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Connecticut

Connecticut

State of Connecticut

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: From the Mahican word quinnehtukqut, meaning "beside the long tidal river."

NICKNAME: The Constitution State (official in 1959); the Nutmeg State.

CAPITAL: Hartford.

ENTERED UNION: 9 January 1788 (5th).

SONG: "Yankee Doodle."

MOTTO: Qui transtulit sustinet (He who transplanted still sustains).

COAT OF ARMS: On a rococo shield, three grape vines, supported and bearing fruit, stand against a white field. Beneath the shield is a streamer bearing the state motto.

FLAG: The coat of arms appears on a blue field.

OFFICIAL SEAL: The three grape vines and motto of the arms surrounded by the words Sigillum reipublicœ Connecticutensis (Seal of the State of Connecticut).

BIRD: American robin.

FLOWER: Mountain laurel.

TREE: White oak.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Martin Luther King Jr. Day, 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln Day, 12 February; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in New England in the northeastern United States, Connecticut ranks 48th in size among the 50 states.

The state's area, 5,018 sq mi (12,997 sq km), consists of 4,872 sq mi (12,619 sq km) of land and 146 sq mi (378 sq km) of inland water. Connecticut has an average length of 90 mi (145 km) e-w, and an average width of 55 mi (89 km) n-s.

Connecticut is bordered on the n by Massachusetts; on the e by Massachusetts and Rhode Island (with part of the line formed by the Pawcatuck River); on the s by New York (with the line passing through Long Island Sound); and on the w by New York. On the sw border, a short panhandle of Connecticut territory juts toward New York City. The state's geographic center is East Berlin in Hartford County. Connecticut has a boundary length of 328 mi (528 km) and a shoreline of 253 mi (407 km).

TOPOGRAPHY

Connecticut is divided into four main geographic regions. The Connecticut and Quinnipiac river valleys form the Central Lowlands, which bisect the state in a north-south direction. The Eastern Highlands range from 500 ft (150 m) to 1,100 ft (335 m) near the Massachusetts border and from 200 ft (60 m) to 500 ft (150 m) in the southeast.

Elevations in the Western Highlands, an extension of the Green Mountains, range from 200 ft (60 m) in the south to more than 2,000 ft (600 m) in the northwest; within this region, near the Massachusetts border, stands Mt. Frissell, the highest point in the state at 2,380 ft (726 m). The Coastal Lowlands, about 100 mi (160 km) long and generally 2-3 mi (3-5 km) wide, consist of rocky peninsulas, shallow bays, sand and gravel beaches, salt meadows, and good harbors at Bridgeport, New Haven, New London, Mystic, and Stonington.

Connecticut has more than 6,000 lakes and ponds. The two largest bodies of water (both artificial) are Lake Candlewood, covering about 5,000 acres (2,000 hectares), and Barkhamsted Reservoir, a major source of water for the Hartford area. The main river is the Connecticut, New England's longest river at 407 mi (655 km), of which 69 mi (111 km) lie within Connecticut; this waterway, which is navigable as far north as Hartford by means of a 15-ft (5-m) channel, divides the state roughly in half before emptying into Long Island Sound. The lowest point of the state is at sea level at the Long Island Sound. Other principal rivers include the Thames, Housatonic, and Naugatuck.

Connecticut's bedrock geology and topography are the product of a number of forces: uplift and depression, erosion and deposit, faulting and buckling, lava flows, and glaciation. About 180 million years ago, the lowlands along the eastern border sank more than 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the resultant trough or fault extends from northern Massachusetts to New Haven Harbor and varies in width from about 20 mi (32 km) to approximately 4 mi (6 km). During the Ice Ages, the melting Wisconsin glacier created lakes, waterfalls, and sand plains, leaving thin glaciated topsoil and land strewn with rocks and boulders.

CLIMATE

Connecticut has a generally temperate climate, with mild winters and warm summers. The January mean temperature is 27°f (3°c) and the July mean is 70°f (21°c). Coastal areas have warmer winters and cooler summers than the interior. Norfolk, in the northwest, has a January average temperature of 19°f (7°c) and a July average of 68°f (19°c), while Bridgeport, on the shore, has an average of 30°f (1°c) in January and of 74°f (23°c) in July. The highest recorded temperature in Connecticut was 106°f (41°c) in Danbury, on 15 July 1995; the lowest, 32°f (36°c), in Falls Village on 16 February 1943. The annual rainfall (19712000) was 46.2 in (117 cm), evenly distributed throughout the year. The state receives 25-60 in (64-150 cm) of snow each year, with the heaviest snowfall in the northwest.

Weather annals reveal a remarkable range and variety of climatic phenomena. Severe droughts were experienced in 1749, 1762, 192933, the early 1940s, 194850, and 195657. The worst recent drought, which occurred in 196366, resulted in a severe forest-fire hazard, damage to crops, and rationing of water. Downtown Hartford was inundated by a flood in March 1936. On 21 September 1938, a hurricane struck west of New Haven and followed the Connecticut Valley northward, causing 85 deaths and property losses of more than $125 million. Severe flooding occurred in 1955 and again in 1982. In the latter year, property damage exceeded $266 million.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Connecticut has an impressive diversity of vegetation zones. Along the shore of Long Island Sound are tidal marshes with salt grasses, glasswort, purple gerardia, and seas lavender. On slopes fringing the marshes are black grass, switch grass, marsh elder, and sea myrtle.

The swamp areas contain various ferns, abundant cattails, cranberry, tussock sedge, skunk cabbage, sweet pepperbush, spicebush, and false hellebore. The state's hillsides and uplands support a variety of flowers and plants, including mountain laurel (the state flower), pink azalea, trailing arbutus, Solomon's seal, and Queen Anne's lace. Only two plant species were listed as threatened or endangered as of April 2006: the small whorled pogonia and the sandplain gerardia.

The first Englishmen arriving in Connecticut in the 1630s found a land teeming with wildlife. Roaming the forests and meadows were black bear, white-tailed deer, red and gray foxes, timber wolf, cougar, panther, raccoon, and enough rattlesnakes to pose a serious danger. The impact of human settlement on Connecticut wildlife has been profound, however. Only the smaller mammals, such as the woodchuck, gray squirrel, cottontail, eastern chipmunk, porcupine, raccoon, and striped skunk, remain common. Snakes remain plentiful and are mostly harmless, except for the northern copperhead and timber rattlesnake. Freshwater fish are abundant, and aquatic life in Long Island Sound even more so. Common birds include the robin (the state bird), blue jay, song sparrow, wood thrush, and many species of waterfowl; visible in winter are the junco, pine grosbeak, snowy owl, and winter wren.

The Connecticut River Estuary and Tidal River Wetlands Complex, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance, serves as a habitat for at least 18 species of wintering birds and 30 species of shorebirds. The area is also an important migration path and spawning ground for a variety of fish, including Atlantic salmon and shortnose sturgeon.

In April 2006, a total of 16 animal species occurring within the state (vertebrates and invertebrates) were listed on the threatened and endangered species list of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Among these were five kinds of sea turtles, the bald eagle, the roseate tern, two species of whale, and the gray wolf.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), established in 1971, is responsible for protecting natural resources and controlling water, air, and land pollution.

Since the Connecticut Clean Water Act was passed in 1967, upgrading of sewage treatment plants, correction of combined sewer overflows, and improved treatment, at and sewage treatment tieins, by industrial facilities have resulted in significant water quality improvement in many state rivers. In 1997, about 75% of the state's 900 mi (1,448 km) of major streams met federal "swimmable-fishable" standards. The Connecticut Clean Water Fund was created in 1986 to provide grants and low-interest loans to municipalities to finance more than $1 billion in municipal sewerage infrastructure improvements over 20 years. Connecticut was the first state in the country to adopt, in 1980, a comprehensive statewide groundwater quality management system. In 2005, federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants awarded to the state included of $8.3 million for a drinking water state revolving loan fund.

In 1994 the governors of Connecticut and New York formally adopted a comprehensive plan to manage Long Island Sound, an "estuary of national significance." The Tidal Wetlands Act (1969) and the Inland Wetlands and Watercourses Act (1972) put the state in the forefront in wetland protection. In 1997 the DEP estimated permitted tidal wetland losses at less than one acre per year and inland wetland losses at about 630 acres per year. Two thousand or more acres of wetlands and watercourses have been restored, so that wetlands covered about 5% of the state's land area as of 2005. The Connecticut River Estuary and Tidal River Wetlands Complex, stretching through 12 counties, was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 1994.

For five of six criteria for air pollutants (lead, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide), Connecticut has virtually eliminated violations of health-based federal standards, and levels of these pollutants continue to decrease. The state exceeds the national standard for ozone but has reduced the number of days the standard is exceeded each year by 60% since the early 1970s. Vehicle-related emissions of ozone precursors have been reduced by almost 50%, and the state is working closely with other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states on regional ozone reduction. In 1986, the state adopted a hazardous air pollutant regulation that covers over 850 substances. Permitting and enforcement processes and voluntary reductions have resulted in at least a 68% reduction in toxins emitted to the air. In 2003, 5.4 million lb of toxic chemicals were released by the state.

In 1987, Connecticut adopted statewide mandatory recycling. Since 1986, five regional resource recovery facilities have begun operation, while dozens of landfills closed as they became full or federal regulations prohibited continued operation. The combination of resource recovery, recycling, and reduction of waste by consumers resulted in landfill garbage declining from 1,400 lb per capita in 1986 to about 300 in 1996.

In 2003, the EPA database listed 424 hazardous waste sites in Connecticut, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006. The Broad Brook Mill of East Windsor was a proposed site in 2006. In 2005, the EPA spent $4.6 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state.

Connecticut DEP has been a pioneer in efforts to restore anadromous fish runs (ascending rivers) and extirpated species such as wild turkeys and fishers and to document and preserve habitats for numerous plant and animal species.

POPULATION

Connecticut ranked 29th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 3,510,297 in 2005, an increase of 3.1% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Connecticut's population grew from 3,287,116 to 3,405,565, an increase of 3.6%. The population is projected to reach 3.63 million by 2015 and 3.69 million by 2025.

The state had a population gain of 5.8% (about 180,000 residents) for the entire decade of the 1980s, compared with a US population growth of 9.7%. One sign of the population lag was that in 1990 Connecticut had the 11th lowest birthrate in the United States, 14.5 live births per 1,000 population.

Population density in 2004 was 722.9 persons per sq mi (the fourth highest in the nation), up from 678.5 persons per sq mi in 1990. The median age of residents in 2004 was 38.9; 13.5% was age 65 or older, while 23.9% were under 18 years old.

Major cities, with 2004 population estimates, are Bridgeport, 139,910; Hartford, 124,848; New Haven, 124,829; Stamford, 120,226; and Waterbury, 108,429. The three largest cities each had a slight net growth in population between 1990 and 2002, helping to reverse their losses during the 1960s and 1970s due to an exodus to the suburbs, which had increased rapidly in population. For example, Bloomfield, to the north of Hartford, gained in population from 5,700 in 1950 to 19,023 in 1984; and Trumbell, near Bridgeport, increased from 8,641 in 1950 to 33,285 in 1984.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Connecticut has large populations of second-generation European descent. The biggest groups came from Italy, Ireland, Poland, and Quebec, Canada. Most of these immigrants clustered in the cities of New Haven, Hartford, Bridgeport, and New London. The number of Roman Catholic newcomers drew the hostility of many native-born residents, particularly during the decade 191020, when state officials deported 59 "dangerous aliens" on scant evidence of radicalism and Ku Klux Klan chapters enrolled some 20,000 members.

Since 1950, ethnic groups of non-Yankee ancestry have exercised leadership roles in all facets of Connecticut life, especially in politics. Connecticut elected a Jewish governor in 1954, and its four subsequent governors were of Irish or Italian ancestry. A wave of newcomers to the state during and after World War II consisted chiefly of blacks and Hispanics seeking employment opportunities. In 2000, the black population numbered 309,843, about 9.1% of the state total. In 2004, the black population was 10.1% of the state's total population. According to the 2000 federal census, there were also about 320,323 residents of Hispanic or Latino origin, or 9.4% of the state's total population (up from 213,000 in 1990), of whom 194,443 were Puerto Ricans (more than double the 1990 total of 93,608). In 2004, 10.6% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino origin. In 2000, Connecticut had 9,639 American Indians, up from 7,000 in 1990, 82,313 Asians, and 1,366 Pacific Islanders. In 2004, 0.3% of the population was American Indian, 3.1% was Asian, and 0.1% were Pacific Islanders. About 369,967 Connecticut residents, or 10.9% of the population, were foreign born in 2000, up from 279,000 (8.5%) in 1990. In 2004, 1.3% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

Connecticut English is basically that of the Northern dialect, but features of the eastern New England subdialect occur east of the Connecticut River. In the east, half and calf have the vowel of father; box is /bawks/ and cart is /kaht/; yolk is /yelk/; care and chair have the vowel of cat; and many speakers have the intrusive /r/, as in swaller it (swallow it). In the western half, creek is /krik/; cherry may be /chirry/; on has the vowel of father ; an /r/ is heard after a vowel, as in cart. Along the Connecticut river, butcher is / boocher/, and tomorrow is pronounced /tomawro/. Along the coast, the wind may be breezing on, and a creek is a saltwater inlet. The sycamore is buttonball, one is sick to his stomach, gutters are eaves-troughs, a lunch between meals is a bite, and in the northwest, an earthworm is an angledog.

In 2000, 2,600,601 Connecticuters (81.7% of the resident population five years old and older, down from 84.8% in 1990) spoke only English at home.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other Indo-European languages" includes Albanian, Gaelic, Lithuanian, and Rumanian.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 3,184,514 100.0
  Speak only English 2,600,601 81.7
  Speak a language other than English 583,913 18.3
Speak a language other than English 583,913 18.3
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 268,044 8.4
  Italian 50,891 1.6
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 42,947 1.3
  Polish 38,492 1.2
  Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 30,667 1.0
  Chinese 15,782 0.5
  German 14,310 0.4
  Other Indo-European languages 11,978 0.4
  Greek 9,445 0.3
  Russian 8,807 0.3
  French Creole 7,856 0.2
  Vietnamese 6,598 0.2

RELIGIONS

Connecticut's religious development began in the 1630s with the designation of the Congregational Church as the colony's "established church." The Puritan fathers enacted laws decreeing church attendance on Sundays and other appointed days, and requiring all residents to contribute to the financial maintenance of local Congregational ministers. Educational patterns, business practices, social conduct, and sexual activities were all comprehensively controlled in accordance with Puritan principles. "Blue Laws" provided penalties for offenses against God's word, such as profanation of the Sabbath and swearing, and capital punishment was mandated for adultery, sodomy, bestiality, lesbianism, harlotry, rape, and incest.

Connecticut authorities harassed and often persecuted such non-Congregationalists as Quakers, Baptists, and Anglicans. However, the church was weakened during the 18th century by increasing numbers of dissenters from the Congregational order. A coalition of dissenters disestablished the church by the Con-necticut constitution of 1818. The final blow to Congregational domination came in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the arrival of many Roman Catholic immigrants.

Since World War I, Roman Catholics have been the most numerous religious group in the state. As of 2004, there were 1,333,044 Roman Catholics in 381 parishes. Mainline Protestants represent the second-largest category of churches and include the United Church of Christ, with 92,573 adherents in 2005, the Episcopal Church with 73,550 adherents in 186 congregations in 2000, and the United Methodist Church with 51,183 adherents in 133 congregations in 2000. The estimated number of Jewish adherents in 2000 was 108,280, and Muslims numbered about 29,647. About 42.1% of the population did not specify affiliation with a religious organization.

TRANSPORTATION

Because of both the state's traditional conservatism and the opposition by turnpike and steamboat companies, rail service did not fully develop until the 1840s. Hartford and New Haven were connected in 1839, and in 1850 that line was extended to Northampton, MA. In the 1840s and 1850s, a network of lines connected Hartford with eastern Connecticut communities. Railroad expansion peaked during the 1890s, when total trackage reached 1,636 mi (2,633 km). The giant in Connecticut railroading from the 1870s until its second and final collapse in 1961 was the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad.

In the late 1960s, the Interstate Commerce Commission required that the assets of the bankrupt New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad be included in the Penn Central Transportation Company, which was formed by the merger of the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads. In 1970, Penn Central went bankrupt. In 1976, Penn Central's profitable assets were merged with the profitable assets of other northeast bankrupt railroads to form the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail). As of 1997, Conrail had divested itself of most of its services in Connecticut, which as of 2003, was served by seven regional and short-line railroads, and one Class I railroad. As of 2003, there were 708 mi (1,140 km) of railroad in Connecticut, of which only 69 miles (111 km) were operated by the state's only Class I railroad.

In October 1970, the Connecticut Department of Transportation (CDOT) and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York (MTA) entered an agreement (effective 1 January l971) with the Trustees of Penn Central to oversee the operation of the New Haven Line Commuter Rail Service between New Haven and Grand Central Terminal in New York City and to jointly fund the operating deficit. In 1976, Conrail succeeded Penn Central as the operator of the New Haven Line and operated it until the end of 1982 when CDOT and MTA decided to operate the New Haven Line themselves.

On 1 January 1983, the Metro-North Railroad, which had been created as a subsidiary of the MTA, took over the operations of the New Haven Line in New York. CDOT and MTA continue to jointly oversee the operations of the New Haven Line service and fund the operating deficit. The costs of New Haven Line capital projects in Connecticut are funded by Connecticut, and the costs of capital projects in New York are funded by MTA. CDOT and MTA share the capital costs of rolling stock rehabilitation and acquisition. In 1985, CDOT purchased from Penn Central the Connecticut portion of the New Haven Line's main line and the three branch lines in Connecticut, including the right of way and support facilities.

On an average weekday, nearly 900 trains serve over 250,000 Metro-North customers from Connecticut and New York. In the mid-l990s, the on-time performance of New Haven Line trains ranged between 94.5% and 96.2%.

In 1990, CDOT contracted with Amtrak to operate the Shore Line East Commuter Rail Service between Old Saybrook and New Haven. Following a period of free service between 29 May and 29 June 1990, weekday only revenue service was implemented on 2 July 1990. In February of 1996, Shore Line East service was extended to New London. CDOT oversees the operation and provides the rolling stock, maintenance facilities, and funding necessary to cover the operating deficit. On an average weekday, 18 revenue trains serve about 600 customers. In the mid-l990s, the on-time performance of Shore Line East trains ranged between 90.0% and 96.3%.

Since 1971, Amtrak has provided inter-city passenger service to Connecticut on the Northeast Corridor main line (Boston-New Haven-New York City-Philadelphia-Washington, DC) and on the Springfield Line (New Haven-Hartford-Springfield).

Local bus systems provide intra-city transportation. These services are generally subsidized by the state and, in some instances, by the Federal Transit Administration. Inter-city bus service (not subsidized by the state or the federal government) is provided in over 30 municipalities by some 30 companies.

Connecticut has an extensive system of expressways, state highways, and local roads, totaling 21,144 mi (34,041 km) in 2004. Over 99% of the roads are either paved or hard-surfaced. Major highways include: I-95, the John Davis Lodge Turnpike, which crosses the entire length of the state near the shore; I-91, linking New Haven and Springfield, MA; and I-84 from the Massachusetts Turnpike, southwestward through Hartford, Waterbury, and Danbury to New York State. Over the past two decades, Connecticut has embarked on an ambitious infrastructure renewal program. Almost $2.2 billion has been expended to rehabilitate or replace over 1,866 of the 3,820 bridges that the state maintains. Approximately $927 million was used to resurface an average of 475 two-lane miles of state highway per year.

As of 2004, there were some 2.035 million automobiles, about 938,000 trucks of all types, and around 10,000 buses registered in the state. Connecticut had 2,694,574 licensed drivers during that same year.

Most of Connecticut's waterborne traffic is handled through the two major ports of New Haven and Bridgeport, which collectively handled approximately 16.5 million tons of cargo in 2004. The New London State Pier, which underwent reconstruction in the mid-1990s, unloaded its first post-renovation ship in March 1998 with Logistec Connecticut, Inc., in charge of operations. In 2004, Connecticut had 117 mi (188 km) of navigable inland waterways. Total waterborne shipments in 2003 totaled 18.579 million tons.

In 2005, Connecticut had a total of 152 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 54 airports, 92 heliports, and six seaplane bases. Connecticut's principal air terminal is Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, located 14 mi (23 km) north of Hartford. Bradley had a total of 3,326,461 enplanements in 2004, making it the 49th-busiest airport in the United States.

HISTORY

The first people known to have lived in the area now called Connecticut were American Indians, whose forebears may have come to New England as many as 10,000 years ago. By the early 17th century, Connecticut had between 6,000 and 7,000 Indians organized into 16 tribes, all members of the lose Algonquian Confederation. The most warlike of these tribes were the Pequot, who apparently had migrated not long before from the Hudson River region to escape the Mohawk and had settled along the Connecticut coast. There was also a heavy concentration of Indian groups in the Connecticut River Valley, but fear of Mohawk hunting parties kept them from occupying most of western and northwestern Connecticut.

Because of their fear of the Pequot along the shore and of the Mohawk to the west, most of Connecticut's Indians sought the friendship of English newcomers in the 1630s. The Indians sold land to the English and provided instruction in New World agricultural, hunting, and fishing techniques. The impact of English settlers on Connecticut's friendly Indians was devastating, however. The Indians lost their land, were made dependents in their own territory, and were decimated by such European imports as smallpox and measles. The Pequot, who sought to expel the English from Connecticut by a series of attacks in 163637, were defeated during the Pequot War by a Connecticut-Massachusetts force, aided by a renegade Pequot named Uncas. By the 1770s, Connecticut's Indian population was less than 1,500.

The first recorded European penetration of Connecticut was in 1614 by the Dutch mariner Adriaen Block, who sailed from Long Island Sound up the Connecticut River, probably as far as the Enfield Rapids. The Dutch established two forts on the Connecticut River, but they were completely dislodged by the English in 1654.

The early English settlers were part of a great migration of some 20,000 English Puritans who crossed the treacherous Atlantic to New England between 1630 and 1642. The Puritans declared that salvation could be achieved only by returning to the simplicity of the early Christian Church and the truth of God as revealed in the Bible. They sailed to America in order to establish a new society that could serve as a model for the rest of Christendom. Attracted by the lushness of the Connecticut River Valley, the Puritans established settlements at Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), and Hartford (1636). In 1639, these three communities joined together to form the Connecticut Colony, choosing to be governed by the Fundamental Orders, a relatively democratic framework for which the Reverend Thomas Hooker was largely responsible. (According to some historians, the Fundamental Orders comprised the world's first written constitution, hence the state nickname, adopted in 1959.) A separate Puritan colony was planted at New Haven in 1638 under the leadership of John Davenport, a Puritan minister, and Theophilus Eaton, a successful merchant.

In 1662, the Colony of Connecticut secured legal recognition by England. Governor John Winthrop Jr. persuaded King Charles II to grant a charter that recognized Connecticut's existing framework of government and established its north and south boundaries as Massachusetts and Long Island Sound and its east and west borders as Narragansett Bay and the Pacific Ocean. In 1665, New Haven reluctantly became part of the colony because of economic difficulties and fear of incorporation into Anglican New York.

Connecticut had acrimonious boundary disputes with Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and Pennsylvania. The most serious disagreement was with New York, which claimed the entire area from Delaware Bay to the Connecticut River. The issue was resolved in 1683 when the boundary was set 20 mi (32 km) east of and parallel to the Hudson River, although it was not until 1881 that Connecticut, New York, and Congress established the exact line.

Connecticut functioned throughout the colonial period much like an independent republic. It was the only American colony that generally did not follow English practice in its legislative proceedings, nor did it adopt a substantial amount of English common and statute law for its legal code. Connecticut's autonomy was threatened in 1687 when Sir Edmund Andros, appointed by King James II as the governor of the Dominion of New England, arrived in Hartford to demand surrender of the 1662 charter. Connecticut leaders protected the colony's autonomy by hiding the charter in an oak tree, which subsequently became a landmark known as the Charter Oak.

With its Puritan roots and historic autonomy, Connecticut was a Patriot stronghold during the American Revolution. Tories numbered no more than 7% of the adult male population (2,000-2,500 out of a total of 38,000 males). Connecticut sent some 3,600 men to Massachusetts at the outbreak of fighting at Lexington and Concord in April 1775. Jonathan Trumbull, who served as governor from 1769 to 1784, was the only colonial governor in office in 1775 who supported the Patriots. He served throughout the Revolutionary War, during which Connecticut troops participated in most of the significant battles. Connecticut's privateers captured more than 500 British merchant vessels, and its small but potent fleet captured at least 40 enemy ships. Connecticut also produced arms and gunpowder for state and Continental forces, thus beginning an arms-making tradition that would lead to the state's unofficial designation as the "arsenal of the nation." It was also called the Provisions State, in large part because of the crucial supplies of foodstuffs it sent to General George Washington throughout the war. The state's most famous Revolutionary War figure was Nathan Hale, executed as a spy by the British in New York City in 1776.

On 9 January 1788, Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the Constitution. Strongly Federalist during the 1790s, Connecticut ardently disagreed with the foreign policy of presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, opposed the War of 1812, and even refused to allow its militia to leave the state. Connecticut's ire over the war was exacerbated by the failure of the government to offer significant help when the British attacked Essex and Stonington in the spring and summer of 1814. The politically vulnerable Federalists were defeated in 1817 by the Toleration Party. This coalition of Republicans and non-Congregationalists headed the drive for the new state constitution (1818) that disestablished the Congregational Church, a Federalist stronghold.

Long before the Civil War, Connecticut was stoutly antislavery. In the early years of independence, the General Assembly enacted legislation providing that every black born after 1 March 1784 would be free at age 25. Connecticut had a number of antislavery and abolition societies, whose members routed escaped slaves to Canada via the Underground Railroad. The state's pro-Union sentiment was reflected in the enormous support given to the Union war effort; some 55,000 Connecticut men served in the Civil War, suffering more than 20,000 casualties. Arms manufacturers such as Colt and Winchester produced desperately needed rifles and revolvers, and the state's textile, brass, and rubber firms turned out uniforms buttons, ponchos, blankets, and boots for Union troops.

The contributions by Connecticut industries to the war effort signaled the state's emergence as a manufacturing giant. Its industrial development was facilitated by abundant waterpower, the growth of capital held by banks and insurance companies, a sophisticated transportation network, and, most important, the technological and marketing expertise of the people. The first American hat factory was established in Danbury in 1780, and the nation's brass industry had its roots in Naugatuck Valley between 1806 and 1809. Connecticut clocks became known throughout the world. Micah Rugg organized the first nut and bolt factory in Marion in 1840; Elias Howe invented the first practical sewing machine in Hartford in 1843. Perhaps the most important figure in the development of Connecticut manufacturing was Eli Whitney, best known for inventing the cotton gin (1793).

Seventy-five years after Whitney's death, Connecticut was a leader in the production of hats, typewriters, electrical fixtures, machine tools, and hardware. The state's textile industry ranked sixth in the nation in 1900, with an annual output of $50 million. By 1904, Connecticut's firearms industry was producing four-fifths of the ammunition and more than one-fourth of the total value of all firearms manufactured by nongovernment factories in the United States. These great strides in manufacturing transformed Connecticut from a rural, agrarian society in the early 1800s to an increasingly urban state.

The state's contribution to the Allied forces in World War I (191418) more than equaled its Civil War effort. Four Liberty Loan drives raised $437 million, more than the contribution from any other state. About 66,000 Connecticuters served in the armed forces, and the state's manufacturers produced 450,000 Enfield rifles, 45,000 Browning automatic rifles, 2 million bayonets, and much other war materiel. By 191718, four-fifths of Connecticut's industry was involved in defense production.

The prosperity sparked by World War I continued, for the most part, until 1929. During the 1920s, Connecticuters enjoyed a rising standard of living, as the state became a national leader in the production of specialty parts for the aviation, automotive, and electric power industries. However, from 1919 to 1929, Connecticut lost 14 of its 47 cotton mills to southern states.

The stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent depression of the 1930s hit highly industrialized Connecticut hard. By the spring of 1932, the state's unemployed totaled 150,000, and cities such as Bridgeport fell deeply in debt. The economic reversal led to significant political change: the ousting of a business-oriented Republican administration, which had long dominated the state, by a revitalized Democratic Party under the leadership of Governor Wilbur L. Cross (193139). During his tenure, Connecticut reorganized its state government, improved facilities in state hospitals and penal institutions, and tightened state regulations of business.

Connecticut was pulled out of the unemployment doldrums in 1939 when the state's factories were once again stimulated by defense contracts. The value of World War II (193945) contracts placed in Connecticut was $8 billion by May 1945, and industrial employment increased from 350,000 in 1939 to 550,000 by late 1944. Connecticut's factories turned out submarines, Navy Corsair fighter aircraft, helicopters, 80% of all ball bearings manufactured in the United States, and many thousands of small arms. Approximately 220,000 Connecticut men and women served in the US armed forces.

Since 1945, Connecticut has seen substantial population growth, economic diversification with a greater proportion of service industries, the expansion of middle-class suburbs, and an influx of black and Hispanic migrants to the major cities. Urban renewal projects in Hartford and New Haven resulted in expanded office and recreational facilities, but not much desperately needed new housing. A major challenge facing Connecticut in the 1980s was once again how to effect the social and economic integration of this incoming wave of people and industries. Providing greater economic opportunities for people living in its cities remains a challenge for Connecticut in the 2000s.

Connecticut became the nation's wealthiest state during the 1980s, achieving the highest per capita income in 1986, a position still held in 1992 when its residents' per capita income of $26,797 was 35% above the average for the United States. The state's prosperity came in part from the expansion of the military budget, as 70% of Connecticut's manufacturing sector was defense related. The end of the cold war, however, brought cuts in military spending which reduced the value of defense related contracts in Connecticut from $6 billion in 1989 to $4.2 billion in 1990. By 1992, manufacturing jobs had declined by 25% while jobs in such service industries as retail, finance, insurance and real estate increased by 23%. The total number of jobs, however, dropped by 10% during the period. Tax relief measures were taken to make manufacturing more competitive in the state. In the mid-1990s, Connecticut's economy was on the upswing, fueled in part by the recovering banking industry, and its employment outlook improved.

In the 1980s and through the 1990s, Connecticut witnessed an increasing contrast between the standard of living enjoyed by urban and suburban residents, blacks and whites, and the wealthy and the poor. In 1992, the median family income in many of the state's suburbs was nearly twice that of families living in urban areas. Governor Lowell Weicker's administration imposed a personal income tax (designed to address the inequities of the sales tax system) and implemented a program to modify state funding formulas so that urban communities received a larger share. The state also launched an effort to improve the quality of public education in relatively poor cities, to bring it in alignment with suburban schools.

While per-capita income levels remained high in the state through the rest of the decade, poverty increased. According to government figures, in 1998 Connecticut still ranked first in the nation in per capita personal income ($37,700), but the state's poverty rate, just 6% (the lowest in the nation) in 1990, had climbed to 9.2% by 1998. Per capita personal income stood at $45,506 in 2004, still highest among the states, while the poverty rate was 7.6% (the national average was 13.1%). While the state remained divided economically, it also was divided racially. Minority (black and Hispanic) populations were centered in urban Bridgeport, Hartford, and New Haven; smaller cities and suburbs remained predominately white.

Like many states across the nation, Connecticut faced a multimillion dollar budget deficit in the early 2000s. Connecticut adopted a stringent welfare reform law during Governor John G. Rowland's tenure, limiting benefits to 21 months. A new death penalty law was passed for the state, as was a law requiring communities to be notified when sex offenders are released from prison. Connecticut in 2005 was looking to attract further business investment to the state.

Foxwoods, a casino run by the Mashantucket Pequots in Ledyard, Connecticut, is a source of much-needed income for the tribe and an attraction for tourists and gamblers.

STATE GOVERNMENT

Connecticut has been governed by four basic documents: the Fundamental Orders of 1639; the Charter of the Colony of Connecticut of 1662; the constitution of 1818 (which remained in effect until 1964, when a federal district court, acting on the basis of the US Supreme Court's "one person, one vote" ruling, ordered Connecticut to reapportion and redistrict its legislature); and the constitution of 1965. This last document adjusted representation to conform with population and provided for mandatory reapportionment every 10 years. The 1965 constitution had been amended 29 times by January 2005.

The state legislature is the General Assembly, consisting of a 36-member Senate and 151-member House of Representatives. Regular legislative sessions are held each year, beginning in January in odd-numbered years (when sessions must end no later than in June) and in February in even-numbered years (when sessions must end no later than in May). A majority of legislators may call for special session. Legislators, who must be 18 years old, residents of their districts, and qualified voters in Connecticut, are elected to both houses for two-year terms from single-member districts of substantially equal populations. The legislative salary in 2004 was $28,000.

Elected members of the executive branch are the governor and lieutenant governor (who run jointly and must each be at least 30 years of age), secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, and attorney general. All are elected for four-year terms and may be reelected. The governor, generally with the advice and consent of the general assembly, selects the heads of state departments, commissions, and offices. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $150,000.

A bill becomes law when approved by both houses of the General Assembly and signed by the governor. If the governor fails to sign it within five days when the legislature is in session, or within 15 days after it has adjourned, the measure also becomes law. A bill vetoed by the governor may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the elected members of each house.

A constitutional amendment may be passed in a single legislative session if approved by three-fourths of the total membership of each house. If approved in one session by a majority but by less than three-fourths, the proposed amendments requires approval by majority vote in the next legislative session following a general election. After passage by the legislature, the amendment must be ratified by the voters in the next even-year general election in order to become part of the state constitution.

To vote in state elections, a person must be a US citizen, at least 18 years old, a state resident, and a resident in the town where he or she will vote. Restrictions apply to convicted felons.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Connecticut's major political groups during the first half of the 19th century were successively the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican coalition, the Democrats, and the Whigs. The political scene also included a number of minor political parties, including the Anti-Masonic, Free Soil, Temperance, and Native American (Know-Nothing) parties, of which the Know-Nothings were the most successful, holding the governorship from 1855 to 1857. The Whig Party collapsed during the controversy over slavery in the 1850s, when the Republican Party emerged as the principal opposition to the Democrats.

From the 1850s to the present, the Democratic and Republican parties have dominated Connecticut politics. The Republicans held power in most of the years between the Civil War and the 1920s. Republican hegemony ended in 1930, when the Democrats elected Wilbur L. Cross as governor. Cross greatly strengthened the Connecticut Democratic Party by supporting organized labor and providing social legislation for the aged and the needy. The success of the increasingly liberal Democrats in the 1930s prodded Connecticut Republicans to become more forward-looking, and the two parties were fairly evenly matched between 1938 and 1954. Connecticut's Democrats have held power in most years since the mid-1950s.

Republican presidential candidates carried Connecticut for five successive elections starting in 1972 and ending with the victory of Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992. In the 1996 election, Clinton again carried the state. In the 2000 presidential election, Democrat Al Gore took the state with 56% of the vote to Republican George W. Bush's 39%. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader won 4% of the vote. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry won 54.3% of the vote to incumbent President George W. Bush's 44.0%. In 2004 there were 1,823,000 registered voters; an estimated 36% were Democratic, 24% Republican, and 40% unaffiliated or members of other parties. The state had seven electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election.

In 2005 Democrats controlled the state Senate, 24-11, and formed a majority in the state House (99 Democrats to 52 Republicans). Following the 2004 elections, Connecticut's delegation of US Representatives consisted of two Democrats and three Republicans (Connecticut lost a congressional seat in 2002). Both of Connecticut's US senators are Democrats: Christopher Dodd, reelected in 2004 for his fifth consecutive term; and Joseph Lieberman, elected to his third term in 2000. Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore chose Lieberman as his running mate in the 2000 presidential election. In 2003, Connecticut ranked eighth among the 50 states in the percentage of women state legislators, at 29.4%.

In 1994 Republican John G. Rowland was elected governor on a platform that included a promise to repeal the state income tax; he was reelected in 1998 and 2002. Rowland resigned in 2004 over a corruption scandal, and on 1 July 2005 Lieutenant Governor M. Jodi Rell succeeded him, becoming the second woman to hold the governorship of the state. US Representative Gary Franks, the first black member of the US House of Representatives from Connecticut and the first black House Republican in 55 years, was unseated in 1996 in his bid for a fourth term. In 1998 he made an unsuccessful run for US Senate, against incumbent (Democrat) Christopher Dodd.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, Connecticut had 8 counties, 30 municipal governments, and 384 special districts. There were 166 school districts. Counties in Connecticut have been geographical subdivisions without governmental functions since county government was abolished in 1960.

Connecticut's cities generally use the council-manager or may-or-council forms of government. The council-manager system provides for an elected council that determines policy, enacts local legislation, and appoints the city manager. The mayor-council system employs an elected chief executive with extensive appointment power and control over administrative agencies.

In most towns, an elected, three-member board of selectmen heads the administrative branch. The town meeting, in which all registered voters may participate, is usually the legislative body. As of 2002, there were 149 townships in the state. Boroughs are generally governed by an elected warden, and borough meetings exercise major legislative functions.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 125,392 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

Connecticut Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE CONNECTICUT WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN PROGRESSIVE SOCIALIST
*Won US presidential election.
1948 8 Dewey (R) 423,297 437,754 13,713 6,964
1952 8 *Eisenhower (R) 481,649 611,012 1,466 2,244
1958 8 *Eisenhower (R) 405,079 711,837
1960 8 *Kennedy (D) 657,055 565,813
1964 8 *Johnson (D) 826,269 390,996
AMERICAN IND.
1968 8 Humphrey (D) 621,561 556,721 76,660
AMERICAN
1972 8 *Nixon (R) 555,498 810,763 17,239
US LABOR
1976 8 Ford (R) 647,895 719,261 7,101 1,789
LIBERTARIAN CITIZENS
1980 8 *Reagan (R) 541,732 677,210 8,570 6,130
CONN-ALLIANCE COMMUNIST
1984 8 *Reagan (R) 569,597 890,877 1,274 4,826
LIBERTARIAN NEW ALLIANCE
1988 8 *Bush (R) 676,584 750,241 14,071 2,491
IND. (Perot)
1992 8 *Clinton (D) 682,318 578,313 5,391 348,771
1996 8 *Clinton (D) 735,740 483,109 5,788 139,523
GREEN REFORM
2000 8 Gore (D) 816,015 561,094 64,452 4,731
PETITIONING CANDIDATE (Nader)
2004 7 Kerry (D) 857,488 693,826 9,564 12,969

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Connecticut operates under the authority of state statute and executive order; the commissioner for emergency management and homeland security is designated as the state homeland security adviser.

The Department of Education administers special programs for the educationally disadvantaged, the emotionally and physically disabled, and non-English-speaking students. The Department of Transportation operates state-owned airports, oversees bus system operations, and provides for snow removal from state highways and roads. The Department of Social Services has a variety of social programs for state residents, including special services for the physically disabled. The Department of Children and Families investigates cases of child abuse and administers programs dealing with child protection, adoption, juvenile corrections and rehabilitation, and prevention of delinquency.

Among programs sponsored by the Department of Public Health are ones that help people to stop smoking, increase their nutritional awareness, and improve their dental health. The Labor Department provides a full range of services to the unemployed, to job seekers, and to disadvantaged workers. Other departments deal with consumer protection, economic development, environmental protection, housing, mental retardation, information technology, and public safety.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Connecticut's judicial system has undergone significant streamlining in recent years, with the abolition of municipal courts (1961), the circuit court (1974), the court of common pleas (1978), and the juvenile court (1978), and the creation of an appellate court (1983). Currently, the Connecticut judicial system consists of a supreme court, an appellate court, a superior court, and probate courts.

The Supreme Court comprises the chief justice, five associate justices, and two senior associate justices. The high court hears cases on appeal, primarily from the appellate court but also from the superior court in certain special instances, including the review of a death sentence, reapportionment, election disputes, invalidation of a state statute, or censure of a probate judge. Justices of the Supreme Court, as well as appellate and superior court judges, are nominated by the governor and appointed by the General Assembly for eight-year terms.

The Superior Court, the sole general trial court, has the authority to hear all legal controversies except those over which the probate courts have exclusive jurisdiction. The Superior Court sits in 12 state judicial districts and is divided into trial divisions for civil, criminal, and family cases. As of 1999, there were 167 superior court trial judges.

Connecticut has 132 probate courts. These operate on a fee basis, with judges receiving their compensation from fees paid for services rendered by the court. Each probate district has one probate judge, elected for a four-year term.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 19,497 prisoners were held in Connecticut's state and federal prisons, a decrease of 1.8% (from 19,846) from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 1,488 inmates were female, down 3.9% (from 1,548) from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Connecticut had an incarceration rate of 377 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Connecticut in 2004 had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 286.3 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 10,032 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 92,046 reported incidents or 2,627.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Connecticut has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state has carried out just one execution, which took place in 2005. As of 1 January 2006, there were eight death row inmates.

In 2003, Connecticut spent $158,064,813 on homeland security, an average of $48 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 6,759 active-duty military personnel stationed in Connecticut, 1,080 civilian employees and 2,114 Reserve and National Guard. The principal military installation in the state is the US Navy submarine base at Groton. Across the Thames River in New London is the US Coast Guard Academy, one of the nation's four service academies. Founded in 1876 and located at its present site since 1932, this institution offers a four-year curriculum leading to a BS degree and a commission as ensign in the Coast Guard.

In fiscal year 2004, the value of defense contracts was $8.9 billion, and defense payroll, including retired military pay, amounted to $717 million.

There were 268,975 veterans of US military service in Connecticut as of 2003, of whom 49,046 served in World War II; 35,445 in the Korean conflict; 81,636 during the Vietnam era; and 26,660 in the Persian Gulf War. US Veterans Administration spending in Connecticut totaled $563 million in 2004.

As of 31 October 2004, the Connecticut State Police employed 1,213 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

Connecticut has experienced four principal migrations: the arrival of European immigrants in the 17th century, the out-migration of many settlers to other states beginning in the 18th century, renewed European immigration in the late 19th century, and the intrastate migration of city dwellers to the suburbs since 1945.

Although the first English settlers found an abundance of fertile farmland in the Connecticut Valley, later newcomers were not so fortunate. It is estimated that in 1800, when Connecticut's population was 250,000, nearly three times that many people had moved away from the state, principally to Vermont, western New York, Ohio, and other Midwestern states.

The influx of European immigrants increased the number of foreign-born in the state from 38,518 in 1850 to about 800,000 by World War I. After World War II, the rush of middle-class whites (many from neighboring states) to Connecticut suburbs, propelled in part by the "baby boom" that followed the war, was accompanied by the flow of minority groups to the cities. All told, Connecticut had a net increase from migration of 561,000 between 1940 and 1970, followed by a net loss of 113,000 from 1970 to 1990. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 217,000 residents in domestic migration, and a net gain of 68,000 in international migration. In 1998, Connecticut admitted 7,780 foreign immigrants. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population decreased by 0.4%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 75,991 and net internal migration was 34,273, for a net gain of 41,718 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Among the regional interstate agreements to which Connecticut belongs are the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut Valley Flood Control Commission, Interstate Compact for Juveniles, Interstate Sanitation Commission (with New York and New Jersey), New England Board of Higher Education, New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, and the Northeastern Forest Fire Protection Compact. Boundary agreements are in effect with Massachusetts, New York, and Rhode Island. In fiscal year 2001, federal grants to Connecticut were almost $4.4 billion. Federal grants declined to $4.064 billion in fiscal year 2005, before gradually increasing to an estimated $4.302 billion in fiscal year 2006 and an estimated $4.368 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Connecticut has had a strong economy since the early 19th century, when the state, unable to support its population by farming, turned to a variety of nonagricultural pursuits. Shipbuilding and whaling were major industries in the 1840s and 1850s. New London ranked behind only New Bedford and Nantucket, Massachusetts, among US whaling ports. Connecticut has also been a leader of the insurance industry since the 1790s.

Because defense production has traditionally been important to the state, the economy fluctuates with the rise and fall of international tensions. Connecticut's unemployment rate stood at 8.7% in 1949, dropped to 3.5% in 1951 during the Korean conflict, and rose sharply after the war to 8.3% in 1958. From 1966 to 1968, during the Vietnam War, unemployment averaged between 3.1% and 3.7%, but the rate subsequently rose to 9.5% in 1976. In 1984, in the midst of the Reagan administration's military buildup, Connecticut's unemployment rate dropped below 5%, becoming the lowest in the country. Connecticut lessened its dependence on the defense sector somewhat by attracting nonmilitary domestic and international firms to the state during the 1980s and 1990s. In 1984, more than 250 international companies employed more than 30,000 workers in the state. Connecticut was a leader in the manufacture of aircraft engines and parts, bearings, hardware, submarines, helicopters, typewriters, electronic instrumentation, electrical equipment, guns and ammunition, and optical instruments. Despite its dependence on military contracts, between 1984 and 1991 manufacturing employment declined 22.4%, while nonmanufacturing jobs rose by 11.6%. Nevertheless, the state was hard hit by cuts in military spending in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, defense-related prime contract awards had dropped 37.7% from the 1990 level. Pratt and Whitney, the jet engine maker, and General Dynamics' Electric Boat division, manufacturer of submarines, announced in 1992 that they would lay off a total of 16,400 workers over the following six years. In 1992, an estimated 70% of manufacturing was defense related, either through direct federal contracts, subcontracts with other companies, or in the manufacturing of basic metals used for weaponry. In 1993, unemployment stood at 7.3%. During the prosperous 1990s, unemployment fell steadily, and had reached 3% by 1999, although the ratio of manufacturing jobs continued to decline (overall, from nearly 50% in 1950 to 20% in 1999). Gross state product (GSP) grew at annual rates of 5.7% in 1998, and 4.4% in 1999, and then soared to 8.7% in 2000. During the national recession of 2001, growth slowed abruptly to 2.6%, as unemployment began to rise again. The downturn continued into 2002, as unemployment rose from 3.5% in June to 4.4% in November 2002.

In 2004, Connecticut's GSP totaled $185.802 billion, of which the real estate sector accounted for $24.370 billion, or 13% of GSP, followed by manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) at $22.653 billion (12.2% of GSP) and professional and technical services at $13.896 billion (7.4% of GSP). In that same year, there were 322,805 small businesses in the state. Of the 97,311 firms in Connecticut that had employees, a total of 94,723 or 97.3% were small companies. In that same year, a total of 9,064 new businesses were formed in the state, up 6.6% from the previous year. Business terminations that year however, totaled 11,018, a drop of 0.2% from the year before. Business bankruptcies in 2004 totaled 132, down 29.4% from 2003. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 348 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Connecticut 45th in the United States.

INCOME

In 2005, Connecticut had a gross state product (GSP) of $194 billion, which accounted for 1.6% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state 23rd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Connecticut had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $45,318. This ranked second in the United States and was 137% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.3%. Connecticut had a total personal income (TPI) of $158,565,559,000, which ranked 23rd in the United States and reflected an increase of 6.5% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 4.9%. Earnings of persons employed in Connecticut increased from $115,256,181,000 in 2003 to $123,120,209,000 in 2004, an increase of 6.8%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 200204 in 2004 dollars was $55,970, compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 8.8% of the population was below the poverty line, as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Connecticut numbered 1,830,800, with approximately 71,900 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.9%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 1,674,400. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Connecticut was 10% in January 1976. The historical low was 2.1% in November 2000. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 3.8% of the labor force was employed in construction; 11.5% in manufacturing; 18.6% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 8.6% in financial activities; 12.1% in professional and business services; 16.4% in education and health services; 7.9% in leisure and hospitality services; and 14.6% in government.

During the early 20th century, Connecticut was consistently antiunion and was one of the leading open-shop states in the northeastern United States. But great strides were made by organized labor in the 1930s with the support of New Deal legislation recognizing union bargaining rights. All workforce services, including recruiting, training, workplace regulation, labor market information, and unemployment insurance, are offered through a statewide partnership of Connecticut's Department of Labor, Regional Workforce Development Boards, and state and community organizations.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 247,000 of Connecticut's 1,550,000 em-ployed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 15.9% of those so employed, up from 15.3% in 2004, and above the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 263,000 workers (17%) in Connecticut were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Connecticut is one of 28 states that does not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Connecticut had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $7.40 per hour, which was scheduled to increase to $7.65 per hour on 1 January 2007. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.4% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is no longer of much economic importance in Connecticut. The number of farms declined from 22,241 in 1945 to 4,200 in 2004, covering a total of 360,000 acres (145,700 hectares).

Cash receipts from crop sales in 2005 were $358 million. Tobacco production was 3,889,000 lb. (1,768,000 kg) in 2004. Other principal crops are hay, silage, potatoes, sweet corn, tomatoes, apples, and peaches.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

There were an estimated 56,000 cattle and calves on Connecticut farms in 2005. Their estimated value was $59.9 million. In 2004, there were an estimated 4,200 hogs and pigs, valued at $546,000. During 2003, Connecticut dairy farmers produced an estimated 413 million lb (187.7 million kg) of milk. Also during 2003, poultry farmers produced an estimated 3 million lb. (1.4 million kg) of chicken and received $165,000 for 135,000 lb (46,000 kg) of turkey. Connecticut produced an estimated 795,000 eggs in 2003 at an estimated value of $44.1 million.

FISHING

Commercial fishing does not play a major role in the economy. In 2004, the value of commercial landings was $37.8 million for a catch of 21.1 million lb (9.6 million kg). In 2003, the state had only 23 processing and wholesale plants, with a total of about 237 employees. In 2001, the commercial fishing fleet had about 425 boats and vessels.

Several programs have been instituted throughout the years to restore the Atlantic salmon and trout populations on the Connecticut River. Connecticut had 148,125 sport-fishing license holders in 2004.

