Skip to main content

Amnon of Mainz

AMNON OF MAINZ

AMNON OF MAINZ (tenth century), martyr and legendary figure. Amnon is known mainly through *Isaac b. Moses of Vienna (12th–13th century) who quotes *Ephraim b. Jacob (12th century) as speaking of Amnon as "a leader of his generation, wealthy, of distinguished ancestry, and pleasing appearance." The legend is that after Amnon resisted repeated attempts by the bishop of Mainz to persuade him to accept Christianity, he was barbarically mutilated. He was brought back to his home, and on Rosh Ha-Shanah was carried into the synagogue. As the Kedushah prayer was about to be recited Amnon asked the ḥazzan to wait while he "sanctified the great name (of God)," and thereupon recited the hymn "U-Netanneh Tokef Kedushat ha-Yom" ("Let us tell the mighty holiness of this day"), after which he died. Three days afterward, he appeared in a dream to *Kalonymus b. Meshullam and taught him the entire prayer, asking him to circulate it throughout the Diaspora for recital in synagogues on Rosh Ha-Shanah. This legend, which gained wide credence during the time of the Crusades, inspired many to martyrdom. In Johanan *Treves' commentary on the Roman maḥzor (Bologna, 1540) and in various editions of the Ashkenazi rite, the story is repeated with slight changes. In the Ashkenazi liturgy of Rosh Ha-Shanah (and in its eastern branch, of the Day of Atonement also), the recital of the hymn is invested with great solemnity. It has been adapted by many Sephardi communities of the Mediterranean, in some of which it is recited before Musaf in a Ladino translation. U-Netanneh Tokef is actually older; for it is found in old liturgical manuscripts and in genizah fragments. It apparently derives from a very early Palestinian prayer which was later attributed to Amnon.

bibliography:

Germ Jud, 1 (1963), 204. add. bibliography: I.G. Marcus, in: Studien zur juedischen Geschichte und Soziologie (Festschrift Carlebach, 1992), 97–113.

[Abraham Meir Habermann]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Amnon of Mainz." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 11 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Amnon of Mainz." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amnon-mainz

"Amnon of Mainz." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amnon-mainz

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.