragon and the phoenix, symbols of the emperor and empress.
Ming Temples. The magnificent Tiantan (Temple of Heaven) in Beijing, constructed in 1534, is the best example of a Ming imperial ceremonial temple, demonstrating the ability of its architect to organize space. It consists of two groups of buildings connected by a broad path that is 360 meters long, representing the number of days in the Chinese year. In addition to the two main buildings, there are others for preparing sacrifices, ceremonial dancing, and fasting.
Ming Pagodas. The Feihongta (Pagoda of the Flying Rainbow)—built in 1515-1527 at the Guangsheng Shangshi (Upper Temple of Wide Victory) in Hongdong County, Shanxi Province—is a typical Ming pagoda. This octagonal, thirteen-story structure is 47.63 meters high. Its surface is decorated with terra-cotta gods and animal figures glazed in various colors. The diamond-shaped pagodas originated in India. They appeared in Tang-era paintings on the walls of the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu Province, but the earliest surviving example in China is the Vajrasana (Diamond Throne Pagodas), built in 1473 at the Da zhengjueshi (Temple of True Awakening) in Beijing. This five-pagoda cluster sits on a single, tall, diamond-shaped base on which gods, lions, peacocks, and the “eight treasures” of Lamaist Buddhism are carved. The five multieaved pagodas and the small hall that is also on the base have similar carvings. The Tai minority community built a distinctive style of pagoda complex during the Ming dynasty. Typically, a tall slim pagoda was surrounded by smaller pagodas and strange animal figures. The various shapes and elaborate carvings of these pagodas made them especially attractive.
Uighur Mosques. In the fifteenth century the Uighur people of Mongolia and eastern Turkestan converted to Islam, and the Uighur architectural style has influenced the construction of Chinese mosques ever since. Uighur Muslim structures—including mosques, religious schools, and tombs—are decorated with colorful tiles, carved plaster, paintings, and elaborate window lattices.
Ming Houses and Gardens. The Ming dynasty began many grand imperial gardens—such as the Yuanmingyuan (Garden of Perfect Clarity), the Yiheyuan (Summer Palace), and the Bishu shanzhuang (Summer Imperial Village), all in Beijing—that were not completed until the Qing dynasty. During the same period more much-admired gardens were built in the town of Suzhou: the Zhuozhengyuan (Humble Administrator’s Garden), the Liuyuan (Lingering Garden), and the Wufengyuan (Garden of Five Mountains). Together with earlier Suzhou gar-dens, they formed a vast garden of forest and mountain. Ming gardening became a science with the publication in 1634 of Ji Cheng’s Yuanye (Garden Enterprise). By the Ming period various styles of residential architecture had developed. In Beijing and elsewhere in the north, quadrangular compounds of buildings with thick roofs and walls became standard. Walled courtyards with thin roofs and walls prevailed in the South. Hakka people, northern Chinese people who migrated to Southern China during the last years of the Song dynasty, lived together as clans in large group residences. In western China, cave rooms were built on the sides of mountains, while in rainy tropical areas houses were raised to prevent water damage. Tibetan houses were made of stone, while Uighur people lived in beaten-earth houses with openings in the ceiling to release heat. The nomadic Mongolians lived in yurts, collapsible circular domed tents.
Andrew Boyd, Chinese Architecture and Town Planning, 1500 B.C.-A.D. 1911 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962).
Liang Ssu-ch’eng, A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture: A Study of the Development of Its Structural System and the Evolution of Its Types, edited by Wilma Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass. 8c London: MIT Press, 1984).
Liu Dunzhen, Zhongguo gudai jianzhushi (Taipei, Taiwan: Enlightening Literature Press, 1994).
Liu and Liu Xujie, Liu Dunzhen jianzhushi lunvjen xuanji (Beijing: Chinese Architectural Industry Press, 1997).
Michele Pirazzoli-T’Serstevens, Living Architecture: Chinese, translated by Robert Allen (London: Macdonald, 1972).
Ru Jinghua and Peng Hualiang, Palace Architecture: Ancient Chinese Architecture, translated by Zang Erzhong and others (Vienna & New York: Springer, 1998).
Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of China (New York: Penguin, 1984).
Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, fourth edition, expanded and revised (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Wang Tianxing and Liang Faming, Tiantan (Beijing, China: China Esperanto Press, 1993).
Xiao Mo, Zhongguo Jianzhu (Beijing: Culture and Arts Press, 1999).