FORESTRY

By the early 20th century, the forests that covered 95% of Connecticut in the 1630s were generally destroyed. Woodland recovery has been stimulated since the 1930s by an energetic reforestation program. Of the state's 1,859,000 acres (752,337 hectares) of forestland in 2004, more than half was wooded with new growth. Lumber production in 2004 totaled 48 million board ft.

State forests covered some 298,000 acres (121,000 hectares) in 2004.

MINING

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Connecticut in 2004 was valued by the US Geological Survey at around $131 million. Crushed stone (10 million metric tons, worth $75.7 million) and construction sand and gravel (8.33 million metric tons, valued at $55.6 million), were the state's two leading nonfuel mineral commodities (by value), and accounted for nearly all production (by volume and value). Other commodities produced included common clays and dimension stone. Overall, nonfuel mineral production in 2004 fell 1.5% from 2003.

Demand for virtually all of the state's mineral output is dependent on a healthy construction industry, the main consumer of aggregates.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Connecticut had 17 electrical power service providers, of which 7 were publicly owned and 3 were investor owned. Five sold only energy but did not provide delivery services, while two provided only delivery services. As of that same year there were 1,559,260 retail customers. Of that total, 1,467,971 received their power from investor-owned service providers, while publicly owned providers had 68,616 customers. There were 22,673 generation-only customers. There was no data on delivery-only customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 7.573 million kW, with total production that same year at 29.545 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, only 2.8% came from electric utilities, with the remainder, 97.2%, coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 16.078 billion kWh (54.4%), came from nuclear plants, with natural gas plants in second place at 5.061 billion kWh (17.1%) and coal-fired plants in third at 4.200 billion kWh (14.2%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 5.3% of all power generated, with petroleum-fired plants at 7%. Hydroelectric plants account for 1.9% of power generated.

As of 2006, Connecticut had one nuclear power generating facility, the Millstone plant in Waterford, which was operated by Dominion Generation.

Two of the four Northeast Heating Oil Reserves established by Congress in 2000 are located in Connecticut; their combined capacities total 850 thousand barrels.

Having no petroleum or gas resources of its own, nor any refineries. Connecticut must rely primarily on imported oil from Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, and other countries. Most of the natural gas used in Connecticut is piped in from Texas and Louisiana.

INDUSTRY

Connecticut is one of the most industrialized states, and it has recently diversified toward a broader economic portfolio. Six diverse industry clusters drive the state's economy: aerospace and advanced manufacturing; communications, information, and education; financial services; health and biomedical; business services; and tourism and entertainment.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Connecticut's manufacturing sector cov-ered some 17 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $45.105 billion. Of that total, transportation equipment manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $10.445 billion. It was followed by chemical manufacturing at $7.956 billion; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $5.128 billion; computer and electronic product manufacturing at $3.494 billion; and machinery manufacturing at $3.430 billion.

In 2004, a total of 191,909 people in Connecticut were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 111,290 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the transportation equipment manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees with 44,885, with 19,894 actual production workers. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing with 33,460 (23,744 actual production workers); machinery manufacturing, with 17,553 (9,040 actual production workers); computer and electronic equipment manufacturing, with 16,722 (7,978 actual production workers); and miscellaneous manufacturing, with 12,877 (7,863 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Connecticut's manufacturing sector paid $9.362 billion in wages. Of that amount, the transportation equipment manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $2.786 billion. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing at $1.467 billion; machinery manufacturing at $926.567 million; computer and electronic product manufacturing at $921.795 million; and chemical manufacturing at $665.310 million.

COMMERCE

Considering its small size, Connecticut is a busy commercial state. According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Connecticut's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $86.9 billion from 4,785 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 2,909 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1,491 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 385 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $24.8 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $53.3 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $8.7 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Connecticut was listed as having 13,861 retail establishments with sales of $41.9 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: food and beverage stores (2,101); clothing and clothing accessories stores (1,945); miscellaneous store retailers (1,470); and motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,381). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $10.1 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $7.2 billion; general merchandise stores at $4.1 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers $3.7 billion. A total of 191,807 people were employed by the retail sector in Connecticut that year.

The estimated value of Connecticut's goods exported abroad was $9.6 billion in 2005. Shipments of transport equipment, non-electrical machinery, electric and electronic equipment, and instruments accounted for most of the state's foreign sales. Tobacco is the major agricultural export. Foreign exports go primarily to Canada and France.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Since 1959, the Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection has been protecting consumers from injury by product use or merchandising deceit. The department conducts regular inspections of wholesale and retail food establishments, drug-related establishments, liquor retailers, bedding and upholstery dealers and manufacturers, and commercial establishments that use weighing and measuring devices. The department conducts investigations into alleged fraudulent activities, provides information and referral services to consumers, and responds to their complaints. It also licenses most professional and occupational trades and registers home improvement contractors. The Lemon Law Arbitration program and consumer guarantee funds in the areas of home improvement, real estate, and health clubs have returned millions of dollars to aggrieved consumers.

The Department of Consumer Protection also works with the state's Office of the Attorney General, which acts as counsel to the Department and represents it through litigation before state and/or federal courts.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and in some cases criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; become involved in the administration of consumer protection and education programs, and handle consumer complaints. However, the office has limited subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the attorney general can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; initiate criminal proceedings; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The state's Department of Consumer Protection is located in Hartford. In addition, the city of Middletown also has a Director of Consumer Protection.

BANKING

The first banks in Connecticut were established in Hartford, New Haven, Middletown, Bridgeport, Norwich, and New London between 1792 and 1805. By 1850, the state had 54 commercial and 15 savings banks. As of June 2005, the state had 58 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 43 state-chartered and 115 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford market area had 30 financial institutions in 2004, followed by the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk area at 26. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 9.3% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $6.542 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 90.7% or $64.030 billion in assets held.

Banking operations are regulated by the state Department of Banking. The National Graham-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed the conglomeration of banking, securities, and insurance services, was badly received by the Connecticut Banking Commissioner. The over-weighted savings sector in Connecticut discriminates against the movement of capital in securities markets.

Connecticut has a large percentage of thrifts and residential lenders. Two-thirds of insured institutions in the state are savings institutions. Residential real estate loans comprise around half of the average loan portfolio in Connecticut.

INSURANCE

Connecticut's preeminence in the insurance field and Hartford's title as "insurance capital" of the nation date from the late 18th century, when state businessmen agreed to bear a portion of a shipowner's financial risks in return for a share of the profits. Marine insurance companies were established in Hartford and major port cities between 1797 and 1805. The state's first insurance company had been formed in Norwich in 1795 to provide fire insurance. The nation's oldest fire insurance firm is Hartford Fire Insurance, active since 1810. Subsequently, Connecticut companies have been leaders in life, accident, casualty, automobile, and multiple-line insurance. The insurance industry is regulated by the state department of insurance.

In 2004 there were 1.8 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of $245.9 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was $383.9 billion. The average coverage amount is $134,300 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $856.5 million.

In 2003, there were 69 property and casualty and 32 life and health insurance companies domiciled in Connecticut. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $6.88 billion. That year, there were 30,291 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $5.36 billion. About $675 million of coverage was offered through FAIR (Fair Access to Insurance) plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas.

In 2004, 61% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 3% held individual policies, and 24% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 11% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 22% for single coverage and 23% for family coverage. The state offers a 18-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 2.3 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $20,000 per individual and $40,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $10,000. Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage are required as well. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $982.69, which ranked as the eighth-highest average in the nation.

SECURITIES

There are no securities or commodities exchanges in Connecticut. In 2005, there were 1,710 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 5,800 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 213 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 60 NASDAQ companies, 63 NYSE listings, and 20 AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had 13 Fortune 500 companies; General Electric (based in Fairfield) ranked first in the state and seventh in the nation with revenues of over $157 billion, followed by Untied Technologies (Hartford), Hartford Financial Services, International Paper (Stamford), and Aetna (Hartford). All five of these companies are traded on the NYSE.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The state budget is prepared biennially by the Budget and Financial Management Division of the Office of Policy and Management and submitted by the governor to the General Assembly for consideration. In odd-numbered years, the governor transmits a budget document setting forth his financial program for the ensuing biennium with a separate budget for each of the two fiscal years in the biennium. In the even-numbered years, the governor transmits a report on the status of the budget enacted in the previous year, with recommendations for adjustments and revisions. The budgets are submitted to the legislature in February, and the legislature is supposed to adopt a biennium budget in May or June before the beginning of the fiscal year starting 1 July.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $14.6 billion for resources and $14.0 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Connecticut were nearly $5.6 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Connecticut was slated to receive $2.3 million, out of $100 million, for emergency contingency funding which is targeted for areas with the greatest need.

TAXATION

In 2005, Connecticut collected $11,585 million in tax revenues or $3,300 per capita, which placed it fourth among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Sales taxes accounted for 28.2% of the total, selective sales taxes 16.1%, individual income taxes 43.4%, corporate income taxes 5.0%, and other taxes 7.3%.

As of 1 January 2006, Connecticut had two individual income tax brackets ranging from 3.0% to 5.0%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 7.5%.

In 2004, local property taxes amounted to $6,801,676,000 or $1,944 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state behind New Jersey with the second-highest per capita tax burden. Connecticut does not collect property taxes at the state level.

Connecticut taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 151 cents per pack, which ranks eighth among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Connecticut taxes gasoline at 25 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Connecticut citizens received $0.66 in federal spending, which ranks the state second-lowest nationally.

Connecticut-State Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 19,518,768 5,578.38
  General revenue 17,423,130 4,979.46
    Intergovernmental revenue 4,131,625 1,180.80
    Taxes 10,291,289 2,941.21
      General sales 3,127,221 893.75
      Selective sales 1,773,155 506.76
      License taxes 385,265 110.11
      Individual income tax 4,319,546 1,234.51
      Corporate income tax 379,822 108.55
      Other taxes 306,280 87.53
    Current charges 1,401,387 400.51
    Miscellaneous general revenue 1,598,829 456.94
  Utility revenue 23,149 6.62
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 2,072,489 592.31
Total expenditure 19,523,465 5,579.73
  Intergovernmental expenditure 3,396,810 970.79
  Direct expenditure 16,126,655 4,608.93
    Current operation 10,880,637 3,109.64
    Capital outlay 940,269 268.73
    Insurance benefits and repayments 2,620,234 748.85
    Assistance and subsidies 437,945 125.16
    Interest on debt 1,247,570 356.55
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 4,186,544 1,196.50
Total expenditure 19,523,465 5,579.73
  General expenditure 16,669,360 4,764.04
    Intergovernmental expenditure 3,396,810 970.79
    Direct expenditure 13,272,550 3,793.24
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 4,470,459 1,277.64
    Public welfare 4,417,465 1,262.49
    Hospitals 1,408,929 402.67
    Health 499,702 142.81
    Highways 862,082 246.38
    Police protection 170,905 48.84
    Correction 558,043 159.49
    Natural resources 96,389 27.55
    Parks and recreation 151,227 43.22
    Government administration 977,125 279.26
    Interest on general debt 1,247,570 356.55
    Other and unallocable 1,809,464 517.14
  Utility expenditure 233,871 66.84
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 2,620,234 748.85
Debt at end of fiscal year 22,574,585 6,451.72
Cash and security holdings 32,791,485 9,371.67

ECONOMIC POLICY

Connecticut's economic development programs are overseen by its Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD). An important task is administering federal grants made through the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program operating since 1974. Connecticut was the first state to establish Enterprise Zones (EZs), starting with six EZ's in 1982 and up to 17 in 2006. EZ's are areas with high rates of unemployment, poverty and/or public assistance that are granted stimulus packages of tax reductions and exemptions. In 1994, the state established the Community Economic Development Fund (CEDF) to help revitalize distressed neighborhoods by providing greater access to capital for small business and community development organizations. The CEDF provides loans, grants and technical assistance with the aim of supporting job creation and retention and community planning efforts. The state offers low-interest loans and grants for capital expenditures, machinery, land, building, training, and recruiting. Connecticut offers tax credits and abatements for machinery and equipment. Connecticut Innovations is the state's technology development corporation. The Connecticut Economic Resource Center, Inc., coordinates business-to-business marketing and recruitment on behalf of the state. Business recruitment missions have been sent to Europe and Japan to stimulate the state's export program. In 1998, the Governor's Council on Economic Compositeness and Technology was established composed of a collection of CEO's, industry representatives, educators, labor leaders, state commissioners, and legislators. The Governor's Council adopted an Industry Cluster approach to economic development, and has since identified six clusters for particular attention in Connecticut: Tourism (already a separate office), BioScience (since 1998); Aerospace; Software and Information Technology; and Metals Manufacturing (all identified in 1999); and the Maritime Industry (2001). In 2002, Connecticut became the first state to establish an Office of BioScience, located within the DECD. Industry Cluster program, administered by the DECD, is regularly monitored by the Governor's Council to assess progress within the clusters.

In 2006, the DECD's three core responsibilities were: economic development, housing development, and community development. Connecticut's Micro Loan Guarantee Program for Women and Minority Owned Businesses is a special loan guarantee program, offered in conjunction with the CEDF, that helps women- and minority-owned businesses obtain flexible financing. This is for the growth of startup as well as existing businesses. Connecticut also has an Industrial Parks Program, which provides planning and development services, assistance to renovate or demolish vacant industrial buildings, and technical assistance to help municipalities develop industrial parks. In 2006, Connecticut awarded 10 inner city entrepreneurial awards, to highlight and celebrate 10 of the fastest-growing, privately owned companies located in inner cities. In 2006, the US Chamber of Commerce ranked all 50 states on legal fairness towards business. The chamber found Connecticut to be one of five states with the best legal environment for business. The other four were Nebraska, Virginia, Iowa, and Delaware.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 5.4 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 12.3 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 21.1 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 88.7% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 88% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 8.4 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 254.7; cancer, 207; cerebrovascular diseases, 53.8; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 42; and diabetes, 19.5. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 5.4 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 18.4 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 51.4% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 18% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Connecticut had 34 community hospitals with about 7,200 beds. There were about 372,000 patient admissions that year and 6.8 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 5,600 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,684. Also in 2003, there were about 252 certified nursing facilities in the state with 31,248 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 91.6%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 80.6% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year; this was the highest dental care rate in the nation. Connecticut had 369 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 972 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there was a total of 2,653 dentists in the state.

Outstanding medical schools are those of Yale University and the University of Connecticut.

About 24% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 11% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $5.2 million.

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 128,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $284. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 204,146 persons (107,492 households); the average monthly benefit was about $91.11 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $223 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Connecticut's TANF program is called JOBS FIRST. In 2004, the state program had 43,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this program totaled $162 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 584,090 Connecticut residents. This number included 406,450 retired workers, 48,820 widows and widowers, 62,320 disabled workers, 24,820 spouses, and 41,680 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 16.7% of the total state population and 93.6% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $1,044; widows and widowers, $1,002; disabled workers, $932; and spouses, $537. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $592 per month; children of deceased workers, $721; and children of disabled workers, $282. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 51,536 Connecticut residents, averaging $404 a month.

HOUSING

In 2004, there were an estimated 1,414,433 housing units in Connecticut, 1,329,950 of which were occupied; 69.7% were owner-occupied. About 59.5% of all units were single-family, detached homes. It was estimated that about 22,730 units were without telephone service, 8,239 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 6,030 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Most households (47%) relied on fuel oil (such as kerosene) for heating. The average household had 2.55 members.

In 2004, the median value of a single-family detached home was $236,559. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,603 while the median monthly cost for renters was $811. The state authorized construction of about 11,800 new privately-owned units. In 2006, the state was awarded over $13.6 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

EDUCATION

Believing that the Bible was the only true source of God's truths, Connecticut's Puritan founders viewed literacy as a theological necessity. A law code in 1650 required a town of 50 families to hire a schoolmaster to teach reading and writing, and a town of 100 families to operate a school to prepare students for college. Despite such legislation, many communities in colonial Connecticut did not provide sufficient funding to operate first-rate schools. Public education was greatly strengthened in the 19th century by the work of Henry Barnard, who advocated free public schools, state supervision of common schools, and the establishment of schools for teacher training. By the late 1860s and early 1870s, all of Connecticut's public elementary and high schools were tuition free. In 1865, the Board of Education was established.

A characteristic of public-school financing in Connecticut has been high reliance on local support for education. Differences among towns in their wealth bases and taxation were compounded by the mechanism used to distribute a majority of state funds for public education, the flat-grant-per-pupil formula. After the Connecticut Supreme Court, in Horton v. Meskill (1978), declared this funding mechanism to be unconstitutional, the General Assembly in 1979 replaced it with an equity-based model in order to reduce the disparity among towns in expenses per pupil.

In 2004, 88.8% of Connecticut residents age 25 and older were high school graduates. Some 34.5% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher. As of fall 2002, Connecticut's public schools had a total enrollment of 570,000 students. Of these, 406,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 164,000 attended high school. Approximately 68.3% of the students were white, 13.6% were black, 14.6% were Hispanic, 3.2% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.3% were American Indian/Alaskan Native.

Total enrollment was estimated at 570,000 in fall 2003 and was expected to be 567,000 by fall 2014, a decrease of 0.6% during the period 2002 to 2014. In fall 2003, 74,430 students were enrolled in 361 private schools. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $6 billion or $10,788 per student, the fifth-highest among the 50 states. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005, eighth graders in Connecticut scored 281 out of 500 in mathematics, compared with the national average of 278.

Fall enrollment in college or graduate school was 170,606 in 2002; minority students comprised 21.6% of total postsecondary enrollment. As of 2005, Connecticut had 46 degree-granting institutions. Public institutions of higher education include the University of Connecticut at Storrs; four divisions of the Connecticut State University, at New Britain, New Haven, Danbury, and Willimantic; 12 regional community colleges; and 5 state technical colleges. Connecticut also has 23 private 4-year colleges and universities. Among the oldest institutions are Yale, founded in 1701 and settled in New Haven between 1717 and 1719; Trinity College (1823) in Hartford; and Wesleyan University (1831) in Middletown. Other private institutions include the University of Hartford, University of Bridgeport, Fairfield University, and Connecticut College in New London.

ARTS

The Connecticut Commission on the Arts was established in 1965 and was followed in 2003 by the Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism (CCT). The CCT includes divisions devoted to arts, films, historic preservation and museums, and tourism. It administers a state art collection and establishes policies for an art bank program. The Commission also partners with the New England Foundation for the Arts. The Connecticut Humanities Council was established in 1974. As of 2006, the Connecticut Humanities Council supported several reading and literacy programs including "Book Voyagers" for young people and "Literature for a Lifetime" for adult readers. In 2005, Connecticut arts organizations received 30 grants totaling $1,207,200 from the National Endowment for the Arts, and 23 grants totaling $1,520,581 through the National Endowment for the Humanities. State funds are also vital to both organizations.

Art museums in Connecticut include the Wadsworth Athenaeum in Hartford, the oldest (1842) free public art museum in the United States; the Yale University Art Gallery and the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven; the Lyman Allyn Museum of Connecticut College in New London, and the New Britain Museum of American Art.

The theater is vibrant in contemporary Connecticut, which has numerous dinner theaters and community theater groups, as well as many college and university theater groups. Professional theaters include the American Shakespeare Festival Theater in Stratford, the Long Wharf Theater and the Yale Repertory Theater in New Haven, the Hartford Stage Company, and the Eugene O'Neill Memorial Theater Center in Waterford.

The state's foremost metropolitan orchestras are the Hartford and New Haven symphonies. Professional opera is presented by the Stanford State Opera and by the Connecticut Opera in Hartford. Prominent dance groups include the Connecticut Dance Company in New Haven, the Hartford Ballet Company, and the Pilobolus Dance Theater in the town of Washington.

The annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas in New Haven has grown steadily since its inception in 1996 and now presents over 300 events throughout the month of June. The Sunken Garden Poetry Festival, presented every summer at the Hill Stead Museum in Farmington, reportedly draws about 1,500 to 3,000 people per reading event.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In 2001, Connecticut's 194 public library systems had 242 libraries, of which 48 were branches. In that same year, the public library systems held 14,109,000 volumes of books and serial publications, and had a combined circulation of 28,455,000. The system also had 531,000 audio and 519,000 video items, 20,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and seven bookmobiles. The leading public library is the Connecticut State Library (Hartford), which houses about 1,015,463 bound volumes and over 2,451 periodicals, as well as the official state historical museum. Connecticut's most distinguished academic collection is the Yale University library system (over 9 million volumes), headed by the Sterling Memorial Library and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Special depositories include the Hartford Seminary Foundation's impressive material on Christian-Muslim relations; the Connecticut Historical Society's especially strong collection of materials pertaining to state history and New England genealogy; the Trinity College Library's collection of church documents; the Indian Museum in Old Mystic; the maritime history collections in the Submarine Library at the US Navy submarine base in Groton; and the G. W. Blunt White Library at Mystic Seaport.

Total operating income for the public library system amounted to $146,593,000 in fiscal year 2001, including $272,000 in federal grants and $2,080,000 in state grants. In that same year, operating expenditures totaled $134,538,000, of which 68.2% was spent on staff and 13.6% on the collection.

Connecticut has more than 162 museums, in addition to its historic sites. The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale includes an impressive dinosaur hall. Botanical gardens include Harkness Memorial State Park in Waterford, Elizabeth Park in West Hartford, and Hamilton Park Rose Garden in Waterbury. Connecticut's historical sites include the Henry Whitfield House in Guilford (1639), said to be the oldest stone house in the United States; the Webb House in Wethersfield, where George Washington met with the Comte de Rochambeau in 1781 to plan military strategy against the British; Noah Webster's birthplace in West Hartford; and the Jonathan Trumbull House in Lebanon.

COMMUNICATIONS

As of 2004, 95.5% of the state's occupied housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 2,064,204 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 69.2% of Connecticut households had a computer and 62.9% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 684,597 high-speed lines in Connecticut, 641,329 residential and 43,268 for business.

In 2005, Connecticut had 18 AM and 33 FM major radio stations, and 5 major network television stations. There were educational television stations in Bridgeport, Hartford, and Norwich. In addition, the Hartford and New Haven metropolitan area had the highest cable penetration rate of any urban area, at 88% in 1999. A total of 109,775 domain names were registered in Connecticut by 2000.

PRESS

The Hartford Courant, founded in 1764, is generally considered to be the oldest US newspaper in continuous publication. The leading Connecticut dailies in 2005 were the Hartford Courant, with an average morning circulation of 204,664 (Sundays, 281,714), and the New Haven Register, with an average morning circulation of 92,089 (Sundays, 100,177). Statewide, in 2005 there were 14 morning newspapers, 3 evening newspapers, and 13 Sunday newspapers.

In 2005, there were 83 weekly publications in Connecticut. Of these there are 36 paid weeklies, 41 free weeklies, and 6 combined weeklies. The total circulation of paid weeklies (198,928) and free weeklies (810,901) is 1,009,828.

Leading periodicals are American Scientist, Greenwich Magazine, Connecticut Magazine, Fine Woodworking, Golf Digest, and Tennis.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 5,425 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 3,812 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

National organizations with headquarters in Connecticut included the Knights of Columbus (New Haven), the American Institute for Foreign Study (Greenwich), the International Association of Approved Basketball Officials (West Hartford), Keep America Beautiful (Stamford), and Save the Children Federation (Westport). The Academic Council on the United Nations System is housed at Yale University in New Haven.

State arts and educational organizations include the Connecticut Children's Musical Theatre, the Connecticut Educational Media Association, and the Connecticut Historical Commission. The National Theatre of the Deaf is based in West Hartford. The Company of Fifers and Drummers is based in Ivoryton. The International Wheelchair Road Racers Club, the United States Canoe Association, and the National Rowing Association are based in Connecticut.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Tourism has become an increasingly important part of the economy. The government invests over $2.5 million annually to market tourism products. Tourist spending reached $366 million in 2003. Connecticut focuses on metropolitan New York as the largest potential tourist pool. The tourism industry used television advertising to attract more tourists.

Popular tourist attractions include the Mystic Seaport restoration and its aquarium, the Mark Twain House (housing stained glass by Louis Comfort Tiffany) and state capitol in Hartford, the American Clock and Watch Museum in Bristol, the Lock Museum of America in Terryville, and the Yale campus in New Haven. Children of all ages can enjoy the Quassy Amusement Park on Lake Quassapaug. Outstanding events are the Harvard-Yale regatta held each June on the Thames River in New London, and about 50 fairs held in Guilford and other towns between June and October.

SPORTS

The Connecticut Sun became the state's first major league team when it joined the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) in 2003. The Sun won the Eastern conference championship in 2004 and 2005, but lost the WNBA Finals both times. (The team was formerly the Orlando Miracle.) Connecticut's only other major league professional team, the Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, moved to North Carolina following the 199697 season and became the Carolina Hurricanes. The New England Seawolves are members of the Arena Football League. New Haven has a minor league baseball franchise, the Ravens, as do Norwich and New Britain. There are also minor league hockey and basketball teams in the state. Auto racing takes place at Lime Rock Race Track, which is located in Salisbury.

The state licenses off-track betting facilities for horse racing (not actually held in the state) and pari-mutuel operations for greyhound racing and jai alai.

Connecticut schools, colleges, and universities provide amateur athletic competitions, highlighted by Ivy League football games at the Yale Bowl in New Haven. While Yale has won 13 Ivy League football titles, the University of Connecticut has become a force in men's and women's basketball. The Huskies' women's team won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship in 1995, 2000, back-to-back titles in 2002 and 2003, and in 2004. They have also advanced to two other Final Four tournaments. The men's team won the National Invitational Tournament in 1988 and has made over 30 NCAA Tournament appearances and won the national championship in 1999 and 2004. Other annual sporting events include the US Eastern Ski Jumping Championships in Salisbury in February and the Greater Hartford Open Golf Tournament in Cromwell in June and July.

FAMOUS CONNECTICUTERS

Connecticut lays claim to George W. Bush (1946 ), birthplace New Haven, as the the 43rd US president. John Moran Bailey (190475), chairman of the state Democratic Party (194675) and of the national party (196168), played a key role in presidential politics as a supporter of John F. Kennedy's successful 1960 campaign.

Two Connecticut natives have served as chief justice of the United States: Oliver Ellsworth (17451807) and Morrison R. Waite (181688). Associate justices include Henry Baldwin (17801844), William Strong (180895), and Stephen J. Field (181699). Other prominent federal officeholders were Oliver Wolcott (17601833), secretary of the treasury; Gideon Welles (180278), secretary of the navy; Dean Acheson (18931971), secretary of state; and Abraham A. Ribicoff (191098), secretary of health, education, and welfare.

An influential US senator was Orville H. Platt (18271905), known for his authorship of the Platt Amendment (1901), making Cuba a virtual protectorate of the United States. Also well known are Connecticut senator Abraham A. Ribicoff (served 196381) and former governor Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (b.France, 1931 and served 199195), the latter first brought to national attention while a US Senator by his work during the Watergate hearings in 1973.

Notable colonial and state governors include John Winthrop Jr. (b.England, 160676), Jonathan Trumbull (171085), William A. Buckingham (180475), Simeon Eben Baldwin (18401927), Marcus Holcomb (18441932),Wilbur L. Cross (18621948), Chester Bowles (190186), Ribicoff, and Ella Tambussi Grasso (191981), elected in 1974 and reelected in 1978 but forced to resign for health reasons at the end of 1980 (Grasso was the first woman governor in the United States who did not succeed her husband in the post).

In addition to Winthrop, the founding fathers of Connecticut were Thomas Hooker (b.England, 15861647), who was deeply involved in establishing and developing Connecticut Colony, and Theophilus Eaton (b.England, 15901658) and John Davenport (b.England, 15971670), cofounders and leaders of the strict Puritan colony of New Haven. Other famous historical figures are Israel Putnam (b.Massachusetts, 171890), Continental Army major general at the Battle of Bunker Hill, who supposedly admonished his troops not to fire "until you see the whites of their eyes"; diplomat Silas Deane (173789); and Benedict Arnold (17411801), known for his treasonous activity in the Revolutionary War but also remembered for his courage and skill at Ft. Ticonderoga and Saratoga.

Roger Sherman (b.Massachusetts, 172193), a signatory to the Articles of Association, Declaration of Independence (1776), Articles of Confederation (1777), Peace of Paris (1783), and the US Constitution (1787), was the only person to sign all these documents; at the Constitutional Convention, he proposed the "Connecticut Compromise," calling for a dual system of congressional representation. Connecticut's most revered Revolutionary War figure was Nathan Hale (175576), the Yale graduate who was executed for spying behind British lines. Radical abolitionist John Brown (18001859) was born in Torrington.

Connecticuters prominent in US cultural development include painter John Trumbull (17561843), son of Governor Trumbull, known for his canvases commemorating the American Revolution. Joel Barlow (17541812) was a poet and diplomat in the early national period. Lexicographer Noah Webster (17581843) compiled the American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). Frederick Law Olmsted (18221903), the first American landscape architect, planned New York City's Central Park. Harriet Beecher Stowe (181196) wrote one of the most widely read books in history, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens, b.Missouri, 18351910) was living in Hartford when he wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889).

Charles Ives (18741954), one of the nation's most distinguished composers, used his successful insurance business to finance his musical career and to help other musicians. Eugene O'Neill (b.New York, 18881953), the playwright who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1936, spent summers in New London during his early years. A seminal voice in modern poetry, Wallace Stevens (b.Pennsylvania, 18791955), wrote the great body of his work while employed as a Hartford insurance executive. James Merrill (b.New York, 192695), a poet whose works have won the National Book Award (1967), Bollingen Prize (1973), and numerous other honors, lived in Stonington.

Native Connecticuters important in the field of education include Eleazar Wheelock (171179), William Samuel Johnson (17271819), Emma Willard (17871870), and Henry Barnard (18111900). Shapers of US history include Jonathan Edwards (170358), a Congregationalist minister who sparked the 18th-century religious revival known as the Great Awakening; Samuel Seabury (172996), the first Episcopal bishop in the United States; Horace Bushnell (180276), said to be the father of the Sunday school; Lyman Beecher (17751863), a controversial figure in 19th-century American Protestantism who condemned slavery, intemperance, Roman Catholicism, and religious intolerance with equal fervor; and his son Henry Ward Beecher (181387), also a religious leader and abolitionist.

Among the premier inventors born in Connecticut were Abel Buel (17421824), who designed the first American submarine; Eli Whitney (17651825), inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in manufacturing; Charles Goodyear (180060), who devised a process for the vulcanization of rubber; Samuel Colt (181462), inventor of the six-shooter; Frank Sprague (18571934), who designed the first major electric trolley system in the United States; and Edwin H. Land (190991), inventor of the Polaroid Land Camera. The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was won by three Connecticuters: Edward Kendall (18861972) in 1949, John Enders (18971985) in 1954, and Barbara McClintock (190292) in 1983.

Other prominent Americans born in Connecticut include clock manufacturer Seth Thomas (17851859), circus impresario Phineas Taylor "P. T." Barnum (181091), jeweler Charles Lewis Tiffany (18121902), financier John Pierpont Morgan (18371913), pediatrician Benjamin Spock (190398), cartoonist Al Capp (190979), soprano Eileen Farrell (19202002), and consumer advocate Ralph Nader (b.1934). Leading actors and actresses are Ed Begley (190170), Katherine Hepburn (19092003), Rosalind Russell (191176), and Robert Mitchum (191797).

Walter Camp (18591925), athletic director of Yale University who helped formulate the rules of US football, was a native of Connecticut.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Basker, James G. (ed.). Early American Abolitionists: A Collection of Anti-Slavery Writings 17601820. New York: Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, 2005.

Boyle, Joseph Lee. Fire Cake and Water: The Connecticut Infantry at the Valley Forge Encampment. Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 1999.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. Women before the Bar: Gender, Law, and Society in Connecticut, 18391789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Den Ouden, Amy E. Beyond Conquest: Native Peoples and the Struggle for History in New England. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.

Dugger, Elizabeth L. Adventure Guide to Massachusetts and Western Connecticut. Edison, N.J.: Hunter, 1999.

Hamblen, Charles P. Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.

Hammerson, Geoffrey A. Connecticut Wildlife: Biodiversity, Natural History, and Conservation. Hanover: University Press of New England, 2004.

Menta, John. The Quinnipiac: Cultural Conflict in Southern New England. New Haven, Conn.: Peabody Museum of Natural History, 2003.

Rose, Gary L. Connecticut Politics at the Crossroads. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992.

Sletcher, Michael (ed.). New England. Vol. 4 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Steenburg, Nancy Hathaway. Children and the Criminal Law in Connecticut, 16351855: Changing Perceptions of Childhood. New York: Routledge, 2005.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Connecticut, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT

Geography

The state of Connecticut covers 5,006 square miles (the third smallest of America's states) and is located in the northeastern United States, with New York a long its western border, Massachusetts to the north, Rhode Island to the east, and the Long Island Sound along its southern coast. Across Long Island Sound is Long Island, part of which once belonged to Connecticut but was ceded to New York. In exchange for Long Island, Connecticut was able to keep its southwestern handle, which jutted into New York and in which the cities of Greenwich, Stamford, and Norwalk are found. This was no simple process. The first agreement in 1664 fell apart because of very bad surveying of the borders. In 1683, commissioners from New York and Connecticut again tried to settle their border dispute, agreeing to trade Connecticut's territory on Long Island for the panhandle, but Connecticut backed out because the borders were again badly drawn, costing it several towns. In 1684, the commissioners finally agreed on the trade of territory and on borders, but their governments continued to bicker over who had what territory.

In 1700, King William III of England confirmed the 1684 agreement as binding, but Connecticut and New York continued to bicker. In 1718, New York tried to restart the whole process, but Connecticut essentially ignored them; New York then declared itself satisfied with the 1684 agreement; in 1723, Connecticut appointed new commissioners to negotiate with New York's commissioners, which appointed new commissioners in 1725, and a new survey was begun but ran out of funding before it was complete. In 1731, it all began again, this time with

a complete survey, and then both sides decided to go with the 1684 agreement. Arguments over the border continued almost incessantly, although the trade of the panhandle for Connecticut's Long Island territory was considered official. In 1855, Connecticut restarted official inquiries because markers for the 1684 agreement's border had disappeared and the state's government thought it had been denied northern lands that should belong to it. Commissioners of New York and Connecticut redid the border survey in January 1856, trying to settle where an area called the "Oblong" was located, but the commissioners could not agree on what the survey had found. In 1859, new commissioners met in September in Port Chester, but did not agree on a border. In 1860, New York independently marked the border from the panhandle to Massachusetts as it saw fit. Connecticut complained about this until new commissioners were appointed by both states in 1878, who met in 1878 and 1879, finally agreeing on 5 December 1879 that the 1860 New York line was acceptable where it matched the 1731 line, about which there was still uncertainty because of lost markers. Eventually, both state legislatures ratified the 1860 (based on the 1731) border, and in 1881, the United States Congress confirmed the border. This did stop the states from continuing to bicker over the details for seemingly endless decades thereafter.

Connecticut is shaped in large part like a rectangle and its borders look as though they were planned, but in fact Connecticut owes its shape to about 150 years of wrangling with its neighbors from about 1633 to state-hood in 1776.

Connecticut is split north to south by the Connecticut River, which enters the state from Massachusetts to the north near the town of Enfield, flows south to Middletown, then shifts to a southeasterly direction, eventually flowing into Long Island Sound at the town of Old Saybrook. The Connecticut River is shallow at its mouth, limiting accessibility to ships, but the river itself has served as a highway for people since before the coming of European settlers. The Mohawks probably used it to raid Connecticut tribes just before English colonists arrived in Massachusetts.

Temperatures in Connecticut usually vary from July highs in the low 70s to January highs in the mid-20s. However, severe heat occasionally occurs, with 105 the record high on 22 July 1929 at Waterbury, and lows can be very low indeed, with 32 below zero being the record low, set on 16 February 1943 at Falls Village. Annually, rain and snow combine for about forty-eight inches of precipitation.

The banks of the Connecticut River have been appealing to farmers for their nutrient rich, smooth soil, although during the industrialization of the state, the adjacent land was turned over to mills and other factories that used the flowing water to generate power and to dump waste. The rest of Connecticut's soil is very rocky, and although farmers cleared native forests to create huge tracts of farmland, the rocky terrain makes agriculture a difficult proposition.

Geographers customarily divide Connecticut into four parts: the eastern hill country, the Connecticut River Valley, the western hill country, and the southern coast. Some geographers suggest that the southwestern handle be considered a separate region of Connecticut because of its dense population, starting with the city of Danbury in the north to Stratford in the southeast to Greenwich in the southwest.

The Connecticut River valley has been the center of commerce and political power since colonial times because the river made a good trade route and so the first colonial settlements were established near it. Rivers attracted population elsewhere in Connecticut, although to a lesser extent. The western hill country has always been less populated than other parts of Connecticut, although the city of Waterbury is located on the Naugatuck River. The eastern hill country is most heavily populated along the southern part of the Thames River, where the towns of Norwich and Ledyard are located. Much of the northern part of the eastern hill country has remained heavily forested since prehistoric times.

The Connecticut coast is sometimes referred to as the Gold Coast of Connecticut because of its many seaports and its attractive beaches. Since the late 1600s, Connecticut's ports have been a source of international trade, with Yankee traders sailing far and wide in search of markets and goods. The Connecticut River valley has been a rich source of manufactured goods since the early 1700s and many of them were shipped overseas.

Prehistory

Connecticut was covered by a glacier 11,000 years ago. When this glacier retreated, it scoured the land, leaving many indentations that became lakes and pools that total 146 square miles. A great forest grew after the retreat of the glacier; it became dense with several different species of trees and home to abundant wildlife.

There may be no way to tell when human beings first entered the region of Connecticut because some may have been there before or during the last ice age; if so, the glacier would have obliterated their remains as it retreated. It is likely that at least three waves of culturally diverse Native American groups passed through Connecticut as they explored the North American coastline. It is also possible that none of these groups were the direct ancestors of the Native Americans that colonists found when they began exploring the Connecticut River.

The Narragansetts were in eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island. It was a large, politically savvy, and well-organized tribe. In southeastern Connecticut were the Mohegans, and to their west the Pequots. The Mohegans and the Pequots were of the same cultural stock, but they were enemies at the time Europeans arrived. It is possible that a dispute over a sachem, a political leader similar to a chief, led to hostilities between the two tribes.

By 1630, the Pequots and Mohegans were drifting apart in their social organization. The Mohegans had a loose tribal organization in which individual villages looked after their own affairs and tended to be small and far apart. Each village had its own sachem, who selected an overall leader for negotiations with other tribes or for leading the Mohegans into war. The Pequots were more centrally organized, living in large stockades. In the early 1600s, the Mohegans stretched from southern Rhode Island into New York, but the Pequots migrated from the Hudson River valley into western Connecticut to the Connecticut River, displacing the Mohegans west of the river. Both the Mohegans and the Pequots were primarily farmers.

The Sequins (sometimes called the River People or Quinnipiacs) were also farmers who lived along the Connecticut River and had probably been in Connecticut longer than any other group of Native Americans. In addition to farming, the Sequins traded with the Narragansetts and other tribes that lived to the north in what is now Massachusetts. The Sequins gave Connecticut its name, because they called the river Quinnipiac (variously translated as "long tidal river," "long river," and "land along the long river"). The word "Quinnipiac" was transliterated into "Connecticut."

In the early 1600s, the Pequots and Mohegans stopped fighting one another when a new, bigger problem arose as the Mohawk tribe began raiding the tribes in Connecticut. The Mohawks were part of the Iroquoian Five Nations, a well-organized federation of powerful tribes. Their attacks on other Native Americans resulted in burned villages, lost crops, and dead villagers, including children. The Mohawks also captured people for slaves. It was at this time that the English began colonizing Connecticut.

Colonial Era

In 1614, Dutch explorer Adrian Block was shipwrecked on the New England coast. He and his sailors built another ship, but because it was too small for a sea voyage, Block decided to explore the coast. When he found the mouth of the Connecticut River, he sailed into it, eventually meeting the Sequins, who were friendly and willing to trade goods with the sailors.

Windsor, the first English colony in Connecticut, was established in 1633. It was intended to be a trading outpost. Wethersfield was established in 1634 and was populated by farmers and traders. In 1635, Thomas Hooker led about one hundred of his followers from Newtown, Massachusetts, to Hartford. Hooker and his followers were fleeing the oppressive Puritan colonies to the north, and hoped to create a freer society. In 1638 Hooker said, "The foundation of authority is laid, firstly, in the free consent of the people." On 14 January 1639, the Fundamental Orders—based on Hooker's ideas about freedom—were adopted. They were a set of rules that limited the scope of the government. Although not fully a constitution, the Fundamental Orders have earned Connecticut the nickname "the Constitution State."

The Pequot War was fought in 1637. The Pequots had always been hostile to the colonists and had killed explorers and traders, and during that year they tried to form alliances with the Narragansetts and other tribes to wage war against the colonists. Meanwhile, the Mohegans and Sequins had been friendly with immigrants from Massachusetts, encouraging their settlement to form a buffer between them and their more violent enemies. The efforts of the Pequots were alarming enough so that the colonists and Mohegans formed an alliance and attacked them. A force of about one hundred colonists and seventy Mohegans twice defeated the Pequots in battle, burning their largest stockade and nearly wiping them out

In 1665, the various villages established by colonists were united into the Connecticut colony. During the 1600s, large areas of forest were cleared to make way for farming. Farming on rocky soil, however, was very difficult, and by the 1720s Connecticut's people were leaving their farms for work in mills and factories. In 1702, Abraham Pierson established a "collegiate school" at Killing-worth (later called Clinton). In 1716 the college moved to New Haven; in 1718, it was named Yale College after Elihu Yale, a merchant who donated a small fortune to it.

In 1765, the Sons of Liberty was founded in Connecticut. The organization was at first intended to resist the Stamp Act of 1765 that taxed newspapers and other publications, but as dissatisfaction with Britain's treatment of its colonies grew, it became a resistance organization. By 1776, the only large community of pro-royalists, or Tories, was in Connecticut's southwestern region; otherwise, Connecticut almost entirely backed revolt against Britain. When war broke out, Connecticut contributed several thousand soldiers to the Continental army. No major battles were fought in Connecticut, but it was invaded four times, with British troops burning towns and killing civilians. In 1781, the British army captured about eighty American soldiers at Fort Griswold and massacred all of them.

Statehood

At the close of the American Revolution, in 1783, there was confusion among the states about matters such as trade, currency, and taxes. Connecticut enjoyed success as a manufacturing state and "Yankee peddlers" carried and sold Connecticut manufactured goods and imports in the other states. Connecticut itself had a decentralized government, with most political power resting in small communities. Only rich, landed men could vote. When the Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia to determine the future of the United States, Connecticut resisted the creation of a strong central government, but it was outvoted. The convention stalled on the type of legislature the new American government should have; one based on population would favor the states with bigger populations. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman presented the Connecticut Compromise, which proposed dividing the legislature into two parts: one elected by population, the other elected on the basis of two senators from each state regardless of population, thus ensuring a degree of security for small states. This approach having been adopted, Connecticut in 1788 became the fifth state to ratify the new Constitution.

In 1818, Connecticut overhauled its Fundamental Orders, expanding the right to vote beyond landed men and providing a stronger central state government. This constitution would govern Connecticut until 1965. The 1818 constitution gave the state's cities, towns, and villages one or two representatives each to the state's assembly, regardless of population. The state capitol moved between New Haven and Hartford for nearly sixty years. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court ruled Connecticut's constitution unconstitutional, and at a state constitutional convention, legislators created a constitution providing for one man-one vote representation.

During the 1840s, Connecticut received a large number of Irish immigrants who were integrated into the state's manufacturing economy. By the beginning of the Civil War, Connecticut was a major arms manufacturing center that contributed many weapons to the Union army. The state had been a hotbed of antislavery sentiment in the antebellum years, and during the war, it contributed more troops, mostly volunteers, to the Union cause than any state except Massachusetts. In 1875, Hartford was chosen as the permanent home of state government and the capitol building there was finished in 1880. Influxes of immigrants arrived from eastern Europe and Italy, with Italian Americans becoming the largest ethnic group in the state.

The era from 1880 to the Great Depression was one of expansion and social change. In 1865, the were 500,000 people living in Connecticut; by 1900, there were 1,000,000. In 1870, the gross state product was $160,000,000; in 1900, the gross state product was $300,000,000. Immigrants from Europe were drawn to Connecticut because of jobs in mills and the small arms industry. In 1917, a submarine base was established in Groton, and the manufacturing of submarines became one of the state's biggest employers. Nuclear submarines were still made there at the turn of the twenty-first century.

While this growth was underway, Connecticut farms were failing, with farm families abandoning their homes for jobs in the city. The western countryside of Connecticut looked desolate, with old roads passing by empty homes and overgrown farmland. Yet, in about 1900, Connecticut began to attract artists who enjoyed the privacy of Connecticut country life and wealthy New Yorkers and Bostonians who could pick up large swaths of land cheaply and turn them into estates. With the advent of the automobile, much of rural Connecticut became bedroom communities for people who worked in New York or Massachusetts and then commuted in their cars to homes away from the noise of the city.

Modern Era

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Connecticut suffered along with the rest of the nation. About one-fourth of the state's workers were unemployed and the areas of highest industrialization, especially in cities, were decaying. At this time, service industries such as insurance were becoming more important. During World War II, Connecticut's economy boomed as money for weapons poured in. The state was also a major manufacturer of submarines and aircraft engines. In 1954, the first nuclear submarine, the Nautilus, was launched at the shipyards in Groton.

A great disparity of wealth between the inner cities and the suburbs of Connecticut began during the 1980s and became acute in the 1970s as the state's middle class abandoned the central cities for the more secure and beautiful countryside.

Although African Americans made up only about 8 percent of the state's population, they were densely packed into cities. In 1967, a ferocious race riot in Hartford was followed by another in Bridgeport, the state's second and third largest cities—inspired by high unemployment among African Americans and a perception that African American needs were being neglected by the state and city governments. Afterward, efforts were made to revitalize city centers by making them tourist attractions and tourism became one of Connecticut's major sources of income.

During the 1990s the state's population declined, although many immigrants arrived from Southeast Asia. By the twenty-first century, the population was approximately 3.2 million people, the twenty-seventh largest state population in the United States. About 84 percent of the population was European American (exclusive of Hispanics), 8 percent African American, 6.5 percent Hispanic American, and 1.5 percent Asian American. Most of the population was centered in the cities, with agriculture accounting for only one percent of the state's revenue by 2001. Insurance and banking were the biggest employers, with employment in defense-related industries shrinking after the end of the Cold War. Even so, Connecticut was a major manufacturer of helicopters, aircraft engines, high technology electronics, and weapons. Growth in the financial and tourist industries in the 1990s began to change the state's economy, with people working in Connecticut while living in New York or Massachusetts. The per capita income in Connecticut is the highest of any state ($31,816 in 2000).

Much of the remaining original forest of Connecticut is in the northwest, but the forest has reasserted itself in many regions that had been cleared of trees by the 1800s. About one third of the state is covered by forest and the numerous state parks have become important attractions for campers and hikers, while the old towns have become attractions for tourists. The few descendants of the Pequots and Mohegans began operating casinos on their lands in the 1980s and 1990s, attracting tourists and pumping over $100 million in taxes annually to the state government.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, Thomas B. "Connecticut." National Geographic (February 1994): 64–93.

Brown, Barbara W., and James M. Rose. Black Roots in Southeastern Connecticut, 1650–1900. New London, Conn.: New London County Historical Society, 2001.

Dalin, David G., and Jonathan Rosenbaum. Making a Life, Building a Community: A History of the Jews of Hartford. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1997.

Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. Women before the Bar: Gender, Law, and Society in Connecticut, 1639–1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Dugas, Rene L., Sr. Taftville, Connecticut, and the Industrial Revolution: The French Canadians in New England. 2d ed. New London, Conn.: Rene L. Dugas, 2001.

Eisler, Kim Isaac. Revenge of the Pequots: How a Small American Tribe Created the World's Most Profitable Casino. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Grant, Ellsworth S. Miracle of Connecticut. Hartford: Connecticut Historical Society, 1997.

Grasso, Christopher. A Speaking Aristocracy: Transforming Public Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Connecticut. Chapel Hill: Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Hamblin, Charles P. Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg. Edited by Walter L. Powell. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.

Holbrook, Jay Mack. Connecticut Colonists: Windsor 1635–1703. Oxford, Mass.: Holbrook Research Institute, 1986.

Jones, Keith Marshal, III. Farms of Farmingville: A Two-Century History of Twenty-Three Ridgefield, Connecticut, Farmhouses and the People Who Gave Them Life. Ridgefield: Connecticut Colonel Publishing, 2001.

Klein, Woody. Westport, Connecticut: The Story of a New England Town's Rise to Prominence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2000.

Larkin, Susan G. The Cos Cob Art Colony: Impressionists on the Connecticut Shore. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Mann, Bruce H. Neighbors and Strangers: Law and Community in Early Connecticut. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Philie, William L. Change and Tradition: New Haven, Connecticut, 1780–1830. New York: Garland, 1990.

Selesky, Harold E. War and Society in Colonial Connecticut. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.

Siskind, Janet. Rum and Axes: The Rise of a Connecticut Merchant Family, 1795–1850. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Thomas, Peter A. In the Maelstrom of Change: The Indian Trade and Cultural Process in the Middle Connecticut River Valley, 1635–1665. New York: Garland, 1991.

Weaver, Glenn. Jonathan Trumbull, Connecticut's Merchant Magistrate: 1710–1785. Hartford: Connecticut Historical Society, 1997.

Wills, Charles A. A Historical Album of Connecticut. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook Press, 1995.

