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Piyyut

PIYYUT

PIYYUT (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in various genres of Hebrew liturgical poetry from the first centuries of the Common Era until the beginning of the Haskalah. In ancient times, the piyyutim were intended to replace most of the set versions of prayer and to serve as substitutes. They ensured variety of the obligatory prayers, mainly on Sabbaths and festivals. In a later period, when the prayers became fixed, sections of piyyut were interspersed in certain places within the set pattern of the prayers. Naturally, most of the very extensive piyyut literature is devoted to the adornment of the major holy days. However, during the early Oriental (eastern) period of the history of the piyyut, liturgical compositions were also produced in great abundance for regular Sabbaths, for simple fast days, and even for weekdays. Obligatory prayers were also embellished with special sets of piyyutim for private occasions, such as weddings, circumcisions, and mourning. (See Table: Piyyut.)

The History of the Piyyut

Piyyut literature began in Ereẓ Israel while the various versions of the obligatory prayers were crystallizing. Though the evidence from this period is limited, texts of ancient piyyutim are to be found scattered in talmudic sources, and piyyutim which apparently were composed during this period were absorbed into the established versions of the various rites of prayer. These ancient segments are recognizable by their lofty style and characteristic rhythm; they do not as yet use rhyme. The ancient compositions, known in part from the Cairo Genizah and in part from other sources, and similarly characterized by their style and rhythm, were also apparently composed during this period, which may be called "the period of the anonymous piyyut."

The earliest paytan known to us by name is *Yose b. Yose, who lived and worked in Ereẓ Israel in approximately the sixth century or even earlier. His works still retain the above-mentioned characteristics of the form; they do not employ rhyme, even though something similar to rhyme can be seen in his teki'ot, where similar words are employed as line endings. With Yose b. Yose begins the period of the paytanim whose names are known; the period is represented by a group of important poets from Ereẓ Israel, who all seem to have been functioning before Ereẓ Israel was conquered by the Arabs (636 c.e.). The most important of these paytanim are *Yannai, *Simeon b. Megas, Eleazar b. *Kallir, *Ḥaduta b. Abraham, Joshua ha-Kohen, and Joseph b. Nisan from Shaveh Kiryatayim. During their period, the structural framework of most of the classical piyyut types was finally crystallized. Even after Ereẓ Israel was conquered by the Arabs, all the great paytanim worked in the East; from then until the beginning of the 11th century this literature flourished; a great quantity of piyyutim was produced. For the first time paytanim from abroad, such as Solomon Suleiman b. ʾ Amr al-Sanjari, Nissi al-Nahrawani, *Saadiah Gaon, Joseph al-Bardani, and others, begin to appear. Outstanding among the paytanim of Ereẓ Israel are *Phinehas b. Jacob ha-Kohen from Kafra at the beginning of the period, and *Samuel ha-Shelishi b. Hoshana at its close. Toward the end of the period, creative activity spread to North Africa, which in the tenth and eleventh centuries became a fruitful extension of Oriental piyyut.

On European soil, the first blossoms of piyyut literature appeared in Byzantine southern Italy in the second half of the ninth century. Only a few piyyutim from among the creations of the early Italian paytanim, *Silano, *Shephatiah, and his son *Amittai, are now extant, but even these testify to an extensive and consolidated literary activity, which, despite a number of interesting points of originality, reveals blatant signs of the influence of Ereẓ Israel. The creative work of the paytanim of southern Italy became, in the tenth century, a basis for the development of piyyut in central and northern Italy. The paytanim working there, headed by *Solomon b. Judah ha-Bavli, created a precedent for Central European piyyut, whose major representatives henceforth worked in Italy, Ashkenaz (Germany), France, and Byzantine Greece. The most important region of Central European sacred poetry was Germany, where the piyyut developed impressively because of the activity of a number of great paytanim in the 10th–11th centuries, such as *Moses b. Kalonymus, *Meshullam b. Kalonymus (both of Italian extraction), *Simeon b. Isaac, and Meir b. Isaac. In the succeeding centuries, Ashkenazi piyyut continued to develop, and a number of important composers made major contributions to the literature.

The direct continuation of Oriental piyyut was in Spain, where, beginning in the middle of the tenth century, several generations of great composers functioned. Outstanding among these are Joseph *Ibn Abitur, Solomon ibn *Gabirol, Isaac *Ibn Ghayyat, Moses *Ibn Ezra, *Judah Halevi, and Abraham *Ibn Ezra. These Spanish paytanim attained impressive peaks of perfection. Even though creativity in the realm of piyyut did not cease in Central Europe, Northern Africa, or the East until the beginning of the Haskalah, the 13th century marks the beginning of the decline; later paytanim, despite their often impressive productivity, failed to create major works. Although some of their poetry was included in local prayer rites, most of it has been excluded from accepted prayer books.

Types of Piyyut

Piyyutim can be divided according to their liturgical purpose into a number of categories, differing in their histories and development, their structures, and their distribution. In different periods, certain types of piyyutim were more prevalent than others. The earliest and most important types of piyyut are the kerovah and the yoẓer. The kerovah is designed for inclusion in the Amidah prayer, while the yoẓer belongs to the benedictions before and after the *Shema in the *Shaḥarit service. The kerovot divide into a number of secondary categories, according to the types of Amidah to which they are attached: the kerovah of the daily Amidah is called kerovat Shemoneh Esreh because of the 18 blessings in that Amidah; that of Musaf or Ma'ariv Amidah for Sabbaths and the holy days is called shivata because of the seven blessings in these Amidot; while that of the Shaḥarit Amidah of the Sabbath and holy days, which include a kedushah, is called kedushata (in ancient Ereẓ Israel, kedushah was said on Sabbaths and festivals only in the Shaḥarit service). Each of the types of kerovah has its own structural characteristics. The kerovah, mainly the kedushata, is thought of as the dominant type of ancient piyyut. The yoẓer is combined from several types of piyyut, according to the structure of the permanent prayers replaced or embellished by piyyut. The yoẓer enjoyed great circulation mainly in the second period of Oriental piyyut, between the seventh and eleventh centuries. Parallel to the yoẓerot, which were intended for Shaḥarit, there are also, during this period, piyyutim of Ma'ariv, intended to adorn the blessings before and after the Shema in the evening service. This type of piyyut, however, was never widely employed.

Among the kerovot of the major holidays, a number of special types of piyyut for different occasions are found. These include tekiʿata, which adorns the *malkhuyyot, *zikhronot, and *shofarot blessings in the Musaf Amidot for New Year; Seder ha-*Avodah (which describes the sacrificial service on the Day of Atonement during the time the Temple was in existence), in the Musaf kerovah of the Day of Atonement; or the *azharot, which discuss the list of 613 mitzvot in the Torah, in the shivatot of Musaf for Shavuot. The kerovot for fast days include *seliḥot (penitential), while the kerovot for the Ninth of Av include kinot (dirges). In some communities these seliḥot and kinot were removed in later periods from the kerovot and placed after them. Seliḥot were also composed for the Days of Penitence during the month of Elul and between New Year and the Day of Atonement. The special processions for the days of Tabernacles (Sukkot) were embellished with hoshana piyyutim (see *Hoshanot). In the early period of piyyut, works were not composed to adorn religious ceremonies outside of the obligatory prayers, except for the Grace after Meals, and even in that case, they were probably intended, from the start, for use at communal festive meals or at meals for religious ceremonies. Similarly, ashkavah piyyutim were composed in this period (aftarot, or ẓidduk hadin, "funeral services").

