Norman architecture

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Norman architecture, term applied to the buildings erected by the Normans in all lands that fell under their dominion. It is used not only in England and N France, but also in S Italy (Apulia) and in Sicily. The Norman buildings in England and France were largely Romanesque, chiefly based upon the Romanesque architecture of Lombardy in Italy. Churches, abbeys, and castles, the principal works, showed massive proportions, sparsely adorned masonry, and a frequent use of the round arch. The development of the style was confined chiefly to the period from 1066 to 1154, a period of tremendous building activity. Arising in Normandy, the style was quickly introduced into England, superseding the Saxon. It first appeared at Westminster Abbey, where only the foundations remain. In England and Normandy there was a closely parallel development. The great French works include the ruined abbey of Jumièges, near Rouen, the beginnings of the great fortified abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel, and the two abbeys at Caen that were founded by William the Conqueror, all belonging to the middle and late 11th cent. The greatest activity, however, was in England, where after 1070 the Normans built hundreds of parish churches and commenced most of the great cathedrals. All underwent later restorations; the only intact early Norman design is the small St. John's Chapel (c.1087), built by William the Conqueror, in the Tower of London. In both England and Normandy church plans were cruciform. Over the crossing of nave and transepts was a prominent square tower, one of the most effective Norman features. Blind arcades, sometimes with interlacing arches, were the common adornment for walls. Moldings carved with the beakhead, zigzag, or chevron, or alternating lozenges are especially identified with the style. Increased skill and the adoption of the chisel resulted in grotesque sculptured animal forms and in the sculptured reliefs of the tympanums over doorways. Certain elements of Anglo-Norman construction pointed toward the development of Gothic architecture. Whereas in early Norman buildings wooden roofs prevailed, the cathedral at Durham (commenced 1093) was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches (the nave was finished c.1133). Other great English cathedrals tended away from the early massiveness of wall construction and showed an increasing verticality, including those at Winchester (begun 1079), Ely (1083–1109), and Peterborough (begun 1118). The austere grandeur of the English and French Norman style was modified in S Italy and especially in Sicily by the mingling of Byzantine and Arabic elements.

See A. W. Clapham, English Romanesque Architecture after the Conquest (Vol. II, 1934); D. F. Renn, Norman Castles in Britain (1970).

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Norman architecture. A version of the European Romanesque style of the early Middle Ages, introduced into England by the Normans after 1066. Used extensively for ecclesiastical and military purposes until the rise of Gothic during the early 13th cent., it is characterized by heavy, load-bearing masonry construction, comparatively modest window apertures, deeply recessed doorways, massive columns or piers, and the use of the round arch and its derivatives, the groin- and barrel-vaults. Ornament was usually restricted to repetitive, geometric mouldings such as those of the lozenge, chevron, or zigzag type. In comparison to practice on the continent, sculpture was very sparingly used.

The numerous monasteries, cathedrals (many of monastic origin), and castles which the Normans built symbolized their authority, the Norman castle in particular, with its ‘shell’ or rectangular keep, being an essential element of the subjugation process. In ecclesiastical buildings, the triforium, a windowless gallery above the main arcade, was of great importance, largely for structural reasons, in contrast to the enlarged clerestory of Gothic architecture. This can be seen in the nave (begun 1099) of Durham cathedral, an outstanding example of Norman work. Other Norman examples include the cathedrals of Chichester (nave 1114–48), Ely (nave begun c.1090), Norwich (nave, transepts, and choir 1096–1145), and Peterborough (nave, transepts, and choir 1118–c.1190), the church of St Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield, London (choir begun early 12th cent.), the keep and chapel (‘White Tower’) of the Tower of London (1078–90), Colchester castle (begun c.1071) and Castle Hedingham (c.1140), both in Essex, Oakham castle (late 12th cent.), and portions of Durham castle, especially the undercroft chapel (possibly as early as 1070–80).

T. E. Faulkner

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Norman architecture Romanesque architectural style of the Normans in England, n France, and s Italy. Characteristic buildings include the cathedrals at St Étienne and Caen in France, and Durham in England. The style features massive proportions, square towers, round arches, and little decoration.

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Norman architecture. Romanesque architecture in Normandy and the British Isles C11–end of C12, generally with massive walls pierced by semicircular-headed windows and doors. There was a short-lived C19 Norman Revival.