Kirk H.Beetz

See alsoPequot War ; Riots ; Sons of Liberty (American Revolution) ; Suburbanization ; Tribes: Northeastern ; Yale University .

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Connecticut (state, United States)

Connecticut (kənĕt´Ĭkət), southernmost of the New England states of the NE United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts (N), Rhode Island (E), Long Island Sound (S), and New York (W).

Facts and Figures

Area, 5,009 sq mi (12,973 sq km). Pop. (2010) 3,574,097, a 4.9% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Hartford. Largest city, Bridgeport. Statehood, Jan. 9, 1788 (5th of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution). Highest pt., Mt. Frissell, 2,380 ft (726 m); lowest pt., sea level. Nickname, Constitution State. Motto,Qui Transtulit Sustinet [He Who Transplanted Still Sustains]. State bird, American robin. State flower, mountain laurel. State tree, white oak. Abbr., Conn.; CT

Geography

Generally rectangular in shape, Connecticut extends c.90 mi (145 km) from east to west and c.55 mi (90 km) from north to south. The state is divided into two roughly equal sections, usually called the eastern highland and the western highland, which are separated by the Connecticut Valley lowland. The Connecticut River, which flows through only the northern half of this lowland, veers off to the southeast at Middletown in central Connecticut. In the south along Long Island Sound is a low, rolling coastal plain. The western highland, with the Taconic Mts. and the Litchfield Hills, is more rugged than the eastern highland. A few isolated peaks in the west are over 2,000 ft (610 m) high. The Thames and the rivers emptying into it drain the eastern highland, and the Housatonic, with its chief tributary, the Naugatuck, drains the western highland. The Connecticut shore is a popular summer resort area, and the protected waters of Long Island Sound lure boating enthusiasts. Bridgeport is the largest city, with Hartford, the capital, and New Haven next in size.

Economy

Though famed for its rural loveliness, Connecticut derives most of its wealth from industry. Textiles, silverware, sewing machines, and clocks and watches are among Connecticut's historic manufactures. The state's principal industries today produce jet engines and parts, electronics and electrical machinery, computer equipment, and helicopters. Much of Connecticut's manufacturing is for the military. Firearms and ammunition, first produced here at the time of the American Revolution, are still made, and Groton is still a center for submarine building. Declines in federal defense spending, however, have adversely affected the state's economy.

Agriculture accounts for only a small share of state income; dairy products, eggs, vegetables, tobacco, mushrooms, and apples are the leading farm items. High-grade broadleaf tobacco, used in making cigar wrappers, has been a specialty of Connecticut agriculture since the 1830s. Largely shade-grown in the Connecticut Valley, it remains a valuable crop. Many varieties of fish, as well as oysters, lobsters, and other shellfish, are caught in Long Island Sound, but the fishing industry is small and has been hampered by pollution of the waters. Stone, sand, and gravel account for most of the limited income derived from mining.

Insurance is important in Connecticut; the Hartford metropolitan area is one of the industry's world centers, with the home offices of many insurance companies. Financial, real estate, and service industries are also of major importance. The Foxwoods gambling casino and resort on the Mashantucket Pequot reservation has since its opening in 1992 become one of the largest employers in the state, and the nearby Mohegan Sun casino has joined it in attracting visitors to SE Connecticut.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Connecticut's state senate has 36 members and its house of representatives has 151; members of both houses are elected for two-year terms. The state executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a term of four years. In 1994, John G. Rowland, the state's first Republican chief executive in 24 years, was elected. He was reelected in 1998 and 2002 but resigned in 2004 as he faced impeachment proceedings over suspected corruption. (Rowland subsequently pleaded guilty to a federal charge of corruption.) Lt. Gov. M. Jodi Rell, also a Republican, succeeded Rowland, and she won election to the post in 2006. Dan Malloy, a Democrat, was elected governor in 2010 and reelected in 2014. Connecticut's counties have lost most of their governmental functions to the state's towns and cities. Connecticut is represented in the U.S. Congress by five representatives and two senators and has seven electoral votes.

Institutions of higher learning in Connecticut include Yale Univ., at New Haven; Trinity College, at Hartford; Wesleyan Univ., at Middletown; the Univ. of Connecticut, at Storrs; and the United States Coast Guard Academy and Connecticut College, at New London.

History

Dutch and English Exploration and Settlement

In 1614 the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block sailed through Long Island Sound and explored the Connecticut River. The Dutch built a small fort in 1633 on the site of present-day Hartford, but they abandoned it in 1654 as English settlers moved into the area in increasing numbers.

Edward Winslow of Plymouth Colony was apparently the first English colonist to visit (1632) Connecticut, and in 1633 members of the Plymouth Colony established a trading post on the site of Windsor. This small Pilgrim enterprise was soon absorbed by Puritan settlers from the Massachusetts Bay Company. These settlers had been attracted to the area by the excellent reports brought back by one of their members, John Oldham, in 1633. Oldham returned to the Connecticut area in 1634 and established still another trading post, which became Wethersfield. The following year Puritans flocked in great numbers to the Connecticut River Valley.

In 1636, Thomas Hooker and his congregation left Newtown and settled near the Dutch trading post that had been established on the site of Hartford. The Pequot people resisted white settlement, but they were defeated by the English in the short Pequot War of 1637. Relations remained relatively peaceful until King Philip's War in 1675–76. In 1638–39 representatives of the three Connecticut River towns—Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield—met at Hartford and formed the colony of Connecticut. They also adopted the Fundamental Orders, which established a government for the colony.

A second colony, Saybrook, had been established at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635 by an English group. The colony's founders (who included Viscount Saye and Sile and Baron Brooke, for whom the colony was named) sold the Saybrook settlement to Connecticut colony in 1644. Connecticut's population expanded gradually, and by 1662 the colony included over a dozen towns, including Saybrook, New London, Fairfield, and Norwalk, as well as East Hampton and Southampton on Long Island. Another Puritan settlement, New Haven, was established in 1638. It was not connected with Connecticut colony.

The New England Confederation

In 1643, New Haven and Connecticut colonies joined with Massachusetts Bay colony and Plymouth colony to form the New England Confederation, a loose union for mutual defense. In 1662, Connecticut sent its governor, John Winthrop (1606–76), to London to secure a royal charter for the colony. He obtained the charter, by which Connecticut won its legal right to exist as a corporate colony and also acquired New Haven.

The years from 1750 to 1776 saw much bitter disagreement between radicals and conservatives in the colony. In 1776, the patriot governor, Jonathan Trumbull, was reelected almost unanimously (Connecticut and Rhode Island were the only colonies privileged to elect their chief executives), and he was the only governor of any colony to be retained in office after the outbreak of the American Revolution. There was little fighting in Connecticut during the Revolution—skirmishes at Stonington (1775), Danbury (1777), New Haven (1779), and New London (1781)—even though the state was the principal supply area for the Continental Army.

After the war the state relinquished (1786) to the United States its claims to western land, except for the Western Reserve (an area in Ohio). This claim was retained until part of the land was given to Connecticut citizens in 1792 and the remainder sold in 1795. In 1799, Connecticut's long dispute with Pennsylvania over the Wyoming Valley was finally settled. Connecticut was one of the first states to approve the U.S. Constitution (see Constitutional Convention).

The Embargo Act of 1807, passed during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, was vehemently denounced throughout New England; the ports on Long Island Sound and on the Connecticut River had developed a lively carrying trade with which the embargo interfered. The War of 1812 was also so unpopular that New England Federalists, meeting at the Hartford Convention in late 1814, considered secession. In 1818 the Jeffersonians came into power in the state, and a new constitution, replacing the old charter of 1662, was adopted. It disestablished the Congregational Church and greatly extended the franchise, although universal manhood suffrage was not proclaimed until 1845.

Early Manufacturing

Meanwhile, after Connecticut's shipping industry had been ruined by the embargo and the war, the state turned to manufacturing. Artisans and craftsmen had become increasingly numerous in late colonial days, and from native iron ore Connecticut forges had produced guns for the Patriot soldiers. Modern mass production had its beginning in the state when Eli Whitney, probably the best known of Connecticut's inventors, established (1798) at New Haven a firearms factory that began making guns with standardized, interchangeable parts. Earlier, in 1793, he had invented and manufactured the cotton gin at New Haven. The manufacture of notions (buttons, pins, needles, metal goods, and clocks) gave rise to the enterprising "Yankee peddler," who, with horse and cart, traveled the nation hawking his wares. Connecticut's insurance industry also developed during this period, and in 1810 the Hartford Fire Insurance Company was established.

Wars and Industrial Expansion

Connecticut, which had placed limitations on slavery in 1784 and abolished it in 1848, supported the Union during the Civil War with nearly 60,000 troops. During and after the war, industry expanded greatly. Immigration provided a cheap labor supply as English, Scottish, and many Irish immigrants, who had arrived in large numbers even before the war, were followed by French Canadians and, in the late 19th and early 20th cent., by Italians, Poles, and others.

During World Wars I and II Connecticut prospered, providing munitions and other supplies for the war effort. Between the two wars, however, the Great Depression left many unemployed. Connecticut's industries continued to grow and develop in the years following World War II. In 1954 the world's first nuclear-powered submarine was launched at Groton, and guns, helicopters, and jet engines were among key manufactures of the cold war period.

During the 1970s, as manufacturing began to decline, Connecticut's heavy industry–dependent major cities fell into a state of decay. The growth of financial, insurance, real estate, and service industries, however, helped make Connecticut one of the wealthiest states in the nation; many of these business moved to the state from New York. This wealth has been enjoyed primarily by the state's affluent suburbs, while the central cities have further crumbled, as evidenced by Bridgeport's bankruptcy filing in 1991. The development of Native-American-owned casinos in SE Connecticut during the 1990s supplanted defense industries as the main economic engine in that region. In 2012 many of the state's coastal communities suffered significant flooding during Hurricane Sandy.

Bibliography

See R. J. Purcell, Connecticut in Transition: 1775–1818 (1963); R. L. Bushman, From Puritan to Yankee (1967); D. M. Roth, ed., Series in Connecticut History (5 vol., 1978); W. J. Haliburton, The People of Connecticut (1985); T. R. Lewis and J. E. Harmon, Connecticut: A Geography (1986); W. Hubbell, Connecticut (1989).

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT


A colony established by nononsense Puritans and pushed forward by socalled "Yankee ingenuity," Connecticut has become an economic success story. Before the middle of the nineteenth century the state was well on its way to becoming an industrial powerhouse. Despite occasional downturns, changes in its population base, and fluctuations in its industrial character over a period of years, the state remains one the wealthiest in the United States.

Early Dutch settlers in Connecticut were dislodged by the large migration of English Puritans who came to the colony between 1630 and 1642. The Puritans established settlements all along the Connecticut River and formed a colony in 1639. After several years of friendly relations with the English, the situation deteriorated, and by 1770 the Native Americans of Connecticut had been largely driven out. Connecticut received legal recognition as a colony in 1662 and after it had a number of years of bitter border disputes with Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and Pennsylvania. A relatively autonomous colony, Connecticut was a strong supporter of the American Revolution (177581). During the war Connecticut was known as the Provisions State because it supplied so much food to General George Washington's army. Connecticut ratified the new U.S. Constitution in 1788.

By the midnineteenth century Connecticut was unable to support itself through farming alone. Several important industries developed, including shipbuilding and whaling. In whaling ports the city of New London ranked behind only Nantucket and New Bedford in Massachusetts. The state has also led the insurance industry since the 1790s.

The inventiveness of early Connecticut manufacturers was a boon to the small state. Eli Whitney invented his famous cotton gin there and developed a system of interchangeable parts for rifles. Charles Goodyear developed a vulcanizing process for rubber, which later gave rise to the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. Linus Yale and his son created locks that still bear their name. Samuel Colt produced the rifles which had such an important effect on the winning of the American Civil War (186165), and Elias Howe invented the sewing machine. Clockmakers, like Eli Terry and Seth Thomas, made Connecticut a leader in clock and watch making.

Known as a conservative state, Connecticut was rather slow to develop railroads. They did not appear until the 1840s. After some opposition from turnpike and steamboat companies, the first railroad connected Hartford and New Haven, and later Northhampton, Massachusetts. By the 1850s a number of routes connected Hartford with other eastern Connecticut cities. The most important Connecticut railroad was the New York, New Haven, and Hartford.

This network of railroads, along with a healthy industrial base, made Connecticut an important contributor to the Union cause during the Civil War. A longtime antislavery state, Connecticut sent some 55,000 men to fight and provided large amounts of war materials. Gun manufacturers, such as Colt and Winchester, along with manufacturers of textiles, brass, and rubber, sent muchneeded supplies to the war front. The war consolidated Connecticut's place as an industrially strong state. This development was made possible not only by the presence of railroads, but by abundant water power, sufficient capital from the many banks and insurance companies, and the technological and marketing skills of Connecticut's citizens.

Around the turn of the century Connecticut was an important producer of products like electrical fixtures, machine tools, hardware, hats, and typewriters. Connecticut produced $50 million in textiles (ranking it sixth in the nation in 1900), and it was soon putting out fourfifths of the U.S. supply of ammunition and onefifth of its firearms (not including governmental production). In addition to the increased urbanization brought on by industry, population patterns began to change as well. By 1910 the foreignborn, attracted by the prospect of employment, made up 30 percent of the population. Most came from Ireland, Italy, Germany, and Austria.

During World War I (191418) Connecticut supplied not only men but also substantial monetary contributions and war materiel. Liberty Loan drives in the state netted $437 million, more than any other state collected. The firearms produced in Connecticut, among them Enfield and Browning rifles, were invaluable to the war effort. Other warrelated products produced in the state included silk for parachutes, woven articles, and military hats.

Except for a brief recession just after the war, Connecticut's economy continued to boom in the 1920s. Factories churned out specialty parts for airplanes, automobiles, and the electric power industry. Hartford's Pratt and Whitney Company made the state a leader in the aviation industry, increasing the number of employees to over 2,000 by 1935. At the same time the textile industry in eastern Connecticut was declining, as more and more factories moved to the lowwage southern states.

The Great Depression of the 1930s brought hard times to the state, with thousands jobless and local and state governments struggling to find operating funds. In 1930 in Bridgeport, for example, 22,000 people applied for relief, and the city had to borrow $500,000 to pay for jobless benefits. This desperation led the state's voters to elect a Democratic governor for the first time in years. Connecticut then began to take advantage of the many federal work relief programs provided by the federal government under President Franklin D. Roosevelt (193345). According to historian David M. Roth, "Out of the misery of the Depression there came a progressive political tide such as had never been experienced in the state, a tide that enabled Connecticut not only to weather the Depression but to emerge as a far more liberal society than it had ever been before."

The renewed manufacturing activity brought by World War II (193945), however, was the real catalyst to economic revitalization. Defense contracts in Connecticut totaled $8 billion by 1945, and industrial employment increased by 200,000 between 1939 and 1944. Major products sent to the war front from Connecticut included submarines, Navy Corsair fighter aircraft, helicopters, ball bearings, and small arms.

After the war the state retained its economic health by diversifying its industrial base and relying more on the service industry. Urban problems began to plague the state in the 1950s as more and more middleclass whites fled to the suburbs, leaving ethnic minorities and the poor in the central part of cities like Hartford, New Haven, and Bridgeport. Housing in particular remained a problem in these areas. In addition, because Connecticut repeatedly rejected a state income tax, the state's taxes were among the highest in the nation.

During the 1980s, however, Connecticut boasted the highest per capita income in the United States, based largely on the expansion of defense contracts. This optimistic trend was threatened, however, when the Cold War began to defuse in the late 1980s, and manufacturing employment dropped by 25 percent. In 1991 defenserelated contracts had dropped 37.7 percent from the year before. Pratt and Whitney and General Dynamics's Electric Boat Division announced major layoffs in 1992. Though service sector jobs increased by 23 percent, the total number of jobs in the state had dropped by 10 percent in 1992. Strapped for funds, the state passed a controversial personal income tax in 1991.

In the early 1990s the wide discrepancy between the standards of living of white suburbanites and inner city, ethnic populations was quite evident in Connecticut. Governor Lowell L. Weicker (199094) attempted to alleviate this situation by channeling more funds to urban communities. The employment outlook in the state had improved by the mid-1990s. By 1996 the state again ranked first in per capita income, at $33,189, and less than 10 percent of the population fell below the federal poverty level. To encourage business the state offers a number of tax incentives and it has begun to reduce its high corporate tax rate.

FURTHER READING


Bingham, Harold J. History of Connecticut, 4 vols. New York: Lewis, 1962.

Connecticut Secretary of State. Register and Manual, 1999. Hartford, CT: State of Connecticut, 1999.

Janick, Herbert F. A Diverse People: Connecticut, 1914 to the Present. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1975.

Roth, David M. Connecticut: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1979.

Van Dusen, Albert E. Connecticut. New York: Random House, 1961.

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT


Bridgeport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Danbury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Hartford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

New Haven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Stamford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Waterbury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

The State in Brief

Nickname: Constitution State, Nutmeg State

Motto: Qui Transtulit Sustinet (He who transplanted still sustains)

Flower: Mountain laurel

Bird: American Robin

Area: 5,543 square miles (2000, U.S. rank: 48th)

Elevation: Ranges from sea level to 2,380 feet

Climate: Moderate with winters averaging slightly below freezing and warm, humid summers

Admitted to Union: January 9, 1788

Capital: Hartford

Head Official: Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 3,108,000

1990: 3,287,116

2000: 3,405,565

2004 estimate: 3,503,604

Percent change, 19902000: 3.6%

U.S. rank in 2004: 29th

Percent of residents born in state: 57% (2000)

Density: 702.9 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 103,719

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 2,780,355

Black or African American: 309,843

American Indian and Alaska Native: 9,639

Asian: 82,313

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 1,366

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 320,323

Other: 147,201

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 223,344

Population 5 to 19 years old: 702,358

Percent of population 65 years and over: 13.8%

Median age: 37.4 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 43,236

Total number of deaths (2003): 29,329 (infant deaths, 222)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 6,989

Economy

Major industries: Services, agriculture, manufacturing, trade, government

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (April 2005)

Per capita income: $43,292 (2003; U.S. rank: 2nd)

Median household income: $55,004 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 7.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 3.0% to 5.0% tax on adjusted gross income (2000)

Sales tax rate: 6.0% on most items

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Connecticut (river, United States)

Connecticut, longest river in New England, 407 mi (655 km) long, rising in the Connecticut Lakes, N N.H., near the Quebec border, and flowing S along the Vt.-N.H. line, then across Mass. and Conn. to enter Long Island Sound at Old Saybrook, Conn.; drains c.11,000 sq mi (28,500 sq km). Holyoke Falls, at 57 ft (17 m), is the highest of many falls and rapids. The river is navigable to Hartford, Conn. The Connecticut Valley is one of the best agricultural regions in New England. World-famous cigar binder and wrapper tobacco are grown in the lower part of the valley; truck farming and dairying are also important. The Connecticut's water power led to the rise of industrial cities along the river in the 19th cent., and the valley became a manufacturing region; large centers include Holyoke and Springfield, Mass., and Windsor, Conn. Several hydroelectric and nuclear facilities also lie along the river. After severe 1953 floods, the Connecticut River Flood Control Compact was established to sponsor flood-control measures on the river.

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Connecticut

Connecticut State in ne USA; its state capital and largest city is Hartford. One of the original 13 colonies, Connecticut was first settled by the English in the 1630s. Puritans flocked to the area, and in 1662 the colony received a charter from Charles II. Connecticut was one of the first states to ratify the US Constitution and was admitted to the union in 1788. The Connecticut River valley separates the w and e highlands. Manufacturing is the mainstay of the state economy. Industries: transport equipment, machinery, chemicals, metallurgy. Hartford is one of the world's leading insurance centres. Dairy produce, eggs and tobacco are the main farm products. Fishing is also important. Area: 12,549sq km (4845sq mi). Pop. (2000) 3,405,565.

Statehood :

January 9, 1788

Nickname :

Constitution State

State bird :

Robin

State flower :

Mountain laurel

State tree :

White oak

State motto :

He who transplanted still sustains

http://www.ct.gov

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Connecticut

Connecticutbraggart, faggot (US fagot), maggot •legate •bigot, gigot, Piggott, spigot •ingot • profligate • aggregate • yogurt •conjugate • abrogate • surrogate •ergot, virgate •Bagehot • patriarchate • wainscot •Sickert • predicate • syndicate •certificate, pontificate •Calicut • delicate • silicate • triplicate •duplicate, quadruplicate •intricate • Connecticut • Alcott •ducat • advocate •ballot, palate •charlotte, harlot •appellate, Helot, prelate, zealot •flagellate • distillate •Pilate, pilot •copilot • gyropilot • autopilot •triangulate •ejaculate, immaculate •amulet • spatulate •articulate, denticulate •consulate, proconsulate •postulate • ungulate •inviolate, ultraviolet •chocolate • cardinalate • desolate •isolate • disconsolate • Merlot

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT

CONNECTICUT , one of the six New England states located in the N.E. section of the United States. The earliest reference to a Jew in Connecticut is found in connection with an entry on November 9, 1659, in the General Court in *Hartford, of one named "David the Jew" who was arrested for peddling. Shortly thereafter, in 1661, reference is made to Jews living in Hartford in the house of one John Marsh, and the extension of permission to continue to live in "ye Town for sea[v]en months."

Little or nothing is known of the first Jewish settlers and settlements in Connecticut prior to the latter part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Jews were settled in *New Haven as early as 1759 where a family named Pinto – the brothers Jacob, Solomon, and Abraham – were living in that year. Ezra *Stiles, president of Yale College at the time, referred to these Pinto brothers as "men who renounced Judaism and all religion"; but he also refers to a new Jewish family (unnamed), who settled in New Haven in 1771 and describes them as the "first real Jews… that settled in New Haven." He says that there were about eight or ten members in this new family and reports a Sabbath service held "by themselves" as being probably "the first Jewish worship in New Haven." Despite the seeming apostasy of the Pinto brothers, they were active patriots of the community. Jacob Pinto was reported a member of an important New Haven committee of patriots in 1775. Solomon served in the U.S. Army until he retired in 1783. Solomon was one of the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut, which was a short-lived group of aristocratic veteran officers of the Revolutionary War. Another brother, Abraham, also served.

There is very meager information about organized Jewish communities in Connecticut prior to the 19th century. Part of that may be due to the fact that no Jewish congregations were permitted to incorporate prior to 1843, when the Statutes were amended by the addition of the following: "Jews who may desire to unite and form religious societies may have the same rights, powers, and privileges as are given to Christians of every denomination by the laws of the State" (Revised Statutes of Connecticut, 1849, Title iii, Section 149). There is no doubt, however, that groups of Jews lived in the state who would assemble for worship even without statutory permission. The first Jewish congregations on record are the Beth Israel of Hartford and Mishkan Israel of New Haven. Beth Israel in Hartford was organized in 1843, but there is reason to believe that they held services as early as 1839. Mishkan Israel, in New Haven, assembled for worship as early as December 1840. By reason of population movement to the suburbs, The

Congregation Beth Israel of Hartford (its corporate name) was located in the late 1960s in the town of West Hartford, and Mishkan Israel Congregation was located in the town of Hamden.

The Jewish population of Connecticut grew with the in-flux of Jews from overseas. Thus, it is estimated that in 1877 there were 1,492 Jews in Connecticut; in 1905, 8,500; in 1917, 66,862; in 1927, 91,538; and in 1937, 94,080. In 1969 it was estimated that the Jewish population of Connecticut was approximately 105,000. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were more than 125,000 Jews residing in the state. Out of 50 states in the U.S., Connecticut was ranked 10th highest for Jewish population.

The largest growth was in the Southern part of Connecticut, considered suburbs of New York City, mostly around the Westport and Greenwich areas. It is axiomatic that the closer to New York Connecticut residents live, the more they see themselves as part of the New York community though they affiliate locally with congregations, institutions, and organizations.

According to the Jewish Federation of the Western Communities of Connecticut, the most recent growth trend has been an increase of Jewish population in the western part of Connecticut, around Litchfield Co. The increase is better than 10%. The town of Waterbury, in western Connecticut, saw especially large growth in the Orthodox community after Ye-shiva Gedolah opened its doors in 2000. In five years, membership grew to include 75 families and 175 students. Students come from all over the U.S. and the world. Yeshiva Gedolah anticipated membership growth of well over 30% in 2006. National grocery chains in the area responded by stocking kosher items for their new clientele.

The largest Jewish population in Connecticut was in Greater Hartford with 34,000 Jews. In the early 1900s, Hartford saw an influx of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and at one point during the 20th century Hartford had at least 13 synagogues in the city. After World War ii, Jews moved from Hartford to the suburbs and subsequently no synagogues remained in downtown Hartford. The second largest Jewish community is in Greater New Haven.

In the past, business was the major source of Jewish livelihood. Jews then moved into the professions as lawyers, doctors, and academics, and into real estate, mostly commercial. Two major real estate developers are both Holocaust survivors, David Chase and Simon Konover, with statewide and national developments.

Community Life

Connecticut had nine Jewish Federations and jfact, Jewish Federation Association of Connecticut, a statewide government affairs office. The adl and ajc both had statewide offices in Connecticut. The Jewish Ledger was a statewide Jewish newspaper. Around the state there were also 130 synagogues, six Jewish community centers (four big ones and two smaller ones in Sherman and Litchfield), three Jewish nursing homes, eight Jewish Family Service Offices, 13 Jewish day schools, and the Hebrew High School of New England. Connecticut saw a growth in Jewish day school enrollment throughout the state.

Jewish community centers were housed in splendid facilities, and the federations for the collection of philanthropic contributions were active. Mt. Sinai Hospital of Hartford was the only Jewish hospital in the state. B'nai B'rith was also active.

Connecticut Jews have played a distinguished role in the economic, social, political, and cultural life of the state. Herman P. *Koppelmann of Hartford (1933–38, 1941–43) and William M. Citron (1935–38) of Middletown served in the U.S. House of Representatives. Abraham A. *Ribicoff, who represented Connecticut in the House of Representatives (1945–52), was a member of the U.S. Senate (1962–1981), and governor of Connecticut (1955–61). Many Jews in the course of the years have served in the state legislature and on all levels of the judiciary. M. Joseph Blumenfeld of West Hartford was a Federal Court judge. Justices Samuel Melitz of Bridgeport and Abraham S. Bordon and Louis Shapiro of West Hartford served on the Supreme Court of Connecticut. Some men served as mayors of their communities, as U.S. referees in bankruptcy, and as Federal attorneys. In 2005, 14% of ct's State senators were Jewish (5 out of 36); they were Judith G. Freedman, Jonathan A. Harris, Edith G. Prague, Gayle S. Slossberg, and Andrea L. Stillman. Sam Gejdenson represented the greater New London area in Congress from 1981 to 2000. Born in 1948 in an American displaced persons camp in Eschwege, Germany, Gejdenson was the first child of Holocaust survivors elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. The most famous Connecticut political leader is Senator Joseph I. *Lieberman, who was first elected to the United States Senate in 1988, making him the first and only Orthodox Jew elected a senator. In 1994 he made Connecticut history by winning 67% of the vote, the largest ever in a Connecticut Senate race. In 2000, Lieberman was elected to a third term. He is perhaps best known as the Democratic candidate for vice president in 2000 and as the first Jew nominated for the position on a major party ticket. His career now spans more than three decades.

[Abraham J. Feldman /

Robert Fishman (2nd ed.)]

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Connecticut

Connecticut

■ ALBERTUS MAGNUS COLLEGE I-8

700 Prospect St.
New Haven, CT 06511-1189
Tel: (203)773-8550
Free: 800-578-9160
Admissions: (203)773-8501
Fax: (203)785-8652
Web Site: http://www.albertus.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 55-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City and Hartford. Endowment: $7.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2951 per student. Total enrollment: 2,230. Faculty: 167 (34 full-time, 133 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 534 applied, 36% were admitted. 16% from top 10% of their high school class, 31% from top quarter, 63% from top half. Full-time: 1,695 students, 71% women, 29% men. Part-time: 87 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 9 states and territories, 4 other countries, 24% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 27% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.3% international, 64% 25 or older, 60% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; psychology. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.5 high school GPA, interview, SAT Subject Tests. Required for some: minimum 2.5 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 8/20. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $24,860 includes full-time tuition ($16,600), mandatory fees ($710), and college room and board ($7550). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time and program. Part-time tuition: $1726 per course. Part-time tuition varies according to class time and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, College Drama, Minority Student Union. Major annual events: Candlelight Ceremony, Fall Festival, Spring Semi-Formal/Winter Wonderland. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 350 college housing spaces available; 298 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Rosary Hall with 5,638 microform titles, 538 serials, 817 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $540,000. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Yale University.

■ ASNUNTUCK COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-10

170 Elm St.
Enfield, CT 06082-3800
Tel: (860)253-3000
Free: 800-501-3967
Admissions: (860)253-3018
Fax: (860)253-9310
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1972. Setting: 4-acre suburban campus. Total enrollment: 1,483. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 303 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 526 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 957 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 4% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 5% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 50% 25 or older, 3% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $58 per credit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 9 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Drama Club, Outdoor Club, Poetry Club, Ski Club. Student services: women's center. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. ACTC Learning Resource Center with 31,700 books, 48,600 microform titles, 257 serials, 2,570 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ BETH BENJAMIN ACADEMY OF CONNECTICUT L-2

132 Prospect St.
Stamford, CT 06901-1202
Tel: (203)325-4351

Description:

Independent Jewish, comprehensive, men only. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1976. Calendar: trimesters.

■ BRIARWOOD COLLEGE F-8

2279 Mount Vernon Rd.
Southington, CT 06489-1057
Tel: (860)628-4751
Fax: (860)628-6444
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.briarwood.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, primarily 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, terminal associate, and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 32-acre small town campus with easy access to Boston and Hartford. Endowment: $27,595. Total enrollment: 647. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 607 applied, 73% were admitted. 4% from top 10% of their high school class, 7% from top quarter, 24% from top half. Full-time: 389 students, 70% women, 30% men. Part-time: 258 students, 81% women, 19% men. Students come from 11 states and territories, 2 other countries, 7% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 22% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 38% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 13% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: essay, recommendations, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $15,200 full-time, $500 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $220 full-time, $125 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. College room only: $3320. Tuition guaranteed not to increase for student's term of enrollment.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run radio station. Most popular organizations: student government, Yearbook Committee, Student Ambassador Club, F.A.M.E. (Fashion Merchandising Club). Major annual events: Spring Prom, Class Night, holiday parties. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. 174 college housing spaces available; 154 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen given priority for college housing. Option: coed housing available. Pupillo Library with 11,500 books, 154 serials, 130 audiovisual materials, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $70,283. 54 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CAPITAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE D-10

950 Main St.
Hartford, CT 06103
Tel: (860)906-5000
Admissions: (860)906-5127
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 10-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 3,573. Full-time: 927 students, 65% women, 35% men. Part-time: 2,646 students, 75% women, 25% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 0.3% Native American, 27% Hispanic, 39% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 56% 25 or older. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, emergency medical technology, radiological technology programs. Recommended: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 20 open to all. Most popular organizations: Latin American Student Association, Student Senate, Senior Renewal Club, Early Childhood Club, Pre-Professional Club. Major annual events: Holiday Dinner Dance, ambassador ceremonies, Spring Outing. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, security staff during hours of operation, emergency telephones 7 a.m. - 11 p.m. College housing not available. Arthur C. Banks, Jr. Library plus 1 other with 46,760 books, 3,946 microform titles, 359 serials, 2,409 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 180 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ CENTRAL CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY E-9

1615 Stanley St.
New Britain, CT 06050-4010
Tel: (860)832-3200
Admissions: (860)832-2285
Fax: (860)832-2522
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Connecticut State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1849. Setting: 294-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $17.6 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $643,696. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4740 per student. Total enrollment: 12,315. Faculty: 850 (416 full-time, 434 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. 5,549 applied, 62% were admitted. 7% from top 10% of their high school class, 27% from top quarter, 68% from top half. Full-time: 7,445 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 2,233 students, 50% women, 50% men. Students come from 27 states and territories, 64 other countries, 4% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 8% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 20% 25 or older, 21% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Inter-Institutional Student Exchange Program. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 6/1. Notification: continuous until 7/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3034 full-time, $290 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9820 full-time, $290 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3130 full-time, $55 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course level, course load, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course level and course load. College room and board: $7456. College room only: $4250. Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 100 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Inter-Residence Council, student radio station, Program Council, Outing Club, NAACP. Major annual events: Homecoming, Film Series, Spring Weekend. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 2,200 college housing spaces available; 1,901 were occupied in 2003-04. No special consideration for freshman housing applicants. Option: coed housing available. Burritt Library plus 1 other with 639,257 books, 552,591 microform titles, 2,762 serials, 5,669 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.6 million. 880 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 75,000. Known as the"Hardware City of the World," New Britain is located nine miles southwest of Hartford. Sleigh bells were the first items manufactured here. Now there are 250 manufacturing establishments and over 600 retail outlets. Access to New York City is by train, and there is commercial air service nearby. New Britain has 44 churches of major denominations, outstanding hospital facilities and is now undertaking urban renewal projects. Points of interest are the New Britain Institute and Art Museum, memorial monuments, municipal golf course and the parks.

■ CHARTER OAK STATE COLLEGE E-9

55 Paul Manafort Dr.
New Britain, CT 06053-2142
Tel: (860)832-3800
Admissions: (860)832-3858
Fax: (860)832-3999
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.charteroak.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees (offers only external degree programs). Founded 1973. Setting: small town campus. Endowment: $811,102. Total enrollment: 1,902. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. Part-time: 1,902 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 51 states and territories, 56% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 10% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 92% 25 or older. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: continuous. Services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. State resident tuition: $165 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $235 per credit part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

College housing not available.

■ CONNECTICUT COLLEGE I-14

270 Mohegan Ave.
New London, CT 06320-4196
Tel: (860)447-1911
Admissions: (860)439-2200
Fax: (860)439-4301
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.connecticutcollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1911. Setting: 702-acre suburban campus. Endowment: $164.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $14,472 per student. Total enrollment: 1,898. Faculty: 242 (162 full-time, 80 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 4,183 applied, 35% were admitted. 54% from top 10% of their high school class, 83% from top quarter, 99% from top half. Full-time: 1,808 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 79 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 40 other countries, 80% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 4% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 4% international, 2% 25 or older, 99% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 92% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; biological/life sciences; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Twelve College Exchange Program, United States Coast Guard Academy, American University, Trinity College, Wesleyan University, National Theater Institute, Williams College. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, ACT or any 3 SAT II Subject Tests. Recommended: interview, SAT. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/1, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 1/1 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 3/31, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $41,975. Part-time tuition: $975 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to program. Tuition: $975 per credit hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Activity Council, unity clubs, sports clubs, student radio station. Major annual events: Floralia, Harvestfest, Winter Formal. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,716 college housing spaces available; 1,670 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Charles Shain Library plus 1 other with 496,817 books, 153,545 microform titles, 2,279 serials, 155,884 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3 million. 461 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

On the west bank of the Thames River, three miles from Long Island Sound, known historically as "The Whaling City." New London is a maritime center located midway between Boston and New York. It is a popular summer resort. Ocean Beach Park, a fifty-acre tract, borders a half-mile-long beach and provides recreational facilities. New London is the location of the annual Yale-Harvard Crew Races held each June.

■ EASTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY E-13

83 Windham St.
Willimantic, CT 06226-2295
Tel: (860)465-5000; 877-353-3278
Admissions: (860)465-5286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.easternct.edu

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Connecticut State University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. Founded 1889. Setting: 179-acre small town campus. Endowment: $60,000. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $140,742. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5579 per student. Total enrollment: 5,113. Faculty: 397 (188 full-time, 209 part-time). 3,066 applied, 69% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 21% from top quarter, 68% from top half. Full-time: 3,751 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 994 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 24 states and territories, 21 other countries, 7% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 7% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 17% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; psychology; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of Connecticut, Southern Connecticut State University, Central Connecticut State University, Western Connecticut State University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army(c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, recommendations, rank in upper 50% of high school class. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 5/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3034 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9820 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2930 full-time, $35 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $7300. College room only: $4230. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 53 open to all. Most popular organizations: M.A.L.E.S, Organization of Latin American Students, 180 Christian Fellowship, A.L.A.Y.A.. Major annual events: Fall Fest, Spring Fest, Family Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,236 college housing spaces available; 2,168 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. J. Eugene Smith Library with 239,218 books, 1 million microform titles, 1,729 serials, 3,396 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3 million. 637 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located 28 miles from Hartford and New London and halfway between Boston and New York, Willimantic, with a population of approximately 22,000, is primarily a retail and service center for eastern Connecticut. Bus service connects the city with major transportation facilities in Hartford, Providence, and New York. Willimantic has excellent health and hospital services and recreational facilities include the Willimantic Golf Course and nearby lakes and state parks.

■ FAIRFIELD UNIVERSITY K-5

1073 North Benson Rd.
Fairfield, CT 06824-5195
Tel: (203)254-4000
Admissions: (203)254-4100
Fax: (203)254-4199
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fairfield.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic (Jesuit), comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1942. Setting: 200-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $178.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.7 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $9750 per student. Total enrollment: 5,173. Faculty: 423 (226 full-time, 197 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 6,895 applied, 74% were admitted. 31% from top 10% of their high school class, 69% from top quarter, 93% from top half. 16 National Merit Scholars, 20 class presidents, 6 valedictorians, 23 student government officers. Full-time: 3,485 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 588 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 34 states and territories, 23 other countries, 74% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 2% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 0% 25 or older, 80% live on campus, 1% transferred in. Retention: 91% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; social sciences; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, rank in upper 20% of high school class, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 1/15, 11/15 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $39,855 includes full-time tuition ($29,750), mandatory fees ($505), and college room and board ($9600). College room only: $5560. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to student level. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $395 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $60 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 100 open to all. Most popular organizations: student government, Glee Club, Drama Club, multicultural organizations, Mission Volunteers. Major annual events: Dogwood Festival, Harvest Weekend, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, bicycle patrols. 2,590 college housing spaces available; 2,585 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Dimenna-Nyselius Library with 325,166 books, 888,554 microform titles, 1,793 serials, 9,615 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.1 million. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 60,000. Fairfield is a suburban area one hour north of New York City on the Long Island Sound. The climate is temperate. The Metro-North New Haven branch railroad serves the area, as well as the Connecticut Turnpike and Merritt Parkway. Community facilities include libraries, churches and shopping areas. Part-time employment opportunities are available. Beaches are nearby for water sports; other sports include golf and tennis. A special annual event is the Dogwood Festival.

■ GATEWAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE I-8

60 Sargent Dr.
New Haven, CT 06511-5918
Tel: (203)285-2000
Free: 800-390-7723
Admissions: (203)789-7043
Fax: (203)285-2018
Web Site: http://www.gwcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1992. Setting: 5-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3801 per student. Total enrollment: 5,739. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 3,381 applied, 94% were admitted. Full-time: 1,809 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 3,930 students, 67% women, 33% men. Students come from 8 states and territories, 60 other countries, 0.1% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 13% Hispanic, 26% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 53% 25 or older, 7% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships. Off campus study at Southern Connecticut State University.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for radiological technology, pharmacy technology, engineering technologies programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/1. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Campus security: late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 54,802 books, 108,163 microform titles, 532 serials, 9,902 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $623,294. 385 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ GIBBS COLLEGE K-3

142 East Ave.
Norwalk, CT 06851-5754
Tel: (203)838-4173
Free: 800-845-5333
Admissions: (203)633-2311
Fax: (203)853-6402
Web Site: http://www.gibbscollege.com/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Part of Career Education Corporation. Awards certificates and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1975. Setting: 2-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City. Total enrollment: 770. 1,460 applied, 61% were admitted. Full-time: 770 students, 52% women, 48% men. Students come from 15 states and territories, 1 other country, 2% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 29% Hispanic, 32% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 45% 25 or older, 19% transferred in. Core. Academic remediation for entering students, accelerated degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview. Recommended: essay. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices. College housing not available. Sister Barbara Dewey Library with 10,000 books, 250 serials, 150 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 220 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ GOODWIN COLLEGE D-10

745 Burnside Ave.
East Hartford, CT 06108
Tel: (860)528-4111
Fax: (860)291-9550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.goodwin.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, diplomas, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Setting: urban campus with easy access to Hartford. Endowment: $1 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $13,570 per student. Total enrollment: 1,219. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 360 applied, 90% were admitted. Full-time: 132 students, 86% women, 14% men. Part-time: 1,087 students, 90% women, 10% men. 1% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 30% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 59% 25 or older, 10% transferred in. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, medical exam. Recommended: 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Notification: continuous until 8/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Tuition: $13,570 full-time, $425 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $300 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: evening security patrolman. College housing not available. Goodwin College Library with 6,000 books, 1,300 serials, 506 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $320,000. 220 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ HOLY APOSTLES COLLEGE AND SEMINARY F-10

33 Prospect Hill Rd.
Cromwell, CT 06416-2005
Tel: (860)632-3010
Free: 800-330-7272
Fax: (860)632-3030
Web Site: http://www.holyapostles.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1956. Setting: 17-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford, CT New Haven, CT. Total enrollment: 294. Faculty: 24 (14 full-time, 10 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 1 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 9 students, 33% women, 67% men. Part-time: 32 students, 25% women, 75% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 2 other countries, 90% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 9% Hispanic, 0% black, 9% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 9% international, 90% 25 or older, 80% live on campus, 12% transferred in. Retention: 50% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic area with the most degrees conferred: social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, accelerated degree program, distance learning, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, interview, SAT. Required for some: recommendations. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $5520 full-time, $230 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $25 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Toastmasters, Pro-Life Organization, Student Council, Schola Choir. Major annual events: Christmas Party, Graduation, Spring Party. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols. 82 college housing spaces available; 6 were occupied in 2003-04. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: men-only housing available. Holy Apostles College and Seminary Library with 84,584 books, 210 microform titles, 250 serials, 200 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 6 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ HOUSATONIC COMMUNITY COLLEGE K-5

900 Lafayette Blvd.
Bridgeport, CT 06604-4704
Tel: (203)332-5000
Admissions: (203)332-5102
Web Site: http://www.hctc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community-Technical College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1965. Setting: 4-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Total enrollment: 4,343. 2,252 applied, 89% were admitted. 0.2% Native American, 21% Hispanic, 30% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 46% 25 or older. Retention: 55% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for drug and alcohol rehabilitation counseling, medical laboratory technician, allied health, phlebotomy, nursing, physical therapy programs. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: recommendations, interview. Placement: ACCUPLACER required for some. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Association of Latin American Students, African-American Cultural Society, Art Club. Major annual events: Spring Outing, Christmas Dinner, cultural jazz concerts. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. 30,000 books, 280 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 200 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See University of Bridgeport.

■ INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT B-10

101 Wykeham Rd.
Suffield, CT 06078
Tel: (860)868-9555
Free: 800-955-0809
Admissions: (860)668-3515
Fax: (860)868-2114
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ichm.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 2-year, coed. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1992. Setting: 56-acre small town campus with easy access to New York City or Boston, MA. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2857 per student. Total enrollment: 116. 35 applied, 77% were admitted. Full-time: 116 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 34 other countries, 50% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 6% black, 16% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 51% international, 14% 25 or older, 90% live on campus, 16% transferred in. Core. Calendar: continuous. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, 2 recommendations. Recommended: interview, SAT. Required for some: essay, interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $100. Comprehensive fee: $20,878 includes full-time tuition ($15,900) and college room and board ($4978). Room and board charges vary according to board plan.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 7 open to all; 100% of eligible men and 100% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: student committee, student newsletter, yearbook committee, Ritz Guild, Student Ambassadors. Major annual events: Career Day/Job Fair, formal theme banquets, college open houses. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, weekend patrols by trained security personnel. Option: coed housing available. International College of Hospitality Management Library with 10,000 books, 50 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $44,000. 23 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ LYME ACADEMY COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS I-12

84 Lyme St.
Old Lyme, CT 06371
Tel: (860)434-5232
Fax: (860)434-8725
Web Site: http://www.lymeacademy.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1976. Setting: 3-acre small town campus. Endowment: $2.4 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $11,066 per student. Total enrollment: 160. 32 applied, 47% were admitted. Full-time: 71 students, 56% women, 44% men. Part-time: 89 students, 74% women, 26% men. Students come from 18 states and territories, 20% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 0% black, 0% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 55% 25 or older, 35% transferred in. Retention: 48% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Summer session for credit, part-time degree program. Off campus study.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, portfolio, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Tuition: $16,416 full-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organization: Student Association. Major annual events: Small Wonders Art Show, Thanksgiving Feast, graduation. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. College housing not available. Krieble Library with 8,686 books, 60 serials, 14,232 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $139,133. 6 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed.

■ MANCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE D-11

PO Box 1046
Manchester, CT 06045-1046
Tel: (860)512-3000
Admissions: (860)512-3210
Fax: (860)647-6238
Web Site: http://www.mcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1963. Setting: 160-acre small town campus with easy access to Hartford. Total enrollment: 6,135. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 21:1. 2,016 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 2,713 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 3,422 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 5 states and territories, 0% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 12% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 35% 25 or older, 11% transferred in. Retention: 60% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, self-designed majors, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at other institutions in the Connecticut Public Higher Education System.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Options: electronic application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6696 full-time, $279 per credit hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Student services: women's center. College housing not available. 45,265 books, 188,155 microform titles, 493 serials, and 2,481 audiovisual materials.

■ MIDDLESEX COMMUNITY COLLEGE G-10

100 Training Hill Rd.
Middletown, CT 06457-4889
Tel: (860)343-5800
Admissions: (860)343-5742
Fax: (860)344-7488
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mxcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1966. Setting: 38-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Total enrollment: 2,286. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 671 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 876 students, 57% women, 43% men. Part-time: 1,410 students, 71% women, 29% men. Students come from 4 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 8% Hispanic, 7% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 64% 25 or older. Retention: 44% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at other units of the Connecticut Community College System. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for radiological technology, human services, drug and alcohol counseling, broadcast journalism, ophthalmic design and dispensing programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, CPT. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6696 full-time, $279 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $304 full-time, $2.50 per credit part-time, $53 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 8 open to all. Most popular organizations: Collegiate Secretaries International, Minority Opportunities in Education, Radio Club. Major annual events: International Day, bus trips, Senior Art Exhibit. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Jean Burr Smith Library with 45,000 books, 180 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. 50 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ MITCHELL COLLEGE I-14

437 Pequot Ave.
New London, CT 06320-4498
Tel: (860)701-5000
Free: 800-443-2811
Admissions: (860)701-5038
Fax: (860)444-1209
Web Site: http://www.mitchell.edu/

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1938. Setting: 67-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford and Providence. Endowment: $6 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $3500 per student. Total enrollment: 727. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 1,158 applied, 58% were admitted. 3% from top 10% of their high school class, 9% from top quarter, 35% from top half. Full-time: 644 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 83 students, 64% women, 36% men. Students come from 22 states and territories, 5 other countries, 33% from out-of-state, 5% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 11% black, 0.3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 4% 25 or older, 80% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; psychology; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, recommendations, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 11/15 for early decision. Notification: continuous until 8/30, 12/15 for early decision.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $28,735 includes full-time tuition ($19,405) and college room and board ($9330). College room only: $4850. Part-time tuition: $275 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $35 per term.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: Multicultural Club, Business Club, student government, student newspaper, Outdoor Adventure Club. Major annual events: Moving Up Ceremony, Homecoming/Parents' Weekend, Wellness Week. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 425 college housing spaces available; 372 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Mitchell College Library plus 1 other with 80,000 books, 120 serials, 300 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $950,000. 155 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Small city of 30,000. Southern Connecticut is one of the country's fastest-growing tourist attractions. Campus is located at the confluence of the Thames River and Long Island Sound. The college maintains its own beach and 26-acre wooded park.

■ NAUGATUCK VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE G-6

750 Chase Parkway
Waterbury, CT 06708-3000
Tel: (203)575-8040
Admissions: (203)575-8016
Fax: (203)596-8766
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nvcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community-Technical College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1992. Setting: 110-acre urban campus. Total enrollment: 5,671. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 5:1. 3,358 applied, 42% were admitted. Full-time: 2,215 students, 51% women, 49% men. Part-time: 3,456 students, 65% women, 35% men. 7% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 11% Hispanic, 8% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 51% 25 or older, 0.1% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Off campus study at other institutions in the Connecticut Public Higher Education System. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, allied health, technician programs. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, ACCUPLACER. Required for some: interview. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2672 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 35 open to all. Most popular organizations: Student Senate, Choral Society, Automotive Technician Club, Human Service Club, Legal Assistant Club. Major annual events: Awards Ceremony, Spring Picnic, Club Expo. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, security escort service. College housing not available. Max R. Traurig Learning Resource Center with 35,000 books, 520 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $618,484. 450 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

See Teikyo Post University.

■ NORTHWESTERN CONNECTICUT COMMUNITY COLLEGE B-6

Park Place East
Winsted, CT 06098-1798
Tel: (860)738-6300
Admissions: (860)738-6329
Fax: (860)379-4465
Web Site: http://www.nwctc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community-Technical College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1965. Setting: 5-acre small town campus with easy access to Hartford. Total enrollment: 1,569. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 390 applied, 100% were admitted. Full-time: 527 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 1,042 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 2% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.1% international, 36% 25 or older, 6% transferred in. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for physical therapy assistant, drug and alcohol counseling programs. Option: deferred admission. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2672 full-time, $156 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time, $458 per semester hour part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 10 open to all. Most popular organizations: Ski Club, Student Senate, Deaf Club, Recreation Club, Early Childhood Educational Club. Campus security: evening security patrols. College housing not available. Northwestern Connecticut Community-Technical College Learning Center with 37,666 books, 2,848 microform titles, 267 serials, 1,599 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 90 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 11,500. Winsted is a suburban community with a temperate climate. It has shopping areas, library, churches, and a YMCA. Airport facilities are 30 miles away, but easy to reach. Recreational facilities are good, including excellent fishing in surrounding areas, boating on Highland Lake, and winter sports at Sundown ski area about three miles southeast.

