views updated May 17 2018

1. In Classical architecture the elements making up the essential expression of a columnar and trabeated structure, including a column with (usually) base and capital, and entablature. There are eight distinct types of Classical Order:Greek Doric, Roman Doric, Greek Ionic, Roman Ionic, Greek Corinthian, Roman Corinthian, Tuscan (also known as the Gigantic Order), and Composite, although before the systematic rediscovery of Greek architecture in C18 the canonical 5 Orders (Tuscan, Roman Doric, Roman Ionic, Roman Corinthian, and Composite) were accepted, codified by Alberti, and illustrated by Serlio in 1537. The Greek Doric Order has no base, and sometimes (as in the Paestum Orders of Doric) the entasis is exaggerated and the capital is very large, with a wide projection over the shaft; the Ionic Order has variations in the design of its base (Asiatic and Attic types) and capital (especially in relation to angle, angular, and Bassae capitals where the problem of the corner volute is dealt with in different ways); and the Greek Corinthian capital (e.g. C4 BCChoragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens) is taller and more elegant than its Roman counterpart. In London, Kent, and Sussex there is a unique type of English Ionic capital known as the Ammonite Order. See Agricultural, American, Ammonite, Britannic, Composite, Corinthian, Doric, Giant, Ionic, and Tuscan Orders.

2. Romanesque and Gothic arched opening consisting of several layers of arched openings usually with colonnettes, each smaller than the layer in front, and forming an Order Arch.


Chitham (1985);
J. Curl (2001);
Lewis & Darley (1986);
C. Normand (1852)

orders of architecture

views updated May 21 2018

orders of architecture In classical architecture, style and decoration of a column, its base, capital and entablature. Of the five orders, the Greeks developed the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Tuscan and Composite orders were Roman adaptations. A typical Doric column has no base, a relatively short shaft with surface fluting meeting in a sharp edge and an unornamented capital. The Ionic order is characterized by slender columns with 24 flutes and prominent spiral scrolls on the capitals. The Corinthian is the most ornate of the Classical orders of architecture. A typical Corinthian column has a high base, sometimes with a pedestal, a slim, fluted column and a bell-shaped capital with acanthus-leaf ornament.