All the classical types of piyyut were cultivated to some extent by the later European paytanim. However, the scope of the piyyut literature was greatly enlarged, mainly in Spain, by the creation of a number of new types of piyyut. The Spanish paytanim preceded the accepted patterns of the yoẓer with a number of piyyut passages which they interlaced in the prayer said on Sabbaths and festivals before the yoẓer prayers. These types are known as the nishmat, the muḥarakh, the illufinu, and the kol aẓmotai. The Spanish paytanim also cultivated the type known as reshut (pl. reshuyyot, "introductory piyyutim "), and they joined these works to the Barukh she-Amar prayer, to nishmat, to *Kaddish after nishmat, to *Barekhu, and so on. In addition to their extensive work with these types, the Spanish paytanim developed new types of special piyyutim for private religious ceremonies, such as Sabbath songs and *Havdalot, as well as types of religious poetry intended to satisfy the spiritual needs of the individual. To a certain extent, the Ashkenazi paytanim followed them in these areas.

A considerable part of the creative efforts of the European paytanim was dedicated to the type known as seliḥot for fast days and days of penitence. Because of the great creative activity in this area, a number of secondary types within the category have been distinguished, some partly because of thematic distinctions and some because of formal distinctions. The early Oriental seliḥah recognized only the category ḥatanu (seliḥot of confession), and the tokhaḥah ("rebuke") as a secondary type. In a later period, the *Akedah type was added to them, in which God's mercy is requested for Israel because of the merit of the binding of Isaac. According to structural distinctions, a number of secondary types of seliḥot are distinguishable, of which the important ones are the pizmon (a seliḥah with an opening refrain and a strophe), and the mustagib (a seliḥah in which a biblical passage appears as a refrain at the end of every verse). In specific sources, especially Ashkenazi, the seliḥot are distinguished by special names according to their place in the calendar, their composers, the way they are said, or the number of lines in their poetic phrases.

Language and Style

The style and the vocabulary of the paytanim vary in the different periods and different poetic schools. In the anonymous period of piyyut, the style followed the stylistic and lexical paths of the permanent prayers; the vocabulary is mostly biblical, even though some later linguistic bases – midrashic and talmudic – may be found in it. The style of the piyyutim is lucid and clear and contains little wordplay or rhetorical embellishment. With the work of Yannai, Hebrew sacral poetry becomes more and more expansive in its vocabulary and increasingly vague and flowery in its style. During the whole Oriental period of the piyyut, the composers used not only the whole Hebrew lexicon, with all its various layers and strata (to a certain extent, in the early piyyut creations, ancient Hebrew words with no mention in the sources are preserved) but they also adorned the piyyut with idioms and words of their own creation. The poetic novelties of language and form, which do not always fit the classical rules of Hebrew grammar, gave a singular stylistic character to the poetic creations, and frequently aroused harsh criticism. These paytanim (who are included among those of the Kallir school, so called after its major representative, the paytan Eleazar b. Kallir), often used a complicated set of terms, flavoring their works with an abundance of talmudic and midrashic material, or with (sometimes vague) allusions to this material. Thus, some of their works became enigmatic, constituting difficult exegetical problems. From a linguistic point of view, piyyut reached its peak in the works of Saadiah Gaon and his pupils, during the tenth and eleventh centuries. The paytanim of the "Saadiah school" were the most radical in establishing novel uses of language in their piyyutim.

As a reaction to the Saadianic style of exaggerated innovations, and probably under the influence of the new ways and principles of Andalusian arabized secular poetry and of philological studies, Hebrew sacred poetry in Spain crystallized within clearly biblical frameworks of language and style. The first of the Spanish paytanim composed their works according to the example of the later Oriental paytanim. In addition to the works written in this style, there exists a parallel group of works, written in the Spanish model in a language which strives to recognize only a biblical vocabulary and in a style which strives to free itself of talmudic and midrashic material and allusions to the teachings of the rabbis. The style of the Spanish piyyutim is impressively lucid and flexible, approaching the style of secular poetry; in this period, sacred poetry was notably influenced by secular poetry both in form and in lyrical means of expression. Solomon ibn Gabirol was instrumental in the process by which the piyyut was increasingly purified of the linguistic-stylistic exaggerations of eastern piyyut; the earliest of the Spanish paytanim whose work appears to be entirely within the new stylistic framework is Isaac Ibn Ghayyat. During this period, the style of writing of the Spanish paytanim greatly influenced the paytanim of other lands, such as North Africa, Yemen, Ereẓ Israel, Babylonia, and Provence. Certain traces of Spanish influence are found also in later Ashkenazi piyyut. In general, Central European piyyut remained faithful to the Kallir model in language and style. Even so, Italian and Ashke-nazi poets were more restrained and moderate in their use of language and style. In the creations of the greatest of them, the poetic language reaches impressive heights of beauty and flexibility.

Rhyme and Meter

The ancient anonymous piyyut did not employ rhyme. The piyyutim composed during this period with the characteristic method of dividing each poetic line into four feet, each one having two or three stresses, are limited. With the beginning of the use of rhyme, or more specifically, with the period of the literary activity of Yannai, the paytanim concentrate much more on rhyme than on rhythm. Those of the Kallir school attained great virtuosity in their methods of rhyming and playing with rhyme, and this lowered the level and content of the creations, especially in the works of mediocre paytanim. A number of eastern paytanim wrote their works in a peculiar rhythmic system (known as mishkal ha-tevot), by establishing an identical number of words or stresses in every poetic line, but this method is found in only a few works, and was used more widely in the works of the first Central European paytanim, who also continued and developed the traditions of rhyme of the early Kallir school. It was the Spanish paytanim who introduced a precise method of rhythm in their piyyutim. Many of their works, mainly in the specific types of piyyut which originated in Spain, are subject to the quantitative method of meter – Arabic in its source – of secular poetry, but the major part of their work is in a unique meter created in Spain for sacred poetry. This is mainly syllabic, meting out to each line of poetry a specific fixed number of grammatical syllables. In Spain, however, the paytanim also continued to compose piyyutim without meter, particularly in the classical types of piyyut. Rhyme also developed impressively in Spain, particularly in the short types of piyyut, under the influence of the ezor (Muwassaha) type of secular poems. Many piyyutim, some metered precisely according to the example of the ezor type, some metered according to the special method of Spanish piyyut, have a variegated and rich rhyme, which competes successfully with the best achievements of Hebrew secular poetry in Spain.

Signatures

The first paytanim signed their piyyutim only with their own names. Later, they added patronymics and the places where they wrote; and, after a while, they added blessings and the like. At times, the paytanim also added the names of relatives.