■ NORWALK COMMUNITY COLLEGE K-3

188 Richards Ave.
Norwalk, CT 06854-1655
Tel: (203)857-7000
Admissions: (203)857-7060
Fax: (203)857-3335
Web Site: http://www.ncc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1961. Setting: 30-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $11 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5650 per student. Total enrollment: 6,036. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 20:1. 3,391 applied. Students come from 4 states and territories, 30 other countries, 1% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 19% Hispanic, 19% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 51% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for allied health programs. Option: deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $20 per credit part-time, $160 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 27 open to all; coed fraternity; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: African Culture Club, Archaeology Club, Hay Motivo Club, Art Club, Phi Theta Kappa. Major annual events: Awards Ceremony, Dean's Tea, Welcome Picnic. Student services: women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, patrols by security. College housing not available. Everett I. L. Baker Library with 66,080 books, 73,135 microform titles, 221 serials, 2,988 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $742,222. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Norwalk is a urban community located on Long Island Sound and is 50 minutes by rail from Grand Central Station in New York City. Community facilities include major shopping areas, libraries, churches, a symphony orchestra, and the Silvermine Guild Artists.

■ PAIER COLLEGE OF ART, INC. H-8

20 Gorham Ave.
Hamden, CT 06514-3902
Tel: (203)287-3030
Admissions: (203)287-3031
Web Site: http://www.paiercollegeofart.edu/

Description:

Proprietary, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1946. Setting: 3-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City. Total enrollment: 277. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 7:1. 86 applied, 91% were admitted. 5% from top 10% of their high school class, 18% from top quarter, 24% from top half. Students come from 4 states and territories, 1 other country, 1% from out-of-state, 0% Native American, 1% Hispanic, 2% black, 0.4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 18% 25 or older. Retention: 79% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters plus 1 summer session. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, independent study, summer session for credit, part-time degree program. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, 2 recommendations, interview, portfolio, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Tuition: $12,000 full-time, $380 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Social organizations: 1 open to all. Most popular organization: Student Council. Major annual events: Winter Art Show and Sale, Spring Art Show and Sale, Spring Paier Picnic. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: evening patrols by security. College housing not available. Adele K. Paier Memorial Library with 11,515 books, 69 serials, and 66,136 audiovisual materials. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $52,330. 30 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ POST UNIVERSITY G-6

800 Country Club Rd.
Waterbury, CT 06723-2540
Tel: (203)596-4500
Free: 800-345-2562
Admissions: (203)596-4630
Fax: (203)756-5810
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.post.edu

Description:

Independent, 4-year, coed. Awards associate and bachelor's degrees. Founded 1890. Setting: 70-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4356 per student. Total enrollment: 1,101. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 1,254 applied, 62% were admitted. Full-time: 664 students, 55% women, 45% men. Part-time: 437 students, 69% women, 31% men. Students come from 13 states and territories, 15 other countries, 21% from out-of-state,0.3% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 22% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 43% 25 or older, 54% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 74% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies; biological/life sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters (modular courses offered in the evening). Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript, 1 recommendation. Recommended: essay, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, interview, SAT or ACT. Entrance: minimally difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $29,900 includes full-time tuition ($20,750), mandatory fees ($750), and college room and board ($8400). Part-time tuition: $690 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group. Social organizations: 30 open to all. Most popular organizations: Post Theatrical Players, Resident Hall Council, Student Government Association, Program Board. Major annual events: homecoming, Sepring Semi-Formal, Winterfest. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 410 college housing spaces available; 372 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Trauriq Library and Resource Center with 85,000 books, 75,158 microform titles, 500 serials, 1,027 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $208,143. 70 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Waterbury is a city of approximately 110,000, located in the northwest part of the state. There are three other colleges in the area and 15 other institutions of higher learning within a 30-minute drive. The Greater Waterbury area offers ample opportunities for cultural, athletic, and recreational activities.

■ QUINEBAUG VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE D-16

742 Upper Maple St.
Danielson, CT 06239-1440
Tel: (860)774-1130
Fax: (860)774-7768
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.qvcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1971. Setting: 60-acre rural campus. Total enrollment: 1,714. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 18:1. 586 applied, 98% were admitted. Full-time: 643 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 1,071 students, 72% women, 28% men. Students come from 3 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 2% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0% international, 60% 25 or older, 9% transferred in. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, distance learning, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission. Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: 9/1. Notification: continuous until 9/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2112 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6336 full-time. Mandatory fees: $294 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Campus security: evening security guard. College housing not available. Audrey Beck Library with 31,000 books, 130 serials, and an OPAC. 80 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population, 4,580. Located in Northeastern Connecticut, Danielson is in the midst of a semi-rural area which is supported by poultry and dairy industries. Outdoor recreational possibilities abound. The Connecticut turnpike provides easy access to New London, Old Mystic, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

■ QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY H-8

275 Mount Carmel Ave.
Hamden, CT 06518-1940
Tel: (203)582-8200
Free: 800-462-1944
Admissions: (203)582-8600
Fax: (203)582-6347
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.quinnipiac.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees. Founded 1929. Setting: 400-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Endowment: $150.2 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $524,194. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $8474 per student. Total enrollment: 7,293. Faculty: 780 (280 full-time, 500 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 15:1. 11,397 applied, 53% were admitted. 21% from top 10% of their high school class, 56% from top quarter, 90% from top half. Full-time: 5,286 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 420 students, 62% women, 38% men. Students come from 28 states and territories, 20 other countries, 72% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 2% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 5% 25 or older, 70% live on campus, 3% transferred in. Retention: 87% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; health professions and related sciences; communications/journalism. Core. Calendar: semesters. Services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Required for some: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 2/1. Notification: continuous until 3/1.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $36,980 includes full-time tuition ($25,240), mandatory fees ($1040), and college room and board ($10,700). Part-time tuition: $625 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $30 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 75 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 7% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: student government, Social Programming Board, Drama Club, student newspaper, dance company. Major annual events: May Weekend, Student/Faculty Holiday Dinner, Midnight Madness (basketball). Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 3,250 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Arnold Bernhard Library plus 1 other with 285,000 books, 4,400 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $4.3 million. 600 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Hamden, population 55,000. Sleeping Giant Mountain State Park is adjacent to the campus and has 1700 acres for walking and hiking.

■ SACRED HEART UNIVERSITY K-5

5151 Park Ave.
Fairfield, CT 06825-1000
Tel: (203)371-7999
Admissions: (203)365-4763
Fax: (203)371-7889
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sacredheart.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates (also offers part-time program with significant enrollment not reflected in profile). Founded 1963. Setting: 56-acre suburban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $42.3 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6786 per student. Total enrollment: 5,560. Faculty: 472 (186 full-time, 286 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 13:1. 5,856 applied, 64% were admitted. 8% from top 10% of their high school class, 37% from top quarter, 91% from top half. 11 valedictorians. Full-time: 3,244 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 860 students, 68% women, 32% men. Students come from 37 other countries, 56% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 5% black, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 19% 25 or older, 68% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 85% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; psychology; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 3.0 high school GPA, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: minimum 3.2 high school GPA. Required for some: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 10/1 for early decision plan 1, 12/1 for early decision plan 2. Notification: continuous, 10/15 for early decision plan 1, 12/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $33,404 includes full-time tuition ($23,750) and college room and board ($9654). College room only: $7078. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $390 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $76 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 60 open to all; local fraternities, local sororities; 5% of eligible men and 7% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, marching/pep band, Campus Ministry, Multicultural/International Club. Major annual events: Midnight Breakfast, SHU-Vivor, SHU-Idol. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, campus housing has sprinklers and fire alarms. 2,228 college housing spaces available; 2,115 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Ryan-Matura Library with 46,985 microform titles, 4,100 serials, 1,063 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. 330 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Sacred Heart University is located in coastal Fairfield, Connecticut, one hour northeast of New York City. Numerous Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Fairfield County providing students with unique opportunities for outside learning and hands-on experience. Transportation, restaurants, shopping malls, movies, theaters, and beaches are all easily accessible.

■ SAINT JOSEPH COLLEGE D-9

1678 Asylum Ave.
West Hartford, CT 06117-2700
Tel: (860)232-4571; (866)442-8752
Admissions: (860)231-5216
Fax: (860)233-5695
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sjc.edu/

Description:

Independent Roman Catholic, comprehensive. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1932. Setting: 84-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Endowment: $14.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $125,000. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $8027 per student. Total enrollment: 1,858. Faculty: 88 (77 full-time, 11 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 11:1. 1,051 applied, 72% were admitted. 15% from top 10% of their high school class, 43% from top quarter, 78% from top half. Full-time: 871 students, 99% women, 0.2% men. Part-time: 288 students, 97% women, 3% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 1 other country, 20% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 8% Hispanic, 14% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander,0.1% international, 32% 25 or older, 21% transferred in. Retention: 68% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: health professions and related sciences; social sciences; public administration and social services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Hartford Consortium for Higher Education, Wesleyan University. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 11/15 for early action. Notification: continuous, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $33,250 includes full-time tuition ($22,890), mandatory fees ($600), and college room and board ($9760). College room only: $4780. Part-time tuition: $530 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $25 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group. Social organizations: 24 open to all; 30% of women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Government Association, Student Nurse Association, Psychology Club, SJC choir, Business Society. Major annual events: Convocation, Diversity Day, Student Symposium. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 428 college housing spaces available; 391 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: women-only housing available. Pope Pius XII Library plus 1 other with 120,094 books, 77,096 microform titles, 479 serials, 3,627 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $686,672. 150 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The campus is located in a suburban community within 5 miles of Hartford, the capital of Connecticut. Known as the Insurance City, Hartford offers multiple internship and employment possibilities and diverse attractions such as ballet, opera, theater, symphony, museums, historic landmarks, sporting events, shopping, churches, and hospitals. Many volunteer opportunities are also available.

■ ST. VINCENT'S COLLEGE K-5

2800 Main St.
Bridgeport, CT 06606-4292
Tel: (203)576-5235
Admissions: (203)576-5515
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.stvincentscollege.edu/

Description:

Independent, 2-year, coed, affiliated with Roman Catholic Church. Awards certificates and transfer associate degrees. Founded 1991. Setting: urban campus with easy access to New York City. Total enrollment:413. 661 applied, 28% were admitted. 64% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, advanced placement, summer session for credit, part-time degree program.

Entrance Requirements:

Option: deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, recommendations. Recommended: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Required for some: interview. Placement: SAT or ACT required for some. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 6 open to all. Most popular organizations: community service, Student Congress, Mentors, yearbook, Heartbeat. Major annual events: beginning of the year Liturgy, Day of Reflection, Awards Banquet. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, late night transport-escort service. College housing not available. Daniel T. Banks Health Science Library with 9,428 books and 332 serials. 17 computers available on campus for general student use. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY I-8

501 Crescent St.
New Haven, CT 06515-1355
Tel: (203)392-5200
Admissions: (203)392-5656
Fax: (203)392-5727
Web Site: http://www.southernct.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Connecticut State University System. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1893. Setting: 168-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $6.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.9 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $5809 per student. Total enrollment: 12,158. Faculty: 958 (403 full-time, 555 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 5,037 applied, 54% were admitted. 6% from top 10% of their high school class, 22% from top quarter, 64% from top half. Full-time: 6,697 students, 63% women, 37% men. Part-time: 1,612 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 34 states and territories, 46 other countries, 6% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 12% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 17% 25 or older, 33% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 75% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: psychology; business/marketing; education. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, freshman honors college, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at New England Board of Higher Education. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army(c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: recommendations. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 7/1. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3187 full-time, $322 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,315 full-time, $322 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3255 full-time, $8 per credit part-time, $55 per term part-time. College room and board: $8031. College room only: $4446.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 63 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 1% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: People to People, Pre-Law Society, Accounting Society, Crescent Players, Black Student Union. Major annual events: Spring Weekend, Homecoming, Convocation. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,605 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Hilton C. Buley Library with 495,660 books, 3,549 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $5 million. 750 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Metropolitan.

■ THREE RIVERS COMMUNITY COLLEGE G-14

7 Mahan Dr.
Norwich, CT 06360
Tel: (860)886-0177
Admissions: (860)892-5762
Fax: (860)886-0691
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.trcc.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community-Technical College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees (engineering technology programs are offered on the Thames Valley Campus; liberal arts, transfer and career programs are offered on the Mohegan Campus). Founded 1963. Setting: 40-acre small town campus with easy access to Hartford. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $4382 per student. Total enrollment: 3,624. Students come from 6 states and territories, 1% from out-of-state, 2% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 7% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 0.4% international, 63% 25 or older. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, external degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for nursing, drug and alcohol rehabilitation counseling, paramedic programs. Options: early admission, deferred admission. Recommended: high school transcript. Required for some: minimum 3.0 high school GPA. Placement: ACCUPLACER required. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7264 full-time, $279 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $304 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 20 open to all; national fraternities. Most popular organizations: Student Senate/Student Government Association, Theater Guild, Phi Theta Kappa, Student Nurses Association, African-American Organization. Major annual events: Student Picnic, Awards Ceremony, Commencement. Student services: personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: late night transport-escort service, 14 hour patrols by trained security personnel. College housing not available. Three Rivers Community College Learning Resource Center plus 2 others with 53,768 books, 549 serials, and an OPAC. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $513,909. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ TRINITY COLLEGE D-10

300 Summit St.
Hartford, CT 06106-3100
Tel: (860)297-2000
Admissions: (860)297-2180
Fax: (860)297-2287
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.trincoll.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards bachelor's and master's degrees. Founded 1823. Setting: 100-acre urban campus. Endowment: $340.4 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $1.2 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $20,783 per student. Total enrollment: 2,526. Faculty: 258 (183 full-time, 75 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 10:1. 5,744 applied, 39% were admitted. 53% from top 10% of their high school class, 89% from top quarter, 99% from top half. Full-time: 2,165 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 178 students, 59% women, 41% men. Students come from 44 states and territories, 28 other countries, 80% from out-of-state, 0.1% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 5% black, 6% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 0% 25 or older, 96% live on campus, 0.3% transferred in. Retention: 92% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; English; visual and performing arts. Calendar: semesters. Advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Twelve College Exchange Program, Hartford Consortium for Higher Education. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, ACT or SAT and SAT Writing Test or three SAT subject tests. Recommended: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 1/1, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 1/1 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $42,220 includes full-time tuition ($32,000), mandatory fees ($1630), and college room and board ($8590). College room only: $5550. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $1185 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 112 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities, coed fraternities; 20% of eligible men and 16% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Community Outreach, Habitat for Humanity, Activities Council, student government, Multi-Cultural Affairs Committee. Major annual events: Spring Weekend, Homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 1,861 college housing spaces available; 1,832 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Option: coed housing available. Trinity College Library plus 2 others with 988,536 books, 432,790 microform titles, 2,434 serials, 226,532 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.4 million. 315 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ TUNXIS COMMUNITY COLLEGE E-8

271 Scott Swamp Rd.
Farmington, CT 06032-3026
Tel: (860)677-7701
Admissions: (860)255-3350
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tunxis.commnet.edu/

Description:

State-supported, 2-year, coed. Part of Connecticut Community College System. Awards certificates, transfer associate, and terminal associate degrees. Founded 1969. Setting: 12-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $2536 per student. Total enrollment: 3,894. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 19:1. Full-time: 1,488 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 2,406 students, 66% women, 34% men. Students come from 6 states and territories, 2% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 10% Hispanic, 6% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 47% 25 or older. Retention: 56% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs.

Entrance Requirements:

Open admission except for dental hygiene, drug and alcohol rehabilitation counseling, physical therapist assistant, Command Institute Supervisory Leadership programs. Options: Common Application, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript. Entrance: noncompetitive. Application deadline: Rolling. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $20. Area resident tuition: $98 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $178 per term part-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Student-run newspaper. Social organizations: 14 open to all. Most popular organizations: Phi Theta Kappa, Student American Dental Hygiene Association (SADHA), Human Services Club, student newspaper, Bible Club. Major annual events: Art Show, Campus Barbecue, International Students' Day. Student services: health clinic. Campus security: 24-hour patrols. College housing not available. Tunxis Community College Library with 33,866 books, 106,400 microform titles, 285 serials, 3,571 audiovisual materials, and an OPAC. 274 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from off-campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Farmington was settled in 1640 and incorporated in 1645. It is a suburban, residential town with a population of 25,000.

■ UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ACADEMY I-14

15 Mohegan Ave.
New London, CT 06320-8100
Tel: (860)444-8444
Free: 800-883-8724
Admissions: (860)444-8500
Fax: (860)444-8289
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cga.edu/

Description:

Federally supported, 4-year, coed. Awards bachelor's degrees. Founded 1876. Setting: 110-acre suburban campus with easy access to Providence and Hartford. Total enrollment: 1,012. Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 9:1. 1,597 applied, 26% were admitted. 47% from top 10% of their high school class, 86% from top quarter, 99% from top half. 20 class presidents, 13 valedictorians, 93 student government officers. Full-time: 1,012 students, 28% women, 72% men. Students come from 49 states and territories, 10 other countries, 94% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 4% Hispanic, 3% black, 5% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 0% 25 or older, 100% live on campus, 0% transferred in. Retention: 94% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: engineering; biological/life sciences; social sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, internships. Off campus study at Connecticut College.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early action. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, medical exam, physical fitness exam, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: very difficult. Application deadlines: 3/1, 11/1 for early action. Notification: continuous, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $0.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band. Major annual events: homecoming, Parents' Weekend, Community Service Day. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour patrols, student patrols. 1,030 college housing spaces available; 994 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through senior year. Option: coed housing available. Waesche Hall Library with an OPAC and a Web page. 325 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

■ UNIVERSITY OF BRIDGEPORT K-5

126 Park Ave.
Bridgeport, CT 06604
Tel: (203)576-4000
Free: 800-243-9496
Admissions: (203)576-4552
Fax: (203)576-4941
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bridgeport.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1927. Setting: 86-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $6155 per student. Total enrollment: 3,626. Faculty: 349 (89 full-time, 260 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 12:1. 2,327 applied, 74% were admitted. 1% from top 10% of their high school class, 25% from top quarter, 52% from top half. Full-time: 1,247 students, 60% women, 40% men. Part-time: 429 students, 76% women, 24% men. Students come from 39 states and territories, 54 other countries, 40% from out-of-state, 0.2% Native American, 14% Hispanic, 33% black, 4% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 13% international, 29% 25 or older, 45% live on campus, 11% transferred in. Retention: 62% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: liberal arts/general studies; business/marketing; visual and performing arts. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at Fairfield University, Sacred Heart University. ROTC: Army.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, minimum 2.0 high school GPA, SAT or ACT. Recommended: 1 recommendation, interview. Required for some: interview, portfolio, audition, SAT Subject Tests. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 1/1 for early action. Notification: continuous until 8/1, 1/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $29,595 includes full-time tuition ($19,200), mandatory fees ($1395), and college room and board ($9000). College room only: $4600. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and student level. Part-time tuition: $640 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $60 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 35 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 1% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Student Congress, International Relations Club, Black Students Alliance, Scuba Club, Japanese Student Association. Major annual events: International Festival, spring week events, Halloween Bash. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. 976 college housing spaces available; 622 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Wahlstrom Library with 272,430 books, 1.1 million microform titles, 2,117 serials, 5,485 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $940,128. 500 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Bridgeport is named for the first drawbridge erected over the Pequonock River and is easily accessible by auto, bus and train, automobiles using the Merrit Parkway and the Connecticut Thruway. Bridgeport is the home of P.T. Barnum. Barnum Institute of Science and History and the Museum of Art, Science and Industry is located in Bridgeport. Seaside Park, a 225-acre park stretching two and one half miles along Long Island Sound, offers opportunities for swimming and field sports. Beardsley Park has woodland walks and drives, a large lake and a zoo. Sixty-five percent of Connecticut's largest corporations are located in Fairfield County. These companies provide students with excellent opportunities for employment, before and after graduation.

■ UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT D-13

Storrs, CT 06269
Tel: (860)486-2000
Admissions: (860)486-3137
Fax: (860)486-1476
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uconn.edu/

Description:

State-supported, university, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1881. Setting: 4,104-acre rural campus. Endowment: $343 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $62 million. Total enrollment: 23,185. Faculty: 1,265 (975 full-time, 290 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 17:1. 18,608 applied, 51% were admitted. 37% from top 10% of their high school class, 80% from top quarter, 98% from top half. 38 valedictorians. Full-time: 15,296 students, 53% women, 47% men. Part-time: 816 students, 45% women, 55% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 65 other countries, 23% from out-of-state,0.4% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 5% black, 7% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 3% 25 or older, 72% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 92% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; business/marketing; liberal arts/general studies. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other public institutions in Connecticut. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army, Air Force.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: 1 recommendation. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: 2/1, 12/1 for early action. Notification: continuous until 1/1, 1/1 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $70. State resident tuition: $6456 full-time, $269 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $19,656 full-time, $819 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1906 full-time, $635 per term part-time. College room and board: $8266. College room only: $4350.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 238 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities, local sororities; 8% of eligible men and 7% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Weekend, UConn Do It Day. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices, late night transport-escort service. 10,757 college housing spaces available; 10,629 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Homer Babbidge Library plus 3 others with 3 million books, 4.3 million microform titles, 17,378 serials, 61,417 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $12.7 million. 1,318 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Storrs, population 12,100, is in a rural area 25 miles east of Hartford and 70 miles south of Boston. The climate is temperate. Buses serve the area with other modes of transportation available in Hartford. Community facilities include various houses of worship and a small shopping area. Willimantic, nine miles away, has a hospital and additional shopping facilities. There are recreational activities at nearby lakes and State Parks. Part-time employment opportunities are limited.

■ UNIVERSITY OF HARTFORD D-9

200 Bloomfield Ave.
West Hartford, CT 06117-1599
Tel: (860)768-4100
Free: 800-947-4303
Admissions: (860)768-4296
Fax: (860)768-4961
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hartford.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1877. Setting: 320-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford. Endowment: $92 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $3.5 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $12,689 per student. Total enrollment: 7,260. Faculty: 753 (325 full-time, 428 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 12,065 applied, 66% were admitted. Full-time: 4,657 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 935 students, 61% women, 39% men. Students come from 46 states and territories, 53 other countries, 60% from out-of-state, 0.3% Native American, 5% Hispanic, 10% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 3% international, 14% 25 or older, 74% live on campus, 5% transferred in. Retention: 78% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: visual and performing arts; business/marketing; communications/journalism; health professions and related sciences. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Hartford Consortium for Higher Education. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, 2 recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $35,688 includes full-time tuition ($24,576), mandatory fees ($1190), and college room and board ($9922). College room only: $6118. Part-time tuition: $360 per credit.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 54 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities; 17% of eligible men and 21% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Program Council, Brothers and Sisters United, Hillel, Student Government Association, Residence Hall Association. Major annual events: Hawks Fest, Lacrosse Under the Light, Midnight Mania. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access, bicycle patrols. 3,400 college housing spaces available; all were occupied in 2003-04. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Mortenson Library plus 1 other with 468,780 books, 383,367 microform titles, 2,425 serials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.6 million. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

The University is located in a suburban area of West Hartford, four miles from the center of Hartford. In addition to the many activities available on campus, the proximity to a metropolitan area affords a multitude of cultural, educational and recreational opportunities.

■ UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAVEN J-7

300 Orange Ave.
West Haven, CT 06516-1916
Tel: (203)932-7000
Free: 800-DIAL-UNH
Admissions: (203)932-7319
Fax: (203)937-0756
Web Site: http://www.newhaven.edu/

Description:

Independent, comprehensive, coed. Awards associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded1920. Setting: 78-acre suburban campus with easy access to Hartford, New Haven. Total enrollment: 4,466. Faculty: 471 (162 full-time, 309 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 3,051 applied, 73% were admitted. 16% from top 10% of their high school class, 41% from top quarter, 77% from top half. 10 class presidents, 5 valedictorians, 57 student government officers. Full-time: 2,301 students, 50% women, 50% men. Part-time: 487 students, 44% women, 56% men. Students come from 33 states and territories, 33 other countries, 41% from out-of-state, 0.5% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 8% black, 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 2% international, 20% 25 or older, 64% live on campus, 8% transferred in. Retention: 77% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: security and protective services; business/marketing; engineering. Core. Calendar: 4-1-4. Academic remediation for entering students, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application. Required: essay, high school transcript, 1 recommendation, SAT or ACT. Recommended: interview, SAT. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: Rolling. Notification: continuous.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $32,532 includes full-time tuition ($22,380), mandatory fees ($602), and college room and board ($9550). College room only: $5796. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $746 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to class time, course load, location, and program.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 50 open to all; national fraternities, local fraternities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 4% of eligible women are members. Major annual events: homecoming, Spring Weekend, Snowball Formal Dance. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, escort service, vehicle, bicycle and foot patrols, crime prevention programs. 1,335 college housing spaces available; 1,321 were occupied in 2003-04. Option: coed housing available. 300 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Located in West Haven, a town with a population of 54,000; ten minutes from downtown New Haven. Cultural attractions include the Shubert Theater, The Palace, Long Wharf Theater, Yale Repertory Theater. The university is accessible to many shopping malls and the beaches of Long Island Sound.

■ WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY G-10

Middletown, CT 06459-0260
Tel: (860)685-2000
Admissions: (860)685-3000
Fax: (860)685-3001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesleyan.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1831. Setting: 120-acre small town campus. Endowment: $564.9 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $7.8 million. Educational spending for 2005 fiscal year: $17,100 per student. Total enrollment: 3,207. Faculty: 368 (325 full-time, 43 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 9:1. 6,879 applied, 28% were admitted. 66% from top 10% of their high school class, 95% from top quarter, 99% from top half. Full-time: 2,750 students, 52% women, 48% men. Part-time: 14 students, 36% women, 64% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 45 other countries, 85% from out-of-state, 0.4% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 7% black, 10% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% international, 0% 25 or older, 94% live on campus, 2% transferred in. Retention: 95% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; interdisciplinary studies; visual and performing arts. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, adult/continuing education programs, internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at members of the Twelve College Exchange Program, American University. Study abroad program. ROTC: Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Peterson's Universal Application, Common Application, electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: essay, high school transcript, 2 recommendations, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: most difficult. Application deadlines: 1/1, 11/15 for early decision plan 1, 1/1 for early decision plan 2. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early decision plan 1, 2/15 for early decision plan 2.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $44,770 includes full-time tuition ($34,930), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($9540). College room only: $5808.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 231 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local fraternities; 4% of eligible men and 3% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: community service, Students of Color groups, theater (student and faculty productions), campus publications, intramurals. Major annual events: Spring Fling, Fall Ball, homecoming. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 2,627 college housing spaces available; 2,549 were occupied in 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required in freshman year. Option: coed housing available. Olin Memorial Library plus 3 others with 1.3 million books, 292,223 microform titles, 6,789 serials, 46,589 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $6.6 million. 190 computers available on campus for general student use. Computer purchase/lease plans available. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 45,000. In central Connecticut, 15 miles south of Hartford and 20 miles north of New Haven, Middletown is an important research and manufacturing center. Buses and railroads serve the area with an airline service nearby. Middletown has 21 churches of all denominations, hospital, three libraries with branches, several inns, motels, theatres and a shopping area. The various civic, fraternal and veterans organizations are active within the city. Parks, tennis courts, basketball courts, ball fields, picnic grounds and swimming pool provide facilities for recreation.

■ WESTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY H-3

181 White St.
Danbury, CT 06810-6885
Tel: (203)837-8200; 877-837-9278
Admissions: (203)837-9000
Fax: (203)837-8320
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wcsu.edu/

Description:

State-supported, comprehensive, coed. Part of Connecticut State University System. Awards associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1903. Setting: 340-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $6.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $234,872. Total enrollment: 5,907. Faculty: 485 (197 full-time, 288 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 16:1. 3,469 applied, 58% were admitted. 7% from top 10% of their high school class, 26% from top quarter, 62% from top half. Full-time: 4,002 students, 54% women, 46% men. Part-time: 1,193 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 21 states and territories, 19 other countries, 12% from out-of-state,0.1% Native American, 6% Hispanic, 6% black, 3% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 1% international, 6% 25 or older, 33% live on campus, 7% transferred in. Retention: 72% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: business/marketing; education; security and protective services. Core. Calendar: semesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at other units of the Connecticut State University System. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: Common Application, electronic application, early admission, deferred admission. Required: high school transcript, SAT or ACT. Recommended: essay, recommendations, interview. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadline: 5/1. Notification: continuous. Preference given to state residents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $3187 full-time, $304 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,315 full-time, $304 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $2919 full-time, $60 per term part-time. College room and board: $7784. College room only: $4516.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 40 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities, local sororities; 3% of eligible men and 2% of eligible women are members. Most popular organizations: Justice and Law Club, Black Student Alliance, Student Government Association, Music Education National Conference, WXCI. Major annual events: Spring Fest, Homecoming, Midnight Breakfast. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. College housing designed to accommodate 1,258 students; 1,591 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. Options: coed, women-only housing available. Ruth Haas Library plus 1 other with 182,915 books, 471,099 microform titles, 1,273 serials, 8,654 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $2.1 million. 400 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Population 66,000, Danbury is within easy commuting distance of Stamford, Waterbury, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Torrington. Cultural centers in Danbury and in the surrounding cities are within easy reach. Trains and buses serve the area. Recreational facilities include nearby Candlewood Lake for swimming, boating, and fishing. Part time work is available in the community.

■ YALE UNIVERSITY I-8

New Haven, CT 06520
Tel: (203)432-4771
Admissions: (203)432-9316
Fax: (203)432-9392
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.yale.edu/

Description:

Independent, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees and post-master's certificates. Founded 1701. Setting: 200-acre urban campus with easy access to New York City. Endowment: $15.2 billion. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $276.7 million. Total enrollment: 11,483. Faculty: 1,430 (1,054 full-time, 376 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 6:1. 19,451 applied, 10% were admitted. 95% from top 10% of their high school class. Full-time: 5,350 students, 49% women, 51% men. Part-time: 59 students, 47% women, 53% men. Students come from 50 states and territories, 74 other countries, 92% from out-of-state, 1% Native American, 7% Hispanic, 8% black, 14% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 8% international, 1% 25 or older, 87% live on campus, 0.1% transferred in. Retention: 98% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Academic areas with the most degrees conferred: social sciences; history; English. Core. Calendar: semesters. ESL program, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, self-designed majors, honors program, independent study, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, graduate courses open to undergrads. Study abroad program. ROTC: Army (c), Air Force (c).

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early action, deferred admission. Required: essay, high school transcript, 3 recommendations, SAT and SAT Subject Tests or ACT. Recommended: interview. Entrance: most difficult. Application deadlines: 12/31, 11/1 for early action. Notification: 4/1, 12/15 for early action.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $75. Comprehensive fee: $41,000 includes full-time tuition ($31,460) and college room and board ($9540).

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, marching band, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 300 open to all; national fraternities, national sororities. Most popular organizations: community service, intramural sports, theater productions, music groups, campus publications. Major annual events: Spring Fling Weekend, Harvard Football Weekend, winter balls. Student services: health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, late night transport-escort service, controlled dormitory access. 4,628 undergraduates lived in college housing during 2003-04. Freshmen guaranteed college housing. On-campus residence required through sophomore year. Option: coed housing available. Sterling Memorial Library plus 20 others with 11.1 million books, 8.1 million microform titles, 61,649 serials, 227,989 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $16.4 million. 350 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

Community Environment:

Southern Connecticut's major city, New Haven is in many respects a college town. The average temperature is 50.7 degrees. Buses, railroads, and airlines serve the area. New Haven is engaged in one of the most successful urban renewal projects in the country, restoring and rebuilding housing, community facilities and commercial redevelopment. Points of interest are the museums and libraries. New Haven also has the usual civic organizations, hospitals, shopping centers, hotels and motels. Employment is available. The recreational facilities include theaters, swimming areas, tennis courts, archery ranges, indoor swimming pool, bowling alleys, riding stables, roller skating rinks, municipal golf course and many parks. Important manufacturing establishments are located here.

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Connecticut

Connecticut

ALBERTUS MAGNUS COLLEGE

700 Prospect St.
New Haven, CT 06511-1189
Tel: (203)773-8550
Free: 800-578-9160
Admissions: (203)773-8501
Fax: (203)785-8652
Web Site: http://www.albertus.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Julia M. McNamara
Registrar: Eileen Perrillo
Admissions: Richard Lolatte
Financial Aid: Maureen Morrison
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 74.7% SAT V 400+; 72% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 36 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: August 20 Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $24,860 includes full-time tuition ($16,600), mandatory fees ($710), and college room and board ($7550). Full-time tuition and fees vary according to class time and program. Part-time tuition: $1726 per course. Part-time tuition varies according to class time and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,695, PT 87, Grad 448 Faculty: FT 34, PT 133 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Receiving Financial Aid: 89 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 60 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

ASNUNTUCK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

170 Elm St.
Enfield, CT 06082-3800
Tel: (860)253-3000
Free: 800-501-3967
Admissions: (860)253-3018
Fax: (860)253-9310
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.acc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Harvey S. Irlen
Registrar: Rita Moriarty
Admissions: Donna Shaw
Financial Aid: Donna Jones-Searle
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $58 per credit part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 526, PT 957 Faculty: FT 25, PT 90 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1
Library Holdings: 31,700 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates

BETH BENJAMIN ACADEMY OF CONNECTICUT

132 Prospect St.
Stamford, CT 06901-1202
Tel: (203)325-4351
President/CEO: Rabbi S. Schustal
Registrar: Rabbi M. Bender
Admissions: Rabbi David Mayer
Financial Aid: Rabbi M. Hershkowitz
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Men Affiliation: Jewish H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Calendar System: Trimester Professional Accreditation: AARTS

BRIARWOOD COLLEGE

2279 Mount Vernon Rd.
Southington, CT 06489-1057
Tel: (860)628-4751
Fax: (860)628-6444
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.briarwood.edu/
President/CEO: Lynn Alan Brooks
Registrar: Stephanie Crombie
Admissions: Donna Yamanis
Financial Aid: Deborah Flinn
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 58% SAT V 400+; 32% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 73 Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $15,200 full-time, $500 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $220 full-time, $125 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. College room only: $3320. Tuition guaranteed not to increase for student's term of enrollment. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 389, PT 258 Faculty: FT 29, PT 66 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 21 Library Holdings: 11,500 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, ABFSE, ADA, AHIMA, AOTA

CAPITAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

950 Main St.
Hartford, CT 06103
Tel: (860)906-5000
Admissions: (860)906-5127
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Ira Rubenzahl
Registrar: Lynn Davis
Admissions: Marsha Ball-Davis
Financial Aid: Margaret Wolf
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System Admission Plans: Open Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For students with baccalaureate degrees: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 927, PT 2,646 Faculty: FT 63 Library Holdings: 46,760 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, APTA, JRCERT, JRCEMT, NLN

CENTRAL CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

1615 Stanley St.
New Britain, CT 06050-4010
Tel: (860)832-3200
Admissions: (860)832-2285
Fax: (860)832-2522
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ccsu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard L. Judd
Registrar: Susan Petrosino
Admissions: Richard Bishop
Financial Aid: Richard Bishop
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut State University System Scores: 94% SAT V 400+; 95% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 62 Application Deadline: June 01 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3034 full-time, $290 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9820 full-time, $290 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3130 full-time, $55 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course level, course load, and reciprocity agreements. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course level and course load. College room and board: $7456. College room only: $4250. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 7,445, PT 2,233, Grad 2,637 Faculty: FT 416, PT 434 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Exams: SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 58 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 21 Library Holdings: 639,257 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 122 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABET, AAMFT, AACN, AANA, ACCE, CSWE, JRCEPAT, NAIT, NASM, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Fencing M & W; Football M; Golf M& W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

CHARTER OAK STATE COLLEGE

55 Paul Manafort Dr.
New Britain, CT 06053-2142
Tel: (860)832-3800
Admissions: (860)832-3858
Fax: (860)832-3999
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.charteroak.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Merle W. Harris
Registrar: Patricia Derech
Admissions: Lori Pendleton
Financial Aid: Velma Walters
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $60.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required. For all applicants must have successfully completed a minimum of 9 college credits: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. State resident tuition: $165 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $235 per credit part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Available Enrollment: , PT 1,902 Faculty: PT 85 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 % Receiving Financial Aid: 14 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors

CONNECTICUT COLLEGE

270 Mohegan Ave.
New London, CT 06320-4196
Tel: (860)447-1911
Admissions: (860)439-2200
Fax: (860)439-4301
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.connecticutcollege.edu/
President/CEO: Norman Fainstein, PhD
Registrar: Aileen Burdick
Admissions: Martha Merrill
Financial Aid: Elaine Solinga
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 15% ACT 18-23; 67% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 35 Admission Plans: Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 01 Application Fee: $60.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $41,975. Part-time tuition: $975 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to program. Tuition: $975 per credit hour part-time. Part-time tuition varies according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,808, PT 79, Grad 11 Faculty: FT 162, PT 80 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Exams: ACT, Other, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 42 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 99 Library Holdings: 496,817 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 128 semester hours, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Field Hockey W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby W; Sailing M & W; Skiing (Cross-Country) M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Squash M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball M & W; Water Polo M & W

EASTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

83 Windham St.
Willimantic, CT 06226-2295
Tel: (860)465-5000; 877-353-3278
Admissions: (860)465-5286
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.easternct.edu
President/CEO: Dr. David G. Carter
Registrar: Kathleen Fabian
Admissions: Kimberly Crone
Financial Aid: Richard A. Savage
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut State University System % Accepted: 69 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: May 01 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3034 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $9820 full-time, $277 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $2930 full-time, $35 per term part-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to degree level. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load, degree level, and reciprocity agreements. College room and board: $7300. College room only: $4230. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,751, PT 994, Grad 368 Faculty: FT 188, PT 209 Exams: SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 239,218 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: CSWE, NCATE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

FAIRFIELD UNIVERSITY

1073 North Benson Rd.
Fairfield, CT 06824-5195
Tel: (203)254-4000
Admissions: (203)254-4100
Fax: (203)254-4199
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.fairfield.edu/
President/CEO: Rev. Jeffrey P. von Arx, SJ
Registrar: Robert C. Russo
Admissions: Karen Pellegrino
Financial Aid: Erin Chiaro
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic (Jesuit) Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 74 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 15 Application Fee: $55.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED not accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $39,855 includes full-time tuition ($29,750), mandatory fees ($505), and college room and board ($9600). College room only: $5560. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to student level. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $395 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $60 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,485, PT 588, Grad 1,100 Faculty: FT 226, PT 197 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 47 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 80 Library Holdings: 325,166 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AAMFT, AACN, ACA, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Field Hockey W; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

GATEWAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

60 Sargent Dr.
New Haven, CT 06511-5918
Tel: (203)285-2000
Free: 800-390-7723
Admissions: (203)789-7043
Fax: (203)285-2018
Web Site: http://www.gwcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Dorsey L. Kendrick
Registrar: David M. Swirsky
Admissions: Catherine Surface
Financial Aid: Cheryl A. Pegues
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System % Accepted: 94 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: September 01 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,809, PT 3,930 Faculty: FT 72, PT 231 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Library Holdings: 54,802 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABET, JRCERT, JRCNMT Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Soccer M; Softball W

GIBBS COLLEGE

142 East Ave.
Norwalk, CT 06851-5754
Tel: (203)838-4173
Free: 800-845-5333
Admissions: (203)633-2311
Fax: (203)853-6402
Web Site: http://www.gibbscollege.com/
President/CEO: Lorren West
Registrar: Ashanti Lyons
Admissions: Ted Havelka
Financial Aid: Marie Chevres
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Career Education Corporation Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Quarter, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 770 Faculty: FT 18, PT 47 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Library Holdings: 10,000 Credit Hours For Degree: 90 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS

GOODWIN COLLEGE

745 Burnside Ave.
East Hartford, CT 06108
Tel: (860)528-4111
Fax: (860)291-9550
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.goodwin.edu/
President/CEO: Mark Scheinberg
Admissions: Daniel P. Noonan
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 90 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Tuition: $13,570 full-time, $425 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $300 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 132, PT 1,087 Faculty: FT 22, PT 76 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Library Holdings: 6,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ACICS, AAMAE

HOLY APOSTLES COLLEGE AND SEMINARY

33 Prospect Hill Rd.
Cromwell, CT 06416-2005
Tel: (860)632-3010
Free: 800-330-7272
Fax: (860)632-3030
Web Site: http://www.holyapostles.edu/
President/CEO: Very Rev. Douglas L. Mosey, CSB
Admissions: Very Rev. Douglas Mosey, CSB
Financial Aid: Henry Miller
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $5520 full-time, $230 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $25 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester Enrollment: FT 9, PT 32, Grad 213 Faculty: FT 14, PT 10 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 Exams: SAT I % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 80 Library Holdings: 84,584 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors

HOUSATONIC COMMUNITY COLLEGE

900 Lafayette Blvd.
Bridgeport, CT 06604-4704
Tel: (203)332-5000
Admissions: (203)332-5102
Web Site: http://www.hctc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Janis M. Hadley
Registrar: Edward Sylvia
Admissions: Delores Y. Curtis
Financial Aid: Paul Marchelli
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community-Technical College System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 66, PT 177 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 30,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AOTA, APTA, NAACLS

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

101 Wykeham Rd.
Suffield, CT 06078
Tel: (860)868-9555
Free: 800-955-0809
Admissions: (860)668-3515
Fax: (860)868-2114
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.ichm.edu/
President/CEO: Tad L. Graham-Handley
Registrar: Karen Jackson
Admissions: Tina Merullo
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed % Accepted: 77 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $100.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $100. Comprehensive fee: $20,878 includes full-time tuition ($15,900) and college room and board ($4978). Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Continuous, Summer Session Not available Enrollment: FT 116 Faculty: FT 7, PT 6 Exams: SAT I % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 90 Library Holdings: 10,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 66 credits, Associates

LYME ACADEMY COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS

84 Lyme St.
Old Lyme, CT 06371
Tel: (860)434-5232
Fax: (860)434-8725
Web Site: http://www.lymeacademy.edu/
President/CEO: Frederick S. Osborne
Registrar: James Falconer
Admissions: John D. Werenko
Financial Aid: James Falconer
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 92% SAT M 400 + Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Tuition: $16,416 full-time. Mandatory fees: $500 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 71, PT 89 Faculty: FT 10, PT 12 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 8,686 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 132 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: NASAD

MANCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PO Box 1046
Manchester, CT 06045-1046 Tel: (860)512-3000
Admissions: (860)512-3210
Fax: (860)647-6238
Web Site: http://www.mcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Jonathan M. Daube
Registrar: Lourdes Cruz
Admissions: Peter Harris
Financial Aid: Ivette Rivera-Dreyer
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per credit hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6696 full-time, $279 per credit hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,713, PT 3,422 Faculty: FT 95, PT 258 Student-Faculty Ratio: 21:1 Library Holdings: 45,265 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: ARCEST, ACF, AOTA, APTA, CARC, NAACLS Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W

MIDDLESEX COMMUNITY COLLEGE

100 Training Hill Rd.
Middletown, CT 06457-4889
Tel: (860)343-5800
Admissions: (860)343-5742
Fax: (860)344-7488
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.mxcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Wilfredo Nieves
Registrar: Susan Salowitz
Admissions: Mensimah Shabazz
Financial Aid: Gladys Colon
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $6696 full-time, $279 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $304 full-time, $2.50 per credit part-time, $53 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 876, PT 1,410 Faculty: FT 39, PT 86 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 45,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: COptA, JRCERT

MITCHELL COLLEGE

437 Pequot Ave.
New London, CT 06320-4498
Tel: (860)701-5000
Free: 800-443-2811
Admissions: (860)701-5038
Fax: (860)444-1209
Web Site: http://www.mitchell.edu/
President/CEO: Mary Ellen Jukoski
Registrar: Donald Dykes
Admissions: Kimberly Hodges
Financial Aid: Kevin M. R. Mayne
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 60% SAT V 400+; 61% SAT M 400+; 43% ACT 18-23; 14% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $30. Comprehensive fee: $28,735 includes full-time tuition ($19,405) and college room and board ($9330). College room only: $4850. Part-time tuition: $275 per credit hour. Part-time mandatory fees: $35 per term. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 644, PT 83 Faculty: FT 26, PT 45 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 80 Library Holdings: 80,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Lacrosse M; Sailing M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

NAUGATUCK VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

750 Chase Parkway
Waterbury, CT 06708-3000
Tel: (203)575-8040
Admissions: (203)575-8016
Fax: (203)596-8766
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.nvcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Richard L. Sanders
Registrar: Joan Arbusto
Admissions: Lucretia Sveda
Financial Aid: Rodney Butler
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community-Technical College System % Accepted: 42 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2672 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,215, PT 3,456 Student-Faculty Ratio: 5:1 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 35,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABET, APTA, CARC, JRCERT, NLN

NORTHWESTERN CONNECTICUT COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Park Place East
Winsted, CT 06098-1798
Tel: (860)738-6300
Admissions: (860)738-6329
Fax: (860)379-4465
Web Site: http://www.nwctc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. R. Eileen Baccus
Registrar: Debra Reynolds
Admissions: Beverly Chrzan
Financial Aid: Louis Bristol
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community-Technical College System % Accepted: 100 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2672 full-time, $156 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7976 full-time, $458 per semester hour part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 527, PT 1,042 Faculty: FT 27, PT 86 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Library Holdings: 37,666 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 62 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, APTA

NORWALK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

188 Richards Ave.
Norwalk, CT 06854-1655
Tel: (203)857-7000
Admissions: (203)857-7060
Fax: (203)857-3335
Web Site: http://www.ncc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. David L. Levinson
Registrar: Erika Vogel
Admissions: Kimberlee Csapo-Ebert
Financial Aid: Norma McNerney
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time, $98 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $20 per credit part-time, $160 per term part-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,016, PT 4,020 Faculty: FT 89, PT 260 Student-Faculty Ratio: 20:1 Library Holdings: 66,080 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: CARC, NLN

PAIER COLLEGE OF ART, INC.