Architecture is the art and science of building the human environment. Because that environment is meant to enclose, enhance, and shape human activity, architecture thus extends beyond abstract issues of formal geometrical design and structural science into a far broader social dimension. As Winston Churchill is famous for saying to Parliament in 1943: “First we shape our buildings, and then our buildings shape us.”
Exactly when the conscious, deliberate shaping of the human environment began defies dating, since the earliest structures most likely were made of organic materials that quickly returned to earth. Archaeological evidence discovered near Marseille, France, however, revealed repeated construction of wood-framed dwellings dating back as far as 300,000 to 400,000 years ago, and several skin coverings and wooden house frames from 13,500 years ago were surprisingly preserved at a Chilean site called Monte Verde. The well-known stone structures of megalithic Europe date to 6,000 years ago, but it is significant that these were almost universally built for ceremonial or religious purposes, while the construction of dwellings apparently still relied on vegetable and animal materials long since vanished. Hence, the first intentionally permanent architecture was shaped for the most fundamental of social communal purposes—to bring a sense of visible order to the cosmos and to provide a link to the dead.
Architecture is a decidedly social activity, for it involves the interactions of many individuals, beginning with the patron—individual, committee, or organization—who calls a building into being. The architect and assistants, or architectural firm, then translate the client’s wishes into abstracted drawings and other construction documents that are used in turn by an army of construction specialists to fabricate the final product. At every step of this process, social exchanges, discussions, and negotiations are required to adjust the design to changing needs and costs. This multidisciplinary social process involves large numbers of people specializing in many occupations, such as drawing and computer design, materials acquisition, preparing written specifications, scheduling construction, arranging construction materials, assembling the prepared materials, and applying the interior finishes, among many others. For the most complex buildings, additional management specialists are required to ensure that materials and subassemblies arrive at the building site with optimal timing to prevent costly delays.
As a social art, architecture is subject to a range of controlling forces to ensure public safety. In ancient Rome, huge privately financed urban apartment blocks, called insulae, sometimes were so shoddily built that they collapsed. With the establishment of a firmer centralized authority during the Roman Empire, regulations were enforced to curb the worst of these building shortcuts. Later, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, governing authorities in France and Britain similarly instituted building regulations to reduce the spread of urban fires. In the United States, following disastrous fires in Boston and Chicago in the late nineteenth century, building codes and regulations were instituted in larger cities. To ensure general public safety, nearly every community now has zoning regulations and building codes controlling where types of buildings can be located and governing density as well as engineering requirements of design and durability of building materials. These regulations apply equally to commercial and governmental buildings, as well as to private residences.
Making architecture involves the shaping of space in a way reached by no other art. Whether fully enclosed or an open external area, architectural space has several different properties. Initially designed to accommodate some function of human activity, this space is definable as square feet or meters. If the space is enclosed by glass, then the user’s view extends beyond the physically enclosed space, and this larger reach constitutes perceptual space less easily quantified. If some substantial object is permanently fixed in that space—a large table, for example—the physical presence of that object emphatically conditions human use of the space, giving definition to the social parameters of behavioral space.
Beyond these three-dimensional aspects, another important spatial quality is the distance members of a particular species place between themselves. This strong determinant of social behavior, called personal space, can be seen in the way birds space themselves along a telephone wire. Seemingly genetically programmed, impinging upon personal space may produce socially aberrant behavior. Among humans, however, Edward T. Hall notes in The Hidden Dimension (1966) that personal space seems to be significantly determined by culture in addition to any fixed internal programming.
Making places for human use extends from the design of a single room and its interior furnishings in ever-increasing scales: from a small building to a large multistory office or institutional structure, to a group of interconnected buildings such as a college campus, to an urban neighborhood, even to the planned organization and pattern of use of a region. Architectural design involves not only physical structures but also the landscape in which the buildings are placed.
Buildings embody wishes and aspirations on several levels, beginning with the desires of the client. Typically, images a client might envision for a building are part of a general collection of accepted communal formal qualities, evolved over time and called by a style name. These stylistic qualities are understood by most of the community and symbolize its values at any given time.
This concept is the iconography of a particular architectural style. To later historians, additional layers of meaning might be discernible, but these interpretations may not have been part of the consciousness of the original builders. This more embracing concept is the iconol-ogy of a time period.