Collections of Piyyutim

The extent to which piyyutim were incorporated into the prayer service differs in time and locality. In ancient times, there was fierce opposition to the piyyut literature, mainly from the great academy in Babylonia. Nevertheless, it appears that there was a wide use of piyyutim in most of the early eastern communities. During this period there were still no fixed collections of piyyutim for the use of various communities. Rather, each cantor recited piyyutim according to his taste and choice. Only in later periods, when the congregations took greater part in prayer services, was the set recitation of certain piyyutim for various liturgical occasions practiced. These fixed prayers, which multiplied, led to the collections of piyyutim (maḥzorim, books of seliḥot, and kinot) which established for every occasion passages of piyyut, whose recitation was repeated year after year. At first, each community established its own collection, usually by choosing piyyut passages and adding the works of local composers. In a later period, the distinctions between the collections of piyyutim of the various communities became increasingly blurred and, with the invention of printing, unified collections of piyyutim crystallized for different rites of prayer. (See table on following page.)

bibliography:

Waxman, Literature, 1 (1960), ch. 9; 2 (19602), ch. 3; Zunz, Poesie; Zunz, Ritus; Zunz, Lit Poesie; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 206-31, 280-353; Zulay, in: ymḤsi, 5 (1939), 107-80; Mirsky, ibid., 7 (1958), 1-129; A. Mirsky, Reshit ha-Piyyut (1965); S. Abramson, Bi-Leshon Kodemim (1965); Davidson, Oẓar, index, s.v. names of paytanim; J. Yahalom, The Syntax of Ancient Piyyut (including Yannai) as a Basis for its Style (1974). add. bibliography: E. Fleischer, Shirat ha-Kodesh ha-Ivrit bi-Ymei ha-Benayim (1975); idem, Ha-Yoẓerot be-Hithavvutam ṿe-Hitpatteḥtam (1984); Sh. Elizur, Piyyutei Eleazar be-Rabi ḳilar ṿe-Yaḥasam li-Yeẓirato shel Eleazar Berabi ḳilir (1981); dem: Paitan be-'Idan shel Mifneh: R. Yehoshu'a Bar Khalfa u-Fiyyutav (1994); idem, Shirah shel Parashah: Parashot ha-Torah bi-Re'i ha-Piyyut (1999); N. Weissenstern (ed.), Piyyutei Yoḥanan ha-Kohen be-Rabi Yehoshu'a (diss., 1983); L. Weinberger, Early Synagogue Poets in the Balkans (1988); A. Mirsky, Ha-Piyyut: Hitpatḥuto be-Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-va-Golah (1990); idem, Me-Ḥovot ha-Levavot le-Shirat ha-Levavot (1992); R.P. Scheindlin, The Gazelle: Medieval Hebrew Poems on God, Israel, and the Soul (1991); I. Levin and A. Sáenz-Badillos, Si me olvido de ti, Jerusalén… Cantos de las Sinagogas de al-Andalus (1992); Z.Z. Breuer, Shirat ha-Kodesh shel Rabi Shelomoh Ibn Gabirol: Tokhen ve-Ẓurah (1993); Eleazar ben Judah, Shirat ha-Roke'ah. Piyyutei Eleazar mi-Vermaiza, ed. I. Meiseles (1993); A.V. Tanenbaum, Poetry and Philosophy: The Idea of the Soul in Andalusian Piyyut (1993); S. Kats, R. Yiẓḥak Ibn Gi'at: Monografyah (1994); E. Hollender, Synagogale Hymnen: Qedushtaót des Simon b. Isaak im Amsterdam Mahsor (1994); idem, Clavis Commentariorum of Hebrew Liturgical Poetry in Manuscript (2005); M. Zulay, Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-Fiyyuteha: Meḥkarim be-Fiyyutei ha-Genizah, ed. E. Ḥazan (1995); idem, Mi-pi Paytanim ve-Shofkhei Siaḥ, ed. Sh. Elitsur (2004); Sh. Spiegel, Avot ha-Piyyut: Mekorot u-Meḥkarim le-Toledot ha-Piyyut be-Ereẓ Yisra'el, ed. M. Schmelzer (1996); M. Zulay and E. Hazan, Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-Fiyyuteha: Meḥkarim be-Fiyyutei ha-Genizah (1995); E.D. Goldschmidt, Meḥkerei Tefillah u-Fiyyut (1996); David Ben-Hasin, Tehilah le-David: Koveẓ Shirato shel David Ben-Hasin; ed. A.E. Elbaz et al. (1996); idem, David Ben-Hasin, Tefillah le-David: Azharot, ed. A.E. Elbaz et al. (2000); idem, Leket Shirei David Ben Hasin: …mi-Tokh Sifro Tehilah le-David (2005); M. Ben-Yashar, Siftei Renanot: Mivḥar Piyyutim le-Shabatot u-le-Mo'adim (1996); Isaac ha-Seniri, Piyyutei R. Yiẓḥak ha-Seniri, ed. B. Bar-Tikva (1996); Y. David, J. Schirmann, et al., Osef Shirei Kodesh: Ketav Yad mi-Sefarad u-mi-Arẓot ha-Magreb me-ha-Me'ah ha-14 (1997); W. van Bekkum, Hebrew Poetry from Late Antiquity: Liturgical Poems of Yehudah (1998); R. Halevi, Shirat Yisra'el be-Teiman: mi-Mivḥar ha-Shirah ha-Shabazit-Teimanit (1998); N. Katsumatah, Sidrei Avodah le-Yom ha-Kippurim min ha-Dorot ha-Semukhim le-R. Se'adyah Ga'on (1998); J. Yahalom, Shirat Benei Yisra'el ba-Tekufah ha-Bizantinit ve-ad Kibushei ha-Ẓalbanim (1996); idem, Piyyut u-Meẓi'ut be-Shilheu ha-Zeman ha-Atik (1999); I. Meiseles, Shirat ha-Miẓvot: Azharot Rabi Eliyahu ha-Zaken (2001); T. Beeri, Ha-Ḥazzan ha-Gadol asher be-Bagdad: Piyyutei Yosef ben Ḥayyim Albaradani (2002); N. Katsumata, The Liturgical Poetry of Nehemiah ben Shelomoh ben Heiman ha-Nasi (2002); idem, Hebrew Style in the Liturgical Poetry of Shmuel Hashlishi (2003); Y. Ratzaby, Shirei R. Shalem Shabazi: Bibliografyah (2003); M. Zulay, and S. Elizur, Mi-pi Paytanim ve-Shofkhei Si'ah (2004); M.D. Swartz and J. Yahalom, Avodah: An Anthology of Ancient Poetry for Yom Kippur (2005).

[Ezra Fleischer]

The following list contains:

1. Those paytanim and pre-modern poets who have individual entries in the Encyclopedia – included are those who are either primarily paytanim or famous as such;

2. Paytanim and pre-modern poets who do not have individual entries and who are not included in (1) Davidson's Oẓar ha-Shirah ve-ha-Piyyut (vol. 4, pp. 347) which was completed in 1933 (Davidson's additions were published in HUCA 12–13, 1937–38);

3. Paytanim and pre-modern poets who are in Davidson but on whom new material has been made available in the intervening years.

The list is alphabetical according to the first names.

The abbreviations used (other than standard) are the following:

Bernstein, Italyah – S. Bernstein, Mi-Shirei Yisrael be-Italyah (1939).

Bernstein, Piyyutim – S. Bernstein, Piyyutim u-Faytanim meha-Tekufah ha-Bizantinit (1941).

Habermann, Ateret – A.M. Habermann, Ateret Renanim (1967).

Schirmann, Italyah – J. Schirmann, Mivḥar ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit be-Italyah (1934).

Schirmann, Sefarad – J. Schirmann, Ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit bi-Sefarad u-vi-Provence, 2 vols. (1959–60²).

Schirmann, Shirim Hadashim – J. Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim min ha-Genizah (1965).

Simonsohn, Mantovah – S. Simonsohn, Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Dukkasut Mantovah, 2 vols. (1962–64).

YMḤSI – Yedi'ot ha-Makhon le-Ḥeker ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit, 7 vols. (1933–58).