20 Gorham Ave.
Hamden, CT 06514-3902
Tel: (203)287-3030
Admissions: (203)287-3031
Web Site: http://www.paiercollegeofart.edu/
President/CEO: Jonathan E. Paier
Registrar: Maureen Derose
Admissions: Daniel Paier
Financial Aid: John DeRose
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 77% SAT V 400+; 72% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 91 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Tuition: $12,000 full-time, $380 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 191, PT 86 Faculty: FT 9, PT 36 Student-Faculty Ratio: 7:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 88 Library Holdings: 11,515 Credit Hours For Degree: 64 semester hours, Associates; 130 semester hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ACCSCT

POST UNIVERSITY

800 Country Club Rd.
Waterbury, CT 06723-2540
Tel: (203)596-4500
Free: 800-345-2562
Admissions: (203)596-4630
Fax: (203)756-5810
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.post.edu
President/CEO: Dr. Jon Jay DeTemple
Registrar: Donna B. Campbell
Admissions: Dominick Miciotta
Financial Aid: Patricia DelBuono
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 85% SAT V 400+; 88% SAT M 400+; 33% ACT 18-23; 17% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 62 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. Comprehensive fee: $29,900 includes full-time tuition ($20,750), mandatory fees ($750), and college room and board ($8400). Part-time tuition: $690 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 664, PT 437 Faculty: FT 30, PT 92 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 79 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 54 Library Holdings: 85,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Golf M; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Volleyball W

QUINEBAUG VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

742 Upper Maple St.
Danielson, CT 06239-1440
Tel: (860)774-1130
Fax: (860)774-7768
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.qvcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dianne E. Williams
Registrar: Antonio Veloso
Admissions: Dr. Toni Moumouris
Financial Aid: Alfred Williams
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System % Accepted: 98 Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: September 01 Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2112 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $6336 full-time. Mandatory fees: $294 full-time. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to reciprocity agreements. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 643, PT 1,071 Faculty: FT 21, PT 101 Student-Faculty Ratio: 18:1 Library Holdings: 31,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE

QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY

275 Mount Carmel Ave.
Hamden, CT 06518-1940
Tel: (203)582-8200
Free: 800-462-1944
Admissions: (203)582-8600
Fax: (203)582-6347
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.quinnipiac.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. John L. Lahey
Registrar: Dorothy Lauria
Admissions: Joan Isaac Mohr
Financial Aid: Heather Hamilton
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 40% ACT 18-23; 51% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 53 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: February 01 Application Fee: $45.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $45. Comprehensive fee: $36,980 includes full-time tuition ($25,240), mandatory fees ($1040), and college room and board ($10,700). Part-time tuition: $625 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $30 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,286, PT 420, Grad 1,043 Faculty: FT 280, PT 500 Student-Faculty Ratio: 15:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 57 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 70 Library Holdings: 285,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABA, AOTA, APTA, AALS, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

SACRED HEART UNIVERSITY

5151 Park Ave.
Fairfield, CT 06825-1000
Tel: (203)371-7999
Admissions: (203)365-4763
Fax: (203)371-7889
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sacredheart.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Anthony J. Cernera
Registrar: Douglas J. Bohn
Admissions: James Barquinero
Financial Aid: Julie Savino
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 99% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 64 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $33,404 includes full-time tuition ($23,750) and college room and board ($9654). College room only: $7078. Full-time tuition varies according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $390 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $76 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 3,244, PT 860, Grad 1,456 Faculty: FT 186, PT 286 Student-Faculty Ratio: 13:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 67 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 68 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: AACN, AOTA, APTA, CSWE, JRCEPAT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling M & W; Cheerleading W; Crew W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports W; Fencing M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W; Wrestling M

SAINT JOSEPH COLLEGE

1678 Asylum Ave.
West Hartford, CT 06117-2700
Tel: (860)232-4571; (866)442-8752
Admissions: (860)231-5216
Fax: (860)233-5695
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.sjc.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Evelyn C. Lynch
Registrar: Brenda Sebastianelli
Admissions: Alan Chesterton
Financial Aid: Philip Malinoski
Type: Comprehensive Affiliation: Roman Catholic Scores: 93% SAT V 400+; 91% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 72 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $33,250 includes full-time tuition ($22,890), mandatory fees ($600), and college room and board ($9760). College room only: $4780. Part-time tuition: $530 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $25 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 871, PT 288, Grad 699 Faculty: FT 77, PT 11 Student-Faculty Ratio: 11:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 83 Library Holdings: 120,094 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AAMFT, AACN, AAFCS, ADtA, CSWE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball W; Cross-Country Running W; Lacrosse W; Soccer W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis W; Volleyball W

ST. VINCENT'S COLLEGE

2800 Main St.
Bridgeport, CT 06606-4292
Tel: (203)576-5235
Admissions: (203)576-5515
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.stvincentscollege.edu/
President/CEO: Anne T. Avallone
Registrar: Joseph Macionus
Admissions: Joseph Marrone
Financial Aid: Mary L. Rich
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Roman Catholic Church Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Fee: $30.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 10, PT 9 Student-Faculty Ratio: 23:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT Library Holdings: 9,428 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 72 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: AAMAE, NLN

SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

501 Crescent St.
New Haven, CT 06515-1355
Tel: (203)392-5200
Admissions: (203)392-5656
Fax: (203)392-5727
Web Site: http://www.southernct.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Cheryl Norton
Registrar: Lynn Kohrn
Admissions: Sharon Brennan
Financial Aid: Avon Dennis
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut State University System Scores: 89% SAT V 400+; 86% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 54 Admission Plans: Deferred Admission Application Deadline: July 01 Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. State resident tuition: $3187 full-time, $322 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,315 full-time, $322 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $3255 full-time, $8 per credit part-time, $55 per term part-time. College room and board: $8031. College room only: $4446. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 6,697, PT 1,612, Grad 3,849 Faculty: FT 403, PT 555 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 46 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 33 Library Holdings: 495,660 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: ABET, AAMFT, AACN, AANA, ACA, ALA, ASLHA, CEPH, CSWE, JRCEPAT, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M; Gymnastics M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Wrestling M

THREE RIVERS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

7 Mahan Dr.
Norwich, CT 06360
Tel: (860)886-0177
Admissions: (860)892-5762
Fax: (860)886-0691
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.trcc.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Grace Sawyer-Jones
Registrar: Karen Aubin
Admissions: Karin Edwards
Financial Aid: Daniel Zaneski
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community-Technical College System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For adults who demonstrate ability to benefit from college: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. State resident tuition: $2232 full-time, $93 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $7264 full-time, $279 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $304 full-time. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Faculty: FT 72, PT 150 Exams: Other Library Holdings: 53,768 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ABET, ACBSP, MACTE, NLN

TRINITY COLLEGE

300 Summit St.
Hartford, CT 06106-3100
Tel: (860)297-2000
Admissions: (860)297-2180
Fax: (860)297-2287
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.trincoll.edu/
President/CEO: James F. Jones, Jr.
Registrar: Patricia McGregor
Admissions: Larry Dow
Financial Aid: Kelly L. O'Brien
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 6.84% ACT 18-23; 68.38% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 39 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 01 Application Fee: $60.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $60. Comprehensive fee: $42,220 includes full-time tuition ($32,000), mandatory fees ($1630), and college room and board ($8590). College room only: $5550. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan. Part-time tuition: $1185 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,165, PT 178, Grad 183 Faculty: FT 183, PT 75 Student-Faculty Ratio: 10:1 Exams: Other % Receiving Financial Aid: 46 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 96 Library Holdings: 988,536 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 36 courses, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Fencing M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Riflery M & W; Rugby M & W; Sailing M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Squash M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Ultimate Frisbee M & W; Volleyball M & W; Water Polo M & W; Wrestling M

TUNXIS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

271 Scott Swamp Rd.
Farmington, CT 06032-3026
Tel: (860)677-7701
Admissions: (860)255-3350
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.tunxis.commnet.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Cathryn Addy
Registrar: Susan Juba
Admissions: Peter McCloskey
Financial Aid: David Welsh
Type: Two-Year College Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut Community College System Admission Plans: Open Admission; Preferred Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $20.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $20. Area resident tuition: $98 per credit hour part-time. State resident tuition: $2352 full-time. Nonresident tuition: $7056 full-time, $294 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $320 full-time, $178 per term part-time. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,488, PT 2,406 Faculty: FT 62, PT 172 Student-Faculty Ratio: 19:1 Library Holdings: 33,866 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates Professional Accreditation: ADA, APTA

UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ACADEMY

15 Mohegan Ave.
New London, CT 06320-8100
Tel: (860)444-8444
Free: 800-883-8724
Admissions: (860)444-8500
Fax: (860)444-8289
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.cga.edu/
President/CEO: Rear Adm. Robert C. Olsen, Jr.
Registrar: G. Phillip Boeding
Admissions: Capt. Susan D. Bibeau
Type: Four-Year College Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 14% ACT 18-23; 62% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 26 Admission Plans: Early Action Application Deadline: March 01 Application Fee: $0.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted. For home schooled applicants: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $0. Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,012 Faculty: FT 100, PT 18 Student-Faculty Ratio: 9:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 100 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 126 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ABET Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Bowling M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Football M; Golf M & W; Ice Hockey M; Lacrosse M & W; Riflery M & W; Rugby M & W; Sailing M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W; Water Polo M; Wrestling M

UNIVERSITY OF BRIDGEPORT

126 Park Ave.
Bridgeport, CT 06604
Tel: (203)576-4000
Free: 800-243-9496
Admissions: (203)576-4552
Fax: (203)576-4941
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.bridgeport.edu/
President/CEO: Neil Albert Salonen
Registrar: Valerie E. Powell Baldwin
Admissions: Audrey Sikton-Savage
Financial Aid: Robbie deLevr
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 67% SAT V 400+; 72% SAT M 400+; 40% ACT 18-23; 12% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 74 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $25.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $25. Comprehensive fee: $29,595 includes full-time tuition ($19,200), mandatory fees ($1395), and college room and board ($9000). College room only: $4600. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and student level. Part-time tuition: $640 per credit. Part-time mandatory fees: $60 per term. Part-time tuition and fees vary according to program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 1,247, PT 429, Grad 1,749 Faculty: FT 89, PT 260 Student-Faculty Ratio: 12:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT II % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 45 Library Holdings: 272,430 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army Professional Accreditation: ABET, ADA, ACBSP, NACSCAO, NASAD, CCE Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Gymnastics W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT

Storrs, CT 06269
Tel: (860)486-2000
Admissions: (860)486-3137
Fax: (860)486-1476
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.uconn.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Philip E. Austin
Registrar: Dr. Jeffrey von Munkwitz-Smith
Admissions: Lee Melvin
Financial Aid: Jean Main
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 29% ACT 18-23; 56% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 51 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: February 01 Application Fee: $70.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $70. State resident tuition: $6456 full-time, $269 per credit part-time. Nonresident tuition: $19,656 full-time, $819 per credit part-time. Mandatory fees: $1906 full-time, $635 per term part-time. College room and board: $8266. College room only: $4350. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 15,296, PT 816, Grad 6,180 Faculty: FT 975, PT 290 Student-Faculty Ratio: 17:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 47 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 72 Library Holdings: 2,987,772 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEJMC, AAMFT, ABA, ACPhE, ADtA, APTA, APA, ASLA, ASLHA, AALS, CSWE, NAACLS, NASAD, NASM, NASPAA, NAST, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving M& W; Tennis M& W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball W

UNIVERSITY OF HARTFORD

200 Bloomfield Ave.
West Hartford, CT 06117-1599
Tel: (860)768-4100
Free: 800-947-4303
Admissions: (860)768-4296
Fax: (860)768-4961
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.hartford.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Walter Harrison
Registrar: Doreen Lay
Admissions: Richard Zeiser
Financial Aid: Suzanne E. Peters
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 99% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 47% ACT 18-23; 42% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 66 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $35.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $35. Comprehensive fee: $35,688 includes full-time tuition ($24,576), mandatory fees ($1190), and college room and board ($9922). College room only: $6118. Part-time tuition: $360 per credit. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 4,657, PT 935, Grad 1,668 Faculty: FT 325, PT 428 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 64 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 74 Library Holdings: 468,780 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credits, Associates; 120 credits, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, AOTA, APTA, APA, CARC, JRCERT, NAACLS, NASAD, NASD, NASM, NCATE, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Badminton M & W; Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M & W; Lacrosse M; Racquetball M & W; Rugby M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Squash M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W

UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAVEN

300 Orange Ave.
West Haven, CT 06516-1916
Tel: (203)932-7000
Free: 800-DIAL-UNH
Admissions: (203)932-7319
Fax: (203)937-0756
Web Site: http://www.newhaven.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Steven Kaplan
Registrar: Virginia Klump
Admissions: Jane C. Sangeloty
Financial Aid: Karen Flynn
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 93.5% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 73 Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $50.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $50. Comprehensive fee: $32,532 includes full-time tuition ($22,380), mandatory fees ($602), and college room and board ($9550). College room only: $5796. Full-time tuition and fees vary according to course load and program. Room and board charges vary according to board plan and housing facility. Part-time tuition: $746 per credit hour. Part-time tuition varies according to class time, course load, location, and program. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: 4-1-4, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,301, PT 487, Grad 1,678 Faculty: FT 162, PT 309 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT, SAT I % Receiving Financial Aid: 74 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 64 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 60 credit hours, Associates; 120 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: ABET, ADA Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Cheerleading M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Golf M; Lacrosse W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Tennis W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY

Middletown, CT 06459-0260
Tel: (860)685-2000
Admissions: (860)685-3000
Fax: (860)685-3001
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wesleyan.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. Douglas J. Bennet, Jr.
Registrar: Anna Van der Burg
Admissions: Nancy Hargrave Meislahn
Financial Aid: Elizabeth McCormick
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400+; 3% ACT 18-23; 31% ACT 24-29 % Accepted: 28 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: January 01 Application Fee: $55.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $55. Comprehensive fee: $44,770 includes full-time tuition ($34,930), mandatory fees ($300), and college room and board ($9540). College room only: $5808. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 2,750, PT 14, Grad 443 Faculty: FT 325, PT 43 Student-Faculty Ratio: 9:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 48 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 94 Library Holdings: 1,301,176 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 32 courses, Bachelors ROTC: Air Force Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Equestrian Sports M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Rugby M & W; Sailing M & W; Skiing (Downhill) M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Squash M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W; Water Polo M; Wrestling M

WESTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

181 White St.
Danbury, CT 06810-6885
Tel: (203)837-8200; 877-837-9278
Admissions: (203)837-9000
Fax: (203)837-8320
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.wcsu.edu/
President/CEO: Dr. James W. Schmotter
Registrar: Irene Duffy
Admissions: William Hawkins
Financial Aid: Nancy Barton
Type: Comprehensive Sex: Coed Affiliation: Connecticut State University System Scores: 95% SAT V 400+; 93% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 58 Admission Plans: Preferred Admission; Early Admission; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: May 01 Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED accepted Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40. State resident tuition: $3187 full-time, $304 per semester hour part-time. Nonresident tuition: $10,315 full-time, $304 per semester hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $2919 full-time, $60 per term part-time. College room and board: $7784. College room only: $4516. Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 4,002, PT 1,193, Grad 712 Faculty: FT 197, PT 288 Student-Faculty Ratio: 16:1 Exams: SAT I or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 39 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 33 Library Holdings: 182,915 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 62 semester hours, Associates; 122 semester hours, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACN, ACA, CSWE, NASM, NLN Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Football M; Lacrosse W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Swimming and Diving W; Tennis M & W; Volleyball W

YALE UNIVERSITY

New Haven, CT 06520
Tel: (203)432-477
Admissions: (203)432-9316
Fax: (203)432-9392
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.yale.edu/
President/CEO: Richard C. Levin
Registrar: Barry Kane
Admissions: Richard H. Shaw, Jr.
Financial Aid: Myra B. Smith
Type: University Sex: Coed Scores: 100% SAT V 400+; 100% SAT M 400 + % Accepted: 10 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Action; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: December 31 Application Fee: $75.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $75. Comprehensive fee: $41,000 includes full-time tuition ($31,460) and college room and board ($9540). Scholarships: Available Calendar System: Semester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 5,350, PT 59, Grad 4,828 Faculty: FT 1,054, PT 376 Student-Faculty Ratio: 6:1 Exams: SAT I and SAT II or ACT % Receiving Financial Aid: 42 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 87 Library Holdings: 11,100,000 Regional Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Credit Hours For Degree: 36 courses, Bachelors ROTC: Army, Air Force Professional Accreditation: AACSB, ABET, ACEHSA, AACN, ABA, ACNM, ADtA, APA, AClPE, AALS, ATS, CEPH, LCMEAMA, NASM, NLN, SAF Intercollegiate Athletics: Baseball M; Basketball M & W; Crew M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Fencing M & W; Field Hockey W; Football M; Golf M & W; Gymnastics W; Ice Hockey M & W; Lacrosse M & W; Soccer M & W; Softball W; Squash M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Table Tennis M; Tennis M & W; Track and Field M & W; Volleyball M & W

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Connecticut

Connecticut

ALBERTUS MAGNUS COLLEGE

Accounting, B

Accounting and Finance, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Therapy/Therapist, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, B

Child Development, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Curriculum and Instruction, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

General Studies, B

Graphic Design, B

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

History, B

Human Resources Management and Services, B

Human Services, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Information Science/Studies, AB

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Economics, B

Italian Language and Literature, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Liberal Studies, M

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Philosophy, B

Photography, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Romance Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Urban Studies/Affairs, B

ASNUNTUCK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Banking and Financial Support Services, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Office Automation/Technology/Data Entry, A

Communication and Media Studies, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, A

Engineering Science, A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

General Studies, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Machine Tool Technology/Machinist, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Medical Office Assistant/Specialist, A

Radio and Television, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

BRIARWOOD COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

BioTechnology, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Development, A

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Dental Assisting/Assistant, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Funeral Service and Mortuary Science, AB

General Studies, A

Health Information/Medical Records Administration/Administrator, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Office Management/Administration, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Radio and Television Broadcasting Technology/Technician, A

Tourism and Travel Services Management, A

CAPITAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Fire Protection and Safety Technology/Technician, A

Fire Services Administration, A

Information Technology, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Social Work, A

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, A

CENTRAL CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Anthropology, B

Art Education, M

Art Teacher Education, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Building/Construction Finishing, Management, and Inspection, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business Education, M

Cell Biology and Anatomy, O

Chemistry, BM

Civil Engineering, M

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Community Psychology, M

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, M

Construction Engineering and Management, M

Corporate and Organizational Communication, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminology, BM

Design and Visual Communications, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

Engineering Technology, B

English, M

English as a Second Language, M

English Language and Literature, B

Exercise and Sports Science, MO

Finance, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

Foundations and Philosophy of Education, M

French Language and Literature, BM

Geography, BM

Geology/Earth Science, B

Geosciences, M

German Language and Literature, B

Health Psychology, M

History, BM

Industrial Production Technologies/Technicians, B

Information Science/Studies, M

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Affairs, M

International Business/Trade/Commerce, BM

Italian Language and Literature, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Management of Technology, M

Manufacturing Engineering, M

Manufacturing Technology/Technician, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mathematics, BM

Mechanical Engineering, M

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, B

Molecular Biology, BO

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, BMO

Physical Sciences, B

Physics, BM

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Rehabilitation Counseling, MO

School Psychology, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, BM

Special Education and Teaching, M

Technology Teacher Education/Industrial Arts Teacher Education, B

Tourism and Travel Services Marketing Operations, B

Vocational and Technical Education, MO

CHARTER OAK STATE COLLEGE

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

CONNECTICUT COLLEGE

African Studies, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anthropology, B

Architecture, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Astrophysics, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Botany/Plant Biology, BM

Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology, B

Central/Middle and Eastern European Studies, B

Chemistry, B

Chinese Language and Literature, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, BM

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Dance, BM

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

East Asian Studies, B

Economics, B

Education, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering Physics, B

English, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Ethnic, Cultural Minority, and Gender Studies, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

French Language and Literature, BM

German Studies, B

Hispanic Studies, M

Hispanic-American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican-American/Chicano Studies, B

History, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Italian Language and Literature, BM

Italian Studies, B

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Latin American Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, B

Museology/Museum Studies, B

Music, BM

Music Teacher Education, BM

Neuroscience, B

Philosophy, B

Physics Teacher Education, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Slavic Studies, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Teacher Education, Multiple Levels, B

Urban Studies/Affairs, B

Women's Studies, B

Zoology/Animal Biology, M

EASTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business/Commerce, B

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Developmental and Child Psychology, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Economics, B

Education, M

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, B

General Studies, AB

History, B

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Mathematics, B

Organizational Management, M

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

Visual and Performing Arts, B

FAIRFIELD UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BMO

American/United States Studies/Civilization, BM

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Chemistry, B

Clinical Psychology, B

Computer Engineering, M

Computer Science, B

Computer Software Engineering, B

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Economics, B

Education, MO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, MO

Electrical Engineering, M

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, AB

Elementary Education and Teaching, M

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

English as a Second Language, MO

English Language and Literature, B

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, MO

Foreign Language Teacher Education, MO

Foundations and Philosophy of Education, MO

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, B

Human Resources Management and Services, MO

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, MO

International Relations and Affairs, B

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, BMO

Management of Technology, M

Marketing, MO

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BM

Mechanical Engineering, A

Modern Languages, B

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, MO

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, MO

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurse/Nursing, MO

Psychology, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

School Psychology, MO

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Software Engineering, M

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, MO

GATEWAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Biomedical Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Engineering, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Consumer Merchandising/Retailing Management, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dietetics/Dieticians, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Engineering Technology, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Gerontology, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Word Processing, A

GIBBS COLLEGE

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Design and Visual Communications, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

GOODWIN COLLEGE

Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Business/Commerce, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, A

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT Paramedic), A

Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies, A

Histologic Technician, A

Human Services, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Medical Insurance Coding Specialist/Coder, A

Medical Insurance Specialist/Medical Biller, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Security and Protective Services, A

Teacher Assistant/Aide, A

HOLY APOSTLES COLLEGE AND SEMINARY

Bible/Biblical Studies, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Philosophy, B

Religion/Religious Studies, AB

Social Sciences, B

Theology and Religious Vocations, MPO

Theology/Theological Studies, B

HOUSATONIC COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Development, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Environmental Studies, A

Human Services, A

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, A

Journalism, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Public Administration, A

Social Sciences, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Culinary Arts/Chef Training, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

LYME ACADEMY COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS

Drawing, B

Painting, B

Sculpture, B

MANCHESTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Clinical/Medical Laboratory Technician, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Engineering Science, A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

General Studies, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Engineering, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Journalism, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management Information Systems and Services, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Music, A

Occupational Therapist Assistant, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Social Work, A

Surgical Technology/Technologist, A

MIDDLESEX COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, A

Broadcast Journalism, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Engineering Science, A

Engineering Technology, A

Environmental Studies, A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Intermedia/Multimedia, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Ophthalmic Laboratory Technology/Technician, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Radio and Television, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

MITCHELL COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, AB

Child Development, AB

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, AB

Developmental and Child Psychology, A

Engineering, A

Human Development and Family Studies, AB

Human Services, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, A

Physical Sciences, A

Psychology, A

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, A

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, A

NAUGATUCK VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

American/United States Studies/Civilization, A

Automobile/Automotive Mechanics Technology/Technician, A

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Chemical Engineering, A

Computer Programming, Specific Applications, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Engineering Technology, A

Environmental Studies, A

Finance, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Gerontology, A

History, A

Horticultural Science, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Information Technology, A

International Relations and Affairs, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mathematics, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Mental Health/Rehabilitation, A

Music, A

Natural Sciences, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Physical Sciences, A

Physical Therapist Assistant, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Quality Control Technology/Technician, A

Social Work, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Word Processing, A

NORTHWESTERN CONNECTICUT COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Behavioral Sciences, A

Biology/Biological Sciences, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Child Development, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Communications Technology/Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Science, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Engineering, A

English Language and Literature, A

Human Services, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Mathematics, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Physical Sciences, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Public Health (MPH, DPH), A

Sign Language Interpretation and Translation, A

Social Sciences, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, A

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, A

NORWALK COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Programming, A

Construction Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Engineering Science, A

Engineering Technology, A

Finance, A

Fine/Studio Arts, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

General Studies, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mass Communication/Media Studies, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, A

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, A

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy, A

PAIER COLLEGE OF ART, INC.

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Commercial Photography, A

Design and Visual Communications, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Interior Design, B

Painting, B

POST UNIVERSITY

Accounting, AB

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, B

Child Care and Support Services Management, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Environmental Studies, B

Equestrian/Equine Studies, AB

Finance, B

History, B

Human Services, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Psychology, B

Sociology, B

QUINEBAUG VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Computer and Information Sciences, A

Computer Graphics, A

Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications, A

Data Entry/Microcomputer Applications, A

Engineering Technology, A

Human Services, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Plastics Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

System Administration/Administrator, A

Word Processing, A

QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

Actuarial Science, B

Advertising, B

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Applied Mathematics, B

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biological and Physical Sciences, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Broadcast Journalism, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, M

Chemistry, B

Child Development, B

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Clinical Laboratory Sciences, M

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication, Journalism and Related Programs, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Science, B

Criminal Justice/Safety Studies, B

Developmental and Child Psychology, B

Economics, BM

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, M

Foreign Language Teacher Education, M

Forensic Nursing, M

Gerontology, B

Health and Medical Laboratory Technologies, B

Health Services Administration, M

History, B

Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, B

Human Services, B

Information Science/Studies, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, BM

International Relations and Affairs, B

Internet and Interactive Multimedia, M

Journalism, BM

Law and Legal Studies, BPO

Legal Assistant/Paralegal, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Marketing, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology, B

Microbiology, M

Middle School Education, M

Molecular Biology, M

Nursing, M

Nursing - Adult, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, BM

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, M

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BM

Physician Assistant, BM

Physiological Psychology/Psychobiology, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Public Relations/Image Management, B

Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiographer, B

Sales, Distribution and Marketing Operations, B

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, M

Social Sciences, B

Social Studies Teacher Education, M

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant, B

Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design, B

SACRED HEART UNIVERSITY

Accounting, AB

Athletic Training and Sports Medicine, B

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Physical Sciences, A

Biology Teacher Education, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, AB

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Celtic Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, A

Chemistry, ABM

Chemistry Teacher Education, B

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, AB

Comparative Literature, AB

Computer and Information Sciences, AB

Computer Science, ABMO

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, AB

Economics, AB

Education, BMO

Educational Administration and Supervision, O

Electronic Commerce, O

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

English Language and Literature, AB

English/Language Arts Teacher Education, B

Environmental Biology, B

Environmental Sciences, B

European Studies/Civilization, A

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance, AB

Gerontology, M

History, AB

History Teacher Education, B

Information Science/Studies, MO

Information Technology, B

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Internet and Interactive Multimedia, O

Journalism, B

Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching, B

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Kinesiology and Exercise Science, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Liberal Studies, M

Management Information Systems and Services, MO

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, AB

Mathematics, AB

Mathematics and Computer Science, B

Mathematics Teacher Education, B

Modern Languages, A

Molecular Biochemistry, A

Music, A

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, M

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, BM

Philosophy, AB

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BMD

Political Science and Government, AB

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, AB

Radio and Television, B

Radio, Television, and Digital Communication, B

Religion/Religious Studies, ABM

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, BM

Social Science Teacher Education, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, AB

Spanish Language and Literature, AB

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, B

SAINT JOSEPH COLLEGE

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Biochemistry, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Chemistry, BM

Child Development, B

Community Psychology, M

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, M

Economics, B

Education, BM

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Family and Consumer Economics and Related Services, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Home Economics Teacher Education, B

Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences, B

Foods, Nutrition, and Wellness Studies, B

Gerontology, O

History, B

Human Development, O

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Management, M

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, MO

Maternal/Child Health and Neonatal Nurse/Nursing, M

Mathematics, B

Natural Sciences, B

Nursing, MO

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Philosophy, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurse/Nursing, M

Psychology, B

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

ST. VINCENT'S COLLEGE

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, A

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, A

Medical/Clinical Assistant, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, B

Art Education, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art Teacher Education, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Chemistry, BMO

Communication Disorders, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Science, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, DO

Educational Measurement and Evaluation, M

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMO

English, MO

English as a Second Language, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Education, MO

Exercise and Sports Science, M

Finance, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foundations and Philosophy of Education, O

French Language and Literature, BMO

Geography, B

Geology/Earth Science, B

German Language and Literature, B

Health Education, M

History, BMO

Information Science/Studies, O

Italian Language and Literature, B

Journalism, B

Leisure Studies, M

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Library Science, BMO

Marriage and Family Therapy/Counseling, M

Mathematics, BM

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, M

Music, B

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Administration, M

Nursing Education, M

Parks, Recreation, Leisure and Fitness Studies, B

Philosophy, B

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, M

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, BM

Psychology, BM

Public Health, M

Public Health (MPH, DPH), B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Recreation and Park Management, M

Romance Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, MO

School Psychology, MO

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, MO

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Work, BMO

Sociology, BM

Spanish Language and Literature, BMO

Special Education and Teaching, BMO

Sport Psychology, M

Urban Studies/Affairs, MO

Women's Studies, M

THREE RIVERS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Avionics Maintenance Technology/Technician, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Civil Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Computer Programming/Programmer, A

Computer Typography and Composition Equipment Operator, A

Consumer Merchandising/Retailing Management, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Drafting and Design Technology/Technician, A

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, A

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Engineering, A

Engineering Science, A

Engineering Technology, A

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, A

Fire Science/Firefighting, A

Hospitality Administration/Management, A

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, A

Human Services, A

Hydrology and Water Resources Science, A

Industrial Technology/Technician, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Laser and Optical Technology/Technician, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Nuclear/Nuclear Power Technology/Technician, A

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, A

Pre-Engineering, A

Public Administration, A

Special Products Marketing Operations, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

Technical and Business Writing, A

Tourism and Travel Services Management, A

TRINITY COLLEGE

American/United States Studies/Civilization, BM

Anthropology, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Biochemistry, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Chemistry, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Comparative Literature, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, B

Creative Writing, B

Dance, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, BM

Education, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Engineering, B

English, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

German Language and Literature, B

History, BM

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Italian Language and Literature, B

Jewish/Judaic Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Modern Languages, B

Music, B

Neuroscience, B

Philosophy, B

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Public Policy Analysis, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Women's Studies, B

TUNXIS COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Accounting, A

Administrative Assistant and Secretarial Science, A

Applied Art, A

Art/Art Studies, General, A

Business Administration and Management, A

Commercial and Advertising Art, A

Corrections, A

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, A

Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician, A

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, A

Engineering, A

Engineering Technology, A

Fashion Merchandising, A

Forensic Science and Technology, A

Human Services, A

Information Science/Studies, A

Kindergarten/PreSchool Education and Teaching, A

Legal Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Marketing/Marketing Management, A

Medical Administrative Assistant/Secretary, A

Physical Therapy/Therapist, A

Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling, A

UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ACADEMY

Civil Engineering, B

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Management Science, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, B

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, B

Operations Research, B

Political Science and Government, B

UNIVERSITY OF BRIDGEPORT

Accounting, B

Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, AB

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chiropractic, P

Computer Education, MO

Computer Engineering, BM

Computer Science, BM

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, AB

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, MO

Education, MDO

Educational Administration and Supervision, DO

Electrical Engineering, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, MO

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

English Language and Literature, B

Fashion Merchandising, AB

Finance, B

Graphic Design, B

Human Resources Development, M

Human Services, BM

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Illustration, B

Industrial Design, B

Information Science/Studies, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Interior Design, B

International and Comparative Education, MO

International Business/Trade/Commerce, B

International Relations and Affairs, B

Journalism, B

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Management of Technology, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, AB

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, M

Music, B

Naturopathic Medicine/Naturopathy, D

Nutritional Sciences, M

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Law Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, MO

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, MO

Social Sciences, B

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT

Accounting, BMD

Acting, B

Actuarial Science, BMD

Adult and Continuing Education and Teaching, MD

Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, MD

African Studies, M

Agricultural Economics, BMD

Agricultural Sciences, MD

Agricultural Teacher Education, B

Agriculture, B

Agronomy and Crop Science, B

Agronomy and Soil Sciences, MD

Allied Health and Medical Assisting Services, M

Allied Health Diagnostic, Intervention, and Treatment Professions, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Animal Physiology, B

Animal Sciences, ABMD

Animal/Livestock Husbandry and Production, A

Anthropology, BMD

Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, A

Applied Mathematics, BM

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BM

Biochemistry, MD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, MD

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical Engineering, MD

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Biophysics, BMD

BioTechnology, MD

Botany/Plant Biology, MD

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MDO

Business/Commerce, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, MD

Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BMD

Child and Family Studies, MD

Civil Engineering, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, MD

Cognitive Sciences, BMD

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Disorders, MDO

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Comparative Literature, MD

Composition, M

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, BMD

Corporate and Organizational Communication, D

Counseling Psychology, MD

Curriculum and Instruction, MD

CytoTechnology/Cytotechnologist, B

Developmental Biology and Embryology, MD

Developmental Psychology, MD

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Dramatic/Theatre Arts and Stagecraft, B

Ecology, BMD

Economics, BMD

Education, MD

Education/Teaching of the Gifted and Talented, MD

Educational Administration and Supervision, MD

Educational Measurement and Evaluation, MD

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, MD

Educational Psychology, MD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BMD

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

Engineering Physics, B

English, MD

English Education, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Entomology, MD

Environmental and Occupational Health, M

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MD

Environmental Studies, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Exercise and Sports Science, MD

Experimental Psychology, MD

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, D

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Foreign Language Teacher Education, MD

Foundations and Philosophy of Education, MD

French Language and Literature, BMD

General Studies, B

Genetics, MD

Genomic Sciences, M

Geography, BMD

Geology/Earth Science, BMD

Geophysics Engineering, D

German Language and Literature, BMD

Health Services Administration, M

Health/Health Care Administration/Management, B

Higher Education/Higher Education Administration, MD

History, BMD

Horticultural Science, AB

Human Development, MD

Human Development and Family Studies, B

Human Resources Development, M

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, MD

Industrial Engineering, B

Insurance, B

International Affairs, M

Italian Language and Literature, BMD

Jewish/Judaic Studies, M

Journalism, B

Kinesiology and Movement Studies, MD

Landscape Architecture, B

Latin American Studies, BM

Law and Legal Studies, PO

Leisure Studies, MD

Linguistics, BMD

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Management Science, B

Manufacturing Engineering, B

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, B

Marine Sciences, MD

Marketing, MD

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Materials Engineering, BMD

Materials Sciences, MD

Mathematical and Computational Finance, M

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics Teacher Education, MD

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MD

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, MD

Metallurgy, MD

Microbiology, MD

Molecular Biology, MD

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Multilingual and Multicultural Education, MD

Music, BMD

Music History, Literature, and Theory, D

Music Teacher Education, BMD

Music Theory and Composition, MD

Musicology and Ethnomusicology, M

Natural Resources and Conservation, BMD

Natural Resources Management/Development and Policy, MD

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, MD

Neuroscience, MD

Nursing, MD

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nutritional Sciences, BMD

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, MD

Oral and Dental Sciences, M

Parks, Recreation and Leisure Facilities Management, B

Pathobiology, MD

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, B

Performance, MD

Pharmaceutical Sciences, MD

Pharmacology, MD

Pharmacy, B

Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration, B

Philosophy, BMD

Physical Education Teaching and Coaching, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BM

Physics, BMD

Physiology, MD

Plant Sciences, MD

Political Science and Government, BMD

Polymer/Plastics Engineering, MD

Pre-Pharmacy Studies, B

Psychology, BMD

Public Health, MO

Public Policy Analysis, MO

Reading Teacher Education, MD

Real Estate, B

School Psychology, MD

Science Teacher Education/General Science Teacher Education, MD

Secondary Education and Teaching, MD

Social Psychology, MD

Social Studies Teacher Education, MD

Social Work, MDO

Sociology, BMD

Software Engineering, MD

Spanish Language and Literature, BMD

Special Education and Teaching, BMD

Statistics, BMD

Structural Biology, BMD

Sustainable Development, M

Systems Engineering, MD

Technical Theatre/Theatre Design and Technology, B

Theater, M

Theatre Literature, History and Criticism, B

Toxicology, MD

Urban Studies/Affairs, B

Western European Studies, M

Women's Studies, B

UNIVERSITY OF HARTFORD

Accounting, BMO

Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician, B

Architecture, M

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Audio Engineering, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Ceramic Arts and Ceramics, B

Chemistry, B

Cinematography and Film/Video Production, B

Civil Engineering, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Clinical Psychology, MD

Communication and Media Studies, M

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, B

Community Health Nursing, M

Composition, MDO

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Engineering Technology/Technician, A

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, MO

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Dance, B

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Drawing, B

Early Childhood Education and Teaching, BM

Economics, B

Education, MDO

Educational Leadership and Administration, MDO

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering Technology/Technician, AB

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Elementary Education and Teaching, BM

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, M

Engineering Technologies/Technicians, B

Engineering Technology, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Experimental Psychology, M

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, BM

Foreign Languages and Literatures, B

General Studies, A

History, B

Insurance, B

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Jazz/Jazz Studies, B

Jewish/Judaic Studies, B

Law and Legal Studies, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, A

Management, M

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Mathematics, B

Mathematics and Statistics, B

Mechanical Engineering, B

Mechanical Engineering Related Technologies/Technicians, B

Medical Radiologic Technology/Science - Radiation Therapist, B

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, BMDO

Music History, Literature, and Theory, BM

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Music Performance, B

Music Teacher Education, BMD

Music Theory and Composition, BM

Neuroscience, M

Nursing, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Nursing Education, M

Occupational Therapy/Therapist, B

Organizational Behavior Studies, M

Painting, B

Performance, MDO

Philosophy, B

Photography, B

Physical Therapy/Therapist, BM

Physics, B

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Pre-Veterinary Studies, B

Psychology, BMD

Public Health (MPH, DPH), AB

Respiratory Care Therapy/Therapist, B

School Psychology, M

Sculpture, B

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Sociology, B

Special Education and Teaching, B

Taxation, MO

Technical and Business Writing, B

UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAVEN

Accounting, BM

Advertising and Public Relations, M

Applied Mathematics, B

Aviation, M

Biology Technician/BioTechnology Laboratory Technician, B

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MO

Business/Managerial Economics, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, M

Chemical Engineering, AB

Chemistry, B

Civil Engineering, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, AB

Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric, AB

Community Psychology, MO

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Engineering, B

Computer Science, AM

Corrections, M

Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration, B

Criminal Justice/Police Science, A

Criminology, M

Dental Hygiene/Hygienist, AB

Dietetics/Dieticians, B

Ecology, B

Education, M

Electrical Engineering, M

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MO

Engineering Design, O

Engineering Management, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental and Occupational Health, M

Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology, MO

Environmental Sciences, M

Finance, B

Finance and Banking, M

Fine/Studio Arts, B

Fire Protection, B

Fire Protection and Safety Technology/Technician, AB

Fire Protection Engineering, M

Foodservice Systems Administration/Management, A

Forensic Science and Technology, BM

General Studies, A

Health Services Administration, M

History, B

Hospitality Administration/Management, BM

Hotel/Motel Administration/Management, B

Human Resources Management and Services, M

Industrial and Labor Relations, M

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, MO

Industrial Hygiene, M

Industrial/Management Engineering, MO

Information Science/Studies, BM

Interior Architecture, AB

International Business/Trade/Commerce, BM

Law and Legal Studies, AB

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, B

Logistics and Materials Management, O

Management Information Systems and Services, M

Management of Technology, M

Management Strategy and Policy, M

Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, B

Marketing, M

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mathematics, B

Mechanical Engineering, BM

Molecular Biology, M

Music, B

Music Management and Merchandising, B

Nutritional Sciences, M

Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician, AB

Operations Research, M

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, B

Public Administration, BMO

Securities Services Administration/Management, M

Software Engineering, M

Sport and Fitness Administration/Management, M

Taxation, M

Travel and Tourism, M

Visual and Performing Arts, B

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY

African-American/Black Studies, B

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anthropology, B

Archeology, B

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, B

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Astronomy, BM

Biochemistry, BMD

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, D

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Cell Biology and Anatomy, D

Central/Middle and Eastern European Studies, B

Chemistry, BMD

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Computer Science, B

Dance, B

Developmental Biology and Embryology, D

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

East Asian Studies, B

Economics, B

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Studies, B

Ethnomusicology, D

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Fine/Studio Arts, B

French Language and Literature, B

Genetics, D

Geology/Earth Science, B

Geosciences, M

German Language and Literature, B

Health and Physical Education, B

History, B

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Inorganic Chemistry, MD

Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Italian Language and Literature, B

Latin American Studies, B

Liberal Studies, MO

Mathematics, BMD

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, B

Molecular Biology, BD

Music, BMD

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, D

Neuroscience, B

Organic Chemistry, MD

Philosophy, B

Physical Chemistry, MD

Physics, BMD

Physiology, D

Political Science and Government, B

Psychology, BM

Religion/Religious Studies, B

Romance Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Russian Language and Literature, B

Russian Studies, B

Science, Technology and Society, B

Social Sciences, B

Sociobiology, D

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Theoretical Chemistry, MD

Women's Studies, B

WESTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, BM

American/United States Studies/Civilization, B

Anthropology, B

Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, B

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, M

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Business Administration and Management, B

Business Administration, Management and Operations, M

Chemistry, B

Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist, B

Commercial and Advertising Art, B

Community Psychology, M

Computer Science, BM

Counselor Education/School Counseling and Guidance Services, M

Criminal Justice/Police Science, B

Criminology, M

Curriculum and Instruction, M

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

Economics, B

Education, BM

Educational Leadership and Administration, D

Educational Media/Instructional Technology, M

Elementary Education and Teaching, B

English, M

English Education, M

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental Sciences, M

Environmental Studies, B

Finance, B

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Geology/Earth Science, B

Geosciences, M

Health Services Administration, M

Health Teacher Education, B

History, BM

Illustration, M

Liberal Arts and Sciences Studies and Humanities, AB

Management Information Systems and Services, B

Marketing/Marketing Management, B

Mass Communication/Media Studies, B

Mathematics, BM

Mathematics Teacher Education, M

Music, B

Music History, Literature, and Theory, B

Music Teacher Education, BM

Nursing, M

Nursing - Adult, M

Nursing - Advanced Practice, M

Nursing - Registered Nurse Training, B

Painting, M

Planetary Astronomy and Science, M

Political Science and Government, B

Pre-Dentistry Studies, B

Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies, B

Psychology, B

Reading Teacher Education, M

Secondary Education and Teaching, B

Social Sciences, B

Social Work, B

Sociology, B

Spanish Language and Literature, B

Special Education and Teaching, M

YALE UNIVERSITY

Accounting, D

African Studies, BM

African-American/Black Studies, BMD

Allopathic Medicine, P

American/United States Studies/Civilization, BMD

Ancient/Classical Greek Language and Literature, B

Anthropology, BMD

Applied Arts and Design, M

Applied Mathematics, BMD

Applied Physics, MD

Archeology, BM

Architecture, BMO

Art History, Criticism and Conservation, BD

Art/Art Studies, General, B

Asian Languages, D

Astronomy, BMD

Astrophysics, B

Biochemistry, MDO

Bioinformatics, DO

Biological and Biomedical Sciences, DO

Biology/Biological Sciences, B

Biomedical/Medical Engineering, B

Biophysics, MD

Biostatistics, MD

Business Administration, Management and Operations, MDO

Cancer Biology/Oncology, DO

Cell Biology and Anatomy, DO

Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, B

Chemical Engineering, BMD

Chemistry, BD

Chinese Language and Literature, B

Classics and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, BD

Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics, B

Comparative Literature, BD

Computational Biology, DO

Computer and Information Sciences, B

Computer Science, D

Developmental Biology and Embryology, D

Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, B

East Asian Studies, BM

East European and Russian Studies, M

Ecology, BD

Economics, BMD

Electrical Engineering, MD

Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering, B

Engineering and Applied Sciences, MD

Engineering Physics, BMD

Engineering Science, B

English, MD

English Language and Literature, B

Environmental and Occupational Health, MD

Environmental Design/Architecture, MO

Environmental Policy and Resource Management, MDO

Environmental Sciences, MDO

Environmental Studies, B

Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering, B

Epidemiology, MD

Ethnic and Cultural Studies, B

Ethnic, Cultural Minority, and Gender Studies, B

Evolutionary Biology, BD

Film/Cinema Studies, B

Finance and Banking, D

Fine Arts and Art Studies, M

Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Forestry, MDO

French Language and Literature, BMD

Genetics, DO

Genomic Sciences, DO

Geochemistry, D

Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences, B

Geology/Earth Science, D

Geophysics and Seismology, D

Geosciences, D

German Language and Literature, BMD

Graphic Design, M

Health Services Administration, MD

History, BMD

History of Medicine, MD

History of Science and Technology, MD

Humanities/Humanistic Studies, B

Immunology, DO

Infectious Diseases, DO

Inorganic Chemistry, D

International Affairs, MO

International Public Health/International Health, M

Italian Language and Literature, BD

Japanese Language and Literature, B

Jewish/Judaic Studies, B

Latin American Studies, B

Latin Language and Literature, B

Law and Legal Studies, MDPO

Linguistics, BD

Marketing, D

Mathematics, BMD

Mathematics and Computer Science, B

Mechanical Engineering, BMD

Mechanics, MD

Medieval and Renaissance Studies, MD

Meteorology, D

Microbiology, DO

Mineralogy, D

Molecular Biology, BDO

Molecular Biophysics, DO

Molecular Medicine, DO

Molecular Pathology, DO

Molecular Physiology, D

Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, B

Music, BMDO

Near and Middle Eastern Languages, MD

Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, D

Neuroscience, DO

Nursing, MDO

Oceanography, Chemical and Physical, D

Organic Chemistry, D

Painting, M

Parasitology, D

Pathobiology, DO

Pathology/Experimental Pathology, DO

Pharmacology, DO

Philosophy, BD

Photography, M

Physical Chemistry, D

Physician Assistant, M

Physics, BD

Physiology, DO

Plant Biology, D

Political Science and Government, BD

Portuguese Language and Literature, BMD

Printmaking, M

Psychology, BD

Public Health, MDO

Religion/Religious Studies, BD

Russian Language and Literature, B

Russian Studies, B

Sculpture, M

Slavic Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, D

Social Sciences, M

Sociology, BD

South Asian Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics, B

Spanish Language and Literature, BMD

Statistics, MD

Structural Biology, DO

Systems Science and Theory, B

Theater, MDO

Theology and Religious Vocations, MPO

Virology, DO

Women's Studies, B

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT

STATE EDUCATION OFFICE

Lisa Carta Corriveau, Office Supervisor
Connecticut Vocational-Technical Schools
25 Industrial Park Rd.
Middletown, CT 06457-1543
(860)807-2200

STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION

The provisions of Connecticut General Statutes, as amended, require persons, boards, associations, partnerships, corporations or other entities to hold certificates of authorization before providing occupational instruction or training. This law requires approval by the Commissioner of Higher Education of all programs of occupational instruction which provide entry level skills in any occupation or trade.
The Statute and Regulations promulgated thereunder require a school evaluation team be established and that they review and evaluate the facilities, programs, instructional staff, advertising, brochures, student records, and financial stability of the school and make a recommendation to the Commissioner for renewal or initial approval. Exemptions from the requirements of Sections 10-7a through 10-71 inclusive are provided for (1) instruction offered under public supervision and control; (2) instruction conducted by a firm or organization solely for the training of its own employees or members; and (3) instruction offered by a school authorized by the general assembly to confer degrees.

ANSONIA

Emmett O'Brien Regional Vocational-Technical School

141 Prindle Ave., Ansonia, CT 06401. Trade and Technical. Founded 1968. Contact: Debra J. Anderson, (203)732-1812, Fax: (203)735-6236. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: None required for high school students; $660 state residents, $8,400 out-of-state, post-high school. Enrollment: men 325, women 113. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration; Automotive Service; Carpentry; Culinary Arts; Electrical Construction; Electronics Technology; Hair Styling (18 Mo); Manufacturing Technology; Mechanical Drafting; Plumbing

BRANFORD

Branford Hall Career Institute (Branford)

1 Summit Place, Branford, CT 06405. Trade and Technical, Allied Medical. Founded 1965. Contact: Angela Vallejera, (203)488-2525, 800-959-7599, Fax: (203)488-2920, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com; Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com/78/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $10,670 - $12,970; $750 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 422. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: AAMAE; ACICS; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Legal Assistant (1080 Hr); Medical Assistant (1080 Hr); Medical Insurance Specialist (1080 Hr); Paralegal (1080 Hr)

Connecticut School of Electronics

221 W. Main St., Lakeview Ctr., Branford, CT 06405. Trade and Technical. Founded 1947. Contact: Peter Leone, (203)315-1060, 800-318-7114, Fax: (203)315-1065, Web Site: http://www.ctschoolofelectronics.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 250. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (1 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (1 Yr); Computer Electro-Mechanics (18 Mo); Computer Networking (15 Mo); Medical Assistant (9 Mo)

BRIDGEPORT

Bridgeport Hospital School of Nursing

200 Mill Hill Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06610. Contact: Hope Juckel, Vice president, (203)384-3205, (203)384-3697, Web Site: http://www.bhson.com. Private. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $6,990 in-state; $6,990 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 181. Degrees awarded: Associate.

Bullard-Haven Regional Vocational Technical School

500 Palisade Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06610. Trade and Technical. Founded 1914. Contact: Jean Marconi, (203)579-6333, Fax: (203)579-6904, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Year. Tuition: Varies. High School student enrollment is tuition exempt. Enrollment: men 429, women 490. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automotive Service; Baking; Carpentry; Child Care & Guidance; Cosmetology; Culinary Arts; Drafting, Architectural; Electrical Technology; Electro-Mechanical Technology; Electronics, Instrumentation; Fashion Careers; Graphic Arts; Hair Styling; Machine Technology; Masonry; Microcomputers; Nursing, Practical; Plumbing

Butler Business School Inc.

2710 North Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06604. Contact: Paul T. Kelly, President, (203)333-3601. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $15,500. Enrollment: Total 236. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Housatonic Community College

900 Lafayette Blvd., Bridgeport, CT 06604-4704. Two-Year College. Contact: Janis M. Hadley, Pres., (203)332-5200, (203)332-5100, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hcc.commnet.edu; Deloris Y. Curtis, Dir. of Admissions, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,112 in-state; $6,336 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Leon Institute of Hair Design

111 Wall St., Bridgeport, CT 06604. Barber, Cosmetology. Founded 1934. Contact: Patrick Vitale, Jr., Director, (203)335-0364, (203)333-1465, Fax: (203)333-9360, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://leonhairschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,000. Enrollment: men 12, women 39. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Manicurist; Skin Care

St. Vincent's College

2800 Main St., Bridgeport, CT 06606. Two-Year College. Contact: Joseph Marrone, Admissions Dir., (203)576-5513, 800-873-1013, Fax: (203)576-5318, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.stvincentscollege.edu/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $330 per credit plus fees. Enrollment: Total 340. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT; NLNAC; CAAHEP; NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Health Care & Management (15 Cr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

University of Bridgeport

126 Park Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06604. Two-Year College. Founded 1927. Contact: Barbara L. Maryak, Dean of Admissions, (203)576-4552, 800-392-3582, Fax: (203)576-4941, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.bridgeport.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: $19,450/year. Enrollment: Total 1,088. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; NLNAC; ADA; NEASC; ACBSP; CCE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art (2 Yr); Art, Advertising - Commercial (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Dental Hygiene (2 Yr); Fashion Merchandising (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N.; Nursing, Vocational (2 Yr); Photography (2 Yr)

BRISTOL

Bristol Technical Education Center

431 Minor St., Bristol, CT 06010. Trade and Technical. Founded 1982. Contact: Allen Meyerhoff, Guidance Admin., (860)584-8433, Fax: (860)584-0795, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] us, Web Site: http://cttech.org/bristol/index.htm. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,000 per year. Enrollment: men 120, women 24. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration; Auto Mechanics; Computer Aided Drafting; Electronics Technology; Food Preparation & Service; Manufacturing Technology; Metal Trades Technology; Welding Technology

CHESHIRE

Roffler Academy for Hairstylists

106 Elm St., Cheshire, CT 06410. Barber. Founded 1988. Contact: Carlos Vigo, (203)272-4333. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Other. Tuition: $5,250. Enrollment: men 6, women 18. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering; Cosmetology; Hair Styling

CHESTER

Chester Charter, Inc.