In sketching the general iconological content of past architecture, one might make several observations:
- that ancient Greek architecture, particularly temples, represented humans striving to achieve the highest level of excellence in construction;
- that ancient Roman architecture borrowed details from Grecian architecture for use in buildings of vast scale devoted to public purposes;
- that the most important medieval architecture served to reinforce human religious life in anticipation of an eternity in heaven;
- that Renaissance architecture sought to fuse this inherited religious meaning with a renewed appreciation of the geometric logic of classical architecture; and
- that Baroque architecture endeavored to appeal to emotions to enhance religious mysticism (in the ecclesiastical realm) or to make a political impression through magnificence or vastness of scale (in the aristocratic realm).
Architects of the nineteenth century struggled to master new industrial technologies while attempting to understand the enormously rich and complex history of architecture around globe.
What changed in the early twentieth century was an added layer of social utopianism, an outgrowth of the Arts and Crafts movement in England. Through the exploitation of industrial production processes, and using industrial materials such as concrete, steel, and glass, architects were challenged to devise a radically new architectural style that would eliminate slum housing. Moreover, this new millennial architecture was to be shaped by an idealistic view of the way things should be (at least in the eyes of the architects and theorists), rather than shaped by the way things actually were. The resulting new communities were to provide fresh air, clean water, and open space in the belief that these transformations would permanently improve society. Architect and polemicist Charles-Édouard Jenneret (who called himself Le Corbusier) declared in his 1923 Vers une Architecture that it was either this new architecture or social revolution. He even suggested the creation of a normative type—one building type for all people everywhere. Begun in Europe at the dawn of the twentieth century, the new architecture became public policy in the 1920s and 1930s, with more limited application in the United States. Although this social utopianism was well intended, it often fell short of the objective. It may have been supremely utilitarian, but as Hannah Arendt would observe in her 1958 The Human Condition, utility established as meaning generates meaninglessness.
The perceived lack of referential meaning in the International Modern style (as it came to be known by mid-twentieth century) led to a reaction by a new generation of architects, particularly Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown in the United States. Beginning with the use of broadly and whimsically altered historic details, postmodern architecture appeared in the mid-1960s, entering the professional mainstream by the end of the 1980s and extending worldwide by the 1990s. In referencing the past, postmodernism also validated reexamination of traditional regional architectural styles around the globe. Architects in Hungary, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and scores of other nations began to draw inspiration from their own ancient regional traditions in new buildings of wholly original design and construction; such architecture proved rich in meaning to its users. Architecture in the late twentieth century was viewed once again as capable of being a powerful element in how people envision themselves in time and place.
The end of the twentieth century was marked by the emergence of certain mega-architects identified by their unique building forms. Most notable was Frank Gehry, known for his multiply curved, metal-clad, irregularly shaped “swoosh” buildings. Exploitation of computer-aided design has rendered such complex building forms more cost effective, marking a dramatic change in the imagining and construction of buildings and doing away with traditional drafting instruments largely unaltered for centuries. The unfolding effect of this fundamental change in design methodology will shape twenty-first century architecture.
An equally significant shift in the nature of the discipline is the emergence of women in a field dominated for centuries by men. Women began to make important contributions beginning at the dawn of the twentieth century, but their names were seldom widely known and their numbers were few. This advent of women as major players in the discipline was vividly demonstrated by the award of the prestigious international Pritzker Architecture Prize to Zaha Hahid in 2003.
Perhaps more significant for Earth’s future is the movement toward sustainable “green” architecture. The traditional energy-consuming methods of making construction materials—toxic in themselves and leaving toxic residue from their manufacture—resulted in buildings that, once completed, further consumed prodigious amounts of energy for lighting, heating, cooling, and ventilating. Nowhere was this old-style architecture more evident than in the thin-walled modernist glass-sheathed boxes of the mid-twentieth century. In contrast, the emerging philosophy of sustainable green architecture promotes using less toxic materials and forming buildings in ways that allow them to work with, rather than against, nature. For example, windows can be shaded by calculating orientation and latitude to prevent internal solar heat gain, and buildings may be cooled in part by facilitating natural ventilation, practices of architect Ken Yeang. The future social implications of such a design approach, especially in the reduction of long-term operating costs, are enormous.
SEE ALSO Archaeology; Cities; Human Ecology; Material Culture; Postmodernism; Religion; Rituals; Telecommunications Industry; Urbanization
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Leland M. Roth