Name Place Dates
Aaron b. Abraham of Offenbach Habermann, Ateret, 126–7, 225.Germany18th century
Aaron b. Isaac *Hamon
Aaron b. Joshua ibn AlamaniAlexandria12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤ SI, 6 (1945), 265–85; S.D. Goitein, in: Tarbiz, 28 (1959), 343ff.; A. Scheiber in: Sefarad, 27 (1967), 269–81.
Aaron b. Mariyyon ha-KohenAcre11/12th century
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 178–80; idem, in: Sinai, 23 (1948), 214–28.
Aaron b. Moses MaltiBabylonia16/17th century
M. Benayahu, in: Sefunot, 3–4 (1969), 17.
Aaron b. Samuel ha-LeviSpain14/15th century
A.M. Habermann, Amarai Kaḥ(1964).
*Aaron Hakiman
AbnerSpain14th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Sefer ha-Yovel… S. Federbush (1961), 173–99.
*Abraham b. Daniel
Abraham b. Daniel ButtrioItalyb. 1510
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 309–12, 323–5.
Abraham b. Gabriel ZafranaCorfu16th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 19–22 (Heb. part).
Abraham b. IsaacBabylonia?10/11th century
M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 25 (1949), 46–47.
Abraham b. IsaacItaly11th century
H. Schirmann, in: Leshonenu, 21 (1957), 212–9; S. Abramson, ibid., 25 (1961), 31–34.
Abraham b. Isaac *Bedersi
Abraham b. Isaac Da PisaItaly16th century
Bernstein, Italyah, passim.
Abraham b. Isaac he-Ḥ asid TawilLybia
S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 97, 101–7; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 780; D. Yarden, in: Sefunot, 8 (1964), 259, 266–72.
Abraham b. JacobGermany11/12th century
H. Merhaviah, in: Tarbiz, 39 (1970), 277–84.
Abraham b. JacobGermany or France12th century
Habermann, Ateret, 18–19, 225.
Abraham b. Jacob GavisonAlgiers1520–1578
R.S. Sirat, in: Fourth World Congress of Jewish Studies Papers, 2 (1968), 66–67.
Abraham b. Joseph ha-KohenEreẓ Israel11th century
M. Zulay in: Sinai, 28 (1951), 162.
Abraham b. MattathiasRome12th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 78–79.
Abraham b. Mereno ha-KohenCorfu13th century
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 27–28.
Abraham b. Moses Doresh14th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 30 (1956), 149, 151–2.
Abraham b. SamuelSpain13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 457–58; S. Abramson, in: Leshonenu la-Am, 18 (1967), 67ff.
Abraham b. Samuel ha-Levi *Ibn Ḥasdai
*Abraham b. Samuel he-Ḥasid (of Speyer)
Abraham b. Shabbetai KohenGreece, Padua1670–1729
Schirmann, Italyah, 358.
Abraham b. Solomon ha-Levi BuqaratSpain, Tunis15/16th century
H.H. Ben-Sasson in: Tarbiz, 31 (1961), 59–71; A.M. Habermann, ibid., 301.
Abraham Di MedinaEgypt17th century
M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 530.
Abraham ha-KohenBabylonia10th century
A. Scheiber, in: Zion, 30 (1965), 123–7.
Abraham Ḥazzan GerondiSpain13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 291–4.
Abraham *Ibn Al-Rabib
Abraham *Ibn Ezra
Abraham KohenCrete16th century
N. Ben-Menahem, in: Sinai, 13 (1943), 363–5.
Abraham *Kurtabi (Kortabi)
Abraham MaiminSafedd. 1570?
A.M. Habermann, Toledot ha-Piyyut ve-ha-Shirah (1970), 141; M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 528.
Abu Ibrahim Isaac ibn MaskaranSpain12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMHSI, 4 (1938), 277.
Abu Isaac Abraham *Harizi
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim *Ibn Sahl
Adonim b. Nissim ha-LeviFez10/11th century
N. Allony in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 393–4; Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 58–62.
*Ahimaaz b. Paltiel
Ahitub b. IsaacPalermo13th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 132–47.
Akiva b. JacobFrankfurt1520?–1597
J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 69–77.
*Ali (b. David)Orient12/13th century
M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 23 (1948), 214–28.
Ali b. Ezekiel ha-KohenEgypt11th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Sinai, 53 (1963), 183–4, 191–2.
*Alvan b. Abraham
*Amittai
*Amnon of Mainz
Amram b. Moses ḤazzanEreẓ Israel10th century?
S. Assaf and L.A. Mayer (eds.), Sefer ha-Yishuv, 2 (1944), 54; Habermann, Ateret, 149, 212, 230.
*Anan b. Marinus ha-Kohen
AnatoliItaly12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMHSI, 1 (1933), 106–7, 121–4.
Anatoli (Zerahiah) b. David CazaniGreece12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 107; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 27–29 (Heb. part).
*Aryeh Judah Harari
Asher b. Isaac ha-LeviWorms11/12th century
S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-MeḤkarim, 2 (1963), 197–201; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem, of Azriel b. Abraham, 4 (1963), 15–16.
Avigdor *Kara
Avtalyon b. MordecaiTurkey17th century
Azriel b. JosephOrient13th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 392–6.
*Baḥya (Baḥye) b. Joseph ibn Paquda
Barhun (Abraham; may be *Abraham b. Sahalan)
M. Zulay, Ha-Askolah ha-Paytanit shel Rav Sa'adyah Ga'on (1964), 35.
*Baruch b. Samuel of Mainz
Ben ha-Melekh ve-ha-Nazir
Benjamin b. Abraham *Anav
*Benjamin b. Azriel
*Benjamin b. Ḥiyya
*Benjamin b. Samuel ha-Levi
*Benjamin b. ZerahGermany11th century
Habermann, Ateret, 176–7, 226.
Benjamin PeraḥyahGreece?14th century?
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 36–39.
Benveniste b. Ḥiyya al-DayyanSpain12/13th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 23–26 (Heb. part).
Ben Zion Aryeh GerondiPadua1763–1820?
Habermann, Ateret, 128–9, 226.
*Berechiah b. Natronai ha-Nakdan
Caleb b. SaidBabylonia10th century
M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 25 (1949), 36–37.
Daniel b. Samuel *Rossena
*David b. Aaron ibn Ḥassin
David b. GedaliahFrance or Italy12th century
Habermann, Ateret, 173–4, 226.
David b. HunaItaly10th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sefer ha-Yovel, Meir Waxman (1966), 45–58.
David b. NasiOrient11th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Tarbiz, 14 (1943), 204–13.
David b. Saadiah ha-KohenYemen17th century
J. Tubi, in: Ba-Ma'arakhah, 11 (1971), no. 121, 18–19.
David b. SamsonFrance13th century?
H. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 43–44.
David b. Yom Tov *Ibn Bilia
David ha-KohenSpain or Provence13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 463–5; Habermann, Ateret, 175, 226.
David *Ibn Paquda
David OnkinerahSalonika16th century
J. Patai, in: Kobez al-Jad, 12 (1937), 75–119.
Dosa b. Joshua ha-Ḥazzan
S. Abrason, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 55–59.
Dunash b. JudahKairouan11th century
N. Allony, in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 90, 387, 396–400; Habermann, Ateret, 94–95.
*Eleazar
Eleazar b. AbunEreẓ Israel
S. Spiegel, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 267–91.
*Eleazar b. Ḥalfon ha-Kohen
Eleazar b. PhinehasEreẓ Israel
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 147–8.
Eleazar ha-ḤazzanEreẓ Israel
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 155–6.