61 Winthrop Rd., Chester, CT 06412. Flight and Ground. Founded 1958. Contact: Jean E. Dow, Dir., (860)526-4321, 800-752-6371, Fax: (860)526-4322. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Varies with Program. Accreditation: FAA. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Primary Flying

CROMWELL

New England Technical Institute, Center for Culinary Arts

106 Sebethe Dr., Cromwell, CT 06416. Trade and Technical. Founded 1940. Contact: Michael Frechette, (860)613-3350, (866)441-2433, Fax: (860)613-3353, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.centerforculinaryarts.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $14,300-$16,400. Enrollment: Total 110. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT; ACF. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Culinary Arts (15 Mo); Culinary Occupations

DANBURY

American Academy of Cosmetology

109 South St., Danbury, CT 06810. Cosmetology. Founded 1956. Contact: Melissa Diacri, Assistant School Dir., (203)744-0900, Fax: (203)790-7382, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.americanacademyofcosmetology.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $9,900 cosmetology; $2,100-2,400 esthetics. Enrollment: Total 55. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Esthetician (144 Hr); Nail Technology (9.5-12.5Wk)

Danbury Flight School

49 Miry Brook Rd., Danbury, CT 06810. Flight and Ground. Contact: Michael Corrigan, Contact, (203)778-4546, Fax: (203)778-4562, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.danburyflightschool.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $375 to $7425 depending on program. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: FAA. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airline Transport Pilot; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airplane Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Flight Instructor Additional Rating; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane

Danbury Hospital School of Radiologic Technology

24 Hospital Ave., Danbury, CT 06810. Allied Medical. Founded 1961. Contact: Dara E. O'Toole, Dir., (203)797-7182, 800-284-3262, Fax: (203)830-2046, Web Site: http://www.danburyhospital.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $3,000 per year. Enrollment: Total 14. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; JRCERT. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

Western Connecticut State University

181 White St., Danbury, CT 06810. Other. Founded 1903. Contact: William P. Hawkins, Enrollment Management Officer, (203)837-8210, 877-837-WCSU, Fax: (203)837-8338, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://wcsu.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies; $3,461 in-state/semester (includes fees undergrad); $7,430 out-of-state/semester. Enrollment: Total 5,884. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NEASC; NLNAC; CACREP; CSWE. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available.

DANIELSON

H. H. Ellis Regional Vocational-Technical School

613 Upper Maple St., Danielson, CT 06239. Trade and Technical. Contact: Philip Blinn, Guidance Coordinator, (203)774-8511, Fax: (203)779-1563. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $6,200 out-of-state; $400 in-state. Enrollment: men 422, women 161. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: FAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Aviation Maintenance Technology (3 Yr); Carpentry (2 Yr); Computer Repair (2 Yr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Drafting, Architectural (2 Yr); Electrical Technology (2 Yr); Electro-Mechanical Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Machine Tool Programming Technology (2 Yr); Masonry (1 Yr); Mechanical Drafting (2 Yr); Plumbing (2 Yr)

Quinebaug Valley Community College

742 Upper Maple St., Danielson, CT 06239. Two-Year College. Founded 1971. Contact: Toni T. Moumouris, Dir. of Admissions, (860)774-1130, Fax: (860)779-2998, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.qvcc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,116 per semester, residents; $3,348 per credit, nonresidents $436 fees per semester. Enrollment: Total 1,721. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Accounting, General; Allied Health Occupations; Art; Aviation Maintenance Technology; Bilingual Occupations; Business Administration; Communications, Commercial; Computer Science; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Electrical Technology; Engineering; Fine Arts; General Studies; Graphic Arts; Health Technology; Human Services; Management; Medical Administrative Assistant; Medical Assistant; Medical Technology - Phlebotomy; Microcomputers; Network Support; Office, General; Office Technology; Plastics Technology; Science; Secretarial, General; Secretarial, Medical; Software Development/Engineering; Teacher Assistant; Technological Studies; Word Processing

EAST HARTFORD

Connecticut Association of Realtors

111 Founders Plaza, Ste. 1101, East Hartford, CT 06108. Other. Contact: Crystal Soucy, (860)290-6601, 800-335-4862, Fax: (860)290-6615, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ctrealtor.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Curriculum: Real Estate, Basic (Varies)

Connecticut Institute of Hair Design (East Hartford)

1000 Main St., East Hartford, CT 06108-2220. Cosmetology, Barber. Founded 1923. Contact: Ms. L. Peters, (860)528-5032, (860)528-7178, Fax: (860)528-8652, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cthairdesign.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $9,606 plus $954 books and supplies for cosmetology. Enrollment: men 48, women 193. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Nail Technology; Skin Care

Goodwin College

745 Burnside Ave., East Hartford, CT 06108. Business, Allied Medical, Trade and Technical. Founded 1962. Contact: Daniel P. Noonan, Dir. of Enrollment and Student Services, (860)528-4111, 800-889-3282, Fax: (860)291-8285, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.goodwincollege.org. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $11,675 in-state and nonresident. Enrollment: men 800, women 1,600. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated; Computer Networking; Medical Assistant; Medical Office Management; Medical Record Technology; Nurse, Assistant; Nurses Aide; Word Processing

EAST WINDSOR

Baran Institute of Technology (East Windsor)

97 Newberry Rd., East Windsor, CT 06088. Trade and Technical. Founded 1979. Contact: L. Perkins, (860)627-4300, 800-243-4242, Web Site: http://www.baraninstitute.com; Web Site: http://www.baraninstitute.com/contact/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 277. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (12-24 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (12-24 Mo); Automotive Technology (12-24 Mo); Commercial Vehicle (6-16 Wk); Diesel Technology (12-24 Mo); Electronics Technology (12-24 Mo); Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (12-24 Mo); Motorcycle Repair (12-24 Mo); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (6-16 Wk); Welding Technology (12-24 Mo)

ENFIELD

Asnuntuck Community College

170 Elm St., Enfield, CT 06082. Two-Year College. Founded 1972. Contact: Donna L. Shaw, Admissions Dir., (860)253-3000, (860)253-3010, 800-501-3967, Fax: (860)253-3014, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.acc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,536 in state. Enrollment: Total 1,550. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Broadcasting Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Fine Arts (2 Yr); Graphic Arts (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Industrial Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Marketing; Office Administration (2 Yr); Personal Computing; Secretarial, Executive (2 Yr); Secretarial, General; Word Processing

Porter and Chester Institute (Enfield)

132 Weymouth St., Enfield, CT 06082. Trade and Technical. Founded 1946. Contact: John D. Mashia, (860)741-2561, 800-870-6789, Fax: (860)563-2595, Web Site: http://www.porterchester.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 1,650, women 350. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT; ABHES. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (1 Yr); Automotive Technology (1 Yr); Communications, Electronic (1 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (1 Yr); Computer Applications (1 Yr); Computer Electro-Mechanics (1 Yr); Dental Assisting (9 Mo); Drafting, Architectural (1 Yr); Drafting, Electro-Mechanical (1 Yr); Drafting, Electronic (1 Yr); Electronics, Industrial (1 Yr); Mechanical Drafting (1 Yr); Medical Assistant (15 Mo); Secretarial, Executive (1 Yr)

FARMINGTON

Connecticut Culinary Institute

230 Farmington Ave., Farmington, CT 06032. Trade and Technical. Founded 1987.(860)677-7869, (860)660-3500, 800-762-4337, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ctculinary.edu; Web Site: http://www.ctculinary.edu/contactus/onlineapp.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Week. Tuition: $22,100 plus $1,604 books and supplies for culinary arts; $14,800 plus $1,461 books and supplies for baking/pastry arts. Enrollment: men 57, women 324. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT; ACF. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Baking (25-37 Wk); Culinary Arts (36-60 Wk)

Connecticut School of Broadcasting - Farmington

Media Park, 130 Birdseye Rd., Farmington, CT 06032. Trade and Technical. Founded 1964. Contact: Hank Tenney, Exec.Dir., (860)677-7577, 800-887-2346, Fax: (860)677-1141, Web Site: http://www.800tvradio.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $9940; $50 in fees. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Broadcasting, Nontechnical; Radio & Television (8 Wk); Television & Radio Production (8-16 Wk)

Tunxis Community College

271 Scott Swamp Rd., Farmington, CT 06032. Two-Year College. Founded 1970. Contact: Peter J. McCluskey, Dir. of Admissions, (860)255-3500, (860)255-3550, Fax: (860)676-8906, E-mail: [email protected], tx-admissions[email protected], Web Site: http://www.tunxis.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,310 in-state; $6,890 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 1,365. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ADA; NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Business Administration; Computer Programming; Criminal Justice; Data Processing - Programming Operations; Dental Assisting; Dental Hygiene; Fashion Design & Merchandising; Fine Arts; General Studies; Graphic Arts; Human Services; Liberal Arts; Marketing Management; Secretarial, Executive; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical

GROTON

Connecticut Center for Massage Therapy (Groton)

1154 Poquonnock Rd., Groton, CT 06340. Trade and Technical. Contact: Susan Scoboria, (860)446-2299, 877-295-2268, Fax: (860)446-9410, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ccmt.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $8,950-$16,250. Enrollment: Total 115. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: COMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Massage, Medical (8-20 Mo); Massage Therapy (8-20 Mo); Spa Therapy (8-20 Mo)

Ella T. Grasso Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical School

189 Fort Hill Rd., Groton, CT 06340. Trade and Technical. Contact: Deborah Clarkson, Guidance Coord., (860)448-0220, Fax: (860)446-9895, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org/grasso; Gregory Peck, Counselor. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $600 per semester, $25 registration fee. Enrollment: men 355, women 355. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Automotive Collision Repair; Barbering; Carpentry; Computer Aided Drafting; Cosmetology; Electricity, Apprenticeship; Electronics, Industrial; Environmental Technology; Food Service & Management; Hair Styling; Heating Technology; Hospitality; Hotel & Motel Management; Microcomputers; Plumbing

HAMDEN

Eli Whitney Regional Vocational-Technical School

71 Jones Rd., Hamden, CT 06514. Trade and Technical. Founded 1955. Contact: E. Paulett Moore, Principal, (203)397-4031, Fax: (203)397-4129, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org/whitney. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $2,500 per year plus $50 registration fee. Enrollment: Total 125. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Cosmetology (18 Mo); Culinary Arts (1 Yr); Dental Assisting (1 Yr); Dental Laboratory Technology (1 Yr); Electrical Technology (1 Yr); Fashion Design & Merchandising (1 Yr); Graphic Design (1 Yr); Machine Technology (1 Yr); Mechanical Drafting (1 Yr); Nurses Aide (12 Wk); Nursing, Practical (13 Mo); Plumbing (1 Yr); Surgical Technology (1 Yr)

Paier College of Art, Inc.

20 Gorham Ave., Hamden, CT 06514. Art. Founded 1946. Contact: Angela D'Urso, (203)287-3031, (203)287-3030, Fax: (203)287-3021, E-mail: paier. [email protected], Web Site: http://www.paiercollegeofart.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $11,200 full-time degree; $9,400 full-time diploma. Enrollment: Total 309. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Fine Arts (2 or 4 Yr); Graphic Design (2 or 4 Yr); Illustration (2 or 4 Yr); Interior Design (2 or 4 Yr); Photography (2 or 4 Yr)

HARTFORD

Capital Community College

950 Main St., Hartford, CT 06103. Two-Year College. Contact: Marsha Ball-Davis, Dir., (860)906-5000, (860)906-5126, 800-894-6126, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu; Carlos Castillo, Assistant Dir.. Public. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,112 in-state; $6,336 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

Cunningham School of Court Reporting

111 Gillett St., Hartford, CT 06105. Trade and Technical. Founded 1986. Contact: Naomi Bonati, (860)247-4614. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Varies with Program. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Court Reporting

Hartford Conservatory

834-836 Asylum Ave., Hartford, CT 06105-2807. Other. Founded 1890. Contact: Jerry Prell, Dir. Admissions, (860)246-2588, Fax: (860)249-6330, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.hartfordconservatory.org; Lynne Patnode, Exec.Dir., E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $10,000. Enrollment: Total 48. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dance (2 Yr); Dance, Modern (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Music, Jazz (2 Yr); Theatre Arts (3 Yr)

Hartford Hospital School of Allied Health

560 Hudson St., Hartford, CT 06106. Allied Medical. Contact: Carol Blanks-Lawson, (860)545-2611, (860)545-2612, Fax: (860)545-6461, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.harthosp.org/Education/ProfEd/AlliedHealth/index.htm. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 17. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Histologic Technology (1 Yr); Medical Technology (4 Yr); Radiation Therapy Technology; Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr)

MANCHESTER

Creative School of Hairdressing

808 Main St., Manchester, CT 06040. Cosmetology. (860)646-5980. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Hour. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Curriculum: Cosmetology (39 Wk); Hair Styling

Manchester Community College

Great Path, PO Box 1046, Manchester, CT 06045-1046. Two-Year College. Founded 1963. Contact: Peter Harris, Dir. of Admissions, (860)512-3000, (860)512-3210, Fax: (860)512-3201, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mcc.commnet.edu; Cynthia Zeldner, Asst. Dir. of Admissions, E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,406 annual resident; $7,178 nonresident annual. Enrollment: men 2,487, women 3,230. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: AOTA; CAAHEP; NAACLS; ARCAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting & Business Administration (2 Yr); Accounting, General (2 Yr); Administrative Assistant (2 Yr); Biological Technology (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Business Technology (2 Yr); Computer Engineering (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Networking (2 Yr); Computer Programming (2 Yr); Computer Science (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (2 Yr); Drug & Alcohol Counseling (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (2 Yr); Engineering (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); General Studies (2 Yr); Graphic Design (2 Yr); Hotel & Restaurant Management (2 Yr); Industrial Technology (2 Yr); Journalism (2 Yr); Legal Assistant (2 Yr); Liberal Arts (2 Yr); Machine Tool & Die (2 Yr); Machine Tool Programming Technology (2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Mathematics (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Microcomputers (2 Yr); Multimedia Design (2 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Occupational Therapy (2 Yr); Paralegal (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Quality Control (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Social Services Aide (2 Yr); Sports Medicine (2 Yr); Surgical Technology (2 Yr); Technological Studies (2 Yr)

MERIDEN

Brio Academy of Cosmetology

1231 E. Main St., Meriden, CT 06450. Barber, Cosmetology. Founded 1970. Contact: Stuart L. Arnheim, (203)237-6683, 800-424-2746, Fax: (203)237-9110, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.brioacademy.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Hour. Tuition: $10,680 plus $1,000 books and supplies for cosmetology course. Enrollment: men 21, women 114. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Esthetician (144 Hr); Nail Technology (144 Hr)

Horace C. Wilcox Regional Vocational Technical School

Oregon Rd., Meriden, CT 06450. Trade and Technical. Founded 1918. Contact: Cynthia Kisner, Dean of Students, (203)238-6260, 800-UCANTECH, Fax: (203)238-6602, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org/wilcox. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1250/semester. Enrollment: Total 743. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration; Auto Mechanics; Carpentry; Cosmetology; Culinary Arts; Electrical Technology; Electronics, Industrial; Graphic Arts; Health Technology; Hotel & Motel Management; Machine Tool & Die; Microcomputers; Plumbing; Welding Technology

Veterans Memorial Medical Center, School of Radiography

One King Place, PO Box 1009, Meriden, CT 06451. Allied Medical. Founded 1956. Contact: Linda E. Gejda, R.T.(R), (203)238-8270. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Year. Tuition: $2,000 for 24 months. Enrollment: Total 12. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

MIDDLETOWN

Middlesex Community College

100 Training Hill Rd., Middletown, CT 06457. Two-Year College. Founded 1966. Contact: Mensimah Shabazz, Dir. of Admissions, (860)343-5888, (860)343-5742, 800-818-5501, Fax: (860)344-5735, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mxcc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,116 per semester. Enrollment: Total 2,300. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Broadcasting, Nontechnical (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Commercial Art (2 Yr); Communications, Commercial (2 Yr); Data Processing (2 Yr); Drug & Alcohol Counseling (2 Yr); Fine Arts (2 Yr); Marketing (2 Yr); Mental Health Technology (2 Yr); Ophthalmic Dispensing Technology (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Secretarial, Executive (2 Yr); Secretarial, Legal (2 Yr); Secretarial, Medical (2 Yr)

School of Radiologic Technology

Middlesex Community College, 100 Training Hill Rd., Middletown, CT 06457. Two-Year College. Founded 1966. Contact: Elaine Lisitano, (860)344-6505, (860)344-5719, Fax: (860)358-8887, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.xrayschool.com. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1,155 per semester. Enrollment: Total 38. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (27 Mo)

Vinal Regional Vocational-Technical School

60 Daniels St., Middletown, CT 06457. Trade and Technical. Contact: Linda Coolick, Adult Ed. Supervisor, (860)344-7114, (860)344-2622, 800-822-6832, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org/vinal. Public. Coed. Tuition: $1250/semester. Enrollment: men 393, women 151. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Barbering; Carpentry; Cosmetology; Culinary Arts; Electrical Technology; Electro-Mechanical Technology; Hair Styling; Machine Tool & Die; Manufacturing Technology; Mechanical Drafting; Microcomputers

MILFORD

Platt Regional Vocational-Technical School

600 Orange Ave., Milford, CT 06460. Trade and Technical. Contact: Barbara Mazzonna, (203)783-5300, (203)783-5318, Fax: (203)783-3970, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org/platt/. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Term: Hour. Tuition: $1,300 per year. Enrollment: men 550, women 250. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating; Allied Health Occupations; Auto Body & Fender Repair; Auto Mechanics; Automotive Collision Repair; Barbering; Building Construction Technology; Carpentry; Cosmetology; Drafting, Architectural; Electrical Technology; Electricity, Apprenticeship; Electro-Mechanical Technology; Electronics, Industrial; Hair Styling; Heating Technology; Machine Tool & Die; Manufacturing Technology; Mechanical Drafting; Microcomputers

Renasci Academy of Hair (Milford)

486 Bridgeport Avenue-Tower Plz., Milford, CT 06460-1023. Cosmetology. Contact: Jeanne Iacono, Dir./Owner, (203)878-4900, (203)878-4228, Web Site: http://www.renasciacademy.com; Web Site: http://www.renasciacademy.com/contactus.html. Private. Coed. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $12,795 plus $900 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 3, women 50. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: NACCAS. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

MYSTIC

Westlawn Institute of Marine Technology

75 Greenmanville Ave., PO Box 6000, Mystic, CT 06355. Correspondence. Founded 1930. Contact: Dave Gerr, Dir., (860)572-7900, Fax: (860)572-7939, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://westlawn.org; Patti Schulte, Student Services Coordinator, E-mail: [email protected] Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1,950. Enrollment: Total 600. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: DETC. Placement service available. Curriculum: Yacht Design (2 Yr)

NEW BRITAIN

New Britain General Hospital, School of Radiologic Technology

100 Grand St., New Britain, CT 06052. Allied Medical. Founded 1949. Contact: Joel Gelber, (860)224-5567. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Year. Tuition: $1,000. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (24 Mo)

New England Technical Institute

200 John Downey Dr., New Britain, CT 06051. Trade and Technical. Founded 1940. Contact: Robert Lawrence, Campus Dir., (860)225-8641, 800-336-NETI, Fax: (860)224-2983, Web Site: http://www.newenglandtechnicalinstitute.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Other. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 400, women 40. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (44 Wk); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (44 Wk); Auto Body & Fender Repair (44 Wk); Auto Mechanics (77 Wk); Computer Aided Design (44 Wk); Computer Aided Drafting (77 Wk); Electrical Technology (44 Wk); Electricity, Apprenticeship (44 Wk); Electricity - Master Electrician (77 Wk); Electronics Technology (44 Wk); Technician, Electronic Service (44 Wk)

NEW CANAAN

Silvermine Guild School of the Arts

1037 Silvermine Rd., New Canaan, CT 06840-4398. Art. Founded 1950. Contact: Ann Connell, Dir., (203)966-9700, (203)966-6668, Fax: (203)966-8570, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.silvermineart.org/. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 3,500. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Ceramics; Computer Graphics; Creative Writing; Drawing; Jewelry Design - Repair & Stone Setting; Painting; Photography; Printing; Sculpture

NEW HAVEN

Baran Institute of Technology (Windsor Locks)

225 Ella Grasso Tpke., New Haven, CT 06519. Trade and Technical. Founded 1979. Contact: Bob Hall, (860)292-8699, 800-243-4242, Web Site: http://www.baraninstitute.com; Web Site: http://www.baraninstitute.com/contact/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $18,500 - $23,900; $451 - $1,640 books and supplies. Enrollment: men 90, women 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT; NATEF. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (12-24 Mo); Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (12-24 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (12-24 Mo); Automotive Technology (12-24 Mo); Commercial Vehicle (6-16 Wk); Diesel Technology (12-24 Mo); Electronics Technology (12-24 Mo); Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (12-24 Mo); Tractor Trailer Operators Training (6-16 Wk); Welding Technology (12-24 Mo)

Care Training Center

142 Temple St., Ste. 303, New Haven, CT 06510. Allied Medical, Nursing. Founded 1998. Contact: Joanne M. Russo, (203)782-0055, 877-227-3524, Fax: (203)782-0059, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.care-ct.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: Varies by program. Enrollment: Total 700. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: EKG Technician (49 Hr); Medical Assistant (288-384 Hr); Medical Billing; Medical Technology - Phlebotomy (91 Hr); Nurses Aide (60-100 Hr)

Gateway Community College (New Haven Campus)

60 Sargent Dr., New Haven, CT 06511. Two-Year College. Founded 1968. Contact: Dr. Wilson Luna, Dean of Student Services, (203)285-2000, (203)285-2010, 800-390-7723, Fax: (203)867-6056, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.gwcc.commnet.edu; Cathy Surface, Admissions. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1268 in-state/semester; $3,784 out-of-state/semester. Enrollment: Total 5,100. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; JRCERT; NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Art; Automotive Technology; Aviation Technology; Biomedical Technology; Bookkeeping; Business Administration; Computer Aided Drafting; Computer Science; Computer Technology; Culinary Arts; Desktop Publishing; Dietetic Technology; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Early Childhood Education; Electrical Engineering Technology; Engineering Technology; Entrepreneurship; Environmental Technology; Fire Protection Technology; Graphic Design; Hospitality; Human Services; Manufacturing Technology; Mechanical Technology; Office Technology; Quality Control; Radiologic Technology; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical; Teacher Assistant; Water & Waste Water Pollution Technology; Water Quality Control; Word Processing

Yale University School of Medicine Physician Associate Program

47 College St., Ste. 220, New Haven, CT 06510. Allied Medical. Founded 1971. Contact: Reid Warner, Asst. Dir. for Student Affairs, (203)785-4252, (203)785-2860, Fax: (203)785-3601, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://info.med.yale.edu/phyassoc. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Other. Tuition: $25,220 tuition only; $47,455 (includes tuition, room and board, books, supplies, and fees). Enrollment: Total 65. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ARCEPA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Physicians Assistant (25 Mo)

NEW LONDON

Mitchell College

437 Pequot Ave., New London, CT 06320. Founded 1938. Contact: Kevin M.R. Mayne, Jr., 800-443-2811, Fax: (860)444-1209, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.mitchell.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $30,035 residential; $20,705 commuter. Enrollment: men 425, women 375. Degrees awarded: Associate, Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Business Administration; Criminal Justice; Early Childhood Education; Graphic Design; Physical Education; Sports Management

Ridley-Lowell Business and Technical Institute

470 Bank St., PO Box 652, New London, CT 06320-0652. Trade and Technical. Founded 1878. Contact: Brandi Strasshofer Morrell, (860)443-7441, Fax: (860)442-3096, Web Site: http://www.ridley.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $5,500-$9,100. Enrollment: men 74, women 90. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: AAMAE; ACICS; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, Automated (900 Hr); Computer Networking (900 Hr); Computer Programming (900 Hr); Computer Servicing - Theory & Systems (900 Hr); Electronics Technology (1200 Hr); Information Sciences Technology (600 Hr); Medical Assistant (1200 Hr); Travel & Tourism (900 Hr); Web Development (600 Hr)

NEWINGTON

Connecticut Center for Massage Therapy (Newington)

75 Kitts Ln., Newington, CT 06111. Trade and Technical. Founded 1980. Contact: Wendy Dorsey, (860)667-1886, 877-282-2268, Fax: (860)667-4566, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ccmt.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $8,950-$16,250. Enrollment: Total 308. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: COMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Massage, Medical (8-20 Mo); Massage Therapy (8-20 Mo); Spa Therapy (8-20 Mo)

Connecticut K-9 Education Center

239 Maple Hill Ave., Newington, CT 06111. Trade and Technical. Founded 1965. Contact: Margaret A. Flanagan, VP, (860)666-4646, Fax: (860)666-1566, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ctk9.com; Barbara Schatz, Pres.. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $1650 - $3,550. Enrollment: Total 14. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Pet Grooming (375 Hr); Dog Training (350 Hr); Kennel Management (350 Hr); Security Training (4 Wk)

New England School of Hairdressing

30 Christian Ln., Newington, CT 06111-5406. Cosmetology, Barber, Trade and Technical, Other. Founded 1966. Contact: Carole Matulis, Director, (860)667-2266, Fax: (860)667-3734. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $8,600 (Hair - Cosmetology); $3,460 (Aesthetics Skin Care); $2,000 (Nail Tech). Enrollment: men 3, women 60. Degrees awarded: Diploma, Certificate. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (750 Hr); Hair Styling (750 Hr); Skin Care (300 Hr)

NORTH HAVEN

Gateway Community College (North Haven Campus)

88 Bassett Rd., North Haven, CT 06473. Two-Year College. Founded 1968. Contact: Cathy Surface, Admissions, (203)285-2000, (203)285-2010, 800-390-7723, Fax: (203)234-3353, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.gwcc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $1268 in-state/semester; $3,784 out-of-state/semester. Enrollment: Total 1,200. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; CADE; NATEF; JRCERT; JRCNMT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Aviation Maintenance Technology (2 Yr); Biomedical Technology (2 Yr); Communications Technology (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (1 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Data Processing (1 Yr); Data Processing - Business (2 Yr); Desktop Publishing (1 Yr); Dietetic Technology (2 Yr); Drug & Alcohol Counseling (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Electronics Technology (1 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Health (2 Yr); Fire Protection Technology (2 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (2 Yr); Mechanical Engineering (2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Water & Waste Water Pollution Technology (1 Yr)

Northhaven Academy

352 State St., North Haven, CT 06473. Contact: Laura Landino, School director, (203)281-4477. Private. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $10,700. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate.

NORWALK

Gibbs College (Norwalk)

10 Norden Place, Norwalk, CT 06855-1436. Two-Year College. Founded 1911. Contact: Renee Poteraj, (203)838-4173, (203)663-2328, 800-845-5333, Fax: (203)899-0788, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.gibbsnorwalk.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $13,500 per year. Enrollment: Total 770. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma, Associate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Administrative Assistant (1.5 Yr); E-Commerce (1.5 Yr); Fashion Design & Merchandising (1.5 Yr); Information Sciences Technology (1.5 Yr); Secretarial, Executive (9 Mo); Visual Communications (1.5 Yr)

Norwalk Community College

188 Richards Ave., Norwalk, CT 06854. Two-Year College. Founded 1961. Contact: Patrick Boland, Dir., (203)857-7032, (203)857-7000, Fax: (203)857-3354, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ncc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2536/year resident; $7,568/year nonresident. Enrollment: Total 5,000. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: ABET; NEASC; ABA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Civil Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Computer Technology (2 Yr); Construction Technology (2 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Electro-Mechanical Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (2 Yr); Engineering Technology, Mechanical (2 Yr); Fire Protection Technology (2 Yr); Network Security

Renasci Academy of Hair (Norwalk)

3 Isaac St., Norwalk, CT 06850. Cosmetology. Founded 1991. Contact: Jeannie Iacono, Dir./Owner, (203)838-0753, Web Site: http://www.renasciacademy.com; Web Site: http://www.renasciacademy.com/contactus.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Hour. Tuition: $12,795 plus $900 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 50. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: NACCAS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Cosmetology (1500 Hr)

NORWICH

Norwich Art School of the Norwich Free Academy

305 Broadway, Norwich, CT 06360. Art. Founded 1890. Contact: Frank T. Novack, Dir. of the Arts, (860)887-2505, Fax: (860)889-6196. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $7,000 plus $150 for art supplies. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Crafts; Fine Arts

Three Rivers Community Technical College

7 Mahan Dr., Norwich, CT 06360. Two-Year College. Founded 1970. Contact: Dr. Gace-Sawyer Jones, Pres., (860)886-0177, (860)383-5260, Fax: (860)886-0691, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.trcc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,406 in-state; $7,178 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 3,711. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ABET; NLNAC; NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Advertising; Architectural Design Technology; Aviation Maintenance Technology; Business Administration; Business, General Office; Business Management; Business Occupations; Chemical Engineering; Child Care & Guidance; Civil Engineering Technology; Computer Aided Drafting; Computer Science; Criminal Justice; Data Processing; Drafting, Architectural; Drafting Technology; Drug & Alcohol Counseling; Early Childhood Education; Electrical Engineering Technology; Engineering; Engineering Technology, Mechanical; Environmental Technology; Fire Science; Food Service & Management; Health Technology; Human Services; Industrial Management & Supervision; Law Enforcement; Library Technology; Manufacturing Technology; Marketing; Nuclear Technology; Nursing, Vocational; Office Administration; Paramedic; Public Administration Technology; Retail Management; Secretarial, General; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical; Security Training; Travel & Tourism; Word Processing

PAWCATUCK

Connecticut School of Broadcasting - Pawcatuck

185 South Broad St., Pawcatuck, CT 06379. Trade and Technical. Founded 1964. Contact: Jesse Guralnick, Campus Dir., 800-887-2346, Web Site: http://www.800tvradio.com; Hank Tenney, Executive Director. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $9940; $50 in fees. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Broadcasting, Nontechnical (8-16 Wk); Radio & Television (8-16 Wk); Television & Radio Production (8-16 Wk)

SALEM

Teamwork (LLC) Dental Assisting Academy

11 Centre St., Ste. 8, Salem, CT 06420. Allied Medical. Founded 1998. Contact: Patty Wenzel, (860)887-9990, Fax: (860)885-1894. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Other. Tuition: $4,995 plus books and fees. Enrollment: Total 30. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Dental Assisting (6 Mo)

SHELTON

Allstate Commercial Driver Training

11 Constitution Blvd., S., Shelton, CT 06484-4308. Trade and Technical. Founded 1975. Contact: Vincent Maiorano, (203)922-8252, 800-246-9567, Fax: (203)922-0069, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.allstatetraining.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: men 120, women 10. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Tractor Trailer Operators Training (2-6 Wk); Truck Driving (12 Hr)

SOMERS

New England Tractor Trailer Training, Inc.

32 Field Rd., Somers, CT 06071. Trade and Technical. Founded 1965. Contact: Brian Levy, Dir., (860)749-0711, 800-243-3544, Fax: (860)749-4471, Web Site: http://www.nettts.com/; Robert Caissie, Dir. of Admissions, Web Site: http://www.nettts.com/form_ct.html. Private. Coed. HS diploma not required. Out-of-state students accepted. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $3,995. Enrollment: Total 224. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Tractor Trailer Operators Training

SOUTHBURY

Institute of Aesthetic Arts and Sciences

800 Main St. South, Ste. 110, Southbury, CT 06488. Other. Founded 1987. Contact: Kathryn Shingara, (203)262-6070, Fax: (203)264-6276. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $4,870. Enrollment: Total 20. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Makeup Facial Treatment; Skin Care (650 Hr)

SOUTHINGTON

Branford Hall Career Institute (Southington)

35 N Main St., Southington, CT 06489. Trade and Technical, Allied Medical. (860)276-0600, 800-959-7599, Fax: (860)276-0611, Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com; Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com/78/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $10,670 - $12,970; $750 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 406. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACICS. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Networking (1080 Hr); Legal Assistant (1080 Hr); Massage Therapy (900 Hr); Medical Assistant (1080 Hr); Medical Insurance Specialist (1080 Hr)

Briarwood College

2279 Mt. Vernon Rd., Southington, CT 06489. Two-Year College, Other. Founded 1966. Contact: Debra LaRoche, Dir./Admission Services, (860)628-4751, 800-952-2444, Fax: (860)628-6444, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.briarwood.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $14,625. Enrollment: Total 635. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: ADA; CAAHEP; AAMAE; NEASC; NAEYC; ADtA; ABA; ABFSE; AOTA; ASHP; AHIMA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Biological Technology; Business Management; Computer Networking; Computer Programming; Conservation & Environmental Science; Criminal Justice; Dance, Ballet; Dental Assisting; Dietetic Technology; Early Childhood Specialist; Fashion Merchandising; Fine Arts; Funeral Service Education; General Studies; Health Information Technology; Hotel & Restaurant Management; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mathematics; Medical Assistant; Medical Insurance Specialist; Medical Office Management; Medical Transcription; Microsoft Certified Specialist; Mortuary Science; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Office Technology; Paralegal; Pharmacy Technician; Physical Fitness; Science; Secretarial, Administrative; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical; Travel & Tourism

STAMFORD

J.M. Wright Technical School

Scalzi Park, PO Box 1416, Stamford, CT 06904. Trade and Technical. Contact: Sidney Abramowitz, Principal, (203)324-7363, 800-822-6832, Fax: (203)324-1196, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.cttech.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma not required. Housing not available. Term: Other. Tuition: $1250/semester; $3,800 nursing. Enrollment: Total 650. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Curriculum: Auto Mechanics; Blue Print Reading; Carpentry; Chef Training; Cosmetology; Dental Assisting; Drafting, Machine Design; Drafting Technology; Electrical Technology; Electro-Mechanical Technology; Electronics, Industrial; Electronics Technology; Food Preparation & Service; Home Economics; Machine Technology; Machine Tool & Die Design; Oil Heat Technology; Pipefitting; Plumbing; Printing; Sheet Metal; Welding, Arc & Gas; Welding Technology

St. Joseph Medical Center Siq. M.T.

128 Strawberry Hill, Stamford, CT 06902. Allied Medical. Contact: Mary A. Kowalewski, (203)328-0592. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Term: Semester. Tuition: None required. Enrollment: Total 4. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Curriculum: Medical Technology

Stamford Hospital School of Radiologic Technology

Shelburne Rd., Stamford, CT 06902. Allied Medical. Founded 1969. Contact: D.A. Saia, (203)276-7877, Fax: (203)276-7352, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.stamhealth.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,800 per year. Enrollment: men 9, women 8. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: JRCERT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Radiologic Technology (2 Yr)

STORRS

Ratcliffe Hicks School of Agriculture

University of Connecticut, 1376 Storrs Rd., U-90, Storrs, CT 06269-4090. Two-Year College. Founded 1941. Contact: Patricia Jepson, Academic Advisory Center Dir., (860)486-2920, Fax: (860)486-4643, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.canr.uconn.edu/rh. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $7,308/year, in-state; $19,036/year, nonresident; $9,430/year, New England Regional. Enrollment: Total 78. Degrees awarded: Associate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Agriculture - Production, Fruit (2 Yr); Animal Science - Beef Production (2 Yr); Animal Science, General (2 Yr); Animal Science Livestock Production (2 Yr); Dairy Husbandry (2 Yr); Floriculture (2 Yr); Horse Management (2 Yr); Horticulture (2 Yr); Landscaping (2 Yr); Nursery Management (2 Yr)

STRATFORD

Connecticut School of Broadcasting - Stratford

80 Ferry Blvd., Stratford, CT 06615. Trade and Technical. Founded 1964. Contact: Joe LaChance, Campus Dir., 800-887-2346, Web Site: http://www.800tvradio.com; Hank Tenney, Executive Director. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $9940; $50 in fees. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Broadcasting, Nontechnical (8-16 Wk); Radio & Television (8-16 Wk); Television & Radio Production (8-16 Wk)

Porter And Chester Institute (Stratford)

670 Lordship Blvd., Stratford, CT 06615-7158. Contact: Raymond R. Clark, Vice president, (203)375-4463. Private. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: $18,543 in-state; $18,543 out-of-state. Degrees awarded: Associate.

TORRINGTON

Oliver Wolcott Regional Vocational-Technical School

75 Oliver St., Torrington, CT 06790. Trade and Technical. Contact: Ruth Simoncelli, (860)496-5300, Fax: (860)489-3012, Web Site: http://www.cttech.org. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: Free for undergraduates; $650 per semester, postgraduates; $50 registration fee. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Diploma. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Allied Health Occupations (1 Yr); Auto Body & Fender Repair (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (1 Yr); Carpentry (1 Yr); Cosmetology (1500 Hr); Culinary Arts (1 Yr); Drafting Technology (1 Yr); Electrical Technology (1 Yr); Electronics, Industrial (1 Yr); Graphic Arts (1 Yr); Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (1 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (1 Yr)

WATERBURY

Naugatuck Valley Community Colleges

750 Chase Pkwy., Waterbury, CT 06708. Two-Year College. Founded 1962. Contact: Rosanna Barrett, Admissions Office Assistant, (203)575-8151, (203)575-8040, Fax: (203)596-8766, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nvcc.commnet.edu. Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,406 per year for state residents; $7,178 out-of-state. Enrollment: Total 5,315. Degrees awarded: Certificate, Associate. Accreditation: CAAHEP; JRCERT; NLNAC; ABET; NEASC; ABA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2 Yr); Athletic Trainer (1 Yr); Auto Mechanics (2 Yr); Automotive Technology (2 Yr); Aviation Technology (2 Yr); Business (2 Yr); Business Administration (2 Yr); Clerical, General (1 Yr); Computer Aided Design (2 Yr); Computer Aided Drafting (1 Yr); Computer Aided Manufacturing (2 Yr); Computer Business Systems Technology (2 Yr); Computer Information Science (2 Yr); Criminal Justice (1 Yr); Culinary Arts (1 Yr); Distributive Education (2 Yr); Drafting, Architectural (1 Yr); Drug & Alcohol Counseling (2 Yr); Early Childhood Education (1 Yr); Electrical Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Emergency Medical Technology (1 Yr); Engineering Technology (2 Yr); Environmental Technology (1 Yr); Executive Assistant (2 Yr); Finance (2 Yr); Fine Arts (1 Yr); Fire Protection Technology (2 Yr); Food Service & Management (2 Yr); Geriatric Care (2 Yr); Horticulture (1 Yr); Hospitality (2 Yr); Hotel & Motel Management (2 Yr); Human Services (2 Yr); Industrial Management & Supervision (2 Yr); Landscaping (2 Yr); Legal Assistant (2 Yr); Management (1 Yr); Manufacturing Technology (1 Yr); Marketing (1 Yr); Mathematics (2 Yr); Mechanical Engineering (2 Yr); Medical Assistant (2 Yr); Medical Insurance Specialist (1 Yr); Mental Health Technology (2 Yr); Microcomputers (1 Yr); Music (2 Yr); Nursing, R.N. (2 Yr); Physical Therapy Aide (2 Yr); Plastics (2 Yr); Quality Control (1-2 Yr); Radiologic Technology (2 Yr); Respiratory Therapy (2 Yr); Safety Technology (2 Yr); Social Work Technology (2 Yr); Word Processing (1 Yr)

Stone Academy Business School

101 Pierpont Rd., Waterbury, CT 06705. Business. Founded 1988. Contact: Jeanna LaBella, Dir., (203)756-5500, 800-585-1315, Fax: (203)596-1455, Web Site: http://www.stoneacademy.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 250. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACICS; AAMAE; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Dental Office Management; Electronics Technology; Information Sciences Technology; Medical Office Management; Microcomputers; Office, General; Office Technology; Word Processing

Teikyo Post University

PO Box 2540, Waterbury, CT 06723-2540. Other. Founded 1890. Contact: Will Johnson, Acting Dir., (203)596-4520, 800-345-2562, Fax: (203)756-5810, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.post.edu. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $385/credit hr. Enrollment: Total 1,400. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: NEASC. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General (2-4 Yr); Business Management (2-4 Yr); Early Childhood Education (2 Yr); Horse Management (4 Yr); Horsemanship (2 Yr); Information Systems (2-4 Yr); Legal Assistant (2-4 Yr); Management (2-4 Yr); Marketing (2-4 Yr)

WEST HARTFORD

Fox Institute of Business

99 South St., West Hartford, CT 06110-1922. Business. Contact: Christopher Coutts, President, (860)947-2299, Web Site: http://foxinstitute.com. Private. Coed. Housing not available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: $11,595. Enrollment: Total 113. Degrees awarded: Associate.

University of Hartford, Ward College of Technology

200 Bloomfield Ave., Rte. 189, West Hartford, CT 06117. Other. Founded 1877. Contact: Ann U. Lankford, Enrollment Manager, (860)768-4112, 800-766-4024, Fax: (860)768-5074, E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Web Site: http://uhavax.hartford.edu/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $23,480 per year. Enrollment: Total 298. Degrees awarded: Associate. Accreditation: ABET. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Chemical Engineering (4 Yr); Electronic Engineering Technology (2-4 Yr); Engineering Technology, Architectural (4 Yr); Engineering Technology, Audio (4 Yr); Engineering Technology, Computer (2-4 Yr); Mechanical Engineering (4 Yr)

WESTPORT

Connecticut Center for Massage Therapy (Westport)

25 Sylvan Rd. S., Westport, CT 06880. Other. Founded 1991. Contact: Jocelyn Keith, (203)221-7325, 877-292-2268, Fax: (203)221-0144, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.ccmt.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Trisemester. Tuition: $8,950-$16,250. Enrollment: Total 191. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: COMTA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Massage Therapy (16-24 Mo)

WETHERSFIELD

Porter and Chester Institute (Wethersfield)

125 Silas Deane Hwy., Wethersfield, CT 06109. Trade and Technical. Founded 1946. Contact: John D. Mashia, (860)529-2519, 800-870-6789, Fax: (860)563-2595, Web Site: http://www.porterchester.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Quarter. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 2,000. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning & Heating (18 Mo); Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (12 Mo); Architectural Design Technology (12 Mo); Automotive Technology (18 Mo); Computer Aided Design (12 Mo); Computer Networking (12 Mo); Computer Repair (12 Mo); Dental Assisting (9 Mo); Drafting, Architectural (12 Mo); Drafting, Electro-Mechanical (18 Mo); Electronics, Industrial (12 Mo); Medical Assistant (21 Mo)

WILLIMANTIC

Windham Aviation School

PO Box 136, Willimantic, CT 06226. Flight and Ground. Founded 1974. Contact: Susan Oygard, Counselor for Admissions, (860)456-4156, 800-615-7837, Fax: (860)456-2540, Web Site: http://www.windhamaviation.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students not accepted. Housing available. Term: Hour. Tuition: varies. Enrollment: men 45, women 7. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: FAA. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Aircraft Flight Instruction, Airline Transport Pilot; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Commercial Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Instrument Flying; Aircraft Flight Instruction, Multi-Engine Rating - Airplane

WINDSOR

Barron Career Institute of Technology

605 Day Hill Rd., Windsor, CT 06095. Trade and Technical. Founded 1969. Contact: L. Perkins, Dir. of Admissions, (860)688-8351, 800-243-4242, Fax: (860)688-8223. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing available. Term: Varies with Program. Tuition: Varies. Enrollment: Total 700. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration (12 Mo); Auto Body & Fender Repair (9 Mo); Auto Mechanics (12 Mo); Auto Mechanics - Automatic Transmission; Auto Mechanics - Brake & Wheel Alignment; Auto Mechanics - Diesel; Auto Mechanics - Tune Up; Computer Aided Drafting (12 Mo); Computer Electro-Mechanics; Diesel Technology (12 Mo); Electronics Technology (12 Mo); Engineering Technology, Computer; Welding Technology (6 Mo)

Branford Hall Career Institute (Windsor)

995 Day Hill Rd., Windsor, CT 06095. Trade and Technical, Allied Medical. Founded 1965. Contact: Mitch Soriane, Dir., (860)683-4900, 800-959-7599, Fax: (860)683-4907, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com; Web Site: http://www.branfordhall.com/78/. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Hour. Tuition: $10,670 - $12,970; $750 books and supplies. Enrollment: Total 375. Degrees awarded: Certificate. Accreditation: ACICS; ABHES. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Computer Networking (1080 Hr); Legal Assistant (1080 Hr); Massage Therapy (900 Hr); Medical Assistant (1080 Hr); Medical Insurance Specialist (1080 Hr)

WINSTED

Northwestern Connecticut Community College

Park Place E., Winsted, CT 06098. Two-Year College. Founded 1965. Contact: Beverly Schott, Dir. of Admissions, (860)738-6330, (860)738-6329, Fax: (860)738-6439, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.nwctc.commnet.edu/nccchome.htm; Sally Gray, Admissions Sec., E-mail: [email protected] Public. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Semester. Tuition: $2,536 in-state; $7,568 non-resident. Enrollment: Total 513. Degrees awarded: Associate, Certificate. Accreditation: NEASC; AVMA; CAAHEP. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Accounting, General; Alcohol Counseling; Art; Business Administration; Child Care & Guidance; Criminal Justice; Deaf Education; Graphic Arts; Medical Assistant; Park & Turf Management; Public Administration Technology; Recreation Leadership; Recreation Therapy; Secretarial, Executive; Secretarial, Legal; Secretarial, Medical; Veterinary Assistant; Veterinary Technology

WOLCOTT

Connecticut Institute of Hair Design (Wolcott)

1681 Meriden Rd., Wolcott, CT 06716. Barber, Cosmetology. Founded 1977. Contact: Madeline Cannata, (203)879-4247, Fax: (203)897-4247, Web Site: http://www.cthairdesign.com. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Month. Tuition: $8,200 plus $300 books and supplies for barbering. Enrollment: men 3, women 9. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Accreditation: ACCSCT. Financial aid available. Placement service available. Handicapped facilities available. Curriculum: Barbering (9-15 Mo); Cosmetology (9-15 Mo); Hair Styling (9-15 Mo)

YALESVILLE

Home Inspection Institute of America, Inc.

314 Main St., PO Box 4174, Yalesville, CT 06492-1524. Trade and Technical. Founded 1989. Contact: David Hetzel, Pres., (203)284-2311, Fax: (203)284-0288, E-mail: [email protected], Web Site: http://www.inspecthomes.com; Charles E. Champagne, Dir.. Private. Coed. HS diploma required. Out-of-state students accepted. Housing not available. Term: Week. Tuition: $1,400 plus $195 nonrefundable deposit. Degrees awarded: Diploma. Approved: Vet. Admin. Financial aid not available. Placement service not available. Handicapped facilities not available. Curriculum: Building Inspection Technology (48 Hr)

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Connecticut

Connecticut

1 Location and Size

2 Topography

3 Climate

4 Plants and Animals

5 Environmental Protection

6 Population

7 Ethnic Groups

8 Languages

9 Religions

10 Transportation

11 History

12 State Government

13 Political Parties

14 Local Government

15 Judicial System

16 Migration

17 Economy

18 Income

19 Industry

20 Labor

21 Agriculture

22 Domesticated Animals

23 Fishing

24 Forestry

25 Mining

26 Energy and Power

27 Commerce

28 Public Finance

29 Taxation

30 Health

31 Housing

32 Education

33 Arts

34 Libraries and Museums

35 Communications

36 Press

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

38 Sports

39 Famous Connecticuters

40 Bibliography

State of Connecticut

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: From the Mahican word quinnehtukqut, meaning “beside the long tidal river.”

NICKNAME : The Constitution State (official in 1959); the Nutmeg State.

CAPITAL: Hartford.

ENTERED UNION: 9 January 1788 (5th).

OFFICIAL SEAL: The three grape vines and motto of the arms surrounded by the words Sigillum reipublicæ Connecticutensis (Seal of the State of Connecticut).

FLAG: The coat of arms appears on a blue field.

COAT OF ARMS: On a rococo shield, three grape vines, supported and bearing fruit, stand against a white field. Beneath the shield is a streamer bearing the state motto.

MOTTO: Qui transtulit sustinet (He who transplanted still sustains).

SONG: “Yankee Doodle.”

FLOWER: Mountain laurel.

TREE: White oak.

ANIMAL: Sperm whale.

BIRD: American robin.

INSECT: European praying mantis.

MINERAL: Garnet.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Martin Luther King Jr. Day, 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln Day, 12 February; Washington’s Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans’ Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

1 Location and Size

Located in New England in the northeastern United States, Connecticut ranks 48th in size among the 50 states. The state’s area is 5,018 square miles (12,997 square kilometers), of which 4,872 square miles (12,619 square kilometers) are of land and 146 square miles (378 square kilometers) are inland waters. Connecticut has an average length of 90 miles (145 kilometers) east-west and an average width of 55 miles (89 kilometers) north-south. It has a boundary length of 328 miles (528 kilometers) and a shoreline of 253 miles (407 kilometers).

2 Topography

Connecticut is divided into four main geographic regions: the central lowlands (formed by the Connecticut and Quinnipiac river valleys), the eastern highlands, the western highlands, and the coastal lowlands. Mt. Frissell, the highest point in the state at 2,380 feet (726 meters), is located in the western highlands, which are an extension of the Green Mountains. The coastal lowlands consist of rocky peninsulas, shallow bays, sand and gravel beaches, salt meadows, and good harbors at Bridgeport, New Haven, New London, Mystic, and Stonington.

Connecticut has more than 6,000 lakes and ponds. The two largest bodies of water, both of which were manmade, are Lake Candlewood, covering about 5,000 acres (2,000 hectares), and Barkhamsted Reservoir, a major source of water for the Hartford area. The main river is the Connecticut, New England’s longest river, at 407 miles (655 kilometers). This waterway, which is navigable as far north as Hartford, divides the state roughly in half before emptying into Long Island Sound. Other principal rivers include the Thames, Housatonic, and Naugatuck.

