In the Roman version of Doric, there may be a rudimentary base, but the shaft is generally more slenderly proportioned, and the entablature is only an eighth the height of the Order (as at the prostyle tetrastyle temple at Cori in Latium (C1 bc) ), giving a somewhat feeble effect. Under the Roman Empire Doric really ceased to be used, and what we call Roman Doric is really a variety of Tuscan Order to which triglyphs and other embellishments were added. This so-called Doric was codified and developed during the Renaissance, and consists of a base, a shaft (fluted or unfluted) more slenderly proportioned than in Greek Doric, and a capital consisting of an astragal (sometimes ornamented with bead-and-reel) joined to the shaft by an apophyge, a frieze-like hypotrachelium (often ornamented), an echinus (sometimes enriched with egg-and-dart), and a square abacus with a crowning moulding. Architraves are sometimes plain, but usually have two fasciae separated by mouldings, and the frieze has triglyphs that do not occur off-centre in relation to columns because they do not touch at the angles. There is instead a demi-metope at the corner, a solution proposed by Vitruvius, who probably got it from a Hellenistic theorist: Roman Doric columns are therefore always equidistant, with identical intercolumniations, even at the corners, though the spacing is invariably wide, with two or more triglyphs over each intercolumniation although there are some exceptions, such as Hawksmoor's Mausoleum at Castle Howard, Yorks. (1729–36), where the intercolumniation is deliberately narrow, to add to the gravitas of the architecture. Metopes are often ornamented with bucrania and other devices derived from Hellenistic models, especially from Asia Minor. Mutules are usually set over the triglyphs only, giving scope for additional inventive ornamentation on the soffit, and have a slight slope and very modest projection (usually only the guttae) below the cornice. The powerful Mutule Order of Vignola has horizontal mutules that do project, giving a highly modelled soffit additionally ornamented with lozenges and thunderbolts. Scamozzi and Vignola both used dentils associated with the bed-mouldings of their versions, clearly derived from the Antique Order of the thermae of Diocletian, Rome (AD 306), which has a continuous band of fret-like ornament suggesting dentils.
J. Curl (2001);
C. Normand (1852);
Doric order, earliest of the orders of architecture developed by the Greeks and the one that they employed for most buildings. It is generally believed that the column and its capital derive from an earlier architecture in wood. The cornice details, which have a resemblance to carpentry forms, have also led to the theory of its origin in wooden forms. The type had arrived at a definite form in the 7th cent. BC, but further improvements produced the perfected order of the 5th cent. BC as it appeared in the Parthenon and the Propylaea at Athens (see under propylaeum). It continued to be used by the Greeks until about the 2d cent. BC The Greek Doric column has no base. Its massive shaft, generally treated with 20 flutes, terminates in a simple capital composed of a group of annulets, a projecting curved molding called the echinus, and a square slab or abacus at the top. The entablature, which is generally about one third the column height, consists of a plain architrave, a frieze ornamented with channeled triglyphs between which are square spaces or metopes sometimes used for sculpture, and a cornice. The cornice has projecting blocks or mutules in its exposed lower surface or soffit, above which is a plain vertical face or corona, finished by a group of crowning moldings. The proportions, heavy in the earliest Doric columns, became more slender in the perfected type, the entasis became less sharp, and the echinus projection was diminished. The Roman Doric, while derived from the Greek, was probably also influenced by a simple and slender column developed by the Etruscans. It was infrequently used, but examples are seen in the Colosseum and the theater of Marcellus. The column differs from the Greek in its addition of a base and in changes in the capital profile. The 16th-century Italians established as a Tuscan order a form of simplified Doric in which the column had a simpler base and was unfluted, while both capital and entablature were without adornments. For the other Greek orders see Ionic order and Corinthian order. See also orders of architecture.