Eleazar HodayaEreẓ Israel
E. Fleisher, in: Tarbiz, 36 (1967), 342 ff.
Eleazar *Kallir
Eleazar KohenSpain
A. Scheiber, in: Sinai, 35 (1954), 183–6.
EliakimCrimea14/15th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 465–6, 478–9.
Eliakim b. AbrahamEurope14/15th century
D. Pagis, in: Sefer Hayyim Schirmann (1970), 247–8.
Eliashib Joshua ProvencaleItaly16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed by Y. Raphael (1969), 313, 340.
Eliezer b. EphraimGermany or France13th century
Urbach, Tosafot, 414–6.
*Eliezer b. Samson
Eliezer de MordoCorfu17/18th century
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 16–18; S. Simonsohn, in: PAAJR, 34 (1966), 106–8.
Eliezer Gentili (Ḥefeẓ)Italy18th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 398.
Eliezer Leizer b. Judah LoebGermany 17thcentury
A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 89 (1964), 20–23.
Elijah b. AbrahamGreece15th century?
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 63–65.
Elijah b. David Mazzal TovCorfu1575–1625
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 65–67.
Elijah b. Eliezer DelmedigoCrete16th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 34–37 (Heb. part).
*Elijah b. Eliezer Philosoph
Elijah b. Menahem ha-ZakenLe Mans11th century
A.M. Habermann (ed.), Shirei ha-Yiḥud ve-ha-Kavod (1948), 87–97.
Elijah b. MordecaiItaly10th century
A. Mirsky, in: Sinai, (1969), 179–87.
Elijah b. Moses *Kapuzato
Elijah b. SamuelMacedonia15th century
A.M. Habermann, Sefer ha-Yovel… Ḥ. Albeck (1963), 160–76.
Elijah b. ShemaiahBari11th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 41–47; Habermann, Ateret, 22–24, 225.
Elijah b. Shalom, or, SamuelGermany13th century?
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 21, 1960).
*Elijah Chelebi-ha-Kohen Anatolia
Elijah of ButtrioItaly16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 312–3, 326–39. ("En") Maimon *Galipapa
*Ephraim b. Isaac of Regensburg
Ephraim b. JoabModena (Italy)14th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 200–2.
Ezekiel b. Ali ha-Kohen AlbasirPersia, Iraq, or Egypt11th century
M. Zulay, in: YMHSI, 3 (1936), 57–58; A. Mirsky, Yalkut ha-Piyyutim (1958), 60–63.
Ezekiel (Hezekiah) David b. Mordecai *Abulafia (Bolaffi)
Gamaliel b. MosesEgypt12th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 126–9.
Gershom b. Solomon b. IsaacFrance or Germany12th century
J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 3 (1939), 41–43.
*Haduta b. Abraham ha-Efrati
Hananel b. AmnonItaly10th century
S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 201–2.
HananiahOrient12th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 213.
Hananiah Eliakim b. Asael Raphael RietiBologna and Mantua1561–1623
Simonsohn, Mantovah, 2 (1964), 544.
ḤariziSpain
Habermann, Ateret 113, 226
Ḥayyim b. MachirRegensburg13th century
J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 58–62; A.M. Habermann, Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Ẓarefat (1946), 198–202.
Ḥiyya b. Al-DaudiSpaind. 1153/54
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 99–104, 208–17, 313–37.
Immanuel b. David *Frances
Immanuel BeneventoItaly16th century
I. Sonne, Mi-Paulus ha-Revi'I ad Pius ha-Hamishi (1954), 110–7.
Immanuel b. JosephSpain14th century
S. Bernstein, Al Naharot Sefarad (1956), 191–3, 269–70.
*Immanuel b. Solomon of Rome
Isaac, poet of Ezrat NashimCastile13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 87–96.
*Isaac (Isḥak)
Isaac *Al-Avani
Isaac AmigoTurkey17th century
M. Benayahu in: KS, 35 (1960), 528–9.
Isaac b. AbrahamProvence13th century
G. Sed-Rajna, in: REJ, 126 (1967), 265–7.
*Isaac b. Abraham ha-GorniGreece15th century?
Isaac b. Abraham ha-Parnas
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 67–71.
Isaac b. FayunEgypt?early poet
Habermann, Ateret, 120, 228.
*Isaac b. Ḥayyim b. Abraham
*Isaac b. Joseph ibn*Pollegar
*Isaac b. Judah
*Isaac b. Judah*Gerondi
*Isaac b. Judah ha-Seniri
Isaac b. Kalo [nymus?]Romania?14/15th century?
Habermann, Ateret, 148, 228
Isaac b. Levi *ibn Mar Saul
Isaac b. Moses Hezekiah ha-LeviItaly16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 317, 349–51.
Isaac b. Solomon *AlḥadibSpain, Syracuse,14th century
I. Davidson in: Tarbiz, 11 (1940), 111; C. Roth, in: JQR, 47 (1956–57), 324.Palermo
Isaac b. Solomon he-HaverEreẓ Israel10/11th century
M. Zulay, in: Sefer Assaf (1953), 303–6.
*Isaac b. YakarGermany12th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 25, 1955).
Isaac b. Zerahiah ha-Levi GerondiSpain13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 285–90; A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (May 28, 1963).
Isaac de LeonEgypt17th century
M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer ha-Yovel, Tiferet Yisrael to I. Brody (1966), 171–78 (Heb. part).
Isaac ha-Ḥazzan b. JosephEreẓ Israel?10/11th century?
M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 16 (1945), 39–48.
Isaac ha-LeviOrient13th century?
A.M. Habermann, in: Eked, 3 (1960), 91–98.
Isaac ḤandaliCrimea15th century
S. Bernstein, in Sefer Hadoar (1957), 83–85; idem, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 466, 486–8.
Isaac ibn Al-ShamiSpain12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 259–60.
Isaac *ibn Ezra
Isaac *ibn Ghayyat
Isaac ibn *GikatillaSpain10/11th century
M. Zulay, in: Tarbiz, 20 (1950), 161–76.
Isaac (Abu Ibrahim) *ibn Khalfun
Isaac *ibn Kaprun
Isaac *ibn Shuwayk
Isaac SalmahTurkey16th century
J. Schirmann, in: KS, 12 (1935–36), 393.
Isaac SamuelGreece18th century
J.M. Matza, Aiannistika hebraika tragoudia (1953), 55–56.
Isaiah Hai b. Joseph *Carmi
Ishmael Ḥanina b. Mordecai of VolmontonoBologna, Ferrara16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 320–21, 357–58.
*Israel b. Joel (Susslin)
Israel b. Moses *Najara
Israel Berechiah FontanellaRovigo, Reggiod. 1763
R. Patai, Shirei R. Yisrael Berekhyah Fontanella (1933).
JacobEreẓ Israelearly poet
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 157; Habermann, Ateret, 119–20, 228.
Jacob Al'ayinBabylonia?10/11th century
Habermann, Ateret, 182–228.
Jacob AmronTurkey
M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 529.
Jacob b. Abraham (Angelo d'Ascoli)Italy15th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 193–94.
*Jacob b. Dunash b. Akiva
*Jacob b. Eleazar
Jacob b. Eliezer Guenzburg-UlmaUlm (Germany)16th century
J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 63–69.
Jacob b. Isaac SegreItaly16/17th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 316, 348–9.
Jacob b. Joab Elijah *Fano
Jacob b. JudahGermany13th century
H. Peri, in: Tarbiz, 24 (1955), 426 ff.
Jacob b. Judah ibn Ala'maniAlexandria12th century
S. Abramson, in: YMḤSI, 7 (1958), 163–81.
*Jacob b. Naphtali
Jacob Hai (Vita) IsraelItaly, Amsterdam18th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 408–9.
Jacob ibn AlbeneToledo14th century
C. Roth, in JQR, 39 (1948–49), 123–50.
Jacob Israel BilgradiFerrara18th century