3 Climate

Connecticut has a generally temperate climate, with mild winters and warm summers. The January mean temperature is 27°f (-3°c) and the July mean is 70°f (21°c). Coastal areas have warmer winters and cooler summers than the interior. The highest recorded temperature in Connecticut was 106°f (41°c) in Danbury on 15 July 1995. The lowest recorded temperature was -32°f (-36°c) in Falls Village on 16 February 1943. The annual rainfall is about

Connecticut Population Profile

Total population estimate in 2006:3,504,809
Population change, 2000–06:2.9%
Hispanic or Latino†10.9%
Population by race 
One race:98.3%
White:81.2%
Black or African American:9.1%
American Indian /Alaska Native:0.2%
Asian:3.2%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander:0.0%
Some other race:4.5%
Two or more races:1.8%

Population by Age Group

Major Cities by Population
City Population % change 2000–05
Notes: †A person of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race. NA indicates that data are not available.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey and Population Estimates. www.census.gov/ (accessed March 2007).
Bridgeport139,008-0.4
New Haven124,7910.9
Hartford124,3972.3
Stamford120,0452.5
Waterbury107,9020.6
Norwalk84,4371.8
Danbury78,7365.2
New Britain71,254-0.4
Bristol61,3532.1
Meriden59,6532.4

46.2 inches (117 centimeters) and is evenly distributed throughout the year. The state receives some 25 to 60 inches (64 to 150 centimeters) of snow each year, with the heaviest snowfall in the northwest. Severe flooding and hurricanes have occurred.

4 Plants and Animals

Connecticut has an impressive variety of vegetation zones. Along the shore of Long Island Sound are tidal marshes with salt grasses. On slopes fringing the marshes are black grass, switch grass, and march elder. Vegetation in the swamp areas includes various ferns, abundant cattails, and skunk cabbage. The state’s hillsides and uplands support a variety of flowers and plants, including mountain laurel (the state flower), pink azalea, and Queen Anne’s lace. Endangered plant species in the state include showy lady’s slipper, ginseng, showy aster, nodding pogonia, goldenseal, climbing fern, and chaffseed.

Only the smaller mammals, such as the woodchuck, gray squirrel, cottontail, eastern chipmunk, porcupine, raccoon, and striped skunk, remain common. Snakes remain plentiful but are mostly harmless, except for the northern copperhead and timber rattlesnake. Fresh-water fish are abundant, and aquatic life in Long Island Sound even more so. Common birds include the robin (the state bird), blue jay, song sparrow, wood thrush, and many species of waterfowl.

In April 2006, a total of 16 animal species were listed as threatened or endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Among these were five kinds of sea turtles, the bald eagle, the roseate tern, two species of whale, and the gray wolf.

5 Environmental Protection

The Department of Environmental Protection, established in 1971, is responsible for protecting natural resources and controlling water, air, and land pollution. In 1980, Connecticut became the first state in the country to adopt a comprehensive statewide groundwater quality management system. In 1994, the governors of Connecticut and New York formally adopted a comprehensive plan to manage Long Island Sound, an “estuary of national significance.”

Vehicle-related emissions of ozone precursors have been reduced by almost 50% and the state is working closely with other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states on regional ozone reduction.

Connecticut Population by Race

Census 2000 was the first national census in which the instructions to respondents said, “Mark one or more races.” This table shows the number of people who are of one, two, or three or more races. For those claiming two races, the number of people belonging to the various categories is listed. The U.S. government conducts a census of the population every ten years.

 Number Percent
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000: Redistricting Data. Press release issued by the Redistricting Data Office. Washington, D.C., March, 2001. A dash (—) indicates that the percent is less than 0.1.
Total population3,405,565100.0
One race3,330,71797.8
Two races70,4732.1
White and Black or African American11,7250.3
White and American Indian/Alaska Native7,6520.2
White and Asian7,3430.2
White and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander538
White and some other race24,3910.7
Black or African American and American Indian/Alaska Native3,4390.1
Black or African American and Asian945
Black or African American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander665
Black or African American and some other race9,0080.3
American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian365
American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander41
American Indian/Alaska Native and some other race668
Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander465
Asian and some other race2,7380.1
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and some other race490
Three or more races4,3750.1

Permitting and enforcement processes and voluntary reductions have resulted in at least a 68% reduction in toxins emitted to the air.

In 1987 Connecticut adopted statewide mandatory recycling. The combination of resource recovery, recycling, and reduction of waste by consumers has resulted in significant reductions in landfilled garbage over the past few decades. In 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency’s database listed 424 hazardous waste sites within the state, 14 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006.

6 Population

In 2006, Connecticut ranked 29th in the nation in population with a total estimated population of 3,504,809. The US Census Bureau projects that the population will reach 3.69 million by 2025. Connecticut’s population density in 2004 was 722.9 persons per square mile (279.1 persons per square kilometer), which was considerably higher than the national average. The median age of all residents in 2004 was 38.9 years. In 2005, 13% of residents were 65 years old or older, while 24% were 18 years old or younger.

Major cities with their 2005 population estimates were Bridgeport, 139,008; Hartford, 124,791; New Haven, 124,397; Stamford, 120,045; and Waterbury, 107,902.

7 Ethnic Groups

Many residents in Connecticut are of second-generation European descent. The biggest groups are those with ancestors from Italy, Ireland, Poland, and Quebec, Canada. According to the 2000 census, the black population numbered 309,843 people, about 9% of the total population. In 2006, the black population accounted for 9.1% of the state’s population. There were also about 320,323 residents of Hispanic or Latino origin, or about 10% of the state’s total population, according to the 2000 census. Of these, about 194,443 were Puerto Rican. In 2006, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 10.9% of the population. The 2000 census also reported that Connecticut had 9,639 Native Americans, 82,313 Asians, and 1,366 Pacific Islanders. In 2006, those of American Indian ancestry accounted for 0.2% of the state’s population, while 3.2% were Asian. As of 2000, about 369,967 Connecticut residents, or 10.9% of the population, were foreign born.

8 Languages

Connecticut English is basically that of the Northern dialect, but features of the eastern New England subdialect occur east of the Connecticut River. In the east, the word box is pronounced /bawks/ and cart is /kaht/. In the western half, creek is /krik/ and cherry may be /chirry/. Along the Connecticut river, the word butcher might sound like /boocher/ and tomorrow is pronounced /tomawro/. In some regions, a sycamore is called a buttonball and gutters are eavestroughs. In the northwest, an earthworm is called an angledog.

As of 2000, a total of 2,600,601 Connecticuters (81.7% of the population five years old and older) speak only English at home. Other languages spoken at home, and the number of people who speak them, include Spanish, 268,044; Italian, 50,891; French, 42,947; Polish, 38,492; and Portuguese, 30,667.

9 Religions

In 1630, the Congregational Church, was established by the Puritans as the official religion for the colony. Roman Catholic immigrants arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since World War I, Roman Catholics have been the most numerous religious group in the state. As of 2004, there were 1,333,044 Roman Catholics in the state. Mainline Protestants represent the second largest category of churches and include the United Church of Christ with 92,573 adherents (in 2005), the Episcopal Church with 73,550 members (in 2000), and the United Methodist Church with 51,183 adherents (in 2000). The estimated number of Jewish adherents was 108,280 (in 2000), while Muslims numbered about 29,647. About 42.1% of the population were not counted as members of any religious organization.

10 Transportation

As of 2003, there were 708 miles (1,140 kilometers) of railroad in Connecticut. The New Haven Line Commuter Rail Service offers a line between New Haven and New York City. On an average weekday, nearly 900 trains serve over 250,000 Metro-North customers from Connecticut and New York. In 1990, the Connecticut Department of Transportation (CDOT) contracted with Amtrak to operate the Shore Line East Commuter Rail Service between Old Saybrook and New Haven. In February of 1996, Shore Line East service was extended to New London. On an average weekday, 18 revenue trains serve about 600 customers.

Since 1971, Amtrak has provided intercity passenger service to Connecticut on the Northeast Corridor main line (Boston–New Haven–New York City–Philadelphia–Washington, DC) and on the Springfield Line (New Haven–Hartford–Springfield).

Local bus systems provide intracity transportation. These services are generally subsidized by the state, and in some instances, by the Federal Transit Administration. Intercity bus service (not subsidized by the state or the federal government) is provided in over 30 municipalities by some 30 companies.

Connecticut has an extensive system of expressways, state highways, and local roads, totaling 21,144 miles (34,041 kilometers) in 2004. Major highways include I-95, also called the John Davis Lodge Turnpike, which crosses the entire length of the state near the shore; I-91, linking New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, and I-84 from the Massachusetts Turnpike southwestward through Hartford, Waterbury, and Danbury to New York State.

As of 2004, there were about 2.035 million automobiles, 938,000 trucks, and around 10,000 buses registered in the state. Connecticut had 2,694,574 licensed drivers during that same year.

Most of Connecticut’s waterborne traffic is handled through the two major ports of New Haven and Bridgeport.

In 2005, there were 152 public and private air facilities in Connecticut including 54 airports, 92 heliports, and 6 seaplane bases. Connecticut’s principal air terminal is Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, which is north of Hartford.

11 History

By the early 17th century, Connecticut had between 6,000 and 7,000 Native Americans organized into 16 tribes. Because of their fear of the warlike Pequot along the shore and of the Mohawk to the west, most of Connecticut’s other Native Americans sought the friendship of English newcomers in the 1630s. The impact of English settlers on Connecticut’s friendly tribesmen was devastating, however. The Native Americans lost their land, were made dependents in their own territory, and were ravaged by such European diseases as smallpox and measles. By the 1770s, Connecticut’s Native American population was less than 1,500.

The early English settlers were part of a great migration of some 20,000 English Puritans between 1630 and 1642. In 1639, the Puritan settlements at Windsor, Wethersfield, and Hartford joined together to form the Connecticut Colony. A separate Puritan colony established at New Haven in 1638 joined them in 1665. Connecticut functioned throughout the colonial period much like an independent republic. It was the only American colony that generally did not follow English legal and legislative practices.

With its Puritan roots and historic autonomy, Connecticut was a patriot stronghold during the American Revolution. The state’s most famous Revolutionary War figure was Nathan Hale, executed as a spy by the British in New York City in 1776. On 9 January 1788, Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the Constitution. Connecticut strongly disagreed with the foreign policy of Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, and opposed the War of 1812, even refusing to allow its militia to leave the state.

Long before the Civil War, Connecticut was stoutly antislavery. Connecticut had a number of antislavery societies whose members routed escaped slaves to Canada via the Underground Railroad. Some 55,000 Connecticut men served in the Civil War, suffering more than 20,000 casualties. The contributions by Connecticut industries to the war effort signaled the state’s emergence as a manufacturing giant. Its industrial development was helped by abundant waterpower, an elaborate transportation network, and, most important, the technological and marketing expertise of the people.

1900–1945 The state’s textile industry ranked sixth in the nation in 1900, with an annual output of $50 million. By 1904, Connecticut’s firearms industry was producing more than one-fourth of the total value of all firearms manufactured by nongovernment factories in the United States. These great strides in manufacturing transformed Connecticut from a rural, agrarian society in the early 1800s to an increasingly urban state.

The state’s contribution to the Allied forces in World War I more than equaled its Civil War effort. About 66,000 Connecticuters served in the armed forces, and by 1917–18, four-fifths of Connecticut’s industry was involved in defense production. During the 1920s, the state became a national leader in the production of specialty parts for the aviation, automotive, and electric power industries.

The stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent depression of the 1930s hit highly industrialized Connecticut hard. By the spring of 1932, the state’s unemployed totaled 150,000, and cities such as Bridgeport fell deeply in debt. Connecticut was pulled out of the unemployment doldrums in 1939, when the state’s factories were once again stimulated by defense contracts. During World War II, Connecticut’s factories turned out submarines, Navy Corsair fighter aircraft, helicopters, 80% of all ball bearings manufactured in the United States, and many thousands of small arms. Approximately 220,000 Connecticut men and women served in the US armed forces.

Post-World War II Since 1945, Connecticut has seen substantial population growth, economic diversification with a greater proportion of service industries, the expansion of middle-class suburbs, and an influx of black and Hispanic migrants to the major cities. Urban renewal projects in Hartford and New Haven have resulted in expanded office and recreational facilities, but not much desperately needed new housing. A major challenge facing Connecticut in the 1980s was once again how to handle the social and economic integration of this incoming wave of people and industries.

Connecticut became the nation’s wealthiest state during the 1980s, achieving the highest per capita (per person) income in 1986. The state’s prosperity came in part from the expansion of the military budget, as 70% of Connecticut’s manufacturing sector was defense-related. The end of the Cold War, however, brought cuts in military spending which reduced the value of defense-related contracts in Connecticut from $6 billion

Connecticut Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 1948–2004

YEAR CONNECTICUT WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN PROGRESSIVE SOCIALIST
* Won US presidential election.
1948Dewey (R)423,297437,75413,7136,964
1952*Eisenhower (R)481,649611,0121,4662,244
1956*Eisenhower (R)405,079711,837
1960*Kennedy (D)657,055565,813
1964*Johnson (D)826,269390,996
    AMERICAN IND.  
1968Humphrey (D)621,561556,72176,660
     AMERICAN
1972*Nixon (R)555,498810,76317,239
     US Labor
1976Ford (R)647,895719,2617,1011,789
    LIBERTARIAN CITIZENS
1980*Reagan (R)541,732677,2108,5706,130
    CONN-ALLIANCE COMMUNIST
1984*Reagan (R)569,597890,8771,2744,826
    LIBERTARIAN NEW ALLIANCE
1988*Bush (R)676,584750,24114,0712,491
     IND. (PEROT)
1992*Clinton (D)682,318578,3135,391348,771
1996*Clinton (D)735,740483,1095,788139,523
     REFORM
2000Gore (D)816,015561,09464,4524,713
2004Kerry (D)857,488693,8264,713

in 1989 to $4.2 billion in 1990. Department of Defense spending per capita fell from $1,800 in the 1980s to $1,289 in 1992. By 1992, manufacturing jobs had declined by 25% while jobs in such service industries as retail, finance, insurance, and real estate increased by 23%. The total number of jobs, however, dropped by 10%.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, Connecticut witnessed an increasing contrast between the standard of living enjoyed by urban and suburban residents, blacks and whites, and the wealthy and the poor. In 1992, the median family income in many of the state’s suburbs was nearly twice that of families living in urban areas.

Although a personal income tax and programs were implemented to give a greater share of state money to urban areas, along with improvements to the state educational system, poverty in the state continued to increase during the 1990s. In 1990, a total of 6% of the state’s population lived in poverty. By 1998, that number had increased to 9.2%, although by 2004, the level had fallen to 7.6%, which was well below the national average of 13.1%.

As of 2005, Connecticut was seeking additional business investment.

12 State Government

The state legislature is called the general assembly, consisting of a 36-member senate and 151-member house of representatives. Legislators are elected to both houses for two-year terms.

Connecticut Governors: 1769–2007

Democratic Republican – Dem-Rep
National Republican – Nat-Rep
1769–1784Jonathan Trumbull 
1784–1786Matthew Griswold 
1786–1796Samuel HuntingtonFederalist
1796–1797Oliver Wolcott, Sr.Federalist
1797–1809Jonathan TrumbullFederalist
1809–1811John TreadwellFederalist
1811–1812Roger GriswoldFederalist
1812–1817John Cotton SmithFederalist
1817–1827Oliver Wolcott, Jr.Dem-Rep
1827–1831Gideon ThomlinsonDem-Rep
1831–1833John Samuel PetersNat-Rep
1833–1834Henry Waggaman EdwardsDemocrat
1834–1835Samuel Augustus FootWhig
1835–1838Henry Waggaman EdwardsDemocrat
1838–1842William Wolcott EllsworthWhig
1842–1844Chauncey Fitch ClevelandDemocrat
1844–1846Roger Sherman BaldwinWhig
1846–1847Isaac TouceyDemocrat
1847–1849Clark BissellWhig
1849–1850Joseph TrumbullWhig
1850–1853Thomas Hart SeymourDemocrat
1853–1854Charles Hobby PondDemocrat
1854–1855Henry DuttonWhig
1855–1857William Thomas MinorAmerican
1857–1858Alexander Hamilton HolleyRepublican
1858–1866William Alfred BuckinghamRepublican
1866–1867Joseph Roswell HawleyRepublican
1867–1869James Edward EnglishDemocrat
1869–1970Marshall JewellRepublican
1870–1871James Edward EnglishDemocrat
1871–1873Marshall JewellRepublican
1873–1877Charles Roberts IngersollDemocrat
1877–1879Richard Dudley HubbardDemocrat
1879–1881Charles Bartlett AndrewsRepublican
1881–1883Hobart B. BigelowRepublican
1883–1885Thomas MacDonald WallerDemocrat
1885–1887Henry Baldwin HarrisonRepublican
1887–1889Phineas Chapman LounsburyRepublican
1889–1893Morgan Gardner BulkeleyRepublican
1893–1895Luzon Burritt MorrisDemocrat
1895–1897Owen Vincent CoffinRepublican
1897–1899Lorrin Alamson CookeRepublican
1899–1901George Edward LounsburyRepublican
1901–1903George Payne McLeanRepublican
1903–1905Abiram ChamberlainRepublican
1905–1907Henry RobertsRepublican
1907–1909Rollin Simmons WoodruffRepublican
1909George Leavens LilleyRepublican
1909–1911Frank Bentley WeeksRepublican
1911–1915Simeon Eben BaldwinDemocrat
1915–1921Marcus Hensey HolcombRepublican
1921–1923Everett John LakeRepublican
1923–1925Charles Augustus TempletonRepublican
1925Hiram BinghamRepublican
1925–1931John Harper TrumbullRepublican
1931–1939Wilbur Lucius CrossDemocrat
1939–1941Raymond Earl BaldwinRepublican
1941–1943Robert Augustine HurleyDemocrat
1943–1946Raymond Earl BaldwinRepublican
1946–1947Charles Wilbert SnowDemocrat
1947–1948James Lukens McConaughyRepublican
1948–1949James Coughlin ShannonRepublican
1949–1951Chester Bliss BowlesDemocrat
1951–1955John Davis LodgeRepublican
1955–1961Abraham Alexander RibicoffDemocrat
1961–1971John Noel DempseyDemocrat
1971–1975Thomas Joseph MeskillRepublican
1975–1980Ella Tambussi GrassoDemocrat
1980–1991William Atchinson O’NeillDemocrat
1991–1995Lowell Palmer Weicker, Jr.Republican
1995–2004John G. RowlandRepublican
2004–M. Jodi RellRepublican

Elected members of the executive branch are the governor and lieutenant governor (who run jointly and must each be at least 30 years of age), secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, and attorney general. All are elected for four-year terms and may be reelected.

A bill becomes law when approved by both houses of the general assembly and signed by the governor. If the governor fails to sign it within 5 days when the legislature is in session, or within 15 days when it has adjourned, the measure also becomes law. A bill vetoed by the governor may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the members of each house.

As of December 2004, the governor’s salary was $150,000 and the legislative salary was $28,000.

13 Political Parties

Connecticut’s Democrats have held power in most years since the mid-1950s. As of 2004, there were 1,823,000 registered voters, of which an estimated 36% were Democrats, 24% were Republicans, and 40% were unaffiliated or members of other political parties. In the November 2000 elections, Democrat Al Gore carried the state with 56% of the popular vote; Republican George W. Bush won 39%. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry defeated George W. Bush for president in Connecticut, with 54.3% of the vote to 43.9%. Following the November 2006 election, Connecticut’s delegation to the US House of Representatives consisted of four Democrats and one Republican. Both US senators from Connecticut will caucus as Democrats, although Joseph Lieberman was reelected by running under his own banner as an independent in 2006.

In the state legislature, following the 2006 elections, Democrats held majorities in both houses. In the state house of representatives, Democrats held 106 seats, while the Republicans held 45. In the state senate, Democrats held 24 seats to the 12 held by the Republicans. Women held 28.9% of all seats in the state legislature, or 54 seats.

In 2002, Republican John G. Rowland was reelected governor. However, in 2004, Rowland was forced to resign over a scandal involving corruption. On 1 July 2005, Rowland was succeeded by the state’s lieutenant governor, Republican M. Jodi Rell, who became only the second woman to hold the state’s governorship. Rell was elected in her own right in 2006.

14 Local Government

As of 2005, Connecticut had 8 counties, 30 municipal governments, and 384 special districts. Counties in Connecticut have been geographical subdivisions without governmental functions since county government was abolished in 1960.

Connecticut’s cities generally use the council-manager or mayor-council forms of government. The council-manager system provides for an elected council that determines policy, enacts local legislation, and appoints the city manager. The mayor-council system employs an elected chief executive with extensive appointment power and control over administrative agencies.

In most towns, an elected, three-member board of selectmen heads the administrative branch. The town meeting, in which all registered voters may participate, is the legislative body. Boroughs are generally governed by an elected warden, and borough meetings exercise major legislative functions.

15 Judicial System

Connecticut’s judicial system has undergone significant streamlining in recent years, with the abolition of municipal, circuit, and juvenile courts. Currently, the Connecticut judicial system consists of the supreme court, appeals court, superior court, and probate courts.

The supreme court comprises the chief justice, five associate justices, and two senior associate justices. The high court hears cases on appeal, primarily from the appeals court, but also from the superior court in certain special instances, such as the review of a death sentence, reapportionment, election disputes, invalidation of a state statute, or censure of a probate judge.

The superior court, the sole general trial court, has the authority to hear all legal controversies except those over which the probate courts have exclusive jurisdiction. The superior court sits in 12 state judicial districts and is divided into trial divisions for civil, criminal, and family cases. Connecticut’s state and federal prisons had an inmate population of 19,498, as of 31 December 2004. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) the state’s violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) was 286.3 incidents per 100,000 people in 2004. State law provides for the death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution.

16 Migration

Although the first English settlers found an abundance of fertile farmland in the Connecticut Valley, later newcomers were not so fortunate. It is estimated that in 1800, when Connecticut’s population was 250,000, nearly three times that many people had moved away from the state, principally to Vermont, western New York, Ohio, and other Midwestern states.

The influx of European immigrants increased the number of foreign-born in the state from 38,518 in 1850 to about 800,000 by World War I. After World War II, the rush of middle-class whites (many from neighboring states) to Connecticut suburbs, propelled in part by the “baby boom” that followed the war, was accompanied by the flow of minority groups to the cities.

In the period 2000–05, net international migration totaled 75,991, with net domestic migration at -34,273, for a net gain of 41,718 people.

17 Economy

Connecticut turned to a variety of non-farming activities in the early 19th century, among them shipbuilding and whaling. Since the 1790s, Connecticut has been a leader in the insurance industry.

Connecticut’s most important economic pursuit in the 20th century was manufacturing. In the 1980s, Connecticut became a leader in the manufacture of aircraft engines and parts, bearings, hardware, submarines, helicopters, typewriters, electronic instrumentation, electrical equipment, guns and ammunition, and optical instruments. Because defense production has traditionally been important to the state, the economy has fluctuated with the rise and fall of international tensions. Connecticut has lessened its dependence on the defense sector somewhat by attracting nonmilitary domestic and international firms to the state. The state was hit hard by cuts in military spending in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1992, about 70% of manufacturing was related to defense.

During the prosperous 1990s, unemployment fell steadily, although manufacturing jobs declined. The gross state product (GSP) grew at a rate of 8.7% in 2000. The national recession of 2001 caused economic growth to slow to 2.6%, and unemployment to rise. In 2004, the state’s GSP totaled $185.802 billion, of which the real estate sector accounted for the largest portion at 13%, followed by manufacturing at 12.2%, and professional and technical services at 7.4% of GSP.

In 2004, Connecticut was home to 322,805 small businesses. Of the 97,311 companies that had employees, 97.3% were small firms.

18 Income

In 2005, Connecticut had a gross state product (GSP) of $194 billion. In 2004, the state ranked second among the 50 states and the District of Columbia in terms of per capita (per person) income with $45,318, which was well above the national average of $33,050. For the three year period 2002 through 2004, the median household income for Connecticut was $55,970, compared to the national average of $44,473. In the same period, 8.8% of the state’s residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to the national average of 12.4%.

19 Industry

Six main groups of industries drive the state’s economy: aerospace and advanced manufacturing; communications, information and education; financial services; health and biomedical; business services; and tourism and entertainment.

The state’s value of shipments of manufactured goods totaled $45.105 billion in 2004. Of that total, transportation equipment manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $10.445 billion, followed by chemicals at $7.956 billion, and fabricated metal products at $5.128 billion.

In 2004, a total of 191,909 people were employed in the state’s manufacturing industries. The largest number, 44,885 employees, were employed in the transportation equipment sector, followed by 33,460 employed in the fabricated metal products sector.

20 Labor

In April 2006, the civilian labor force in Connecticut numbered 1,830,800 workers, with approximately 71,900 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.9%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Data for that same date showed that of nonfarm employment, about 3.8% of the labor force was employed in construction; 11.5% in manufacturing; 18.6% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 8.6% in finance activities; 12.1% in professional and business services; 7.9% in leisure and hospitality services; and 14.6% in government.

During the early 20th century, Connecticut was consistently anti-union and was one of the leading open-shop states in the northeastern United States. But great strides were made by organized labor in the 1930s with the support of New Deal legislation recognizing union bargaining rights. All workforce services, including recruiting, training, workplace regulation, labor market information, and unemployment insurance, are offered through a statewide partnership of Connecticut’s Department of Labor, Regional Workforce Development Boards, and state and community organizations.

In 2005, a total of 247,000 of Connecticut’s 1,550,000 employed wage and salary workers were members of a union. This represented 15.9% of those so employed, and was above the national average of 12%.

21 Agriculture

Agriculture is no longer of much economic importance in Connecticut. The number of farms declined from 22,241 in 1945 to 4,200 in 2004, covering a total of 360,000 acres (145,700 hectares).

Cash receipts from crop sales in 2005 were $358 million. Tobacco production was 3,889,000 pounds (1,768,000 kilograms) in 2004. Other principal crops are hay, silage, potatoes, sweet corn, tomatoes, apples, and peaches.

22 Domesticated Animals

In 2005, there were an estimated 56,000 cattle and calves on Connecticut farms. Their estimated value was $59.9 million. In 2004 there were an estimated 4,200 hogs and pigs, valued at $546,000. During 2003, Connecticut dairy farmers produced an estimated 413 million pounds (187.7 million kilograms) of milk. Also during 2003 poultry farmers produced an estimated 3 million pounds (1.4 million kilograms) of chicken and received $165,000 for 135,000 pounds (46,000 kilograms) of turkey. Connecticut produced an estimated 795,000 eggs in 2003 at an estimated value of $44.1 million.

23 Fishing

Commercial fishing does not play a major role in the economy. In 2004, the value of commercial landings was $37.8 million for a catch of 21.1 million pounds (9.6 million kilograms). In 2003, the state had only 23 processing and wholesale plants with a total of about 237 employees. In 2001, the commercial fishing fleet had about 425 boats and vessels.

Several programs have been instituted throughout the years to restore the Atlantic salmon and trout populations on the Connecticut River. Connecticut had nearly 148,125 sport fishing license holders in 2004.

24 Forestry

By the early 20th century, the forests that covered 95% of Connecticut in the 1630s were generally destroyed. Woodland recovery has been stimulated since the 1930s by an energetic reforestation program. Of the state’s 1,859,000 acres (752,337 hectares) of forestland in 2004, more than half was wooded with new growth.

Lumber production in 2004 totaled 48 million board feet. State forests covered some 298,000 acres (121,990 hectares) in that same year.

25 Mining

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Connecticut in 2004 was estimated by the US Geological Survey at around $131 million. Crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel were the state’s two leading mineral commodities. And accounted for nearly all output by volume and value. Other commodities produced included common clays, and dimension stone. Demand for virtually all of the state’s mineral output is dependent on a healthy construction industry, the main consumer of aggregates.

26 Energy and Power

Connecticut has no proven reserves of crude oil, natural gas, nor any refining capacity. As a result, the state is entirely reliant upon imported oil from countries such as Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, and others. Most of the natural gas used in Connecticut is piped in from Texas and Louisiana. However, two of the four Northeast Heating Oil Reserves established by Congress in 2000 are located in Connecticut. They have a combined capacity of 850 thousand barrels.

In 2003, electricity production totaled 29.545 billion kilowatt hours. Of that amount, only 2.8% came from electric utilities, with the remainder coming from combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of electric power generated (54.4%) came from nuclear power, while natural gas-fueled plants accounted for 17.1% of all electricity produced, and coal-fired plants accounted for 14.2%. Petroleum-fired plants accounted for 7% of all power generated. The remaining power produced came from other renewable sources and hydropower.

As of 2006, Connecticut had only one nuclear generating facility, the Millstone plant at Waterford.

27 Commerce

Considering its small size, Connecticut is a busy commercial state. In 2002, the state’s wholesale trade sector had sales of $86.9 billion, while the retail trade sector had sales of $41.9 billion. The estimated value of Connecticut’s goods exported abroad was $9.6 billion in 2005. Transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery, electric and electronic equipment, and instruments account for most of the state’s foreign sales.

28 Public Finance

The state budget is prepared biennially by the Budget and Financial Management Division of the Office of Policy and Management and submitted by the governor to the general assembly for consideration.

In 2004, total revenues were $19.51 billion, while total expenditures that same year amounted to were $19.52 billion. The largest general expenditures were for education ($4.47 billion), public welfare ($4.41 billion), and hospitals ($1.4 billion). Connecticut’s outstanding debt totaled $22.57 billion, or $6,451.72 per person.

29 Taxation

Connecticut’s principal taxes are a general state sales and use tax of 6%, a two-bracket personal income tax of 3% and 5% (as of 1 January 2006), and a flat-rate corporate income tax of 7.5%. There are state excise taxes on such products as gasoline, motor fuels, cigarettes, and other selected products and services. There are also various state license fees and stamp taxes. All property taxes are local, but there are no local sales taxes in Connecticut. Food is not taxed if it is purchased for consumption off-premises (such as at home).

In 2005, the state collected $11.585 billion in taxes, or $3,300 per person, which placed the state as the fourth highest among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. Of that amount, the largest portion (43.4%) came from individual income taxes, 28.2% came from general sales taxes, while selective sales taxes accounted for 16.1%. Corporate taxes accounted for 5%.

In 2004, local property taxes amounted to $1,944 per person, the second-highest in the country, behind only New Jersey.

As of October 2005, the infant mortality rate was estimated at 5.4 per 1,000 live births. In 2002, the death rate (per 100,000 people) for heart disease was 254.7; cancer, 207; cerebrovascular diseases 53.8; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 42; and diabetes, 19.5. As of 2004, about 18% of the state’s residents were smokers. In that same year, the reported AIDS case rate was about 18.4 per 100,000 population.

In 2003, Connecticut’s 34 community hospitals had around 7,200 beds. In the same year, there were about 372,000 patient admissions and 6.8 million outpatient visits. In 2005, there were 972 nurses per 100,000 people. Connecticut had 369 physicians per 100,000 population in 2004. Outstanding medical schools are those of Yale University and the University of Connecticut.

Hospital expenses in 2003 averaged $1,684 per day. In 2004, about 11% of the population was uninsured.

31 Housing

In 2004, there were an estimated 1,414,433 housing units in Connecticut, 1,329,950 of which were occupied. Of those, 69.7% were owner-occupied. About 59.5% of all units were single-family, detached homes. It was estimated that about 22,730 units were without telephone service, 8,239 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 6,030 lacked complete kitchen facilities. Most households (47%) relied on fuel oil (such as kerosene) for heating. The average household size was 2.55 people.

New privately owned housing units authorized in 2004 numbered 11,800. The median value of a single-family detached home was $236,559. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,603, while the median monthly cost for renters was $811.

32 Education

Believing that the Bible was the only true source of God’s truths, Connecticut’s Puritan founders viewed literacy as a theological necessity. A law code in 1650 required a town of 50 families to hire a schoolmaster to teach reading and writing, and a town of 100 families to operate a school to prepare students for college.

In 2004, a total of 88.8% of Connecticut residents age 25 and older were high school graduates. Some 34.5% had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher. Total enrollment in public schools was estimated at 570,000 in fall 2003. However, enrollment by fall 2014 was expected to drop 0.6% to 567,000. Expenditures for public education in 2003/2004 were estimated at $10,788 per student, the fifth highest among the 50 states. Enrollment in private schools in fall 2003 was 74,430. The state’s private preparatory schools include Choate Rosemary Hall (Wallingford), Taft (Waltertown), Westminster (Simsbury), Loomis Chaffee (Windsor), and Miss Porter’s (Farmington).

In fall 2002, enrollment in college or graduate school was 170,606. In the same year Connecticut had 46 degree-granting institutions. Public institutions of higher education include the University of Connecticut at Storrs; four divisions of the Connecticut State University, at New Britain, New Haven, Danbury, and Willimantic; 12 regional community colleges; and 5 state technical colleges. Connecticut also has 23 private 4-year colleges and universities. Among the oldest institutions are Yale, founded in 1701 and settled in New Haven between 1717 and 1719; Trinity College (1823) in Hartford; and Wesleyan University (1831) in Middletown. Other private institutions include the University of Hartford, University of Bridgeport, Fairfield University, and Connecticut College in New London.

33 Arts

The Connecticut Commission on the Arts, established in 1965, administers a state art collection and establishes policies for an art bank program. The Commission also partners with the New England Foundation for the Arts. The Connecticut Humanities Council was established in 1974, and as of 2006, has supported a number of reading and literacy programs for young people and adults. In 2005, Connecticut’s arts organizations received 30 grants from the from the National Endowment for the Arts, and 23 grants through the National Endowment for the Humanities. There were approximately 900 arts associations in the state and 65 local arts groups.

The visual arts are easily accessible through numerous art museums, galleries, and more than 150 annual arts shows and festivals. The theater is vibrant in Connecticut, which has numerous dinner theaters, community theater groups, and many college and university theater groups. Professional theaters include the American Shakespeare Festival Theater, the Long Wharf Theater, Yale Repertory Theater, the Hartford Stage Company, and the Eugene O’Neill Memorial Theater Center.

The state’s foremost metropolitan orchestras are the Hartford and New Haven symphonies. Professional opera is presented by the Stanford State Opera and by the Connecticut Opera in Hartford. Prominent dance groups include the Connecticut Dance Company in New Haven, the Hartford Ballet Company, and the Pilobolus Dance Theater in the town of Washington.

The annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas in New Haven has grown steadily since its inception in 1996 and now presents over 300 events throughout the month of June. The Sunken Garden Poetry Festival, presented every summer at the Hill Stead Museum in Farmington, reportedly draws about 1,500 to 3,000 people per reading event.

34 Libraries and Museums

As of 2001, Connecticut’s 194 public library systems had 242 libraries, of which 48 were branches. In that same year, the public library systems held over 14 million volumes and had a combined circulation of 28,455,000. The leading public library is the Connecticut State Library (Hartford), which houses over 1 million bound volumes and over 2,451 periodicals, and also serves as the official state historical museum.

Connecticut’s most distinguished academic collection is the Yale University library system (with over 9 million volumes) in New Haven, headed by the Sterling Memorial Library and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. The Hartford Seminary Foundation has an impressive collection of material on Christian-Muslim relations. The Submarine Library at the US Navy

submarine base in Groton is also an important location for maritime history research.

Connecticut has more than 162 museums, in addition to its historic sites. The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale in New Haven includes an impressive dinosaur hall. Connecticut’s historical sites include the Henry Whitfield House in Guilford (1639), said to be the oldest stone house in the United States, and Noah Webster’s birthplace in West Hartford.

35 Communications

As of 2004, a total of 95.5% of all households in the state had telephones. As of June 2004, the state had over 2 million mobile wireless phone service subscribers. In 2005, Connecticut had 18 AM and 33 FM major radio stations, and 5 major network television stations. There were educational television stations in Bridgeport, Hartford, and Norwich. In addition, the Hartford and New Haven metropolitan area had the highest cable use rate of any urban area, at 88%. A total of 109,775 domain names were registered in Connecticut by 2000.

As of 2003 a total of 69.2% of all households in the state had a computer, while 62.9% had Internet access.

36 Press

The Hartford Courant, founded in 1764, is generally considered to be the oldest US newspaper in continuous publication.

The leading Connecticut dailies in 2005 were the Courant, with an average morning circulation

of 204,664 (Sundays, 281,714), and the New Haven Register, with an average evening circulation of 92,089 (Sundays, 100,177). Statewide, in 2005 there were 14 morning newspapers, 3 evening newspapers, and 13 Sunday editions. Leading periodicals are American Scientist, Connecticut Magazine, Fine Woodworking, Golf Digest, and Tennis.

37 Tourism, Travel & Recreation

Tourism has become an increasingly important part of the state economy in recent decades. Tourist spending reached about $366 million in 2003.

Popular tourist attractions include the Mystic Seaport restoration and its aquarium, the Mark Twain House and state capitol in Hartford, the American Clock and Watch Museum in Bristol, and the Yale campus in New Haven. Outstanding events include the Harvard-Yale regatta held each June on the Thames River in New London.

38 Sports

The Connecticut Sun became the state’s first major league team when it joined the WNBA in 2003. The team was formerly the Orlando Miracle. Connecticut’s only other major league professional team, the Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, moved to North Carolina following the 1996–1997 season and became the Carolina Hurricanes.

The New England Seawolves are members of the Arena Football League. New Haven has a minor league baseball franchise, the Ravens, as do Norwich and New Britain. There are also minor league hockey and basketball teams in the

state. Auto racing takes place at Lime Rock Race Track, which is located in Salisbury.

Connecticut schools, colleges, and universities provide amateur athletic competitions, highlighted by Ivy League football games on autumn Saturdays at the Yale Bowl in New Haven. While Yale has won 13 Ivy League football titles, the University of Connecticut has become a force in men’s and women’s basketball. The Huskies’ women’s team won the NCAA championship in 1995 and 2000, and back-to-back titles in 2002 and 2003. They have also advanced to two other Final Four tournaments. The men’s team won the National Invitational Tournament in 1988 and has made more than 30 NCAA Tournament appearances, winning national championships in 1999 and 2004.

Other annual sporting events include the US Eastern Ski Jumping Championships in Salisbury in February, and the Greater Hartford Open Golf Tournament in Cromwell in June and July.

39 Famous Connecticuters

Connecticut claims President George W. Bush (b.1946) as a native son. Two Connecticut natives have served as chief justice of the US Supreme Court: Oliver Ellsworth (1745–1807) and Morrison R. Waite (1816–1888). Other prominent federal officeholders were Dean Acheson (1893–1971), secretary of state; and Abraham A. Ribicoff (1910–1998), secretary of health, education, and welfare. Connecticut senator Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (b.France, 1931) was brought to national attention by his work during the Watergate hearings in 1973.

Ella Tambussi Grasso (1919–1981), elected in 1974 and reelected in 1978, was the first woman governor in the United States who did not succeed her husband in the post.

Shapers of US history include Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758), a Congregationalist minister who sparked the 18th-century religious revival known as the Great Awakening; Connecticut’s most revered Revolutionary War figure, Nathan Hale (1755–1776), who was executed for spying behind British lines; radical abolitionist John Brown (1800–1859); and Henry Ward Beecher (1813–1887), a religious leader and abolitionist.

Connecticuters prominent in US cultural development include painter John Trumbull (1756–1843); Noah Webster (1758–1843), who compiled the American Dictionary of the English Language (1828); and Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896), who wrote one of the most widely read books in history, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens, b.Missouri, 1835–1910) was living in Hartford when he wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885).

Charles Ives (1874–1954) was one of the nation’s most distinguished composers. A renowned voice in modern poetry, Wallace Stevens (b.Pennsylvania, 1879–1955), wrote most of his work while employed as a Hartford insurance executive.

James Merrill (b.New York, 1926–1995) was a poet whose works won the National Book Award (1967) and many other honors.

Among the premier inventors born in Connecticut were Eli Whitney (1765–1825), inventor of the cotton gin; Samuel Colt (1814–1862), inventor of the six-shooter; and Edwin H. Land (1909–1991), inventor of the Polaroid Land Camera.

Other prominent Americans born in Connecticut include circus promoter Phineas Taylor “P. T.” Barnum (1810–1891), pediatrician Benjamin Spock (1903–1998), actress Katharine Hepburn (1909–2003), and consumer-advocate Ralph Nader (b.1934), who was the Green Party candidate for president in 2000. Connecticut Senator Joseph I. Lieberman (b.1942), unsuccessful vice presidential running mate of Democrat Al Gore in 2000, was the first Jewish American ever to run for a national office.

40 Bibliography

BOOKS

Boyle, Doe. Fun with the Family in Connecticut: Hundreds of Ideas for Day Trips with the Kids. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2000.

Bristow, M. J. State Songs of America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Lieberman, Joseph I. In Praise of Public Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

McAuliffe, Emily. Connecticut Facts and Symbols. Rev. ed. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2003. Murray, Julie. Connecticut. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing, 2006.

Mezzanotte, Jim. Connecticut. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 2006.

Sherrow, Victoria. Connecticut. 2nd ed. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006.

Whitehurst, Susan. The Colony of Connecticut. New York: PowerKids, 2000.

WEB SITES

State of Connecticut. State of Connecticut Online Access to Government. www.ct.gov (accessed March 1, 2007).

Visit New England. Connecticut. www.visitconnecticut.com (accessed March 1, 2007).

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Connecticut

Connecticut

On January 9, 1788, Connecticut became the fifth state to enter the Union. At 5,018 square miles (12,977 square kilometers), it ranks forty-eighth in size. Located in the northeastern United States in the region known as New England, Connecticut is surrounded by Rhode Island , Massachusetts , and New York .

In spite of its small size, Connecticut has six thousand lakes and ponds. New England's longest river, the 407-mile (655-kilometer) Connecticut River, divides the state in half.

The state's population in 2006 was just over 3.6 million, with 28 percent of them in the 25 to 44 age range. Connecticut's population is predominantly white (81.2%). Hartford, the capital, is the state's third-largest city, behind Bridgeport and New Haven.

In the early 1600s, Connecticut was home to six to seven thousand Native Americans divided into sixteen tribes. By the 1770s, white settlers and the European diseases they had brought with them left fewer than fifteen hundred Native Americans.

Between 1630 and 1642, about twenty thousand English Puritans migrated to Connecticut Colony. These Puritan roots made Connecticut a patriot stronghold during the American Revolution (1775–83). The state's most famous Revolutionary War hero was Nathan Hale (1755–1776), who was executed as a British spy.

Connecticut was an antislavery state long before the American Civil War (1861–65), and it was a major stop on the Underground Railroad (the secret system by which slaves escaped to freedom). By the twentieth century, the state's textile industry ranked sixth in the nation. Connecticut was also a major firearms manufacturer. These developments changed the state's agrarian society into an industrial one.

In the 1980s, Connecticut was the nation's wealthiest state. This prosperity came about, in part, because of the expansion of the U.S. military budget: 70 percent of Connecticut's manufacturing sector was involved in making weapons. But the gap had increased between the standards of living enjoyed by the state's wealthy residents and those who lived in poverty. By 1992, the median family income in many suburbs was almost twice that of those in the urban areas. In the twenty-first century, 8.8 percent of the residents lived below the federal poverty level, compared to the national average of 12.4 percent.

Connecticut's voters usually vote Democratic. The primary religion is Roman Catholic. The state'economy is driven by six areas of industry: aerospace; communications, information, and education; financial services; health and biomedical; business services; and tourism and entertainment.

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT

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Connecticut

Connecticut

Qui Transtulit Sustinet (He who transplanted sustains).

At a Glance

Name: Connecticut comes from an Algonquian word meaning "place beside the long tidal river."

Nicknames: Constitution State, Nutmeg State

Capital: Hartford

Size: 5,544 sq. mi.

Population: 3,405,565

Statehood: Connecticut became the fifth state on January 9, 1788.

Electoral votes: 7 (2004)

U.S. Representatives: 6 (until 2003)

State tree: white oak

State flower: mountain laurel

State animal: sperm whale

Highest point: Mount Frissell, 2,380 ft.

The Place

Connecticut is the third-smallest state and forms the southern portion of New England. Connecticut has rolling hills and mountains to the north and west and 250 miles of shoreline to the south along Long Island Sound. Elevations are highest in the northwest corner of the state.

Connecticut has many lakes, streams, and rivers. The Connecticut River flows south from upper New England, cuts through the middle of the state, and ends in Long Island Sound. The valleys in the central part of the state are agricultural areas, although much of Connecticut's soil is too stony for farming.

Connecticut has a climate that does not range to great extremes. The state's weather is warm in the summer and cold and snowy in the winter. Connecticut's climate is milder than that of the more northerly New England states.

Connecticut does not have many natural resources, but forests are plentiful, and sand and gravel are important exports.

The Past

Native American tribes that lived in the area for hundreds of years named the region. The first Europeans to explore the territory were the Dutch. Settlers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony quickly followed. While still under British rule, Connecticut became the first state to create its own charter, the Fundamental Orders of 1639. This earned Connecticut one of its nicknames, the Constitution State.

Connecticut was one of the original thirteen colonies. The state played an important role in the American Revolution as a major supplier for the Continental army.

Connecticut: Facts and Firsts

  1. In 1728, the first American steel mill opened in Simsbury, Connecticut.
  2. Connecticut native Noah Webster wrote the first American dictionary, which was published in 1806.
  3. New Haven was the first place in the world to have a telephone exchange. The exchange opened on January 28, 1878. New Haven also had the first telephone book, which was published the same year the exchange opened and contained only 50 names.
  4. The oldest public library in the country is the Scoville Public Library, in Scoville.
  5. The hamburger (1895), Polaroid camera (1934), helicopter (1939), and color television (1948) were invented in Connecticut.
  6. The world's first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, was built in Groton in 1954.
  7. Pez candy is manufactured in Orange.
  8. In 1999, Connecticut was the state with the highest per capita income (money earned per person). In 2000, New Jersey surpassed it for the first time in many years.

After the war, Connecticut became a key industrial and manufacturing state. The state's strong rivers provided it with an inexpensive energy source for its many mills. When Connecticut's economy shifted from farming to manufacturing, demand for ready-to-wear clothing helped the textile industry to grow.

Connecticut residents also invented a number of useful products, including the portable typewriter and the can opener. Other significant items from Connecticut were the cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1794; the first sewing machine invented by Elias Howe in 1846; and the first artificial heart invented by Dr. Robert K. Jarvik in 1982.

Connecticut: State Smart

Connecticut's Hartford Courant is the oldest continuously published newspaper in the United States. Thomas Green started the publication in 1764.

Connecticut mills and factories were also known for their brass, clocks, silverware, locks, guns, and tools. Although the days of the old mills have passed, Connecticut remains a leading industrial state today.

The Present

Connecticut has retained a strong sense of history. The state offers a blend of urban and rural areas that include both large cities and small farming towns. The farms produce dairy foods, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. Tobacco is the state's most valuable crop.

Connecticut is home to many of the nation's insurance companies. Hartford is known as the Insurance Capital of the World. Other Connecticut cities produce weapons, helicopters, jet engines, and submarines.

Yale University, founded in 1701, is the third-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Its library is the oldest library still operating in Connecticut. Many people visit Connecticut every year to tour its historic small towns, fish and camp in Connecticut's rural areas, or take in the colorful foliage of a Connecticut autumn.

Born in Connecticut

  1. Dean Acheson , statesman
  2. Ethan Allen , American Revolutionary War soldier
  3. Benedict Arnold , American Revolutionary general
  4. (Phineas Taylor) P.T. Barnum , showman
  5. Henry Ward Beecher , clergyman
  6. John Brown , abolitionist
  7. George W. Bush , U.S. president
  8. Samuel Colt , weapons manufacturer
  9. Charles Goodyear , inventor
  10. Nathan Hale , American Revolution officer
  11. Dorothy Hamill , ice skater
  12. Katharine Hepburn , actress
  13. Charles Ives , composer
  14. H. Land , inventor, photographic pioneer
  15. John Pierpont Morgan , financier
  16. Rosa Ponselle , opera singer
  17. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. , congressman
  18. Meg Ryan , actress
  19. Benjamin Spock , pediatrician
  20. Harriet Beecher Stowe , author
  21. Noah Webster , lexicographer

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Connecticut

CONNECTICUT

Connecticut's geographic location, small area, and colonial origins profoundly shaped its first half-century of statehood. Wedged on a mere 5,009 square miles between the much larger states of Massachusetts and New York, Connecticut's 206,447 citizens confronted some disquieting possibilities in 1780 as they contemplated life outside the British Empire and inside an exhilaratingly new but undefined nation. Not only did the state's size make it potentially vulnerable to excessive political influence from its powerful neighbors, but the smallness also threatened its economic development and prosperity. As the second–most crowded state, with 41.23 residents per square mile, Connecticut seemed

already overpopulated for an agricultural society. Thus, as the national era opened, Connecticut's citizens viewed their future with a mixture of optimism and anxiety.

transition to statehood

Connecticut emerged from the military phase of the Revolution less ravaged than many states. No major battles took place on Connecticut soil, although the British attacked and burned portions of several coastal towns (New London, Groton, Fairfield, and New Haven) and one interior village (Danbury). Connecticut played a much-admired role as a supplier of provisions for the Continental Army largely through the work of Governor Jonathan Trumbull and his two sons—Joseph Trumbull, commissary general of the Continental Army, and Jonathan Trumbull Jr., George Washington's personal secretary. Loyalists to the crown proved to be less numerous and troubling than in most states and tended to be concentrated in Fairfield County, which was close to New York City. Although the war disrupted trade and distended parts of the economy, it also had a salutary effect on manufacturing, which grew dramatically in the eastern part of the state.