Bernstein, Italyah, 86–90, 165–6.
Jacob KunatMorocco12/13th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 214.
(Jacob?) Manish b. MeirAustria17th century
J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 77–78.
Jacob of CastiliaSpain, Fez
S. Bernstein, in: Aresheth, 1 (1958), 15–16, 20.
Jacob TarfonSalonika16th century
H. Brody, in: Minhah le-David dedicated to D. Yellin (1935), 205–220.
Jeduthun ha-Levi12th century
S. Assaf, in: Minḥah li-Yhudah to J.L. Zlotnik (1950), 162–9.
Jehiel b. AbrahamRomed. before 1070
Schirmann, Italyah, 48–54; idem, in: Scritti in memoria di E. Sereni (1970), 92–107 (Heb. part).
Jehiel b. AsherSpain14th century
Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 82 (1963), 38–41; idem, Ateret, 191–3, 200–1, 228.
Jehiel b. Israel LuriaPadua16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Babbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 315–6, 345–8.
Jehiel b. Joab min ha-Anavim (Anav)Rome13th century
N. Pavoncello, in: Miscellanea di Studi in memoria di D. Disegni (1969), 190–2, 195–7.
Jehiel b. JosephGermany14th century
Urbach, Tosafot, 317.
Jehoseph b. Hanan b. Nathan *Ezobi
JekuthielSpain12th century
J. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 262.
Jekuthiel b. Isaac *ibn Hasan
Jekuthiel of VilnaItaly18th century
I. Tishbi, in: Sefer Yovel le-Y. Baer (1960), 385ff.
*Jerahmeel b. Solomon
JoabSyria13th century
S. Bernstein: Sinai, 19 (1946), 213–4; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 774–5.
Joab AlmagiaItaly18th century
C. Roth and C. Rabin, in: Metsudah, 5–6 (1948), 262–83.
Joab b. BenjaminRome13/14th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 135–6.
Joab b. DanielRome13th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 133–4.
Joab b. Jehiel de Synagoga Bet-ElRome14th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 170–1.
Joab b. Nathan b. Daniel de SinagogaRome13/14th century
J.N. Pavoncello, in: Scritti in memoria di E. Sereni (1970), 119–32 (Heb. part).
*Joab the Greek
*Johanan b. Joshua ha-Kohen
Johanan-Judah (Angelo) AlatrinoItaly16/17th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 256–60.
Jonah ha-Kohan RappaItaly17th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 327–31.
Joseph (Abu `Amar) ibn HasdaiSaragossa11th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 1 (19592), 171–5.
Joseph *Albaradani
Joseph *Almanzi
Joseph Baruch b. Jedidiah Zechariah of UrbinoMantua, Modena17th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 274–5.and Busseto
Joseph b. Abraham AlmosninoSalonika?15/16th century
D. Yarden, in: Sefunot, 8 (1964), 258–60; 264–5.
*Joseph b. Asher (of Chartres)
Joseph b. David ibn SuliToledod. after 1306
S. Bernstein in: Al Naharot Sefarad (1956), 138–42, 144–5, 251–4; Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 485–8.
Joseph b. IsaacOrléans12th century
S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 26 (1957), 465–8.
Joseph b. IsraelYemen16th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Yeda Am, 12 (1967), 56–60.
*Joseph b. Jacob
Joseph b. Jacob (Abu Amr) *ibn Sahl
Joseph b. Jacob ha-LeviMorocco15/16th century
N. Ben-Menahem, in: Aresheth, 2 (1960), 404–5.
Joseph b. Jacob KalaiCrimea13th century?
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 214; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 11–14 (Heb. part).
Joseph b. Joshua ibn Vives LorkiSpain14/15th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 15–18 (Heb. part).
*Joseph b. Kalonymus ha-Nakdan
Joseph b. MattathiasItaly13th century
S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 7 (1936), 181–5.
Joseph b. Meir b. EzraGreece?14th century?
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 57–62.
Joseph b. Meir ibn Al-MuhadjirAndalusia11/12th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 215–6.
Joseph b. Moses *Alashkar
Joseph b. Nathan ḤazzanGermany12th century
A.L. Katch, in: JQR, 58 (1967), 89–94, 60 (1968–9), 1–5; J. Schirmann, in: KS, 44 (1969), 427–8.
Joseph Ben-RamEgypt17th century
M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970) 116ff.
Joseph b. Samuel Z!arefati (Giuseppe Gallo)Florence15/16th century
M.D. Cassuto, in: Meḥkarim le-Zikhron R.A. Kohut (1935), 121–28 (Heb. part).
*Joseph b. Sheshet ibn Latimi
*Joseph b. Solomon of Carcassonne
*Joseph b. Solomon*Yahya
*Joseph b. Tanhum ha-Yerushalmi
Joseph CibzioItaly17th century
S. Olivetti, Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 25 (1959), 22–25.
Joseph Fiametta (Lehavah)Italyd. 1721
J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 101.
Joseph *Ganso
Joseph ibn al-ShamiSpain12th century
H. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 253–8.
Joseph *ibn Barzel
Joseph *ibn Zabara
Joseph *Kaspi
Joseph *Kimḥi
*Joseph Saul Abdallah
Joseph Shalim Gallego
Joseph SoferSpain11th century
S.M. Stern, in: Zion, 11 (1950), 141–3.
*JoshuaEreẓ Israelearly poet
Habermann, Ateret 158f., 227.
*Joshua b. Elijah ha-Levi
Joshua b. Joseph ha-KohenEgypt11th century
M. Zulay, in: Haaretz (Jan. 10, 1949); ibid. (Dec. 12, 1952)
Joshua Ben-Zion SegreItaly1718–1798
J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 100.
Joshua ha-KohenEreẓ Israelearly poet
M. Zulay, in: Alei Ayin (1952), 89–90; E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 36 (1967), 146ff., 342ff.
Joshua he-Haver b. NathanEreẓ Israel11th century
E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 38 (1969), 280–2.
*Josiphiah (Jehosiphiah) the Proselyte
JudahEgypt or Ereẓ Israel9th or 10th century
M. Zulay, Zur Liturgie der Babylonischen Juden (1933); Habermann, Ateret, 121ff., 226
Judah *Abrabanel (Leone Ebreo)
Judah *al-Ḥarizi
Judah b. Aaron *Kilti
Judah b. Hillel ha-LeviErez Israel10/11th century
M. Zulay, in: Eretz Israel, 4 (1956), 138–44; Habermann, Ateret, 123–4, 227.
Judah b. Isaac *ibn Ghayyat
*Judah b. Isaac ibn Shabbetai
Judah (Leone) b. Isaac *Sommo
Judah b. Israel Berechiah FontanellaItalyb. 1719
M. Zulay, Zur Liturgie der Babylonischen Juden (1933); 23–24, 67–68.
Judah b. Jo[seph]early poet
E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 38 (1969), 280–1.
Judah b. Joseph SegelmesiNorth Africa14/15th century
S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 12 (1956), 217–33.
Judah b. Kalonymus b. MosesMainz12th century
J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 38–41.
Judah b. MenahemRome12th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 76–77.
*Judah b. Menahem of Rome
Judah b. Moses16th century
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 62.
Judah b. Moses AlfaquiTurkey16th century
J. Schirmann, in: KS, 12 (1935–36), 293, 521–3.
Judah b. Moses *Leonte
Judah b. Moses of SaltarsItalyb. 1550?
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 313–5, 341–5.
Judah b. Samuel *Abbas
*Judah Halevi
Judah Levi ToabahSalonika?17th century
M. Attias, in: Sefunot, 1 (1958), 128–40.
Judah Maẓli'aḥ PadovaModenad. 1728
J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 102; G. Laras, in: Scritti in memoria di A. Milano (1970), 193–203.