Therefore, despite the wartime exigencies and postwar uncertainties that gripped Connecticut, the colony made a smooth transition to statehood as was best symbolized by the remarkable fact that Governor Trumbull served in office before, throughout, and after the Revolutionary War, the only colonial governor to do so. Connecticut and Rhode Island had been the only two colonies to maintain their seventeenth-century governing charters throughout their colonial existence, and during the Revolutionary era they were the only two new states not to write a new constitution. Connecticut continued to govern itself under the structure of the Charter of 1662, which, although a royal proclamation, had been written by John Winthrop Jr., and was based on the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and the Connecticut Law Code of 1650, both of which had been made-in-Connecticut documents.

Connecticut Population 1760–1830
1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830
+ 25%+14%+15%+ 5%+ 4%+ 5%+ 8%
145,217181,583206,447237,946251,002261,942275,248297,675

Some changes did occur, of course, during the Revolutionary era: in 1783 the General Assembly adopted a new law code, and between 1767 and 1790, 29 new towns were carved out of preexisting ones to bring the total number of towns to 101, thereby vastly enlarging the rate of political participation at the local level. Perhaps most important, the General Assembly in 1784 started the process of ending slavery by passing a law that freed all slaves at age twenty-five: in 1792, the General Assembly reduced the age for freedom to twenty-one.

constitution making and politics

Connecticut escaped much of the political turmoil in the 1780s that bedeviled its three neighbors, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York, and lent its name to the solution brokered by Roger Sherman to solve the logjam between the large and small states at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. The Connecticut Compromise proposed making representation in the Senate equal for all states and proportional to population in the House of Representatives. By a vote of 128 to 40, a convention in Hartford ratified the new United States Constitution on 9 January 1788, making Connecticut the fifth state to do so. Thus, the new state entered the new Union with a near unanimity in support of the governing charter and an overwhelming majority in favor of the new federal Union.

The rise of political parties destroyed Connecticut's political tranquility for nearly two decades. A symbol of autonomy in the colonial era and a symbol of stability in the Revolutionary years, the charter became the symbol of the Federalist Party in the 1790s. By 1796 the Jeffersonian Republicans regarded the charter as a shield behind which the Federalists grouped to resist all change. Connecticut's Jeffersonians repeatedly called for a new constitution and eventually got their wish after electing Oliver Wolcott Jr. as the first Republican governor in 1817. Wolcott stitched together a coalition called the Tolerationists, made up of religious minorities who wanted to disestablish the Congregational Church, Republicans who wanted to gain control of the state government, and Union loyalists who were horrified by the Federalist Party's flirtation with secession during the War of 1812. After much partisan wrangling, voters narrowly ratified the Constitution of 1818 by a margin of 13,918 to 12,364.

The Constitution of 1818 was undoubtedly the most important legal document in nineteenth-century Connecticut's history. Despite the political heat it generated, it did not represent a dramatic break with the past. Hartford and New Haven continued to serve as co-capitals, the rights and privileges of town government were preserved, a nominal property requirement was maintained for suffrage, and the inequitable apportioning of representatives to the General Assembly, which favored the older and more rural towns, was kept intact. Moreover, despite its razor-thin margin of ratification, the Constitution of 1818 proved popular, and the rancorous political discord that accompanied its creation subsided. The new document did embed two important changes into constitutional law: it formally separated the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, and it disestablished the Congregational Church from its privileged legal position. Both changes had been in the works for nearly a century, however. Additionally, although the new constitution demonstrated a great respect for Connecticut's institutional past, it did have a potent effect on politics by signaling the end of the Federalist Party and the beginning of Republican domination.

economy

As Connecticut moved through a Federalist to a Republican era, its economy thrived owing to structural changes initiated by public and private enterprise. These changes accelerated the process of reducing Connecticut's dependence on agriculture. The twin specters of depopulation and loss of prosperity never materialized, although the population did grow at a slower rate in the early national years than it had in the colonial period. As early as the 1750s, when Connecticut first felt a demographic squeeze from its rapidly growing person-to-land ratio, merchants and farmers had begun to develop better transportation routes for exporting goods and to put resources into agricultural manufacturing such as meatpacking and dairy processing. During and after the Revolution, this transformation proceeded apace. In 1784 Connecticut incorporated New England's first five cities, Hartford, Middletown, New Haven, New London, and Norwich, in order to create municipal governments that would be better able to promote trade than were town-meeting governments. In 1792 Hartford, New Haven, and New London established Connecticut's first banks, and in 1795 Norwich incorporated an insurance company. In 1799 Eli Whitney of New Haven received his first federal musket contract, and in 1802 Abel Porter began the state's brass industry in Waterbury. By 1830, Connecticut and its two southern New England neighbors, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, had created a new milling, manufacturing, and trading regional economic identity to replace their former religious one.

culture

Connecticut's cultural and intellectual life thrived as well in the early national era. During the revolutionary era, a remarkable group of poets, satirists, and playwrights known collectively as the Hartford Wits constituted the leading American literary society of their time. John Trumbull's mocking epic, M'Fingal (1776), Timothy Dwight's allegory The Conquest of Canaan (1785), and Joel Barlow's wonderfully funny Hasty Pudding (1796) all spoofed the excessive seriousness of the young republic's zealous politicians. Noah Webster, whose name has become synonymous with America's dictionaries, lived in Hartford and published a preliminary dictionary in 1806 and his magnificent American Dictionary of the English Language in 1828. Three new extraordinary institutions of higher learning opened in Connecticut in the early national era to join Yale College (1701) and catapult the state into a leading role in education: the Litchfield Law School (1784), the first law school in the nation; Trinity College in Hartford (1823); and Wesleyan College, in Middletown (1831), the first American Methodist college.

Presumably the founders of the state of Connecticut in 1776 would have been pleased by what their creation had evolved into by the 1830s: a stable society whose governing arrangements drew heavily on its institutional heritage, a productive society whose booming economy overcame disadvantageous circumstances by hard work and serious planning; and a cosmopolitan society that provided educational leadership to its fellow citizens.

See alsoCongregationalists; Constitutional Convention; Constitutionalism: State Constitution Making; Hartford Convention; New England .

bibliography

Collier, Christopher. All Politics Is Local: Family, Friends, and Provincial Interests in the Creation of the Constitution. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2003.

Daniels, Bruce C. The Connecticut Town: Growth and Development, 1635–1790. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1979.

Grasso, Christopher. A Speaking Aristocracy: Transforming Public Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Connecticut. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Howard, Leon. The Connecticut Wits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943.

Lamar, Howard R., ed. Voices of the New Republic: Connecticut Towns, 1800–1832. 2 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2003.

Purcell, Richard J. Connecticut in Transition: 1775–1818. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1963.

Bruce C. Daniels

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Connecticut

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Connecticut

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Connecticut

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Connecticut

Connecticut

Bridgeport
Compo Beach
Danbury
Fairfield
Farmington
Fort Griswold State Park
Greens Farms
Guilford
Hale (Nathan) Birth Site
Hale (Nathan) Schoolhouse
Hartford
Litchfield Historic District
Meigs (Return Jonathan) House Site
Mystic
Newgate Prison and Granby Copper Mines
New Haven
New London
Norwalk
Norwich
Putnam Cottage
Putnam Memorial State Park
Ridgefield Battle Site
Stratford
Trumbull House and War Office
Webb Deane Stevens Museum

In the colonial era and during the events leading to the Revolution, Connecticut had a vital political role. During the Revolution it became known as "the Provision State" for its preeminence in giving logistical support. Because of this Connecticut suffered three major punitive expeditions; its native son Benedict Arnold was the hero of the first (see danbury) and the villain of the last (see new london). The large number of Connecticut settlers in Ohio is a direct result of these raids, the Western Reserve being "reserved" by Connecticut for settlement by its people when it surrendered claims to all other western lands in 1786. The 500,000-acre tract in this reserve known as the Fire Lands was used to compensate citizens of Danbury, Fairfield, Norwalk, New Haven, and New London for their losses in British raids. But although Connecticut saw little fighting on its own soil, it sent a great many of its men off to serve in the Continental army, and for some, their absence from Connecticut helps to explain why the local militia showed so little valor in defending home and hearth. But most scholars note that the majority of Connecticut's Continental soldiers were reluctant enlistees, as was true for soldiers from most states.

Industrial prosperity since the Revolution has eliminated many of Connecticut's historical landmarks. Unfortunately, there is no published guide to historical markers. The inventory of 1962, presumably the most recent, lists 139 historical signs restricted to about 50 towns and containing minimal information. The following listing identifies the major historical landmarks in Connecticut, omitting a good many of purely architectural importance. Agencies with statewide responsibility are identified at the end of the section on Hartford.

Bridgeport

Bridgeport, Fairfield County. Now a city of 141,000 people, Bridgeport—then called Newfield—was in the path of Governor Tryon's raid of 1779. The Grovers Hill Fort site on Black Rock Drive is where a protected gun emplacement was erected in 1776 to overlook a small harbor. From there Captains Daniel Hawley and Samuel Lockwood departed with twenty-five men in a whaleboat to capture Thomas Jones (1731–1792) at his home, Fort Neck, South Oyster Bay, Long Island. This happened on 6 November 1779. The Patriots seized the much-persecuted Judge Jones, who wrote a history of the Revolution from the Loyalist viewpoint (History of New York during the Revolutionary War, published in 1879), with the idea of exchanging him for General Gold Selleck Silliman. The latter had been a student at Yale, was chief of military activities in Fairfield County, and had been kidnapped earlier in the year by the Loyalists.

In April 1780 the two hostages were exchanged. The Gold Selleck Silliman home remains standing in Fairfield. Judge Jones's house, called Tryon Hall in honor of the governor, survived until modern times but has since disappeared. The unmarked site is on Merrick Road west of Cartwright Avenue in Massapequa, New York on Long Island. In the Library of Congress there are eighteen measured drawings of the house made from data gathered in 1934 by the Historic American Buildings Survey.

(Bridgeport Public Library Historical Collections, 925 Broad Street, Bridgeport, Conn. 06604; phone: (203) 576-7417. Website: www.bridgeportpubliclibrary.org.)

Compo Beach

Compo Beach, Long Island Sound between Norwalk and Bridgeport. A force of two thousand British and Loyalist raiders landed in this vicinity on 25 April 1777 and debarked three days later after burning Danbury, fighting their way through a blocking position at Ridgefield, and launching a vigorous spoiling attack from Compo Hill to permit their safe withdrawal. The expedition had been escorted from New York by two frigates. Compo Road leads south from U.S. 1 in Westport Township to the present community of Compo Beach, which features a 29-acre park in the general area of the British landing and re-embarkation.

Danbury

Danbury, Fairfield County. Emigrants from Norwalk settled this region of wooded foothills of the Berkshires in 1684. Good waterpower helped make Danbury an important manufacturing center from colonial days. The British mercantile system discouraged production in America of goods that would compete with English manufacturing, and the growing hat industry in the colonies led to passage in 1732 of the Hat Act, which imposed restrictions including export of hats from one colony to another. Danbury's long preeminence as a center of the felt industry dates from the beginning of felt hat manufacture in 1780.

The village was also an important supply depot for the Patriot forces in the Revolution, and consequently the objective of a devastating enemy raid in April 1777. General William Tryon, former royal governor of North Carolina and later of New York, led about 2,000 British and Loyalist troops from Compo Beach to reach Danbury, unopposed, on 23 April. The 150 Continental troops stationed in the area evacuated the small quantity of military supplies from the Episcopal church (see below), but the raiders, unimpeded by patriotic heroism, burned about 20 homes and twice that number of barns and storehouses, and destroyed military clothing and provisions, including a supply of about 1,700 tents.

General Benedict Arnold happened to be in the area, tending to his neglected personal affairs in New Haven and thoroughly disgusted with the failure of Congress to recognize his military accomplishments. Washington was urging Congress to promote Arnold to major general, and urging Arnold to stay in the service. The Danbury raid brought the "Whirlwind Hero" into the field, and the British met their first real resistance at Ridgefield. General David Wooster was mortally wounded in pursuing the British. He died five days later (2 May 1777), and is buried here in Wooster Cemetery on Ellsworth Avenue. Congress gave Arnold a horse and a promotion and voted Wooster a monument, but never got around to putting it up. The Masons erected one in 1854.

Enoch Crosby, the famous Patriot spy, was living in Danbury when the Revolution started (see fishkill village, new york). The Early Episcopal Church site is now occupied by the South Street School at Main and South Streets. The old church was spared by the raiders of 1777 because most of its members were Loyalists, but Danbury got even by neglecting the structure, then moving it to the southwest corner of South Street and Mountainville Avenue, where it became a tenement house and finally was destroyed. The Colonel Joseph Platt Cooke House of 1770 at 342 Main Street was torn down in 1972 to make way for a bank. Having survived the British raid of 1777 (it was only partially burned), its visitors during the Revolution included Washington, Lafayette, and Rochambeau.

The Danbury Scott-Fanton Museum and Historical Society, formed in 1947 by a merger of older organizations, has preserved four old structures: the John Rider House (c. 1785), the John Dodd House and Hat Shop (1790), the Charles Ives Homestead (c. 1780), and the King Street One-Room School. The first two are house museums adjoining Huntington Hall, a modern administrative building and museum, in downtown Danbury at 43-45 Main Street. The other buildings are being restored on property owned by the Society adjacent to Rogers Park.

(Danbury Museum and Historical Society, 43 Main Street, Danbury, Conn. 06810; phone: (203) 743-5200; website: www.danburyhistorical.org.)

Fairfield

Fairfield, Fairfield County. Roger Ludlow took part in the Swamp Fight of 1637 that wiped out what remained of the Pequot Indians. (Their population, estimated at three thousand, was nearly depleted. However, the Western Pequots received federal recognition as a tribe in 1983 and emerged as a powerful economic force in southeastern Connecticut when their casinos, which opened in 1992, prospered.) The battle site is just east of the presently settled area of Fairfield, Connecticut.

Attracted to the real-estate development possibilities of the site, Ludlow settled Fairfield in 1639, although he first took interest in the area after his success in battling the Pequots. The town prospered, giving its name to the county, but was virtually destroyed by British raiders during the Revolution. Abandoned on the approach of General Tryon's expedition in July 1779, Fairfield was occupied by the British on 8 July. Four small houses were spared, apparently because the British used them during their brief stay, but the rest were burned. The Patriots reported the loss of 83 homes, 54 barns, 47 storehouses, 2 schools, 2 churches, and the courthouse. Nearby Bridgeport outstripped Fairfield after the Revolution, but the latter is nevertheless a thriving town of about 57,000 people today.

Marked historic sites in Fairfield are McKenzies Point, off which the British anchored in July 1779; the beach where they landed and Beach Road, which they used in occupying the town; and the green, where Tryon posted the proclamation calling for inhabitants to swear allegiance to King George III. The Town Hall, rebuilt on the green in 1794, has records dating from 1648. Opposite the green at 636 Old Post Road is the Fairfield Historical Society, a venerable institution dating from 1903 and active today. The Society has a museum, archives, and library.

The Gold Selleck Silliman House (1756) is still standing. Privately owned, this large, clapboard structure with a central chimney has been somewhat remodeled. The house is historic not only as the home of a prominent Patriot general but as the site of his kidnapping on 1 May 1779 by Loyalists. The Patriots retaliated by kidnapping Judge Thomas Jones (see bridgeport) and holding him a few days at the Silliman house before taking him to Middletown. Mrs. Silliman fled to Trumbull, where she stayed at a tavern on Daniels Farm Road; there on 8 August 1779 she gave birth to Benjamin Silliman, who became a prominent and influential scientist of the first half of the next century. (The historic tavern has been destroyed.) The Gold Selleck Silliman House is at 506 Jennings Road in Fairfield, about 200 yards east of the Black Rock Turnpike.

(Fairfield Historical Society, 636 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Conn. 06430; phone: (203) 259-1598; email: [email protected])

Farmington

Farmington, Hartford County. In 1640 this area was established as Tunxis Plantation, a frontier trading center about 10 miles west of Hartford and Wethersfield. Rochambeau's French army camped here in the summer of 1781 en route to join Washington's forces for an attack on New York City. The site is marked by a plaque on a boulder in the small park at Main Street and Farmington Avenue. The Stanley-Whitman House at 37 High Street, a two-and-a-half-story saltbox with a great center chimney and a long sloping rear roof, was built about 1720 and is of exceptional architectural interest (framed overhang with pendants). A National Historic Landmark, in 1935 it opened as the Farmington Museum, displaying seventeenth- and eighteenth-century objects of particular note. Now a town of about twenty-three thousand, Farmington is perhaps best known for Miss Porter's School for Girls (established 1843).

Fort Griswold State Park

Fort Griswold State Park, Fort and Thames Streets, Groton, New London County. The New London raid by Benedict Arnold on 6 September 1781 included reduction of two forts defending the mouth of the Thames River: Fort Trumbull on the west and Fort Griswold on Groton Heights. The latter, defended by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard with about 140 militia, was a square fort with stone walls 12 feet high, a fraised ditch, and outworks. (A fraise is a form of palisade, but the pointed timbers are slanted horizontally toward the front.) Fort Trumbull was not designed for defense against an attack by land, so its small garrison of twenty-four men under Captain Adam Shapley delivered one volley of musket and cannon, spiked their eight guns, and reinforced Fort Griswold.

The British attack on the latter position was led by Lieutenant Colonel Edmund Eyre, who landed on the east side of the river with two British battalions, the Third Battalion of New Jersey Loyalists, a detachment of German light infantry (jaegers), and some artillery. Total strength was about eight hundred.

Fort Griswold resisted repeated assaults for about forty minutes. Eyre was mortally wounded in the first attack, and his second in command, Major Montgomery, was killed on the parapet while leading another effort. A bas-relief at Old Fort Griswold, used as the frontispiece of Benjamin Quarles's study, The Negro in the American Revolution(1961), shows the barefoot black servant of the fort commander killing Montgomery with a spear. (This man, Jordan Freeman, and another black orderly, Lambo Lathan, were killed later in this action.) Christopher Ward, in his standard work on the Revolution, The War of the Revolution, says Montgomery was killed by Captain Shapley, but sources remain divided.

The odds were too great, however, for the Patriots. How the subsequent massacre occurred is not known. It is said that Ledyard was stabbed with his own sword after surrendering it to a Loyalist officer, whereupon an American officer stabbed the latter, after which the victors bayoneted a great many of the vanquished.

Benedict Arnold reported 85 Patriots killed at Fort Griswold and 60 wounded, most of them mortally. The Americans reported about 75 killed, only 3 of them before the surrender. None of these figures are reliable, but Arnold's own losses of about 50 killed and 150 wounded indicate the severity of the fighting around Fort Griswold.

The 860-acre state park contains portions of the stone fortification and earthworks. A 135-foot monument on the hill near the fort was dedicated in 1830 to the victims of the massacre and lists their names, reflecting the racism of the era by listing the African American victims last under "Colored Men," and giving Lambert Latham, who had fought heroically in the battle, the first name "Sambo." The site provides an excellent point of observation. The nearby Monument House, operated by the Daughters of the American Revolution, has relics of the battle, period furniture, china, and other exhibits. The Fort Griswold State Park is located at 57 Fort Street, Groton, Conn. 06340; phone: (860) 445-1729. Information about Fort Griswold is available from the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP); phone: (860) 424-3200; email: [email protected]

Greens Farms

Greens Farms, Long Island Sound, Westport Township, Fairfield County. Governor William Tryon's Connecticut Coast raid of July 1779 reached this place on 9 July and destroyed more than two hundred buildings, according to one report (though most accounts put the figure at about 30). The punitive expedition had previously ravaged Fairfield, and it ended at Norwalk. The name of the colonial settlement is preserved in the present village, which shows on highway maps.

Guilford

Guilford, Long Island Sound, New Haven County. Because it was not among the many shore towns destroyed by British punitive expeditions, Guilford, settled in 1639 by English Puritans under Reverend Henry Whitfield, has three surviving houses of the early colonial era. What may be the oldest stone dwelling in New England stands as the Whitfield House, on Whitfield Street, built in 1639 and used as a fort, church, and meeting hall. The massive two-and-a-half-story structure with steeply pitched roof and huge end chimneys was restored in 1936—perhaps too well for architectural historians to accept—and is a state museum. The Hyland House (1660) at 84 Boston Street and Griswold House (1735) at 171 Boston Street are National Historic Landmarks, both open to the public.

Guilford was the starting point for the highly successful raid led by Colonel Return Jonathan Meigs (see meigs house site) in May 1777. There is historical confusion about this operation, which followed Governor Tryon's raid on Danbury by about a month. Most authorities give 23 to 24 May as the dates, but some have it taking place on 12 or 29 May.

Whatever the exact time, about 170 men under Meigs left Guilford in 13 whaleboats escorted by 2 armed sloops, rowed from Sachem Head through British warships in the Sound without being detected in the night, and surprised and defeated Lieutenant Colonel Stephen De Lancey's "battalion" of 70 Loyalists at Sag Harbor, Long Island (see under new york), killing 6 and capturing the rest. Meigs then burned 100 tons of hay, 10 transports, and the wharves. He was back at Guilford by noon, having covered almost 100 miles in 18 hours without losing a man. Congress voted him "an elegant sword."

(Dorothy Whitfield Historic Society, 84 Boston Street [Hyland House]; Guilford Keeping Society, 171 Boston Street [Griswold House], phone: (203) 453-3176; and Henry Whitfield State Historical Museum, 248 Old Whitfield Street, phone: (203) 453-2457; all in Guilford, Conn. 06437.)

Hale (Nathan) Birth Site

Hale (Nathan) Birth Site, near Coventry, Tolland County. The house in which Nathan Hale was born (6 June 1755) was pulled down after the new family home was built adjacent to it. According to local tradition, the newer house incorporates a part of the one in which Nathan was born. Hale was executed as a spy on 22 September 1776, more than a month before the family moved into the new structure, and he never saw it. The Nathan Hale Homestead, as it is called, has been restored and furnished handsomely by the Antiquarian and Landmark Society of Connecticut (Hartford) (255 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 06103).

The site is 4.5 miles from the village of Coventry at 2229 South Street, Coventry, Connecticut. The phone number is (860) 742-6917. From the junction of Conn. State Highway 31 (from South Coventry) and U.S. Highway 44A in Coventry, go west 0.5 mile on U.S. 44A, turn south on Silver Street, follow this south to South Street, and turn east to the site. State highway markers are on U.S. 6 near Andover and at the junction of the road that runs to the site along the southwest side of Wamgumbaug Lake near South Coventry.

Hale (Nathan) Schoolhouse

Hale (Nathan) Schoolhouse, East Haddam. On a bluff overlooking the Connecticut River, behind St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, is the first school in which Nathan Hale taught for one season after graduating from Yale (1773) and before moving to teach in New London. The school originally stood on the town green at the junction of Main Street and Norwich Road. In 1799 it ceased to be used as a school and was moved up to the front yard of what became St. Stephen's in the 1890s. Here it was a dwelling for one hundred years. Saved then from demolition, it was moved to its present location behind the church at 29 Main Street and it has recently been furnished with desks and a fireplace to restore its colonial appearance. Owned by the Sons of the American Revolution, it is open on weekends. The graves of General Joseph Spencer (1714–1789) and his wife are in the nearby churchyard.

(East Haddam Historical Society, 264 Town Street, East Haddam, Conn. 06423.)

Hartford

Hartford, Connecticut River. No dramatic military action occurred here in the capital of Connecticut during the Revolution to give it "historic landmarks" for today's tourist to visit. But the place, first occupied by the Dutch in 1633 and settled a few years later by Englishmen from around Cambridge, Massachusetts, had a large political role in colonial and federalist politics. The Treaty of Hartford in 1650 established the boundary between New Amsterdam and the New England colonies (a line running due north of Greenwich, and diagonally across Long Island from Oyster Bay). The Hartford Courant, founded in 1764 and still publishing (285 Broad Street), is one of more than one hundred periodicals established in Hartford, and is America's oldest newspaper with a continuous circulation under the same name; it was very influential in the critical years before and after the Revolution in shaping public opinion.

The old town square, laid out in 1637, is now called City Hall Square. Here is the Old State House, an outstanding example of colonial architecture designed by Charles Bulfinch (its construction supervised by John Trumbull), completed in 1796, used as one of the state's two capitols until 1873 (sharing the honor with the capitol in New Haven), and then the sole capitol until 1879 (when the new building was completed). It is a National Historic Landmark. The present State Capitol (1880) is embellished with historic art inside and out. Relics include Israel Putnam's tombstone and Lafayette's camp bed. The State Library and Court Building contains a full-length portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart and the original charter of 1662 (or a duplicate signed also by Charles II the same year). The Connecticut Historical Society's museum has Israel Putnam's sword, Nathan Hale's diary, and a piece of the original charter of 1662.

(Antiquarian and Landmarks Society of Connecticut, 255 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 06106; phone: (860) 247-8996. Connecticut Historical Commission, 59 South Prospect Street, Hartford, Conn. 06106; phone: (860) 566-3005. Connecticut Historical Society, 1 Elizabeth Street, Hartford, Conn. 06105. Connecticut State Library, 231 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, Conn. 06115; phone: (860) 253-7412.)

Litchfield Historic District

Litchfield Historic District, Litchfield County. The 250th anniversary of Litchfield, a pretty little town of about 1,400 people, was celebrated in 1969. Although no fighting took place in the region during the Revolution, Litchfield was an important communications hub, with routes to New York City and Albany from Boston, Hartford, and New Haven. The town was a military depot and workshop for the Continental army in the north. More than five hundred Litchfield men went away to serve in the war, among them four companies of Sheldon's Horse, recruited in the vicinity by Benjamin Tallmadge. Ethan Allen's birthplace also survives in Litchfield. Another local man who left for the war was Aaron Burr, brother-in-law of Tapping Reeve and the latter's first law student.

About forty structures and other landmarks are within the relatively small Litchfield Historic District. The most important are listed below; all but the first are private homes today and not open to the public.

The Judge Tapping Reeve House (1773) and Law School Building (1784) are on South Street and Wolcott Street, a block from the green. Judge Reeve quickly became famous as a teacher of law and is generally credited with founding the country's first law school (1774). Ten years later he found it necessary to erect the small frame structure in his side yard. Judge Reeve's graduates make impressive statistics: 101 members of Congress, 34 chief justices of states, 40 judges of higher state courts, 28 United States senators, 14 governors of states, 6 cabinet members, and 3 justices of the United States Supreme Court. Two (Aaron Burr and John C. Calhoun) became vice presidents of the United States. (Aaron Burr, whose father was the second president of Princeton, had graduated from that college with distinction at age sixteen. His sister Sally married Reeve, who was also a Princetonian. Aaron was Reeve's first student and was nineteen when he left to become an "unattached volunteer" on Benedict Arnold's march to Quebec.) The houses are open to the public and operated by the Litchfield Historical Society, which also has a museum on the green and a research library.

The Ethan Allen Birthplace, a small, gambrel-roofed house on Old South Road, is believed to date from 1736 (scratched on a fireplace), which would make it the oldest in the village.

Sheldon's Tavern on North Street dates from 1760. The WPA Guide says it was designed by William Spratt, a London architect serving in the British army, and that Spratt added the ornamental railing on the roof in 1790 when the inn became a private residence. Other authorities say that Spratt only designed the elaborate entrance portico and palladian window added after 1760. George Washington's diary records his spending a night here.

The Benjamin Tallmadge House of 1775 is next to Sheldon's Tavern. Colonel Tallmadge (whose original home was in Setauket, New York), one of Washington's most esteemed subordinates and companions during the Revolution, became a businessman in Litchfield after the war. He added the second-story porticos after seeing Mount Vernon, to which the house bears a marked resemblance. The so-called Colonel Tallmadge House of 1784 was built by him as a store just south of his home. In 1801 it was moved to its present location across North Street and a few doors farther north.

Oliver Wolcott the Older was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and governor of Connecticut from 1796 until his death the next year. The family has a remarkable record for filling this office, best summarized by the fact that the senior Oliver Wolcott's sister Ursula had the distinction of having a father, brother, husband, son, and nephew (Oliver, Jr.) who were governors of Connecticut. The Older Oliver Wolcott House is presently owned by a direct descendant of the man who built it in 1753 to 1754. Part of the statue of George III from Bowling Green (see under new york city: manhattan) was molded into bullets by local ladies working in the side yard of this house. It is a simple frame structure of two and one-half stories with a gable roof and central chimney. Located on South Street opposite the Tapping Reeve House, it is near the handsome house of 1799 owned at one time by Oliver Wolcott, Jr. A contemporary building to the rear of the latter structure houses the Oliver Wolcott Library.

(Litchfield Historical Society, 7 South Street, Litchfield, Conn. 06759; phone: (860) 567-4501.)

Meigs (Return Jonathan) House Site

Meigs (Return Jonathan) House Site, Middletown, Middlesex County. The house itself was torn down in 1936; the site is at 64 Crescent Street in a town of some 43,000 people, first settled in 1650. Son of a hatter, Colonel Return Jonathan Meigs (1740–1823) is interesting not only because of his remarkable Revolutionary War record as a combat commander but also for his delightful name, which was handed down from his father, who had been so named by his own father. As the story goes, Meigs's grandfather was courting a Quaker lady who had just about rejected him as a prospective husband when she suddenly relented and called out "Return, Jonathan!"; the overjoyed suitor vowed to make those sweet words his firstborn son's name.

Colonel Meigs of the Revolution started as a lieutenant in 1772, was a captain when he led a company to Boston, and was a major (second in command to the controversial Roger Enos) during Arnold's March to Quebec. One of the valuable journals of this expedition was kept by Meigs. Captured after scaling the walls of Quebec, he was on parole until exchanged a little more than a year later (10 January 1777). Promoted to lieutenant colonel, he conducted a brilliant raid from Guilford to Sag Harbor, Long Island (see under new york). He later had a major role in the capture of Stony Point, New York, and in stopping the mutiny of Connecticut troops in May 1780. When Arnold's treason was discovered, Meigs's Sixth Connecticut ("Leather Cap") Regiment was the first sent to defend the West Point area from the expected British offensive. The Connecticut regiments were reorganized shortly thereafter, and Meigs retired from military service (1 January 1781). After the war he became a surveyor for the Ohio Company of Associates, a leader in settling the region, and later an Indian agent.

Colonel Meigs's son and namesake became governor of Ohio. Another namesake (1801–1891), a nephew, was a prominent lawyer.

(Middlesex County Historical Society, 151 Main Street, Middletown, Conn. 06457; phone: (860) 349-0665.)

Mystic

Mystic, New London County. The 37-acre Mystic Seaport Village recreates a coastal village of the nineteenth century, the time when famous clipper ships were built here. Among the dwellings is the Samuel Buckingham House (1768). The others date from after the Revolution, a total of nearly sixty structures of various sorts. Historic ships are exhibited at the wharves.

The Denison Homestead (1717), on Pequot-Sepos Road about 1.5 miles from Mystic, is on the 200-acre site of the original "mansion house" built by Captain George Denison, commander of Connecticut troops in King Philip's War. It is restored to show how eleven generations lived here. (Address inquiries to Denison Society, Pequot-Sepos Rd. P.O. Box 42, Mystic, Conn. 06355; phone: (860) 536-9248.)

Newgate Prison and Granby Copper Mines

Newgate Prison and Granby Copper Mines, East Granby, Hartford County. Often called the Simsbury mines, these were first worked in 1707. "Granby coppers" were common currency after 1737. By 1773 the mines were no longer productive, and they became Connecticut's jail for burglars, horse thieves, robbers, and—appropriately—counterfeiters. The place was named for Newgate Prison in London. During the Revolution it housed Loyalists and prisoners of war, acquiring an even more evil reputation than its namesake. In 1827 the newly completed prison at Wethersfield replaced Newgate. The aboveground structures, dating mostly from the early nineteenth century, had fallen into ruin when the Connecticut Historical Commission acquired the site in 1968. These have been restored, and the site was opened to the public in 1972. In 1976 Newgate Prison was declared a National Historic Landmark. Presently visitors can tour the 70-foot mine, where underground cells are preserved. A museum interprets Newgate's history as a prison and as probably the first copper mine developed in British America.

Take Exit 40 off I-91, heading West on Route 20. Proceed for approximately 8 miles until you come to the intersection of Routes 187 and 20. Continue up the hill, take a right at the signal light. Head north on Newgate Road for 2.3 miles; Olde New-Gate Prison is on the left.

(Connecticut Historical Commission, 59 South Prospect Street, Hartford, Conn. 06106.)

New Haven

New Haven, New Haven Bay. A band of recently arrived English Puritans established the town and colony at this choice location in 1637. A few years later it was expanded into the New Haven Jurisdiction to include the towns of New Haven, Guilford, Milford, Stamford, Bramford, and (across the Sound on Long Island) Southold. This "jurisdiction" dissolved in 1664.

The older portion of the modern city preserves the original layout of square blocks around the 16-acre green, the first such city plan in America. In about 1750 New Haven started its period of greatest prosperity, becoming a major port for the expanding trade with other American colonies and the West Indies. Benedict Arnold moved here as a young man of twenty-ome to open a shop to sell drugs and books, and soon became a successful merchant sailing his own ships to Canada and the West Indies. New Haven was notorious as a center for illicit trade, and consequently a hotbed of Revolutionary sentiment from the start of the resistance to British authority.

The prime objective of General Sir Henry Clinton's punitive expedition along the Connecticut Coast in July 1779 was New Haven. Brigadier Garth's division of his force attacked the place on 5 July. It was delayed briefly at a bridge across West River by a small body of volunteers including Yale students, but the raiders detoured along Milford Hill to the Derby Road and entered the town about noon. Reinforcements from the second division landed on the east side of the harbor and attacked the small position at Black Rock, now preserved as Fort Hale Park (see below). Garth intended to burn the town the next day, as soon as he had secured his position. But the local militia was massing in such strength that Garth withdrew from the town without being able to organize what he called "the conflagration it so richly deserved." The town did not suffer the fate of Fairfield, Greens Farms, and Norwalk, which were burned during the next few days.

The most important historical landmark surviving in New Haven is Connecticut Hall (1752), all that is left of Old Brick Row of Yale College. This dormitory has the room occupied by Nathan Hale as a student.

New Haven Green is where Captain Benedict Arnold assembled his Second Company, Connecticut Governor's Foot Guard, on 22 April 1775, two days after the bloodshed at Lexington and Concord, and forced the New Haven selectmen to surrender the keys to the municipal powder house.

The old burial ground of the First Church of Christ, part of which is covered by the present structure (the fourth on the site) is on Temple Street in the middle of the green. The oldest of the 137 historic gravestones dates from 1687.

Yale University has several notable libraries and museums, including the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (which houses a Gutenberg Bible and books from the college library of 1742), the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Sterling Memorial Library, and the Yale Collection of Musical Instruments.

East Rock Park, which starts about a mile northeast of the green, preserves a point used by the Indians for signaling and the place where many inhabitants of New Haven took refuge during the British raid. The 426-acre park encompasses a rock that is 359 feet high and 1.5 miles long.

Fort Hale Park overlooks the harbor from the east. Here Governor Tryon's division of the punitive expedition, mainly Loyalists and Germans, overcame a small garrison and three guns that had caused them considerable annoyance during their landing a short distance south at Lighthouse Point (so called after 1840). Tryon re-embarked from Fort Hale when Garth withdrew from New Haven and continued his raid to the south. The place was called Fort Rock before being renamed in honor of Nathan Hale after the Revolution.

The Pardee Morris House, 325 Lighthouse Road, was built in 1685, partially destroyed during the Revolution, and rebuilt in 1780. With period furnishings, it is among the "Sites Also Noted" by the National Survey and open to the public (hours limited).

Back in the center of town, the New Haven Colony Historical Society, 114 Whitney Avenue, has a regional museum.

(New Haven Preservation Trust, 900 Chapel Street, Box 1671, New Haven, Conn. 06510; phone: (203) 562-5919.)

New London

New London, Thames River, New London County. About 3 miles from where the river enters Long Island Sound, and a good natural harbor, the site was settled in 1646 by John Winthrop the Younger with Puritans from Massachusetts. In 1658 it adopted the name New London, having been called Nameaug, and the Thames lost its Indian name at the same time. Colonial landmarks surviving in the present city of 26,000 are the Antientist burial ground laid out in 1653, the Old Town Mill built about 1650 and rebuilt in 1712, the Joshua Hempsted House of 1678 (open to the public), and the lighthouse of 1909 on the spot where the original one was put up in 1760.

Benedict Arnold's raid of 6 September 1781 destroyed about 150 buildings, including 65 private dwellings, and did damage valued by a committee after the war at $486,000. The "Fire Lands," a 500,000-acre tract in the Western Reserve (now in Ohio), was used to repay Connecticut citizens for war losses in New London and other towns raided by the British.

New London was picked for this raid because the traitor Arnold knew the terrain from his childhood, Connecticut was a vital source of supplies for the Continental army, and New London was an important naval base. Some twenty privateers had been fitted out in the three years after the congressional resolution of March 1776 permitted their use against "enemies of these United Colonies." (Arnold destroyed about twelve ships; fifteen escaped upriver.) Another purpose of the New London raid was to divert Patriot strength from the force marching to Yorktown. The principal military action of the raid (and one of the last battles of the Revolution in the north) took place on the site of Fort Griswold State Park.

Benedict Arnold claimed that most of the destruction in New London was caused by accidental fires, which his troops made every effort to control. The Patriots accused him of viewing the scene from the old cemetery (on Hempstead Street north of Bulkeley Square) "with the apparent satisfaction of a Nero." The cemetery has about one hundred graves of Revolutionary War veterans.

Several other historic sites exist in today's New London. Fort Trumbull State Park, rebuilt by the United States Navy in the late 1830s, opened to the public in 2002. Located at 90 Walbach Street, it sits on the same grounds as the original Fort Trumbull made famous in Benedict Arnold's raid on Fort Griswold. Only one building remains from its Revolutionary War days: the Nathan Hale Schoolhouse, which is now located at Union Plaza in downtown New London. The historic building, referred to as "the traveling schoolhouse" by local historians for its many locales, is where the Patriot spy taught from March 1774 until July 1775, when he left his career as a teacher to become a lieutenant in the Seventh Connecticut Militia. In Williams Park, facing Broad Street, is a duplicate of the Nathan Hale statue located in New York City's City Hall Park. The Nathaniel Shaw House, 11 Blinman Street, was the home of the marine agent responsible for equipping the state's naval vessels, giving sailing orders, and overseeing disposal of privateersmen's prizes. The New London County Historical Society, founded in 1870, has occupied the Shaw House since 1907. The phone number is (860) 443-1209.

(New London Landmarks, 49 Washington Street, New London, Conn. 06320; phone: (860) 442-0003.)

Norwalk

Norwalk, Fairfield County. The site was bought from the Indians by Roger Ludlow and Daniel Patrick, then settled in 1651 by a small company from Hartford. Many legends are associated with the place. The home of Colonel Thomas Fitch, an officer of the Seven Years' War, is called the "Yankee Doodle House" because he is said to have inspired the song (see also fort crailo under New York). A memorial fountain was erected by the DAR in memory of Nathan Hale, who obtained his schoolmaster disguise here before heading for Long Island on his fatal mission. The chair in which Governor Tryon sat on Grumman's Hill to watch his troops burn the town in July 1779 has been preserved. (This ended his Connecticut Coast raid, which started at New Haven on 5 July and passed through Fairfield and Greens Farms before reaching Norwalk on 11 July.) Otherwise, the landmarks of the Revolution have been obliterated in a modern industrial city of over eighty thousand people.

Norwich

Norwich, head of the Thames River, New London County. Uncas the Mohegan, famous friend of the white settlers, defeated his Narragansett sachem counterpart 3 miles north of the present city in 1643. The original settlement of Europeans, established in 1659 and called Mohegan until 1662, was an important port during the eighteenth century. Benedict Arnold's home was here from his birth in 1741 until he sold the family property on the death of his parents twenty-one years later and went to live with his sister Hannah in New Haven. Norwich was the home of the Huntington family: Benjamin (1736–1800) was a member of the Continental Congress, a judge, and the first mayor of the town (1784–1796); Jabez (1719–1786) a Patriot leader and militia general during the Revolution; his son Jedediah (1743–1818) a general in the Continental Army; and another son, Ebenezer (1754–1834), a soldier during the Revolution and later a congressman. Samuel Huntington (1731–1796), in another line of the family, settled in Norwich after being admitted to the bar in 1758. He was prominent in the politics leading to the break with England, a member of the Continental Congress throughout the war, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and president of the Congress for almost two years (29 September 1779 to 6 July 1781). During the last ten years of his life he was governor of Connecticut.

Leffingwell Inn is a well-restored structure dating from 1675, opened as an inn by Norwich's most prominent founding father, Thomas Leffingwell, and operated during the Revolutionary era by Colonel Christopher Leffingwell. Still known as "Thomas Leffingwell's publique house" after Thomas himself ceased to be active, under Christopher's management it was an important center of Revolutionary politics. George Washington was entertained at the inn. The structure reflects the colonial practice of making a mansion by joining two small houses and adding ells. Leffingwell Inn is restored, furnished with seventeenth- and eighteenth-century pieces, and open to the public at odd hours, and it displays a number of rare items. It is at the junction of Connecticut Highways 2, 32, and 169 (Turnpike Exit 81), at 348 Washington Street (Society of the Founders of Norwich, Connecticut, P.O. Box 13, 405 Washington Street, Norwich, Conn. 06360; phone: (203) 889-9440.)

Norwichtown Green, center of the original settlement, has been designated a historic district. The Royal Mohegan Burial Ground, near the junction of Sachem and Washington Streeets, has the grave of Uncas, who died about 1682.

Putnam Cottage

Putnam Cottage, Greenwich, Fairfield County. From this little house, which dates from about 1730, the sixty-one-year-old Israel Putnam is reputed to have made his legendary flight (26 February 1779) to escape capture by a patrol of British dragoons. Although the story should not be given much credence, Putnam Cottage is on the list of "Sites Also Noted" by the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings in 1964. A highway marker on U.S. 1 at 243 Putnam Avenue in Greenwich is in front of the "cottage," formerly Knapp's Tavern. Under the care of the local Daughters of the American Revolution chapter since 1906, it has two rooms restored in the style of the seventeenth century and various historical relics. The marker mentions the "famous ride down 'Put's Hill.'" The Post Road is cut through the rock at about the place where the general would have ridden down to the valley.

Putnam Memorial State Park

Putnam Memorial State Park, just north of Redding, Fairfield County. The encampment of several Continental brigades under the overall command of General Israel Putnam during the exceptionally severe winter of 1778 to 1779 is preserved in this 183-acre state park. The blockhouses and palisade have been restored, a museum has relics of "Connecticut's Valley Forge," and traces of original buildings are preserved. Recreational facilities include picnicking, pond fishing, and hiking.

"Old Put" rode from here to inspect outposts around Greenwich (see putnam cottage). The site of his legendary killing of a wolf in its den during the winter of 1742 to 1743 is in Wolf Den State Park, between Pomfret and Brooklyn, Windham County. The legendary hero of the Colonial Wars who became known in the Revolution as "Old Put" had moved into the latter area of Connecticut around 1740, when in his early twenties. The great-grandson of an English immigrant to Massachusetts (1634), he was a cousin of General Rufus Putnam and granduncle of the founder of Putnam's Sons publishers.

Ridgefield Battle Site

Ridgefield Battle Site, Fairfield County. Governor William Tryon's two thousand British and Tory raiders returning to their ships after burning Danbury on 26 April 1777 were blocked the next afternoon by a force of Continentals and militia under Generals Benedict Arnold and G. S. Silliman around Ridgefield (15 miles south of Danbury). General David Wooster nipped at Tryon's heels with two hundred militia, snapping up about forty prisoners before he was mortally wounded. About midafternoon the raiders hit the blocking position at Ridgefield and forced Arnold to withdraw. A highway marker on a little hill on Main Street south of the junction of the Danbury Road reads "Battle of Ridgefield, April 27, 1777. The Third and Chief Engagement Occurred on This Ridge."

The British camped a mile away. A Loyalist guided them the next morning around another delaying position established by Arnold on the route to Compo Beach. The raiders then debarked after conducting a four-hundred-man spoiling attack that disrupted an intended American assault.

Congress was finally forced to recognize Arnold's exceptional merit and promote him to major general. He had had one horse killed beneath him, another wounded, and had narrowly escaped capture. Wooster died five days after the action at Ridgefield and is buried in Danbury.

Still standing in Ridgefield is the Keeler Tavern, where the British emplaced a gun after driving Arnold from the barricade mentioned above. A cannonball remains embedded in a corner post of the tavern, fired by Tryon after the battle of Ridgefield. The house had been shelled by the British earlier, and a man climbing its stairs had a cannonball pass between his legs. "I'm killed! I'm a dead man!" he is reported to have shouted after falling to the foot of the stairs and insisting that both legs were gone. "As soon as he was undeceived," as Benson Lossing told the story after visiting the tavern in 1848, "he put them [the legs] in requisition, and fled, as fast as they could carry him…." The Keeler Tavern Preservation Society opened the Keeler Tavern as a museum in 1966. It is located on Main Street (Route 35) in Ridgefield.

(Ridgefield Library and Historical Association, 472 Main Street, Ridgefield, Conn. 06877; phone: (203) 438-2282. The Ridgefield Historical Society, The Scott House, 4 Sunset Lane, Ridgefield, Conn. 06877; phone: (203) 438-5821; website: www.ridgefieldhistoricalsociety.org.)

Stratford

Stratford. The Captain David Judson House, 967 Academy Hill, is most interesting for the slave quarters in the basement. The house has been restored to how it probably looked in 1775, when the Judsons owned seven slaves. The house is owned by the Stratford Historical Society, which also operates the Catherine Bunnell Mitchell Museum next door. An exhibit in the latter explores slavery and the role of African American soldiers during the Revolution. There are also a number of documents relevant to the Revolutionary period and an account by the slave Jack Arabas, who successfully sued for his freedom after his owner reneged on a promise to free him if he joined the Continental army. The House and Museum are open from June through October on Wednesday, Saturday, and Sunday, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Take Exit 53 from the Merritt Parkway south to Main Street and then continue 5 miles to Academy Hill. Phone: (203) 378-0630.

(National Society of Colonial Dames in Connecticut, 211 Main Street, and the Wethersfield Historical Society, 150 Main Street; phone: (860) 529-7656. Both addresses are in Wethersfield, Conn. 06109.)

Trumbull House and War Office

Trumbull House and War Office, Lebanon, New London County. Jonathan Trumbull the Elder (1710–1785) became governor of Connecticut in 1769 and held this office until his voluntary retirement after the Revolution, a year before his death. He was the only governor on the Patriot side when the Revolution started. Connecticut being the principle source of food, clothing, and munitions for Washington's army, Trumbull's most important activity was managing this support. More than 1,200 meetings of the Connecticut Council of Safety were held in the converted Trumbull store next to his home, many of them pertaining to supply. The appellation "Brother Jonathan," which the British used as early as March 1776 to designate Americans, may have originated from Washington's alleged remark "We must consult Brother Jonathan" when faced with a particularly tough problem; he would have been referring to the elder Jonathan Trumbull. (The latter's son and namesake was paymaster general of the Northern Department while his brother Joseph was commissary general of the army.)

The sites are marked on Lebanon Commons. Trumbull's house, built by his father in 1740, is the property of the DAR. The store, built probably in 1732, was restored in 1891 when acquired by the Sons of the American Revolution. Both buildings have been moved, and the "War Office" is no longer next to the Trumbull home, but diagonally across the green.

(Lebanon Historical Society, 856 Trumbull Highway, on the Historic Lebanon Green, P.O. Box 151, Lebanon, Conn. 06249; phone: (860) 642-6579.)

Webb Deane Stevens Museum

Webb Deane Stevens Museum, 211 Main Street, Wethersfield, Hartford County. The historic Wethersfield Conference on 21 to 22 May 1781 between Washington and Rochambeau in the Webb House, a handsome old frame house, has long been accepted as laying the strategic groundwork for the triumph at Yorktown. "Many secondary accounts erroneously state that at the Wethersfield conference (22 May 1781) Washington was told by the French that Admiral de Grasse was definitely coming north to cooperate with the allies …," writes Don Higginbotham in The War of American Independence (1971). "Though Rochambeau did have advance notice of de Grasse's plans, he felt obliged by his instructions not to disclose the information at that time…. Several very recent works, failing to consult Fitzpatrick or Freeman on this point, repeat the mistake" (p. 388 n50).

The Joseph Webb House was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. (Also in Wethersfield is the Buttolph-Williams House of 1692.)

Readers who wish to corroborate this question for themselves can check the two well-known sources cited by Higginbotham: Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of Washington, XX, pp. 103-104, and D. S. Freeman, Washington, V, p. 296 n87.

There is no historical doubt as of this writing that Washington spent several days in May 1781 in the Webb House. He arrived on 19 May, rode to Hartford on 21 May to meet Count Rochambeau and returned with him to the Webb House, and the next day had a conference that broadly outlined the plans for a combined Franco-American offensive against New York City. Virginia figured in the discussion only in that Washington hoped British troops there would ease their pressure on Lafayette if weakened by detachments sent to defend New York.

The house built by Joseph Webb in 1752, meanwhile, is a well-preserved two-story structure of considerable architectural interest. Its setting is enhanced by the broad street of old trees and old homes on which it stands today. One of these is the home of Silas Deane, America's first diplomat abroad; south of the Webb House, it was built in 1776.

The other namesake house was built in 1788 by Isaac Stevens for his bride, Sarah Wright. The Milford Cemetery, just off Cherry Street near the center of Milford, was established in 1642. This historic cemetery contains the graves of several African American Revolutionary War soldiers. Even more unusual, there is a plaque honoring these soldiers on the town green.

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