Judah *Zarco
*Kalila and Dimna
Kalon ha-RomiByzantium9th century
Schirmann, Shirim Hadashim, 424–6.
*Kalonymus b. Judah the Younger
Kalonymus b. Kalonymus (see *Kalonymus family)
Kalonymus b. ShabbetaiRome, Worms1030–1096
Schirmann, Italyah, 62–67.
Kalonymus ha-Nasi (see *Kalonymus family)Italy13th century
Kalonymus ha-ZakenItaly10th century
Leon b. Michael ha-ParnasGreece14th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 30–33 (Heb. part).
Leonte b. AbrahamRome12th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 70–73, 543.
Leonte b. MosesRome12th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 80–81.
Levi b. Jacob *ibn Altabban
Malkiel b. MeirGreece or Italy11th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 45–51 (Heb. part).
*MattathiasItaly13th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 179–81.
Mazzal Tov b. DavidConstantinople15/16th century
I.D. Markon, in: Sefer ha-Yovel …A. Marx (1950), 322.
Meir *Abulafia
Meir b. AbrahamBulgaria, Safed16th century
A. Marmorstein, in: Alim, 3 (1937), 15–16.
*Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg
*Meir b. Isaac Sheli'aḥ Ẓibbur
Meir b. MosesRome13th century
J. Schirmann, in: KS, 37 (1962), 405, no. 1140.
Menahem b. AaronGermany12th century?
S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 209–10.
*Menahem b. Jacob
*Menahem b. Jacob ibn Saruq
Menahem b. Mordecai ha-Parnas CorizziItaly
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 101–5, 109–20.
*Meshullam b. MosesMainzd. 1094/5
A.N.Z. Roth, in: Zion, 28 (1963), 233–5; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Azriel b. Abraham, 4 (1963), 17, 52–54.
Meshullam ha-SoferItaly14th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 182–3.
Mevorakh b. DavidEreẓ Israelearly poet
A. Scheiber, in: Tarbiz, 22 (1951), 167–73; 36 (1966), 92–93.
Mevorakh b. NathanEreẓ Israel10th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 29–30.
Mevorakh ha-BavliEreẓ Israel11th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 44 (1960), 59ff.; idem, Ateret 143–4, 729.
MeyuhasItaly16th century
J. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 107, 125–27.
Michael b. CalebGreece11/12th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 52–53 (Heb. part).
Mordecai b. Berechiah JareMantua16/17th century
Simonsohn, Mantovah, 2 (1964), 522.
*Mordecai b. Hillel ha-Kohen
Mordecai b. JosephWormsd. 1294
Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 52–57.
MosesEreẓ Israelearly poet
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 149–54; Habermann, Ateret, 140, 229.
Moses *Abbas (ibn Abez)
Moses b. Abraham *Dar'I
Moses b. Abraham ha-LeviDara' (North Africa)9th century
N. Allony, in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 394.
Moses b. Benjamin SoferRome12th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 74–75.
Moses b. ḤiyyaGreece12th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 41–44 (Heb. part).
Moses b. IsaacSpain11th century
H. Brody, in: Keneset, memorial volume to Ḥ.N. Bialik, 1 (1936), 410–5.
Moses b. IsaacTyreearly poet
M. Zulay in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 171–4.
Moses b. Isaac b. JacobGrenoble13th century?
H. Schirmann, in: Zion, 19 (1954), 66.
Moses b. Isaac Da *Rieti
Schirmann, Italyah, 195–9.
Moses b. Isaac *Remos
Moses b. Israel FinziItaly16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 317–8, 351–3.
*Moses b. Jacob
Moses b. Jacob (Abu Haruūn) *ibn Ezra
Moses b. JosephRome13th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 110–5.
*Moses b. Kalonymus
*Moses b. Levi
Moses b. Maẓli'aḥ
A. Mirsky, in: KS, 34 (1959), 363–7.
*Moses b. Mevorakh
Moses b. Naḥman (*Naḥmanides)
*Moses (b. Nethanel) Nathan
Moses b. Samuel b. AbsalomFrance?12th century
S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 10 (1939), 15–19.
Moses b. Samuel ha-Kohen *Gikatilla
Moses b. ShabbetaiRome11th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 60–61; Bernstein, Piyyutim, 41–44, 77–78.
*Moses b. Shem Tov de Leon
Moses b. Shem Tov *Gabbai
Moses b. Shem Tov ḤazzanSpain, North Africa14/15th century
A.M. Habermann, in Tarbiz, 14 (1943), 54, 67–69.
Moses b. Shem Tov *ibn Habib
Moses b. Solomon d'Escola *Gerondi
Moses b. ZurMorocco17/18th century
N. Ben-Menahem, in: Aresheth, 2 (1960), 383–6.
Moses ha-Kohen ibn GikatillaSpain11th century
A. Scheiber, in: Alexander Marx Jubilee Volume (1950), 537–8 (Heb. part).
Moses Ḥayyim b. Abraham CatalanoPadua, Montagnanad. 1661
B. (C.) Roth in: Kobez al-Jad, 4 (1946), 99–101.
Moses *ibn Al-Taqana
Moses *Kilki
Moses MevorakhCrimea15/16th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 406, 479–86.
Moses *Zacuto (Zacut)
Mubbashshir b. Ephraim he-HaverOrient11th century
A.M. Habermann, Ateret, 160–1.
NahumSpain?13th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 459–62.
Nahum b. Joseph al-BardaniBabylonia11th century
A. Scheiber, in: Zion, 30 (1965), 123.
Nathan b. IsaacMainz12/13th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 20. 1968).
Nathan b. Samuel he-ḤaverEgypt12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 291–7.
NehemiahOrient12/13th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 215.
Nehemiah b. Menahem CalomitiCrete15th century
M.D. Cassuto, in: Sefer ha-Hovel… S. Krauss (1936), 211–6.
Nehemiah b. Solomon b. Heiman ha-NasiBabylonia?10/11th century
M. Zulay, YMḤSI, 4 (1938), 197–246.
Nethanel b. NaamanCorfu16th century
S. Bernstein, Piyyutim, 81–83.
Nethanel b. Nehemiah CaspiProvence15th century
S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 10 (1939), 26–29.
*Nissi (Nissim) b. Berechiah al-Nahrawani
*Ohev b. Meir ha-Nasi
Perfet ZarkSpain14th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 544–6.
Pesaḥ b. Abraham ha-KohenGermany13th century
E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Abraham b. Azriel, 1 (1939), 281; 4 (1963), 122.
*Phinehas b. Jacob ha-Kohen (Kafra)
*Phinehas b. Joseph ha-Levi
Rahamim KalaiEgypt17th century
M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970), 111–34.
Raphael b. Isaac de-FaenzaFlorence15th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 203–5, 573.
Raphael Joseph b. Johanan TrevesItaly16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 318–9, 353–6.
Rehabiah b. JudahFrance11/12th century
H. Brody, in: Emet le-Ya'akov, Sefer Yovel… J. Freimann (1937), 22–26.
Rephaiah b. Judah KohenOrient12th century?
S. Bernstein, in: HUCA, 16 (1941), 150–3.
Reuben ha-Kohen Ḥazzan
S. Abramson, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 51–54.
*Saadiah b. Joseph Gaon
*Saadiah b. Joseph ha-Levi
Saadiah b. Maimun *ibn Danan
Saadiah *Longo
SahalulYemen15th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Afikim ba-Negev, 2 (1966), nos. 15–16
Sa'id b. Babshad ha-Kohen10/11th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 431–3, 482.
Saj'id Darin (or Drin), DinarYemen17th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Zion, 20 (1955), 32–46.
Salem (Salam) Abraham b. IsaacMantua, Venice17th century
Simonsohn, Mantjovah, 2 (1964), 529–31.
Samson b. SamuelGermany, Jerusalem14th century
Habermann, Ateret 202–3, 231.
Samson Kohen ModonMantua1679–1727
SamuelEgypt13th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 134–5.
SamuelGermany or France13th century?
Habermann, Ateret, 199, 230.
SamuelSpain13/14th century
Habermann, Ateret, 87–88. 109–12, 166, 194, 230.
Samuel *Archivolti
Samuel b. EliasaphRome16th century?
Samuel b. HananiahSpain11th century
S. Abramson, in: Sinai, 36 (1955), 538–42.
Samuel b. ḤayyimGreece13/14th century
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 94–101.
Samuel b. Isaac Segan LeviyyahGermany11th century
S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 244–6.
Samuel b. Joseph *ibn Sasson
Samuel b. Joshua Minz BiritaroMantua16th century
M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 319–20, 356–57.
Samuel b. Kalonymus ha-ḤazzanGermanyd. 1241
E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Abraham b. Azriel, 4 (1963), 60.
Samuel b. Moses AnavBologna16th century
Bernstein, Italyah, passim.
Samuel b. Moses ha-DayyanSyria15/16th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 27, 1964); J.L. Weinberger, in: Tarbitz, 38 (1969), 286–9.
Samuel b. Moses ha-LeviOrient12/13th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 216.
Samuel b. Moses min ha-Ne'arim (Dei Fanciulli)Italy14th century
N. Pavoncello, in: Miscellanea di Studi in Memoria di D. Disegni (1969), 188–90, 192–5.
Samuel b. ShalomEreẓ Israel8th century
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 3 (1936), 153–62; A.M. Habermann, Toledot ha-Piyyut ve-ha-Shirah (1970), 56.
Samuel b. SimeonPoland17th century
A. Yaari, in KS, 16 (1939/40), 377–9.
Samuel b. Zadok ibn AlamaniEgypt12/13th century
A. Scheiber, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970), 394–6.
Samuel David *Luzzatto
*Samuel ha-Nagid
*Samuel ha-Shelishi b. Hoshana
Saul *Caspi
ShabbetaiItaly16th century
S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 5 (1939), 55.
Shabbetai b. Abishai ḤabibCorfu?15th century
Bernstein, Piyyutim, 88–89.
Shabbetai b. MosesRome11th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 39–40; Bernstein, Piyyutim, 74–77.
Shabbetai Ḥayyim (Vita) *Marini
Shalem *Shabazi
Shape b. Said (URU?)Yemen15th century?
Y. Ratzaby, in: Be-Ma'arakhah (1969), no. 14–15.
Shealtiel b. LeviGermany?13/14th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (April 18, 1968).
*She'erit ha-Ḥazzan
Shemariah b. Aaron ha-KohenBabylonia12/13th century
N. Alloni in: Sinai, 58 (1966), 136–7; D. Yarden, Sefunei Shirah (196), 144–8; J. Tubi, in: Ba-Ma'arakhah, 10 (1971), no. 119, 18–19.
Shemariah of RabyuanoGreece12th century
J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 55–59 (Heb. part)
Shem Tov *Falaquera
*Shephatiah b. Amittai
SheshetProvence12th century
Habermann, Ateret, 96, 231.
*Silano
*Simeon b. Isaac
*Simeon b. Megas ha-Kohen
Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ *Duran
Simeon LabiSpain, North Africad. 1545
A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 56 (1961), 42–45.
Simḥah b. SamuelGermany12/13th century
A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Aug. 19, 1963).
Simḥah *Issachar
Schirmann, Italyah, 350–3.
*Sindabar
Solomon Abu Ayyuv ibn Al MuallimSeville, Morocco11/12th century
Schirmann, Sefarad, 1 (19592), 541–3.
Solomon al-Kufi Ḥazzan10/11th century
A.M. Habermann, Be-Ron Yaḥad (1945), 35.
Solomon b. David ha-RifiEgypt11/12th century?
N. Alloni, in: Sinai, 64 (1969), 22–23.
Solomon b. Elijah Sharvit ha-Zahav ha-LeviSalonika15th century
A. Ovadiah, in: Sinai, 6 (1940), 78–79; S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 216–9; I.M. Molho, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 3 (1960), 80–82.
Solomon b. Immanuel Da Piera or De PierrelatteS. France14th century
M. Catane, in: KS, 42 (1966–67), 399–402; 43 (1967–68), 160.
Solomon b. IsaacItaly14th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 186.
Solomon b. Isaac (*Rashi)
Solomon b. Isaac b. Meir GaonSyria11th century
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 175–7.
Solomon b. Isaac *GerondiSpain13th century
S. Bernstein, Al-Naharot Sefarad (1956), 146–51, 254–6.
Solomon b. Judah ha-Bavli
Solomon b. Judah ibn *Gabirol
Solomon (b. Judah?) ibn GhiyyatSpain12th century
J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 261.
Solomon b. Mazzal TovConstantinople16th century
I.D. Markon, in: Sefer ha-Yovel… A. Marx (1950), 321–49; idem, in: Melilah, 3/4 (1950), 260–75.
Solomon b. MenahemGermany13th century
D. Goldschmidt, in: Maḥanayim, 60 (1961), 62–63.
Solomon b. Moses Dei RossiRome13th century
Schirmann, Italyah, 105–6.
Solomon b. Reuben *Bonafed
Solomon b. SaidYemen16th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 2 (1959), 85, 88.
Solomon b. SamsonGermany11th century
A.R. Malachi, Bitzaron, 50 (1964), 178–80.
Solomon b. Sar ShalomYemen16th century
J. Ratzaby, in: Maḥanayim, 40 (1959), 170–92.
Solomon ḤazzanItaly16th century
Bernstein, Italyah, 44–45, 146; A. Yaari, Meḥkerei Sefer (1958), 220, 225–6.
Solomon ibn *Labi
Solomon *ibn Zadbel
Solomon KohenOrient
Jabermann, Ateret, 216–7.
Solomon MevorakhTurkey16th century
S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 5 (1939), 61–62; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 60–62 (Heb. part)
*Solomon Suleiman b. Amar
*Tamar b. Menahem
Todros b. Judah ha-Levi *Abulafia
Yaḥya b. Abraham HaraziYemen16/17th century
Y. Ratzaby, in: Tagim, 1 (1969), 54–59.
Yakar b. Samuel ha-LeviCologne and Mainz13th century
Urbach, Tosafot, 452–3; C. Sirat, in: REJ, 118 (1959–60), 131–3.
*Yannai
Yanon b. ẒemaḥSyria11th century
M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 28 (1951), 167–9; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 3–10 (Heb. part).
Yo'eẓ b. MalkielGermany13th century
A.M. Habermann, Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Ẓarefat (1946), 194, 264.
Yom Tov (Bondi), ValvasonVenice1616–1660
J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 104.
Yom Tov b. IsaacFrance12th century
J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 35–37.
Yom Tov SorianoSpain15th century
A.M. Habermann, in: YMḤSI, 3 (1936), 133–50.
*Yose b. Yose
Yudan b. Misatya ha-KohenGreece or Italy10th century
Sefer ha-Mekorot (19702), 128.
Zadok b. Aaron ibn AlamaniAlexandria12th century
S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 215; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 77.
*Zebidah family
*Zechariah al-Dahiri
ẒedakahEgyptMedieval
N. Allony, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 1 (1959), 54–61.
Zedekiah b. Benjamin min ha-Anavim (Anav)Rome13th century
B. Dinur, in: Sefer Zikkaron Aryeh Leon Carpi (1967), 52–63.
Ẓemaḥ b. Yanon he-ḤazzanSyria11th century
M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 132.
ZevadiahS. Italy9th century
Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 422–4.

[Abraham David]

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